Sample records for state welfare reform

  1. States Can Use Family Literacy Programs To Support Welfare Reform Goals. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyton, Tony; Wheeler, Mary Gwen; Dalton, Debbie

    Studies have shown an inextricable link between under-education and chronic, intergenerational welfare dependency. With welfare reform focusing on moving individuals into the workforce more quickly, state welfare reform efforts to assist low-income parents and their children are needed. Incorporating family literacy instruction into…

  2. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  3. Welfare Reform: Few States Are Likely to Use the Simplified Food Stamp Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    This report, released by the US General Accounting Office (GAO), examines some of the consequences of the federal Welfare Reform Act of 1996. The report studies the Simplified Food Stamp Program provision of the Welfare Reform Act to identify the seven states that have adopted the program, describe the concerns of the non-participant states regarding increased casework and restricted options, and examines the program's limited effects on households's eligibility and benefits.

  4. Managing Welfare Reform in Five States: The Challenge of Devolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebschutz, Sarah F., Ed.

    This book analyzes the responses of five states (Florida, Mississippi, New York, Washington, and Wisconsin) to challenges posed by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 to alter state welfare programs and management systems. Using case studies, the book highlights similarities and differences in the states'…

  5. Welfare Reform: States' Experiences in Providing Employment Assistance to TANF Clients

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This report, recently released by the US General Accounting Office (GAO), examines some of the consequences of the federal Welfare Reform Act of 1996. The report studies how five states -- Arizona, Massachusetts, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin -- have been implementing the new Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, which supplies time-limited assistance to recipients while helping them to find and maintain work. The report concludes that, although states are making changes to the structure of their welfare and workforce development systems, only one state, Wisconsin, has fully integrated both systems.

  6. Welfare Reform and Children's Living Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelbach, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about welfare reform's effects on family structure and children's living arrangements, an important focus for reformers. Using March CPS data, the authors find that state welfare waivers are associated with children being less likely to live with unmarried parents, more likely to live with married parents, and more likely to live…

  7. Reforming a Breadwinner Welfare State: Gender, Race, Class, and Social Security Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herd, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    A key challenge facing western welfare states is that they offset income risks faced by those in breadwinner families. Social Security is an excellent example. It best protects individuals with lengthy work histories or individuals who get married, stay married, and are never employed. Most women fit neither model. Thus, I analyze "women-friendly"…

  8. Welfare reforms, family resources, and child maltreatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Paxson; Jane Waldfogel

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated maltreatment-physical abuse and neglect-and the number of children living in out-of-home

  9. Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Steven J.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Bao, Yuhua; Danielson, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The welfare reform bill adopted in the United States in 1996 limited the eligibility of immigrants for several government assistance programs, and early projections estimated that nearly half of the savings associated with the reforms would come from these immigrant restrictions. Several studies have found that subsequent program participation…

  10. From service to social control: Implications of welfare reform for professional practice in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Gilbert

    1998-01-01

    In response to the explosive growth and the changing demographic composition of public welfare recipients, this program has undergone four major reforms over the last three decades: the 1962 'Service' amendments, the 1967 Work Incentive program (WIN), the Family Support Act of 1988, and the 1996 program of Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF). These reforms have had a profound

  11. The Role of Education and Training in Welfare Reform. Welfare Reform and Beyond. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueron, Judith M.; Hamilton, Gayle

    States have used variants of these three approaches to structure the welfare to-work component of welfare reform for single mothers: (1) put education or training first; (2) place job searching first; and (3) create a flexible program that allows staff and participants choice in the initial and subsequent activities. Research on these program…

  12. Abstinence Education under Welfare Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Haskins; Carol Statuto Bevan

    1997-01-01

    As part of its 1996 welfare reform bill, Congress enacted a $50 million per year program to fund abstinence education. This chapter provides an examination of the legislative history of the program; a discussion of the characteristics of the program, especially the definition of abstinence education; and an account of how the program will be implemented by the federal government

  13. Welfare Reform and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    This paper examines conflicting evidence regarding the impacts of welfare reform on children's wellbeing. Research shows that poverty rates, teen crime and fertility, and child maltreatment are down. Lack of appropriate state-level data on indicators of child wellbeing precludes serious analysis of the role of welfare reform for most indicators.…

  14. Market reforms in health care and sustainability of the welfare state: lessons from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Diderichsen, F

    1995-01-01

    Reforming health care systems which are predominantly publicly provided and financed has usually been motivated as a way of increasing efficiency even if it seldom is explicit whether it is in the official sense related to individual utility or in the unofficial sense related to health outcomes. In the case of Sweden the welfare state has been made politically sustainable through a construction where cash benefits and service provision are tailored to satisfy not only the basic needs but even the more discriminating needs of the middle classes. Their loyalty with the taxes is politically crucial and therefore their evaluation of the services in the welfarist sense equally important. That loyalty was however threatened in a situation where cost-containment policies were applied while equity principles were still a strong priority. Health care utilization was increasing among the very old and chronically ill while it was decreasing for other groups. The reforms introduced in some counties during the 1990s have been focussing on a purchaser-provider split and fee-for-service payment of providers. They have increased productivity sharply, increased utilization even among the groups that previously were 'pressed out' and reduced waiting lists. Increased efficiency however, threatens equity in some specific aspects. Fee-for-service payment means increased production and so far even increased costs. If they are to be met with increased private financing, rather than with present tax financing, it will bring the risk of inequities. Payment of hospitals through DRG systems means payment to providers for medical interventions with no incentives to deal with social consequences of illness. Inequities in health care can be related to the way health care deals with inequalities in health due to inequalities in living conditions or inequalities in living conditions due to ill health. In the short perspective the reforms may threaten equity in the second aspect, in the longer perspective the problems of cost control and the pressure it raises for alternative financial sources may be a more serious risk even for the former. PMID:10156635

  15. Welfare reform and elderly immigrants' health insurance coverage: the roles of federal and state medicaid eligibility rules.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yunju

    2011-11-01

    Immigrants' access to federally-funded Medicaid became limited after welfare reform imposed restrictive noncitizen eligibility rules. This study used a representative sample from the Current Population Survey (N?=?105,873) and state-level data to examine the effects of these policy changes on elderly immigrants. Triple difference-in-differences analyses show that federal restriction of eligibility had a significantly negative association with elderly immigrants' Medicaid coverage, and generous state eligibility had significantly positive relationships with Medicaid and any health insurance coverage. Findings indicate the important role of eligibility on elderly immigrants' health insurance coverage. Results call for social workers' actions to expand elderly immigrants' Medicaid eligibility. PMID:22060007

  16. Meeting the Challenges of Welfare Reform: Programs with Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, Jack; Christian, Steve; Groginsky, Scott; Reichert, Dana; Brown, Amy

    As a result of federal legislation aimed at welfare reform, states have been transforming welfare in new ways. Critical questions remain, however, and policymakers must continue to develop new ideas and implement programs from other states. This book contributes to the learning process among states by sharing program innovations and analyses to…

  17. Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

  18. Implications of Welfare Reform on the Elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carroll L. Estes; Sheryl Goldberg; Chris Wellin; Karen W. Linkins; Sara Shostak; Renée L. Beard

    2006-01-01

    Whereas many studies of welfare reform have focused on effects on children and families, little research has examined the implications of welfare reform for the elderly. This case study incorporates interviews with service providers for the aging, members of advocacy organizations, and two focus groups of older consumers conducted in the multi-ethnic urban community of San Francisco. Study findings suggest

  19. Did welfare reform influence the fertility of young teens?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard M. Lopoo; Thomas DeLeire

    2006-01-01

    During the 1990s, states made several reforms to their welfare programs designed to reduce teenage fertility among minors. Among the most prominent of these changes, states started requiring teenage mothers younger than 18 to live with a parent or legal guardian and enroll in high school in order to receive welfare benefits. Using natality data from the National Center for

  20. Serving Teen Parents in a Welfare Reform Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Helene

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 presents states with new opportunities and flexibility to design programs for teen parents. This report summarizes how welfare reform has changed the environment for teen parents dependent on welfare. The report presents research findings on the costs of supporting teen…

  1. Closing the Care Gap That Welfare Reform Left Behind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucie E. White

    2001-01-01

    This article begins by drawing from an interview with Johnnie Tillmon, a grassroots leader of the National Welfare Rights Organization, to locate welfare reform in the context of cultural anxieties about an eroding racial order and shifting gender roles. It then considers the sorts of state policies and legal entitlements that could resource the care-work that has heretofore been subsidized

  2. Reforming child welfare: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Marie; Smith, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, child welfare systems were exposed to intense pressure. As a result, most systems have undertaken processes of reform and change. This article discusses the strategic development of New Zealand's service system in child welfare. A partnership between managerial discipline and professional leadership has been critical in the service system reform. With respect to management, a strong vision, a culture of high performance, and greater organizational stability and confidence provided the platform on which professional reforms could be established-including the knowledge framework, the service model, the practice package, and staff support. The managerial efforts that have provided the platform for the professional reforms are discussed, followed by an exploration of the professional reform package. PMID:20945803

  3. Congress Invokes Public Opinion on Welfare Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Paden; Benjamin I. Page

    2003-01-01

    If democratically elected public officials respond to the policy preferences of ordinary citizens, one might expect them to make frequent, favorable references to public opinion as revealed by polls and surveys. An analysis of the 1995 congressional debates leading up to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (welfare reform), however, generally corroborates the findings of

  4. Welfare Reform. Hearing before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (April 9, 1987). Part 1 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

    This hearing, the first of three on welfare reform, focuses on "how we can reform welfare programs to conserve the best of the past and give us new latitude to deal with the emerging problems of the future," according to Senator Lloyd Bentsen, the Chairman of the Committee. The following individuals were witnesses: (1) Richard E. Lyng, Department…

  5. More Promises To Keep: Sustaining Arizona's Capacity for Welfare and Health Reform (December 1, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe. Morrison Inst. for Public Policy.

    This publication presents the views expressed by the major speakers at "More Promises to Keep: Sustaining Arizona's Capacity for Welfare and Health Reform," concluding a 3-year study of welfare and health reform in the state. The publication also summarizes the discussions of three special interest sessions. The speakers' op-ed-style pieces and…

  6. Running Head: Mental Health and Welfare Reform MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE MOTHERS

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    Running Head: Mental Health and Welfare Reform MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE MOTHERS Pennsylvania State University #12;Mental Health and Welfare Reform/2 MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE that having a psychiatric disorder is associated with a 25 percent lower likelihood of working. Mental health

  7. Welfare Reform, Fertility and Father Involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara S. McLanahan; Marcia J. Carlson

    2002-01-01

    Recognizing that most poor families are single-parent families, the federal welfare reform law of 1996 emphasized the responsibility of both parents to support their children. In addition to strengthening the child support enforcement system, the law included several provisions to decrease nonmarital childbearing and to promote two-parent families. This article focuses on the important role fathers play in children?s lives

  8. Changing the Politics of Social Programmes: Innovative Change in British and French Welfare Reforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuliano Bonoli; Bruno Palier

    1998-01-01

    The first wave of welfare state reform, which occurred during the 1980s in Britain and the US, and in the early 1990s in continental Europe, has left most social protection systems to a large extent intact. However, some of the changes adopted then have provided new op portunities for reform, that are currently being exploited by the reformers of the

  9. Welfare Reform in Illinois: Recent Efforts in the Context of the National Debate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan A. Lewis; Christine C. George; Deborah Puntenney

    This paper describes welfare reform in Illinois by placing the policy reform efforts in a much broader context, and showing how the larger picture helps us understand the role of values in the state policymaking process. It delineates the consensus approach to public assistance developed in the late 1960s, which called for a transfer of power from states to a

  10. Low-Income Single Fathers in an African American Community and the Requirements of Welfare Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KEVIN ROY

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the impact of state welfare reform policies on the paternal involvement of low-income single fathers. Life history interviews were conducted with 40 African American fathers participating in a community-based parenting program in Chicago. Men's rightful claims to fatherhood were constructed through voluntary involvement with their children and enforced paternity establishment. Welfare policies gave precedence to child support

  11. The Effect of the 1981 Welfare Reforms on AFDC Participation and Labor Supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Smith

    From 1992 to 1995, forty states applied for federal waivers in order to test new welfare reforms. About 80 percent of these waiver applications included expansions of earnings disregards and asset limits for welfare recipients. These changes would effectively reverse the changes imposed by the 1981 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA81), which significantly restricted eligibility and reduced earnings disregards for

  12. One Step Forward, One Step Back: Children's Health Coverage after CHIP and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulos, Victoria; Denker, Peggy

    Passed in 1997, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) was designed to expand and complement the Medicaid program, thereby reducing the number of U.S. children without health insurance. However, as states implemented welfare reform, many children and parents lost welfare benefits, and thereby Medicaid coverage. This study examined…

  13. Losing Health Insurance: Unintended Consequences of Welfare Reform

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Klein, Rachel.

    1999-01-01

    Conducted by Families USA, a health consumer group, this first national study of the connection between welfare reform and the loss of health insurance estimates that up to 675,000 people were uninsured in 1997 as a direct result of welfare reform. As 1997 was the first year of welfare reform implementation, the group expects the number of uninsured to increase dramatically in the next several years. Available in .pdf format, the report features a list of key findings and numerous graphs, tables, and sidebars.

  14. Psychiatry, homeless patients and welfare reforms: historical links and chains.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hamid, Walid Khalid; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2014-02-01

    The birthplace of the specialty of psychiatry was in the asylum, which was created to divert patients from workhouses where the most disadvantaged and destitute people with mental illness were to be found. The current welfare reforms are endangering the welfare and livelihood of the most disadvantaged of our patients. These reforms in the authors' opinion are related more to the historical cycle of societal attitude to homeless people than to seeing them as the undeserving poor. This is particularly true since the current economic crisis was not caused by the poor, so it is very unfair that our poorest patients should suffer most as a result of the welfare reforms. PMID:23564721

  15. [Toward further reform of mental health care and welfare].

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Teruhiko

    2011-01-01

    The Committee for Investigating the Future of Mental Health Care and Welfare, launched in 2008 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, issued its final report in September 2009. The 2009 report was an expert-driven interim review of implementation of the 10-year plan proposed in the 2004 "Vision for Reforming Mental Health Care and Welfare," which marked its midpoint in 2009, and was conducted in order to identify priority issues in the final five years of the plan. The report recognizes that "mental illness significantly impairs quality of life and causes great socioeconomic loss"; that "health care and welfare assistance systems that support the ability of people with mental disorders to live in the community are inadequate"; and that "large numbers of patients with schizophrenia remain institutionalized over the long term. The report notes that this is due to previous policies that promoted institutionalized care, with regard to which concerned parties, including government entities, have expressed regret." The new approach described in the report can be summarized as (1) promoting the basic principle of moving from institutionalized care toward community-based care, based on the vision for reform noted above; (2) creating a society where patients who have mental disorders can receive high-quality health care, and depending on the patients' symptoms and wishes where they can receive appropriate health care and welfare services while continuing to live independently and securely in the community; and (3) speeding up the process of reform in mental health care and welfare. The core focus of reform is expressed in four fundamental principles: (1) restructuring mental health care (restructuring and improving the healthcare system by upgrading community-centered healthcare, shifting the focus of hospital care to the acute stage, and similar efforts) ; (2) improving the quality of mental health care (improving the quality of health care provided to each individual patient, whether it involves pharmacological or psychosocial therapy, and also improving the quality of health care by promoting staff development) ; (3) strengthening community living support systems (developing welfare services that support the ability of persons with disabilities to live in the community, improving care management, improving emergency and community health services, securing places of residence, etc.) ; and (4) prioritizing increased awareness and understanding of psychiatric illness (promoting an accurate understanding of mental disorders so that patients can obtain help at an early stage, and so that people with mental disorders can live as fully-participating members of the community). The committee also reviewed the targets stated in the vision for reform, and established a new maximum limit of 150,000 patients institutionalized with schizophrenia (the number was 196,000 in 2005). By 2011, the committee will also set a concrete target for the number of patients institutionalized with dementia. Preserving the 2004 goals expressed under the vision for reform, the mean target ratio of patients remaining hospitalized in psychiatric wards less than one year, for all prefectures, was set at 24% or less, while the target discharge rate for patients hospitalized for one year or longer, for each prefecture, was fixed at a minimum of 29%. PMID:21706855

  16. Does Welfare Reform Affect Fertility? Evidence from the UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Brewer; Anita Ratcliffe; Sarah Smith

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the fertility effect of welfare from a set of reforms that took place in the UK in 1999 and that substantially increased support for poorer families with children. The reforms, including the introduction of the Working Families Tax Credit and an increase in means-tested income support, raised benefits by up to 10 per cent of

  17. Welfare Reform and Lone Parents in the UK &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Gregg; Susan Harkness; Sarah Smith

    2009-01-01

    A series of reforms to help low income families with children were introduced in the UK in 1999, including in-work tax credits and welfare-to-work programmes. Lone parents were a key target for these reforms – they comprised 22% of all families by 1998 but 55% of families with children in poverty. Previous studies have shown that the reforms raised employment

  18. Public Views on Welfare Reform and Children in the Current Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake Snell Perry & Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A recent national survey of U.S. adults examined public opinion about welfare reform and measured support for specific policy recommendations. Respondents report ambivalence about the success of welfare reform, though they agree on what the goals of welfare should be and what shape future reforms should take. They favor welfare policies that help…

  19. Welfare Reform, Work Requirements, and Employment Barriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Meara; Richard Frank

    2006-01-01

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act imposed work requirements on welfare recipients. Using 1999-2001 data from Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, we compared the labor market and welfare experience of women with four employment barriers: poor mental health, moderate to heavy drug and alcohol use, a child with a behavior problem, and a child under the age of

  20. Social Service Organizations and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Barbara; Widom, Rebecca

    The Project on Devolution and Urban Change conducted a study to learn how new welfare policies and funding mechanisms, especially devolution and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grants, affect human service agencies in neighborhoods with high concentrations of welfare recipients and people living in poverty. Key personnel at 106…

  1. Child Welfare in the Context of Welfare "Reform." Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States. Report V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.; Kahn, Alfred J., Ed.

    "Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States" is an 18-month project designed to help states, local governments, and the voluntary sector as they respond to the social policy debates and changes precipitated by the 104th Congress. The project's main vehicle, aside from exploratory and analytic work, is a series of…

  2. Community Development Corporations and Welfare Reform: Linkages, Roles, and Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, David J.; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Schill, Michael H.

    This study examined the impact of welfare reform on housing owned by community development corporations (CDCs), investigating how early implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) affected the financial status of CDCs' affordable housing developments. Five types of financial impacts were…

  3. A General Economic Framework for Welfare Reform Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeTray, Dennis N.

    An analysis of the potential effects of different types of welfare reforms can proceed in one of two ways. One can explore the effects of a given plan in detail, or one can cull from the set of feasible alternative plans the major changes that these plans will bring about and then analyze the effect of these changes in a general framework. At…

  4. Welfare Reform and New York City's Low-Income Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Chernick; Cordelia Reimers

    2002-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the initial effects of welfare reform and changes in New York City policies and administrative procedures, we use the Current Population Survey (CPS) to compare receipt of public benefit programs, earnings, and income among vulnerable households, defined as those households with low education or single mothers in 1994–95 and 1997–99. Over this period, the CPS shows a

  5. Families Hardest Hit: Effects of Welfare Reform on Homeless Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Julie

    This report presents data from 1999 surveys of people living in Chicago shelters and warming centers for families with children. The surveys asked about the impacts of welfare reform on respondents' lives. Researchers also surveyed housing and food assistance agencies, shelters, and other social service agencies. Of 481 families surveyed, 44…

  6. The Impact of Welfare Reform on Head Start Disability and Family Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Tess; Bhagwanji, Yash; Thomas, Dawn; Allison, Anita

    A 1997 study assessed the impact of welfare reform as reported by Head Start staff served by the Great Lakes Resource Access Project (GLRAP), a federally funded program providing training and technical assistance to Head Start staff in the area of disability services. The states served by the project are Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota,…

  7. Income Maintenance and Welfare Reform: Papers and Comments. Discussion Paper No. 202-74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampman, Robert J.; And Others

    The papers and discussions which follow were presented at the December 1973 meetings of the Allied Social Science Associations in New York City. They provide a stimulating review and perspective on the state of policy and reform possibilities in income maintenance and the welfare system. In his paper, "The Role of Income-Conditioning in the…

  8. Welfare Reform Proposals. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Domestic Marketing, Consumer Relations, and Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This hearing seeks to examine the Family Welfare Reform Act, H.R. 1720, now pending, and determine what changes in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and the Food Stamp Program are needed to ensure that the United States has an integrated welfare system. H.R. 1720 includes benefit reforms, a new employment and training…

  9. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860

  10. Motivated but fearful: welfare reform, disability, and race.

    PubMed

    Crewe, Sandra Edmonds

    2002-01-01

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996) instituted reforms in welfare that focused on mandatory work requirements. It imposes strict requirements and lifetime limits that force non-exempt individuals to work or risk sanctions. The law particularly impacts persons with disabilities because of the substantial numbers who believe they are unable to work. This article uses findings from a research study to discuss barriers faced by individuals with physical disabilities who are forced to find work under welfare reform. It highlights the experiences of African Americans who have the added burden of health disparities because of discriminatory and differential practices in diagnoses, treatment, access, and utilization. It also presents practice implications. PMID:12809378

  11. For Better and for Worse: Welfare Reform and the Well-Being of Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, Ed.

    Although the 1996 welfare reform bill reduced welfare rolls, falling caseloads do not necessarily mean a better standard of living for families. This book examines the evidence and evaluates whether welfare reform has met one of its chief goals--improving the well-being of the nation's poor children. The chapters of the book are as follows: (1)…

  12. The effects of a Minnesota Welfare Reform Program on marital stability six years later

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa A. Gennetian; Virginia Knox

    2005-01-01

    Do welfare reform policies affect marital stability among two-parent families? Long term findings from an experiment in Minnesota, evaluated via a random assignment design, contribute to the little evidence to date about whether or not welfare and income-support policies can affect marital stability. In 1994, Minnesota began to test a major welfare reform initiative that emphasized financial incentives for work,

  13. A welfare reform based on help for working parents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Bergmann; Heidi Hartmann

    1995-01-01

    The Help for Working Parents Plan-developed by Dr. Heidi Hartmann and Dr. Barbara Bergmann in collaboration with the Economists' Policy Group for Women's Issues, which they co-chair – offers an innovative welfare reform program that encouragesjob holding, and sustains working parents and their children in decency. The HWP provides benefits to both single- and dual-parent households, to families who are

  14. The Forgotten Children: African American Children and Child Welfare Reform in St. Louis, 1890-1930

    E-print Network

    Thirlkel, Thomas E.

    2010-05-07

    Abstract Forgotten Children examines the influence of racial ideology on the trajectory of child welfare reform in late nineteenth century and early twentieth century St. Louis. The modern American child welfare system ...

  15. The Welfare State vs. the Redistributive State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattner, Marc F.

    1979-01-01

    While the principles of progressive taxation and the welfare state have come to be almost universally accepted, it would be a serious error to infer that American policy has ever embraced the idea of income redistribution. (Author)

  16. THE 2010 REAUTHORIZATION OF WELFARE REFORM COULD RESULT IN IMPORTANT CHANGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RON HASKINS

    2010-01-01

    The welfare reform law of 1996 is widely regarded as one of the most important pieces of social legislation since the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid in the mid-1960s. Although the 1996 law is known primarily for its radical reforms designed to help, cajole, or force welfare mothers to seek self sufficiency through work, there were important changes in several

  17. Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adams-Ciardullo, Diana.

    2002-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1996, Connecticut's Job First Welfare Reform Program has been under rigorous evaluation. As a result, under a contract with the Connecticut Department of Social Services, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC) decided to study the effects of the Job First Program. During the study, nearly 5,000 single-parent welfare applicants and recipients in Manchester and New Haven were randomly assigned to either the Jobs First Program or to the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) group (which operated under the prior welfare rules). The effects of the Jobs First Program were estimated by comparing how the two groups fared over a four-year period, and the results are revealed in this report. Users may choose to view the Executive Summary (a short review in HTML), the Summary Report (52 pages), or the Full Report (406 pages). In addition, the Web page provides access to the report's press release (issued February 20, 2002) and a description of Connecticut's Job First Program.

  18. From social security to individual responsibility (Part Two): Writing off poor women's work in the Welfare Reform Act 2009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Grabham; Jenny Smith

    2010-01-01

    This is the second paper of a 2-part article which draws on interdisciplinary feminist perspectives to critique New Labour's welfare reform agenda. Through examining the Welfare Reform Bill and the subsequent Welfare Reform Act 2009, the paper argues that the increased use of conditionality and sanctions in relation to female benefit claimants – particularly lone mothers – “writes-off” their caring

  19. Influencing Welfare and Child Care Reform: Strategies from Colorado and Washington. Child Care Action Campaign Issue Brief #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronkers, Lance

    State strategies used to build constituencies and expand the resource base of the child care systems they are developing will be an important contribution to the success of welfare reform. This report, from a 1996 Child Care Action Campaign national audioconference, describes the innovative strategies used to strengthen leadership, expand…

  20. Instrumental Variable Estimates of the Labor Market Spillover Effects of Welfare Reform. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    The labor market spillover effects of welfare reform were estimated by using models that pool time-series and cross-section data from the Current Population Survey on the state-year cell means of wages, employment, and other labor market outcomes for various demographic groups. The labor market outcomes in question are dependent variables that are…

  1. Policy experts, politicians, and others debate successes and failures of welfare reform

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinnell, Max

    2006-01-01

    On and off the rolls, women work to get aheadhttp://www.kansascity.com/mld/kansascity/news/local/15329233.htmNPR: Legislator Offers First-Person View of Welfare [Real Player]http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5689095In Focus: Ten Years of Welfare Reform [pdf]http://www.brookings.edu/comm/infocus/welfare.htmNPR: Where the Welfare Law Failed Fathershttp://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5671231Fact Sheet: The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/ofa/prwora96.htmSome sixty years after its introduction during the New Deal era, the essence of social welfare in the United States was dramatically transformed with the passage of The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. Despite its cumbersome name, the Act effectively placed a five-year time limit on welfare assistance, and also required a significant commitment on the part of recipients to find work. As various groups and individuals reflected on the past ten years, some were quick to note that the number of people on welfare has dropped 60 percent. Others have been more sanguine, noting that these reforms continue to inadequately address deeper problems, particularly those of single mothers with few job qualifications or education. Some critics continue to suggest that these problems are related to structural changes in the economy, and others continue to blame the so-called â??culture of povertyâ?ť. The debates over what to do in order to solve the problems of working families continues to be intense, with some groups pushing to encourage marriage as a solution, and others seeking to provide more money for child care and higher minimum wages. The first link will take users to a piece from the Pittsburgh Post-Gazetteâ??s own Steve Levin that takes a closer look at the effects of welfare reform on several local residents. The second link leads to a similar piece which looks at womenâ??s experience with the welfare system in and around Kansas City. The third link leads to a provocative piece from National Public Radio which features Montana legislator Mary Caferro talking about her own first-hand experience as a welfare recipient. Moving right along, visitors will find a diverse set of scholarly writings on welfare reform at the fourth site, offered courtesy of The Brookings Institution. The fifth link offers commentary by two scholars (Ron Haskins and Ronald Mincy) about how public policy should be adjusted over the next decade to meet the needs of poor families. Finally, the last link leads to a basic fact sheet on The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.

  2. Welfare Reform. Hearings on S. 869, S. 1001, S. 1511, before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (October 14 and 28, 1987). Part 2 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

    This series of hearings, the second of three on welfare reform, focuses on the following legislation: (1) the Family Security Act (S. 1511); (2) child support enforcement bills (S. 1001 and S. 869); and (3) the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Employment and Training Reorganization Act. Among the speakers and witnesses were the following:…

  3. State Welfare Rules, TANF Exits, and Geographic Context: Does Place Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Shelley K.

    2008-01-01

    This research compares the likelihood of exiting TANF with and without employment and the effects of important state TANF rules on welfare exits in more disadvantaged (large Rustbelt cities and poor southern nonmetro) and less disadvantaged (other metro and other nonmetro) areas during the 1996-2003 post-welfare reform period. Hierarchical…

  4. Child Welfare in 25 States: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Child Advocacy (DHEW/OHD), Washington, DC.

    This overview presents a summary of the major findings of a 25-state survey of child welfare service delivery systems, as studied by Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. in association with the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) during the period of November 1975 through February 1976. The initial products of the survey were 25 state profiles; these…

  5. The Welfare State in a Changing Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Eichner; Andreas Wagener

    2004-01-01

    We analyse how the welfare state, i.e., social insurance that works through redistributive taxation, should respond to increases in risks and to increases in the cost of operating the welfare state. With respect to risks, we distinguish between risks that can be insured and such that cannot (background risks). Insurable risks can be reduced by costly individual self-insurance and by

  6. Constructing deservingness: federal welfare reform, supplemental security income, and elderly immigrants.

    PubMed

    Yoo, G J

    2001-01-01

    On August 22, 1996, President Clinton signed the welfare reform law that ended eligibility for all immigrants to federal means tested entitlements. Poor elderly immigrants on Supplemental Security Income were specifically targeted. This article documents how the print media responded to these policy changes. The following are the major research questions: (1) How were older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income portrayed in the print media before and after federal welfare reform? (2) Who was involved in the print media coverage of older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income before and after federal welfare reform? (3) What types of statements were made by those involved in the print media coverage of older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income, before and after federal welfare reform? The approach used was an in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles from major U.S. newspapers. The findings demonstrate that older immigrants were constructed as "undeserving" in news articles prior to the passage of the federal welfare reform bill. However, after the passage of the federal welfare reform bill the coverage of older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income started to change, and older immigrants were portrayed as "deserving." In advancing aging policy for poor, vulnerable elderly, such as elderly immigrants, advocates, health and social service providers can play an influential role in bringing their voices to the print media. PMID:12418380

  7. The Lazy Revolutionary's Guide to the Prospects for Reforming Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David

    1991-01-01

    Efforts to revolutionize the child welfare system must consider social trends and forces. Encouraging trends that child welfare reformers might be able to harness include biotechnology, availability of medical care, gender equality, awareness of parenting skills, and service sector growth. Discouraging trends include increasing rate of divorce and…

  8. Infusing Humanity into Welfare Reform: A Statement of Principles for a New Social Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HomeBase: Center for Common Concerns, San Francisco, CA.

    This report presents a context for the consideration of welfare reform, and reviews 10 major poverty programs. A linkage is made between government poverty programs and the full panoply of American economic and social interventions through five major themes: (1) quashing the many myths about welfare leads to a clearer understanding of poverty; (2)…

  9. Living with Welfare Reform: A Survey of Low Income Families in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Chicago. Center for Urban Economic Development.

    In 1998, the Illinois statewide coalition Work, Welfare and Families, in partnership with the Chicago Urban League, undertook a study to assess the effects of welfare reform on low-income families and children across Illinois. The findings were derived from three sources: a self-administered survey of 2,166 low-income clients of Illinois social…

  10. The Lived Experience of Welfare Reform in Drug-Using Welfare-Needy Households in Inner-City New York

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Welfare reform has transformed a needs-based family income support into temporary assistance for persons entering the workforce. This paper uses observations from an ethnographic study covering the period from 1995–2001 to examine the impact on drug-using welfare-needy households in inner-city New York. The analysis suggests that studies may underestimate the extent to which substance use is associated with welfare problems. Nearly all of these already distressed households lost their AFDC/TANF benefits, had difficulty with work programs, and were having more difficulty covering expenses. The conclusion highlights ways to better study this population and policy initiatives that could help them reform their impoverished lives for themselves and their children. PMID:25382890

  11. The New Welfare Law and Vulnerable Families: Implications for Child Welfare/Child Protection Systems. Children and Welfare Reform Issue Brief 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knitzer, Jane; Bernard, Stanley

    This report examines the potential impact of federal welfare legislation, Public Law 104-193, The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, on vulnerable families already in or at risk of entering the child welfare/child protection systems. The report includes an overview of the challenges states face; questions for state

  12. Welfare Reform in California: Early Results from the Impact Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerman, Jacob Alex; Hotz, V. Joseph; Reardon, Elaine; Cox, Amy G.; Farley, Donna O.; Haider, Steven J.; Imbens, Guido; Schoeni, Robert

    The impact of California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKS), which was passed to increase California welfare recipients' participation in welfare-to-work (WTW) activities, was examined. The impact study consisted of a nonexperimental program evaluation that used statistical models to estimate causal effects and a simulation…

  13. How Are Immigrants Faring after Welfare Reform? Preliminary Evidence from Los Angeles and New York City. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randy; Ku, Leighton; Fix, Michael; Furgiuele, Chris; Passel, Jeff; Ramchand, Rajeev; McNiven, Scott; Perez-Lopez, Dan; Fielder, Eve; Greenwell, Michael; Hays, Tonya

    In 1999 and 2000, immigrants in Los Angeles, California, and New York, New York were aurveyed about their status in the context of welfare reform, examining the living conditions of 3,447 immigrant families roughly 3 years after welfare reform was implemented and several months before the federal government issued guidance about the public charge…

  14. The Effect of Welfare Reform on Childbirth, Marriage, and Divorce

    E-print Network

    Pakdeethai, Pimrak

    2010-10-12

    . . . . . . . . 88 IV Multinomial Logit Estimates on Choices of Childbirth by Race . . . 89 V Multinomial Logit Estimates on Choices of Childbirth by Policies . . 90 VI Multinomial Logit Estimates on Teen?s Choices of Childbirth by Race... in female headship rates, teen motherhood, out-of-wedlock births, welfare caseload, etc., arose. The AFDC opponents argue that welfare may have been responsible for them. In 1996, Clinton passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconcil...

  15. Would you like to Shrink the Welfare State? The Opinions of European Citizens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tito Boeri; Axel Börsch-Supan; Guido Tabellini

    The European welfare states have fundamental problems, in particular high unemployment and a mounting pressure on public pensions. Although these problems have been prominent topics of the political debate for years and years, we have seen little fundamental reform. Why this is so? One of the core hypotheses claims that the current state of affairs, as deplorable as it may

  16. Child Care in the Context of Welfare "Reform." Report IV, Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.; Kahn, Alfred J., Ed.

    "Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States" is an 18-month project designed to help states, local government, and the voluntary sector as they respond to the social policy debates and changes precipitated by the 104th Congress. The project's main vehicle, aside from exploratory and analytic work, is a series of…

  17. The Impact of New Social Risks on Welfare States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Taylor-Gooby

    Note: this paper is intended to present some background ideas for the session. It is based on chapter 1 of the book New Social Risks and New Welfare in Europe, to be published by Oxford University Press in 2004, which draws on research carried out for the EU FPV project 'Welfare Reform and the Management of Societal Change'. I wish

  18. "The Single-Parent Family" and Welfare Reform: Is Marriage the Solution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1995-01-01

    Many proposals for welfare reform center on the issue of marriage-based families versus single-parent families and oversimplify the relationship between single-parenting and poverty. Research done in upstate rural New York among low-income families showed that personal and economic characteristics of married and single mothers were similar as to…

  19. Welfare Reforms and Child Well-Being in the US and UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Waldfogel

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of recent welfare reforms in the US and UK on the well-being of children in low-income families, looking specifically at the effects on poverty, family expenditures, and child health and development. The paper finds some commonalities but also some notable differences. Common to both countries is a sizable reduction in child poverty, although the reduction

  20. Is Welfare Reform Responsible for Low Skilled Women's Declining Health Insurance Coverage in the 1990s?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeire, Thomas; Levine, Judith A.; Levy, Helen

    2006-01-01

    We use data from the 1989-2001 March Supplements to the Current Population Survey to determine whether welfare reform contributed to declines in health insurance coverage experienced by low-skilled women. Between 1988 and 2000, women with less than a high school education experienced an 8.0 percentage point decline in the probability of having…

  1. Welfare Reform and New York City's Low-Income Population. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernick, Howard; Reimers, Cordelia

    This paper uses Current Population Survey data to evaluate the initial effects of welfare reform on the economic well-being of low-income and vulnerable families (defined as those with low levels of education or with single mothers). To do so, it examines the changes in New York City policies and administrative procedures, comparing receipt of…

  2. Marriage, Family Structure and Economic Well-Being: The Second Round of Welfare Reform. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Notes that many from across the ideological spectrum suggest that welfare reform address policies that promote marriage and two-parent families. Discusses marriage, family structure and economic well-being, the benefits of marriage for adults and children, and low-income unwed mothers and marriage. Suggests that marriage and two-parent families…

  3. Employers' Perceptions of Welfare Reform: Implications for Cooperative Extension Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bernice B.; Stewart, Daisy L.

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with 12 employers participating in the Virginia Initiative for Employment, Not Work identified factors affecting welfare recipients' work force entry: skills, work experience, education/training, support system, childcare, transportation, and clothing. They are wiling to hire if supported by extension, social services, and government…

  4. The politics of employment-friendly welfare reforms in post-industrial economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silja Häusermann; Bruno Palier

    2008-01-01

    The transition to post-industrialism has generated a range of new tensions between welfare arrangements and labour market performance, which confront today's welfare states with new challenges for employment-friendly recalibration, such as flexicurity, activation and work-care conciliation. Hence, the question of whether, how and to what extent current welfare states are able to adapt to the conditions and needs of post-industrial

  5. Young physicians and the Finnish welfare state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arttu Saarinen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This article aims to focus on how young physicians in general and different subpopulations, in particular, see the role of the welfare state. The author seeks to compare young physicians' opinions with those of older physicians, a similar age group in the general population and all physicians. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A random sample was picked from the Finnish Medical

  6. Welfare Reform and Lone Parents in the UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Gregg; Susan Harkness; Sarah Smith

    2007-01-01

    The last thirty years saw dramatic increases in the proportion of children living in lone parent households. In 1997 the incoming Labour government initiated a series of policy reforms aimed at reducing this high level of child poverty. A key element of their strategy was a move towards increasing employment rates among families with children by a combination of increased

  7. Immigrants' Access to Public Assistance: Missed Opportunities following Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Danielle A.; Hatfield, Bridget E.

    2008-01-01

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Reconciliation Act of 1996 reformed public assistance programs and reduced the safety net of supports for low-income families. Children living in low-income immigrant families face particular challenges in the current policy environment. In this article, the authors consider what these changes have meant for…

  8. Welfare state matters: A typological multilevel analysis of wealthy countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haejoo Chung; Carles Muntaner

    2007-01-01

    Building on the social science literature, we hypothesized that population health indicators in wealthy industrialized countries are ‘clustered’ around welfare state regime types. We tested this hypothesis during a period of welfare state expansion from 1960 to 1994. We categorized data from 19 wealthy countries into 4 different types of welfare state regimes (Social Democratic, Christian Democratic, Liberal and Wage

  9. Long-Term Implications of Welfare Reform for the Development of Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Cherlin, Andrew J.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Fomby, Paula; Ribar, David C.; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2011-01-01

    We draw upon the 3-wave longitudinal dataset called Welfare Children and Families: A Three-City Study to examine the long-term implications for adolescents and young adults (N=783) of mothers’ welfare receipt and labor force participation from 1999 to 2005. In general, changes in mothers’ work and welfare patterns were not associated with deterioration or improvement in youth development (ages 16 to 20 years at wave 3). The few significant associations suggested that youth whose mothers increased employment (net of welfare participation) were more likely to show declines in serious behavior problems and delinquency compared to youth whose mothers were unemployed or employed part-time during the study period. Welfare roll exits (controlling for employment experiences) were unrelated to adolescent and young adult outcomes. Mothers’ employment transitions were linked to improvements in household income and mothers’ self esteem in addition to reductions in financial strain and their own illegal activities. However, these associations did not explain the relation between maternal employment and youths’ improved behavior. These results do not support the predictions of either the supporters or the opponents of welfare reform, an outcome we discuss. PMID:21966077

  10. Long-Term Implications of Welfare Reform for the Development of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay; Cherlin, Andrew J; Guttmannova, Katarina; Fomby, Paula; Ribar, David C; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2011-05-01

    We draw upon the 3-wave longitudinal dataset called Welfare Children and Families: A Three-City Study to examine the long-term implications for adolescents and young adults (N=783) of mothers' welfare receipt and labor force participation from 1999 to 2005. In general, changes in mothers' work and welfare patterns were not associated with deterioration or improvement in youth development (ages 16 to 20 years at wave 3). The few significant associations suggested that youth whose mothers increased employment (net of welfare participation) were more likely to show declines in serious behavior problems and delinquency compared to youth whose mothers were unemployed or employed part-time during the study period. Welfare roll exits (controlling for employment experiences) were unrelated to adolescent and young adult outcomes. Mothers' employment transitions were linked to improvements in household income and mothers' self esteem in addition to reductions in financial strain and their own illegal activities. However, these associations did not explain the relation between maternal employment and youths' improved behavior. These results do not support the predictions of either the supporters or the opponents of welfare reform, an outcome we discuss. PMID:21966077

  11. Welfare Reform and Community Colleges: A Policy and Research Context. MDRC Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Thomas; Matus-Grossman, Lisa; Hamilton, Gayle

    This paper reports on the state of welfare after the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) passed by Congress in 1996. The National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS) is a federally initiated study that explores the questions of what works best and for whom. NEWWS evaluated seven areas across the…

  12. Using Experiments To Evaluate Performance Standards. What Do Welfare-to-Work Demonstrations Reveal to Welfare Reformers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, John V.

    2003-01-01

    Data from experimental evaluations of four state welfare-to-work programs were combined with information on the selection process in order to determine the efficacy of social programs in light of performance standards. Data suggest that either the federal requirements cannot be met or that standards can only be met under special circumstances.…

  13. Five years later: poor women's health care coverage after welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Mann, Cindy; Hudman, Julie; Salganicoff, Alina; Folsom, Amanda

    2002-01-01

    The 1996 welfare reform law aims to increase poor women's participation in the work force and encourage their financial independence. Because women's ability to obtain and retain employment is affected by their health status, welfare reform's success is fundamentally tied to poor women's access to health care and to health insurance. Despite this, the rate of uninsurance among poor women with children has grown by half in recent years, leaving 37% of poor mothers uninsured in 2000. Coverage through employer-sponsored insurance has increased only slightly, and Medicaid participation has dropped. Although many factors contributed to this, welfare policies and procedures and low Medicaid eligibility levels had unintended yet significant negative effects on women's health care coverage. The sharp decline in poor women's health care coverage is likely to be one of several health-related issues that Congress will consider as it debates the reauthorization of the welfare law in 2002. Both public and private efforts will be necessary to improve coverage for poor women with children. Much progress has been made during the past 5 years in covering poor and near-poor children, but their parents have been left behind. The same efforts that proved successful for children, including broadening eligibility for coverage and simplifying the application process, can be used to improve the health and well-being of parents and to strengthen their ability to care for and support their families. PMID:11905484

  14. Poverty, Welfare Reform, and Disproportionate Rates of Disability among Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birenbaum, Arnold

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of data from state programs providing financial assistance for needy persons and disability prevalence data led to recommendations such as expanding access to health care and quality early childhood care for at-risk children, promoting the use of behavioral health services, lowering eligibility standards, and increasing the use of Social…

  15. The Privatization of the Welfare State: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovitz, Mimi

    1986-01-01

    Privatization is one way the Reagan Administration is restructuring the welfare state. Intervention in the economy was historically conceived to modify the market in behalf of social justice. In contrast, privatization channels public dollars into private hands, strengthens the two-class welfare state, and reproduces the inequalities of the free…

  16. Rethinking the western construction of the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Walker, A; Wong, C K

    1996-01-01

    This article employs case studies of China and Hong Kong to question the western ethnocentric construction of the welfare state that predominates in comparative social policy research. The authors argue that welfare regimes, and particularly the "welfare state," have been constructed as capitalist-democratic projects and that this has the damaging effect of excluding from analyses not only several advanced capitalist societies in the Asian-Pacific area but also the world's most populous country. If welfare state regimes can only coexist with western political democracies, then China and Hong Kong are excluded automatically. A similar result occurs if the traditional social administration approach is adopted whereby a "welfare state" is defined in terms only of direct state provision. The authors argue that such assumptions are untenable if state welfare is to be analyzed as a universal phenomenon. Instead of being trapped within an ethnocentric welfare statism, what social policy requires is a global political economy perspective that facilitates comparisons of the meaning of welfare and the state's role in producing it north, south, east and west. PMID:8932602

  17. Measuring Is Believing! Improving Conventional Indicators of Welfare State Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon; Alaez-Aller, Ricardo; Diaz-de-Basurto, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Welfare effort (social spending as a percentage of GDP) has conventionally been the preferred measure for comparisons in space and time of the level of development of welfare states. However, a wide variety of other measuring systems are potentially available in this field, because there are different sources and different methods for calculating…

  18. Welfare Reform in a Hard Place: The West Virginia Experience. Rockefeller Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plein, L. Christopher

    Structured work and training activities for welfare recipients in West Virginia began in 1962 when the state's entire caseload of two-parent families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children was enrolled in mandatory work and training activities. In 1980s-1990s, the Community Work Experience Program became an important tool in…

  19. Welfare Time Limits: An Update on State Policies, Implementation, and Effects on Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Mary; Rich, Sarah; Turner, Lesley; Seith, David; Bloom, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Time limits on benefit receipt became a central feature of federal welfare policy in the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA). Proponents of welfare reform argued that the time limits in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, would send a firm message to recipients that welfare is…

  20. New Hope for People with Low Incomes: Two-Year Results of a Program To Reduce Poverty and Reform Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Johannes M.; Huston, Aletha C.; Granger, Robert C.; Duncan, Greg J.; Brock, Thomas W.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.; And Others

    This document details the 2-year results of the New Hope Project, which was conducted in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to reduce poverty, reform welfare, and improve the overall well-being of poor people by providing a mix of incentives and services, including supplemental income, child care subsidies, guaranteed affordable health insurance, and…

  1. Agricultural Export Subsidies and Domestic Support Reform Under the WTO System: What Does It Mean for Welfare in West Africa?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Alexander Nuetah; Ting Zuo; Xin Xian

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThis paper analyses the potential welfare impacts West Africa tends to encounter from liberalising agricultural export subsidies and domestic support in developed and developing countries according to the reform proposals of the Doha Development Agenda. We base our analysis on the July framework scenario which considers a tiered formula that adopts a Harbinson Approach plus sensitive and special product provisions.

  2. The preferred role and perceived performance of the welfare state: European welfare attitudes from a multidimensional perspective.

    PubMed

    Roosma, Femke; van Oorschot, Wim; Gelissen, John

    2014-03-01

    Welfare state support has two core dimensions: attitudes about what the welfare state should do and beliefs about its actual performance. People can combine any position on one dimension with any position on the other, yielding four opinion clusters: people can combine preferences for a relatively strong role of the welfare state with a perception of a relatively low or high welfare state performance; likewise, people preferring a small role of the welfare state can perceive a high or low performing welfare state. We apply Latent Class Factor Analysis to data of 22 European countries from the 2008/9 European Social Survey. We find that each of the four clusters contains a substantial proportion of respondents that differs between welfare regimes. In addition, cluster membership is also related to covariates that measure people's structural positions and ideological preferences. PMID:24468444

  3. State tort reforms and hospital malpractice costs.

    PubMed

    Ellington, Charles R; Dodoo, Martey; Phillips, Robert; Szabat, Ronald; Green, Larry; Bullock, Kim

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relation between state medical liability reform measures, hospital malpractice costs, and hospital solvency. It suggests that state malpractice caps are desirable but not essential for improved hospital financial solvency or viability. PMID:20446990

  4. Federal Habeas Corpus Reform: The State's Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher E. Smith

    1995-01-01

    Utilizing a national survey of assistant state attorneys general, this article examines the effects of the Rehnquist Court's judicially initiated habeas corpus reforms upon the justice system. Although the Court's initiatives were directed at the branch of government about which the justices presumably possess their greatest knowledge and expertise, the reforms generated unanticipated consequences. Contrary to the justices' goal of

  5. Old age pension reform in China's state-owned enterprises.

    PubMed

    Smyth, R

    2000-01-01

    The old-age pension scheme in China's state-owned enterprises (SOEs) is experiencing a difficult transition period; in the past, SOEs were responsible for providing retirees with pension benefits. However, in the 1980s and 1990s, the financial position of SOEs deteriorated, making it difficult for them to honor their social welfare commitments. The background of the current pension crisis is examined, and recent attempts to improve the funding of pensions in China's state-owned sector are reviewed, focusing on the period since the State Council issued its "Decision on the Establishment of Unified Pension Insurance" in 1997. The article concludes with a review of priorities for further reform. PMID:11148831

  6. SPENDING ON SOCIAL WELFARE PROGRAMS IN RICH AND POOR STATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Toikka; Thomas Gais; Plamen V Nikolov; Patricia Billen

    2004-01-01

    Social welfare programs strive to improve the well-being of needy and vulnerable populations. The fact that states spend different amounts on these programs is well known, but why they do so is less understood, including the extent to which differences are affected by states’ relative fiscal capacity, defined as their ability to raise revenue through taxation. The federal government has

  7. Remember the Children: Mothers Balance Work and Child Care under Welfare Reform. Growing Up in Poverty Project 2000; Wave 1 Findings--California, Connecticut, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Analysis for California Education, Berkeley, CA.

    This report details a study that sought to answer whether welfare reform was meeting its goals of reducing mothers' dependency and boosting children's futures, and whether these reforms were having discernable effects on young children. During the second half of 1998, the study randomly selected 948 single mothers with young children from 5…

  8. The problem of dependency: immigration, gender, and the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Eggebř, Helga

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the regulation of marriage migration to Norway through an analysis of the subsistence requirement rule which entails that a person who wants to bring a spouse to Norway must achieve a certain level of income. Policy-makers present two main arguments for this regulation. First, the subsistence requirement is a means to prevent forced marriage. Second, its aim is to prevent family immigrants from becoming a burden on welfare budgets. The major concern of both these arguments is that of dependency, either on the family or on the welfare state. The article investigates the representations of the “problems” underpinning this specific policy proposal and argues that the rule in question, and immigration policy more generally, needs to be analyzed with reference to the broader concerns and aims of welfare state policy and gender equality policy. PMID:20821899

  9. THE RISE, FALL AND REVIVAL OF A CAPITALIST WELFARE STATE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Bergh

    Political debate often refers to the case of Sweden. For some, Sweden is proof that a generous welfare state is fully compatible with a growing competitive economy. For others, it is a frightening example of what big government can do to a once thriving economy. This paper deals with a number controversial questions regarding Sweden's economic and political development: ?

  10. Welfare Reform: With TANF Flexibility, States Vary in How They Implement Work Requirements and Time Limits. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    In this report, the General Accounting Office (GAO) examined how different states are implementing the work requirements and time limits called for by the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. Data were collected from site visits in 4 states, telephone interviews with TANF officials in 8 additional states, and a survey…

  11. Double Jeopardy: An Assessment of the Felony Drug Provision of the Welfare Reform Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Rukaiyah; Onek, David; Riker, Alissa

    In 1996 the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program was replaced with a federal block grant program called Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), which imposed time limits and work requirements on welfare recipients. The welfare legislation placed a lifetime ban on TANF and food stamp benefits for convicted drug felons, although…

  12. Policy Incongruence and Public Health Professionals' Dissonance: The Case of Immigrants and Welfare Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth E. Quill; Lu Ann Aday; Carl S. Hacker; Julie Kay Reagan

    1999-01-01

    The steady increase in immigrants to the United States has fueled a critical analysis of the process of allocation of health and social benefits to these newcomers. The myriad of interests and values surrounding this issue precipitated the formulation and adoption of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity (Welfare Reform) Act of 1996. This dramatic welfare reform impacts federal, state,

  13. Health system reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, John E

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider. PMID:24596894

  14. Welfare-Induced Migration at State Borders: New Evidence from Micro-Data*

    PubMed Central

    McKinnish, Terra

    2011-01-01

    This paper extends and synthesizes the various approaches used in the recent welfare migration literature to both offer the most comprehensive set of tests to date for welfare migration and to also determine the relative importance of short-distance moves in welfare migration flows. The current study follows on the finding of McKinnish (2005) of welfare migration effects obtained by comparing welfare participation at state borders to state interiors. This identification strategy is extended to micro-data from the 1980 and 1990 Decennial Censuses and combined with the demographic comparisons used elsewhere in the welfare migration literature. The signs and patterns of the estimates are consistent with the presence of welfare migration effects, and the magnitudes of the estimates are consistent with the importance of short-distance moves in welfare-induced migration flows, but most of the estimates are not statistically significant. PMID:21949449

  15. President Clinton signs the welfare reform bill, turning his back on the poorest and most vulnerable populations and undermining health care for legal immigrants.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, M

    1996-01-01

    President Clinton signed a welfare reform responsibility bill in August, following eighteen months of contentious debate. The bill, The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, is expected to lead to cuts in food stamp programs, aid to illegal immigrants, and safety net programs for children. Specific program cuts are detailed. PMID:11367428

  16. Pedagogy of the Consumer: The Politics of Neo-Liberal Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Situated against the backdrop of a widespread and growing interest in the linkages between neo-liberalism and welfare, this paper introduces the lens of neo-liberalism as a conceptual strategy for thinking about contemporary issues in education policy. Through charting the historic rise of unfettered market institutions and practices in the…

  17. State regulation of managed care: fragments of reform.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jack

    1997-12-01

    State legislatures consider numerous bills to regulate managed care organizations. After identifying the legal, political, and economic barriers to state reform efforts, the paper assesses recent types of state regulation, particularly mandated benefits and disclosure requirements. Two prerequisites to future reform, coalition building and the diffusion of information about managed care, are analyzed. PMID:11655366

  18. Work, health, and welfare: the association between working conditions, welfare states, and self-reported general health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; Van der Wel, Kjetil A; Eikemo, Terje A; Dragano, Nico

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first to examine the association between self-reported general health and a wide range of working conditions at the European level and by type of welfare state regime. Data for 21,705 men and women ages 16 to 60 from 27 European countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. The influence of individual-level sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial working conditions and of the organization of work were assessed in multilevel logistic regression analyses, with additional stratification by welfare state regime type (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Eastern European, Scandinavian, and Southern). At the European level, we found that "not good" general health was more likely to be reported by workers more exposed to hazardous working conditions. Most notably, tiring working positions, job strain, and temporary job contracts were strongly associated with a higher likelihood of reporting "not good" health. Analysis by welfare state regime found that only tiring or painful working conditions were consistently associated with worse self-reported health in all regimes. There was no evidence that the Scandinavian welfare regime protected against the adverse health effects of poor working conditions. The article concludes by examining the implications for comparative occupational health research. PMID:24684087

  19. Transformation of the welfare states after World War 2: the cases of Portugal and Denmark

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Hansen; Carlos Nunes Silva

    2000-01-01

    Welfare States in the European Union have many different characteristics, including the role assigned to local government. In order to explain these institutional differences the authors discuss the concept of a welfare state regime (WSR), and suggest a taxonomy of four types of WSR. They also address the changes which have occurred in the different types of WSR over time,

  20. Population growth and steady state welfare in an overlapping generations model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Partha Sen

    2006-01-01

    In one-sector growth models, an increase in the population growth rate raises the economy's growth rate but lowers steady-state welfare (or consumption per capita). I show that in a two-sector overlapping generations model it can raise the steady-state welfare.

  1. Child Care and the Welfare to Work Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Lemke; Ann Dryden Witte; Magaly Queralt; Robert Witt

    2000-01-01

    We assess the role of child care in the welfare to work transition using an unusually large and comprehensive data base. Our data are for Massachusetts, a state that began welfare reform in 1995 under a federal waiver, for the period July 1996 through August 1997. We find that both the nature of the child care market and the availability

  2. Child Care and the Welfare to Work Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Lemke; Robert Witt; Ann Dryden Witte

    2001-01-01

    We assess the role of child care in the welfare to work transition using an unusually large and comprehensive data base. Our data are for Massachusetts, a state that began welfare reform in 1995 under a federal waiver, for the period July 1996 through August 1997. We find that both the nature of the child care market and the availability

  3. The Welfare State: Prospects for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronbjerg, Kirsten A., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are examined: old age pensions under social security; economic policy as the primary determinant of social policy; the measurement of poverty and its implications for antipoverty policies; race and ethnic relations; the future of private welfare; and the analytic connection between sociology and social welfare. (RM)

  4. Pathologizing poverty: new forms of diagnosis, disability, and structural stigma under welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Helena; Bourgois, Philippe; Drucker, Ernest

    2014-02-01

    In 1996 the U.S. severely restricted public support for low income people, ending "welfare as we know it." This led to dramatic increases in medicalized forms of support for indigent people, who increasingly rely on disability benefits justified by psychiatric diagnoses of chronic mental illness. We present case studies drawn from ethnographic data involving daily participant-observation between 2005 and 2012 in public clinics and impoverished neighborhoods in New York City, to describe the subjective experience of structural stigma imposed by the increasing medicalization of public support for the poor through a diagnosis of permanent mental disability. In some cases, disability benefits enable recipients to fulfill important social roles (sustaining a vulnerable household and promoting stable parenting). The status of family members who receive a monthly disability check improves within their kin and neighborhood-based networks, counterbalancing the felt stigma of being identified by doctors as "crazy". When a diagnosis of mental pathology becomes a valuable survival strategy constituting the basis for fulfillment of household responsibilities, stigmatizing processes are structurally altered. Through the decades, the stigmatized labels applied to the poor have shifted: from being a symptom of racial weakness, to the culture of poverty, and now to permanent medical pathology. The neoliberal bureaucratic requirement that the poor must repeatedly prove their "disabled" status through therapy and psychotropic medication appears to be generating a national and policy-maker discourse condemning SSI malingerers, resurrecting the 16th century specter of the "unworthy poor". PMID:24507913

  5. Uruguay: Population Geography of a Troubled Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tata, Robert J.

    1977-01-01

    Discussed is whether or not Uruguay's elaborate welfare system can be maintained by a deteriorating economy plagued by social tension and political unrest. Historical background is presented, demographic variables are discussed and modern influences are measured. (Author/DB)

  6. Social Welfare Policy and Public Assistance for Low-Income Substance Abusers: The Impact of 1996 Welfare Reform Legislation on the Economic Security of Former Supplemental Security Income Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Sean R; Unick, George J.; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C.

    2009-01-01

    Prior to January 1, 1997, individuals with drug- or alcohol-related disabilities could qualify for federal public assistance through the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. During the welfare reforms of the Clinton administration, this policy was changed resulting in lost income and health care benefits for many low-income substance abusers. This paper examines the historical underpinnings to the elimination of drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) as qualifying impairments for SSI disability payments. Following this, empirical evidence is presented on the effect this policy change had on the subsequent economic security of former SSI DA&A beneficiaries. Findings indicate that study participants that lost SSI benefits suffered increased economic hardship following the policy change. These findings have important implications for future social welfare policymaking decisions. PMID:20396645

  7. Principles of state health reform: many states not willing to wait for federal reform.

    PubMed

    Lindeke, J M

    1994-07-01

    Despite the simplicity of the basic objectives of health care reform-- greater access at manageable cost, these goals have not yet been achieved at either the federal or state level. One explanation may be that the American people are not willing to make the sacrifices that are probably necessary to achieve universal access to health care: increased taxes or redirection of governmental expenditures, limitation of choice in providers, and perhaps some form of rationing (which in fact already exists, by limiting access of the uninsured and some of the poor). What, then, are the prospects for meaningful national health care reform in the near future? While the answer to this question remains unclear, there is no doubt that providers across the country are likely to face an unprecedented array of state health care initiatives over the next few years, whether or not federal legislation is enacted. To prepare for this upcoming legislative activity, providers must remain aware of state legislative activity as it evolves. PMID:10135139

  8. Not just maternalism: marriage and fatherhood in American welfare policy.

    PubMed

    Geva, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    The United States' 1996 welfare reforms are often interpreted as a historical break in transitioning from supporting motherhood to commodifiying women's labor. However, this cannot account for welfare reform's emphasis upon heterosexual marriage and fatherhood promotion. The paper traces continuities and shifts in over a century of familial regulation through American welfare policy, specifying the place of marriage promotion within welfare policy. Up until 1996, families were key sites of intervention through which the American welfare state was erected, especially through single women as mothers - not wives. However, as of the 1960s, concern with African American men's "failed" familial commitments turned policymakers toward concern over marriage promotion for women and men. While marriage "disincentives" for aid recipients were lifted in the 1960s, the 1996 reforms structured a new form of nuclear family governance actively promoting marriage rooted in, but distinct from, the previous. Given the historical absence of welfare policies available to poor men, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families' (TANF) marriage promotion policies have positioned poor women as nodes connecting the state to poor men, simultaneously structuring poor women as breadwinners, mothers, and wives. Recent welfare reform has also started to target poor men directly, especially in fatherhood and marriage promotion initiatives. The article highlights how, in addition to workfare policies, marriage promotion is a neoliberal policy shifting risk to the shoulders of the poor, aiming to produce "strong families" for the purposes of social security. PMID:21692243

  9. Welfare Reform and American Indian Tribes: Critical Decisions for the Future of Indian Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jo Ann

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRETORIA) gives American Indian tribes the option to run their own Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program or leave these services under state administration. Eight case studies were conducted in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Arizona with the Klamath Tribes,…

  10. Explaining State Government Administrative Reform - Focusing on Performance-Based Budgeting and State Executive Branch Reorganization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Soo Park

    2003-01-01

    What are the causes of administrative reform? Even though the question is critical in understanding administrative reform efforts and their impacts on administration and society, much remains to be understood about this process. In this dissertation, I will examine the following research question : What accounts for the occurrence of two types of state-level administrative reform - the adoption of

  11. Neoliberalism, "globalization," unemployment, inequalities, and the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1998-01-01

    This analysis of "neoliberalism" and its economic and social consequences is presented in six sections. Section I begins by describing the impact of neoliberal public policies on economic growth and inflation, on business profits and business investments, on productivity, on business credit, on unemployment and social inequalities, on social expenditures, and on poverty and family debt. The author shows that, except in the area of business profits and control of inflation, neoliberal policies have not proved superior to those they replaced. Section II deals with unemployment and social polarization in the developed capitalist countries. The author criticizes some of the theories put forward to explain these social problems, such as the introduction of new technologies and globalization of the economy, and suggests that a primary reason for these problems is the implementation of neoliberal policies. Section III challenges the widely held neoliberal perception that the U.S. economy is highly efficient and the E.U. economies are "sclerotic" due to their "excessive" welfare states and "rigid" labor markets. The author shows that the U.S. economy is not so dynamic, nor the E.U. economies so sclerotic. Some developed countries with greater social protection and more regulated labor markets are shown to be more successful than the United States in producing jobs and lowering unemployment. The reasons for the growing polarization in developed capitalist countries, rooted in political rather than economic causes, are discussed in section IV--especially the enormous power of the financial markets and their influence on international agencies and national governments, and the weakness of the labor movements, both nationally and internationally. Section V questions the major theses of globalization. The author shows that rather than globalization of commerce and investments, we are witnessing a regionalization of economic relations stimulated by political considerations. He also analyzes the globalization of capital finance, criticizing the thesis that capital markets are determining public policies. The economic determinism that underlies the globalization position is questioned, uncovering the importance of political explanations for understanding major social problems such as unemployment. Finally, section VI shows that neoliberal public policies on the deregulation of labor markets are creating enormous instability in the labor force, worsening the living conditions of the majority of the populations. PMID:9842492

  12. Effects of demographic factors and information sources on United States consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    McKendree, M G S; Croney, C C; Widmar, N J O

    2014-07-01

    As consumers have become more interested in understanding how their food is produced, scrutiny and criticism have increased regarding intensified food animal production methods. Resolution of public concerns about animal agricultural practices depends on understanding the myriad factors that provide the basis for concerns. An online survey of 798 U.S. households was conducted to investigate relationships between household characteristics (demographics, geographic location, and experiences) and level of concern for animal welfare as well as sources used to obtain information on the subject. Because recent media attention has focused on animal care practices used in the U.S. swine industry, respondents were also asked specific questions pertaining to their perceptions of pig management practices and welfare issues and their corresponding pork purchasing behavior. Respondents reporting higher levels of concern about animal welfare were more frequently female, younger, and self-reported members of the Democratic Party. Fourteen percent of respondents reported reduction in pork consumption because of animal welfare concerns with an average reduction of 56%. Over half of the respondents (56%) did not have a primary source for animal welfare information; those who identified a primary information source most commonly used information provided by animal protection organizations, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Midwest participants were significantly, at the 5% significance level, less concerned about domestic livestock animal welfare and more frequently reported not having a source for animal welfare information than those from other regions of the United States. Overall, the U.S. livestock and poultry industries and other organizations affiliated with animal agriculture appear to be less used public sources of information on animal welfare than popular animal protection organizations. Improved understanding of the factors that contribute to consumers' evolving perceptions of the care and welfare of farm animals is an essential step toward enhanced sustainability and social responsibility in contemporary food production systems. PMID:24962533

  13. Welfare's End.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mink, Gwendolyn

    During the 1920s, progressive women activists invented welfare to help mothers and their children survive when breadwinning fathers either died or abandoned their families. During the 1930s, the local mothers' pension programs of the Progressive Era became part of the emerging national welfare state, which was conceived to relieve poor single…

  14. CASAWORKS for Families: A Promising Approach to Welfare Reform and Substance-Abusing Women. A CASA White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    CASAWORKS for Families is the first national demonstration program to provide simultaneously drug and alcohol treatment; literacy, job, parenting, and social skills training; family violence prevention; and health care to help substance-abusing welfare parents recover. Its mission is to help women on welfare with substance abuse problems achieve…

  15. Care and treatment of the mentally ill in the United States: historical developments and reforms.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, J P; Goldman, H H

    1986-03-01

    Three major cycles of reform in public mental health care in the United States--the moral treatment, mental hygiene, and community mental health movements--are described as a basis for assessing the shifting boundaries between the mental health, social welfare, and criminal justice systems. Historical forces that led to the transinstitutionalization of the mentally ill from almshouses to the state mental hospitals in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have now been reversed in the aftermath of recent deinstitutionalization policies. Evidence is suggestive that the mentally ill are also being caught up in the criminal justice system, a circumstance reminiscent of pre-asylum conditions in the early nineteenth century. These trends shape the current mental health service delivery system and the agenda for policy-relevant research on issues involving the legal and mental health fields. PMID:10300755

  16. Mending holes in the Medicaid safety net: a strategy for state healthcare reform.

    PubMed

    Keckley, Paul; Kalkhof, Christopher

    2007-12-01

    To respond to the challenges posed by potential healthcare reform: maintain ongoing awareness of your state's reform initiatives; evaluate each reform initiative in terms of how it will affect your organization; conduct a state healthcare reform rapid readiness assessment in your organization; engage your physicians, board, and community leaders in understanding Medicaid; get ready and stay ready! PMID:18186204

  17. The persistence of health inequalities in modern welfare states: the explanation of a paradox.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Johan P

    2012-08-01

    The persistence of socioeconomic inequalities in health, even in the highly developed 'welfare states' of Western Europe, is one of the great disappointments of public health. Health inequalities have not only persisted while welfare states were being built up, but on some measures have even widened, and are not smaller in European countries with more generous welfare arrangements. This paper attempts to identify potential explanations for this paradox, by reviewing nine modern 'theories' of the explanation of health inequalities. The theories reviewed are: mathematical artifact, fundamental causes, life course perspective, social selection, personal characteristics, neo-materialism, psychosocial factors, diffusion of innovations, and cultural capital. Based on these theories it is hypothesized that three circumstances may help to explain the persistence of health inequalities despite attenuation of inequalities in material conditions by the welfare state: (1) inequalities in access to material and immaterial resources have not been eliminated by the welfare state, and are still substantial; (2) due to greater intergenerational mobility, the composition of lower socioeconomic groups has become more homogeneous with regard to personal characteristics associated with ill-health; and (3) due to a change in epidemiological regime, in which consumption behavior became the most important determinant of ill-health, the marginal benefits of the immaterial resources to which a higher social position gives access have increased. Further research is necessary to test these hypotheses. If they are correct, the persistence of health inequalities in modern European welfare states can partly be seen as a failure of these welfare states to implement more radical redistribution measures, and partly as a form of 'bad luck' related to concurrent developments that have changed the composition of socioeconomic groups and made health inequalities more sensitive to immaterial factors. It is argued that normative evaluations of health inequalities should take these explanations into account, and that a direct attack on the personal, psychosocial and cultural determinants of health inequalities may be necessary to achieve a substantial reduction of health inequalities. PMID:22475407

  18. States' spending for public welfare and their suicide rates, 1960 to 1995: what is the problem?

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Shirley L

    2002-06-01

    Drawing on Durkheim's theory of social integration, this discussion reports on findings from a pooled time-series analysis of states' spending for public welfare and their suicide rates, controlling for states' divorce rates, population change rates, population density, unemployment rates, sex ratio, and racial composition. The analysis spans a 35-year period, 1960 to 1995, at six different data points: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995. The major hypothesis was that states' suicide rates would increase with decreases in per capita spending for public welfare, controlling for the variables listed above in three different models and using OLS to analyze the data. In the basic model, states' spending for public welfare showed no relationship to states' suicide rates; in the second model that controlled for data year and in the third model that controlled for both data year and state, its relationship was significant, but in a negative direction. Suicide rates increased in states that reduced their per capita expenditures for public welfare during the observational period. Of all the variables, the influence of divorce on suicide was the most persistent and pronounced, followed by the percentage of whites in states' populations. Whether the findings reflect an increase in the unendurable psychological pain associated with suicide, or the weakening of ties that bind individuals to each other and to the larger society (as measured by states' divorce rates and per capita expenditures for public welfare), or the vulnerabilities associated with race, states can help counter suicide trends and such negative influences as divorce as evidenced by states that spend more for public welfare and have lower suicide rates. Given that clinicians work with people experiencing the unendurable psychological pain associated with suicide, the findings from these analyses have relevance for their practice. PMID:12080203

  19. Welfare Reform: Progress in Meeting Work-Focused TANF Goals. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagnoni, Cynthia M.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined progress in meeting work-focused goals of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. The following issues were considered: (1) states' progress in implementing TANF; (2) the status of families who have left welfare; (3) the characteristics of adults currently receiving TANF; (4) states'…

  20. The State Data Analysis Gap: A Threat to Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeky, Art

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the 2001 passage of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), states have faced a federal mandate to improve their ability to collect and analyze education data for the purpose of tracking and reporting the progress of their education reform efforts. With the assistance of federal funds, virtually all of the states are developing…

  1. Child Well-Being in an Era of Welfare Reform: The Sensitivity of Transitions in Development to Policy Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela Morris; Greg J. Duncan; Elizabeth Clark-Kauffman

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the age-specific pattern of effects of welfare policies on child achievement. Drawing from 7 random-assignment welfare and antipoverty evaluations that provided more than 30,000 observations of children's achievement, this study found that times of developmental transition are the only periods sensitive to the changes in families brought about by these policies. More specifically, small positive effects of

  2. Exploring the Extended Family of Mediterranean Welfare States, or: Did Beveridge and Bismarck Take a Mediterranean Cruise Together?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Gal

    \\u000a The study of welfare states and social policy has enjoyed growing popularity in the last four decades. Emerging from primarily\\u000a descriptive studies of state-provided welfare, social security, and health institutions and from relatively crude quantitative\\u000a and qualitative comparative studies, this field has been characterized by a growing level of theorization, richer case study\\u000a analyses, inclusion of additional sources of welfare

  3. Sector Models of the Welfare State: A Cross-National Analysis

    E-print Network

    DeViney, Stanley

    1987-01-01

    development to five subsets of welfare-state programs: 1) old-age pensions; 2) disability pensions; 3) worker compensation; 4) une m ployment compensation; and 5) sick benefits. Analysis of a sample of 18 Western industrial nations shows that no single model... of this paper is to test the competing models of the welfare state in the context of overall expenditures and income replacement indicators for five risk areas: (1) old-age; (2) disability; (3) work injury; (4) unemployment; and (5) illness. The research takes...

  4. 45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms. 148...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Requirements Relating to Access and...128 State flexibility in individual market reforms—alternative...

  5. Superintendent Retirement in a Reform State: Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyland, Lori; Ellis, John

    2015-01-01

    Indiana recently gained status as a national leader in educational reform. At the same time, a record number of superintendents retired, with 62 retirements in 2012 and 2013, representing 21% of superintendents in the state. The purpose of this study was to explore factors influencing superintendents' decisions to retire during this time.…

  6. Stamp Duties In Indian States: A Case for Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arbind Modi; Patricia Annez; James Alm

    2004-01-01

    Alm, Annez, and Modi review the options for reform of stamp duties on immovable property transfers collected by Indian state governments. After briefly reviewing some of the many administrative difficulties experienced with the tax, they turn to an examination of its economic impacts. A review of stamp duties internationally indicates that Indian rates are exceptionally high, at rates often above

  7. Stakeholder incentives and reforms in China's state-owned enterprises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Cauley; Richard Cornes; Todd Sandler

    1999-01-01

    We argue that state-owned enterprise reform has failed in China, because incentive mechanisms that confront the key stakeholders did not elicit efficient behavior. Although incentive mechanisms were intended to elicit more effort, incentives became de facto improper because of a number of developments. This paper analyzes alternative sharing or incentive systems and highlights the interdependency among property rights, incentives, and

  8. At State's Urging, Mississippi Schools Use Reform Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Alan

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses Mississippi's use of a reform model that helped dozens of schools that had failed to induce academic progress under the No Child Left Behind Act. In a forgotten corner of Mississippi's state capital, test scores are going up at a middle school for struggling students. The progress of students at risk of dropping out at the…

  9. Welfare Caseloads and the 2001 Recession

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Goodman-Bacon

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of welfare reform policies on the number of families receiving welfare (caseloads) since the 2001 recession. 1996's welfare reform legislation was passed amidst the longest economic expansion in US history, making it hard for researchers to estimate the role of policy. Furthermore, caseload research has not sufficiently explored the effects of specific policy choices within

  10. Welfare Caseloads and the 2001 Recession

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Goodman-Bacon

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of welfare reform policies on the number of families receiving welfare (caseloads) since the 2001 recession. 1996’s welfare reform legislation was passed amidst the longest economic expansion in US history, making it hard for researchers to estimate the role of policy. Furthermore, caseload research has not sufficiently explored the effects of specific policy choices within

  11. Universalism without the Targeting: Privatizing the Old-Age Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herd, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Decades of conservative attempts to scale back Social Security and Medicare, by limiting the program's universality through means testing and drastic benefit cuts, have failed. Thus, after numerous unsuccessful attempts at dismantling the U.S.'s universal old-age welfare state, or even meaningfully restraining its growth, conservative critics have…

  12. WELFARE STATES AND DIMENSIONS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Cross-national comparisons of social contacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peer Scheepers

    We set out to describe and explain differences in the amount of some dimensions of social capital within and between European societies. Social capital refers to a wide range of social phenomena; however, we focus on social contacts with family and friends. We derive hypotheses about cross-national differences in social capital from theories on the nature of welfare state regimes.

  13. San Francisco Works: Toward an Employer-Led Approach to Welfare Reform and Workforce Development. Connections to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Steven

    San Francisco Works (SFWorks) is a collaborative welfare-to-work project conducted by a coalition of large San Francisco-area employers, the city's Chamber of Commerce, and the United Way of the Bay Area. The project was piloted beginning in March 1998 by contracting with five community-based organizations (CBOs) to provide a comprehensive range…

  14. A Need For Correction: Reforming New York's Juvenile Justice System. Child Welfare Watch. Vol. 18, Fall 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Andrew; Hemphill, Clara; Hurley, Kendra

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of a U.S. Justice Department investigation that found widespread use of excessive force by staff at upstate psychiatric care facilities for mentally ill children, this new edition of Child Welfare Watch identifies shortcomings in mental health services and explores possible solutions, including the expansion of alternatives to…

  15. Welfare Reform Reauthorization in 2002: What Are the Issues for Tribal Communities and Indian Families? Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloy, Kathleen A.

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children with Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), which establishes work-focused, time-limited welfare benefits. TANF permits tribes to receive funds directly from the federal government to administer their own…

  16. "Newstart" or "Stop-Start"? the Implications of Recent Welfare Reforms on Undergraduate Students Who Are Sole Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenette, Caroline; McDonald, Donna; Fowler, Jane L.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of recent income support payment changes for sole-parented families in Australia, and in particular, their capacity to access tertiary education. The government's program to reduce welfare benefit payments to sole-parented families already at high risk of economic disadvantage and social marginalization…

  17. The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Abortion, Education, Term Limits, Welfare Reform, Health Insurance, Riverboat Gambling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

    This report presents the annual survey of public opinion in Pennsylvania. Telephone surveys were conducted with 1,744 people whose telephone numbers were randomly selected from all listed telephone numbers. Results of the survey indicate that: (1) Pennsylvanians strongly favor mandatory birth control counseling for welfare mothers, but opinion is…

  18. Partnership, Accountability, and Standards-Based Reform: Reflections on the Baltimore City-State Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Day, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the educational reform context that gave rise to the Baltimore City-State Partnership, noting how the Partnership can inform standards-based reform efforts in other jurisdictions. Reviews the central components of standards based-reform and makes informal observations concerning the impact of the Baltimore City-State Partnership. (SM)

  19. State Level Fiscal Reforms in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Govinda Rao

    There has been a steep deterioration in State finances during the last decade as evidenced by sharp increases in revenue, fiscal and primary deficits, increases in their indebtedness and contingent liabilities, and decline in capital and maintenance expenditures. Low buoyancy of central transfers and spillover of central pay revisions have had the most adverse impact on State finances. However, the

  20. State Health Facts: Health Reform Indicators

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in Medicaid and CHIP Financial Assistance in the Health Insurance Marketplaces Premium Tax Credits at Risk in King ... Population Average Monthly Advance Premium Tax Credit (APTC) Health Insurance Marketplaces State Health Insurance Marketplace Types, 2015 Number ...

  1. The role of welfare state principles and generosity in social policy programmes for public health: an international comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olle Lundberg; Monica Ĺberg Yngwe; Maria Kölegĺrd Stjärne; Jon Ivar Elstad; Tommy Ferrarini; Olli Kangas; Thor Norström; Joakim Palme

    Background Many important social determinants of health are also the focus for social policies. Welfare states contribute to the resources available for their citizens through cash transfer programmes and subsidised services. Although all rich nations have welfare programmes, there are clear cross-national diff erences with respect to their design and generosity. These diff erences are evident in national variations in

  2. Windows of Opportunity: Strategies To Support Families Receiving Welfare and Other Low-Income Families in the Next Stage of Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Eileen; Schott, Liz; Lazere, Ed; Fremstad, Shawn; Goldberg, Heidi; Guyer, Jocelyn; Super, David; Johnson, Clifford

    This report describes an array of innovative strategies and practical ideas for helping low-income families with children. There is a window of opportunity for these new strategies as many states have tremendous financial resources available. The Temporary Assistance For Needy Families (TANF) program rules have been clarified, and families are…

  3. Delivering employability in a vanguard ‘active’ welfare state: the case of Greater Copenhagen in Denmark

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin Lindsay; Mikkel Mailand

    2009-01-01

    Denmark has been regularly cited as a leading example of the ‘active’ welfare state. Regional and local governance and delivery structures have been crucial to the implementation of Denmark’s strategies to improve the employability of unemployed people. In this paper we trace the development, implementation, and effectiveness of regional and local labour-market structures in Denmark, particularly focusing on the country’s

  4. Understanding State School Funding: The First Step toward Quality Reforms. The Progress of Education Reform. Volume 13, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This quote, taken from a piece written by the Education Commission of the States (ECS) nearly 30 years ago, demonstrates that researchers have long recognized the relationship between quality education reform and the structure of a state's school funding system. However, many policymakers continue to view their state's school funding formula not…

  5. The politics of health care reform in the United States, 1992-1994: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1995-01-01

    In an analysis of the sociopolitical context of the debate on health care reform in the United States, the author focuses on the political events that led to the election of a Democratic administration in 1992; the evolution of the White House task force on health care reform and the interests and positions it represented; the connection between economic and political power in the United States; and the reasons for the defeat of the health care reform proposal. This historical analysis questions some of the dominant interpretations of the failure to reform health care, which assume that the U.S. population was not yet ready for these reforms. PMID:7622313

  6. Medicaid Issues in Family Welfare and Nursing Home Reform. Including H.R. 2270, a Bill To Amend Title XIX of the Social Security Act To Change the Medicaid Requirements for Nursing Facilities Based on Recommendations of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (April 24 and May 12, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    Two hearings held a month apart examine major issues concerning Medicaid benefits in family welfare and nursing home reform. The first set of hearings discusses the proposed Family Welfare Reform Act of 1987 (H.R. 1720), which is intended to replace the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program of the Social Security Act Title IV.…

  7. The national health care system in the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Oppl, H; von Kardorff, E

    1990-01-01

    The German national health care system has for some time shown signs of being in difficulty. Their manifestations are the overloading of the system in terms of consumer demand, the monopoly of functions, ascribed and acquired, by various groups of services providers, and the divided authority and obligations regarding health care and financing, between the federal government and the semi-autonomous German states and localities. At a deeper level of analysis it would appear that the underlying ideological themes that have guided the development of the national health care system need to be questioned. Alternative models of health care can rest on medical sickness models, as is currently the case, or on community centered health care, including primary prevention. The latter is based on the conviction and the insight that health and sickness is not an individualistic, autonomous, and independent set of phenomena but instead is a communal condition that needs to be addressed as such. The expected result is that health and sickness would be re-defined, along with professional intervention. PMID:2195663

  8. On the Declining Health Status of Welfare Caseloads: Emerging Dilemmas for Serving the Poor

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Laura A.; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Henderson, Stuart; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, James

    2014-01-01

    An emerging concern for public policy is welfare reform’s potential to inadvertently affect caseload composition by increasing the proportion of recipients with health-related barriers to employment. We examine this using data from the Welfare Client Longitudinal Study, an in-depth case study of a large California county. Through quantitative analyses, we examine the extent of change in health-related problems since welfare reform and their potential to progressively impact overall composition of the caseload. We augment this with qualitative data on how local welfare providers are responding to the health-related needs of aid recipients. Results suggest that the burden of health-related problems is growing and that welfare providers may be poorly equipped to respond effectively on their own. The changing composition of welfare caseloads may foster several new policy dilemmas that demand broader attention: states and localities may face difficulties meeting federal workforce participation requirements, may need to restructure welfare-to-work programs to serve a more functionally impaired population, and take steps to better integrate health and welfare services at the local level. PMID:21400369

  9. The Politics of Special Education Finance Reform in Three States. State Analysis Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Thomas B.; Montgomery, Deborah L.

    This paper examines the politics of special education finance reform in three states (Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Vermont) that have enacted substantial legislative change within the past 5 years. These case studies were extracted from presentations made by the three state directors of special education at a 1994 conference. Each case study includes…

  10. U.S. Immigration in the 1980s: Reappraisal and Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simcox, David E., Ed.

    The introductory chapter of this volume on immigration into the United States is entitled "Overview: A Time of Reform and Reappraisal" (D. Simcox), and it introduces the topics of reform, legal and illegal immigration, the effect of immigration on the labor market and social welfare, and immigration enforcement methods that are discussed in the…

  11. ALTERNATIVE CONCEPTS FOR MEDICAID PROGRAM SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH STATE REFORM AND FINANCING REDESIGN

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    ALTERNATIVE CONCEPTS FOR MEDICAID PROGRAM SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH STATE REFORM AND FINANCING for Medicaid Program Sustainability Through State Reform and Financing Redesign Table of Contents EXECUTIVE FINAL RECOMMENDATIONS 53 BIBLIOGRAPHY 56 #12;1 Executive Summary The cost of Medicaid is a serious

  12. Happy Marriage or Uneasy Alliance? The Relationship between Comprehensive School Reform and State Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datnow, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how the relationship between comprehensive school reform (CSR) and state accountability systems helps or hinders school improvement efforts. This article draws on case study data collected in schools in 3 states that received funding to implement reforms through the federal CSR program. Findings show that…

  13. the great invisible pension reform in the uni ted states the economics of social insurance

    E-print Network

    Ostaszewski, Krzysztof M.

    126 the great invisible pension reform in the uni ted states 127 the economics of social insurance it. Financial intermediaries such as insurance companies, pension plans or investment funds offer: 4 the great InvIsIble PensIon reForm In the unIted states Krzysztof Ostaszewski Is the US bankrupt

  14. Welfare state retrenchment and increasing mental health inequality by educational credentials in Finland: a multicohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinen, Lauri; Muntaner, Carles; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Varje, Pekka; Väänänen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological studies have shown an association between educational credentials and mental disorders, but have not offered any explanation for the varying strength of this association in different historical contexts. In this study, we investigate the education-specific trends in hospitalisation due to psychiatric disorders in Finnish working-age men and women between 1976 and 2010, and offer a welfare state explanation for the secular trends found. Setting Population-based setting with a 25% random sample of the population aged 30–65?years in 7 independent consecutive cohorts (1976–1980, 1981–1985, 1986–1990, 1991–1995, 1996–2000, 2001–2005, 2006–2010). Participants Participants were randomly selected from the Statistics Finland population database (n=2?865?746). These data were linked to diagnosis-specific records on hospitalisations, drawn from the National Hospital Discharge Registry using personal identification numbers. Employment rates by educational credentials were drawn from the Statistics Finland employment database. Primary and secondary outcome measures Hospitalisation and employment. Results We found an increasing trend in psychiatric hospitalisation rates among the population with only an elementary school education, and a decreasing trend in those with higher educational credentials. The employment rate of the population with only an elementary school education decreased more than that of those with higher educational credentials. Conclusions We propose that restricted employment opportunities are the main mechanism behind the increased educational inequality in hospitalisation for psychiatric disorders, while several secondary mechanisms (lack of outpatient healthcare services, welfare cuts, decreased alcohol duty) further accelerated the diverging long-term trends. All of these inequality-increasing mechanisms were activated by welfare state retrenchment, which included the liberalisation of financial markets and labour markets, severe austerity measures and narrowing down of public sector employment commitment. PMID:26041491

  15. Business Participation in Welfare-to-Work: Lessons from the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jack; Kazis, Richard

    Case studies of 19 U.S. companies involved in welfare-to-work programs found that political and economic factors have accelerated the rate at which employers are hiring welfare recipients. Although participation in welfare-to-work programs is dominated by larger firms in a few industries (such as service and retail sectors), there is potential for…

  16. The A B Cs of Welfare Reform: A Guide to the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Candace J.; Sugarman, Jule M.

    The passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 means that, for the first time, the federal government has shifted substantial responsibility for maintaining a social safety net for the most vulnerable populations to the state governments. This guide summarizes the contents of the new law, identifies…

  17. A Welfare Reform--Homelessness--Foster Care Connection? The Story of "Lag Families" and "Limbo Children" in San Diego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    An analysis of data from a survey of more than 100 parents residing in emergency shelter in San Diego, California, reveals a portrait of poverty that is prevalent among women and children in the United States today. Homeless families in San Diego, as in the rest of the country, are most often headed by women in their early thirties whose prospects…

  18. The Aftermath of Welfare Reform: Health, Health Insurance, and Access to Care among Families Leaving TANF in Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seccombe, Karen; Hartley, Heather; Newsom, Jason; Hoffman, Kim; Marchand, Gwen C.; Albo, Christina; Gordon, Cathy; Zaback, Tosha; Lockwood, Richard; Pope, Clyde

    2007-01-01

    This research reports the initial findings of a statewide study that looks at health, insurance, and access to health care among families leaving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) for work. Most national and state-level evaluation projects focus primarily on the employment characteristics of TANF leavers and pay little or no attention…

  19. City and State Takeover as a School Reform Strategy. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.; Shen, Francis X.

    This digest addresses city and state takeover as a school reform strategy, outlining the emergence of takeover in the past decade, discussing promises and limitations that takeover offers, and synthesizing the research to date on takeover's effectiveness. A notable trend over the past decade is greater implementation of takeover reforms,…

  20. Does new public management work in reforming the state's role in agricultural marketing in developing countries?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Hubbard; Marisol Smith

    1999-01-01

    The research investigated the extent to which 'new public management' style reforms (in which the state confines itself to contracting, guiding, facilitating and financing in providing public services, rather than delivering them itself through civil service organizations) are successful in the institutional context of developing countries. Studies of reform of public services to agricultural marketing were conducted in Ghana, India,

  1. A Call for Reformation of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Ashley Ireland

    2014-01-01

    Although current research, educational theorists, and international comparison prove a need for reform, the United States' teacher preparation programs are failing. The following paper will call for the reform of teacher preparation programs in three distinct areas. Examination of current data, application of educational theorists'…

  2. Effects of a Data-Driven District Reform Model on State Assessment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Cheung, Alan; Holmes, GwenCarol; Madden, Nancy A.; Chamberlain, Anne

    2013-01-01

    A district-level reform model created by the Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE) provided consultation with district leaders on strategic use of data and selection of proven programs. Fifty-nine districts in seven states were randomly assigned to CDDRE or control conditions. A total of 397 elementary and 225 middle schools were…

  3. The Sustainability of Comprehensive School Reform Models in Changing District and State Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datnow, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the sustainability of comprehensive school reform (CSR) models in the face of turbulent district and state contexts. It draws on qualitative data gathered in a longitudinal case study of six CSR models implemented in 13 schools in one urban district. Why do reforms sustain in some schools and not in others? How do changing…

  4. Standards-Based Reforms in the United States of America: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to introduce readers to the main aspects of standards-based reforms in the United States of America. Content analyses of policy documents, reports of studies on education reforms, standards' documents and curriculum frameworks, and verbal communications from officials of education agencies provided the main sources of…

  5. Writing Whirligigs: The Art and Assessment of Writing in Kentucky State Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Shelby A.; McIver, Monette C.

    In 1990, the state of Kentucky created a new school system through the Kentucky Educational Reform Act (KERA). While KERA mandates wide-ranging progressive reform, testing through the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS) makes sure teachers get the job done. Though all Kentucky teachers are involved in writing, those at the…

  6. Bureaucrats in business: The roles of privatization versus corporatization in state-owned enterprise reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary M. Shirley

    1999-01-01

    This article provides evidence from a sample of 12 developing countries that countries which improved state-owned enterprise performance the most followed a comprehensive strategy of reforms, including a combination of privatization and corporatization. Further evidence that corporatization works better in combination with ownership and other reforms is provided through an analysis of government contracts with public managers, private managers and

  7. Reform of state owned enterprises and challenges in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Moore; Julie Jie Wen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to provide a review of the challenges facing the reform of SOEs, and to address the impacts of SOE reform on business executives, on the base of literature review and empirical data collected in Guangzhou, China. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A qualitative research on the base of literature review, supported by empirical data collected from surveys, interviews,

  8. Medicaid and State Health Care Reform: Process, Programs, and Policy Options

    PubMed Central

    Rotwein, Suzanne; Boulmetis, Maria; Boben, Paul J.; Fingold, Helaine I.; Hadley, James P.; Rama, Kathy L.; Van Hoven, Debbie

    1995-01-01

    Health care reform is a continuously evolving process. The States and the Federal Government have struggled with policy issues to combat escalating Medicaid expenditures while ensuring access and quality of care to an ever-expanding population. In the absence of national health care reform, States are increasingly relying on Federal waivers to develop innovative approaches to address a myriad of issues associated with the present health care delivery system. This article provides a summary of State health care reform efforts that have been initiated under Federal waiver authority. PMID:10142572

  9. Welfare Transitions in the 1990s: The Economy, Welfare Policy, and the EITC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    The rapid decline in the welfare caseload remains a subject of keen interest to both policymakers and researchers. In this paper, I use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation spanning the period from 1986 to 1999 to analyze how the economy, welfare reform, the earned income tax credit (EITC), and other factors influence welfare

  10. A Framework for Rebuilding Initial Certification and Preparation Programs in Educational Leadership: Lessons from Whole-State Reform Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph; Moorman, Hunter N.; McCarthy, Martha

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: This study examines the extent of reform in preparation programs in school leadership in six states employing a comprehensive, whole-state intervention design. Although no studies of these or other comprehensive reform designs are available, there is a rich context surrounding preparation reform work that informed our…

  11. The University in the Making of the Welfare State: The 1970s Degree Reform in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalava, Marja

    2012-01-01

    In just a couple of decades, Finland evolved from one of Europe's lowest educated countries to the top performer of the international PISA ranking. Behind this "success story", there was a conscious strategy to use educational policies for creating a more equal society. Tracing the development of Finnish higher education system after WWII, this…

  12. Marijuana and cocaine use among female African-American welfare recipients.

    PubMed

    Williams, Chyvette T; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2004-08-16

    A key issue that came to the forefront during the welfare reform debate in the United States during the 1990s concerned the relationship between welfare receipt and drug use and abuse. This paper examines the relationship between persistent welfare assistance, welfare background, and marijuana and cocaine use among African-American women. We hypothesize that women who have received welfare assistance for a period of 5 years or more will be more likely to use drugs compared to those who have never received welfare assistance or who have received it for a shorter duration. Data for this analysis comes from a longitudinal study of African-Americans living in a Chicago community followed from first grade (N = 1242) to age 32. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between years of welfare receipt and three categories of marijuana and cocaine use (never, past, and current) among female respondents (N = 496). Results indicate an increased risk of past-year cocaine and marijuana use for women who reported receiving welfare benefits for 5 years or more. Growing up in a family that received welfare did not significantly predict adult drug use, but did significantly predict an adult welfare experience. Implications of results are discussed. PMID:15276224

  13. Science Education in a Nordic Welfare State Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arhus, DK8000,

    E-print Network

    Fynbo, Johan

    Science Education in a Nordic Welfare State J.U. Fynbo Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of š Arhus, DK­8000, Denmark Abstract. The problems related to science education in a small for science education in Den­ mark based on my reading of different articles in educational magazines

  14. Careers and Perspectives on Schooling in the Welfare State: A Longitudinal Study on Students' Origins, Destiny, and Experiences of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Sverker; Prieto, Hector Perez

    The working of the educational system in a welfare state was examined in a longitudinal study of a cohort (initially 1,029) of students followed from age 7 to age 23 years. An initial sample included 329 males and 342 females, of whom 352 had working class careers and 319 had middle class careers. Relationships among social origin, gender, and…

  15. Welfare work requirements and child well-being: Evidence from the effects on breast-feeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Haider; Alison Jacknowitz; Robert F. Schoeni

    2003-01-01

    A central theme of welfare reform is that recipients are required to engage in work activities. In many states, these work requirements apply to mothers whose children are a few months old, which may increase the costs and decrease the prevalence of breast-feeding. Given the substantial benefits of breast-feeding, any reduction represents an important negative consequence of these require- ments.

  16. State Perspectives on Health Care Reform: Oregon, Hawaii, Tennessee, and Rhode Island

    PubMed Central

    Thome, Jean I.; Bianchi, Barbara; Bonnyman, Gordon; Greene, Clark; Leddy, Tricia

    1995-01-01

    The general consensus among States which have had their section 1115 demonstration projects approved is that there is no one best way to implement State health care reform. The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), however, wished to discern how States were accomplishing the task of implementing the demonstrations, and solicited responses from State representatives whose section 1115 demonstration waivers had been approved. The resulting article gives an overview of this implementation process from four State perspectives. Written by representatives from Oregon, Hawaii, Tennessee, and Rhode Island, the ideas presented here are indicative of the complex undertaking of State health care reform. PMID:10142573

  17. Public Assistance Receipt among Native-Born Children of Immigrants. Policy Brief. Welfare, Children & Families: A Three-City Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherlin, Andrew; Fomby, Paula; Angel, Ronald; Henrici, Jane

    The 1996 welfare reform law restricted immigrants' eligibility for public assistance, although many states have at least partially restored their eligibility. However, about three-fourths of the children of non-citizen immigrants were born in the United States and are therefore eligible for all government benefits. This brief examines whether…

  18. Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2008-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:18687625

  19. Equal Educational Opportunity in Connecticut. Review and Recommendations for State School Finance Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Educational Equity Study Committee, Hartford.

    Formed by the Connecticut legislature to monitor the state's educational aid plan, the Educational Equity Study Committee in this report joins with the state Board of Education in recommending amendments to Connecticut's 1979 school finance reform law, involving changes in the state's Minimum Expenditure Requirement (MER) plan and Guaranteed Tax…

  20. The effect of scale on the response to reform by Chinese state-owned construction units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elliott Parker

    1997-01-01

    Using firm-level data on large and medium state-owned construction units, a production function approach evaluates the effect of scale on the response of Chinese state enterprises to reform. Large state units have greater economies of scale, but are less productive and less input price efficient as investment increases in nonproductive fixed assets. Large unit profits are declining fastest, and a

  1. Leave No City Behind: England/United States Dialogue on Urban Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannaway, Jane; Murphy, Marilyn; Reed, Jodie

    2004-01-01

    Both the United States and England initiated ambitious standards-based education reform to eliminate large gaps between their highest and lowest achievers. England appears to be ahead, having started in 1988 with a national curriculum, tests, and performance tables. The United States' No Child Left Behind Act began rewriting state rules in 2002…

  2. Current State and Problems of Higher Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salnikov, N.; Burukhin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Russia is experiencing changes in curriculum and in the specialization and function of institutions in the search for a better model for a post-Soviet society. The early 1990s saw the start of the reform of the system of education in Russia. However, problems of quality and of continuity with secondary education have still not…

  3. Welfare Reform: Reauthorization of Work and Child Care. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (March 15, 2005). Serial Number 109-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US House of Representatives, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this hearing was to hear testimony on the effects of welfare reform and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grant, and to examine one of the most important work supports available to low-income families, Federal child care assistance. The opening statements were delivered by the Honorable Howard P. "Buck" McKeon,…

  4. Older people's "voices"--on paper: obstacles to influence in welfare states--a case study of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Persson, Tove; Berg, Stig

    2009-01-01

    The official rhetoric of welfare states unconditionally pays tribute to older people's right to express dissatisfaction. In practice, users of older services in welfare states may be deprived of their "exit" options and face considerable constraints when it comes to raising their "voices." For example, when older people in nursing homes would like to lodge a complaint, they may well be referred to the very staff members they depend on in their everyday lives. This article analyzes a national case study in which these contradictory tendencies are especially explicit: formal influence channels for older people in Sweden. Using data from structured interviews with 100 representatives of Swedish municipalities and drawing on Hirschman's (1970) theory on exit and voice, the article analyzes obstacles to older service users' influence in Sweden and develops explanations for these obstacles in terms of social contexts. PMID:19197610

  5. Climb On! From Welfare to a Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Patti; Kime, Bruce

    In operation since 1990, the Gateway Program is a collaborative welfare reform effort developed by Colorado Mountain College (CMC), the county department of social services, and the local Job Training Partnership Act provider. One component of the program is the Link Program, developed to prepare welfare recipients for enrollment in vocational…

  6. Primary care and the maelstrom of health care reform in the United States of America.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, P

    1995-01-01

    Recent reform in the National Health Service has moved general practice towards a more intense market and competition structure. Meanwhile in the United States of America there has been an attempt to modify the free enterprise approach to medical care towards a more socially responsive system. This discussion paper provides a family doctor's perspective of primary care and the maelstrom of health care reform in the USA. The cultural, economic and organizational issues underlying the need for reform are considered in turn, and the current situation with regard to health care provision, medical research, medical education and primary care are outlined. General practitioners in the United Kingdom would do well to pay attention to the effects of market reform occurring in general practice among their American counterparts. PMID:7576850

  7. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: state action to reform the individual health insurance market.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Justin; Lucia, Kevin W; Corlette, Sabrina

    2014-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act contains numerous consumer protections designed to remedy shortcomings in the availability, affordability, adequacy, and transparency of individual market insurance. However, because states remain the primary regulators of health insurance and have considerable flexibility over implementation of the law, consumers are likely to experience some of the new protections differently, depending on where they live. This brief explores how federal reforms are shaping standards for individual insurance and exam­ines specific areas in which states have flexibility when implementing the new protections. We find that consumers nationwide will enjoy improved protections in each area targeted by the reforms. Further, some states already have embraced the opportunity to customize their markets by implementing consumer protec­tions that exceed minimum federal requirements. States likely will continue to adjust their market rules as policymakers gain a greater understanding of how reform is working for consumers. PMID:25065020

  8. Reforming Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert, Ed.; Merryfield, Merry M., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue highlights the diversity of reform initiatives in order to provide a deep understanding of the complexities associated with educational reform in general and the reform of science education in particular. Systemic reform initiatives at the national and state levels along with locally-inspired efforts at reform are outlined.…

  9. Will Welfare Reform Hurt Low-Skilled Workers? Discussion Papers. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enchautegui, Maria E.

    The entry of working welfare mothers into the labor market will have an impact on the wages and employment of low-skilled workers. This impact was examined through a labor market analysis of available statistical data about the U.S. population and employment patterns. The characteristics of workers likely to enter the labor market because of…

  10. Welfare Reform. Bibliographies of Case Management and Agency/Client Contracting. Fact Sheet for the Chairman, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This document, prepared for the use of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs in considering proposed welfare legislation, comprises annotated bibliographies, most with abstracts, the following subjects: (1) case management; and (2) agency/client contracting. The cited literature includes books, journal articles, research reports, and…

  11. Big Business as a Policy Innovator in State School Reform: A Minnesota Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzoni, Tim L.; Clugston, Richard M., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Minnesota Business Partnership (MBP) was studied as a policy innovator in state school reform (for kindergarten through grade 12) in relation to agenda setting, alternative formulation, and authoritative enactment. Focus is on the MBP's policy-making involvement during the 1985 state legislative session. Overall, the MBP's influence was…

  12. Globalization and the Nation-State: Sovereignty and State Welfare in Jeopardy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jotia, Agreement Lathi

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the fact that although globalization cannot be resisted by the nation-state, it is often confronted by mixed reactions from both the GN (Global North) and the GS (Global South). The essay charges that globalization has political, economic and cultural impact on the nation-state, which ultimately impacts the issue of identity…

  13. Schooling, Welfare and Parental Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyness, Michael G.

    Issues of child protection, child abuse, and delinquency have generated public and academic concerns about the ability of adults to underwrite the physical, moral, and social welfare of children. At the same time, recent educational reform has provoked debate about the shifting balance of power between parents and teachers. This book combines…

  14. Symposium Review of Books. The Welfare of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Peter H.; Sarri, Rosemary

    1995-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the issues presented in two books pertaining to child poverty, policy, and welfare reform: "The Welfare of Children" (Duncan Lindsey) and "Rethinking Child Welfare in Canada" (Brian Wharf, Editor). Both provide excellent analysis and recommendations but lack attention to tracking systems that place children in different…

  15. God and the Welfare State - Substitutes or Complements? An Experimental Test of the Effect of Belief in God's Control

    PubMed Central

    Be’ery, Gilad; Ben-Nun Bloom, Pazit

    2015-01-01

    Belief in God’s control of the world is common to many of the world’s religions, but there are conflicting predictions regarding its role in shaping attitudes toward the welfare state. While the devout are expected to support pro-social values like helping others, and thus might be supportive of the welfare state, the possibility of taking action is undermined by the belief in God’s absolute control over world affairs and in a morally perfect providence, who is responsible for the fates of individuals. As the literature provides mixed results on this question, this study examines the role of belief in God’s control on welfare attitudes using three priming experiments and two priming tasks, carried out with a design that is both cross-cultural (US vs. Israel) and cross-religious tradition (Judaism vs. Catholicism). We find evidence that, largely, belief in God’s control increases support for income redistribution among Israeli Jews (study 1), American Jews (study 2), and American Catholics (study 3). The findings suggest that the traditional and common political gap between the economic left and the religious, based on the evaluation that religious beliefs lead to conservative economic preferences, may be overstated. PMID:26061050

  16. Transitions in State Public Health Law: Comparative Analysis of State Public Health Law Reform Following the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Gebbie, Kristine M.

    2009-01-01

    Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health. PMID:19150900

  17. Testing the new welfare: Lessons from a survey of small business

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oren M. Levin-Waldman

    2000-01-01

    During the summer of 1996, the federal government enacted the most sweeping welfare reform since its inception in 1935. Under the new law, the duration of welfare bene˘ts are limited and those qualifying for bene˘ts are required to work or participate in some type of educational or training program. The crux of the reform, however, is the devolution of welfare

  18. The state and health care reform: the National Health Insurance and Public Health Act of 1949

    E-print Network

    Schemmer, Ruth Ann, 1960

    1994-01-01

    THE STATE AND HEALTH CARE REFORM: THE NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE AND PUBLIC HEALTH ACT OF 1949 A Thesis by RUTH ANN SCHEMMER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1994 Major subject: Sociology THE STATE AND HEALTH CARE REFORM: THE NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE AND PUBLIC HEALTH ACT OF 1949 A Thesis by RUTH ANN SCHEMMER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial...

  19. Substance abuse and employment among welfare mothers: from welfare to work and back again?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, Jim

    2007-01-01

    We have very little research on how substance use impacts employment among welfare mothers. But welfare reform's emphasis on moving aid recipients into the workforce has brought this issue to the fore. Using Cox proportional hazard and logistic regression in a longitudinal study of California welfare mothers in 2001-2003, we examine how substance use impacts the ability to move from welfare to work and to remain economically independent after welfare. While education, work history, and family size consistently predict transitions from welfare to work and back again, substance use-related problems consistently do not. However, the jobs obtained by welfare mothers are short-term and poorly paid regardless of whether they misuse alcohol or use drugs. We argue that, if all that is open to welfare mothers are short-lived work assignments, substance use may have little time to impact job retention. Limitations of the study are noted. PMID:17668326

  20. A Legal Guide to State Pension Reform. Education Sector Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Just 18 minutes before the midnight signing deadline on May 15, 2010, Minnesota state legislators breathed a sigh of relief. Their bipartisan pension reform legislation, which passed both chambers by large margins and aimed to help shore up a potentially failing pension system, had just escaped a veto threat. Under pressure from his Republican…

  1. State-Level Support for Comprehensive School Reform: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Brett; Gracia, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In the current context of standards-based reform and heightened accountability for school performance, state education agencies (SEAs) have an important, but not yet well-articulated, role to play in local school improvement efforts. This article starts to articulate such a role by examining the variety of approaches and strategies used by 7 SEAs…

  2. Food Price Subsidies and Nutrition: Evidence from State Reforms to India's Public Distribution System1

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    Food Price Subsidies and Nutrition: Evidence from State Reforms to India's Public Distribution food price subsidies affect household nutrition using a dramatic expansion of the availability. These results differ from recent studies suggesting that food subsidies have little effect on nutrition

  3. The Recent Corporate Income Tax Reform Proposals in Canada and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Grady

    1986-01-01

    In May 1985, Canada's Minister of Finance and the President of the United States each put forward a proposal for reforming his country's corporate income tax system. Both proposals called for a broadening of the tax base and the elimination of investment tax credits. The U. S. proposal also included indexation of depreciation allowances and inventory cost. The study reported

  4. The Superintendent and Educational Reform in the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björk, Lars G.; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Kowalski, Theodore J.

    2014-01-01

    During the last two decades the intensity and complexity of educational reform in the United States of America have heightened interest among policymakers, practitioners, and professors in large-scale, systemic change. As a consequence, superintendents are being viewed as pivotal actors in the complex algorithm for managing districts and leading…

  5. Finding Common Ground in Pension Reform: Lessons from the Washington State Pension System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    As states and localities across the nation consider the tradeoffs between defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) pension systems, it is important to gain insight into what implications pension reforms might have on workforce composition and teachers' retirement savings behavior. Moreover, it is also important to consider that…

  6. Employment as a "Solution" to Welfare: Challenges over the Next Ten Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2000-01-01

    Recent reforms assume that welfare recipients can achieve employment if welfare agencies just give them a "push". Over the next ten years, the "employment solution" to welfare faces the following three challenges: (1) employing all employable welfare recipients; (2) helping them get and keep good jobs; and (3) reconstructing a safety net for those…

  7. The European influence on workers' compensation reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Workers' compensation law in the United States is derived from European models of social insurance introduced in Germany and in England. These two concepts of workers' compensation are found today in the federal and state workers' compensation programs in the United States. All reform proposals in the United States are influenced by the European experience with workers' compensation. In 2006, a reform proposal termed the Public Health Model was made that would abolish the workers' compensation system, and in its place adopt a national disability insurance system for all injuries and illnesses. In the public health model, health and safety professionals would work primarily in public health agencies. The public health model eliminates the physician from any role other than that of privately consulting with the patient and offering advice solely to the patient. The Public Health Model is strongly influenced by the European success with physician consultation with industry and labor. PMID:22151643

  8. Learning From OthersThe Diffusion of Hospital Financing Reforms in OECD Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizio Gilardi; Katharina Füglister; Stéphane Luyet

    2009-01-01

    The increase in health care expenditures is a major problem of all welfare states. To counter this trend, since the early 1980s, most OECD countries have changed the way hospitals are financed. Although these reforms are certainly linked to country-specific factors, the authors' main argument is that they are in part due to a diffusion process: Policy change in one

  9. The State of Teacher Evaluation Reform: State Education Agency Capacity and the Implementation of New Teacher-Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The Obama administration's Race to the Top competitive grant program initiated an unprecedented wave of state teacher-evaluation reform across the country. To date, most of the scholarly analysis of this activity has focused on the design of the evaluation instruments or the implementation of the new evaluations by districts and schools. But…

  10. Focus on Teacher Reform Legislation in SREB States: Evaluation Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Asenith

    2011-01-01

    The recent wave of new legislation affecting public school teachers has its roots, in part, in the budget shortfalls that have challenged states for the past several years. The first signs of fiscal troubles for many states became evident in 2008, and most instituted midyear budget reductions in 2009. In response, the U.S. Congress passed the…

  11. The Context of Higher Education Reform in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in the United States has received much scrutiny in the recent past from the federal and state governments, the press and the general public. In response to this scrutiny, a number of blue ribbon panels have been formed to examine how effectively higher education is serving American society. In this article, I analyse the…

  12. Washington State Health Services Act: Implementing Comprehensive Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Peter D.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993, Washington State enacted the Health Services Act of 1993 (HSA) to guarantee universal access to health care through an employer mandate, with caps on premiums as the primary cost-control mechanism. The HSA represents the Nation's first formal experiment with managed competition. This article reports the results of a case study of the HSA's implementation. The study concludes that the Washington State initiative can be replicated in other States, but that implementation is complex, requires sustained public education, and requires cooperation from the Federal Government through program waivers. A major implementation challenge is to facilitate competition and minimize regulation. PMID:10142576

  13. MARGINAL COMMODITY TAX REFORMS: A SURVEY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Santoro

    2007-01-01

    Abstract.?As noted 30 years ago by Martin Feldstein, optimal taxes may be useless for practical purposes and emphasis should instead be placed on the possibility of enhancing welfare by reforming existing tax rates. In this perspective, marginal commodity tax reforms are gaining increasing attention due to political and economic constraints on large reforms of direct (or indirect) taxation. In this

  14. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this is likely to be a major focus for animal welfare science activity in the early twenty-first century. PMID:25263963

  15. From poor law society to the welfare state: school meals in Norway 1890s–1950s

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Astri; Elvbakken, Kari Tove

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the main trends in the history of publicly organised school meals in Norway, while casting comparative glances at Britain. First, it argues that the status of school meals today is strongly influenced by three intertwined strains of past tradition: poor relief, universal welfare and the ideal of full?time and nutritionally competent housewives. Second, tradition is also visible in the extent to which publicly organised meals are seen as solutions to problems – in the past to hunger or malnourishment, today to obesity and malnourishment – and not simply as a meal. Third, the creation of civil and health conscious citizens has, to varying degrees, been a part of the school meals programme, as the school itself has had, and continues to have, such an agenda. PMID:17435200

  16. Social Security Reform: The United States in 2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew A. Samwick

    2002-01-01

    When policy discussions in the United States turn to domestic issues, the focus is often on Social Security and Medicare and the precarious position of their finances. While Social Security's long-term solvency has been an ongoing concern for over twenty-five years, it was only with the report of the 1994-1996 Advisory Council on Social Security that policy discussions formally included

  17. Innovation waivers: an opportunity for states to pursue their own brand of health reform.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Deborah; Ario, Joel; Davis, Hailey

    2015-04-01

    States have long been the testing ground for new models of health care and coverage. Section 1332 of the Affordable Care Act, which takes effect in less than two years, throws open the door to innovation by authorizing states to rethink the law's coverage designs. Under State Innovation Waivers, states can modify the rules regarding covered benefits, subsidies, insurance marketplaces, and individual and employer mandates. States may propose broad alternatives or targeted fixes, but all waivers must demonstrate that coverage will remain as accessible, comprehensive, and affordable as before the waiver and that the changes will not add to the federal deficit. This issue brief describes how states may use State Innovation Waivers to reallocate subsidies, expand or streamline their marketplaces, replace or modify the mandates, and otherwise pursue their own brand of reform tailored to local market conditions and political preferences. PMID:25915973

  18. Child Welfare in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Reflecting the current state of theory and practice in child welfare in Canada, these eight papers suggest a contemporary view of Canadian children and the contexts in which they develop as defined by legal rights and society. First, Henry S. Maas argues that attention to normal social development and its contexts, and to related ongoing theory…

  19. Education for the Handicapped, 1973 - Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Handicapped of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare United States Senate - Ninety-Third Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    Presented are the proceedings of the hearings before the Subcommittee on Handicapped of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare on Senate Bills 896, 6, 34, and 808 which would provide financial assistance to the states for improved educational services for handicapped children, support research and development in the care and treatment of…

  20. Welfare Policies and Adolescents: Exploring the Roles of Sibling Care, Maternal Work Schedules, and Economic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, JoAnn; Gennetian, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from three longitudinal experimental evaluations of US state welfare reform programs to examine whether program-induced changes in families’ reliance on sibling care are linked with the effects of welfare programs on selected schooling outcomes of high risk, low-income adolescents. The findings from two of the welfare programs indicate that increased reliance on sibling care was concomitant with unfavorable effects of the programs on adolescent schooling outcomes. In the third welfare program examined, the program did not yield any increases in the use of sibling care or unfavorable effects on adolescent schooling outcomes, suggesting that sibling care is one likely contributor to the negative effects of welfare programs on adolescent schooling outcomes. These findings are discussed in terms of the pattern of the programs’ effects on families’ income, as well as maternal work on nonstandard schedules, aside from the programs’ effects on maternal employment, which play contributory roles in shaping the extent to which welfare programs led to less favorable effects on the schooling outcomes of adolescents with younger siblings. PMID:21347556

  1. Why China's economic reforms differ: the M-form hierarchy and entry\\/expansion of the non-state sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingyi Qian; Chenggang Xu

    1993-01-01

    China's thirteen years of reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical structure based on the functional or specialization

  2. Does School District Takeover Work? Assessing the Effectiveness of City and State Takeover as a School Reform Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.; Shen, Francis X.

    This study examines the potential for city and state takeovers to turn around low performing schools, utilizing diverse empirical measures to gauge the initial impact of city/state school district takeover reform in four districts. Data come from the U.S. Department of Education, Bureau of Labor Statistics, state departments of education, local…

  3. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  4. Creating State-based Alliances to Support Earth and Space Science Education Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, E. E.; Manduca, C. A.; Barstow, D.

    2002-05-01

    Seven years after the publication of the National Science Education Standards and adoption of new state science education standards, Earth and space science remains outside the mainstream K-12 curriculum. Currently, less than ten percent of high school students in the United States of America take an Earth or space science course before graduation. This state of affairs is simply unacceptable. "All of us who live on this planet have the right and the obligation to understand Earth's unique history, its dynamic processes, its abundant resources, and its intriguing mysteries. As citizens of Earth, with the power to modify our climate and ecosystems, we also have a personal and collective responsibility to understand Earth so that we can make wise decisions about its and our future". As one step toward addressing this situation, we support the establishment of state-based alliances to promote Earth and space science education reform. "In many ways, states are the most vital locus of change in our nation's schools. State departments of education define curriculum frameworks, establish testing policies, support professional development and, in some cases, approve textbooks and materials for adoption". State alliance partners should include a broad spectrum of K-16 educators, scientists, policy makers, parents, and community leaders from academic institutions, businesses, museums, technology centers, and not-for profit organizations. The focus of these alliances should be on systemic and sustainable reform of K-16 Earth and space science education. Each state-based alliance should focus on specific educational needs within their state, but work together to share ideas, resources, and models for success. As we build these alliances we need to take a truly collaborative approach working with the other sciences, geography, and mathematics so that collectively we can improve the caliber and scope of science and mathematics education for all students.

  5. Welfare to Work: Does It Work for Kids? Research on Work and Income Welfare Experiments. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Stephanie A.

    Noting that a central tenet of the 1996 welfare reform law was that work was the best way to improve the lives of single parents and their children, this fact sheet summarizes research on the impact of parental work on children in families receiving welfare. The fact sheet delineates key research findings from experimental studies of the effects…

  6. Women's Educational Equity Act of 1973. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare United States Senate Ninety-Third Congress First Session on S.2518.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    This document presents the hearings before the Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, Ninety-third Congress. Hearings concern the Women's Educational Equity Act of 1973. The Act enables the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to make grants to conduct special educational programs and…

  7. Collage of Welfare-to-Work Perspectives: Views Inside and Outside the System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Barbara

    The political interests and educational orientations that adult education advocates who work on behalf of welfare recipients have about welfare-to-work programs influence the strategies they use to advance poor women's education. Adult Basic Education (ABE) providers face many conflicts as they engage in implementing programs under welfare reform,…

  8. Great Expectations: From Welfare to Work in the South. Rural Development Issues Impacting the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tootle, Deborah M.

    Welfare caseloads across the nation have declined dramatically since welfare reform became law in August 1996. These declines have been interpreted to mean that welfare-to-work strategies are effective, but not enough is known to make such an assessment. In the rural South, unique social and economic conditions may affect the implementation and…

  9. A Process Map For State-Wide Engineering Technology/Manufacturing Technology Curriculum Reform

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barger, Marilyn

    Over the period of three years, FLATE, the National Science Foundation-funded Florida Advanced Technological Education Center for Manufacturing, has undertaken reform of Florida's Associate in Science (A.S.) and Associate of Applied Science (A.A.S.) degrees associated with manufacturing and related technologies. This reform has resulted in a statewide degree in Engineering Technology with a common technology core, based on a national certification, and five specialization tracks to meet local needs. There are a number of benefits to this change or consolidation of Engineering Technology 2-year programs in Florida. These include: 1) A degree program that meets manufacturers skills and knowledge competencies related to foundational skills in engineering technology. 2) All Community Colleges in the State can market jointly to students and industry employers with a common degree program and certification; 3) Completion of the common technology core creates a portable completion point that allows students to transfer within the community college system to an institution with their desired specialization; 4) The national certification utilized, MSSC's Certified Production Technician (CPT), assesses a student/workers foundational skill and knowledge in four broad areas common to all manufacturing sectors: Manufacturing Processes and Production; Quality Assurance; Maintenance Awareness; and Safety. This certification is portable across manufacturing sectors and has been defined by industry; 5) Selecting the MSSC competencies to inform and anchor the curricular frameworks of the degree core allows currency, precision, relevance and abundant competencies; and, 6) The utilization of a national certification to inform the as a curricular framework common technology core has enabled the creation of a statewide articulation pathway from the secondary system, technical schools and incumbent worker training programs into the new degree. The multi-year process through which FLATE worked to outline, analyze, evaluate, and change the statewide system based on national standards and assessments, as well as students abilities and needs required engagement of essential stakeholders through out the state, including but not limited to: Florida's Community Colleges, Florida Department of Education, Manufacturers, Workforce Florida, State and Regional Manufacturers Associations, and Economic Developers. Presented herein is the process map for facilitating this reform via review of existing frameworks, coordinating the statewide curriculum team, hosting workshops, soliciting industry input, selection of national certification, developing the new frameworks for the engineering technology core courses, and institutionalization within the Department of Education. The process for conducting this reform could be applied to any technical career cluster to facilitate relevant degree programs and articulation pathways.

  10. California | Connecticut | Illinois | Maine | Maryland | Massachusetts | Michigan | New Hampshire | New Jersey | New York | Oregon | Vermont | Washington STATES' PRINCIPLES ON REFORM OF THE

    E-print Network

    | New Jersey | New York | Oregon | Vermont | Washington STATES' PRINCIPLES ON REFORM OF THE TOXIC-federal governance should enhance the role of states in TSCA implementation, promote data and information sharing chemical alternatives assessments. #12;States' Principles on Reform of the Toxic Substances Control Act

  11. The Ohio State University Office of Human Resources Page 1 of 1 Benefits: Pension Reform Issued 09/27/12

    E-print Network

    , benefit check with no break from your Ohio State pay. Currently, there is a 25 business day turnaroundThe Ohio State University Office of Human Resources Page 1 of 1 Benefits: Pension Reform Issued 09 a representative is available rather than waiting on the phone. Arrive early for walk-in appointments. OPERS

  12. Introduction: The Evaluation of Baltimore's City-State Partnership To Reform BCPSS: Framing the Context, National Trends, and Key Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibulka, James G.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a theme issue that examines Baltimore's educational reform efforts, placing Baltimore's city-state partnership (resulting from Maryland State Senate Bill 795) in a historical and political context, relating it to national developments, and presenting major findings concerning successes and problems attending the partnership after 5…

  13. Reform and the politics of hybridization in mature health care states.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Carolyn Hughes

    2012-08-01

    This article examines the cases of three health care states -- two of which (Britain and the Netherlands) have undergone major policy reform and one of which (Canada) has experienced only marginal adjustments. The British and Dutch reforms have variously altered the balance of power, the mix of instruments of control, and the organizing principles. As a result, mature systems representing the ideal-typical health care state categories of national health systems and social insurance (Britain and the Netherlands, respectively) were transformed into distinctive national hybrids. These processes have involved a politics of redesign that differs from the politics of earlier phases of establishment and retrenchment. In particular, the redesign phase is marked by the activity of institutional entrepreneurs who exploit specific opportunities afforded by public programs to combine public and private resources in innovative organizational arrangements. Canada stands as a counterpoint: no window of opportunity for major change occurred, and the bilateral monopoly created by its prototypical single-payer model provided few footholds for entrepreneurial activity. The increased significance of institutional entrepreneurs gives greater urgency to one of the central projects of health policy: the design of accountability frameworks to allow for an assessment of performance against objectives. PMID:22466051

  14. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

  15. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

  16. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

  17. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

  18. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

  19. Referring cruise ship patients to specialists in Norway - a welfare state with a national health care system.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Eilif

    2015-01-01

    Northern Europe is a popular cruise destination, but many non-Scandinavian cruise ship's doctors who are used to enthusiastic service from specialists ashore, get frustrated when referring passengers or crew to out-patient medical evaluation. Norway's national health care system is described and used as an example of medical conditions in a welfare state with a relatively well-functioning national health care system: Emergency cases are usually promptly admitted. Out-patient specialist consultations are available in public polyclinics, but waiting time can be considerable, also for patients from ships. Private specialists are fully booked weeks in advance and do not work from Friday to Monday and during holidays. Public and private medical service capacity is significantly reduced during the summer months. Hence, most specialists ashore are not eager to see demanding ship patients. Ship's doctors should limit referral to conditions that require specific procedures that are not available on the vessel but are necessary for the patient to be able to continue cruising or working aboard. Crewmembers who are unfit for work aboard, should instead be signed off and repatriated for diagnostic work-up and follow-up at home. In cases of hospitalisation or necessary referral ashore, the ship's doctor should always confer in advance with the company's ship's port agents and make necessary shore-side arrangements through them. PMID:26119674

  20. Improving Student Achievement in Science... The NSRC Blueprint: Science Education Reform for School Districts and States...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Resources Center, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Systemic reform requires leaders with technical knowledge of the five essential components of science education reform, as well as access to products and services that can be used to move leaders through the various stages of reform. During the past two decades, the National Science Resources Center (NSRC) has developed differentiated products and…

  1. Impact of financial reforms on efficiency of state-owned, private and foreign banks in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abid A. Burki; G. S. K. Niazi

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a unique bank level data from 1991 to 2000 and evaluates how financial reforms affect banking efficiency of domestic and foreign banks in Pakistan. The results suggest that banking efficiency falls during initial reform period when banks adjust to enhanced competition but increases in more advanced stages of reform. While in general foreign and private banks show

  2. Impact of Financial Reforms on Efficiency of State-owned, Private and Foreign Banks in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abid A. Burki; G. S. K. Niazi

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses a unique bank level data from 1991 to 2000 and evaluates how financial reforms affect banking efficiency of domestic and foreign banks in Pakistan. The results suggest that banking efficiency falls during initial reform period when banks adjust to enhanced competition, but increases in more advanced stages of reform. While in general foreign and private banks show

  3. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: state approaches to premium rate reforms in the individual health insurance market.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Justin; Lucia, Kevin W; Corlette, Sabrina

    2014-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act protects people from being charged more for insurance based on factors like medical history or gender and establishes new limits on how insurers can adjust premiums for age, tobacco use, and geography. This brief examines how states have implemented these federal reforms in their individual health insurance markets. We identify state rating standards for the first year of full implementation of reform and explore critical considerations weighed by policymakers as they determined how to adopt the law's requirements. Most states took the opportunity to customize at least some aspect of their rating standards. Interviews with state regulators reveal that many states pursued implementation strategies intended primarily to minimize market disruption and premium shock and therefore established standards as consistent as possible with existing rules or market practice. Meanwhile, some states used the transition period to strengthen consumer protections, particularly with respect to tobacco rating. PMID:25588235

  4. The globalization of capital, the welfare state, and old age policy.

    PubMed

    Estes, Carroll L; Phillipson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    A new political economy is shaping the lives of present and future generations of older people. The key change has been the move from the mass institutions that defined growing old in the period from 1945 through the late 1970s to the more individualized structures--privatized pensions, privatized health and social care--that increasingly inform the current period. The authors examine the role of international governmental organizations in promoting this trend, with examples drawn from the work of the World Bank, World Trade Organization, and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the relationship between international governmental organizations and the state. The article concludes with an assessment of the changes to citizenship that accompany globalization and the implications for political organization among older people themselves. PMID:12067032

  5. Social security reform in the twenty-first century: the United States.

    PubMed

    Gramlich, Edward M

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of the Social Security system in the United States in the twentieth century and discusses options for the twenty-first. Because of the steady aging of the U.S. population and the impending retirement of the large baby boom cohort, the Social Security program now is in long-term actuarial deficit. The standard twentieth century approach to this actuarial deficit would be to raise payroll taxes enough to pay for anticipated future benefit increases, but for several reasons that approach may not be so popular this time around. The author's preferred approach is a gradual trimming of long-term benefit growth, plus "add on" individual accounts to provide new saving, for the economy and for the retirement system. The paper also criticizes proposals for Social Security reform made by President Clinton and a committee appointed by President Bush, generally because these proposals do not provide enough new saving. PMID:12503330

  6. The Politics of Aborted Reform: Education and the Legitimacy of the State in France and West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Hans N.

    As this paper demonstrates, studying abortive educational reforms reveals a great deal about the complex political dynamics involved in making (and unmaking) key policy decisions. Using case studies of France and West Germany, the paper argues that the state in advanced industrial countries tends to maximize the political gains derived from…

  7. Education Reform and Decentralization in Mexico and the Creation of "Educacion Civica" in the State of Jalisco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Gloria; Rice, Marion J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate Mexican education reform and decentralization and how the state of Jalisco focused in the early twenty-first century on developing a sequential curriculum for teaching civics in grades 1-6. The authors use the term "educacion civica" because in Mexico the curriculum emphasizes the acquisition of values and…

  8. The Ohio State University Office of Human Resources Page 1 of 1 Benefits: Pension Reform Issued 09/27/12

    E-print Network

    The Ohio State University Office of Human Resources Page 1 of 1 Benefits: Pension Reform Issued 09/27/12 Pension Forums and Presentations STRS: is offering education on and pension legislation. Members of STRS and register online. OPERS: OPERS is offering education on proposed health care changes and pension legislation

  9. The Early Childhood and Elementary Education Continuum: Constructing an Understanding of P-3 as State-Level Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauerz, Kristie Anne

    2009-01-01

    State-level policy attention to young children's early learning opportunities burgeons; a sense of urgency exists to identify reform agendas that are both effective and sustainable. "P-3" often is used as the term for the first level of a seamless P-20 system that stretches from early childhood through post-secondary education. While it is…

  10. More to Do, But Less Capacity to Do It: States' Progress in Implementing the Recovery Act Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; Rentner, Diane Stark

    2011-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), also known as the economic stimulus bill, channeled an unprecedented $100 billion into the nation's public education system. These funds were intended not only to avert teacher layoffs and stabilize state and local education budgets in the short term, but also to encourage reforms that…

  11. The Structure of Teacher Education Reform in the United States: Some Projects at the University of Delaware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Frank B.

    This paper addresses the progressive efforts to reform teaching in the United States by making it into more of a profession. Three main components of teacher education, each designed to address a particular aspect of the teacher's work, are discussed: (1) the arts and science component in which prospective teachers acquire knowledge of the subject…

  12. The Transition of Youth with Disabilities from the Child Welfare System: An Analysis of State Administrative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Katharine Miller

    2010-01-01

    Youth with disabilities are disproportionately represented in the child welfare system (Crosse, Kaye, & Ratnofsky, 1992; Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Although research on this topic is limited, youth with disabilities who are emancipating from foster care are at risk for particularly poor outcomes, experiencing even lower rates of employment,…

  13. Why do rich countries prefer free trade over free migration? The role of the modern welfare state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietmar Wellisch; Uwe Walz

    1998-01-01

    According to traditional trade theory (Heckscher–Ohlin), free trade and free migration are equivalent measures of economic integration leading both to an equalization of factor prices. This prediction is in sharp opposition to the observed preference of rich countries for free trade over free migration. We provide an explanation for this inconsistency: the redistribution policies in the countries. Social welfare in

  14. Why do rich countries prefer free trade over free migration? The role of the modern welfare state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietmar Wellisch; Uwe Walz

    1997-01-01

    According to traditional trade theory (Heckscher—Ohlin), free trade and free migration are equivalent measures of economic integration leading both to an equalization of factor prices. This prediction is in sharp opposition to the observed preference of rich countries for free trade over free migration. We provide an explanation for this inconsistency: the redistribution policies in the countries. Social welfare in

  15. Animal Welfare—Scientific Approaches to the Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne T. Millman

    2009-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is of significant public interest, globally and within the United States. Value-based judgments are intrinsic to animal welfare assessment, according to the relative weighting of factors associated with animal performance, health, affective states, and natural living. The concept of animal welfare is consistent with the scientific method because questions are open to deductive reasoning, formation of hypotheses

  16. Immigration Policy in the United States: Future Prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Program for Resarch on Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; And Others

    Immigration to the United States has fluctuated considerably over the course of the nation's history and has elicited various policy responses at different times. In recent years, concern about undocumented, illegal immigration has given rise to efforts to reform immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 was intended…

  17. National Standards and School Reform in Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCoker, Gary, Ed.

    This book is a collection of works that explore the implications of a national U.S. curriculum through the study of Japanese education. It consists of 10 chapters: (1) "The Development of the Course of Study and the Structure of Educational Reform in Japan" (Hiroshi Azuma); (2) "Setting National Standards: Educational Reform, Social Change, and…

  18. An Evaluation of the Implementation of the Educational Reform in Kwara State: A Case Study of the Primary School Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulrasaq Oladimeji, Akanbi; Ibrahim, I. A.; Adebayo, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the educational reform going on in Kwara State, Nigeria. One thousand six hundred 1600 teachers were selected from the 3 senatorial districts of Kwara State using simple random sampling technique. A researcher- designed questionnaire andchecklist were developed to collect relevant data on the educational reform going on in the state. Frequency count and the percentage were employed in analyzing the data collected. The results of the study revealed that the organizational set up, textbooks, procedure for the selection of the curriculum and teachers were quite appropriate. Instructional materials and utilization of human and material resources were moderately appropriate.Space and furniture for teaching was adjudged inadequate. It was recommended that more classroom, furniture and textbooks should be provided in the areas they are lacking and a learner-centred teaching method should be embraced in all schools.

  19. An Assessment of State-Led Reform of Long-Term Services and Supports.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Mary D; Kurtzman, Ellen T; Miller, Edward Alan; Nadash, Pamela; Fitzgerald, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Health care in the United States is fragmented, inefficient, and rife with quality concerns. These shortcomings have particularly serious implications for adults with disabilities and functionally impaired older adults in need of long-term services and supports (LTSS). Three strategies have been commonly pursued by state governments to improve LTSS: expanding noninstitutional care, integrating payment and care delivery, and realigning incentives through market-based reforms. These strategies were analyzed using an evaluation framework consisting of the following dimensions: ease of access; choice of setting/provider; quality of care/life; support for family caregivers; effective transitions among multiple providers and across settings; reductions in racial/ethnic disparities; cost-effectiveness; political feasibility; and implementability. Although the analysis highlights potential benefits and drawbacks associated with each strategy, the limited breadth of the evidentiary base precludes an assessment of impact across all nine dimensions. More importantly, the analysis exposes the interdependent, complex system of care within which LTSS is situated, suggesting that policy makers will require a holistic and long-term perspective to achieve needed changes. Addressing the nation's LTSS needs will require a multipronged strategy incorporating a range of health and social services to meet the complex care needs of a diverse population in a variety of settings. PMID:25700376

  20. Hen Welfare in Different Housing Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg production systems have become subject to heightened levels of scrutiny due to animal welfare concerns. Multiple factors such as disease, skeletal and foot health, pest and parasite load, behavior, stress, affective states, nutrition, and genetics influence the level of welfare laying hens exper...

  1. Social Security and Social Welfare Indicators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ida C. Merriam

    1978-01-01

    The proportion of its total resources that a society devotes to social welfare is a useful general measure related to social policy. In fiscal 1976, the United States spent 21 percent of Gross National Product (GNP) for public social welfare programs, including health and education as well as social insurance (the largest segment) and assistance. Program developments, inflation, population growth,

  2. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: A United States national study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nathaniel J.; Glisson, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths’ psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers’ responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers’ (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate. PMID:24094999

  3. Political economy of coal-mine safety and its contribution to the theory of the welfare state

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Conservative, liberal, and marxist explanations of the origins and function of social welfare benefits are identified. The conservatives see defined right benefits as error in the system, resulting from excesses of political democracy and functioning to interfere with the market, and functioning to reduce the viability of the economy. Individual action alone produces real benefit. Liberals disconnect social welfare and the economy, offering an explanation in formal electoral processes and asserting fulfillment of the humanitarian impulse as the function of welfare. Technical innovation leads to progress. This study tests these theories in a case study of the benefit of decreased death and injury derived by U.S. coal miners from 1970 to 1977. The benefit is compared in magnitude to that of miners other than coal. Results show that a considerable benefit in reduced death and injury was derived and that this benefit can best explained through a complex neo-marxist analysis of the economic and social conditions affecting coal miners then. Wildcat strikes, defying union, company and, government combined with permissive economic conditions such as, rising demand for coal, labor intensity requirements, and increased production and profitability, to make safety salient.

  4. The State of America's Children Yearbook: 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weill, James D., Ed.; Jablonski, Donna M., Ed.

    This Children's Defense Fund 1997 report on the state of America's children highlights the critical need for renewed commitment to children by all sectors of society. The introduction discusses Americans' values and presents 25 tips for effective child advocacy. The report then details the following: (1) the impact of welfare reform on children…

  5. Race and the local politics of punishment in the new world of welfare.

    PubMed

    Fording, Richard C; Soss, Joe; Schram, Sanford F

    2011-03-01

    To illuminate how race affects the usage of punitive tools in policy implementation settings, we analyze sanctions imposed for noncompliant client behavior under welfare reform. Drawing on a model of racial classification and policy choice, we test four hypotheses regarding client race, local context, and sanctioning. Based on longitudinal and cross-sectional multilevel analyses of individual-level administrative data, we find that race plays a significant role in shaping sanction implementation. Its effects, however, are highly contingent on client characteristics, local political contexts, and the degree to which state governments devolve policy control to local officials. PMID:21675307

  6. Who pays for health care in the United States? Implications for health system reform.

    PubMed

    Holahan, J; Zedlewski, S

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of health care spending and financing in the United States. We analyze the distribution of employer and employee contributions to health insurance, private nongroup health insurance purchases, out-of-pocket expenses, Medicaid benefits, uncompensated care, tax benefits due to the exemption of employer-paid health benefits, and taxes paid to finance Medicare, Medicaid, and the health benefit tax exclusion. All spending and financing burdens are distributed across the U.S. population using the Urban Institute's TRIM2 microsimulation model. We then examine the distributional effects of the U.S. health care system across income levels, family types, and regions of the country. The results show that health care spending increases with income. Spending for persons in the highest income deciles is about 60% above that of persons in the lowest decile. Nonetheless, the distribution of health care financing is regressive. When direct spending, employer contributions, tax benefits, and tax spending are all considered, the persons in the lowest income deciles devote nearly 20% of cash income to finance health care, compared with about 8% for persons in the highest income decile. We discuss how alternative health system reform approaches are likely to change the distribution of health spending and financing burdens. PMID:1612722

  7. Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Wood, R.A.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-08-15

    A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: (1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; (2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and (3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

  8. RELATIVE EFFICIENCY IN CHINESE URBAN CONSTRUCTION: A COMPARISON OF STATE-OWNED AND COLLECTIVE ENTERPRISES ARER REFORM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elliott Parker

    This paper estimates the relative efficiency of locally-controlled urban collective and pro- vincially-controlled state-owned enterprises in the Chinese construction industry between 1985 and 1988, a period following significant economic reforms. A generalized restricted translog cost function approach is used which allows for both fixed and variable factor choices to deviate from profit-maximizing out- comes. Results indicate that collectives were less

  9. Determinants of Immigrants' Cash-Welfare Benefits Intake in Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Núria Rodríguez-Planas

    2012-01-01

    Much of the literature on immigrants' cash-welfare benefits use has focused on countries with a large tradition of receiving immigrants and with well established Welfare states. This paper contributes to this literature by analyzing differences in cash-welfare benefits receipt between immigrants and natives and their determinants in Spain, a country with: (1) a small level of social assistance and a

  10. The Small State, Markets and Tertiary Education Reform in a Globalised Knowledge Economy: Decoding Policy Texts in Botswana's Tertiary Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polelo, Mompati Mino

    2009-01-01

    A number of global discourses have gained currency in national education policies. The need to reform education systems is coated in economic terms, the rationale of which is efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. Education is assigned the task of producing a competitive workforce in the global market. In these reforms, education is…

  11. An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.

    PubMed

    Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented. PMID:24079487

  12. China and the WTO: Tariff offers, exemptions, and welfare implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian F. Bach; Will Martin; Jennifer A. Stevens

    1996-01-01

    China and the WTO: Tariff Offers, Exemptions, and Welfare Implications. — Trade reforms have opened the Chinese economy and\\u000a the reforms offered for WTO accession involve further liberalization. To assess the implications of these offers, the authors\\u000a take into account the tariff exemptions that are especially important in China’s trade regime, and the reductions in the variability\\u000a of tariffs at

  13. Failing to Make Ends Meet: Dubious Financial Success Among Employed Former Welfare to Work Program Participants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle LivermoreRebecca; Rebecca S. Powers; Belinda Creel Davis; Younghee Lim

    2011-01-01

    To many, declining caseloads and increased labor market entry substantiate welfare reform’s success. This study examines how\\u000a Louisiana welfare to work program participants who succeeded by leaving assistance and obtaining employment are making ends meet, if their needs are met and which characteristics are\\u000a associated with having their needs met. Telephone survey data reveal low wages, informal labor market activity,

  14. PES and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tozer, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the varying degrees to which members of the Philosophy of Education Society (PES) have demonstrated a philosophical interest in educational reform and political trends over the years. According to papers presented at annual meetings, there is a striking neglect of initiatives toward educational reform in the United States. (SM)

  15. A qualitative analysis of the impact of the reform of the College of Science undergraduate core curriculum at State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballotti, Dean

    The Dean of the College of Science at State University, a large public Midwestern research university, in a memo to the faculty and staff initiated what he called a "review" of the undergraduate science core curriculum. He formed a task force that was to investigate on three issues; a reassessment of the undergraduate core curriculum, the recruitment and retention of qualified undergraduate students with an emphasis on diversity, and strategies that would address these issues. The age of the curriculum, 40 years since the last significant change, was an important factor in the review of the curriculum. This qualitative study seeks to understand how a group of four administrators and five faculty, all from the College of Science, participated in the task force, perceived the old curriculum, and perceived the changes made and the resulting new curriculum. They were also asked to rank both the prior and new curricula. As part of an ongoing theme in higher education they were also asked if they thought the changes made to the curriculum qualified as reform and why or why not. This resulted in a discussion of what a reform might look like at State University and ultimately a definition of reform.

  16. Child Welfare Act and Child Custody and Right of Access Act. Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utriainen, Sirpa, Ed.

    The two major articles of child welfare legislation in Finland are the Child Welfare Act of 1983 and the Child Custody and Right of Access Act of 1983. These new acts are part of a reform of social legislation and services providing increased flexibility and effectiveness in protecting Finnish children's health and happiness. The Acts attach…

  17. Single Mothers, Jobs and Welfare: What the Data Tell Us. Research-in-Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBell, Megan; Yi, Hsiao-Ye; Hartmann, Heidi

    In order to predict the earnings of single mothers under the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program and the success of welfare reform in reducing poverty, a study was conducted of single mothers' work behavior, welfare receipt, and other sources of income. Data were generated from the U.S. Census Bureau's Survey of Income and…

  18. Welfare, Work and Raising Children: Conversations with Twenty-One Maine Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastedt, Christine B.; Smith, Rebekah J.

    Five years after the massive overhaul of the nation's welfare system, 21 Maine families receiving public assistance spoke about their lives during welfare reform. The following were among the key themes that emerged throughout the conversations: (1) those leaving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) often remain poor or very nearly poor;…

  19. Prison Reform: How Can the Federal Government Reform Prisons and Jails in the United States? National Debate Topic for High Schools, 1989-1990. Pursuant to Public Law 88-246.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    This document compiles materials and bibliographic references to assist national high school debaters in researching the 1989-1990 topic, "How Can the Federal Government Reform Prisons and Jails in the United States?" Materials are organized into a section of general materials and around each of three official debate propositions within the topic:…

  20. Tariff Reform in a Small Open Economy with Public Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenzo Abe

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the welfare effects of the reduction of the highest tariffs and the uniform change of all tariffs in a small open economy with public production. Using the restricted GNP and expenditure functions, the author shows that such tariff reforms can improve the welfare of the economy if the public production is initially abundant. A change in the

  1. Healthcare Reform and the Next Generation: United States Medical Student Attitudes toward the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Huntoon, Kristin M.; McCluney, Colin J.; Scannell, Christopher A.; Wiley, Elizabeth A.; Bruno, Richard; Andrews, Allen; Gorman, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Context Over one year after passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), legislators, healthcare experts, physicians, and the general public continue to debate the implications of the law and its repeal. The PPACA will have a significant impact on future physicians, yet medical student perspectives on the legislation have not been well documented. Objective To evaluate medical students' understanding of and attitudes toward healthcare reform and the PPACA including issues of quality, access and cost. Design, Setting, and Participants An anonymous electronic survey was sent to medical students at 10 medical schools (total of 6982 students) between October–December 2010, with 1232 students responding and a response rate of 18%. Main Outcome Measures Medical students' views and attitudes regarding the PPACA and related topics, measured with Likert scale and open response items. Results Of medical students surveyed, 94.8% agreed that the existing United States healthcare system needs to be reformed, 31.4% believed the PPACA will improve healthcare quality, while 20.9% disagreed and almost half (47.7%) were unsure if quality will be improved. Two thirds (67.6%) believed that the PPACA will increase access, 6.5% disagreed and the remaining 25.9% were unsure. With regard to containing healthcare costs, 45.4% of participants indicated that they are unsure if the provisions of the PPACA will do so. Overall, 80.1% of respondents indicated that they support the PPACA, and 78.3% also indicated that they did not feel that reform efforts had gone far enough. A majority of respondents (58.8%) opposed repeal of the PPACA, while 15.0% supported repeal, and 26.1% were undecided. Conclusion The overwhelming majority of medical students recognized healthcare reform is needed and expressed support for the PPACA but echoed concerns about whether it will address issues of quality or cost containment. PMID:21931604

  2. Tools to measure and improve welfare of laboratory rats : reward-related behaviour end environmental enrichment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johanna Egberdina van der Harst

    2003-01-01

    Animals are exploited by man for several different purposes. According to many, society should be concerned about the welfare of these animals. Currently, an increasing need exists to be able to assess and improve animal welfare. In this thesis a concept of welfare is applied that states that 'welfare is determined by the balance between positive and negative experiences'. This

  3. School Finance Reform in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Billy D.

    Texas public school finance is undergoing reform in response to a state Supreme Court decision in Edgewood I.S.D. v. Kirby, that declared the school finance system in violation of the "efficient clause" of the state constitution. State aid has declined since 1984 due to state revenue constraints, reform mandates largely funded from local taxes,…

  4. Elite Power and Educational Reform: An Historiographical Analysis of Canada and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I reopen some of the seminal theoretical debates among critical scholars on the nature of educational reform, arguing that there has been a consistent tendency in the literature to dismiss or downplay the significance of "instrumentalist" analyses in favour of cultural/hegemonic and structuralist explanations. As a result,…

  5. Analysis of a State School Finance Reform Legislative Proposal in Kansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhehey, M. A.

    This paper traces the development of school reform pressures in Kansas from the implementation of the foundation program in 1965 to the passage of substitute Senate Bill 92 during the 1973 legislative session. Bill 92 is designed to produce equalization of school district expenditures and tax levies by a formula based on the concept of funding the…

  6. Minorities, the Poor and School Finance Reform. Vol. 1: An Impact Study of Six States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brischetto, Robert; Vaughan, David

    To study the impact of school finance reform on minorities and the poor, researchers gathered data on educational revenues and spending, tax effort, district wealth and income, ethnicity, and urban location in California, Colorado, Florida, Michigan, New Mexico, and Texas. Their data analysis used various measures of educational equity and fiscal…

  7. The MSRB and Dodd-Frank: Financial Reform Impact on State

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xiaodong

    ;Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act · Signed into law July 21, 2010 · Most · Congressionally mandated mission: ­ Protect investors, municipal entities and the public interest ­ Promote a fair and jurisdiction Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board 4Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board #12;MSRB Protection

  8. Reforming Long-Term Care in the United States: Findings from a National Survey of Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward Alan; Mor, Vincent; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Theories of the policy process recognize that policy proposals are typically generated, debated, redrafted, and accepted for consideration through the gradual accumulation of knowledge within communities of specialists. Thus, to inform long-term care (LTC) reform efforts, we conducted a Web-based survey of 1,147 LTC specialists…

  9. Toward Self Sufficiency: Social Issues in the Nineties. Proceedings of the National Association for Welfare Research and Statistics (33rd, Scottsdale, Arizona, August 7-11, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Welfare Research and Statistics, Olympia, WA.

    The presentations compiled in these proceedings on welfare and self-sufficiency reflect much of the current research in areas of housing, health, employment and training, welfare and reform, nutrition, child support, child care, and youth. The first section provides information on the conference and on the National Association for Welfare Research…

  10. Oversight of the Indian Child Welfare Act. Hearing before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session on Oversight of the Indian Child Welfare Act (Public Law 95-608).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    The Select Committee on Indian Affairs met on June 30, 1980, for an oversight hearing on the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 to correct flaws and straighten out problems concerning Public Law 95-608 and the way it is implemented. Various members of the administration and a group of Indian leaders from across the country attended the hearing, at…

  11. Social Security Reform in Japan in the 21st Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiaki Tachibanaki

    The paper examined and discussed several problems of pension programs in Japan which are caused by aging trend in the age-population structure. In particular, it examined several policy reforms in the public pension programs, and the role of firms in welfare provisions. The paper presented two major reforms in social security in Japan. The first one is to switch the

  12. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, Second Session on Examination of the Financial Plight, the Stability and Conditions of Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    Oversight hearings before the subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, Ninety-third Congress examine the financial plight, and the stability and conditions of higher education institutions. Testimony and statistical data are presented. (MJM)

  13. Ethical Child Welfare Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

    Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

  14. Evaluating Interdependent Watershed Conservation and Ground Water Management Reforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitafi, Basharat A.; Roumasset, James A.

    2006-12-01

    Conserving the watershed can help to preserve ground water recharge. Preventing overuse of available water through pricing reforms can also substantially increase the value of an aquifer. Inasmuch as users are accustomed to low prices, efficiency pricing may be politically infeasible, and watershed conservation may be considered as an alternative. We estimate and compare welfare gains from pricing reform and watershed conservation for a water management district in Oahu that obtains its water supply from the Pearl Harbor aquifer. We find that pricing reform is welfare superior to watershed conservation unless the latter is able to prevent very large recharge losses. Watershed conservation that yields net gains in combination with pricing reform may cause net losses without the pricing reform. If adoption of watershed conservation delays the implementation of pricing reform, the benefits of the latter are significantly reduced.

  15. Child Welfare Outcomes 1998: Annual Report

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of annual reports from the Department of Health and Human Services required by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 (ASFA). The report "presents data on State performance in meeting the needs of children and families who come into contact with the child welfare system, focusing specifically on the "outcomes, or results, for these children." It also examines the condition of child welfare programs nationwide, presents data measuring outcomes, and offers findings and conclusions.

  16. Is the Consociational system reformable ? The current state of public life in Lebanon is neither the proper place for esoteric debate nor

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Is the Consociational system reformable ? The current state of public life in Lebanon is neither groups and the majority of the Islamic fundamentalist movements, had already thrown in the sponge of the population by the political class and its loyalty towards a State whose authority would thus appear all

  17. Governance and accountability in the higher education regulatory state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Patrick King

    2007-01-01

    In recent years it has become commonplace to refer to the development of a ‘new regulatory state’ in a number of advanced\\u000a societies. For the most part the description has been applied to quite fundamental changes in the nation state, particularly\\u000a those in Europe characterised previously by state-bureaucratic ‘welfareism’. The growth of the regulatory state, and associated\\u000a public policy reforms,

  18. Pension Reform during the Demographic Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Fehr

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to quantify the welfare effects of some currently discussed pension reform proposals in Germany. The analysis is based on an extended overlapping-generations model which accounts for intra-generational heterogeneity, rising life expectancy and declining fertility. Given a baseline path of the economy under the existing unfunded pension system, the model calculates the macroeconomic impact as

  19. Measuring Success of Constitutional Reforms: Evidence from Territorial Reforms in Eight Western Democracies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Behnke; Bettina Petersohn; Andrea Fischer-Hotzel; Dominic Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Studies of constitutional reforms so far have equated formal ratification with a successful reform. The paper goes beyond this narrow focus by adding substantive success as a second dimension based on two indicators: degree of agenda fulfilment and degree to which the reform contributes to solve the constitutional problem. Analysing territorial reforms in unitary or federal states, we distinguish two

  20. Happiness and Welfare

    E-print Network

    Meseroll, Sean

    2014-08-31

    In this dissertation I argue that while hedonism seems to be the correct theory of happiness, happiness does not seem to be the essence of welfare; after all, it appears that a person may be brainwashed over a given duration, ...

  1. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Lagowski

    1995-01-01

    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural

  2. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...investigation described in § 300.320, the OSC shall determine whether a discharge...States). Factors to be considered by the OSC in making this determination include...Upon obtaining such information, the OSC shall conduct an evaluation of the...

  3. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...investigation described in § 300.320, the OSC shall determine whether a discharge...States). Factors to be considered by the OSC in making this determination include...Upon obtaining such information, the OSC shall conduct an evaluation of the...

  4. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...investigation described in § 300.320, the OSC shall determine whether a discharge...States). Factors to be considered by the OSC in making this determination include...Upon obtaining such information, the OSC shall conduct an evaluation of the...

  5. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...investigation described in § 300.320, the OSC shall determine whether a discharge...States). Factors to be considered by the OSC in making this determination include...Upon obtaining such information, the OSC shall conduct an evaluation of the...

  6. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...investigation described in § 300.320, the OSC shall determine whether a discharge...States). Factors to be considered by the OSC in making this determination include...Upon obtaining such information, the OSC shall conduct an evaluation of the...

  7. The Role of Curriculum Resources in Three Countries: The Impact of National Curriculum Reforms in the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    This project examines the impact of standards-based and curriculum reforms on the role of materials in educational systems in the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Australia. The project focused on identifying activities undertaken by publishing companies and in educational systems to develop, select and use materials in the…

  8. The Politics of Teacher Reform in Florida: Analyzing Causal Narratives Surrounding State Adoption of Performance-Based Evaluations, Performance Pay, and Tenure Elimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Christopher; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

    2012-01-01

    Following a multiyear debate, Florida lawmakers passed the "Student Success Act" in March 2011, introducing some of the most sweeping educational reforms in the state's history--the introduction of teacher evaluation systems based on value-added modeling, mandatory "performance pay" for teachers, and the elimination of long-term professional…

  9. Feasibility Study on the Development of Teachers Resource Centres: Consultants Report. Organization of Eastern Caribbean States Education Reform Strategy Project 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald R.; Halliday, Joseph J.

    This report is based on the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Educational Reform Strategy Project No. 5 which found that a Teachers Resource Center (TRC) can be a vehicle to provide essential equipment and materials to schools organized in clusters and to serve as meeting places for officials, principles, and teachers. Approximately…

  10. Farmers, Scientists, and Officers of Industry: The Formation and Reformation of Land-Grant Colleges in the Northeastern United States, 1862-1906

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorber, Nathan M.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the formation, reformation, and standardization of land-grant colleges in the Northeastern United States during the last four decades of the nineteenth century. It is a history that explores the turbulent origins of land-grant colleges in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont,…

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of Washington state repeated job search services on the employment rate of prime-age female welfare recipients?

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Cheng; Shen, Yan; Wang, Boqing; Weeks, Greg

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses an unbalanced panel dataset to evaluate how repeated job search services (JSS) and personal characteristics affect the employment rate of the prime-age female welfare recipients in the State of Washington. We propose a transition probability model to take into account issues of sample attrition, sample refreshment and duration dependence. We also generalize Honoré and Kyriazidou’s [Honoré, B.E., Kyriazidou, E., 2000. Panel data discrete choice models with lagged dependent variables. Econometrica 68 (4), 839–874] conditional maximum likelihood estimator to allow for the presence of individual-specific effects. A limited information test is suggested to test for selection issues in non-experimental data. The specification tests indicate that the (conditional on the set of the confounding variables considered) assumptions of no selection due to unobservables and/or no unobserved individual-specific effects are not violated. Our findings indicate that the first job search service does have positive and significant impacts on the employment rate. However, providing repeated JSS to the same client has no significant impact. Further, we find that there are significant experience-enhancing effects. These findings suggest that providing one job search services training to individuals may have a lasting impact on raising their employment rates.

  12. Role of Directorates in Promoting Nursing and Midwifery Across the Various States of India: Call for Leadership for Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Bagga, Rajni; Jaiswal, Vaishali; Tiwari, Ritika

    2015-01-01

    Background: While the roles and responsibilities of nursing professionals have multiplied over the years, but there are huge concerns with regard to the development of the nursing workforce and human resources (HR) issues for their career growth. The major lacuna is in not involving the nursing professionals in policy framing and decision-making. As a result, there is a leadership crisis of the nursing workforce across India. Objectives: The paper, is part of the WHO supported study, entitled “Study on Nursing and Midwifery in India: a critical review”, is developed with the objective to review the current organizational and management structure for the nursing positions at the State Directorates in India and obtain a Leadership perspective to strengthen nursing management capacities to address maternal health issues. Materials and Methods: The study descriptive and qualitative in nature and the sources of information were both primary and secondary collected from 16 states of India. Results: Since none of the states have neither a Nursing Cell nor the post of Director Nursing, final decision-making powers rest with state health secretaries and medical directors. The nursing management structure majorly managed by senior policy makers from the medical fraternity, and provides very little scope for nursing professionals to participate in policy decision making to bring about reforms. There is no uniformity on HR issues concerning career graphs and pay structures across the states. Conclusions: In order to strengthen nursing as a profession and for facilitating their role at the policy level, more powers and autonomy needs to be given to them and this requires HR policy guidelines for nurses. Setting up a separate nursing directorate, to be headed by a senior nursing professional, is suggested in every state along with a strong nursing division at the National level. This total paradigm shift will empower nursing professionals to take up the leadership role at the policy level to bring about necessary reforms. Across the country, nursing professionals repeatedly echoed one requirement: To reframe nursing leadership at all levels. PMID:25861169

  13. Shaping Health Reform: State Government Influence in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Dinan

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has significant implications for state governments and its passage presents an opportunity to contribute to inquiries into ways that state officials wield influence in the national legislative process. State officials were occasionally influential when they drew on state experience and expertise and congress members were willing to benefit from this knowledge. State officials

  14. Importing the Poor: Welfare Magnetism and Cross-Border Welfare Migration

    PubMed Central

    McKinnish, Terra

    2011-01-01

    I test for welfare-induced migration by comparing AFDC participation in border counties to interior counties in the same state. If migration costs are lower for border county residents, border counties on the high-benefit side of a state border should have higher welfare participation relative to the state’s interior counties. Border counties on the low-benefit side should have lower welfare participation relative to the state’s interior counties. The results obtained using county-level data from 1970–90 indicate that having a neighbor with benefits that are $100 lower increases AFDC expenditures in border counties by 4.0–6.8 percent relative to interior counties. PMID:21949446

  15. Reform on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Janet; Otte, Michelle; Fair, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Aurora (Colorado) Public Schools responded to the Colorado State Model Content Standards for Reading and Writing and the accountability measures attached to the state assessments by implementing the Aurora Achievement Initiative in 2001. Originating from literature on best practices and large-scale school reform, the goal of the districtwide…

  16. Educational Governance Reforms: The Uncertain Role of Local School Boards in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah Land; Sam Stringfield

    In the U.S., local school boards have long played a prominent role in governing public education. States have authority for\\u000a public education via the Tenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which reserves powers to the states that the Constitution\\u000a does not delegate to the federal government or prohibit states from assuming. In the mid-1800s, states began establishing\\u000a state-wide public school

  17. DUNCAN PRITCHARD Reforming Reformed Epistemology*

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    DUNCAN PRITCHARD Reforming Reformed Epistemology* 0. Introduction There has been a renaissance of interest in the epistemology of religious belief over the last twenty years which has been largely inspired of religious epistemology is a rejection of the supposedly evidentialist assumptions which drive standard

  18. Middle Grades Reform. Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2008-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers have pointed to the lagging scores of eighth graders on international, national, and state assessments as evidence that students are not prepared to meet high academic standards and that middle grades reform is needed. In response to these concerns, educators have introduced reforms designed to provide middle-level…

  19. School Reform: Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    United States educational history is full of uncertain reform attempts beginning with colonial New England's school reform goal of salvation in this world as a preparation for eternal life in the next. A more practical type of education characterized the Early National Period. Monitorial schools and communal schools, as in New Harmony, Indiana,…

  20. The state and health care reform: the National Health Insurance and Public Health Act of 1949 

    E-print Network

    Schemmer, Ruth Ann, 1960

    1994-01-01

    State-centered theory, elite theory, and the organizational state environment perspective have all been put forth to explain how policies come to be enacted in government and who benefits from such policy initiatives. It is proposed that the same...

  1. The High School Curriculum in the United States and the United Kingdom: Perspectives on Reform and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Maurice

    1993-01-01

    Examines the interplay of political and educational factors influencing current U.S. and British school reform. The dominant characteristic of educational policymaking in both countries is "hyperpoliticalization." Britain's 1988 Education Reform Act, motivated by conservative political considerations, represents a setback to secondary school…

  2. Professionalism and the Reform of Teachers and Teacher Education in the Republic of Korea & the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeom, Minho; Ginsburg, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares how educational reform documents in Korea and the U.S.A. conceptualize teachers and teacher education and examines how, if at all, the discourses of one country appear to influence those of the other. Special attention is paid to the ways in which reform documents incorporate different conceptions of professionalism in framing…

  3. Misconstruing Constructivism and State Regulation of Teaching (Unlearning What We Know about Educational Reforms).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    Responds to the article "Opportunities Lost: Teachers Learning about the New York State Social Studies Framework" by S. G. Grant. States that Grant loses an opportunity to provide the type of social analysis needed to extricate teacher educators from their complicity in New York State's regulation of teaching by misconstruing constructivism. (CMK)

  4. Creating State-based Alliances to Support Earth and Space Science Education Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Geary; C. A. Manduca; D. Barstow

    2002-01-01

    Seven years after the publication of the National Science Education Standards and adoption of new state science education standards, Earth and space science remains outside the mainstream K-12 curriculum. Currently, less than ten percent of high school students in the United States of America take an Earth or space science course before graduation. This state of affairs is simply unacceptable.

  5. Welfare Policies and Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trader, Harriet Peat

    1979-01-01

    The family is an important resource for minority persons, and many minority families depend on public welfare for their survival. This article offers a compact analysis of how welfare policies often work to the disadvantage of poor Black families. (Author)

  6. Maternal Working Conditions and Child Well-Being in Welfare-Leaving Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Dunifon; Ariel Kalil; Ashish Bajracharya

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of welfare reform, thousands of low-income single mothers have transitioned into the labor market. In this article, the authors examine how the work conditions of mothers leaving welfare for employment are associated with the emotional well-being of 372 children ages 5 to 15 years. The authors examine the cumulative incidence, over a 5-year period, of maternal non-family-friendly

  7. [Current aspects of the state and improvement of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of workers and passengers of Russian railways].

    PubMed

    Kas'kov, Iu N; Farkhatdinov, G A; Podkorytov, Iu I; Khusnutdinova, N Sh

    2013-01-01

    The data on the sanitary-epidemiological state of Railways objects of Russia are presented. Bacteriological examination of drinking water taken from the water systems of passenger cars showed that 3.9-5.0% of the samples did not meet the health standards (p < 0.01). Samples of workplace air in industrial enterprises did not meet hygienic standards: on vapors and gases--4.6%, dust and aerosols--13.6%. In 52.9 +/- 2.6% of examined drivers cabs there was revealed noncompliance to hygienic standards on physical factors: on the noise--45.1 +/- 2.7%, vibration--35.6 +/- 2.7%, etc. Out of the total number of occupational diseases locomotive drivers account for about 40% of cases, including sensorineural hearing loss up to 80%. Morbidity with temporary disability among drivers of locomotives are 20-25% higher (p < 0.05), than in the whole railway transport. The suggestions on the improvement of sanitary-hygienic monitoring in rail transport are given. PMID:24340904

  8. Social Security Reform and Corporate Governance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee S. Redding

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers implementation issues arising from potential reforms to the United States Social Security system. Many reform proposals involve individually invested accounts, but the corporate governance implications of such accounts have not been fully explored. Existing reform plans will result in a large fraction of votes being concentrated at one private fund manager. The implications for corporate governance and

  9. Advertising and Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avinash Dixit; Victor Norman

    1978-01-01

    This paper applies conventional welfare-theoretic methods to study advertising which changes consumer tastes. In a wide range of empirically plausible circumstances, private profitability is seen to be necessary but not sufficient for the social desirability of a small amount of advertising. The market equilibrium level of such advertising is shown to be socially excessive, even when postadvertising tastes are used

  10. Off Welfare, into Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business and Literacy Communities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Concerned with the increasing feminization of poverty, the Rockefeller Foundation launched in 1982 a $12 million welfare-to-work research and demonstration project, presently midway into a 5-year evaluation. The Minority Female Single Parent Demonstration project involved four community-based organizations: Atlanta Urban League (Georgia);…

  11. Inflation and Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the welfare cost of inflation. New estimates are provided, based on U.S. time series for 1900-94, interpreted in a variety of ways. It is estimated that the gain from reducing the annual inflation rate from 10 percent to zero is equivalent to an increase in real income of slightly less than one percent. Using aggregate

  12. Housing And Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Rochlitz

    The way a cat is housed will have a significant impact on its welfare. The range of housing conditions in which cats may be kept include boarding, breeding and quarantine catteries, shelters, research facilities, veterinary practices and the home. Drawing on ethological principles, the evolutionary history of the cat and studies of cats kept in different conditions, the housing requirements

  13. DISEASE - A WELFARE COMPROMISE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. J. ODENDAAL

    2001-01-01

    Odendaal J. S. J.: Disease - a Welfare Compromise. Acta Vet. Brno 2001, 70: 97-104. Veterinarians usually attempt to find the direct cause of diseases, trauma or behavioural problems, in order to decide on an appropriate therapeutic regimen. They rarely ask what causes the causes. As in the popular media, one should inquire about the story behind the story. Such

  14. Thoughts on farm animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestating sow welfare remains a complex and contentious issue in the US, and stakeholders keep calling for objective, scientific welfare assessments. The Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association recently published a Commentary that attempted to compare sow welfare in "the Swedish deep-...

  15. Acquisition Reform

    E-print Network

    Sapolsky, Harvey

    This report reviews the six most recent major acquisition reform reports, starting in 1949 with the Hoover Commissions and including McNamara's Total Package Procurement, Fitzhugh Commission, the Commission on Government ...

  16. Understanding and measuring child welfare outcomes.

    PubMed

    D'Andrade, Amy; Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The new "Children's and Family Services Reviews" (CFSR) process focuses on the effectiveness of services to children and families by measuring client outcomes. This article reviews the research literature related to child welfare outcomes in order to provide a context for federal accountability efforts. It also summarizes the 2001 federal mandate to hold states accountable for child welfare outcomes and describes California's response to this mandate. Implications of the outcomes literature review and measurement problems in the CFSR process suggest CSFR measures do not always capture meaningful outcomes. Recommendations for change are made. PMID:19064447

  17. SWINE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS: ANIMAL WELFARE CONSIDERATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A general public perception is that it is easy to visualize when an animals welfare is adequate. Scientifically, this determination is quite difficult. The difficulty resides in our ability to objectively assess the animals physical and psychological state; as well as to determine the difference b...

  18. STATEWIDE AUTOMATED CHILD WELFARE INFORMATION SYSTEM (SACWIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    SACWIS stands for Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System(s). It was authorized by Congress in 1993 to help states meet data collection and reporting requirements of the Social Security Act. The regulations at 45 CFR 1355.50 through 1355.57 provide the basis for Stat...

  19. Neo-Liberal Reforms in Israel's Education System: The Dialectics of the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonah, Yossi; Dahan, Yossi; Markovich, Dalya

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers a reading of the Dovrat Report with the aim of assessing the convoluted and dialectical manifestations of the state--"the weak and the strong state"--in the era of global neo-liberalism. The Dovrat Report (Ministry Of Education 2005) includes a set of recommendations aiming to bring about structural and comprehensive changes in…

  20. Implementing a Major Educational Reform. No Child Left Behind and Federal-State Relationships: First Impressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderman, Gail L.

    This paper focuses on the status of federal-state relationships during the first year of implementing the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). It begins with a discussion of the literature on federal-state relations and the role of the federal government in that system. It then compares NCLB to its predecessor, pointing out where the two laws diverge…

  1. Studies in Public Welfare. Paper No. 12 (Part I): The Family, Poverty, and Welfare Programs; Factors Influencing Family Instability. A Volume of Studies Prepared for the Use of the Subcommittee on Fiscal Policy of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    Contents of this volume of studies analyzing the causes of the alarming growth in illegitimacy, families lacking a father, and welfare caseloads, include the following studies: "The Family, Poverty, and Welfare Programs: An Introductory Essay on Problems of Analysis and Policy," Robert I. Lerman; "The Impact of Welfare Payment Levels on Family…

  2. The State of the Region Chapter 5 University of Pittsburgh July 1999

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    needs include child care, child health care, transportation, and family support. Low-income families of early childhood development, "welfare reform" has been instituted. Pressured by welfare reform, many low-income, such as allowing welfare recipients to become self-sufficient through training, employment, and child care

  3. Space Technologies and the Export Control System in the United States: Prospects for Meaningful Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry R. Hertzfeld

    \\u000a The export controls imposed by the United States are law, and the one law that receives the largest amount of criticism from\\u000a the space community is the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).457 The penalties for violating export control laws are severe.458 However, they are not the only laws in the United States that have a severe impact on foreign

  4. What Next in School Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of education reform in the United Kingdom and uses the BBC film "The Choir to explore alternative ways of improving the quality of learning and teaching in schools.

  5. Reform and the Physics Curriculum in Britain and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, David

    1984-01-01

    The Nuffield "0"-level physics course (United Kingdom) and the Physical Sciences Study Committee course (United States) stressed preparation of professional scientists rather than "physics for all." Although they were important curriculum developments, the courses have done harm to the development of an entirely new style of physics course. (MM)

  6. The "Regulatory" State and the Use of "Independent" Agencies as Legitimising Mechanisms of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouvias, Dionyssios

    2007-01-01

    The emergence--at the dawn of the new millennium--of "independent agencies", "national commissions" and "councils" around the world, has been based and justified on grounds of "impartiality", "reliability", "democratic-principles guardianship", or even "technical competence". These "independent" agencies are compared to state agencies, which…

  7. After the Stimulus Money Ends: The Status of State K-12 Education Funding and Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentner, Diane Stark; Kober, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The economic downturn of the past few years has taken a toll on state budgets for elementary and secondary education. The $100 billion for education provided by the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA), better known as the economic stimulus package, helped to blunt some of the harshest effects, but these funds have been nearly depleted.…

  8. Federal/State Regulatory Reform, Cost Allocation, and CATV/TELCO Distance Learning Initiatives in Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietras, Jesse John; Murphy, Robert J.

    Distance learning in Connecticut has begun to develop in the wake of telecommunications (TELCO) infrastructure modernization. Progress in this area is reviewed and discussed. The state has not yet adopted a standardized statewide policy governing the delivery of educational telecommunications programing, and various private producers currently…

  9. Comprehensively Advance Reform of the Urban Housing System Opinion. [Summary 1991].

    PubMed

    1992-02-27

    On 31 December 1991, the Chinese State Council Housing System Reform Leading Group announced this Opinion, setting out targets, principles, and policies for the reform of the system of provisional housing in urban areas. Section 1 of the Opinion provides that the long-term goal of reform is to convert the distribution of housing from a system based on welfare allocation to one based on commodity exchange either by purchase or rental. Section 2 sets the following targets for reform: a) within the period of the Eighth Five-Year Plan, the system will be converted from one of low rent to one in which the calculation of rent will be based on cost of upkeep, administration costs, and depreciation; b) by 2000, the calculation of rent will be based on the above factors, as well as interest on investment and property taxes; and c) in the long term, the calculation of rent will be based on all of the above factors, as well as land rent, insurance premiums, and profit. Section 4 deals with policies for managing various problems such as rent increases and subsidies, sales of housing, financing for housing, the system of investment in and construction of housing, and administration of housing. This Section provides that a three-level housing investment fund based on municipalities, work units, and individuals will be established. PMID:12348701

  10. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

  11. State Education Agencies as Agents of Change: What It Will Take for the States to Step Up on Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cynthia G.; Hess, Frederick M.; Lautzenheiser, Daniel K.; Owen, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Today, state education agencies (SEAs) and their leaders face unprecedented demands. What was once a low-profile job of managing federal aid, providing curricular guidance, and ensuring compliance with various legal obligations is now a far more visible and politically fraught task. The new roles required of state education agencies due to the No…

  12. Managing waste from confined animal feeding operations in the United States: the need for sanitary reform.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jay P; Nachman, Keeve E

    2010-12-01

    Confined food-animal operations in the United States produce more than 40 times the amount of waste than human biosolids generated from US wastewater treatment plants. Unlike biosolids, which must meet regulatory standards for pathogen levels, vector attraction reduction and metal content, no treatment is required of waste from animal agriculture. This omission is of concern based on dramatic changes in livestock production over the past 50 years, which have resulted in large increases in animal waste and a high degree of geographic concentration of waste associated with the regional growth of industrial food-animal production. Regulatory measures have not kept pace with these changes. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) review trends that affect food-animal waste production in the United States, 2) assess risks associated with food-animal wastes, 3) contrast food-animal waste management practices to management practices for biosolids and 4) make recommendations based on existing and potential policy options to improve management of food-animal waste. PMID:20705978

  13. Health Reform Redux: Learning From Experience and Politics

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 presidential campaign season featured health care reform proposals. I discuss 3 approaches to health care reform and the tools for bringing about reform, such as insurance market reforms, tax credits, subsidies, individual and employer mandates, and public program expansions. I also discuss the politics of past and current health care reform efforts. Market-based reforms and mandates have been less successful than public program expansions at expanding coverage and controlling costs. New divisions among special interest groups increase the likelihood that reform efforts will succeed. Federal support for state efforts may be necessary to achieve national health care reform. History suggests that state-level success precedes national reform. History also suggests that an organized social movement for reform is necessary to overcome opposition from special interest groups. PMID:19299668

  14. Health reform redux: learning from experience and politics.

    PubMed

    Ross, Johnathon S

    2009-05-01

    The 2008 presidential campaign season featured health care reform proposals. I discuss 3 approaches to health care reform and the tools for bringing about reform, such as insurance market reforms, tax credits, subsidies, individual and employer mandates, and public program expansions. I also discuss the politics of past and current health care reform efforts. Market-based reforms and mandates have been less successful than public program expansions at expanding coverage and controlling costs. New divisions among special interest groups increase the likelihood that reform efforts will succeed. Federal support for state efforts may be necessary to achieve national health care reform. History suggests that state-level success precedes national reform. History also suggests that an organized social movement for reform is necessary to overcome opposition from special interest groups. PMID:19299668

  15. Thoroughfares, crossroads and cul-de-sacs: drug testing of welfare recipients.

    PubMed

    Wincup, Emma

    2014-09-01

    Over the past five years, proposals to introduce drug testing for welfare recipients have proliferated across the globe. In England, it was included in the Welfare Reform Act 2009 (yet never implemented) and in 2013, the New Zealand government introduced legislation which requires claimants to take pre-employment drug tests when requested by a prospective employer or training provider. Similarly, in over 20 US states there have been attempts to initiate drug testing of welfare recipients as a condition of eligibility for welfare, although frequently these controversial plans have either stalled or once introduced they have been halted through legal challenge. This article examines the process of introducing drug testing of welfare claimants in the UK as part of a broader strategy to address worklessness among problem drug users. Using Hudson and Lowe's (2004) multi-level analytic framework, which disputes 'top down' rational models of policy-making, it explores the mechanisms used for challenging drug testing policies. In so doing, it identifies the key policy actors involved, noting the alliances forged and strategies adopted to persuade the government to pursue alternative policies. Whilst the primary focus of the article is on the UK, consideration of the US and New Zealand facilitates comparison of the types of policy networks which emerge to oppose similar policies proposed in different socio-political contexts, and the forms of argument and/or evidence they inject into policy discussions. It is argued that a heavy reliance on rights-based arguments was a feature of opposing drug testing in the UK, US and New Zealand, and these featured more heavily than attempts to refute evidence underpinning these policies. However, there were important differences between jurisdictions in relation to the mechanisms used to challenge drug testing policies. These do not simply reflect the nature of the policies proposed but instead are reflective of different modes of governance, which influence the character of the policy networks formed and their judgements about the most effective ways of opposing what they regard as essentially flawed policies. PMID:24709412

  16. The excesses of individualism. For meaningful healthcare reform, the United States needs a renewed sense of community.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, C J

    1992-01-01

    In the United States at the end of the twentieth century, the balance of values tilts too far toward the individual and away from the community. What is needed is a renewed sense of community that enhances the lives of individuals as it serves the common good. The first step toward creating a new balance is a critique of the present imbalance, which is shaped by excessive forms of individualism that affect every aspect of our healthcare delivery system. Technological individualism occurs when the value of technology is measured only by its service to the individual. The results are a technological imperative, unreasonable expectations on the part of the community, distorted judgement on the statistical likelihoods of individual outcomes, fragmentation of care, and a reliance on rescue medicine. A psychosocial individualism has misshapen our attitudes about ourselves and our communities, bringing with it a deepening sense of alienation. The results in U.S. healthcare include commercialization, exclusion of the poor, a litigious provider-patient relationship, declining respect for life, and a sense of community that excludes other generations and nations. Libertarian individualism has created political isolation and prevents the evolution of democratic decision making and real partnerships in healthcare. The results are an unpooling of insurance risk, an interpretation of freedom that is inimical to family and community ties, hostility to government, a view of healthcare as a commodity, and deprofessionalization of the medical professions. Healthcare reform must seek to change what medical technology does for us, repair the psychosocial harms healthcare individualism has produced, and promote citizen participation in the healthcare system in new and important ways. PMID:10115594

  17. Setting Capitated Rates for Child Welfare Programs. Discussion Paper CS-47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulczyn, Fred H.; Sheu, Eileen

    Child welfare services currently operate in an environment characterized by increasing need for services, and calls for cost containment and system reform. To survive in this environment, foster care agencies will have to reexamine their use of resources to ensure that they are used to achieve the best possible outcomes for the children in their…

  18. WORK, INCOME AND MATERIAL HARDSHIP AFTER WELFARE Sandra Danziger, Mary Corcoran, Sheldon Danziger & Colleen M. Heflin

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    1 WORK, INCOME AND MATERIAL HARDSHIP AFTER WELFARE REFORM Sandra Danziger, Mary Corcoran, Sheldon and Economic Hardship," given by Sheldon Danziger at the 1999 Annual Meeting of the American Council; Sheldon Danziger is Henry J. Meyer Collegiate Professor of Social Work and Public Policy and Director

  19. The effects of behavioral health reform on safety-net institutions: a mixed-method assessment in a rural state.

    PubMed

    Willging, Cathleen E; Sommerfeld, David H; Aarons, Gregory A; Waitzkin, Howard

    2014-03-01

    In July 2005, New Mexico initiated a major reform of publicly-funded behavioral healthcare to reduce cost and bureaucracy. We used a mixed-method approach to examine how this reform impacted the workplaces and employees of service agencies that care for low-income adults in rural and urban areas. Information technology problems and cumbersome processes to enroll patients, procure authorizations, and submit claims led to payment delays that affected the financial status of the agencies, their ability to deliver care, and employee morale. Rural employees experienced lower levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment and higher levels of turnover intentions under the reform when compared to their urban counterparts. PMID:23307162

  20. Reforming Foodgrains Management : Achieving Food Security with Cost-Effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ganesh-Kumar; Ashok Gulati; Ralph Cummings Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the efficacy of the current system of public foodgrains management and policies in promoting food security in the country. It argues that the system has outlived its usefulness, and that continuing with the same only stifles growth in foodgrains, with very little welfare benefits to the poor. The paper then presents a series of suggestions for reforming

  1. Decree No. 896, Law on transferring rural state property suitable for agriculture and livestock to the beneficiaries of agrarian reform, 18 February 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Law creates a Special Technical Commission in El Salvador to collect information, investigate, and make decisions on the transfer of property belonging to the State. State property includes property belonging to the State at the national, regional, and local levels as well as land belonging to official autonomous institutions and public law corporations. Such property is eligible for transfer if it is not indispensable for state activities and if it is suitable for agriculture. Under the Law, all government bodies, official autonomous institutions, and public law corporations have the duty to report to the Commission the status of their property. After the Executive determines which properties are to be transferred, the property will be paid for through agrarian reform bonds. The property will be transferred to farmers with no land or with insufficient land and to farming cooperatives. Preference will be given to farmers without land and to those who have been exploiting the land subject to transfer. Persons acquiring land will pay for it through mortgages in favor of state agrarian reform agencies. PMID:12289457

  2. Social welfare, genetic welfare? Boundary-work in the IVF\\/PGD clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn Ehrich; Clare Williams; Rosamund Scott; Jane Sandall; Bobbie Farsides

    2006-01-01

    Through the lens of the ‘welfare of the child’ assessment, this paper explores how staff working in the area of in vitro fertilisation and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (IVF\\/PGD) balance reflexive relations of legitimacy and accountability between the public and private spheres, and between medicine, the citizen and the state. The wider research of which this analysis is a part uses

  3. Teaching Reform and Union Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerchner, Charles T.; Mitchell, Douglas E.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews present labor statutes and examines three alternatives to current practices; proposes that teaching, by its nature, is not well administered by industrial standards or well adjudicated through industrial unionism. Suggests "professional unionism" as a means of effecting educational reform. (DR)

  4. The Effect of Welfare Reform on Childbirth, Marriage, and Divorce 

    E-print Network

    Pakdeethai, Pimrak

    2010-10-12

    . . . . . . . . 88 IV Multinomial Logit Estimates on Choices of Childbirth by Race . . . 89 V Multinomial Logit Estimates on Choices of Childbirth by Policies . . 90 VI Multinomial Logit Estimates on Teen?s Choices of Childbirth by Race... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 VII Probit Estimates of the Effect of Family Caps on Childbirth . . . . . 92 VIII Difference-in-Difference Estimates of the Family Caps on Child- birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 IX Sample Means of Pre...

  5. Children and Child Care: The Forgotten Component in Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranne, Kristine B.; Young, Alma H.

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates the goals and objectives of the childcare component as outlined by the Family Support Act. Following a brief discussion of the legislation's childcare provisions, the authors outline Project Independence, Louisiana's response to the federal mandate, and explore the Toyota Families in Learning Program developed through this project.…

  6. Welfare Reform and New York City's Low-Income Population

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chemick, Howard.

    2002-01-01

    In this recent paper from the Institute for Poverty Research's Working Papers series, Howard Chernick and Cordelia Reimers examine the Current Population Survey in 1994-1995 and 1997-1999 to see if there was a discernible drop in households receiving public assistance in New York City. While they found that the proportion of households receiving at least one public assistance benefit remained the same over the period, the decline in the number of Hispanic households receiving public assistance was greater than among African-Americans. Importantly, the paper also addresses the differing family structures and educational attainment levels that may account for some of this change.

  7. Welfare Impacts of Electricity Generation Sector Reform in the Philippines

    E-print Network

    Toba, Natsuko

    2004-06-16

    ). Most of the early IPP projects were made via solicited and unsolicited proposals followed by negotiated arrangements, although competitive bidding procedures were introduced later. In 1997, IPP generation increased to 46.3 % of total generation...

  8. The Disappearing Provision: Medical Liability Reform Vanishes From The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Despite State Court Split

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Andre Roberti

    2012-01-01

    The legal and medical communities have debated the impact and necessity of medical liability reform for over twenty years. At the heart of the debate is the question of how to strike a balance between compensating patients and their families for the thousands of deaths and injuries resulting from medical errors that occur annually, and encouraging physicians to continue to

  9. The State of New York School Finance 1994: The Efficiency and Equity of the "Reformed" Funding System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crampton, Faith E.

    During the 1993-94 school year, New York implemented major reforms in school finance. This paper describes the proposed 1994-95 school funding system, with a focus on the role of basic aid and changes from the previous year. The first section describes the components and accompanying formulas for the basic aid program and then highlights the major…

  10. A Synthesis and Critique of Four Recent Reviews of Whole-School Reform in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringfield, Sam

    2000-01-01

    Of the four guides to schoolwide reform models (by Herman and others, Northwest Regional Education Laboratory, Robert Slavin, and Margaret Wang and associates), Herman's volume provides the most detailed, scholarly review. Practical information abounds, but more well-controlled and designed longitudinal studies are essential. (Contains 32…

  11. What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-06-01

    My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

  12. Enterprise Reform in Chinese Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary H Jefferson; Thomas G Rawski

    1994-01-01

    This paper begins by using a structure-conduct-performance perspective to show that partial reform improved the operation of China's state industries during the 1980s. The authors review the achievements of industries outside the state sector, emphasizing their links to the state sector. The paper focuses on key defects in the industrial system related to finance and ownership; shows how the accelerated

  13. Making the Transition from Welfare to Work: Employment Experiences of CalWORKs Participants in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison De Marco; Michael Austin; Julian Chow

    2008-01-01

    This study describes welfare-to-work participants in the San Francisco Bay Area, support services, experiences with the CalWORKs program, and predictors of employment status in the wake of welfare reform. Findings indicate that many are working and more Stayers and Recidivists than Leavers are using food stamps and Medi-Cal. Multivariate analysis reveals that race and financial supports were the significant factors

  14. Native American Indian child welfare system change: implementation of a culturally appropriate practice model across three tribal child welfare systems.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, Maria; Iannone, Mary A

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there are 565 federally recognized tribes in the United States who are independent sovereign nations. These tribes have varying capacities to manage and administer child welfare programs. Most provide some type of child welfare service to the children and families within their tribal land. However, there are no national resources to document the number of children in foster care or the extent of abuse and neglect in the families served by tribal child welfare agencies. Information is only known about those Native American/Alaska Native families and children who are reported to state child protection agencies. Native American children represented 0.9% of all children in the United States in the late 1990s, but they comprised 3.1% of the substitute care population in state-run child welfare systems (Morrison, et al., 2010). Incident rates of child welfare referrals, substantiated referrals, and foster care placement among Native American children and families are relatively high compared to other ethnic groups (Earle & Cross, 2001) but precise interpretation of Native American status is difficult due to variations in child welfare reporting systems (Magruder & Shaw, 2008). PMID:23444794

  15. Reforming social services: the institutional and organizational context of the HUSK program.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Tone Alm

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author provides an analysis of: (a) the institutional context that gave rise to the HUSK program, (b) the character of the HUSK program, and (c) the consequences of the reform of the organizational context in which the HUSK program was implemented-the fundamental reorganization of the labor and welfare services which occurred as a result of the "NAV reform." Local social insurance services, employment services, and social welfare services were merged into one joint NAV office. While the NAV reform was focused on organizational restructuring and integration of three formerly separate services, the HUSK program was focused on development of the professional competence of social workers only and on extensive service user involvement. While HUSK, based on the logic of professionalism, could bypass organization, the NAV reform placed the logic of organization at the forefront. The NAV reform and the HUSK program became parallel developmental processes with weak ties. PMID:25662081

  16. The English and Swedish health care reforms.

    PubMed

    Glennerster, H; Matsaganis, M

    1994-01-01

    England and Sweden have two of the most advanced systems of universal access to health care in the world. Both have begun major reforms based on similar principles. Universal access and finance from taxation are retained, but a measure of competition between providers of health care is introduced. The reforms therefore show a movement toward the kind of approach advocated by some in the United States. This article traces the origins and early results of the two countries' reform efforts. PMID:8034391

  17. Reforming the Canadian security state: the Royal Canadian Mounted Police security service and the ‘Key Sectors’ program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Hewitt

    2002-01-01

    Although a significant component of Cold War domestic security, counter-subversion has not received the same attention as counterespionage in recent historical writing. This article examines one aspect of the history of counter-subversion, specifically an internal attempt by the Canadian Security Service to reform itself in the face of the social change of the 1960s. ‘Key Sectors’ attempted to modernize the

  18. The effects of economic reform on health insurance and the financial burden for urban workers in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teh-Wei Hu; Michael Ong; Zi-Hua Lin; Elizabeth Li

    1999-01-01

    Since 1980, Chinese enterprises have been undergoing reforms in employment practice, taxation, and workers' health|welfare benefits coverage. In particular, Chinese businesses have been facing a major challenge with respect to the financial burden of providing medical benefits to their workers. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of enterprise reform on workers' health care benefits and their

  19. Special Education Finance at the Federal, State and Local Levels. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document presents the transcript of a hearing before the House Subcommittee on Education Reform concerning special education finance at the federal, state, and local levels as part of the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Highlights of the testimony include: how states are allocating the increased federal aid…

  20. Change in Health Insurance Coverage in Massachusetts and Other New England States by Perceived Health Status: Potential Impact of Health Reform

    PubMed Central

    Zack, Matthew M.; Strine, Tara W.; Druss, Benjamin G.; Simoes, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of Massachusetts health reform and its public health component (enacted in 2006) on change in health insurance coverage by perceived health. Methods. We used 2003–2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. We used a difference-in-differences framework to examine the experience in Massachusetts to predict the outcomes of national health care reform. Results. The proportion of adults aged 18 to 64 years with health insurance coverage increased more in Massachusetts than in other New England states (4.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?3.5%, 5.6%). For those with higher perceived health care need (more recent mentally and physically unhealthy days and activity limitation days [ALDs]), the postreform proportion significantly exceeded prereform (P?states—from 4.3% (95% CI?=?3.3%, 5.4%) for fewer than 14 ALDs to 9.0% (95% CI?=?4.5%, 13.5%) for 14 or more ALDs. Conclusions. On the basis of the Massachusetts experience, full implementation of the Affordable Care Act may increase health insurance coverage especially among populations with higher perceived health care need. PMID:23597359

  1. Response to science education reforms: The case of three science education doctoral programs in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwekwerere, Yovita Netsai

    Doctoral programs play a significant role in preparing future leaders. Science Education doctoral programs play an even more significant role preparing leaders in a field that is critical to maintaining national viability in the face of global competition. The current science education reforms have the goal of achieving science literacy for all students and for this national goal to be achieved; we need strong leadership in the field of science education. This qualitative study investigated how doctoral programs are preparing their graduates for leadership in supporting teachers to achieve the national goal of science literacy for all. A case study design was used to investigate how science education faculty interpreted the national reform goal of science literacy for all and how they reformed their doctoral courses and research programs to address this goal. Faculty, graduate students and recent graduates of three science education doctoral programs participated in the study. Data collection took place through surveys, interviews and analysis of course documents. Two faculty members, three doctoral candidates and three recent graduates were interviewed from each of the programs. Data analysis involved an interpretive approach. The National Research Council Framework for Investigating Influence of the National Standards on student learning (2002) was used to analyze interview data. Findings show that the current reforms occupy a significant part of the doctoral coursework and research in these three science education doctoral programs. The extent to which the reforms are incorporated in the courses and the way they are addressed depends on how the faculty members interpret the reforms and what they consider to be important in achieving the goal of science literacy for all. Whereas some faculty members take a simplistic critical view of the reform goals as a call to achieve excellence in science teaching; others take a more complex critical view where they question who 'all students' refers to and what science literacy means for learners with diverse cultural, linguistic or economic backgrounds. Faculty members' views significantly influence the nature and content of the courses as well as the program focus. It was also shown that a relationship exists between faculty views and the views of their doctoral students and recent graduates. In general, faculty exhibited narrower and more in-depth views about issues they consider being important in the field of science education, than doctoral students and recent graduates. External funding is critical in doctoral studies as it enables faculty to enact their visions of achieving science literacy for all. The study provides some implications for practice, policy and research. In order to achieve both equity and excellence in science teaching, there is need for dialogue among science educators to enable them to address issues of equity more effectively than at present. If doctoral programs are to continue preparing graduates who can address important issues in the field, there is need for external funding for specific research programs.

  2. A case study of health sector reform in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The impact of conflict on population health and health infrastructure has been well documented; however the efforts of the international community to rebuild health systems in post-conflict periods have not been systematically examined. Based on a review of relevant literature, this paper develops a framework for analyzing health reform in post-conflict settings, and applies this framework to the case study of health system reform in post-conflict Kosovo. The paper examines two questions: first, the selection of health reform measures; and second, the outcome of the reform process. It measures the success of reforms by the extent to which reform achieved its objectives. Through an examination of primary documents and interviews with key stakeholders, the paper demonstrates that the external nature of the reform process, the compressed time period for reform, and weak state capacity undermined the ability of the success of the reform program. PMID:20398389

  3. High temperature ceramic-tubed reformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Joseph J.; Rosenberg, Robert A.; McDonough, Lane J.

    1990-03-01

    The overall objective of the HiPHES project is to develop an advanced high-pressure heat exchanger for a convective steam/methane reformer. The HiPHES steam/methane reformer is a convective, shell and tube type, catalytic reactor. The use of ceramic tubes will allow reaction temperature higher than the current state-of-the-art outlet temperatures of about 1600 F using metal tubes. Higher reaction temperatures increase feedstock conversion to synthesis gas and reduce energy requirements compared to currently available radiant-box type reformers using metal tubes. Reforming of natural gas is the principal method used to produce synthesis gas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide, H2 and CO) which is used to produce hydrogen (for refinery upgrading), methanol, as well as several other important materials. The HiPHES reformer development is an extension of Stone and Webster's efforts to develop a metal-tubed convective reformer integrated with a gas turbine cycle.

  4. The Reform of Qatar University. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moini, Joy S.; Bikson, Tora K.; Neu, C. Richard; DeSisto, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the State of Qatar engaged the RAND-Qatar Policy Institute to assist Qatar University, the nation's first and only public higher education institution, with reform of its major administrative and academic structures, policies, and practices. This monograph summarizes that reform effort, which formally lasted from October 2003 through…

  5. Reform and Urban Bias in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean C. Oi

    1993-01-01

    Income inequalities between urban and rural areas remain high in China, but the gap has begun to narrow. Peasant incomes have increased dramatically since the post?Mao reforms. Rural areas have new power, but this is a consequence not a cause of the reforms. The improvement in rural conditions reflects a change in the central state's development strategy and ideology, and

  6. Utah's Educational Reform Programs, 1991-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    In November 1983, the Utah Education Reform Steering Committee issued the report "Education in Utah: A Call to Action." To meet Utah's double challenge of rapid growth and quality enhancement, the report stated that Utah needed to: (1) increase the allocation of financial resources to education; (2) demand reforms in many aspects of education; and…

  7. Rural Reforms and Agricultural Growth in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Yifu Lin

    1992-01-01

    This paper employs province-level panel data to assess the contributions of decollectivization, price adjustments, and other reforms to China's agricultural growth in the reform period. Decollectivization is found to improve total factor productivity and to account for about half of the output growth during 1978-84. The adjustment in state procurement prices also contributed positively to output growth. Its impact came

  8. Public Pension Plan Reform: The Legal Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    There is significant interest in reforming retirement plans for public school employees, particularly in light of current market conditions. This article presents an overview of the various types of state regulation of public pension plans that affect possibilities for reform. Nearly all of the various approaches to public pension plan protection…

  9. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, Second Session on Examination of the Family Contribution Schedule for the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant Program for Use in Academic Year 1975-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    The hearings before the subcommittee on education of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress on the examination of the family contribution schedule for the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant Program for use in academic year 1975-1976 are presented. Testimony and supporting evidence are included. (MJM)

  10. State Efforts to Comply with Federal Child Welfare Reviews. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Second Session (May 13, 2004). Serial Number 108-54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US House of Representatives, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this hearing is on State efforts to comply with Federal child welfare review requirements related to safety, permanency, and child and family well-being. This document commences with the Advisory of May 6, 2004, announcing the hearing. This is followed by witness testimonies from: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,…

  11. Obtaining sensitive information from a wary population: a comparison of telephone and face-to-face surveys of welfare recipients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Damphousse, Kelly R; Moore, Rebecca K

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies reveal the benefits of technological developments such as audio computer assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) in interview methodology, especially for surveys of sensitive behavior and information. However, we believe that the selection of mode of administration depends not only on the technology available and the behavior of interest, but also on the specific population under study. We therefore assess survey mode effects on reported rates of alcohol and drug use among welfare recipients, an especially important group for scholars and public health agencies. The sample consisted of adult recipients of Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) in Oklahoma, January 2001. Adjusting for demographic characteristics, employment, and education, we employ odds ratios to compare 30-day, 1 year, and lifetime prevalence estimates from telephone and face-to-face surveys. Telephone methodology yields similar or higher estimates for lifetime prevalence of alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use and abuse, though lower estimates of recent use. We discuss our findings in relation to underfunded public health agencies that must efficiently assess and respond to local levels of drug abuse and we conclude that mode selection may depend upon the population under study. PMID:15955399

  12. Chicago school reform: An elementary school undergoes probation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Wulf Blumofe

    2001-01-01

    This study explores the process of Probation as a tool for School Reform used in an urban school district of 550 Chicago elementary and secondary schools. A School Reform Act passed by the State of Illinois legislature defined the remediation process and delineated the eligible school sites. Chicago schools were subject to reforms and interventions when less than 15% of

  13. PRIVATIZATION AND PUBLIC ENTERPRISE REFORM: A SUGGESTIVE ACTION PLAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simrit Kaur

    2004-01-01

    Introducing reforms for the State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) has been an integral part of the reform process initiated in India since 1990s. While reforming, the concerns about ownership, competition and regulation, which have a direct bearing on the issue of the relative performance of publicly owned and privately owned firms have been adequately looked into. This paper focuses on the

  14. Do Welfare States Raise Welfare(d) Kids? Day-Care Institutions and Inequality in the Danish Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringsmose, Charlotte; Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra; Allerup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on early-childhood education quality globally, reflecting a growing political awareness that education starts earlier than primary school, and that high quality in day-care influence children's learning and development. In Denmark, almost all children attend day-care, and day-care institutions are considered part…

  15. How to delineate the sow's welfare needs.

    PubMed

    Baxter, M R; Baxter, S H

    1984-01-01

    The way in which farm animal welfare is appraised at present, as exemplified by the UK codes of welfare, suffers three faults; firstly welfare is not systematically analysed, secondly welfare requirements are described in little detail and thirdly there is no published technical justification for the recommendations. An approach which can overcome all of these problems is outlined in the paper. This approach sets out to describe sow welfare as the sow perceives it and, then to translate each welfare element into quantifiable variables with defined boundaries of welfare acceptability. Thirteen elements of welfare requirements are proposed for domestic sows. It is concluded that such an approach should improve the depth in which we investigate welfare requirements and give codes of recommendations more consistency over time and greater longevity. PMID:6486699

  16. Facing the challenge of a changing system: training child welfare workers in a privatized environment.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Debora M; Levy, Michelle M

    2002-01-01

    The state of Kansas' implementation of a privatized child welfare system is arguably an ambitious shift in child welfare service delivery. In an attempt to drastically improve services to vulnerable families, privatization resulted in intended and unintended consequences for the child welfare workforce. Some of these consequences, including the influx of inexperienced new workers, high worker turnover, and managing relationships with multiple partners, are issues that affect training needs of child welfare professionals. The following paper offers one approach to addressing these needs as well as identifying the challenges involved in training in a privatized environment. PMID:12705471

  17. A State of the Field Study of Child Welfare Services for Migrant Children and Their Families Who are In-Stream, Home-Based, or Settled-Out. Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porteous, Sandra McClure

    Part of a study of migrant child welfare services, this review synthesizes all available materials on the issues affecting migrant child welfare. Each chapter discusses the importance of a particular service area, assesses the migrant child's needs in that area, describes existing barriers to service delivery, and presents a history and the…

  18. LEAVE AND PAY EXCEPTION REPORT (LAPER): GUIDELINES FOR OPS CONTRACT EMPLOYEES (Work Group: OPSC) In compliance with the federal Affordable Care Act (ACA) healthcare reform legislation and Florida state law expanding healthcare coverage to

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    ) In compliance with the federal Affordable Care Act (ACA) healthcare reform legislation and Florida state law OPSC has been modified to include a new Time Reporting Code ­ ACA. The ACA Time Reporting Code employees in the following positions and job codes are excluded from submitting hours for ACA reporting

  19. Enterprise reform in Eastern Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sweder van Wijnbergen

    1993-01-01

    Enterprise reform is emerging as the core economic problem in Eastern Europe. As privatization has been delayed, a new problem has emerged, largely unanticipated by outside advisers: It is probably possible to run a clear-cut state enterprise efficiently, and it is certainly possible to get efficient performance from a private enterprise. But it is utterly impossible to get anything like

  20. The 1980 Child Welfare Act: A Turning Point for Children and Troubled Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, John A.

    1980-01-01

    The implications of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-272) are discussed in terms of federal-state relations, service delivery, costs, accountability, and other factors affecting the welfare of children from troubled families. (DB)

  1. Welfare, Child Support, and Strategic Behavior: Do High Orders and Low Disregards Discourage Child Support Awards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research has documented strategic behavior in response to child support policy. Parents of children on welfare have an incentive to avoid formal child support, since most states limit the amount of formal child support that women on welfare can receive (the "disregard") and have relatively high child support orders for low-income…

  2. Welfare Graduates: College and Financial Independence. Policy Notes 1998/1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karier, Thomas

    A study evaluated the performance of 253 welfare recipients who listed Aid to Families with Dependent Children as an income source and graduated from Eastern Washington University (EWU) between September 1994 and August 1996. Graduates' wages were obtained from the state Employment Securities Division; current welfare status was established…

  3. An Assessment of the Privatization of Child Welfare Services: Challenges and Successes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn; Gerstenzang, Sarah

    Many government bodies and policymakers have embraced privatization of child welfare services, while others question whether privatization is truly more cost-effective or provides the best services. This book reports on six states' efforts to privatize their child welfare systems and their varying levels of success. This research documents the…

  4. Finding the Return on Investment: A Framework for Monitoring Local Child Welfare Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulczyn, Fred H.; Orlebeke, Britany; Haight, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    From year to year, child welfare directors allocate resources in the hope that their efforts will improve children's outcomes. Recently, with the help of the federal government, states have invested significant resources in the sort of information technology needed to run a smarter, more accountable child welfare system. In addition, science has…

  5. An Educational Model for Child Welfare Practice with English-Speaking Caribbean Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carten, Alma; Goodman, Harriet

    2005-01-01

    Implemented in New York City, the Child Welfare Fellowship Project is an international collaboration between social work educators in the United States and Jamaica, the West Indies, the public child welfare agency, and selected community-based agencies. This model educational program prepared selected Masters of Social Work (MSW) Fellowship…

  6. Accountability and Abdication: School Reform and Urban School Districts in the Era of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Michael E.; Noblit, George W.; Brayboy, Bryan; Cozart, Sheryl

    2007-01-01

    The current school reform era has moved through a series of phases, coupling state centralization with a focus on school-level change at each step. Yet this era of reform also has a deeper history. Its deeper history reveals the dynamics that would plague the school reform era until the present day. While the school reform era seemed to focus on…

  7. Contrasts in China and Soviet reform: Sub?national and national causes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongyi Harry Lai

    2005-01-01

    Why did reform in China and the former Soviet Union produce drastically different outcomes? Why did some provinces in China embrace faster economic reform than others? This article argues that the state sector and reform initiatives in the sub?national units, reform strategies, entrenchment and maturation of central planning, the size of the defence industry, policy choice and the historical context

  8. Successful reentry into the workplace: a case study of the experiences of female welfare recipients participating in two job training programs

    E-print Network

    Tucker, Jo B.

    2007-04-25

    . Welfare reform can become a ladder of opportunity for welfare recipients, providing a living income and benefits such as health insurance if research can help discern which program elements give power, strength and competence to those seeking job...) (Kingfisher & Goldsmith, 2001) intended to provided a minimal income to poor families with children deprived of parental support or care because their father or mother is absent from the home continuously, is incapacitated, is deceased, or is unemployed...

  9. RCRA Cleanup Reforms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Concerns over the progress in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) cleanup efforts since 1984 have prompted the Environmental Protection Agency to publish "RCRA Cleanup Reforms," which describes the implementation process of these administrative reforms.

  10. Welfare Entitlements: Addressing New Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Jon R.; Fandetti, Donald V.

    1995-01-01

    Because welfare entitlements are increasingly unpopular, social work advocates need to place greater emphasis on job growth and alternate mechanisms for wealth redistribution, including refundable tax credits for working poor people. The Internal Revenue Code can be an effective weapon in combating poverty if antipoverty approaches in the code are…

  11. MEDICAL CENTRE Welfare W tch

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTRE Welfare W tch Medical Centre Health Check Patient Participation THE RESPONSE. #12;INTRODUCTION The University Medical Centre is a GP Practice on the campus of the University Medical Centre and our practice population is made up of approximately 75% 16-24 year olds. The Medical

  12. Helping Minor Firms Reduces Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sajal Lahiri; Yoshiyasu Ono

    1988-01-01

    The effect on national welfare of uneven technical progress and eli mination of a firm is analyzed under the existence of a Cournot oligopolistic sector. An increase in the share of an inefficient firm, owing to its innovations, results in a shift of production from more efficient firms to the inefficient firm, causing a less efficie nt allocation of production.

  13. Outcome Measurement in Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguar, Stephen; Moses, Beth S.

    1980-01-01

    The Child Welfare League of America surveyed the structured methods used by agencies to measure case outcome. The findings indicate a need to develop improved measures of effectiveness. Criteria for measures suitable to meet acountability requirements and problems in outcome measurement are discussed. (Author/RH)

  14. Gender Biases in Child Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Risley-Curtiss; Kristin Heffernan

    2003-01-01

    Gender biases are pervasive in child welfare research and practice. Although these biases have been addressed to some extent in the literature, there continues to be a lack of information on fathers and an overrepresentation of information on mothers, and thus the biases continue. This article explores how these biases are currently manifested in both research and practice and makes

  15. Immigrants and Welfare Reauthorization. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremstad, Shawn

    Until the 1996 welfare law (which conditioned eligibility on citizenship status) was passed, legal immigrants were generally as eligible for public benefits as citizens. The immigrant restrictions have proven to be extremely controversial. In 1997, Congress restored Supplemental Security Income to most immigrants who were already in the country…

  16. PURDUE UNIVERSITY ANIMAL WELFARE ASSURANCE

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    PURDUE UNIVERSITY A3231-01 ANIMAL WELFARE ASSURANCE In accordance with the PHS Policy for Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals I, Peter E. Dunn, Ph.D., as named Institutional Official for animal and Use of Laboratory Animals, hereinafter referred to as PHS Policy. I. Applicability This Assurance

  17. Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare National Institutes of Health PublicHealthService PolicyonHumane Care and Use of LaboratoryAnimals #12;Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals Revised August, 2002 #12;Preface This 2002 reprint of the Public Health Service (PHS) Policy

  18. Gender and the Development of Welfare Regimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane. Lewis

    1992-01-01

    This paper builds on the idea that any further development of the concept of 'welfare regime' must incorporate the relationship between unpaid as well as paid work and welfare. Consideration of the privateldomestic is crucial to a gendered understanding of welfare because historically women have typically gained entitlements by virtue of their dependent status within the family as wives and

  19. Evidence-based drug treatment practice and the child welfare system: the example of methadone.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Lena M; Schilling, Robert F; Peloquin, Susan D

    2005-01-01

    This article examined the extent to which methadone maintenance (MM) is considered a treatment alternative for drug-dependent parents, as reflected in the social work and child welfare literature and in child welfare policies. Findings were derived from a review of 15 social work journals published from 1996 through 2002 and from a review of child welfare policies in 27 states in regard to treatment recommendations for substance-abusing parents. These reviews found that 23 articles focused on child welfare-substance abuse issues; no article specifically discussed MM as a treatment option for heroin-using parents; and of the 27 states, only three included methadone as a treatment option in their child welfare policy recommendations. Practice and policy recommendations are discussed. PMID:15688680

  20. Californians and Immigration Reform

    E-print Network

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    June 2013 Californians and Immigration Reform Alternatives Jack Citrin Morris Levy Gabriel Lenz about immigration reform remains a com- plex subject," said IGS Director Jack Citrin, who led the re IGS Survey, June 2013 Californians and Immigration Reform Alternatives2 Citrin, who developed

  1. THE HISTORY OF SOCIAL WORK AND SOCIAL WELFARE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie Leighninger

    2007-01-01

    Social work as a profession grew chiefly out of the development of social welfare policies and programs in the United States, Europe, and Muslim countries. Judeo-Christian and Muslim practices and beliefs underlie many of the early attempts to provide help to the poor, the sick, widows, orphans, the \\

  2. South Dakota Indian Recipients of Social Welfare, December 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Social Services, Pierre. Div. of Program Analysis.

    Because American Indians are the largest minority group in South Dakota and because they are known to be among the most poverty stricken in the Nation, South Dakota annually reports on the extent to which the group depends on welfare payments. The report, prepared by the Program Analysis Section of the State Department of Social Services, analyzes…

  3. Part-Time Social Workers in Public Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalyst, New York, NY.

    A demonstration project in Boston, Massachusetts, designed to meet critical needs in public service by providing part-time jobs for able women with families, chose 50 mature women college graduates from over 1,500 who were interested and 173 who were interviewed. Working half-time for 2 years in the State Department of Public Welfare, they…

  4. Child Welfare League of America 1997 Salary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Patrick A.; Laitin, Anna

    This report details a study of trends in the salaries of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and other personnel at member agencies of the Child Welfare League of America. Responding to the study's mail survey were 377 out of 780 member agencies (48 percent return) and 327 out of 640 direct service CWLA agencies (51 percent return), including state

  5. Status of animal welfare awareness of producers and direction of animal welfare research in the future.

    PubMed

    Albright, J L

    1983-10-01

    Most producers are as humane in their thinking and care of animals as are those people involved in the many activist organizations springing up around the United States. That there are no major problems of animal welfare with the dairy cow posed by changes of systems has been suggested. However, veal producers have been criticized for their production practices. The major areas to be resolved between animal welfare advocates and commercial veal producers is the matter of individual pens versus group systems that permit general freedom of movement. Recent developments of dairy cattle management that have improved the comfort and well-being of dairy cattle include raising of calves in individual pens or hutches; exercise prior to calving; change of flooring (grooving of concrete, use of dirt exercise lots, elimination of slats); use of free stalls rather than loose housing; use of materials to keep cows dry, clean, out of the mud, cool, and free from flies and pests; and elimination of stray voltage. Design of a system for animal welfare is only part of the solution. The most important factor in determining stress in the herd is the behavior, attitude, and consistency of the caretaker. PMID:6358291

  6. Education Reform, Race, and Politics in Bahia, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Reiter

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the main findings and conclusions from my field research evaluating education reform in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Data collection was done during two exploratory research trips to Salvador, the state capital, in 2001 and in 2005. The Bahian Education Reform, initiated by the state government in 1999 and funded to a great extent by the World

  7. Health related social exclusion in Europe: a multilevel study of the role of welfare generosity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between health, social position, social participation and the welfare state. Extending recent research on the social consequences of poor health, we asked whether and how welfare generosity is related to the risk of social exclusion associated with combinations of poor health, low education and economic inactivity. Methods Our analyses are based on data from the European Social Survey, round 3 (2006/7), comprising between 21,205 and 21,397 individuals, aged 25–59 years, within 21 European welfare states. The analyses were conducted by means of multilevel logistic regression analysis in STATA 12. Results The results demonstrated that the risk of non-participation in social networks decreased as welfare generosity increased. The risk of social exclusion, i.e. non-participation in social networks among disadvantaged groups, seldom differed from the overall association, and in absolute terms it was invariably smaller in more generous welfare state contexts. Conclusions The results showed that there were no indications of higher levels of non-participation among disadvantaged groups in more generous welfare states. On the contrary, resources made available by the welfare state seemed to matter to all individuals in terms of overall lower levels of non-participation. As such, these results demonstrate the importance of linking health related social exclusion to the social policy context. PMID:24073744

  8. Massachusetts health care reform: is it working?

    PubMed

    McAdoo, Joshua; Irving, Julian; Deslich, Stacie; Coustasse, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Before 2006, Massachusetts had more than 500 000 residents who lacked health insurance. Governor Mitt Romney enacted landmark legislation requiring all residents to obtain health insurance. Also, the legislation established a health insurance exchange for the purpose of broadening the choices of insurance plans made available to individuals in the state. The purpose of this research was to assess the Massachusetts health care reform in terms of access, cost, and sustainability. The methodology used was a literature review from 2006 to 2013; a total of 43 references were used. Health reform resulted in additional overall state spending of $2.42 billion on Medicaid for Massachusetts. Since the 2006 reform, 401 000 additional residents have obtained insurance. The number of Massachusetts residents who had access to health care increased substantially after the health care reform was enacted, to 98.1% of residents. The Massachusetts health care reform has not saved money for the state; its funding has been covered by Federal spending. However, reform has been sustained over time because of the high percentage of state residents who have supported the state mandate to obtain health care coverage. PMID:24168866

  9. Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Martins, Catarina I M; Galhardo, Leonor; Noble, Chris; Damsgĺrd, Břrge; Spedicato, Maria T; Zupa, Walter; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Carter, Toby; Planellas, Sňnia Rey; Kristiansen, Tore

    2012-02-01

    Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and reward-related operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of scientific agreement about the existence of sentience in fish, the possibility that they are capable of both positive and negative emotions may contribute to the development of new strategies (e.g. environmental enrichment) to promote good welfare. Numerous studies that use behavioural indicators of welfare show that behavioural changes can be interpreted as either good or poor welfare depending on the fish species. It is therefore essential to understand the species-specific biology before drawing any conclusions in relation to welfare. In addition, different individuals within the same species may exhibit divergent coping strategies towards stressors, and what is tolerated by some individuals may be detrimental to others. Therefore, the assessment of welfare in a few individuals may not represent the average welfare of a group and vice versa. This underlines the need to develop on-farm, operational behavioural welfare indicators that can be easily used to assess not only the individual welfare but also the welfare of the whole group (e.g. spatial distribution). With the ongoing development of video technology and image processing, the on-farm surveillance of behaviour may in the near future represent a low-cost, noninvasive tool to assess the welfare of farmed fish. PMID:21796377

  10. College Counseling in High Schools: Advising State Policy. The Progress of Education Reform. Volume 15, Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer Dounay

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many states have set ambitious postsecondary completion or attainment goals, driven in part by concerns that other OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) nations are outpacing the United States in the number of adults holding a postsecondary credential. While the U.S. has made modest gains since 2000 in the…

  11. The State of the Child: National Perspectives. DIPOV Indices and Related Indicators of Child Health and Welfare for Each State and County of the United States, 1970 - 1972. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Leonard S.; And Others

    This document presents statistical data on United States children and discusses the DIPOV Index, a set of indicators developed by the Center for Social Research, City University of New York, that might be used to describe "the state of the child" in the nation. DIPOV is an acronym for five intercorrelated factors related to an underlying dimension…

  12. Social Service Availability & Proximity And The Over-Representation Of Minority Children in Child Welfare 

    E-print Network

    Bathman, Jake; Foster, David; Ingels, Laura; Lee, Chongmyoung; Miramontes, Claudia; Youngblood, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The capstone group assessed whether child welfare services were available and proximal in predominantly low income, black areas with high foster care rates in three southern cities. GIS mapping of services contained in a State 211 community services...

  13. Implementing State Health Care Reform: What Have We Learned from the First Year? The First Annual Report of the Evaluation of Health Reform in Five States. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Wooldridge; Leighton Ku; Teresa Coughlin; Lisa Dubay; Marilyn Ellwood; Shruti Rajan; Sheila Hoag

    1996-01-01

    Looks at first-year experiences in HI, RI, and TN, finding quick design, limited opportunities for stakeholder input, and implementation problems, especially with enrollment. All three states were able to attract and retain managed care organizations in the first year.

  14. Saying yes to taxes: the politics of tax reform campaigns in three northwestern states, 1965-1973.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes factors shaping popular support for new taxes by examining variation in the outcomes of votes in nine American states during the 1960s and early 1970s. New taxes were endorsed in five states but rejected in four. Using comparative and historical methods focused on the cases of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, the author argues that the sequence of policy making shapes popular vetoes through three mechanisms: the mobilization of interest groups, the information available to voters about a policy, and how the costs and benefits of a policy appear to voters. The findings demonstrate that voter perceptions of the potential gains and losses of a new policy are sociologically mobilized through the policy process. Controlling when popular veto points appear in a policy process is an understudied strategy that is employed by American state builders to overcome ambivalence toward the fiscal imperatives of the activist state. PMID:25097929

  15. An economic analysis of the welfare crisis in Texas

    E-print Network

    Ledbetter, Harry Laughlin

    1972-01-01

    Medical Services Utilization of Medical Services The Growth of Medicaid Expenditures Hypothesis I: Medicaid Attracts Welfare Applicants Test Number 1: Test Number 2: Test Number 3: Summary Rate of Change in Caseloads Distri'oution of Grants... OF TABLES TABLE Page I. Medical Assistance Expenditures, State Funds II. Caseloads and Medical Expenditures 18 20 III. AFDC Caseloads and Medical Expenditures, State Funds 23 IV. Distribution of Payments to Aid to Families with Dependent Children 24...

  16. Contesting Reform: Bernstein's Pedagogic Device and Madrasah Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the active role played by various pedagogic agents in contesting the state educational reforms for madrasahs in Singapore. Drawing upon Basil Bernstein's pedagogic device, the paper identifies tensions and challenges that arise from the attempts by the state to implement curriculum reforms. The paper contends that the stakes…

  17. Neoliberalism, Social Darwinism, and Consumerism Masquerading as School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2013-01-01

    Education reform policies harvested from neoliberalism, social Darwinism, consumerism, and free-market ideologies have begun to replace the pragmatic progressivism of the pre-World War II era. In this article, I use three federal and state education reform policies and programs--No Child Left Behind Act, Common Core State Standards Initiative, and…

  18. Ethical Study on the Reform and Development of Medical and Health Services in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tong-Wei; Li, En-Chang

    2015-07-01

    At an early stage of its foundation, new China became clear about the nature of public welfare and quickly developed medical and health services, which was well received by the World Health Organization. The marketization and the reduction of input into medical and health services from the 1980s created severe adverse consequences. After the SARS' outbreak in 2003, China started to give serious consideration to its medical and health system, and to work at developing medical and health services. The new healthcare reform launched in 2009 re-emphasizes fairness and public welfare, and China's achievements have been remarkable. Of course, there are still many problems to be solved in the reform, which also paves the way for increasing the reform in future. PMID:25395061

  19. The Diffusion of Governance Reform in American Public Education: An Event History Analysis of State Takeover and Charter School Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.; Langevin, Warren E.

    2005-01-01

    The political tradition of local school governance predates the existence of the United States. Yet the most prominent mechanisms for the exercise of local discretion have evolved considerably from their colonial origins in response to the changing political climate of the nation, constituent demands, and legislative innovation. Recognizing the…

  20. Religious Education Reform under the US Military Occupation: The Interpretation of State Shinto in Japan and Nazism in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Masako

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the treatment of religion in Japanese education in the post-World War Two period. During the Allied Military Occupation, Japan adopted the principle of the separation of state and religion as a means to democratize the totalitarian, ethno-nationalistic education system of pre-1945. The case of Germany is also dealt with here…

  1. Workers' compensation reform in New York State: A proposal to address medical, ergonomic, and psychological factors associated with work disability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Feuerstein

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents testimony before the New York State Assembly Joint Hearings on Workers' Compensation. The testimony first establishes the background of the speaker in relation to the problems in the workers' compensation system. A brief summary of the problem including the increased prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and their contribution to work disability, the rising costs of insurance premiums,

  2. Formula for Success: Adding High-Quality Pre-K to State School Funding Formulas. Education Reform Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Ellen; White, Shad

    2010-01-01

    Families, teachers and policy makers increasingly understand that high-quality pre-kindergarten is a critical part of children's educational experience. In 13 states and the District of Columbia, Pre-K programs are financed through the school funding formula. This report, co-written with the Education Law Center, discussed the benefits and…

  3. Progressive Reformers and the Democratic Origins of Citizenship Education in the United States during the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Kathryn L.

    2013-01-01

    The birth of formal citizenship education in the United States emerged in the context of mass immigration, the Progressive Movement, and the First World War. Wartime citizenship education has been chastised for its emphasis on patriotism and loyalty, and while this is a trend, historians have minimised the ways in which the democratic goals of the…

  4. Bank Time Deposit Rates and Market Discipline in Poland: The Impact of State Ownership and Deposit Insurance Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas S. Mondschean; Timothy P. Opiela

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of ownership structure and changes in the deposit insurance system on the market for bank time deposits in Poland. In an environment of less restrictive bank supervision and a deposit insurance policy that favored state banks, we find that depositors exacted a price for risk-taking. After a new law increasing insurance coverage for private banks

  5. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region. PMID:25000776

  6. Higher Education Reform in Italy: Tightening Regulation Instead of Steering at a Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donina, Davide; Meoli, Michele; Paleari, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In December 2010, a comprehensive reform (Law 240/2010, or "Gelmini reform") changed the institutional governance and internal organization of Italian state universities. This paper investigates the redefinition of the state role in the light of public management reform narratives, linking them to the Governance Equalizer Model to…

  7. Breaking the cycle? The effect of education on welfare receipt among children of welfare recipients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. Coelli; David A. Green; William P. Warburton

    2007-01-01

    We examine the impact of high school graduation on the probability individuals from welfare backgrounds use welfare themselves. Our data consist of administrative educational records for grade 12 students in a Canadian province linked with their own and their parents' welfare records. We address potential endogeneity problems by: 1) controlling for ability using past test scores; 2) using an instrument

  8. Societal Factors Impacting Child Welfare: Validating the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Zeitlin, Wendy; Augsberger, Astraea; McGowan, Brenda G.; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This research examines the psychometric properties of the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale (PCWS). This instrument is designed to assess child welfare workers' understanding of how society views their role and their work. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was utilized to analyze data on 538 child welfare workers. Results:…

  9. Public Welfare and Work Incentives: Theory and Practice. Studies in Public Welfare. Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Vee; Townsend, Alair A.

    This chart book summarizes two volumes in the subcommittee's series, "Studies in Public Welfare." Paper No. 4 (Dec. 22, 1972) explored work incentive and disincentive features in existing and proposed public welfare programs (cash welfare, unemployment insurance, social security, veterans' benefits, food stamps, public housing, and medicaid).…

  10. Biodiversity Curriculum that Supports Education Reform

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeanette Wilson

    Environmental educators in many states are finding that reform efforts are constraining the time they have to prepare and teach new activities. Therefore, they may find it appropriate to develop materials that address environmental education (EE) needs as well as augmenting state reform goals. This study provides an example in which a biodiversity curriculum guide, using the "Linking Florida's Natural Heritage" database, successfully infuses environmental concepts with the writing benchmarks of Florida's Sunshine State Standards (SSS). When measured by the same rubric used for the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT), writing skills rose significantly after students used the five lesson biodiversity supplement.

  11. School Reform. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue addresses school reform, focusing on accountability, attrition, public-supported private education, equitable education, and schoolwide reform. "School-Student Performance and Accountability" (Jose A. Cardenas) discusses what constitutes good performance in school; the shifting emphasis among the input, output, and process of…

  12. Thinking about Tax Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boskin, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Providing pre-college teachers with an analysis of tax reform is the primary goal of this publication. The present tax system is both inefficient and inequitable. Three goals of tax reform proposals are detailed: (1) fairness--the dimensions of horizontal equity, or equal treatment of equals however defined, and vertical equity, reflecting the…

  13. Reforms as experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald T. Campbell

    1969-01-01

    Contends that programs of social reform are not effectively assessed. This article is a preliminary effort in examining the sources of this condition and designing ways of overcoming the difficulties. The political setting of program evaluation is also considered. It is concluded that trapped and experimental administrators are not threatened by a hard-headed analysis of the reform. For such, proper

  14. Self-Harm in Laboratory-Housed Primates: Where Is the Evidence That the Animal Welfare Act Amendment Has Worked?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Balcombe; Hope Ferdowsian; Debra Durham

    2011-01-01

    The 1985 amendment to the United States Animal Welfare Act (AWA) to promote psychological well being of primates in the laboratory represents an acknowledgment of an important welfare problem concerning nonhuman animals. How effective has this amendment been? Perhaps the best-known contributor to psychological distress in primates in the laboratory is nonsocial housing; yet, available analyses suggest that little progress

  15. 76 FR 76235 - Ex Parte Cease and Desist and Summary Seizure Orders-Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ...an immediate danger to the public safety or welfare; or (3...organizations, or other members of the public, the Secretary, or a State...knowing concealment of facts in relation to documents required by ERISA...an immediate danger to the public safety or welfare. Under...

  16. Departments of Labor and Health, Education, and Welfare and Related Agencies Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1977. Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations. United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, Second Session. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Appropriations.

    This publication is a comprehensive record of testimony and exhibits presented to a subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations of the U.S. Senate during hearings on 1977 budget requests for the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW). The hearings transcribed here were held January 29-February 2, 1976 and concerned appropriations…

  17. Departments of Labor and Health, Education, and Welfare and Related Agencies Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1980. Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations. United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Appropriations.

    Presented is testimony given before the Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Appropriations regarding the Departments of Labor and Health, Education, and Welfare and related agencies appropriations for fiscal year 1980. Statements are included from representatives of such agencies and organizations as the United Transportation Union, the…

  18. The stability of coerced economic reform : the case of IPR

    E-print Network

    Wilcox, Trudy

    2005-01-01

    Theories in international relations posit, and empirical evidence has verified, that unwilling states can be compelled by another state or by an international institution to enact domestic policy reform. However, these ...

  19. Reforming Science: Methodological and Cultural Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture. PMID:22184414

  20. The establishment of a primary spine care practitioner and its benefits to health care reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the dramatic increase in health care costs in the United States has not led to a corresponding improvement in the health care experience of patients or the clinical outcomes of medical care. In no area of medicine is this more true than in the area of spine related disorders (SRDs). Costs of medical care for SRDs have skyrocketed in recent years. Despite this, there is no evidence of improvement in the quality of this care. In fact, disability related to SRDs is on the rise. We argue that one of the key solutions to this is for the health care system to have a group of practitioners who are trained to function as primary care practitioners for the spine. We explain the reasons we think a primary spine care practitioner would be beneficial to patients, the health care system and society, some of the obstacles that will need to be overcome in establishing a primary spine care specialty and the ways in which these obstacles can be overcome. PMID:21777444

  1. Applied Welfare Economics with Discrete Choice Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harvey Rosen; Kenneth A. Small

    1981-01-01

    Economists have been paying increasing attention to the study of situations in which consumers face a discrete rather than a continuous set of choices. Such models are potentially very important in evaluating the impact of government programs upon consumer welfare. But very little has been said in general regarding the tools of applied welfare economics indiscrete choice situations. This paper

  2. Self-rated economic welfare in Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Ravallion; Michael Lokshin

    2002-01-01

    Most of those Russian adults who feel that they are poor are not classified as such in the poverty statistics, and most of those who are classified as poor don't feel that way. We study the determinants of peoples’ perceptions of their economic welfare in an unusually rich socioeconomic survey. While income is a highly significant predictor, subjective economic welfare

  3. CHAPTER 4: WELFARE OF GESTATING SOWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The welfare of sows during gestation continues to be a controversial topic, with both close confinement systems, such as stalls, and loose-housing, group-based systems both having welfare advantages and disadvantages. Within the European Union, legislation has already been enacted that prohibits the...

  4. Youth At-Risk of Welfare Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, April

    1999-01-01

    This issue of WIN (Welfare Information Network) Issue Notes focuses on the tendency of children from low-income families to drop out of high school, become teen parents, become involved in drug-related activities, and become involved in other activities that place them at high risk of long-term welfare dependency. Section 1 offers the background.…

  5. Social Justice and Welfare State in Decline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Ingrid

    Many of the educational changes during the last decade are international in respect to both form and content. Behind the global flow of ideas and ideologies, there is an accelerated competition for positions at the marketplace. The role of education in the new liberal rhetoric is explicitly to give direct and substantial economic results.…

  6. On the Road to Reform: A Sociocultural Interpretation of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I discuss how reform in science education is interpreted by Barma as she recounts the story of Catherine, a grade 9 biology teacher, who reforms her teaching practices in response to a national curriculum reform in Quebec, Canada. Unlike some cases in response to reform, this case is hopeful and positive. Also in this paper, I…

  7. Systemic Reform, Equity, and School Finance Reform: Essential Policy Linkages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn A. Hirth

    1996-01-01

    There is an unquestionable connection between systemic reform, equity, and school finance reform that requires the attention of educators and policymakers at all levels of government. Instead of disconnected reform initiatives prevalent in the 1980s, the 1990s is the beginning of a new era of educational reform that strives for coordination, integration, and cohesion around a clear set of outcomes.

  8. Welfare and adolescent sex: The effects of family history, benefit levels, and community context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin A. Moore; Donna Ruane Morrison; Dana A. Glei

    1995-01-01

    To examine whether welfare serves as an incentive to early childbearing, this article explores the first steps in the process\\u000a of becoming a teenage parent: risk of first voluntary sexual intercourse at an early age and, among teens having sex, contraceptive\\u000a use at first intercourse. Alternative operationalizations of welfare include the AFDC benefit level in the state of residence,\\u000a the

  9. “In these bleak days”: Parent methamphetamine abuse and child welfare in the rural Midwest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Haight; Teresa Jacobsen; James Black; Linda Kingery; Kathryn Sheridan; Cray Mulder

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the impact of parent methamphetamine abuse on the development and well-being of school-aged children, and considers implications for culturally appropriate child welfare services. Thirty-five adult informants from several, adjacent rural Midwestern counties in the United States were interviewed as part of a larger ethnographic study. These child welfare workers, other community professionals (educators, counselors, law enforcement personnel,

  10. Is Work Enough?: The Experiences of Current and Former Welfare Mothers Who Work

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bowie, Stan.

    2001-01-01

    The Manpower Research Demonstration Corporation (MRDC) issued this report last month detailing the experiences of working mothers who were formerly on welfare. The report is drawn from survey data and ethnographic interviews collected by the Project on Devolution and Urban Change, which studied welfare reform in Cleveland, Los Angeles, Miami, and Philadelphia. Among the more distressing findings, Is Work Enough? reports that about half of the women surveyed were working at the time they were interviewed; however, most of those women were in low wage jobs and living below the poverty level. Among the women who were most consistently employed, about half were in jobs with health insurance. At the MRDC site, users can read an executive survey online or download the 97-page report in .pdf format.

  11. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tasha R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  12. Get Over It! Education Reform Is Dead. Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Caren

    This book shares what one educator learned as a teacher and administrator in public and private schools and business, examining where the country is in the process of reforming public education and suggesting that it is tired out from so many reform efforts. It notes that new programs often suffocate under the latest federal, state, or district…

  13. Reforming of aqueous wood pyrolysis condensate in supercritical water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes M. L. Penninger; Marco Rep

    2006-01-01

    Conversion of real biomass into hydrogen by supercritical water reforming needs special preparation of the feed. Biomass in its natural state mostly prevails as wet carbohydrate solids, admixed with sand and soil in various compositions. The reforming technology requires a homogeneous fluid, without particulates and mineral components. Flash pyrolysis may be effective for this purpose as exploratory tests show with

  14. Constructing School Organization Through Metaphor: Making Sense of School Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nolia Camblin Brandt

    2004-01-01

    Constructing School Organization Through Metaphor: Making Sense of School Reform is an in-depth case study of a K-12 laboratory school affiliated with a major state university. The school was undergoing a series of significant changes, mainly due to mandates brought about through educational reform policy and the upcoming loss and replacement of their school facilities. The study was of a

  15. Standards of Competence: Propositions on the Nature of Testing Reforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Catherine Ellwein; Gene V Glass; Mary Lee Smith

    1988-01-01

    A multisite investigation of local school districts and states led to the formulation of five propositions that address the nature of competency testing reforms. Two propositions address the determination of standards and examine the extent to which such procedures are affected by political and practical considerations. Another pair of propositions center on implementation of such testing reforms; lopsided organizational activity

  16. School Reform in Florida--Implications for the Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondi, Joseph; Wiles, Jon

    1986-01-01

    Since the state of Florida enacted stricter academic standards for high schools, the dropout rate has increased and middle schools have suffered. Funds formerly intended for elementary and middle schools are being used to sustain high school reform programs. School reform at one level has serious implications for other levels. (MD)

  17. Making Comprehensive School Reform Work. Urban Diversity Series, No. 112.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura

    Comprehensive school reform (CSR) has the potential to help overcome inequities in education, to provide a vehicle for a combination of state and local control, and to allow reform to permeate the classroom. It is instructive and timely to survey the research on CSR models to determine how well the programs are performing. This monograph does not…

  18. Reforming General Education: A Departmental Experience with Mission and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzano, Joseph M., III; Wallace, Samuel P.

    2014-01-01

    Changes to general education curricula are taking place across the globe. From the Bologna Process in Europe to the Liberal Education and America's Promise initiative in the United States, colleges and universities are reforming what constitutes general education for their students. At the University of Dayton, such reforms took the shape of…

  19. Australian Curriculum Reform II: Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    It is implied by governing organizations that Australia is presently experiencing its first national curriculum reform, when as the title suggests it is the second. However, until now Australian states and territories have been responsible for the education curriculum delivered within schools. The present national curriculum reform promises one…

  20. ERISA: pillar of pension reform, roadblock to healthcare reform.

    PubMed

    Ross-Lee, B; Kiss, L E; Weiser, M A

    1996-06-01

    With Republicans and Democrats agreeing to strategies that move the resources and responsibilities for healthcare reform to the states, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) presents even greater barriers than surfaced in federal planning. The single most formidable obstacle to state healthcare reforms, ERISA's preemption clause supersedes all state laws that "relate to" employee benefit plans. The authors trace the history of pension legislation that led to the strong ERISA protections and explain the interpretations of the law which affect healthcare. They explain the history of the Hawaii plan's waiver; the continual refinement of the law through legislation; and the growing body of case law that interprets ERISA's application through the "relate to" requirement, the "savings" clause, and the "deemer" clause. Finally, they point out that the political solutions being acted out in Congress are leading to poor healthcare policy. Overriding or waiving ERISA would not lead to national health policy solutions and could endanger millions of workers' pension and benefit plans. Meanwhile, the only relief for states comes in slow and incremental steps through the court system. PMID:8690623