Science.gov

Sample records for state welfare reform

  1. State Flexibility: The Minimum Wage and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Policies Inst., Washington, DC.

    In 1999, Congress for the first time, is debating a federal minimum wage hike that will affect low-skilled people who have dramatically fewer options if they cannot find work. This public policy debate has been occasioned by the new state focus on welfare reform that, to some, suggests that a state flexibility approach be applied to the minimum…

  2. Welfare Reform at 15 and the State of Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpare, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and…

  3. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  4. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  5. Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Bruce A., Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Whitener, Leslie A., Ed.

    The 16 chapters in this five-part book, each by different authors, trace the effects of welfare reform (mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), upon poor people in rural areas of the United States. The book begins with an introduction called "As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural…

  6. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... State's penalty liability under this part? 261.80 Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... Waivers Affect State Penalties? § 261.80 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part? A welfare reform waiver could affect a State's penalty liability under this...

  7. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... State's penalty liability under this part? 261.80 Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... Waivers Affect State Penalties? § 261.80 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part? A welfare reform waiver could affect a State's penalty liability under this...

  8. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... State's penalty liability under this part? 261.80 Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... Waivers Affect State Penalties? § 261.80 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part? A welfare reform waiver could affect a State's penalty liability under this...

  9. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... State's penalty liability under this part? 261.80 Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... Waivers Affect State Penalties? § 261.80 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part? A welfare reform waiver could affect a State's penalty liability under this...

  10. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... State's penalty liability under this part? 261.80 Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... Waivers Affect State Penalties? § 261.80 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part? A welfare reform waiver could affect a State's penalty liability under this...

  11. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of a State's participation rates? 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? A welfare reform waiver could affect the calculation of a State's participation rate, pursuant...

  12. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of a State's participation rates? 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? A welfare reform waiver could affect the calculation of a State's participation rate, pursuant...

  13. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a State's participation rates? 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? A welfare reform waiver could affect the calculation of a State's participation rate, pursuant...

  14. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a State's participation rates? 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? A welfare reform waiver could affect the calculation of a State's participation rate, pursuant...

  15. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of a State's participation rates? 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? A welfare reform waiver could affect the calculation of a State's participation rate, pursuant...

  16. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  17. Children and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

  18. Child Welfare Reform in the United States: Findings from a Local Agency Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Lorelei B.; Barth, Richard P.; Green, Rebecca; Wall, Ariana; Biemer, Paul; Berrick, Jill Duerr; Webb, Mary Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Efforts to improve the public welfare and child welfare system sparked an unprecedented amount of federal legislation in the 1990s, including the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 (ASFA), the Multiethnic Placement Act of 1994 and Interethnic Adoption Provisions of 1996 (MEPA-IEP), and welfare reform. Such reforms allow an unprecedented degree…

  19. Reforming a Breadwinner Welfare State: Gender, Race, Class, and Social Security Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herd, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    A key challenge facing western welfare states is that they offset income risks faced by those in breadwinner families. Social Security is an excellent example. It best protects individuals with lengthy work histories or individuals who get married, stay married, and are never employed. Most women fit neither model. Thus, I analyze "women-friendly"…

  20. Rural Housing and Welfare Reform: HAC's 1997 Report on the State of the Nation's Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housing Assistance Council.

    This report, prepared by the Housing Assistance Council (HAC), presents the context within which welfare reform will affect the housing conditions of rural Americans. HAC is a nonprofit corporation that supports the development of rural low-income housing nationwide. Although the federal welfare reform legislation effective in 1997 makes few…

  1. Welfare reform: from illusion to reality.

    PubMed

    Stoesz, D; Karger, H J

    1990-03-01

    Welfare reform is a concept that has a relatively narrow meaning in the United States, because it is associated with the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Since the 1960s, several attempts have been made to reform AFDC, but it was not until 1988 that the program was changed substantially. The alterations in the AFDC program reflect an ideological shift in American culture that is increasingly conservative. Social welfare policy as a whole has begun to reflect conservative values by emphasizing reciprocity, productivity, and familial responsibility. A myriad of important social welfare issues remain unresolved despite the new welfare reform bill of 1988. PMID:2191449

  2. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

  3. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

  4. Welfare Reform in Missouri. A Report of the Welfare Reform Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Peter, Ed.; Kunz, Julia, Ed.

    This report outlines findings and recommendations of a committee study of whether the State of Missouri is in need of welfare reform. The major finding is that Missouri's current welfare system is substantially deficient and requires correction of laws, policies, practices, and resource allocation. Three major themes are the following: (1) welfare…

  5. Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Steven J.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Bao, Yuhua; Danielson, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The welfare reform bill adopted in the United States in 1996 limited the eligibility of immigrants for several government assistance programs, and early projections estimated that nearly half of the savings associated with the reforms would come from these immigrant restrictions. Several studies have found that subsequent program participation…

  6. Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Steven J.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Bao, Yuhua; Danielson, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The welfare reform bill adopted in the United States in 1996 limited the eligibility of immigrants for several government assistance programs, and early projections estimated that nearly half of the savings associated with the reforms would come from these immigrant restrictions. Several studies have found that subsequent program participation…

  7. Considering Today's Trilemma: Welfare Reform, the Full Cost of Quality, and State Child Care Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David

    1997-01-01

    Federal welfare reform legislation will impact the entire child care system through policy ripples affecting how close market rates come to paying full cost of quality child care; funding services for all child care, including consumer education and resource and referral services; and funding the future through initiatives to build leadership and…

  8. Substance abuse and welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Nakashian, Mary

    2002-01-01

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 has forced welfare officials and substance abuse treatment providers to better understand the connections between substance abuse and welfare dependency. As a result, both are thinking differently about their policies and even their missions. Little is known about the true extent of substance abuse among welfare recipients, but estimates range from 2.7% to 22%. The current system of substance abuse treatment is poorly matched both to the needs of disadvantaged mothers and to the mandates of welfare reform. To help women achieve self-sufficiency, treatment programs must focus on the needs of women, address problems that often accompany substance abuse, attend to the needs of children, and emphasize work as an outcome of treatment. Welfare agencies must also change to meet their mandates; they must improve the tools and resources they offer staff, improve access and services for families, and align agency policies with new missions. PMID:11905489

  9. Welfare Reform and Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Metsch, Lisa R; Pollack, Harold A

    2005-01-01

    The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) changed the nature, purpose, and financing of public aid. Researchers, administrators, and policymakers expressed special concern about the act's impact on low-income mothers with substance use disorders. Before PRWORA's passage, however, little was known about the true prevalence of these disorders among welfare recipients or about the likely effectiveness of substance abuse treatment interventions for welfare recipients. Subsequent research documented that substance abuse disorders are less widespread among welfare recipients than was originally thought and are less common than other serious barriers to self-sufficiency. This research also showed significant administrative barriers to the screening, assessment, and referral of drug-dependent welfare recipients. This article summarizes current research findings and examines implications for welfare reform reauthorization. PMID:15787954

  10. The Role of Education and Training in Welfare Reform. Welfare Reform and Beyond. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueron, Judith M.; Hamilton, Gayle

    States have used variants of these three approaches to structure the welfare to-work component of welfare reform for single mothers: (1) put education or training first; (2) place job searching first; and (3) create a flexible program that allows staff and participants choice in the initial and subsequent activities. Research on these program…

  11. Welfare Reform: Serving America's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynihan, Daniel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    The poorest group in our population is children. This article discusses past and present public assistance programs that affect children and the disproportionate number of minority group children and children in single-parent homes who live in poverty. The need for welfare reform is discussed also. (IAH)

  12. Welfare reform and parenting: reasonable expectations.

    PubMed

    Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay; Pittman, Laura D

    2002-01-01

    Although the primary goals of federal welfare reform legislation were to move welfare mothers into the workforce and reduce births outside of marriage, promotion of responsible parenting was also an important underlying theme. Parenting is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon, however, encompassing a wide range of functions related to nurturing, discipline, stimulation, values, activities, and routines. This article provides a framework for assessing the impact of welfare reform on various dimensions of parenting, with the following key findings: Many aspects of life affect parenting and child development, such as parent characteristics, child characteristics, family economic resources, family structure, parental mental health, marital or partner relationships, and the quality of parents' kin and social networks. About two-thirds of states are using federal welfare funds to promote better parenting through programs such as home visits to new parents and parenting classes, but virtually no state parenting programs have been evaluated. Welfare reform appears to have limited effects on parenting. The only dimension of parenting significantly affected by some welfare demonstration programs was parents' choice of child care settings and extracurricular activities for their children. The programs with the greatest positive impact on parenting were those with more generous work supports and more flexible work requirements. Not only did these programs lead to different choices concerning child care and activities for preschool and school-age children, but they also resulted in more stable marriages and less violence between partners, which also could lead to improved parenting. The authors conclude that many important aspects of the connection between welfare reform and parenting have yet to be examined, and that further research is needed to identify the ways states' welfare programs can promote better parenting. PMID:11980035

  13. Devolution and Welfare Reform: Re-Evaluating "Success"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheely, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The passage of welfare reform shifted significant authority for welfare provision from the federal government to state and local governments. Proponents of devolution point to drastic caseload declines as evidence that state-run programs are decreasing dependency among families. However, welfare rolls in many states have remained stagnant or…

  14. Economic Conditions and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sheldon H., Ed.

    This book contains 10 papers on three key questions regarding the effects of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which ended the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program: why welfare caseloads are falling; how welfare recipients are faring; and how the states are responding to changing…

  15. Welfare reforms in Australia: how will they affect women's health?

    PubMed

    Kelaher, Margaret; Manderson, Lenore; Stellman, Jeanne Mager

    2002-01-01

    Like most Western countries, Australia is in the process of introducing welfare reforms to curb costs. Australian reforms follow and are informed by similar reforms in the United States and United Kingdom and will be incrementally implemented until 2003. Australian reforms emphasize mutual obligation, preventing people from "taking advantage" of the welfare system, and avoiding long-term reliance on welfare. In contrast to the United States, where the mothers of young children have specifically been targeted, reforms in Australia do not privilege women's roles as workers over their roles as caregivers. Work obligations will be introduced only for mothers whose youngest child is older than 16 years. In fact, financial incentives for providing care for young children and people with disabilities have actually increased. Existing health research suggests that the impact of welfare reform on both health and society will depend on how the balance between women's roles as caregivers and workers is struck. PMID:11905493

  16. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training. NBER Working Paper No. 16659

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results indicate that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

  17. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training. NBER Working Paper No. 16659

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results indicate that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

  18. Welfare Recipients' Involvement with Child Protective Services after Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Yunju; Meezan, William; Danziger, Sandra K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study identifies factors associated with child protective services (CPS) involvement among current and former welfare recipients after welfare reform legislation was passed in the US in 1996. Method: Data come from the Women's Employment Study, a longitudinal study of randomly selected welfare recipients living in a Michigan city…

  19. Poor relief, taxes and the first Universal Pension Reform: the origin of the Swedish welfare state reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Edebalk, Per Gunnar; Olsson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    In the year 1900, Sweden probably had the oldest population in the contemporary world. It was also the first nation to implement a universal pension system in 1913. The universal character in early social legislation has certainly been decisive for the development of the Swedish welfare state. This alternative has not been self-evident. Why did the reforms turn universal, when the continental model, the Bismarck social security system, was exclusively directed at industrial workers? Research has concentrated on demographic factors and growing demands for social security, or on the fact that Sweden was still a predominantly rural society with about 2,400 local authorities. This article examines the development of social legislation in the light of local government expenditures and incomes, and suggests an overlooked possibility: the formulation of the first universal national social security reform was a redistributional response to uneven distribution of incomes and general expenditures among the rural districts in Sweden. PMID:21280403

  20. Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

  1. Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

  2. Did Welfare Reform Influence the Fertility of Young Teens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopoo, Leonard M.; DeLeire, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    During the 1990s, states made several reforms to their welfare programs designed to reduce teenage fertility among minors. Among the most prominent of these changes, states started requiring teenage mothers younger than 18 to live with a parent or legal guardian and enroll in high school in order to receive welfare benefits. Using natality data…

  3. Diversity among State Welfare Programs: Implications for Reform. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A, No. A-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedlewski, Sheila; Giannarelli, Linda

    The welfare initiative signed into law in August 1996 replaces Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) with Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF). The federal responsibility to match state expenditures on cash assistance to low-income families with children has become a fixed block grant to states with requirements that focus on a…

  4. Interagency Collaboration and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Tara

    2000-01-01

    This issue of WIN (Welfare Information Network) Issue Notes raises some major issues that agencies may want to address as they consider expanding collaborative efforts. It describes collaborative efforts and identifies resources that could prove useful in designing successful collaborations. Section 1 offers background. Section 2 answers these…

  5. Welfare reform: advocacy and intervention in the health care setting.

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, E; Leiter, K; Todd, J; Smith, L

    1999-01-01

    Welfare reform has drastically altered the lives of poor families in the US. In its wake, many former recipients are not receiving whatever transitional benefits and other safeguards to which they remain entitled under federal and state laws. Families are losing access to Medicaid and are not receiving the child care assistance or Food Stamps for which they continue to be eligible. Ill-served by stringent time limits and work requirements, lack of child care assistance, and lack of training and educational opportunities for the development of skills that will lead to better jobs, families need help to navigate the complexities of the new welfare system. Boston Medical Center's Department of Pediatrics has instituted a welfare screening project to educate families about their rights under welfare reform and assist them in advocating for themselves and their children. PMID:10670622

  6. Beyond welfare reform: reframing undocumented immigrants' entitlement to health care in the United States, a critical review.

    PubMed

    Viladrich, Anahí

    2012-03-01

    This article addresses the main scholarly frames that supported the deservingness of unauthorized immigrants to health benefits in the United States (U.S.) following the passage of the Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), known as the Welfare Reform bill, in 1996. Based on a critical literature review, conducted between January 1997 and March 2011, this article begins with an analysis of the public health rhetorics that endorsed immigrants' inclusion into the U.S. health safety net. In this vein, the "cost-saving" and "the effortful immigrant" frames underscore immigrants' contributions to society vis-à-vis their low utilization of health services. These are complemented by a "surveillance" account that claims to protect the American public from communicable diseases. A "maternalistic" frame is also discussed as a tool to safeguard families, and particularly immigrant mothers, in their roles as bearers and caretakers of their American-born children. The analyses of the "chilling" and the "injustice" frames are then introduced to underscore major anthropological contributions to the formulation of counter-mainstream discourses on immigrants' selective inclusion into the U.S. health care system. First, the "chilling effect," defined as the voluntary withdrawal from health benefits, is examined in light of unauthorized immigrants' internalized feelings of undeservingness. Second, an "injustice" narrative highlights both the contributions and the limitations of a social justice paradigm, which advocated for the restoration of government benefits to elderly immigrants and refugees after the passage of PRWORA. By analyzing the contradictions among all these diverse frames, this paper finally reflects on the conceptual challenges faced by medical anthropology, and the social sciences at large, in advancing health equity and human rights paradigms. PMID:21745706

  7. Welfare Reform and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Baltagi, Badi H; Yen, Yin-Fang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) program on children's health outcomes using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation over the period 1994 to 2005. The TANF policies have been credited with increased employment for single mothers and a dramatic drop in welfare caseload. Our results show that these policies also had a significant effect on various measures of children's medical utilization among low-income families. These health measures include a rating of the child's health status reported by the parents, the number of times that parents consulted a doctor, and the number of nights that the child stayed in a hospital. We compare the overall changes of health status and medical utilization for children with working and nonworking mothers. We find that the child's health status as reported by the parents is affected by the maternal employment status. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25533889

  8. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? (a) If a State is... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? 260.73 Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  9. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? (a) If a State is... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? 260.73 Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  10. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? (a) If a State is... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? 260.73 Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  11. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? (a) If a State is... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? 260.73 Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  12. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? (a) If a State is... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? 260.73 Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  13. Experimental studies of welfare reform and children.

    PubMed

    Zaslow, Martha J; Moore, Kristin A; Brooks, Jennifer L; Morris, Pamela A; Tout, Kathryn; Redd, Zakia A; Emig, Carol A

    2002-01-01

    Even prior to passage of federal welfare reform, many demonstration programs anticipated key features of the 1996 law, such as "work-first" strategies, time limits on welfare receipt, and financial incentives to work. Over the past decade, 10 experimental evaluations of these programs have extended their studies to examine the impacts on children. This article provides a synthesis of findings from the first seven of these studies to release results concerning child impacts. Key observations include the following: Across the different types of welfare-to-work programs examined, researchers found neither widespread harm nor widespread benefit to young children, but some significant impacts did occur. Favorable impacts tended to occur in programs that improved family economic status or maternal education, but these programs still did not bring children to the level of national norms for positive child development. Unfavorable impacts tended to occur when families did not show economic progress or when their economic situation worsened, when the children were adolescents, and--unexpectedly--when the families were believed to be at lower risk for long-term welfare receipt. Thus, although impacts were not widespread, these programs did have the potential to affect children for both better and worse across a range of developmental outcomes. The authors conclude that these findings underscore the importance of strengthening program approaches to enhance developmental outcomes for children in families being served by the welfare system. PMID:11980040

  14. The Economic Impact of Welfare Reform on Arkansas Families. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, Little Rock.

    In 1997, the Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA) program was established in Arkansas as the state's version of welfare reform. Although there has been a 44 percent decrease in TEA cash assistance since the program's inception, questions continue regarding the impact of welfare reform on families with children. This report highlights some of…

  15. Keeping battered women safe during welfare reform: new challenges.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Jody

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the growing body of research literature on the relationship of domestic violence to welfare. Not only do women on welfare suffer from domestic violence in far greater numbers than women in the general population, but their abusers, threatened by the women's efforts at education, training, or work, also use violence and threats of violence to sabotage these efforts at economic self-sufficiency. For this reason, welfare reform exacerbates domestic violence in the lives of many low-income women. As a result of the federal Family Violence Option, most state welfare plans allow battered women on welfare more time and specialized services before mandating work in order to keep them and their children safe. Recent research and monitoring have shown, however, that the majority of battered women on welfare do not tell their welfare workers about the violence. Ending the isolation of these battered women and helping them with domestic violence services pose difficult challenges. Women's health providers may be in a better position to accomplish this task than welfare department personnel. PMID:11905488

  16. Levers for Change: Educational Opportunity Center's and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann-Messier, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    Asserts the importance of changing welfare policies to allow postsecondary education as a work activity. Discusses the history of welfare reform and the benefits of postsecondary education for welfare recipients; describes services provided to welfare recipients by several TRIO-sponsored Educational Opportunity Centers (EOCs); and offers…

  17. Welfare Reform and the Long-Term Care Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filinson, Rachel; Cone, Donna; Ray, Eileen

    2005-01-01

    The research reported in this paper examined the role of welfare reform in increasing the availability of entry-level workers to meet the rising demand for long-term care employees. Findings from national and statewide evaluations of welfare programs show mixed results in the extent to which beneficiaries could be shifted from welfare caseloads to…

  18. Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

  19. Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

  20. Welfare Reform and Older Immigrants' Health Insurance Coverage

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. I examined changes in older immigrants' health insurance coverage after welfare reform in the United States to determine whether the reform measures achieved their goal of saving money by reducing Medicaid participation without increasing the number of uninsured people. Methods. Data were obtained from older adults who participated in the Current Population Survey's Annual Social and Economic Supplement from 1994 to 1996 and 2001 to 2005. I used logistic regression to estimate changes in the sample's Medicaid and health insurance coverage after welfare reform, paying special attention to noncitizens and recent immigrants. Results. Older immigrants' health insurance status was associated with their citizenship status and length of stay in the United States. Medicaid participation significantly decreased among noncitizens and recent immigrants but increased among naturalized citizens. Private health insurance and employer-sponsored insurance coverage significantly increased among recent immigrants but decreased among established immigrants and naturalized citizens. The probability of being uninsured did not significantly change among any group of immigrants. Conclusions. Given increases in postreform Medicaid participation among some immigrant groups, my findings suggest that the long-term cost-saving effectiveness of the current restrictive Medicaid eligibility policy is doubtful. PMID:18799779

  1. Psychiatry, homeless patients and welfare reforms: historical links and chains.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hamid, Walid Khalid; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2014-02-01

    The birthplace of the specialty of psychiatry was in the asylum, which was created to divert patients from workhouses where the most disadvantaged and destitute people with mental illness were to be found. The current welfare reforms are endangering the welfare and livelihood of the most disadvantaged of our patients. These reforms in the authors' opinion are related more to the historical cycle of societal attitude to homeless people than to seeing them as the undeserving poor. This is particularly true since the current economic crisis was not caused by the poor, so it is very unfair that our poorest patients should suffer most as a result of the welfare reforms. PMID:23564721

  2. The Unfinished Business of Welfare Reform: Improving Prospects for Poor Children and Youth. Perspectives from Research. A Special Child Trends Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.

    As federal and state officials consider the reauthorization of the block grants at the center of the 1996 federal welfare reform law, it is critical that they use findings from research regarding the impact of welfare reform to guide their decisions. This special report examines the impact of welfare reform on children and youth, drawing on…

  3. The Local Politics and Partnerships of Successful Welfare Reform at Modesto Junior College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Pamila J.

    2001-01-01

    Considers the effects of internal and external constituencies on the role of welfare reform in community colleges. Describes how Modesto Junior College (California) built partnerships with county and state employment, social services, welfare, and other agencies to develop effective job-training programs. (NB)

  4. For Love or Money? Welfare Reform and Immigrant Naturalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Brown, Susan K.; Bean, Frank D.

    2006-01-01

    The Welfare Reform Act of 1996 generally restricted immigrants' eligibility for welfare to those who had naturalized. By increasing the salience of naturalization, the law provides a unique opportunity to examine how social and economic contexts of reception influence immigrants' pursuit of citizenship. This paper summarizes instrumental-legal…

  5. Welfare dynamics, support services, mothers' earnings, and child cognitive development: implications for contemporary welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, H

    1999-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY; N = 614), addresses the gap in the research literature regarding the effects of welfare reform on children. Key questions addressed include whether welfare dynamics and support services relevant to welfare reform, both measured across the first 5 years of life, are associated with mothers' earnings in the 6th year and three child cognitive outcomes in the 7th and 8th years: Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) math and reading scores, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Welfare dynamics are represented by total time on welfare, degree of cycling on and off welfare, and degree to which welfare and work are combined. Support services measured include three forms of child care (relative, babysitter, and center-based), as well as three forms of human capital supports (child support, job training, and education). Controlling for a range of background factors and for different patterns of welfare use across the first 5 years, small positive associations with mother's earnings were found for child support, education, and job training. Small positive associations also were found between child support and both math and reading scores. Finally positive associations of medium effect size were found between center care and both mothers' earnings and child PPVT scores. Although effect sizes are generally small, the results suggest the potential value of welfare reform approaches that emphasize long-term human capital development. Interactions between welfare dynamics and support services suggest subgroup differences. Specifically, positive effects of support services on earnings are strongest among mothers with higher levels of human capital (higher levels of work while on welfare, lower total time on welfare). Babysitter care appears to have negative effects on both reading and math scores of children whose mothers report low levels of work while on welfare. Implications for welfare reform policy are discussed. PMID:10368922

  6. The moral economy of austerity: analysing UK welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Morris, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    This paper notes the contemporary emergence of 'morality' in both sociological argument and political rhetoric, and analyses its significance in relation to ongoing UK welfare reforms. It revisits the idea of 'moral economy' and identifies two strands in its contemporary application; that all economies depend on an internal moral schema, and that some external moral evaluation is desirable. UK welfare reform is analysed as an example of the former, with reference to three distinct orientations advanced in the work of Freeden (), Laclau (), and Lockwood (). In this light, the paper then considers challenges to the reform agenda, drawn from third sector and other public sources. It outlines the forms of argument present in these challenges, based respectively on rationality, legality, and morality, which together provide a basis for evaluation of the welfare reforms and for an alternative 'moral economy'. PMID:26948066

  7. Kinship Care as a Child Welfare Service: The Policy Debate in an Era of Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleeson, James P.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a case study of the development of kinship care policy in Illinois due to court decisions regarding the provision of financial support to relatives acting as foster parents. Compares recent reform of kinship care policies in Illinois with welfare reform efforts across the country and their national implications. (SD)

  8. A "Third Way" in Welfare Reform? Evidence from the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, John; Waldfogel, Jane

    2004-01-01

    U.S. welfare reforms, whether promoting work first or human capital development, have had in common an emphasis on employment as the key to improving the life chances of children living in single-mother families. We describe in this article a different type of reform--a "third way" in welfare reform. The welfare reforms carried out in the United…

  9. Welfare Time Limits: An Interim Report Card. The Cross-State Study of Time-Limited Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan

    A study focused on results from seven of the earliest state welfare reform initiatives with some form of welfare time limit. Four programs--Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, and Wisconsin--- included benefit-termination time limits triggering cancellation of a family's entire welfare grant. Arizona and Indiana imposed benefit-reduction time limits,…

  10. Welfare Reform on Rosebud Reservation: Challenges for Tribal Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biolsi, Thomas; Cordier, Rose; Two Eagle, Marvine Douville; Weil, Melinda

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with low-income, American Indian, single parents on the Rosebud Reservation in Todd County, South Dakota, included families who were on and who had left Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Welfare reform issues discussed included transportation problems; access to affordable, quality child care; food insecurity; and the scarcity of…

  11. A General Economic Framework for Welfare Reform Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeTray, Dennis N.

    An analysis of the potential effects of different types of welfare reforms can proceed in one of two ways. One can explore the effects of a given plan in detail, or one can cull from the set of feasible alternative plans the major changes that these plans will bring about and then analyze the effect of these changes in a general framework. At…

  12. Community Development Corporations and Welfare Reform: Linkages, Roles, and Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, David J.; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Schill, Michael H.

    This study examined the impact of welfare reform on housing owned by community development corporations (CDCs), investigating how early implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) affected the financial status of CDCs' affordable housing developments. Five types of financial impacts were…

  13. Welfare Reform's Impact on Adolescents: Early Warning Signs. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Jennifer L.; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Zaslow, Martha J.

    With the passage of the 1996 welfare reform law, numerous commentators expressed concern about the impact of welfare reform on young children of welfare recipients, while few expressed concern about adolescents. However, recent evidence suggests that adolescents are affected negatively when their parents participate in welfare-to-work programs.…

  14. Delivering Family Literacy in the Context of Welfare Reform: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamprese, Judith A.; Voight, Janet D.

    The advent of welfare reform in the United States has provided new challenges in preparing adults to become economically self-sufficient. As one response to this challenge, the National Center for Family Literacy (NCFL) in Louisville, Kentucky began the Family Independence Initiative in 1997 to promote family literacy as one solution for assisting…

  15. Family Literacy as a Welfare Reform Strategy. Family Independence Initiative Audioconference. Family Independence Initiative Publication #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Family Literacy, Louisville, KY.

    In 1997, the National Center for Family Literacy convened four state policymakers for an audioconference to discuss five issues related to family literacy and its role as a welfare reform strategy. First, with regard to the value of family literacy, policymakers saw literacy as the key to employment and job retention. Second, family literacy was a…

  16. The Structure of the TANF Block Grant. Welfare Reform and Beyond. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Kent

    The 1996 welfare reform legislation replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program with a new Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant. This new program has a fixed funding level that is not altered by inflation or economic cycles or caseload size. Individual states' shares are based on the amount they…

  17. Families' Experience with Welfare Reform on Reservations in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Zhan, Min; Collier-Tenison, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    This article documents the impact of the 1996 federal welfare legislation on American Indian families in the state of Arizona over a period of four years. The authors analyzed primary data obtained from interviews with 445 former or current welfare families with children from three Indian reservations: Navajo, San Carlos, and Salt River. Compared…

  18. Adolescents' Formal Employment and School Enrollment: Effects of State Welfare Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Lingxin; Astone, Nan M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in state welfare policies in the reform era may affect adolescents through two mechanisms: A competing labor market hypothesis posits that stringent state welfare policies may reduce adolescent employment; and a signaling hypothesis posits that stringent welfare policies may promote enrollment. To test these hypotheses, we use a dynamic…

  19. Adolescents' Formal Employment and School Enrollment: Effects of State Welfare Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Lingxin; Astone, Nan M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in state welfare policies in the reform era may affect adolescents through two mechanisms: A competing labor market hypothesis posits that stringent state welfare policies may reduce adolescent employment; and a signaling hypothesis posits that stringent welfare policies may promote enrollment. To test these hypotheses, we use a dynamic…

  20. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860

  1. For Better and for Worse: Welfare Reform and the Well-Being of Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, Ed.

    Although the 1996 welfare reform bill reduced welfare rolls, falling caseloads do not necessarily mean a better standard of living for families. This book examines the evidence and evaluates whether welfare reform has met one of its chief goals--improving the well-being of the nation's poor children. The chapters of the book are as follows: (1)…

  2. For Better and for Worse: Welfare Reform and the Well-Being of Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, Ed.

    Although the 1996 welfare reform bill reduced welfare rolls, falling caseloads do not necessarily mean a better standard of living for families. This book examines the evidence and evaluates whether welfare reform has met one of its chief goals--improving the well-being of the nation's poor children. The chapters of the book are as follows: (1)…

  3. Welfare Reform and Black Women's Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, the United States Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, placing emphasis on individuals to take responsibility for separating themselves from governmental dependence by becoming economically self-sufficient through employment. Using a qualitative approach, this study explored the experiences…

  4. Welfare Reform and Black Women's Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, the United States Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, placing emphasis on individuals to take responsibility for separating themselves from governmental dependence by becoming economically self-sufficient through employment. Using a qualitative approach, this study explored the experiences…

  5. Sharp Reduction in Black Child Poverty Due to Welfare Reform. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardue, Melissa G.

    This report asserts that welfare reform has been very successful in reducing child poverty. For a quarter-century prior to reform, black child poverty and poverty among single mothers remained virtually constant. Six years after reform, poverty among both groups dropped rapidly, reaching the lowest levels in U.S. history. Welfare rolls have…

  6. Learn to Earn: Issues Raised by Welfare Reform for Adult Education, Training and Work. Literacy Leader Fellowship Program Reports, Volume III, Number 3, Part B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knell, Suzanne

    Passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which includes the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) block grant program, has caused dramatic changes in welfare reform. PRWORA emphasizes a Work First approach to welfare reform; to receive full TANF funding, states must meet the minimum required…

  7. [Guardians of the welfare state?].

    PubMed

    Nessa, J

    1996-08-30

    The welfare state in post-war Norwegian society is a result of the dominating social democratic ideology now adapted to far-reaching technological development. Increased spending on health has provoked the question of whether doctors should be the guardians of the welfare state against inappropriate demands from patients. This paper argues against this view. What is really a problem for the whole society cannot be solved on the individual level. In many ways, to be sick is to fall outside the community, with a real risk of loosing rights and duties essential to all of us. The doctor has to find-and redefine-his ancient role of spokesman and champion, and of serving as a friendly and emphatic corrective to the individual patient. This is particularly important in modern health services where having to face interpersonal problems is a key element of everyday practice. PMID:8928107

  8. New Lives for Poor Families? Mothers and Young Children Move through Welfare Reform. The Growing Up in Poverty Wave 2 Findings: California, Connecticut, and Florida. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Loeb, Susanna

    This report examines how state welfare-to-work programs have affected young children since the 1996 welfare reform act, which moved millions of women into low-wage jobs. Researchers followed a sample of 948 mothers and young children for 2-4 years after the women entered new welfare programs in California, Connecticut, and Florida. After…

  9. The Welfare Reform Debate: Implications for Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Helen

    Shifts in child care policies are on the horizon. Congress has passed landmark changes in federal welfare programs that will have a major impact on the demand for child care and require states to re-examine many of their current child care policies. This paper by the Children's Defense Fund is intended to help child care advocates understand the…

  10. Welfare Reform. Hearings on S. 869, S. 1001, S. 1511, before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (October 14 and 28, 1987). Part 2 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

    This series of hearings, the second of three on welfare reform, focuses on the following legislation: (1) the Family Security Act (S. 1511); (2) child support enforcement bills (S. 1001 and S. 869); and (3) the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Employment and Training Reorganization Act. Among the speakers and witnesses were the following:…

  11. Reconsidering Schools and the American Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses her comparative study of the history of the welfare state in the United States, England, and France, she studies some of the usual features of the welfare state, which include important entitlement programs, such as social insurance, and protective labor legislation, but she also focuses on the development of…

  12. Assessing the effects of welfare reform policies on reproductive and infant health.

    PubMed Central

    Wise, P; Chavkin, W; Romero, D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The welfare reform law of 1996 marked a historical moment in US policy toward the poor by ending the entitlement to cash assistance, by requiring work, and by establishing time limits. This article examines the potential impact on the health of women and children, the primary recipients of welfare benefits. METHODS: The authors outline the reproductive health outcomes most likely to be sensitive to welfare policies, identify indicators that might be used to assess these outcomes, review empirical evidence, and suggest specific methods and data sources. RESULTS: State welfare requirements could improve health outcomes or deter families from Medicaid and food stamps, as well as income support, thus worsening health outcomes. National and state data may prove useful in detecting these effects; however, new data sources may be required for specific health-related questions. CONCLUSIONS: Assessing the effects of welfare policies on reproductive and infant health is possible, although challenging. Reauthorization of the legislation is required in 2002; it is essential that the consequences for health be included in the next round of public debate. PMID:10511833

  13. Child Welfare in 25 States: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Child Advocacy (DHEW/OHD), Washington, DC.

    This overview presents a summary of the major findings of a 25-state survey of child welfare service delivery systems, as studied by Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. in association with the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) during the period of November 1975 through February 1976. The initial products of the survey were 25 state profiles; these…

  14. Integration into the Social Demographic Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjerm, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the assumption that the social democratic welfare state is better than others in integrating immigrants into society, or at least that the comprehensive welfare state should compensate for the problems of labour market entry. A number of key indicators from The Living Conditions Survey are used to show that this assumption is…

  15. 45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms. 148.128 Section 148.128 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services... reforms—alternative mechanisms. The rules for a State to implement an acceptable alternative mechanism...

  16. Feminist Perspectives on TANF Reauthorization: An Introduction to Key Issues for the Future of Welfare Reform. Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Janice

    Current debates about welfare reform center on the upcoming reauthorization of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) legislation. The provisions of TANF include the elimination of the entitlement to cash assistance, block grant funding to the states, mandatory work requirements, sanctions, a 5-year limit on cash assistance, and…

  17. Instrumental Variable Estimates of the Labor Market Spillover Effects of Welfare Reform. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    The labor market spillover effects of welfare reform were estimated by using models that pool time-series and cross-section data from the Current Population Survey on the state-year cell means of wages, employment, and other labor market outcomes for various demographic groups. The labor market outcomes in question are dependent variables that are…

  18. State Welfare Rules, TANF Exits, and Geographic Context: Does Place Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Shelley K.

    2008-01-01

    This research compares the likelihood of exiting TANF with and without employment and the effects of important state TANF rules on welfare exits in more disadvantaged (large Rustbelt cities and poor southern nonmetro) and less disadvantaged (other metro and other nonmetro) areas during the 1996-2003 post-welfare reform period. Hierarchical…

  19. State Welfare Rules, TANF Exits, and Geographic Context: Does Place Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Shelley K.

    2008-01-01

    This research compares the likelihood of exiting TANF with and without employment and the effects of important state TANF rules on welfare exits in more disadvantaged (large Rustbelt cities and poor southern nonmetro) and less disadvantaged (other metro and other nonmetro) areas during the 1996-2003 post-welfare reform period. Hierarchical…

  20. Progressing beyond the Welfare State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Lee; Harkavy, Ira

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines a neo-Deweyan strategy to transform American public schools into genuine community schools that function as central agencies for the development of a democratic welfare society. John Dewey's thesis was that a well-functioning school system constitutes the necessary, though not sufficient, condition for a well-functioning…

  1. The Lived Experience of Welfare Reform in Drug-Using Welfare-Needy Households in Inner-City New York

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Welfare reform has transformed a needs-based family income support into temporary assistance for persons entering the workforce. This paper uses observations from an ethnographic study covering the period from 1995–2001 to examine the impact on drug-using welfare-needy households in inner-city New York. The analysis suggests that studies may underestimate the extent to which substance use is associated with welfare problems. Nearly all of these already distressed households lost their AFDC/TANF benefits, had difficulty with work programs, and were having more difficulty covering expenses. The conclusion highlights ways to better study this population and policy initiatives that could help them reform their impoverished lives for themselves and their children. PMID:25382890

  2. Whose Job Is It? Employers' Views on Welfare Reform. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Greg; Shelton, Ellen; Stevens, Amy Bush; Nelson-Christinedaughter, Justine; Roy, Corinna; Heineman, June

    A total of 130 Minnesota employers who had participated in local welfare-to-work partnerships with social service agencies and other community members were interviewed by telephone for their views on welfare reform. (This nonrandom sample was selected by partnership staff.) Differences among rural and urban/suburban employers were examined, and…

  3. Reforming Welfare: What Does It Mean for Rural Areas? Issues in Food Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitener, Leslie A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Weber, Bruce A.

    In May 2000, a conference on the rural dimensions of welfare reform and food assistance policy brought together researchers, welfare policy experts, and rural scholars. This issue brief summarizes some major findings of the conference and suggests future policy options to better address the differing needs of rural and urban families. Between 1994…

  4. Living with Welfare Reform: A Survey of Low Income Families in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Chicago. Center for Urban Economic Development.

    In 1998, the Illinois statewide coalition Work, Welfare and Families, in partnership with the Chicago Urban League, undertook a study to assess the effects of welfare reform on low-income families and children across Illinois. The findings were derived from three sources: a self-administered survey of 2,166 low-income clients of Illinois social…

  5. The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Education, Tax Reform, Crime Control, Welfare Reform, Health Care Reform. Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

    The sixth annual survey conducted by the Rural Services Institute examined the opinions of Pennsylvania residents on crime control, welfare reform, smoking, and education reform proposals. Sixty percent of respondents believed that the most urgent issue facing Pennsylvania was violent crime and strongly supported measures to reduce the…

  6. Welfare state regimes and population health: integrating the East Asian welfare states.

    PubMed

    Abdul Karim, Syahirah; Eikemo, Terje A; Bambra, Clare

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that population health varies significantly by welfare state regime. However, these studies have focused exclusively on the welfare states of Europe, North America and Australasia. This focus ignores the existence of welfare states in other parts of the world, specifically in East Asia. This study therefore investigates whether the association between population health (Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth) and welfare state regimes is still valid when the welfare states of East Asia are added into the analysis. It also examines whether population health is worse in the East Asian welfare states. Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth as well as GDP per capita and social and health expenditures as a percentage of GDP were examined in 30 welfare states, categorised into six different regimes (Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern, Eastern European and East Asian). ANOVA analysis showed significant differences by welfare state regime in the magnitude of IMR, LE, SE, HE and GDP per capita. However, when controlling for GDP per capita in the ANCOVA analyses, only Life Expectancy (R(2)=0.58, adjusted R(2)=0.47, p<0.05) and Social Expenditure (R(2)=0.70, adjusted R(2)=0.61, p<0.05) differed significantly by welfare state regime. 47% of the variation in Life Expectancy was explained by welfare state regime type. Further, the East Asian welfare states did not have the worst health outcomes. The study concludes by highlighting the need to expand comparative health analysis both in terms of the range of countries examined and also in terms of incorporating other societal and public health factors-towards a 'public health regime' analysis. PMID:19748149

  7. Deterioration of Child Welfare Families under Conditions of Welfare Reform. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Kathleen; Guo, Shenyang; Shafran, Robert D.; Pearlmutter, Susan

    At the time the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (P. L. 104-193) was being debated, some child welfare advocates raised the concern that its effect on families at high risk of involvement in the child welfare system or on families already involved in the child welfare system would be negative. As the debate…

  8. Depression and Welfare Reform: From Barriers to Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Dan A.; Lee, Bong Joo; Altenbernd, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors identify ways to facilitate work among current and recent welfare recipients with mental illness. Their analysis assesses the relationship between a particular mental illness, depression, and labor force involvement in a statewide sample of welfare recipients, identifies the factors that promote work for those with depression, and…

  9. Welfare Reform when Recipients Are Forward-Looking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    By studying recipients of aid under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) welfare scheme, the effect of time limits of welfare schemes on forward looking recipients is assessed using a discrete-choice dynamic programming framework model. The policy simulations for the preferred specification of utility reveal that two year time limits…

  10. Welfare Reform in California: Early Results from the Impact Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerman, Jacob Alex; Hotz, V. Joseph; Reardon, Elaine; Cox, Amy G.; Farley, Donna O.; Haider, Steven J.; Imbens, Guido; Schoeni, Robert

    The impact of California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKS), which was passed to increase California welfare recipients' participation in welfare-to-work (WTW) activities, was examined. The impact study consisted of a nonexperimental program evaluation that used statistical models to estimate causal effects and a simulation…

  11. In welfare reform's wake, lawmakers take multifaceted approach to teen pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaeser, L

    1997-09-01

    In response to the 1996 US federal welfare reform law, states have prioritized legislative initiatives to reduce the incidence of adolescent pregnancy. By 1994, 31 states and the District of Columbia already had adolescent pregnancy prevention initiative in place, with most granting financial support to community-based efforts, conducting media or outreach campaigns, sponsoring education-related activities, and providing contraceptive services. Additional federal funding to reduce out-of-wedlock births to women on welfare has been almost exclusively channeled by states into programs for adolescents. The five states that achieve the largest decreases in numbers of illegitimate births without increasing numbers of abortions will receive a bonus of $20-25 million from the federal government. Louisiana and Arizona enacted measures that appear to respond to this incentive. In Louisiana, the initiative bonus would be passed on to the ten parishes with the most success, and Arizona allocated its entire federal portion of the new welfare block grant to the Department of Health for programs to decrease pregnancy without increasing abortion rates. While the federal government's program emphasizes proscriptive measures, such as abstinence-only education, a number of states have begun, continued, or expanded comprehensive programs to prevent adolescent pregnancy. These include Arkansas, Rhode Island, Iowa, Mississippi, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Efforts were made to improve public awareness about adolescent pregnancy in Florida, Louisiana, and Pennsylvania. Broad-based bills fell to gubernatorial vetos in California and South Carolina, and a measure to create an independent commission to develop a state plan to reduce adolescent pregnancy rates is pending in Massachusetts. PMID:12292777

  12. Learnfare! How To Implement a Mandatory Stay-in-School Program for Teenage Parents on Welfare. ReWORKing Welfare. Technical Assistance for States and Localities: A How-to Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, David A.; Bos, Johannes M.

    This how-to guide, which is designed to assist state and local welfare reform efforts, explains how to design, implement, and manage mandatory stay-in-school (learnfare) programs for teenage parents on welfare. The following topics are discussed in the guide's five chapters: the importance of focusing on teen parents on welfare, Ohio's Learning,…

  13. Welfare policymaking and intersections of race, ethnicity, and gender in U.S. state legislatures.

    PubMed

    Reingold, Beth; Smith, Adrienne R

    2012-01-01

    Welfare policy in the American states has been shaped profoundly by race, ethnicity, and representation. Does gender matter as well? Focusing on state welfare reform in the mid-1990s, we test hypotheses derived from two alternative approaches to incorporating gender into the study of representation and welfare policymaking. An additive approach, which assumes gender and race/ethnicity are distinct and independent, suggests that female state legislators—regardless of race/ethnicity—will mitigate the more restrictive and punitive aspects of welfare reform, much like their African American and Latino counterparts do. In contrast, an intersectional approach, which highlights the overlapping and interdependent nature of gender and race/ethnicity, suggests that legislative women of color will have the strongest countervailing effect on state welfare reform—stronger than that of other women or men of color. Our empirical analyses suggest an intersectional approach yields a more accurate understanding of gender, race/ethnicity, and welfare politics in the states. PMID:22400145

  14. The welfare state, class, and gender.

    PubMed

    Berlinguer, G

    1992-01-01

    If we compare the welfare state countries with others, from the point of view of both health and health services, the crisis concerns primarily the second group of countries. Nevertheless, difficulties arise also for welfare state policies. The problem is how to respond to neoconservative attacks on social and health rights, and how to change the bureaucratic and medicalized bias of the welfare state. The "golden era" of social insurance and health services, conceived as free access to funds to cope with all the growing needs of the population, is over. Limitations, controls, and priorities have to be established. In Italy and similar countries, the tendency is toward restricting health care for those who have greater needs, cutting funds for prevention, and creating greater inequalities. It is clear that the state must intervene to reduce social inequalities, but at the same time some existing differences (sexual, cultural, ethnic) have an intrinsic value that must be recognized. A policy of free-choice welfare is useful, and has nothing to do with the selective measures that are being introduced. Moreover, a key point has become the relationship between class and gender. The working class continues to be exploited, but new phenomena arise, connected with production and social reproduction and not limited to this sphere. It is true that gender includes social classes, but no social class may represent both sexes, or different ethnic groups, or gender itself. PMID:1735627

  15. Promoting Resilience: Helping Young Children and Parents Affected by Substance Abuse, Domestic Violence, and Depression in the Context of Welfare Reform. Children and Welfare Reform Issue Brief 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knitzer, Jane

    As states respond to major welfare legislation in providing assistance and other interventions to help adults on welfare become ready to work, the challenge of helping these adults in their parenting skills and in promoting resilience in their children has often been ignored. This issue brief addresses the challenge of promoting resilience in…

  16. How Are Immigrants Faring after Welfare Reform? Preliminary Evidence from Los Angeles and New York City. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randy; Ku, Leighton; Fix, Michael; Furgiuele, Chris; Passel, Jeff; Ramchand, Rajeev; McNiven, Scott; Perez-Lopez, Dan; Fielder, Eve; Greenwell, Michael; Hays, Tonya

    In 1999 and 2000, immigrants in Los Angeles, California, and New York, New York were aurveyed about their status in the context of welfare reform, examining the living conditions of 3,447 immigrant families roughly 3 years after welfare reform was implemented and several months before the federal government issued guidance about the public charge…

  17. SWEDEN--RECENT CHANGES IN WELFARE STATE ARRANGEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Burström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish welfare state, once developed to create a new society based on social equality and universal rights, has taken on a partly new direction. Extensive choice reforms have been implemented in social services and an increasing proportion of tax-funded social services, including child day care, primary and secondary schools, health care, and care of the elderly, is provided by private entrepreneurs, although funded by taxes. Private equity firms have gained considerable profits from the welfare services. The changes have taken place over a 20-year period, but at an accelerated pace in the last decade. Sweden previously had very generous sickness and unemployment insurance, in terms of both duration and benefit levels, but is falling behind in terms of generosity, as indicated by increasing levels of relative poverty among those who depend on benefits and transfers. Increasing income inequality over the past 20 years further adds to increasing the gaps between population groups. In some respects, Sweden is becoming similar to other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The article describes some of the changes that have occurred. However, there is still widespread popular support for the publicly provided welfare state services. PMID:26460449

  18. Work, Income, and Material Hardship after Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sandra; Corcoran, Mary; Danziger, Sheldon; Heflin, Colleen M.

    2000-01-01

    A study of women who went off welfare between 1997 and 1998 (n=753, 693) showed that those with the most work involvement over the year had higher levels of financial and subjective well-being. Regardless of work involvement, substantial numbers reported serious economic difficulties and financial strain. Many still needed income supplements and…

  19. Child Care Issues Impacting Welfare Reform in the Rural South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazvini, Alisa S.; Mullis, Ann K.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Park, Jennifer J.

    1999-01-01

    Access to affordable, quality child care is a major barrier to successful employment for many families. About one-fifth of families return to welfare within a few months of leaving, with lack of accessible child care and transportation being the most frequently cited reasons. These issues are likely to be compounded in the rural South. Information…

  20. FYI: Reforming Social Welfare Policy...Indiana's Children...Lead Poisoning Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes results of reports and resources concerning the reform of social welfare policy. Focuses on a profile of Indiana children, hospital policies and programs designed to meet the psychosocial needs of hospitalized children and their families, a senior center/latchkey program, and lead poisoning prevention. (BB)

  1. Do Social Policy Reforms Have Different Impacts on Employment and Welfare Use as Economic Conditions Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses March Current Population Survey data from 1985 to 2004 to explore whether social policy reforms implemented throughout the 1990s have different impacts on employment and welfare use depending on economic conditions, a topic with important policy implications but which has received little attention from researchers. I find evidence…

  2. Welfare Reform and Older Immigrants: Food Stamp Program Participation and Food Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Yunju; Jung, Hyo Jin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The welfare reform bill of 1996 severely constrained noncitizens' eligibility for the Food Stamp Program (FSP). This study examined the effects of eligibility restrictions on older immigrants' FSP participation and food insecurity. We paid special attention to household composition and household eligibility as well as older immigrants'…

  3. Family Literacy Guide to Welfare Reform. Family Independence Initiative Publication #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Family Literacy, Louisville, KY.

    This guide provides the information family literacy programs, practitioners, and friends need to understand the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) and its ramifications. It also addresses how to advocate on behalf of family literacy and to adapt programs to meet welfare reform requirements, while…

  4. Is Welfare Reform Responsible for Low Skilled Women's Declining Health Insurance Coverage in the 1990s?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeire, Thomas; Levine, Judith A.; Levy, Helen

    2006-01-01

    We use data from the 1989-2001 March Supplements to the Current Population Survey to determine whether welfare reform contributed to declines in health insurance coverage experienced by low-skilled women. Between 1988 and 2000, women with less than a high school education experienced an 8.0 percentage point decline in the probability of having…

  5. Is Welfare Reform Responsible for Low Skilled Women's Declining Health Insurance Coverage in the 1990s?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeire, Thomas; Levine, Judith A.; Levy, Helen

    2006-01-01

    We use data from the 1989-2001 March Supplements to the Current Population Survey to determine whether welfare reform contributed to declines in health insurance coverage experienced by low-skilled women. Between 1988 and 2000, women with less than a high school education experienced an 8.0 percentage point decline in the probability of having…

  6. THREE CITIES STUDY OF WELFARE REFORM AND THE WELL-BEING OF CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies the effects of the 1996 Welfare Reform Bill on children in three Northeastern, Southwestern and Midwestern cities, Boston, San Antonio, and Chicago, over a four-year period. The project also addresses the broader issue of the effects of parental time and money resources o...

  7. Do Social Policy Reforms Have Different Impacts on Employment and Welfare Use as Economic Conditions Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses March Current Population Survey data from 1985 to 2004 to explore whether social policy reforms implemented throughout the 1990s have different impacts on employment and welfare use depending on economic conditions, a topic with important policy implications but which has received little attention from researchers. I find evidence…

  8. Welfare Reform and Older Immigrants: Food Stamp Program Participation and Food Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Yunju; Jung, Hyo Jin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The welfare reform bill of 1996 severely constrained noncitizens' eligibility for the Food Stamp Program (FSP). This study examined the effects of eligibility restrictions on older immigrants' FSP participation and food insecurity. We paid special attention to household composition and household eligibility as well as older immigrants'…

  9. The largely untold story of welfare reform and the human services.

    PubMed

    Abramovitz, Mimi

    2005-04-01

    Welfare reform has placed the lives of clients, the jobs of social workers, and the mission of agencies in jeopardy. Based on interviews with senior staff at 107 nonprofit human services agencies, this article documents the largely untold story of how nonprofit agencies' workers responded to the impact of welfare reform on their clients, their jobs, and the delivery of services. Workers reported less time for social services because of welfare-related regulations, penalties, work mandates, crises, and paper work. They also reported more service dilemmas including less control of the job, more ethical conflicts, less efficacy, and increased burn-out. Even so, workers felt that they were making a difference, and agencies indicated increased advocacy. Relying heavily on the voice of social workers, the article illuminates the experiences and feelings of agency staff as they try to do their best for clients in difficult times. PMID:15853194

  10. From Boys Town to Oliver Twist. Separating fact from fiction in welfare reform and out-of-home placement of children and youth.

    PubMed

    Shealy, C N

    1995-08-01

    Recent debate following the suggestion to place children of "welfare mothers" in "orphanages" illustrates the need to evaluate the relative goodness of residential care and to examine many of the basic assumptions underlying current welfare reform proposals. Nearly half a million children and youth are currently in government-funded out-of-home care in the United States. As custodians of this challenging population, child and youth care workers are neither parents nor therapists, but appear to perform both of these roles as "therapeutic parents." Two comprehensive and mature literatures--common factors of therapist efficacy and parental correlates of offspring psychopathology--provide theoretical and empirical support for this model of child and youth care. Current welfare reform proposals are evaluated in the context of the therapeutic parent model; assumptions about welfare mothers are also examined. PMID:7645809

  11. The Changes Project: Understanding the Impact of Welfare Reform, Immigration Reform and the Changing Nature of Work on Adult Learners in Western Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyoke Community Coll., MA.

    The document describes the Changes Project, a participatory action research project conducted by adult learners at five adult literacy and education programs in Western Massachusetts. It is a 3-year project aimed at examining the impact of welfare reform, immigration reform, and the changing workplace on adult learners. The Changes Project is…

  12. Gaining Ground, Moving Up: The Change in the Economic Status of Single Mothers under Welfare Reform. Civic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, June; Hill, M. Anne

    This study is a follow-up of a 2001 study that examined changes in the welfare and work participation of single mothers. This study addresses whether single mothers earn enough to compensate for loss of benefits under welfare reform and the extent to which these women have access to income from sources other than their own earnings. Data come from…

  13. Welfare Time Limits: State Policies, Implementation, and Effects on Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; Farrell, Mary; Fink, Barbara

    The effect of welfare time limits on families in different states was examined in a comprehensive study that involved the following activities: (1) a survey of state welfare administrators regarding states' time-limit policies and experiences to date; (2) site visits to five states; and (3) a synthesis of research on time limits. The following…

  14. Delivering Health Care and Mental Health Care Services to Children in Family Foster Care after Welfare and Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Mark D.; Freundlich, Madelyn; Battistelli, Ellen S.; Kaufman, Neal D.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the essential features of a health care system that can meet the special needs of children in out-of-home care. Discusses some of the major recent changes brought about by welfare and health care reform. Notes that it remains to be seen whether the quality of services will improve as a result of these reforms. (Author)

  15. Experimental evidence of welfare reform impact on clinical anxiety and depression levels among poor women.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, Radha; Camasso, Michael J; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we employ a classical experiment to determine if welfare reform causes poor women to experience increased levels of clinical anxiety and depression. We organize our analyses around the insights provided by lifestyle change and ecosocial theories of illness. Our data come from the New Jersey Family Development Program (FDP), one of the most highly publicized welfare experiments in the U.S. A sample of 8393 women was randomly assigned into two groups, one which stressed welfare-to-work and the other which offered traditional welfare benefits. These women were followed from 1992 through 1996 and information on clinical diagnoses was collected quarterly from physician treatment claims to the government Medicaid program. Our intention-to-treat estimates show that for short-term welfare recipients FDP decreased the prevalence of anxiety by 40% and increased depression by 8%. For black women both anxiety and depression diagnoses declined while Hispanic women experienced a 68% increase in depression. We discuss several public policy implications which arise from our work. PMID:20434251

  16. Relationship of Paternity Status, Welfare Reform Period, and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Infant Mortality.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Emmanuel M; Cortright, Alicia L; Michalski, Karen

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of paternity status, welfare reform period, and racial/ethnic disparities in infant mortality. The study used retrospective analysis of birth outcomes data from singleton birth/infant death data in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, from 1993 to 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between paternity status, welfare reform period, and infant mortality, adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics. Data consisted of almost 185,000 singleton live births and 1,739 infant deaths. Although unmarried women with no father on record made up about 32% of the live births, they accounted for over two thirds of the infant deaths compared with married women with established paternity who made up 39% of live births but had about a quarter of infant deaths. After adjustments, any form of paternity establishment was protective against infant mortality across all racial/ethnic groups. Unmarried women with no father on record had twice to triple the odds of infant mortality among all racial/ethnic groups. The likelihood of infant mortality was only significantly greater for African American women in the postwelfare (1999-2004; odds ratio = 1.27; 95% confidence interval = 1.10-1.46) period compared with the 1993 to 1998 period. Study findings suggest that any form of paternity establishment may have protective effect against infant mortality. Welfare reform changes may have reduced some of the protection against infant mortality among unmarried African American women that was present before the welfare legislation. Policies and programs that promote or support increased paternal involvement and establishment of paternity may improve birth outcomes and help reduce infant mortality. PMID:25061086

  17. A Brief Look at the Welfare Reform Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Describes child support provisions of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act. Outlines federal requirements for state child support enforcement programs, including a new-hire reporting system; streamlined paternity establishment processes; uniform interstate child support; computerized collections; tougher penalties;…

  18. From "Boys Town" to "Oliver Twist": Separating Fact from Fiction in Welfare Reform and Out-of-Home Placement of Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shealy, Craig N.

    1995-01-01

    A description of the rationale for responding to welfare reform is followed by an overview of orphanages and child and youth care workers. A therapeutic parent model of reform is presented, and welfare reform proposals are evaluated in the model's context. (SLD)

  19. Health Behaviors, Mental Health, and Health Care Utilization Among Single Mothers After Welfare Reforms in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Rehkopf, David H; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Glymour, M Maria; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-03-15

    We studied the health of low-income US women affected by the largest social policy change in recent US history: the 1996 welfare reforms. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1993-2012), we performed 2 types of analysis. First, we used difference-in-difference-in-differences analyses to estimate associations between welfare reforms and health outcomes among the most affected women (single mothers aged 18-64 years in 1997; n = 219,469) compared with less affected women (married mothers, single nonmothers, and married nonmothers of the same age range in 1997; n = 2,422,265). We also used a synthetic control approach in which we constructed a more ideal control group for single mothers by weighting outcomes among the less affected groups to match pre-reform outcomes among single mothers. In both specifications, the group most affected by welfare reforms (single mothers) experienced worse health outcomes than comparison groups less affected by the reforms. For example, the reforms were associated with at least a 4.0-percentage-point increase in binge drinking (95% confidence interval: 0.9, 7.0) and a 2.4-percentage-point decrease in the probability of being able to afford medical care (95% confidence interval: 0.1, 4.8) after controlling for age, educational level, and health care insurance status. Although the reforms were applauded for reducing welfare dependency, they may have adversely affected health. PMID:26946395

  20. 45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions? 260.74 Section 260.74 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN...

  1. 45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions? 260.74 Section 260.74 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN...

  2. 45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions? 260.74 Section 260.74 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN...

  3. 45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions? 260.74 Section 260.74 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN...

  4. 45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions? 260.74 Section 260.74 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN...

  5. Methodology and estimation of the welfare impact of energy reforms on households in Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klytchnikova, Irina

    This dissertation develops a new approach that enables policy-makers to analyze welfare gains from improvements in the quality of infrastructure services in developing countries where data are limited and supply is subject to interruptions. An application of the proposed model in the former Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan demonstrates how this approach can be used in welfare assessment of energy sector reforms. The planned reforms in Azerbaijan include a set of measures that will result in a significant improvement in supply reliability, accompanied by a significant increase in the prices of energy services so that they reach the cost recovery level. Currently, households in rural areas receive electricity and gas for only a few hours a day because of a severe deterioration of the energy infrastructure following the collapse of the Soviet Union. The reforms that have recently been initiated will have far-reaching poverty and distributional consequences for the country as they result in an improvement in supply reliability and an increase in energy prices. The new model of intermittent supply developed in this dissertation is based on the household production function approach and draws on previous research in the energy reliability literature. Since modern energy sources (network gas and electricity) in Azerbaijan are cleaner and cheaper than the traditional fuels (fuel wood, etc.), households choose modern fuels whenever they are available. During outages, they rely on traditional fuels. Theoretical welfare measures are derived from a system of fuel demands that takes into account the intermittent availability of energy sources. The model is estimated with the data from the Azerbaijan Household Energy Survey, implemented by the World Bank in December 2003/January 2004. This survey includes an innovative contingent behavior module in which the respondents were asked about their energy consumption patterns in specified reform scenarios. Estimation results strongly indicate that households in the areas with poor supply quality have a high willingness to pay for reliability improvements. However, a relatively small group of households may incur substantial welfare losses from an electricity price increase even when it is combined with a partial reliability improvement. Unlike an earlier assessment of the same reforms in Azerbaijan, analysis in this dissertation clearly shows that targeted investments in improving service reliability may be the best way to mitigate adverse welfare consequences of electricity price increases. Hence, policymakers should focus their attention on ensuring that quality improvements are a central component of power sector reforms. Survey evidence also shows that, although households may incur sizable welfare losses from indoor air pollution when they rely on traditional fuels, they do not recognize indoor air pollution as a factor contributing to the high incidence of respiratory illness among fuel wood users. Therefore, benefits may be greater if policy interventions that improve the reliability of modern energy sources are combined with an information campaign about the adverse health effects of fuel wood use. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Welfare reform hearings begin with focus on out-of-wedlock births.

    PubMed

    Kaeser, L

    1995-01-25

    Congressional representatives across the political spectrum agree that the US welfare system needs to be reformed, but no consensus exists on how to do it. Central to the argument in support of making major changes is the high number of out-of-wedlock births, especially among low-income teens. Looking for ways to discourage such pregnancies and births, some people argue that the welfare system itself promotes the births. Republicans are calling for punitive action to regulate fertility such as cutting off welfare payments to unwed teens who give birth. Opponents counter that little evidence exists demonstrating that welfare change will reduce rates of out-of-wedlock births or unintended pregnancy. Few in Congress, however, have stepped forward to point out that many unplanned pregnancies and out-of-wedlock births could be avoided if poor and low-income women had better access to voluntary family planning and abortion services. In failing to provide such services for poor women, Congress is failing to act as reality demands. PMID:12345958

  7. State Reforms Threaten Remote Community Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Angela M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an ethnographic study of administrators, faculty, parents and community members in one remote Michigan school district. The purpose of the study is to describe and explain how Michigan's educational reform perspective--arguably similar to the education reform perspectives of many states--encountered the educational…

  8. 45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State flexibility in individual market reforms... REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Requirements Relating to Access and Renewability of Coverage § 148.128 State flexibility in individual...

  9. The Role of European Welfare States in Explaining Resources Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muffels, Ruud; Fouarge, Didier

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper in this journal (Headey et al., 2000) a comparison was made between three so-called 'best cases' of welfare regime types, the 'Liberal' US, 'the 'Corporatist' Germany and the 'Social-Democratic' Netherlands. The main conclusion was that the Social-Democratic welfare state performed best on nearly all social and economic…

  10. Measuring Is Believing! Improving Conventional Indicators of Welfare State Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon; Alaez-Aller, Ricardo; Diaz-de-Basurto, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Welfare effort (social spending as a percentage of GDP) has conventionally been the preferred measure for comparisons in space and time of the level of development of welfare states. However, a wide variety of other measuring systems are potentially available in this field, because there are different sources and different methods for calculating…

  11. Accessibility and Clarity of State Child Welfare Agency Mission Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Monique; Folaron, Gail

    2005-01-01

    The authors reviewed 40 mission statements guiding U.S. public child welfare practice for accessibility, clarity, and values. Nine of the 40 state-administered child welfare agencies had not posted their missions on the Web as of October 2002, and 30 mission statements required a 12th-grade or college reading level for easy comprehension. The…

  12. The Role of European Welfare States in Explaining Resources Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muffels, Ruud; Fouarge, Didier

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper in this journal (Headey et al., 2000) a comparison was made between three so-called 'best cases' of welfare regime types, the 'Liberal' US, 'the 'Corporatist' Germany and the 'Social-Democratic' Netherlands. The main conclusion was that the Social-Democratic welfare state performed best on nearly all social and economic…

  13. Measuring Is Believing! Improving Conventional Indicators of Welfare State Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon; Alaez-Aller, Ricardo; Diaz-de-Basurto, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Welfare effort (social spending as a percentage of GDP) has conventionally been the preferred measure for comparisons in space and time of the level of development of welfare states. However, a wide variety of other measuring systems are potentially available in this field, because there are different sources and different methods for calculating…

  14. 75 FR 71710 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families... of allotment percentages for States under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State... IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program. Under section 423(a), the...

  15. 77 FR 69629 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families... of allotment percentages for States under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State... IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program. Under section 423(a), the...

  16. Impact of Welfare Reform on Mortality: An Evaluation of the Connecticut Jobs First Program, A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Elizabeth T.; Rosen, Zohn; Couch, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether Jobs First, a multicenter randomized trial of a welfare reform program conducted in Connecticut, demonstrated increases in employment, income, and health insurance relative to traditional welfare (Aid to Families with Dependent Children). We also investigated if higher earnings and employment improved mortality of the participants. Methods. We revisited the Jobs First randomized trial, successfully linking 4612 participant identifiers to 15 years of prospective mortality follow-up data through 2010, producing 240 deaths. The analysis was powered to detect a 20% change in mortality hazards. Results. Significant employment and income benefits were realized among Jobs First recipients relative to traditional welfare recipients, particularly for the most disadvantaged groups. However, although none of these reached statistical significance, all participants in Jobs First (overall, across centers, and all subgroups) experienced higher mortality hazards than traditional welfare recipients. Conclusions. Increases in income and employment produced by Jobs First relative to traditional welfare improved socioeconomic status but did not improve survival. PMID:23678929

  17. The preferred role and perceived performance of the welfare state: European welfare attitudes from a multidimensional perspective.

    PubMed

    Roosma, Femke; van Oorschot, Wim; Gelissen, John

    2014-03-01

    Welfare state support has two core dimensions: attitudes about what the welfare state should do and beliefs about its actual performance. People can combine any position on one dimension with any position on the other, yielding four opinion clusters: people can combine preferences for a relatively strong role of the welfare state with a perception of a relatively low or high welfare state performance; likewise, people preferring a small role of the welfare state can perceive a high or low performing welfare state. We apply Latent Class Factor Analysis to data of 22 European countries from the 2008/9 European Social Survey. We find that each of the four clusters contains a substantial proportion of respondents that differs between welfare regimes. In addition, cluster membership is also related to covariates that measure people's structural positions and ideological preferences. PMID:24468444

  18. Welfare Reform in a Hard Place: The West Virginia Experience. Rockefeller Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plein, L. Christopher

    Structured work and training activities for welfare recipients in West Virginia began in 1962 when the state's entire caseload of two-parent families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children was enrolled in mandatory work and training activities. In 1980s-1990s, the Community Work Experience Program became an important tool in…

  19. 76 FR 9788 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families... Biennial publication of allotment percentages for States under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare... the Title IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program. Under section 423(a),...

  20. New Hope for People with Low Incomes: Two-Year Results of a Program To Reduce Poverty and Reform Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Johannes M.; Huston, Aletha C.; Granger, Robert C.; Duncan, Greg J.; Brock, Thomas W.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.; And Others

    This document details the 2-year results of the New Hope Project, which was conducted in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to reduce poverty, reform welfare, and improve the overall well-being of poor people by providing a mix of incentives and services, including supplemental income, child care subsidies, guaranteed affordable health insurance, and…

  1. A Review of the Major Issues and Problems of Welfare Reform; A Background Paper Developed for the Community Services Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Assistance Research Programs, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This background paper was developed for the Community Services Administration (CSA) in order to provide background information concerning welfare reform. It examines possible public assistance strategies, such as the following: (1) broad-based cash transfer (negative income tax, wage rate subsidies, demogrants, and family allowances), (2)…

  2. Child Welfare: Most States Are Developing Statewide Information Systems, but Reliability of Child Welfare Data Could Be Improved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrowiak, Diana; Schibanoff, Sara L.

    To better monitor children and families served by state child welfare agencies, Congress authorized matching funds for the development of statewide automatic child welfare information systems (SACWIS) and required that U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) compile information on children served by state agencies. This report to…

  3. Text, Lies, and the Welfare State: The Portrayal of Welfare Recipients in Welfare-to-Work Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    A study analyzed the ideological messages about welfare recipients promoted in two welfare-to-work educational programs. Data were collected through interviews with students, teachers, and administrators at an adult literacy classroom serving unemployed women on welfare and an employment preparation program designed to increase job skills of women…

  4. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and State Child Welfare Systems.

    PubMed

    Bounds, Dawn; Julion, Wrenetha A; Delaney, Kathleen R

    2015-01-01

    In several states, commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is now a reportable child abuse offense. Illinois has taken the lead in tackling the issue and the Illinois experience illuminates valuable lessons. This article delineates the protection, practice, and policy implications that evolve when CSEC falls under a state child welfare system. The specific aims are to (a) discuss CSEC, its victims, risks, harms, and challenges inherent in providing effective care; (b) use Illinois as an exemplar to explicate the consequences and implementation challenges of establishing a state reporting system that frames CSEC as a child welfare issue; (c) recommend strategies for developing effective state reporting models, and (d) demonstrate how nurses are well poised to advocate for victims of human trafficking on both state and national levels. Recommendations for improving the identification of CSEC victims and overcoming challenges to state implementation are offered. PMID:25908664

  5. State Capacity: The Missing Piece in Child Welfare Privatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barillas, Katherine Howard

    2011-01-01

    Privatization has been used to address the limited capacity of government to achieve positive results in child welfare systems. Privatized systems have not realized better outcomes than their public counterparts, however, and many states continue to struggle with implementation. In order to demonstrate that privatization is in fact an investment…

  6. The Challenge of Compliance: Food Security in Rural Households Affected by Welfare Reform. Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol; Tiller, Vicky V.; Smith, Jennifer

    A study examined welfare reform and food security issues. Interviews were conducted with 32 rural Louisiana women in 1997-98 when they were receiving welfare payments, in 1998-99 when they were in transition, and in 2000-01 when none received Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Most women were African-American; about half had not…

  7. Seven Years of Welfare Reform--Weighing the Results: A Summary of Research Findings on the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lynda

    2004-01-01

    In the seven years since Minnesota's version of federal welfare reform took effect statewide, more than 50 research studies have considered one central question: How well has Minnesota's welfare-to-work system succeeded? This report reviews the research conducted on the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), and finds that the research…

  8. Health system reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, John E

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider. PMID:24596894

  9. The sustainability of welfare states into the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Esping-Andersen, G

    2000-01-01

    Few would deny that the advanced welfare state faces a set of severe challenges. There is less agreement on what the challenges are and how important they are. The three most cited sources of crisis are population aging, family instability, and the labor market consequences of globalization and technological change. It is, however, questionable whether these affect the three dominant types of welfare systems similarly. The past decade bears witness to numerous attempts at reform and readaptation but such efforts have, so far, perpetuated or even strengthened underlying disequilibria. The result is mounting diswelfare, especially among younger households. The author examines various reform strategies (privatization, decentralization, and familialization) and concludes that these imply suboptimality. A "win-win" policy can be identified to the extent that it simultaneously maximizes fertility and women's employment and minimizes poverty risks. Greater earnings and income inequalities probably cannot be escaped, but their impact can be neutralized through a shift toward guaranteed life chances through education and skills. PMID:10707296

  10. Double Jeopardy: An Assessment of the Felony Drug Provision of the Welfare Reform Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Rukaiyah; Onek, David; Riker, Alissa

    In 1996 the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program was replaced with a federal block grant program called Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), which imposed time limits and work requirements on welfare recipients. The welfare legislation placed a lifetime ban on TANF and food stamp benefits for convicted drug felons, although…

  11. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare. PMID:26403650

  12. Women's Political Representation and Welfare State Spending in 12 Capitalist Democracies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolzendahl, Catherine; Brooks, Clem

    2007-01-01

    One of the sharpest criticisms of welfare state research is insufficient attention to factors relating to gender relations and inequalities. Recent scholarship has begun to address welfare state effects on gender-related outcomes, but the evaluation of theories of welfare development with respect to gender factors is somewhat less developed,…

  13. State infrastructure support for science education reform

    SciTech Connect

    Buccino, A.

    1994-12-31

    Discussing state infrastructure support for science education reform is a little daunting. At the state level, there is simply nothing comparable to the federal establishment. There are state science academies, but they generally do not have the stature and influence of the National Academy of Sciences. In large states like California, governors may have formally designated science advisors, but there are no agencies comparable to NSF of NASA or the Defense Department, owing to the national character of the mission of these agencies. Although science and mathematics education has been pronounced a major national concern, some states do not agree. For example, some states did not bother to apply for a Statewide Systematic Initiative project, and at least one state declined to do so because its governor did not think his state needed it. We need to come to grips with standard-based education and support commitment to it and to its implementation. The central issue here is state and local implementation of the leadership coming from the federal government and expressed in Goals 2000 and Pathways to Excellence.

  14. Across the Great Divide. From a Welfare State to a New Market State: The Case of VET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This paper revisits the crucial period following the Arab oil boycott of 1973, when the welfare state in the UK finally collapsed along with the heavy industrial base upon which it rested. Unlike the post-war welfare-state "settlement", the new post-welfare market state was imposed by Margaret Thatcher's governments. It was marked for vocational…

  15. From welfare states to welfare sectors: Explaining sectoral differences in occupational pensions with economic and political power of employees

    PubMed Central

    Wiß, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Studies analysing welfare have previously focused on countries as units. In the course of pension cuts and the increasing importance of occupational welfare, our traditional understanding of a homogeneous welfare state is being challenged. In this article, I distinguish between both economic individual power (employee skills) and political collective power (trade unions), and their relation with different occupational pensions. A combined analysis by both factors is not common, where employee skills and power resources are traditionally treated as separate, rival explanations of public welfare. Combining the ‘method of difference’ with the ‘method of agreement’, the article first presents the within-country variety of occupational pensions in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and Denmark. Occupational pensions in the same economic sectors across countries are then used as the units of analysis in order to illustrate the plausible determinants of economic individual power and political collective power. PMID:26663983

  16. The impact of welfare reform on parents' ability to care for their children's health.

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, S J; Earle, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Most of the national policy debate regarding welfare assumed that if middle-income mothers could balance work while caring for their children's health and development, mothers leaving welfare for work should be able to do so as well. Yet, previous research has not examined the conditions faced by mothers leaving welfare for work. METHODS: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study examined the availability of benefits that working parents commonly use to meet the health and developmental needs of their children; paid sick leave, vacation leave, and flexible hours. RESULTS: In comparison with mothers who had never received welfare, mothers who had been on Aid to Families with Dependent Children were more likely to be caring for at least 1 child with a chronic condition (37% vs 21%, respectively). Yet, they were more likely to lack sick leave for the entire time they worked (36% vs 20%) and less likely to receive other paid leave or flexibility. CONCLUSIONS: If current welfare recipients face similar conditions when they return to work, many will face working conditions that make it difficult or impossible to succeed in the labor force at the same time as meeting their children's health and developmental needs. PMID:10191791

  17. Reclaiming the Disengaged: Reform of New Zealand's Vocational Education and Training and Social Welfare Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strathdee, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Habermas' theory of the state and his idea of legitimation crisis to critically evaluate recent reforms in New Zealand designed to engage young people (16-24 years of age) in paid employment and/or education and training. The paper identifies three broad strategies adopted by the state to reclaim the disengaged and hence,…

  18. Reclaiming the Disengaged: Reform of New Zealand's Vocational Education and Training and Social Welfare Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strathdee, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Habermas' theory of the state and his idea of legitimation crisis to critically evaluate recent reforms in New Zealand designed to engage young people (16-24 years of age) in paid employment and/or education and training. The paper identifies three broad strategies adopted by the state to reclaim the disengaged and hence,…

  19. Supervision in tribal and state child welfare agencies: professionalization, responsibilities, training needs, and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    MacEachron, A E

    1994-01-01

    Although tribal child welfare and family services have expanded substantially since the enactment of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978, little is known about tribal child welfare services or their personnel. This exploratory study compared supervisors from 11 tribal child welfare agencies and one state child welfare agency. Tribal and state supervisors reported similar levels of supervisory professionalization and satisfaction, but they differed in their ethnicity, their supervisory tasks, and their training needs. The results were interpreted from a systems perspective of ethnic-sensitive agency practice. PMID:8149774

  20. Die Reform der Lehrerbildung in England und Amerika (The Reform of Teacher Training in Great Britain and the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criblez, Lucien

    1998-01-01

    Outlines major reform postulates and reform projects in teacher education in the Great Britain and the United States, including national standardization, orientation toward competency and educational practice, and functionalization of school reform and teacher-education reform for national competitiveness. Points to a marginalization of theory in…

  1. The Juggling Act: Navigating Parent Involvement in the Welfare Reform Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how parents supported their children's education while transitioning from welfare to work. Interviews with parents, elementary school educators, and staff at a community-based organization were conducted in an urban Tennessee community. Navigating work and parenting responsibilities was particularly challenging when children…

  2. The Juggling Act: Navigating Parent Involvement in the Welfare Reform Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how parents supported their children's education while transitioning from welfare to work. Interviews with parents, elementary school educators, and staff at a community-based organization were conducted in an urban Tennessee community. Navigating work and parenting responsibilities was particularly challenging when children…

  3. Marriage and Welfare Reform: The Overwhelming Evidence That Marriage Education Works. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Patrick F.; Patterson, Robert W.; Rector, Robert E.

    The erosion of marriage has caused enormous difficulties for children, parents, and society. Compared to children born within marriage, those born outside of marriage are overwhelmingly more likely to live in poverty, depend on welfare, and have behavior problems. They also may suffer depression and physical abuse, fail in school, abuse drugs, and…

  4. The Invisible Realities of Welfare Reform in Wisconsin: Perspectives of African American Women and Their Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the experiences of African American women as they transitioned from welfare to work and develop economic self-sufficiency. The barriers to self-sufficiency included the "work-first" philosophy and case management practices, labor market conditions and employment practices, and personal history. HRD can help minimize these…

  5. Pedagogy of the Consumer: The Politics of Neo-Liberal Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Situated against the backdrop of a widespread and growing interest in the linkages between neo-liberalism and welfare, this paper introduces the lens of neo-liberalism as a conceptual strategy for thinking about contemporary issues in education policy. Through charting the historic rise of unfettered market institutions and practices in the…

  6. Bridging the Gap: Higher Education and Career-Centered Welfare Reform. Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosar, Kevin R., Ed.

    This conference examined the current welfare policy and the continued use of higher education as a tool for moving low-income people into self-supporting careers. The proceedings include: welcoming remarks by Stephen Greenwald; keynote addresses by William Spriggs and Danny Simmons; a lunch address by Rae Alexander-Minter; remarks by Patricia…

  7. Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; Scrivener, Susan; Michalopoulos, Charles; Morris, Pamela; Hendra, Richard; Adams-Ciardullo, Diana; Walter, Johanna

    Connecticut's Jobs First program was subjected to a rigorous, large-scale evaluation. During the evaluation, nearly 5,000 single-parent welfare applicants and recipients in 2 cities were randomly assigned to Jobs First or to the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) group. Each group's progress was compared over a 4-year period. The…

  8. Pedagogy of the Consumer: The Politics of Neo-Liberal Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Situated against the backdrop of a widespread and growing interest in the linkages between neo-liberalism and welfare, this paper introduces the lens of neo-liberalism as a conceptual strategy for thinking about contemporary issues in education policy. Through charting the historic rise of unfettered market institutions and practices in the…

  9. States and health care reform: the importance of program implementation.

    PubMed

    Beatrice, D F

    1996-01-01

    The recent debate on national health care reform marked another case of policy being considered without reference to how--or even if--it could be implemented. The debate revolved around broad issues, such as universal versus partial coverage, mandatory versus voluntary alliances, and the respective roles of government and the market in health care. The ease or even the possibility of successful implementation was not an ingredient in evaluating proposals. The burden of making health care reform work falls to the states. Whether in response to national reform or in implementing their own programs, they must move from a general reform blueprint to an actual program that delivers services. The hands-on role of the states in designing and operating programs makes their implementation duties both unavoidable and critical. This chapter explores implementation issues that should be considered an integral part of planning for health care reform, at both the federal and the state level. The chapter has two goals. First, it makes a case for altering the usual approach to designing reform and recommends paying attention to implementation early in the policy process, rather than treating it as an afterthough. Second, it is intended to help policymakers design implementable programs and anticipate pitfalls. To achieve these goals, it examines the state role in health care reform; state capacity to carry out this role; examples of state health care reform initiatives and lessons for implementation drawn from these efforts; and barriers to successful implementation. The chapter concludes with recommendations for policymakers. PMID:11066260

  10. Welfare Reform. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

    This report presents the testimony and submissions presented at one of a series of hearings on welfare reform and reauthorization of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. The statement by Cynthia M. Fagnoni, managing director of education, workforce, and income security issues at the U.S. General Accounting Office, assesses…

  11. AFDC, SSI, and Welfare Reform Aggressiveness: Caseload Reductions versus Caseload Shifting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Lucie; Sevak, Purvi

    2004-01-01

    The effect of reforms of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) on caseloads of another program that is Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is examined. The results reveal that a decrease in caseloads in one program cannot be interpreted as an equal-sized decrease in the number of families receiving public assistance.

  12. Child Welfare Workplace: The State of the Workforce and Strategies to Improve Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scannapieco, Maria; Connell-Carrick, Kelli

    2007-01-01

    Child welfare systems throughout the United States are being closely scrutinized as sensational cases appear in the media in nearly every state. At the federal level, with the Child and Family Service Review process, the government is documenting that states across the country are not conforming to federal child welfare requirements (DHHS, 2007)…

  13. Trends in mental health inequalities in England during a period of recession, austerity and welfare reform 2004 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ben; Kinderman, Peter; Whitehead, Margaret

    2015-12-01

    Several indicators of population mental health in the UK have deteriorated since the financial crisis, during a period when a number of welfare reforms and austerity measures have been implemented. We do not know which groups have been most affected by these trends or the extent to which recent economic trends or recent policies have contributed to them. We use data from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey to investigate trends in self reported mental health problems by socioeconomic group and employment status in England between 2004 and 2013. We then use panel regression models to investigate the association between local trends in mental health problems and local trends in unemployment and wages to investigate the extent to which these explain increases in mental health problems during this time. We found that the trend in the prevalence of people reporting mental health problems increased significantly more between 2009 and 2013 compared to the previous trends. This increase was greatest amongst people with low levels of education and inequalities widened. The gap in prevalence between low and high educated groups widened by 1.29 percentage points for women (95% CI: 0.50 to 2.08) and 1.36 percentage points for men (95% CI: 0.31 to 2.42) between 2009 and 2013. Trends in unemployment and wages only partly explained these recent increases in mental health problems. The trend in reported mental health problems across England broadly mirrored the pattern of increases in suicides and antidepressant prescribing. Welfare policies and austerity measures implemented since 2010 may have contributed to recent increases in mental health problems and widening inequalities. This has led to rising numbers of people with low levels of education out of work with mental health problems. These trends are likely to increase social exclusion as well as demand for and reliance on social welfare systems. PMID:26623942

  14. Why Do Schools Respond Differentially to State School Reform Legislation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Paul; Conley, David T.

    Is it possible for state legislation designed to initiate systemic school reform to influence curriculum, instruction, and assessment at the classroom and building level? This paper presents findings of a longitudinal study of Oregon educators' reactions to school-reform legislation since it was passed in 1991. The Oregon Educational Act for the…

  15. Community College Participation in Welfare Programs: Do State Policies Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melendez, Edwin; Falcon, Luis; Bivens, Josh

    2003-01-01

    Reports that 80% of community colleges have implemented programs targeting welfare recipients. Examines policies affecting community college participation in welfare-to-work programs, and how, why, and to what extent community colleges are responding to these initiatives. Identifies qualities of some of the most successful programs. Includes five…

  16. Immigration and Natives' Attitudes towards the Welfare State: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senik, Claudia; Stichnoth, Holger; Van der Straeten, Karine

    2009-01-01

    Does immigration reduce natives' support for the welfare state? Evidence from the European Social Survey (2002/2003) suggests a more qualified relation. For Europe as a whole, there is only weak evidence of a negative association between the perceived presence of immigrants and natives' support for the welfare state. However, this weak average…

  17. The Welfare State and Relative Poverty in Rich Western Democracies, 1967-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, David

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the welfare state and poverty with multiple measures of the welfare state and poverty in an unbalanced panel of 18 Western nations from 1967 to 1997. While addressing the limitations of past research, the analysis shows that social security transfers and public health spending significantly reduce…

  18. The Multidimensionality of Welfare State Attitudes: A European Cross-National Study.

    PubMed

    Roosma, Femke; Gelissen, John; van Oorschot, Wim

    2013-08-01

    When evaluating the various aspects of the welfare state, people assess some aspects more positively than others. Following a multidimensional approach, this study systematically argues for a framework composed of seven dimensions of the welfare state, which are subject to the opinions of the public. Using confirmatory factor analyses, this conceptual framework of multidimensional welfare attitudes was tested on cross-national data from 22 countries participating in the 2008 European Social Survey. According to our empirical analysis, attitudes towards the welfare state are multidimensional; in general, people are very positive about the welfare state's goals and range, while simultaneously being critical of its efficiency, effectiveness and policy outcomes. We found that these dimensions relate to each other differently in different countries. Eastern/Southern Europeans combine a positive attitude towards the goals and role of government with a more critical attitude towards the welfare state's efficiency and policy outcomes. In contrast, Western/Northern Europeans' attitudes towards the various welfare state dimensions are based partly on a fundamentally positive or negative stance towards the welfare state. PMID:23874057

  19. A Society without a "State"? Political Organization, Social Conflict, and Welfare Provision in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skocpol, Theda

    The programmatic structure and modes of implementation of U.S. social provisions must be understood in order to gain insight into social programs in the United States. National standards have not been established for public benefits and "social security" has remained firmly separated, both institutionally and symbolically, from "welfare." Many…

  20. Uruguay: Population Geography of a Troubled Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tata, Robert J.

    1977-01-01

    Discussed is whether or not Uruguay's elaborate welfare system can be maintained by a deteriorating economy plagued by social tension and political unrest. Historical background is presented, demographic variables are discussed and modern influences are measured. (Author/DB)

  1. Immigrant women and the emergency department: the juncture with welfare and immigration reform.

    PubMed

    Ivey, S L; Kramer, E J

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act and their potential impact on immigrant women's access to medical services. Current federal mandates assuring access to emergency medical services and new restrictions on financing of health care under federal programs such as Medicaid and Medicare would appear to be on a collision course. Both acts specifically reaffirm federal law on delivery of emergency services without addressing the financing of that care. Unfunded mandates in an era of diminished ability to shift costs onto insured patients are problematic for the institutions that provide uncompensated care. Specific protections for victims of domestic violence are also discussed. PMID:9595903

  2. States Will Lead the Way toward Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Arne

    2009-01-01

    This document contains remarks delivered by the Secretary of Education who spoke at the 2009 Governors Education Symposium. Secretary Duncan spoke about uses of Recovery Act funding to drive reform in four core areas of education: (1) Robust data systems that track student achievement and teacher effectiveness; (2) Teacher and principal quality;…

  3. Child Welfare Financing: Looking beyond the New York State Family and Children's Services Block Grant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.

    Since the Family and Children's Services Block Grant and the per diem rate methodology have not been effective, especially in the wake of the increasing number of children entering foster care, this policy brief explores ways in which New York State's child welfare system should allocate child welfare dollars to counties and providers to produce…

  4. Adolescents' School Enrollment and Employment: Effect of State Welfare Policies. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Lingxin; Astone, Nan M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    This study hypothesizes that stringent welfare policies may promote school enrollment and reduce employment among adolescents from low-income, single parent, and welfare families. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort, combined with state-level data sources, this analysis uses a dynamic model to study school and…

  5. Still Social and Democratic? Inclusive Education Policies in the Nordic Welfare States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnesen, Anne-Lise; Lundahl, Lisbeth

    2006-01-01

    In this article, education policy is analyzed from a welfare state perspective. The aim is to Analise the significance attributed to social-inclusive aspects of education in contemporary education policies of the Nordic countries, and the extent to which education is regarded as an element in welfare policies. Four aspects are addressed: (1)…

  6. Pathologizing poverty: new forms of diagnosis, disability, and structural stigma under welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Helena; Bourgois, Philippe; Drucker, Ernest

    2014-02-01

    In 1996 the U.S. severely restricted public support for low income people, ending "welfare as we know it." This led to dramatic increases in medicalized forms of support for indigent people, who increasingly rely on disability benefits justified by psychiatric diagnoses of chronic mental illness. We present case studies drawn from ethnographic data involving daily participant-observation between 2005 and 2012 in public clinics and impoverished neighborhoods in New York City, to describe the subjective experience of structural stigma imposed by the increasing medicalization of public support for the poor through a diagnosis of permanent mental disability. In some cases, disability benefits enable recipients to fulfill important social roles (sustaining a vulnerable household and promoting stable parenting). The status of family members who receive a monthly disability check improves within their kin and neighborhood-based networks, counterbalancing the felt stigma of being identified by doctors as "crazy". When a diagnosis of mental pathology becomes a valuable survival strategy constituting the basis for fulfillment of household responsibilities, stigmatizing processes are structurally altered. Through the decades, the stigmatized labels applied to the poor have shifted: from being a symptom of racial weakness, to the culture of poverty, and now to permanent medical pathology. The neoliberal bureaucratic requirement that the poor must repeatedly prove their "disabled" status through therapy and psychotropic medication appears to be generating a national and policy-maker discourse condemning SSI malingerers, resurrecting the 16th century specter of the "unworthy poor". PMID:24507913

  7. Prioritization and the elusive effect on welfare - a Norwegian health care reform revisited.

    PubMed

    Aakvik, Arild; Holmås, Tor Helge; Kjerstad, Egil

    2015-03-01

    The Faster Return to Work (FRW) scheme that Norwegian authorities implemented in 2007 is an example of a policy that builds on the human capital approach. The main idea behind the scheme is that long waiting times for hospital treatment lead to unnecessarily long periods of absence from work. To achieve a reduction in average sickness absence duration, the allocation of FRW funds and new treatment capacity is exclusively aimed at people on sick leave. Many countries have allocated funds to reduce waiting times for hospital treatment and research shows that more resources allocated to the hospital sector can reduce waiting times. Our results support this as the FRW scheme significantly reduces waiting times. However, on average the reduction in waiting times is not transformed into an equally large reduction in the sickness absence period. We find significant difference in the effects of FRW on length of sick leave between surgical and non-surgical patients though. The duration of sick leave for FRW patients undergoing surgical treatment is approximately 14 days shorter than for surgical patients on the regular waiting list. We find no significant effect of the scheme on length of sick leave for non-surgical patients. In sum, our welfare analysis indicates that prioritization of the kind that the FRW scheme represents is not as straightforward as one would expect. The FRW scheme costs more than it contributes in reduced productivity loss. We base our analyses on several different econometric methods using register data on approximately 13,500 individuals over the period 2007-2008. PMID:25637910

  8. Pathologizing Poverty: New Forms of Diagnosis, Disability, and Structural Stigma under Welfare Reform

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Helena; Bourgois, Philippe; Drucker, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    In 1996 the U.S. severely restricted public support for low income people, ending “welfare as we know it.” This led to dramatic increases in medicalized forms of support for indigent people, who increasingly rely on disability benefits justified by psychiatric diagnoses of chronic mental illness. We present case studies drawn from ethnographic data involving daily participant-observation between 2005-2012 in public clinics and impoverished neighborhoods in New York City, to describe the subjective experience of structural stigma imposed by the increasing medicalization of public support for the poor through a diagnosis of permanent mental disability. In some cases, disability benefits enable recipients to fulfill important social roles (sustaining a vulnerable household and promoting stable parenting). The status of family members who receive a monthly disability check improves within their kin and neighborhood-based networks, counterbalancing the felt stigma of being identified by doctors as “crazy”. A structural disjunction in stigmatizing processes emerges when a diagnosis of permanent medical cognitive pathology becomes a valuable survival strategy constituting the basis for fulfillment of household responsibilities. Through the decades, the stigmatized labels applied to the poor have shifted: from being a symptom of racial weakness, to the culture of poverty, and now to permanent medical pathology. The neoliberal bureaucratic requirement that the poor must repeatedly prove their “disabled” status through therapy and psychotropic medication appears to be generating a national and policy-maker discourse condemning SSI malingerers, resurrecting the 16th century specter of the “unworthy poor”. PMID:24507913

  9. Steps to Success: Helping Women with Alcohol and Drug Problems Move from Welfare to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Gwen

    This report helps state and local decision makers understand the range of services ordinarily needed and provided in alcohol and drug treatment programs serving women and families receiving welfare and how those services support the goals of welfare reform. The model programs profiled here tend to the needs of women on welfare and their families…

  10. American medical policy and the "crisis" of the welfare state: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Marmor, T R

    1986-01-01

    Health policy debates rarely include broad review of cross-national experiences with related social policies. This article addresses the connection between medical policy concerns and the development of welfare states in the advanced industrial democracies following the oil crisis of 1973-74. After examining the evidence about what actually occurred during the "crisis" years of the welfare state, the article relates the debates about the welfare state's crisis to American concerns about medical care in the 1980s. The distinctive American response to the fiscal strains of stagflation-more severe cuts in social spending than necessary based on the country's economic strength, threats of bankruptcy to produce small adjustments to large programs, and inability to address the problems of medical care as anything other than budgetary strain--is linked to American dissensus about the purposes of the welfare state. PMID:3571882

  11. The State Data Analysis Gap: A Threat to Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeky, Art

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the 2001 passage of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), states have faced a federal mandate to improve their ability to collect and analyze education data for the purpose of tracking and reporting the progress of their education reform efforts. With the assistance of federal funds, virtually all of the states are developing…

  12. Child Support Reform: A State Checklist for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebb, Nancy

    Noting that fundamental reform of child support policy that builds on state and local innovations is essential, this report provides recommendations for state policymakers and advocates to address deficiencies in child support enforcement. The recommendations are in the areas of resources, paternity, and outreach. They include: (1) establishing…

  13. State Policy-Making and School Reform: Influences and Influentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzoni, Tim L.

    1994-01-01

    Due to massive reform initiatives, American states have become major policy makers for public schools. Examines, from a state and a political-influence perspective, the causes, processes, and consequences of the decade-long "education excellence" movement. Places events in historical context, draws upon research findings, and applies an…

  14. Welfare Reform and American Indian Tribes: Critical Decisions for the Future of Indian Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jo Ann

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRETORIA) gives American Indian tribes the option to run their own Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program or leave these services under state administration. Eight case studies were conducted in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Arizona with the Klamath Tribes,…

  15. Women, the welfare state, and their transnational dimension: the case of Mexico's community health worker programs.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Valles, J

    1999-01-01

    Feminist scholarship has shown that the welfare state is not only a set of agencies and policies to distribute services, but is engaged in the promotion of normative concepts of the female through its structural arrangements and the content of its programs and policies. Yet, this scholarship conceptualizes the state as a national entity and free from external influences, ignoring its transnational dimension. States are embedded in an international network consisting of other states, international agencies, and corporations that influence the practices and discursive frame of the welfare state. To uncover the process by which the welfare state institutionalizes and promotes female identities and the transnational dimension of this process, the author analyzes the case of community health worker programs conducted by the Mexican state from the 1970s to the early 1990s. The analysis corroborates the gender practices of the welfare state and suggests a reconceptualization that takes into account the transnational dimension of the state practices. The implications for feminist theories on the welfare state and for analyses of health promotion policies and programs are discussed. PMID:10450549

  16. Improving Collaboration between Welfare and Workforce Development Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relave, Nanette

    2002-01-01

    Collaboration between welfare and workforce development agencies has increased since the implementation of welfare reform. Federal legislation, state and local policy-making environments, and the capacity of potential partners to serve an agency's clients affect agency collaboration. The following broad approaches to collaboration have been…

  17. "Le Droit de L'Enfant:" Ideologies of the Child in 19th Century French Literature and Child Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Suzanne

    This paper examines ideological themes present in movements for child labor reform and in literature in 19th century France. Separate sections cover early industrialization and child labor reform, the image of the romantic child in French literature, and ideology and reforms. By the mid-19th century, England, America, and France all had their…

  18. Oral health and welfare state regimes: a cross-national analysis of European countries

    PubMed Central

    Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol C; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the potential relationship between welfare state regimes and oral health. This study assessed the oral health of adults in a range of European countries clustered by welfare regimes according to Ferrera's typology and the complementary Eastern type. We analysed data from Eurobarometer wave 72.3, a cross-sectional survey of 31 European countries carried out in 2009. We evaluated three self-reported oral health outcomes: edentulousness, no functional dentition (<20 natural teeth), and oral impacts on daily living. Age-standardized prevalence rates were estimated for each country and for each welfare state regime. The Scandinavian regime showed lower prevalence rates for all outcomes. For edentulousness and no functional dentition, there were higher prevalence rates in the Eastern regime but no significant differences between Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, and Southern regimes. The Southern regime presented a higher prevalence of oral impacts on daily living. Results by country indicated that Sweden had the lowest prevalences for edentulousness and no functional dentition, and Denmark had the lowest prevalence for oral impacts. The results suggest that Scandinavian welfare states, with more redistributive and universal welfare policies, had better population oral health. Future research should provide further insights about the potential mechanisms through which welfare-state regimes would influence oral health. PMID:23659239

  19. Effects of demographic factors and information sources on United States consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    McKendree, M G S; Croney, C C; Widmar, N J O

    2014-07-01

    As consumers have become more interested in understanding how their food is produced, scrutiny and criticism have increased regarding intensified food animal production methods. Resolution of public concerns about animal agricultural practices depends on understanding the myriad factors that provide the basis for concerns. An online survey of 798 U.S. households was conducted to investigate relationships between household characteristics (demographics, geographic location, and experiences) and level of concern for animal welfare as well as sources used to obtain information on the subject. Because recent media attention has focused on animal care practices used in the U.S. swine industry, respondents were also asked specific questions pertaining to their perceptions of pig management practices and welfare issues and their corresponding pork purchasing behavior. Respondents reporting higher levels of concern about animal welfare were more frequently female, younger, and self-reported members of the Democratic Party. Fourteen percent of respondents reported reduction in pork consumption because of animal welfare concerns with an average reduction of 56%. Over half of the respondents (56%) did not have a primary source for animal welfare information; those who identified a primary information source most commonly used information provided by animal protection organizations, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Midwest participants were significantly, at the 5% significance level, less concerned about domestic livestock animal welfare and more frequently reported not having a source for animal welfare information than those from other regions of the United States. Overall, the U.S. livestock and poultry industries and other organizations affiliated with animal agriculture appear to be less used public sources of information on animal welfare than popular animal protection organizations. Improved understanding of the factors that contribute to consumers' evolving perceptions of the care and welfare of farm animals is an essential step toward enhanced sustainability and social responsibility in contemporary food production systems. PMID:24962533

  20. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  1. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  2. The Common Core "State" Standards: The Arts and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Alice

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, Alice Wexler notes that as the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) become reality, teachers have reason for concern. She contends that this reform to public education has consequently marginalized the arts and exacerbated the inequities of people in poverty and those with disabilities. Teachers, principals and, ultimately,…

  3. Superintendent Retirement in a Reform State: Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyland, Lori; Ellis, John

    2015-01-01

    Indiana recently gained status as a national leader in educational reform. At the same time, a record number of superintendents retired, with 62 retirements in 2012 and 2013, representing 21% of superintendents in the state. The purpose of this study was to explore factors influencing superintendents' decisions to retire during this time.…

  4. The Common Core "State" Standards: The Arts and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Alice

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, Alice Wexler notes that as the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) become reality, teachers have reason for concern. She contends that this reform to public education has consequently marginalized the arts and exacerbated the inequities of people in poverty and those with disabilities. Teachers, principals and, ultimately,…

  5. The state of animal welfare in the context of refinement.

    PubMed

    Zurlo, Joanne; Hutchinson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the Three Rs is the full replacement of animals used in biomedical research and testing. However, replacement is unlikely to occur in the near future; therefore the scientific community as a whole must continue to devote considerable effort to ensure optimal animal welfare for the benefit of the science and the animals, i.e., the R of refinement. Laws governing the care and use of laboratory animals have recently been revised in Europe and the US and these place greater emphasis on promoting the well-being of the animals in addition to minimizing pain and distress. Social housing for social species is now the default condition, which can present a challenge in certain experimental settings and for certain species. The practice of positive reinforcement training of laboratory animals, particularly non-human primates, is gathering momentum but is not yet universally employed. Enhanced consideration of refinement extends to rodents, particularly mice, whose use is still increasing as more genetically modified models are generated. The wastage of extraneous mice and the method of their euthanasia are refinement issues that still need to be addressed. An international, concerted effort into defining the needs of laboratory animals is still necessary to improve the quality of the animal models used as well as their welfare. PMID:24448759

  6. The welfare state and its distributive effects: part of the problem or part of the solution?

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1987-01-01

    In the first part of this article, the author presents (1) a discussion of some of the major arguments against the welfare state put forward by neoliberal forces on both sides of the Atlantic, and (2) empirical information that shows the ideological rather than scientific nature of those arguments. The author also questions the widely held belief among European neoliberal (and even on occasion progressive) forces that the Reagan Administration policies have been (1) very successful in stimulating employment and economic growth, and (2) neoliberal rather than Keynesian. The empirical information presented in this article shows that these Reagan Administration policies have followed a military Keynesianism rather than social Keynesianism, which is responsible for a rather poor economic and social performance. In the second part, the author presents alternatives to the austerity policies advocated by the anti-welfare state forces, policies based on an expansion of the universalist character of the welfare state and its democratization, with active participation of the municipalities in the administration of the welfare state services and in the development of reflationary policies aimed at guiding production and stimulating consumption. The author also shows that the full development of the welfare state is a precondition for the needed restructuring of the economy, labor mobility, and technological innovation. The welfare state, rather than being the cause of the economic crisis, is part of the resolution of this crisis. The article ends with a discussion of the political conditions for the expansion of the welfare state and for the resolution of the economic crisis. PMID:3692642

  7. The persistence of health inequalities in modern welfare states: the explanation of a paradox.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Johan P

    2012-08-01

    The persistence of socioeconomic inequalities in health, even in the highly developed 'welfare states' of Western Europe, is one of the great disappointments of public health. Health inequalities have not only persisted while welfare states were being built up, but on some measures have even widened, and are not smaller in European countries with more generous welfare arrangements. This paper attempts to identify potential explanations for this paradox, by reviewing nine modern 'theories' of the explanation of health inequalities. The theories reviewed are: mathematical artifact, fundamental causes, life course perspective, social selection, personal characteristics, neo-materialism, psychosocial factors, diffusion of innovations, and cultural capital. Based on these theories it is hypothesized that three circumstances may help to explain the persistence of health inequalities despite attenuation of inequalities in material conditions by the welfare state: (1) inequalities in access to material and immaterial resources have not been eliminated by the welfare state, and are still substantial; (2) due to greater intergenerational mobility, the composition of lower socioeconomic groups has become more homogeneous with regard to personal characteristics associated with ill-health; and (3) due to a change in epidemiological regime, in which consumption behavior became the most important determinant of ill-health, the marginal benefits of the immaterial resources to which a higher social position gives access have increased. Further research is necessary to test these hypotheses. If they are correct, the persistence of health inequalities in modern European welfare states can partly be seen as a failure of these welfare states to implement more radical redistribution measures, and partly as a form of 'bad luck' related to concurrent developments that have changed the composition of socioeconomic groups and made health inequalities more sensitive to immaterial factors. It is argued that normative evaluations of health inequalities should take these explanations into account, and that a direct attack on the personal, psychosocial and cultural determinants of health inequalities may be necessary to achieve a substantial reduction of health inequalities. PMID:22475407

  8. Generational equity and the politics of the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Quadagno, J

    1990-01-01

    The concept of generational equity--that the nation is squandering its wealth on entitlements to the elderly while children remain impoverished--has received considerable media attention. The author traces the source of that message to an organization, Americans for Generational Equity, which is dedicated to restructuring the Social Security system along the lines of a social assistance program: reduced benefits available at later ages only to those who qualify through means tests. The impact of this agenda would be to increase the labor force participation of older people, particularly women and minorities, those presently without private pension coverage and already heavily represented in that sector of the economy where labor shortage is developing. Defining national spending priorities in terms of intergenerational conflict obscures the fact that Social Security is the only U.S. welfare program that has been successful in reducing poverty levels. PMID:2265880

  9. CASAWORKS for Families: A Promising Approach to Welfare Reform and Substance-Abusing Women. A CASA White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    CASAWORKS for Families is the first national demonstration program to provide simultaneously drug and alcohol treatment; literacy, job, parenting, and social skills training; family violence prevention; and health care to help substance-abusing welfare parents recover. Its mission is to help women on welfare with substance abuse problems achieve…

  10. Is Christian Religious Conservatism Compatible with the Liberal Social Welfare State?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, John R.; Fandetti, Donald; Cole, Danny

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the rise of Christian religious conservatism and explores whether the theological views of the conservative Christian movement are compatible with the liberal social welfare state. The authors conclude that the driving force behind social change should remain with the state, even though faith-based initiatives can provide…

  11. Chronic pain--the end of the welfare state?

    PubMed

    Nachemson, A

    1994-12-01

    The problem of low back pain has reached epidemic proportions in the industrialized nations. The predicament of back pain is common, 30-40% of our populations from 10-65 years old report such trouble to occur on a monthly basis. In 1-8% this results in work-disabling back pain. Only in very few of these patients can physicians diagnose a definite pathoanatomical cause for the pain. It can be deduced that psychosocial factors, including insurance benefits are of importance for this variation. Sweden, with 100% sickness benefits, has the highest disability rate. Few non-surgical methods have proven effective in rendering the patient better for him to return to work. Even fewer studies demonstrate any benefit from surgery, simple open removal of a proven disc hernia being the only exception. For patients with unproven diagnostic labels such as facet arthritis, degenerative disc disease, internal disc resorption and instability, no evidence exists that any type of surgery is cost-effective. More attention must be paid to illness behaviour by anyone treating chronic low back pain syndromes (> 3 months). Such psychological reactions to an originally nociceptive pain stimulus somewhere in the motion segment, must be elucidated and addressed, before embarking on risky and expensive treatment modalities including surgery. It is time for all of us, politicians as well as physicians, to distinguish what types of support will contribute to our nations' future and which ones will undermine it. Our welfare systems are at stake. PMID:7866365

  12. The Public Understanding of Assessment in Educational Reform in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States education system depends on legislation and funding at the federal, state and local levels. Public understanding of assessment therefore is important to educational reform in the USA. Educational reformers often invoke assessment information as a reason for reform, typically by citing unacceptable achievement on some measure or…

  13. Understanding Educational Reform in Global Context: Economy, Ideology, and the State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Mark B., Ed.

    This book presents a set of national case studies on educational reform of higher education that views reform as processes of ideological and social struggles. The titles and authors are as follows: "Educational Reform: Social Struggles, the State and the World Economic System" (Mark B. Ginsburg, et al.); "Restructuring Education and the State in…

  14. The Public Understanding of Assessment in Educational Reform in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States education system depends on legislation and funding at the federal, state and local levels. Public understanding of assessment therefore is important to educational reform in the USA. Educational reformers often invoke assessment information as a reason for reform, typically by citing unacceptable achievement on some measure or…

  15. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused disasters... with other government and voluntary welfare agencies, and welfare-related business and...

  16. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused disasters... with other government and voluntary welfare agencies, and welfare-related business and...

  17. The future of the welfare state: crisis myths and crisis realities.

    PubMed

    Castles, Francis G

    2002-01-01

    Accounts of the future of the welfare state are often presented in crisis terms. Some commentators identify globalization as a force that has already led to a major retreat by the state and is likely to lead to further downsizing of the public sector. Others see the future burden of an aging population as creating huge public expenditure pressures that can be countered only by increased parsimony in most areas of spending. Although both crisis scenarios contain elements of truth, analysis of recent public expenditure trends shows that both are substantially exaggerated as general representations of likely developments over the next two or three decades. However, unnoticed by most commentators, a real, longer-term crisis is beginning to make itself felt. This crisis arises, in part, from the demographic impact of a cultural transformation in the labor market, in progress for several decades. Extreme scenarios of possible consequences over the next 50 to 100 years include population implosion, mass migration, increasingly dangerous eruptions of right-wing populism, and, possibly, territorial conflict between developed and underdeveloped nations. This is not a crisis of the welfare state but rather a crisis for which the welfare state may be an essential part of the answer. The only way Western societies can lessen the future impact of the ongoing cultural transformation of the labor market is through the redesign of welfare state institutions to confront these new challenges. PMID:12067031

  18. 45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-alternative mechanisms. 148.128 Section 148.128 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... reforms—alternative mechanisms. (a) Waiver of requirements. The requirements of § 148.120, which set forth... implements an acceptable alternative mechanism in accordance with the following criteria: (1) The...

  19. 45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-alternative mechanisms. 148.128 Section 148.128 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... reforms—alternative mechanisms. (a) Waiver of requirements. The requirements of § 148.120, which set forth... implements an acceptable alternative mechanism in accordance with the following criteria: (1) The...

  20. How Welfare States Shape the Gender Pay Gap: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Hadas; Shalev, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We assess the impact of the welfare state on cross-national variation in the gender wage gap. Earnings inequality between men and women is conceptualized as resulting from their different locations in the class hierarchy, combined with the severity of wage differentials between and within classes. This decomposition contributes to identifying…

  1. How Welfare States Shape the Gender Pay Gap: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Hadas; Shalev, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We assess the impact of the welfare state on cross-national variation in the gender wage gap. Earnings inequality between men and women is conceptualized as resulting from their different locations in the class hierarchy, combined with the severity of wage differentials between and within classes. This decomposition contributes to identifying…

  2. Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebode, Stella O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

  3. Racial Insurgency, the State, and Welfare Expansion: A Critical Comment and Reanalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Edward T., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An article published by Issac and Kelly ("American Journal of Sociology," 86:1348-86) analyzing the relationship between urban rioting and welfare expansion in the United States has serious shortcomings. Reanalysis suggests that both civil turmoil and standard developmental variables shaped U.S. public assistance outputs from 1947 to 1976.…

  4. Stretching the Limits: How States Are Using Welfare Flexibility To Support Children. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Theresa J.; Stein, Deborah L.

    While the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 included many provision of concern to child advocates, the Act also gave states increased flexibility to design welfare programs in ways that support children, or that ameliorate some of the harshest provisions of the Act. This issue brief describes innovative…

  5. The Welfare to Work Transition in the United States: Implications for Work-Related Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, James C.; Martin, Larry G.

    2000-11-01

    This paper summarizes the legislation upon which the current welfare-to-work transition in the United States is based and describes characteristics of the former welfare population from which various tiers of employment options have emerged: unsubsidized-employed workers, subsidized-employed workers, subsidized-unemployed recipients, and unsubsidized-unemployed individuals. It also discusses current program emphases, and presents a format for directions for future program development which includes academic programs, situated cognition programs, integrated literacy/occupational skills programs, and integrated literacy/soft skills training.

  6. Health Care Reform Tracking Project: Tracking State Health Care Reforms as They Affect Children and Adolescents with Emotional Disorders and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Sheila A.; Stroul, Beth A.

    The Health Care Reform Tracking Project is a 5-year national project to track and analyze state health care reform initiatives as they affect children and adolescents with emotional/behavioral disorders and their families. The study's first phase was a baseline survey of all 50 states to describe current state reforms as of 1995. Among findings of…

  7. The context of child welfare performance measures.

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Samples, Mark; Lawson, Jennifer; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States seeks to improve the outcomes achieved by public agencies through performance measurement strategies. In child welfare policy, a federally mandated performance measurement system has evolved since the 1980s, establishing the federal Child and Family Services Review which uses a series of performance indicators for evaluating the child welfare system. This article reviews the literature on performance measurement and performance management in the public sector in order to develop a conceptual framework for examining the federal child welfare performance measurement system. It briefly summarizes the evolution of federal policy related to performance measurement in child welfare. The framework is then used to guide an analysis of the debate surrounding the establishment of the current child welfare performance measurement system, concluding with recommendations for consideration in future reform efforts. PMID:23705647

  8. Politics, Policy, Practice and Personal Responsibility: Adult Education in an Era of Welfare Reform. NCSALL Reports #10A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Deobrah

    The relationship of literacy to work should be considered in terms of the political and economic conditions that structure the experiences of the working and non-working poor with respect to education and work. Research shows welfare-to-work programs constitute behavioral solutions to what are structural economic problems; literacy alone cannot…

  9. The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Abortion, Education, Term Limits, Welfare Reform, Health Insurance, Riverboat Gambling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

    This report presents the annual survey of public opinion in Pennsylvania. Telephone surveys were conducted with 1,744 people whose telephone numbers were randomly selected from all listed telephone numbers. Results of the survey indicate that: (1) Pennsylvanians strongly favor mandatory birth control counseling for welfare mothers, but opinion is…

  10. A Need For Correction: Reforming New York's Juvenile Justice System. Child Welfare Watch. Vol. 18, Fall 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Andrew; Hemphill, Clara; Hurley, Kendra

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of a U.S. Justice Department investigation that found widespread use of excessive force by staff at upstate psychiatric care facilities for mentally ill children, this new edition of Child Welfare Watch identifies shortcomings in mental health services and explores possible solutions, including the expansion of alternatives to…

  11. San Francisco Works: Toward an Employer-Led Approach to Welfare Reform and Workforce Development. Connections to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Steven

    San Francisco Works (SFWorks) is a collaborative welfare-to-work project conducted by a coalition of large San Francisco-area employers, the city's Chamber of Commerce, and the United Way of the Bay Area. The project was piloted beginning in March 1998 by contracting with five community-based organizations (CBOs) to provide a comprehensive range…

  12. Exploring the compatibility of mental health nursing, recovery-focused practice and the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Conlon, M M M; Bush, C J; Ariyaratnam, M I; Brennan, G K; Owtram, R

    2015-06-01

    Mental health nurses are expected to adhere to a range of professional values. The values of social integration that mental health nurses practise are somewhat at odds with the values of the British welfare state. Alternative systems of welfare support are demonstrated in other countries. Mental health nurses must consider models of practice, such as that described by Clifton et?al. (2013b), to manage the disconnection between what is expected and what can be achieved. This discussion paper considers the implications for mental health nursing practice when working alongside individuals in receipt of state benefits. There is arguably a profound impact on an individual's recovery from mental ill health when that individual is also dependent on financial support from the government. Access to welfare benefits can have a significant impact on the recovery journey of that individual. This discussion paper will consider the practice implications for mental health nurses whose professional values include maxims such as 'challenging inequality' and 'respecting diversity', and will seek to examine the implications for practice when such values are divergent from those demonstrated in government policy. The paper will make comparisons with international welfare systems to demonstrate the way in which alternative configurations of state welfare can promote a system of social justice that is in greater equilibrium with the professional values of mental health nurses. Finally, the discussion will focus on the options for mental health nurses to either subscribe to government policy or to find compromise solutions that enable attention to remain focused and active on a strong value base of social justice and recovery-focused practice. PMID:26014831

  13. Research-Infused STEM Reform at South Carolina State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Daniel M., Jr.; Anderson, J. A.; Adzievski, K.

    2006-12-01

    South Carolina State University (SCSU) has embarked upon a mission to transform its science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines by offering more scholarships to students talented in the sciences, by introducing advanced topics in the introductory STEM courses, and by expanding research opportunities for STEM students. Specific examples will be provided from physics and astronomy. Program accomplishments after one year of operation will be highlighted, along with the difficulties of instituting such a broad-based reform. NSF HBCU-UP Award #0506062

  14. The Skill Composition of Migration and the Generosity of the Welfare State. NBER Working Paper No. 14738

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Alon; Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim

    2009-01-01

    Skilled migrants typically contribute to the welfare state more than they draw in benefits from it. The opposite holds for unskilled migrants. This suggests that a host country is likely to boost (respectively, curtail) its welfare system when absorbing high-skill (respectively, low-skill) migration. In this paper we first examine this hypothesis…

  15. Urban Poverty and the Welfare State: Comparative Reflections on Scandinavia and the U.S. Working Paper No. 481.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Peter

    Scandinavian welfare states are developing a growing new middle class and a growing marginalized, poverty-threatened underclass, reproducing the societal duality caused by labor market structuring. Tightening labor markets, increased dependency on welfare benefits, and substantial decreases in public transfers have combined to create a growing…

  16. The Mid-1990s Earned Income Tax Credit Expansion: EITC and Welfare Caseloads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Younghee

    2008-01-01

    Research and policy scholars have suggested that recent welfare caseload reductions have coincided with welfare reform efforts; however, few studies have incorporated the impacts of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) expansions in the 1990s. Using annual state-level administrative data, the author estimated the effects of the fully phased-in…

  17. "They Get You out of Courage:" Persistent Deep Poverty among Former Welfare-Reliant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blalock, Lydia L.; Tiller, Vicky R.; Monroe, Pamel A.

    2004-01-01

    We looked closely at families who remain in persistent deep poverty in the remote rural areas of one state, using welfare reform as the contextual backdrop. We examined the lives of 10 women who have participated in this qualitative research for over 6 years. The woman heading each family was a welfare program participant; she engaged (more or…

  18. Serving Welfare Recipients with Learning Disabilities in a "Work First" Environment. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rebecca; Ganzglass, Evelyn

    This issue brief examines strategies that states can use to help welfare recipients with learning disabilities move toward self-sufficiency within the context of welfare reform. It defines a learning disability, explains approaches to identifying and assessing undiagnosed learning disabilities, and suggests ways to secure accommodations for…

  19. Juvenile Justice Reform Initiatives in the States: 1994-1996. Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Criminal Justice Association, Washington, DC.

    This overview of recent state juvenile justice reform measures and identifies issues and trends associated with state juvenile reform initiatives. The report explains some of the more punitive measures, such as new criminal court transfer authority and expanded juvenile court sentencing options. Many states have balanced these steps with enhanced…

  20. Privatizing the welfarist state: health care reforms in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khoon, Chan Chee

    2003-01-01

    In Malaysia, the shifting balance between market and state has many nuances. Never a significant welfare state in the usual mold, the Malaysian state nonetheless has been a dominant social and economic presence dictated by its affirmative action-type policies, which eventually metamorphosed into state-led indigenous capitalism. Privatisation is also intimately linked with emergence of an indigenous bourgeoisie with favored access to the vast accumulation of state assets and prerogatives. Internationally, it is conditioned by the fluid relationships of converging alliances and contested compromise with international capital, including transnational health services industries. As part of its vision of a maturing, diversified economy, the Malaysian government is fostering a private-sector advanced health care industry to cater to local demand and also aimed at regional and international patrons. The assumption is that, as disposable incomes increase, a market for such services is emerging and citizens can increasingly shoulder their own health care costs. The government would remain the provider for the indigent. But the key assumption remains: the growth trajectory will see the emergence of markets for an increasingly affluent middle class. Importantly, the health care and social services market would be dramatically expanded as the downsizing of public-sector health care proceeds amid a general retreat of government from its provider and financing roles. PMID:17208722

  1. Towards a new welfare state: the social sustainability principle and health care strategies.

    PubMed

    Garcés, Jorge; Ródenas, Francisco; Sanjosé, Vicente

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we propose a social and health care model that offers alternatives to three problems arising in converging European welfare states, particularly in the southern nations: the rise in demand for services and features linked to the ageing process, the increase in dependency and the crisis of informal support. Development of the principles of social sustainability implies re-formulation of the regulatory, care, economic, administrative, cultural, and axiological framework enabling a response to the needs of long term care without compromising the welfare of future generations. Together with this principle, quality of life elevated to a subjective right directs attention towards the sphere closest to citizens, eliminating all barriers, which hamper exercise of this right. All of the above produces economic and social costs which must be accepted from a viewpoint of social co-responsibility, which brings with it the supply of welfare individually, without detriment to the exercise of state responsibility in guaranteeing a social protection system of a universal nature. PMID:12941489

  2. How Educators Process and Respond to State-Level Education Reform Policies: The Case of Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.; Goldman, Paul

    This paper reports on an investigation of educator reaction to one state's systemic school reform legislation. Educators have generally been reticent to embrace state-level legislation reform initiatives while simultaneously agreeing with their ultimate goals. Findings are the latest data in a 5-year longitudinal study begun in 1992 that focused…

  3. Commentary: recent reforms in the British National Health Service--lessons for the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, W W; Graham, C

    1994-01-01

    President Clinton recently announced his reform plan for health care in the United States. The United Kingdom, along with other countries, has already enacted reforms in an effort to overcome the basic problem of having insufficient funds to provide a health service to meet modern demands. This paper briefly describes the recent health reforms in the United Kingdom and highlights some lessons for the United States, which include the need to choose procedures that should be universally provided. Health reforms that involve some fundamental restructuring need to be evaluated everywhere and agreed to by the staff in advance. PMID:8296937

  4. Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Haejoo; Ng, Edwin; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Karlsson, Björn; Benach, Joan; Espelt, Albert; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05–0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22–0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08–0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10–0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26–0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14–3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86–3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health. PMID:23538729

  5. Young Adult Dependent Coverage: Were the State Reforms Effective?

    PubMed Central

    Burgdorf, James R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the robustness of findings regarding state-level adult dependent coverage expansions using detailed outcomes that specify coverage source. Data Sources This study uses the 2001–2009 files of the Current Population Survey's Annual Social and Economic Supplement, covering calendar years 2000–2008, and considers young adults ages 19 through 29. Study Design Difference-in-differences methods were used to estimate the effect of state-level dependent coverage expansions on finely detailed categories of coverage, and falsification tests were used to evaluate the models themselves. Principal Findings Certain published results on state-level parental coverage expansions are flawed, with reported increases driven by changes in spousal coverage. Other published results appear to be in fact driven by parental coverage, but they are not robust to alternative model adjustments. Conclusions This study shows evidence that one study's results on “dependent” coverage are in fact driven by changes in rates of spousal coverage. Results from a second study, though not robust to use of a more conventional DD model, would seem to apply most strongly to individuals at ages at which one would typically have lost parental coverage before reform, consistent with a “passive” effect rather than an “active” effect that enrolls previously uninsured youths. PMID:25142384

  6. School Reform in the United States: Frames and Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This essay reviews six competing positions on U.S. school reform: a speech from Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan; Diane Ravitch's "The Death and Life of the Great American School System"; Frederick Hess's "The Same Thing Over and Over"; Charles Payne's "So Much Reform, So Little Change"; Anthony Byrk and others' "Organizing School for…

  7. Longitudinal Effects of Domestic Violence on Employment and Welfare Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Oxford, Monica; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

    2007-01-01

    This study uses longitudinal data spanning 13 years from a study of 234 adolescent mothers to evaluate the effects of cumulative domestic violence on employment and welfare use before and after welfare reform. Domestic violence increased the odds of unemployment after welfare reform, but not before; domestic violence had no effect on welfare use…

  8. Longitudinal Effects of Domestic Violence on Employment and Welfare Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Oxford, Monica; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

    2007-01-01

    This study uses longitudinal data spanning 13 years from a study of 234 adolescent mothers to evaluate the effects of cumulative domestic violence on employment and welfare use before and after welfare reform. Domestic violence increased the odds of unemployment after welfare reform, but not before; domestic violence had no effect on welfare use…

  9. Welfare state retrenchment and increasing mental health inequality by educational credentials in Finland: a multicohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinen, Lauri; Muntaner, Carles; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Varje, Pekka; Väänänen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological studies have shown an association between educational credentials and mental disorders, but have not offered any explanation for the varying strength of this association in different historical contexts. In this study, we investigate the education-specific trends in hospitalisation due to psychiatric disorders in Finnish working-age men and women between 1976 and 2010, and offer a welfare state explanation for the secular trends found. Setting Population-based setting with a 25% random sample of the population aged 30–65 years in 7 independent consecutive cohorts (1976–1980, 1981–1985, 1986–1990, 1991–1995, 1996–2000, 2001–2005, 2006–2010). Participants Participants were randomly selected from the Statistics Finland population database (n=2 865 746). These data were linked to diagnosis-specific records on hospitalisations, drawn from the National Hospital Discharge Registry using personal identification numbers. Employment rates by educational credentials were drawn from the Statistics Finland employment database. Primary and secondary outcome measures Hospitalisation and employment. Results We found an increasing trend in psychiatric hospitalisation rates among the population with only an elementary school education, and a decreasing trend in those with higher educational credentials. The employment rate of the population with only an elementary school education decreased more than that of those with higher educational credentials. Conclusions We propose that restricted employment opportunities are the main mechanism behind the increased educational inequality in hospitalisation for psychiatric disorders, while several secondary mechanisms (lack of outpatient healthcare services, welfare cuts, decreased alcohol duty) further accelerated the diverging long-term trends. All of these inequality-increasing mechanisms were activated by welfare state retrenchment, which included the liberalisation of financial markets and labour markets, severe austerity measures and narrowing down of public sector employment commitment. PMID:26041491

  10. Effects of a Data-Driven District Reform Model on State Assessment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Cheung, Alan; Holmes, GwenCarol; Madden, Nancy A.; Chamberlain, Anne

    2013-01-01

    A district-level reform model created by the Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE) provided consultation with district leaders on strategic use of data and selection of proven programs. Fifty-nine districts in seven states were randomly assigned to CDDRE or control conditions. A total of 397 elementary and 225 middle schools were…

  11. Reform in the General Education Movement: The Case of Michigan State College, 1938-1952

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayed, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the case of Michigan State College (MSC) to reconsider understanding of reform in the general education movement. Using the lens of MSC, the author argues that reform in the general education movement operated in a matrix of influence that involved educational research, philanthropy, and (both inter- and intra-) institutional…

  12. A Call for Reformation of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Ashley Ireland

    2014-01-01

    Although current research, educational theorists, and international comparison prove a need for reform, the United States' teacher preparation programs are failing. The following paper will call for the reform of teacher preparation programs in three distinct areas. Examination of current data, application of educational theorists'…

  13. Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Education Reform Strategy: Report on Country Consultations and Work Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Hubert J.

    In 1991 a working group from the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) released a report, the OECS Education Reform Strategy (OERS), which detailed proposed reform strategies for the region. This document summarizes the report's nine recommendations and responses to the report. The report was distributed to Ministries of Education and…

  14. The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-272): The First Ten Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Foundation for Consumer Credit, Silver Spring, MD.

    The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 (PL 96-272) provided major federal initiatives to reform the state child welfare system. The goals of the act were to keep families together by providing them with services and to find permanent adoptive homes for children who could not be reunited with their parents. This report examines the…

  15. Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Federal Agencies Could Play a Stronger Role in Helping States Reduce the Number of Children Placed Solely To Obtain Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Child welfare directors in 19 states and juvenile justice officials in 30 counties estimated that in fiscal year 2001 parents placed over 12,700 children into the child welfare or juvenile justice systems so that these children could receive mental health services. Neither the child welfare nor the juvenile justice system was designed to serve…

  16. Business Participation in Welfare-to-Work: Lessons from the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jack; Kazis, Richard

    Case studies of 19 U.S. companies involved in welfare-to-work programs found that political and economic factors have accelerated the rate at which employers are hiring welfare recipients. Although participation in welfare-to-work programs is dominated by larger firms in a few industries (such as service and retail sectors), there is potential for…

  17. The impact of state behavioral health reform on Native American individuals, families, and communities.

    PubMed

    Willging, Cathleen E; Goodkind, Jessica; Lamphere, Louise; Saul, Gwendolyn; Fluder, Shannon; Seanez, Paula

    2012-07-01

    In 2005, the State of New Mexico undertook a sweeping transformation of all publicly funded behavioral health services. The reform was intended to enhance the cultural responsiveness and appropriateness of these services. To examine achievement of this objective, we conducted a qualitative study of the involvement of Native Americans in reform efforts and the subsequent impacts of reform on services for Native Americans. We found that the reform was relatively unsuccessful at creating mechanisms for genuine community input or improving behavioral health care for this population. These shortcomings were related to limited understandings of administrators concerning how tribal governments and health care systems operate, and the structural limitations of a managed care system that does not allow flexibility for culturally appropriate utilization review, screening, or treatment. However, interaction between the State and tribes increased, and we conclude that aspects of the reform could be strengthened to achieve more meaningful involvement and service improvements. PMID:22427455

  18. The Impact of State Behavioral Health Reform on Native American Individuals, Families, and Communities

    PubMed Central

    Willging, Cathleen E.; Goodkind, Jessica; Lamphere, Louise; Saul, Gwendolyn; Fluder, Shannon; Seanez, Paula

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the State of New Mexico undertook a sweeping transformation of all publicly funded behavioral health services. The reform was intended to enhance the cultural responsiveness and appropriateness of these services. To examine achievement of this objective, we conducted a qualitative study of the involvement of Native Americans in reform efforts and the subsequent impacts of reform on services for Native Americans. We found that the reform was relatively unsuccessful at creating mechanisms for genuine community input or improving behavioral health care for this population. These shortcomings were related to limited understandings of administrators concerning how tribal governments and health care systems operate, and the structural limitations of a managed care system that does not allow flexibility for culturally appropriate utilization review, screening, or treatment. However, interaction between the State and tribes increased, and we conclude that aspects of the reform could be strengthened to achieve more meaningful involvement and service improvements. PMID:22427455

  19. A Framework for Rebuilding Initial Certification and Preparation Programs in Educational Leadership: Lessons from Whole-State Reform Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph; Moorman, Hunter N.; McCarthy, Martha

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: This study examines the extent of reform in preparation programs in school leadership in six states employing a comprehensive, whole-state intervention design. Although no studies of these or other comprehensive reform designs are available, there is a rich context surrounding preparation reform work that informed our…

  20. The University in the Making of the Welfare State: The 1970s Degree Reform in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalava, Marja

    2012-01-01

    In just a couple of decades, Finland evolved from one of Europe's lowest educated countries to the top performer of the international PISA ranking. Behind this "success story", there was a conscious strategy to use educational policies for creating a more equal society. Tracing the development of Finnish higher education system after WWII, this…

  1. The University in the Making of the Welfare State: The 1970s Degree Reform in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalava, Marja

    2012-01-01

    In just a couple of decades, Finland evolved from one of Europe's lowest educated countries to the top performer of the international PISA ranking. Behind this "success story", there was a conscious strategy to use educational policies for creating a more equal society. Tracing the development of Finnish higher education system after WWII, this…

  2. The A B Cs of Welfare Reform: A Guide to the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Candace J.; Sugarman, Jule M.

    The passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 means that, for the first time, the federal government has shifted substantial responsibility for maintaining a social safety net for the most vulnerable populations to the state governments. This guide summarizes the contents of the new law, identifies…

  3. The A B Cs of Welfare Reform: A Guide to the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Candace J.; Sugarman, Jule M.

    The passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 means that, for the first time, the federal government has shifted substantial responsibility for maintaining a social safety net for the most vulnerable populations to the state governments. This guide summarizes the contents of the new law, identifies…

  4. The Aftermath of Welfare Reform: Health, Health Insurance, and Access to Care among Families Leaving TANF in Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seccombe, Karen; Hartley, Heather; Newsom, Jason; Hoffman, Kim; Marchand, Gwen C.; Albo, Christina; Gordon, Cathy; Zaback, Tosha; Lockwood, Richard; Pope, Clyde

    2007-01-01

    This research reports the initial findings of a statewide study that looks at health, insurance, and access to health care among families leaving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) for work. Most national and state-level evaluation projects focus primarily on the employment characteristics of TANF leavers and pay little or no attention…

  5. The Aftermath of Welfare Reform: Health, Health Insurance, and Access to Care among Families Leaving TANF in Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seccombe, Karen; Hartley, Heather; Newsom, Jason; Hoffman, Kim; Marchand, Gwen C.; Albo, Christina; Gordon, Cathy; Zaback, Tosha; Lockwood, Richard; Pope, Clyde

    2007-01-01

    This research reports the initial findings of a statewide study that looks at health, insurance, and access to health care among families leaving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) for work. Most national and state-level evaluation projects focus primarily on the employment characteristics of TANF leavers and pay little or no attention…

  6. State Perspectives on Health Care Reform: Oregon, Hawaii, Tennessee, and Rhode Island

    PubMed Central

    Thome, Jean I.; Bianchi, Barbara; Bonnyman, Gordon; Greene, Clark; Leddy, Tricia

    1995-01-01

    The general consensus among States which have had their section 1115 demonstration projects approved is that there is no one best way to implement State health care reform. The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), however, wished to discern how States were accomplishing the task of implementing the demonstrations, and solicited responses from State representatives whose section 1115 demonstration waivers had been approved. The resulting article gives an overview of this implementation process from four State perspectives. Written by representatives from Oregon, Hawaii, Tennessee, and Rhode Island, the ideas presented here are indicative of the complex undertaking of State health care reform. PMID:10142573

  7. A comprehensive snapshot of States' small group market reforms on insurer pricing & rating practices, 1999.

    PubMed

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Stoskopf, Carleen H; Shrader, William R; Glover, Saundra H

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative analysis of states' small group health insurance reforms that impact small group premiums, mostly enacted by the states during 1996-99, following the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act in 1996. It draws from an intensive review of statutes of 48 states and the District of Columbia as of 1999. It analyses regulations related to insurer pricing and rating practices concerning rating criteria and rating bands, pricing incentives, premium stability from year to year, minimum loss rations, reinsurance and carve-out coverage for the medically uninsurable. It also covers regulations targeting employer purchasing and coverage practices such as pooled purchasing and adverse selection. This is the second of a two-part series analyzing states' small group market reforms, the first being devoted to state reforms to promote access and improving the value of health plans offered in this market (Xirasagar et al. 2004). The variety in pricing and rating reforms illustrate the differences in the depth of reforms across states, and represent a far wider range of potential actuarial combinations than the sample of reforms documented in past literature. PMID:15855080

  8. Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2003-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:12511390

  9. Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2008-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:18687625

  10. Health care reform and social movements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2008-09-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or "change from below," in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:18687625

  11. Understanding the role of welfare state characteristics for health and inequalities – an analytical review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The past decade has witnessed a growing body of research on welfare state characteristics and health inequalities but the picture is, despite this, inconsistent. We aim to review this research by focusing on theoretical and methodological differences between studies that at least in part may lead to these mixed findings. Methods Three reviews and relevant bibliographies were manually explored in order to find studies for the review. Related articles were searched for in PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Database searches were done in PubMed and Web of Science. The search period was restricted to 2005-01-01 to 2013-02-28. Fifty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Results Three main approaches to comparative welfare state research are identified; the Regime approach, the Institutional approach, and the Expenditure approach. The Regime approach is the most common and regardless of the empirical regime theory employed and the amendments made to these, results are diverse and contradictory. When stratifying studies according to other features, not much added clarity is achieved. The Institutional approach shows more consistent results; generous policies and benefits seem to be associated with health in a positive way for all people in a population, not only those who are directly affected or targeted. The Expenditure approach finds that social and health spending is associated with increased levels of health and smaller health inequalities in one way or another but the studies are few in numbers making it somewhat difficult to get coherent results. Conclusions Based on earlier reviews and our results we suggest that future research should focus less on welfare regimes and health inequalities and more on a multitude of different types of studies, including larger analyses of social spending and social rights in various policy areas and how these are linked to health in different social strata. But, we also need more detailed evaluation of specific programmes or interventions, as well as more qualitative analyses of the experiences of different types of policies among the people and families that need to draw on the collective resources. PMID:24369852

  12. An Examination of State Takeover as a School Reform Strategy in a Small Rural School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookover, Chester Wayne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore state takeover as a school reform strategy in a small rural school district. Since 1988, more than 50 U.S. school districts in 20 states have been subject to some form of state takeover. A number of factors generally contribute to a state takeover, some of which include: poor student…

  13. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205... emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused...

  14. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205... emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused...

  15. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205... emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused...

  16. Corporate Education Reform and the Rise of State Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, P. L.

    2013-01-01

    The election of Barack Obama appeared to signal a shift in U.S. policy toward the Left, particularly since Obama has been framed as a "socialist," but the education discourse and policy pursued under Obama and voiced by Secretary of Education Arne Duncan has shown that education reform remains in the midst of a powerful corporate model. This essay…

  17. Corporate Education Reform and the Rise of State Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, P. L.

    2013-01-01

    The election of Barack Obama appeared to signal a shift in U.S. policy toward the Left, particularly since Obama has been framed as a "socialist," but the education discourse and policy pursued under Obama and voiced by Secretary of Education Arne Duncan has shown that education reform remains in the midst of a powerful corporate model. This essay…

  18. Current State and Problems of Higher Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salnikov, N.; Burukhin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Russia is experiencing changes in curriculum and in the specialization and function of institutions in the search for a better model for a post-Soviet society. The early 1990s saw the start of the reform of the system of education in Russia. However, problems of quality and of continuity with secondary education have still not…

  19. Foster Care: Preliminary Report on Reform Effects. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Program Evaluation and Methodology Div.

    This briefing report presents preliminary results of a review of the effects of the 1980 foster care reforms. Particular attention was given to federal incentives for reform built into the requirements for the states' receipt of additional funds under the Child Welfare Services grants program. A total of 116 studies, reviews, and commentaries were…

  20. U.S. Immigration in the 1980s: Reappraisal and Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simcox, David E., Ed.

    The introductory chapter of this volume on immigration into the United States is entitled "Overview: A Time of Reform and Reappraisal" (D. Simcox), and it introduces the topics of reform, legal and illegal immigration, the effect of immigration on the labor market and social welfare, and immigration enforcement methods that are discussed in the…

  1. Leave No City Behind: England/United States Dialogue on Urban Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannaway, Jane; Murphy, Marilyn; Reed, Jodie

    2004-01-01

    Both the United States and England initiated ambitious standards-based education reform to eliminate large gaps between their highest and lowest achievers. England appears to be ahead, having started in 1988 with a national curriculum, tests, and performance tables. The United States' No Child Left Behind Act began rewriting state rules in 2002…

  2. Promoting Supervisory Practice Change in Public Child Welfare: Lessons from University/Agency Collaborative Research in Four States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Millar, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This article describes qualitative findings regarding lessons learned from research and demonstration projects in four states focused on the implementation of clinical supervision within their public child welfare agencies. This was part of a larger mixed methods study of the effectiveness of these new clinical supervision models on practice,…

  3. Promoting Supervisory Practice Change in Public Child Welfare: Lessons from University/Agency Collaborative Research in Four States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Millar, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This article describes qualitative findings regarding lessons learned from research and demonstration projects in four states focused on the implementation of clinical supervision within their public child welfare agencies. This was part of a larger mixed methods study of the effectiveness of these new clinical supervision models on practice,…

  4. Perspectives on animal welfare legislation and study considerations for field-oriented studies of raptors in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Strobel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Concern for the welfare of animals used in research and teaching has increased over the last 50 yr. Animal welfare legislation has resulted in guidelines for the use of animals in research, but the guidelines can be problematic because they focus on animals used in laboratory and agriculture research. Raptor biologists can be constrained by guidelines, restrictions, and oversight that were not intended for field research methods or wild animals in the wild or captivity. Field researchers can be further hampered by not understanding animal welfare legislation, who is subject to oversight, or that oversight is often provided by a committee consisting primarily of scientists who work with laboratory animals. Raptor researchers in particular may experience difficulty obtaining approval due to use of various species-specific trapping and handling methods. We provide a brief review of animal welfare legislation and describe the basic components and responsibilities of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in the United States. We identify topics in raptor research that are especially problematic to obtaining IACUC approval, and we provide insight on how to address these issues. Finally, we suggest that all raptor researchers, regardless of legal requirements, abide by the spirit of the animal welfare principles. Failure to do so may bring about further regulatory and permitting restrictions. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  5. Globalization and the Nation-State: Sovereignty and State Welfare in Jeopardy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jotia, Agreement Lathi

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the fact that although globalization cannot be resisted by the nation-state, it is often confronted by mixed reactions from both the GN (Global North) and the GS (Global South). The essay charges that globalization has political, economic and cultural impact on the nation-state, which ultimately impacts the issue of identity…

  6. Preparing Welfare and Other Low-Income Adults for Work and Better Jobs: A Report on Low-Income Students Enrolled in Colleges and the Start-Up of WorkFirst Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia. Education Div.

    This is a report on Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges' assistance of low-income adults under the state's welfare reform initiative, WorkFirst. Current and former welfare students attending community and technical colleges comprise 9% of all college student enrollments. Combining work and training leads to higher wages.…

  7. Translating ideas into actions: entrepreneurial leadership in state health care reforms.

    PubMed

    Oliver, T R; Paul-Shaheen, P

    1997-06-01

    States are often touted as "laboratories" for developing national solutions to social problems. In this article we examine the appropriateness of this metaphor for comprehensive health care reform and attempt to draw lessons about policy innovation from recent state actions. We present evidence from six states that enacted major pieces of health care legislation in the late 1980s or early 1990s: Massachusetts, Oregon, Florida, Minnesota, Vermont, and Washington State. The variation in design casts doubt on the proposition that states can invent plans and programs for other states and the federal government to adopt for themselves. Instead, we argue that it is more accurate to think of states as specialized political markets in which individuals and groups develop and promote innovative products. We examine the factors that might create receptive markets for comprehensive health care reforms and conclude that the critical factor these states shared in common was skilled and committed leadership from "policy entrepreneurs" who formulated the plans for system reform and prominent "investors" who contributed substantial political capital to the development of the reforms. We illustrate different strategies that leaders in these states used to carry out the entrepreneurial tasks of identifying a market opportunity, designing an innovation, attracting political investment, marketing the innovation, and monitoring its early production. PMID:9185017

  8. The ways and means of national health care reform, 1974 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Wainess, F J

    1999-04-01

    Little attention has been paid in the health policy and welfare state literature to the politics of health care reform in the 1970s. Drawing on newspaper accounts and archival material collected from the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and the National Archives, I outline the political history of health care reform in the 93rd Congress. In doing so, I highlight critical institutional, environmental, and strategic lessons that today's reformers can learn from the experience of 1974. PMID:10321359

  9. Transitions in State Public Health Law: Comparative Analysis of State Public Health Law Reform Following the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Gebbie, Kristine M.

    2009-01-01

    Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health. PMID:19150900

  10. Using Pre-K to Advance Education Reform: Opportunities for State Advisory Councils. Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffin, Stacie G.; Regenstein, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    By strengthening linkages between pre-k programs and education reform agendas, Early Childhood Councils are well positioned to influence their states' school improvement activities. This brief identifies specific steps councils can take to maximize their states' investments in early education including aligning policy prior to and following Pre-K.…

  11. Using Pre-K to Advance Education Reform: Opportunities for State Advisory Councils. Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffin, Stacie G.; Regenstein, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    By strengthening linkages between pre-k programs and education reform agendas, Early Childhood Councils are well positioned to influence their states' school improvement activities. This brief identifies specific steps councils can take to maximize their states' investments in early education including aligning policy prior to and following Pre-K.…

  12. Promoting Educational Reforms in Weak States: The Case of Radical Policy Discontinuity in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarin, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The present article explores the making of education policies in weak states, particularly in the context of developing nations and in view of the increasing influence of international organisations, such as the World Bank, in definition of education reform agendas. The discussion seeks to contribute to the theory of weak states by highlighting…

  13. Promoting Educational Reforms in Weak States: The Case of Radical Policy Discontinuity in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarin, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The present article explores the making of education policies in weak states, particularly in the context of developing nations and in view of the increasing influence of international organisations, such as the World Bank, in definition of education reform agendas. The discussion seeks to contribute to the theory of weak states by highlighting…

  14. Family, welfare state generosity and the vulnerability of older adults: A cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Moor, Nienke; de Graaf, Paul M; Komter, Aafke

    2013-12-01

    The availability of family can be considered a protective factor for aging well. In this article, we examine to what extent the family situation of older people creates vulnerability with respect to their quality of life. Because not everyone is vulnerable to the same degree, we try to identify the conditions under which older people benefit more from having family resources. Based on the resources perspective, we argue that the impact of family resources on life satisfaction is stronger for older people with fewer resources at both the individual level (material, physical and non-familial social resources) and the country level (welfare state services targeted at older adults). To test our hypotheses we make use of the fourth wave of the European Values Study, and the MULTILINKS Social Policy Indicators database. In general our data offer support for the idea that the presence of intimate family ties (with partner and children) can be considered an important resource for achieving psychological well-being, whereas their absence or loss may act as a constraint. Our vulnerability argument is partly supported by the findings. Partner resources are more important for the life satisfaction of older people with a low education and health problems. Similarly, having children only improves the life-satisfaction of lower educated older adults. However, family resources are not more important for older people with fewer material resources or for older people living in countries with low services levels targeted at older adults. PMID:24300055

  15. Buffering income loss due to unemployment: Family and welfare state influences on income after job loss in the United States and western Germany.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Martin

    2012-07-01

    This article analyzes how the family and the welfare state influence household income trajectories after job loss in the United States and in western Germany. Drawing on panel data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), I study the income buffering effects of the family and the welfare state in the short an in the long run after job loss. I demonstrate that household income trajectories after job loss in the two countries are similar for couple households. However, men in the United States rely relatively more on family resources to overcome income loss, whereas German men's incomes are secured mostly by the welfare state. Women's unemployment in both countries is mainly buffered by their partners' higher earnings. Because single households have no access to family support, they face much higher losses in the United States than in Germany. I also show that the more generous German welfare state triggers less private self-help in the form of increased labor force participation on the part of women when their partners lose their jobs. Over time, the family has become more important in buffering incomes after job loss in the United States which smoothed men's and roughened women's income trajectories in couple households. In Germany, worsening re-employment chances increased income losses in the long run after job loss. PMID:23017855

  16. Welfare state regimes, health and health inequalities in adolescence: a multilevel study in 32 countries.

    PubMed

    Richter, Matthias; Rathman, Katharina; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Zambon, Alessio; Boyce, William; Hurrelmann, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    Comparative research on health and health inequalities has recently started to establish a welfare regime perspective. The objective of this study was to determine whether different welfare regimes are associated with health and health inequalities among adolescents. Data were collected from the 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' study in 2006, including 11- to 15-year-old students from 32 countries (N?=?141,091). Prevalence rates and multilevel logistic regression models were calculated for self-rated health (SRH) and health complaints. The results show that between 4 per cent and 7 per cent of the variation in both health outcomes is attributable to differences between countries. Compared to the Scandinavian regime, the Southern regime had lower odds ratios for SRH, while for health complaints the Southern and Eastern regime showed high odds ratios. The association between subjective health and welfare regime was largely unaffected by adjusting for individual socioeconomic position. After adjustment for the welfare regime typology, the country-level variations were reduced to 4.6 per cent for SRH and to 2.9 per cent for health complaints. Regarding cross-level interaction effects between welfare regimes and socioeconomic position, no clear regime-specific pattern was found. Consistent with research on adults this study shows that welfare regimes are important in explaining variations in adolescent health across countries. PMID:22497661

  17. The Impacts of State Health Reform Initiatives on Adults in New York and Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Long, Sharon K; Stockley, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effects of health reform efforts in two large states—New York and Massachusetts. Data Sources/Study Setting National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data from 1999 to 2008. Study Design We take advantage of the “natural experiments” that occurred in New York and Massachusetts to compare health insurance coverage and health care access and use for adults before and after the implementation of the health policy changes. To control for underlying trends not related to the reform initiatives, we subtract changes in the outcomes over the same time period for comparison groups of adults who were not affected by the policy changes using a differences-in-differences framework. The analyses are conducted using multiple comparison groups and different time periods as a check on the robustness of the findings. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Nonelderly adults ages 19–64 in the NHIS. Principal Findings We find evidence of the success of the initiatives in New York and Massachusetts at expanding insurance coverage, with the greatest gains reported by the initiative that was broadest in scope—the Massachusetts push toward universal coverage. There is no evidence of improvements in access to care in New York, reflecting the small gains in coverage under that state's reform effort and the narrow focus of the initiative. In contrast, there were significant gains in access to care in Massachusetts, where the impact on insurance coverage was greater and a more comprehensive set of reforms were implemented to improve access to a full array of health care services. The estimated gains in coverage and access to care reported here for Massachusetts were achieved in the early period under health reform, before the state's reform initiative was fully implemented. Conclusions Comprehensive reform initiatives are more successful at addressing gaps in coverage and access to care than are narrower efforts, highlighting the potential gains under national health reform. Tracking the implications of national health reform will be challenging, as sample sizes and content in existing national surveys are not currently sufficient for in-depth evaluations of the impacts of reform within many states. PMID:21091471

  18. Implementing health care reform in the United States: intergovernmental politics and the dilemmas of institutional design.

    PubMed

    Béland, Daniel; Rocco, Philip; Waddan, Alex

    2014-05-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was enacted, and continues to operate, under conditions of political polarization. In this article, we argue that the law's intergovernmental structure has amplified political conflict over its implementation by distributing governing authority to political actors at both levels of the American federal system. We review the ways in which the law's demands for institutional coordination between federal and state governments (and especially the role it preserves for governors and state legislatures) have created difficulties for rolling out health-insurance exchanges and expanding the Medicaid program. By way of contrast, we show how the institutional design of the ACA's regulatory reforms of the insurance market, which diminish the reform's political salience, has allowed for considerably less friction during the implementation process. This article thus highlights the implications of multi-level institutional designs for the post-enactment politics of major reforms. PMID:24508181

  19. Education Reform for the Knowledge Economy in the State of Sangon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the issues associated with the implementation of education reform policies relating to "future schools" in a small state in the Middle East and North Africa region. The study points to the consistency with which global corporations and the supranational organisations, such as UNESCO and the World Bank,…

  20. A Legal Guide to State Pension Reform. Education Sector Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Just 18 minutes before the midnight signing deadline on May 15, 2010, Minnesota state legislators breathed a sigh of relief. Their bipartisan pension reform legislation, which passed both chambers by large margins and aimed to help shore up a potentially failing pension system, had just escaped a veto threat. Under pressure from his Republican…

  1. Reconsidering Genre Theory in K-12 Schools: A Response to School Reforms in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebhard, Meg; Harman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Education reforms in the United States have placed new demands on English language learners (ELLs) and their teachers in K-12 public schools. In response, many teachers, teacher educators, and literacy scholars are reexamining genre theory and genre-based pedagogy as a way of supporting the academic literacy development of the growing number of…

  2. Evaluating ARRA Programs and Other Educational Reforms: A Guide for States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Johnson, Irma; Walters, Kirk; Puma, Michael; Herman, Rebecca; Garet, Michael; Heppen, Jessica; Lemke, Mariann; Aladjem, Daniel; Amin, Samia; Burghardt, John

    2011-01-01

    The American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) developed this guide to help you consider evaluation issues likely to arise as you launch ARRA-funded initiatives and other educational reform activities. Many states are already involved in evaluation, so many of the ideas presented here may be familiar. The authors…

  3. The Superintendent and Educational Reform in the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björk, Lars G.; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Kowalski, Theodore J.

    2014-01-01

    During the last two decades the intensity and complexity of educational reform in the United States of America have heightened interest among policymakers, practitioners, and professors in large-scale, systemic change. As a consequence, superintendents are being viewed as pivotal actors in the complex algorithm for managing districts and leading…

  4. A Legal Guide to State Pension Reform. Education Sector Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Just 18 minutes before the midnight signing deadline on May 15, 2010, Minnesota state legislators breathed a sigh of relief. Their bipartisan pension reform legislation, which passed both chambers by large margins and aimed to help shore up a potentially failing pension system, had just escaped a veto threat. Under pressure from his Republican…

  5. Finding Common Ground in Pension Reform: Lessons from the Washington State Pension System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    As states and localities across the nation consider the tradeoffs between defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) pension systems, it is important to gain insight into what implications pension reforms might have on workforce composition and teachers' retirement savings behavior. Moreover, it is also important to consider that…

  6. The Superintendent and Educational Reform in the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björk, Lars G.; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Kowalski, Theodore J.

    2014-01-01

    During the last two decades the intensity and complexity of educational reform in the United States of America have heightened interest among policymakers, practitioners, and professors in large-scale, systemic change. As a consequence, superintendents are being viewed as pivotal actors in the complex algorithm for managing districts and leading…

  7. State-Level Support for Comprehensive School Reform: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Brett; Gracia, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In the current context of standards-based reform and heightened accountability for school performance, state education agencies (SEAs) have an important, but not yet well-articulated, role to play in local school improvement efforts. This article starts to articulate such a role by examining the variety of approaches and strategies used by 7 SEAs…

  8. Education Reform for the Knowledge Economy in the State of Sangon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the issues associated with the implementation of education reform policies relating to "future schools" in a small state in the Middle East and North Africa region. The study points to the consistency with which global corporations and the supranational organisations, such as UNESCO and the World Bank,…

  9. Reconsidering Genre Theory in K-12 Schools: A Response to School Reforms in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebhard, Meg; Harman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Education reforms in the United States have placed new demands on English language learners (ELLs) and their teachers in K-12 public schools. In response, many teachers, teacher educators, and literacy scholars are reexamining genre theory and genre-based pedagogy as a way of supporting the academic literacy development of the growing number of…

  10. Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Lessons from PISA for the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This volume draws lessons from the education systems of a selection of top-scoring and rapidly improving countries as measured by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). While this volume relates these lessons to the education reform agenda in the United States, they…

  11. Kerala: Radical Reform As Development in an Indian State. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Richard W.; Chasin, Barbara H.

    Kerala, a state in southwestern India, has implemented radical reform as a development strategy. As a result, Kerala now has some of the Third World's highest levels of health, education, and social justice. Originally published in 1989, this book traces the role that movements of social justice played in Kerala's successful struggle to…

  12. Family Policy: Recommendations for State Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romig, Candace L., Ed.

    This publication on family policy reviews federal and state policies and offers recommendations for state action. Initial discussion covers changes in the American family, demographics, and the economy. Issues of family maintenance considered include: family welfare policy and welfare reform; child abuse and neglect; alternatives to out-of-home…

  13. The Reform Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kelli

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of welfare reform in Ohio's 29 Appalachian counties surveyed human services agencies, county commissioners, poor families, and employers and found that rural barriers to employment included lack of jobs, lack of child care, poor health, lack of education and job skills, and transportation problems. Many former welfare recipients…

  14. A comparison snapshot of states' small group market reform on access and enhancing valued plan features, 1999.

    PubMed

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Stoskopf, Carleen H; Shrader, William R; Glover, Saundra H

    2004-01-01

    Small group health insurance statutes of 48 states and the District of Columbia, as of 1999, were reviewed. Reform provisions judged to have some relevance for the market are catalogued and total 74 distinct regulations. Judgment of market relevance was based on actuarial experience at a leading health insurance company. The regulations are categorized under: (1) Access improvement; (2) Pricing and Rating Reforms; (3) Improving stability of coverage; and (4) Improving valued features of plans. The nuances and variety of these regulations, adopted in various combinations by the states, are discussed. The complexity of the reform scenario suggests the need for impact studies that take into account the totality of reform. Past studies have evaluated the impact of selected major reforms in isolation, and, thus, have been inadequate to provide definitive conclusions on the reforms' impact. PMID:15829454

  15. A Multilevel Analysis of Factors Related to Poverty in Welfare States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyo-seong; Lee, Yongwoo; Lee, Yu-jeong

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate factors contributing to poverty, one of the most significant social problems in Western societies. To this end, 13 countries that have made a variety of efforts to reduce poverty, and therefore experienced similar development processes related to welfare, were selected. To overcome the methodological limitations of…

  16. Children's Agency and the Welfare State: Policy Priorities and Contradictions in Australia and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, liberal welfare regimes have begun to treat lone parents as workers rather than as carers. This has happened in conjunction with an ongoing "moral panic" about the need to develop policies to invest in children, and to protect them from adult worlds. The purpose of this article is to analyse contradictions within and between…

  17. A Multilevel Analysis of Factors Related to Poverty in Welfare States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyo-seong; Lee, Yongwoo; Lee, Yu-jeong

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate factors contributing to poverty, one of the most significant social problems in Western societies. To this end, 13 countries that have made a variety of efforts to reduce poverty, and therefore experienced similar development processes related to welfare, were selected. To overcome the methodological limitations of…

  18. Do State Takeovers Hasten Reform--Or Impede Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tewel, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    In May 1988, New Jersey Commissioner of Education Saul Cooperman allowed the state department of education to take over the Jersey City (New Jersey) public schools. Because of nepotism, cronyism, and overzealous fault finding, this state-school district confrontation ended ignominiously for both parties. States contemplating takeover legislation…

  19. The State, Markets and Higher Education Reform in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabulawa, Richard; Polelo, Mino; Silas, Onalenna

    2013-01-01

    Market forces are being introduced in public spheres such as higher education and public health, which hitherto were closed to such forces. Ironically, it is the state that is responsible for this process of marketisation. Some see this state action as leading to a growing influence of the state in public policy while others see an attenuation of…

  20. Teachers and the State: Forming and Re-Forming "Partnership"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard; Carter, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Teachers in the English and Welsh State education system have experienced a changing and turbulent relationship with the State in recent decades. This article adopts a historical analysis and argues that the concept of "partnership" is key to understanding the relationship between teachers and the State in the period since the Second World War.…

  1. The State, Markets and Higher Education Reform in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabulawa, Richard; Polelo, Mino; Silas, Onalenna

    2013-01-01

    Market forces are being introduced in public spheres such as higher education and public health, which hitherto were closed to such forces. Ironically, it is the state that is responsible for this process of marketisation. Some see this state action as leading to a growing influence of the state in public policy while others see an attenuation of…

  2. Reforming Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert, Ed.; Merryfield, Merry M., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue highlights the diversity of reform initiatives in order to provide a deep understanding of the complexities associated with educational reform in general and the reform of science education in particular. Systemic reform initiatives at the national and state levels along with locally-inspired efforts at reform are outlined.…

  3. God and the Welfare State - Substitutes or Complements? An Experimental Test of the Effect of Belief in God's Control

    PubMed Central

    Be’ery, Gilad; Ben-Nun Bloom, Pazit

    2015-01-01

    Belief in God’s control of the world is common to many of the world’s religions, but there are conflicting predictions regarding its role in shaping attitudes toward the welfare state. While the devout are expected to support pro-social values like helping others, and thus might be supportive of the welfare state, the possibility of taking action is undermined by the belief in God’s absolute control over world affairs and in a morally perfect providence, who is responsible for the fates of individuals. As the literature provides mixed results on this question, this study examines the role of belief in God’s control on welfare attitudes using three priming experiments and two priming tasks, carried out with a design that is both cross-cultural (US vs. Israel) and cross-religious tradition (Judaism vs. Catholicism). We find evidence that, largely, belief in God’s control increases support for income redistribution among Israeli Jews (study 1), American Jews (study 2), and American Catholics (study 3). The findings suggest that the traditional and common political gap between the economic left and the religious, based on the evaluation that religious beliefs lead to conservative economic preferences, may be overstated. PMID:26061050

  4. God and the Welfare State - Substitutes or Complements? An Experimental Test of the Effect of Belief in God's Control.

    PubMed

    Be'ery, Gilad; Ben-Nun Bloom, Pazit

    2015-01-01

    Belief in God's control of the world is common to many of the world's religions, but there are conflicting predictions regarding its role in shaping attitudes toward the welfare state. While the devout are expected to support pro-social values like helping others, and thus might be supportive of the welfare state, the possibility of taking action is undermined by the belief in God's absolute control over world affairs and in a morally perfect providence, who is responsible for the fates of individuals. As the literature provides mixed results on this question, this study examines the role of belief in God's control on welfare attitudes using three priming experiments and two priming tasks, carried out with a design that is both cross-cultural (US vs. Israel) and cross-religious tradition (Judaism vs. Catholicism). We find evidence that, largely, belief in God's control increases support for income redistribution among Israeli Jews (study 1), American Jews (study 2), and American Catholics (study 3). The findings suggest that the traditional and common political gap between the economic left and the religious, based on the evaluation that religious beliefs lead to conservative economic preferences, may be overstated. PMID:26061050

  5. The State of Teacher Evaluation Reform: State Education Agency Capacity and the Implementation of New Teacher-Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The Obama administration's Race to the Top competitive grant program initiated an unprecedented wave of state teacher-evaluation reform across the country. To date, most of the scholarly analysis of this activity has focused on the design of the evaluation instruments or the implementation of the new evaluations by districts and schools. But…

  6. The European influence on workers' compensation reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Workers' compensation law in the United States is derived from European models of social insurance introduced in Germany and in England. These two concepts of workers' compensation are found today in the federal and state workers' compensation programs in the United States. All reform proposals in the United States are influenced by the European experience with workers' compensation. In 2006, a reform proposal termed the Public Health Model was made that would abolish the workers' compensation system, and in its place adopt a national disability insurance system for all injuries and illnesses. In the public health model, health and safety professionals would work primarily in public health agencies. The public health model eliminates the physician from any role other than that of privately consulting with the patient and offering advice solely to the patient. The Public Health Model is strongly influenced by the European success with physician consultation with industry and labor. PMID:22151643

  7. Equity and Comparative State Responses to Education Finance Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundt, Julie L.

    This study examines the importance of state spending on education to equally distribute finances to each district. Current legislation is in the courts because some local districts claim unfair distribution of state funds. This study's focus is on the impact of judicial and legislative branch discussions that attempt to equalize education finance.…

  8. The Context of Higher Education Reform in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in the United States has received much scrutiny in the recent past from the federal and state governments, the press and the general public. In response to this scrutiny, a number of blue ribbon panels have been formed to examine how effectively higher education is serving American society. In this article, I analyse the…

  9. Focus on Teacher Reform Legislation in SREB States: Evaluation Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Asenith

    2011-01-01

    The recent wave of new legislation affecting public school teachers has its roots, in part, in the budget shortfalls that have challenged states for the past several years. The first signs of fiscal troubles for many states became evident in 2008, and most instituted midyear budget reductions in 2009. In response, the U.S. Congress passed the…

  10. Will Welfare Reform Hurt Low-Skilled Workers? Discussion Papers. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enchautegui, Maria E.

    The entry of working welfare mothers into the labor market will have an impact on the wages and employment of low-skilled workers. This impact was examined through a labor market analysis of available statistical data about the U.S. population and employment patterns. The characteristics of workers likely to enter the labor market because of…

  11. A perfect storm? Welfare, care, gender and generations in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Filgueira, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Magdalena; Papadópulos, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article claims that welfare states modelled on a contributory basis and with a system of entitlements that assumes stable two-parent families, a traditional breadwinner model, full formal employment and a relatively young age structure are profoundly flawed in the context of present-day challenges. While this is true for affluent countries modelled on the Bismarckian type of welfare system, the costs of the status quo are even more devastating in middle-income economies with high levels of inequality. A gendered approach to welfare reform that introduces the political economy and the economy of care and unpaid work is becoming critical to confront what may very well become a perfect storm for the welfare of these nations and their peoples. Through an in-depth study of the Uruguayan case, the authors show how the decoupling of risk and protection has torn asunder the efficacy of welfare devices in the country. An ageing society that has seen a radical transformation of its family and labour market landscapes, Uruguay maintained during the 1980s and 1990s a welfare state that was essentially contributory, elderly and male-oriented, and centred on cash entitlements. This contributed to the infantilization of poverty, increased the vulnerability of women and exacerbated fiscal stress for the system as a whole. Furthermore, because of high levels of income and asset inequality, the redistribution of risk between upper- and lower-income groups presented a deeply regressive pattern. The political economy of care and welfare has begun to change in the last decade or so, bringing about mild reforms in the right direction; but these might prove to be too little and too late. PMID:22165158

  12. Washington State Health Services Act: Implementing Comprehensive Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Peter D.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993, Washington State enacted the Health Services Act of 1993 (HSA) to guarantee universal access to health care through an employer mandate, with caps on premiums as the primary cost-control mechanism. The HSA represents the Nation's first formal experiment with managed competition. This article reports the results of a case study of the HSA's implementation. The study concludes that the Washington State initiative can be replicated in other States, but that implementation is complex, requires sustained public education, and requires cooperation from the Federal Government through program waivers. A major implementation challenge is to facilitate competition and minimize regulation. PMID:10142576

  13. Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

  14. The Role of District Leadership in Radical Reform: Philadelphia's Experience under the State Takeover, 2001-2006. An Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useem, Elizabeth; Christman, Jolley Bruce; Boyd, William Lowe

    2006-01-01

    Leadership is key in the success of any reform, especially one as ambitious and complex as that in Philadelphia. "The case of Philadelphia is noteworthy as an exemplar of the implementation of paradigm-breaking new reforms in the governance and delivery of urban education." This report follows the first five years of the state takeover and the…

  15. Surprising Momentum: Spurring Education Reforms in States and Localities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first examines how the Obama administration was able to promote its K-12 agenda using the vehicle of economic stimulus policy, and how that agenda compares with prior federal and state education policy. As a basis for explaining President Obama's policy choices, a second section discusses the ideas and political dynamics shaping his…

  16. Mapping out Educational Reform: State Systems Come under Scrutiny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangieri, John N.; Arnn, John W.

    1986-01-01

    In the past two years, 26 states have established task forces to study issues of quality, mission, efficiency, governance, access, and financial support and arrive at some new solutions. What separate these initiatives from previous ones are their magnitude and scope and the resources used. (MSE)

  17. Analysis of State School Finance Reform Legislation in Florida, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Steven

    On June 26, 1973, the system for financing elementary and secondary education in Florida was radically altered when the Florida legislature passed the Florida Education Finance Program Act of 1973. Significant features of this act include (1) substantially increased fiscal equalization; (2) a systematic plan and substantial State commitment to…

  18. Surprising Momentum: Spurring Education Reforms in States and Localities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first examines how the Obama administration was able to promote its K-12 agenda using the vehicle of economic stimulus policy, and how that agenda compares with prior federal and state education policy. As a basis for explaining President Obama's policy choices, a second section discusses the ideas and political dynamics shaping his…

  19. A Guide for State Government Agencies: Establishing Cost Allocation Plans and Indirect Cost Rates for Grants and Contracts with the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

    This brochure provides guidelines for State governments seeking to recover the costs of services provided by central service-type activities to grantee State departments and the indirect cost of grantee State departments. As a prerequisite to such recovery, States must develop and submit to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare a formal…

  20. Governing Health Care through Free Choice: Neoliberal Reforms in Denmark and the United States.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Lars Thorup; Stone, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    We compare free choice reforms in Denmark and the United States to understand what ideas and political forces could generate such similar policy reforms in radically different political contexts. We analyze the two cases using our own interpretation of neoliberalism as having "two faces." The first face seeks to expand private markets and shrink the public sector; the second face seeks to strengthen the public sector's capacity to govern through incentives and competition. First, we show why these two most-different cases offer a useful comparison to understand similar policy tools. Second, we develop our theoretical framework of the two faces of neoliberalism. Third, we examine Denmark's introduction of a free choice of hospitals in 2002, a policy that for the first time allowed some patients to receive care either in a public hospital outside their local area or in a private hospital. Fourth, we examine the introduction of free choice among private managed care plans into the US Medicare program in 1997. We show how policy makers in both countries used neoliberal reform as a mechanism to make their public health care sectors governable. Fifth, on the basis of our analysis, we draw five lessons about neoliberal policy reforms. PMID:26195602

  1. An Examination Of Medicaid Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment Initiatives Under Way In Six States.

    PubMed

    Gusmano, Michael K; Thompson, Frank J

    2015-07-01

    Medicaid waivers for Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment (DSRIP) seek to hold hospitals and other providers accountable for measureable improvements in health care delivery. We explore the policy context giving rise to these waivers in six states, with particular attention to the interplay among the financial needs of hospitals; the rise of managed care; and federal interest in replacing an "unconditional" Medicaid funding stream, the upper payment limit, with one rooted in pay-for-performance. Key characteristics of these main DSRIP waivers are compared with a particular focus on the establishment of project menus, performance metrics, and pay-for-performance processes. Concluding sections discuss the potential and limits of the waivers as vehicles for health care reform. The long-term durability and impact of DSRIP remains unclear. But federal and state officials have made considerable headway in planning and otherwise laying the groundwork for it. PMID:26153311

  2. Welfarism vs. extra-welfarism.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Werner B F; Culyer, Anthony J; van Exel, N Job A; Rutten, Frans F H

    2008-03-01

    'Extra-welfarism' has received some attention in health economics, yet there is little consensus on what distinguishes it from more conventional 'welfarist economics'. In this paper, we seek to identify the characteristics of each in order to make a systematic comparison of the ways in which they evaluate alternative social states. The focus, though this is not intended to be exclusive, is on health. Specifically, we highlight four areas in which the two schools differ: (i) the outcomes considered relevant in an evaluation; (ii) the sources of valuation of the relevant outcomes; (iii) the basis of weighting of relevant outcomes and (iv) interpersonal comparisons. We conclude that these differences are substantive. PMID:18179835

  3. 45 CFR 147.103 - State reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State reporting. 147.103 Section 147.103 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETS § 147.103...

  4. 45 CFR 147.103 - State reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State reporting. 147.103 Section 147.103 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETS § 147.103...

  5. Can Work Alter Welfare Recipients' Beliefs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottschalk, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A common argument in support of work-based welfare reform is that exposure to work will lead welfare recipients to revise their beliefs about how they will be treated in the labor market. This paper explores the analytical and empirical basis for this argument. The difficulty in testing the assumption that work leads to a change in beliefs is that…

  6. Climb On! From Welfare to a Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Patti; Kime, Bruce

    In operation since 1990, the Gateway Program is a collaborative welfare reform effort developed by Colorado Mountain College (CMC), the county department of social services, and the local Job Training Partnership Act provider. One component of the program is the Link Program, developed to prepare welfare recipients for enrollment in vocational…

  7. Effects of reforming electricity rates on employment levels in New York State: a multisectoral analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The principal objective of this study is to develop an analytical tool for evaluating the economic consequences of reforming electricity rates in New York State. Earlier efforts at modelling within the state have concentrated on the broader economic aggregates such as gross state product, unemployment, and inflation. The study on the other hand, seeks to develop a methodology for examining the economic impact of electricity rate reform at a detailed, sectoral level. A multi-dimensional model is developed with submodels of sectoral output pricing, production, final demand, and factor demand. On the production side, fixed coefficient and Cobb-Douglas production functions are used as alternatives. On the demand side, personal consumption expenditures are specified as functions of prices and personal income. The main conclusion of the study is that the introduction of efficient electricity pricing can result in higher levels of employment with the same level of personal income, particularly with the Cobb-Douglas specification. This result, however, is not indifferent to the manner in which the new rate structures are introduced. Unless excess revenues accruing to the utilities as a result of rate reform are re-injected into the expenditure-income stream, the effect on employment can be negative.

  8. Mortality of White Americans, African Americans, and Canadians: The Causes and Consequences for Health of Welfare State Institutions and Policies

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, Stephen J; Pesis-Katz, Irena

    2005-01-01

    The life expectancy of African Americans has been substantially lower than that of white Americans for as long as records are available. The life expectancy of all Americans has been lower than that of all Canadians since the beginning of the 20th century. Until the 1970s this disparity was the result of the low life expectancy of African Americans. Since then, the life expectancy of white Americans has not improved as much as that of all Canadians. This article discusses two issues: racial disparities in the United States, and the difference in life expectancy between all Canadians and white Americans. Each country's political culture and institutions have shaped these differences, especially national health insurance in Canada and its absence in the United States. The American welfare state has contributed to and explains these differences. PMID:15787952

  9. Innovation waivers: an opportunity for states to pursue their own brand of health reform.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Deborah; Ario, Joel; Davis, Hailey

    2015-04-01

    States have long been the testing ground for new models of health care and coverage. Section 1332 of the Affordable Care Act, which takes effect in less than two years, throws open the door to innovation by authorizing states to rethink the law's coverage designs. Under State Innovation Waivers, states can modify the rules regarding covered benefits, subsidies, insurance marketplaces, and individual and employer mandates. States may propose broad alternatives or targeted fixes, but all waivers must demonstrate that coverage will remain as accessible, comprehensive, and affordable as before the waiver and that the changes will not add to the federal deficit. This issue brief describes how states may use State Innovation Waivers to reallocate subsidies, expand or streamline their marketplaces, replace or modify the mandates, and otherwise pursue their own brand of reform tailored to local market conditions and political preferences. PMID:25915973

  10. State innovation models: early experiences and challenges of an initiative to advance broad health system reform.

    PubMed

    Silow-Carroll, Sharon; Lamphere, JoAnn

    2013-09-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and states are partnering to transform health care systems by creating and testing new models of care delivery and payment. Interviews with officials from states participating in the State Innovation Models (SIM) Initiative reveal that the readiness of providers and payers to adopt innovations var­ies, requiring different starting points, goals, and strategies. So far, effective strategies appear to include: building on past reform efforts; redesigning health information technol­ogy to provide reliable, targeted data on care costs and quality; and using standard perfor­mance measures and financial incentives to spur alignment of providers' and payers' goals. State governments also have policy levers to encourage efficient deployment of a diverse health care workforce. As federal officials review states' innovation plans, set timetables, and provide technical assistance, they can also take steps to accommodate the budgetary, political, and time constraints that states are facing. PMID:24133696

  11. Different welfare states--different policies? An analysis of the substance of national health promotion policies in three European countries.

    PubMed

    Fosse, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This study examines healthy public policy development in three European countries representing different welfare regimes: England representing the liberal model; Norway, the social democratic model; and the Netherlands, the corporatist model. National policy documents were used for the analysis. In England and Norway, health promotion has a prominent place and there is a political focus on the broader determinants of health. However, while the Norwegian policies have an explicit focus on the social gradient, the English policies have a much clearer focus on disadvantaged groups and geographic areas. In the Netherlands, the main focus is on disease prevention and risk behaviors. In the Netherlands and England there is a strong focus on the free will of the population in changing unhealthy lifestyles. By analyzing the different policies in the light of Esping-Andersen's typology of welfare state regimes, it is possible to better understand the differences among the countries. While all types of regimes seem willing to develop targeted measures, the social democratic regime seems the most willing to also develop structural measures addressing the wider social determinants of health. PMID:21563624

  12. Employment among Current and Former Welfare Recipients: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Susan; Santhiveeran, Janaki; Lam, Brian Trung

    2006-01-01

    The primary goal of welfare reform is to move recipients from welfare to work. Several factors influence the employment of welfare recipients. The purpose of this content analysis is to offer a comprehensive understanding of employment characteristics and important personal, family, and employment characteristics that either promote or deter…

  13. State TANF Policies as of July 1999. Welfare Rules Databook. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Gretchen

    This publication provides tables containing key Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) policies for each state as of July 1999, plus longitudinal tables describing a subset of states' policies from 1996-99. Tables are based on information in the Welfare Rules Database (WRD). The WRD was developed in response to the increasing difficulty…

  14. A Re-Examination of Welfare States and Inequality in Rich Nations: How In-Kind Transfers and Indirect Taxes Change the Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Irwin; Rainwater, Lee; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies find large cross-national differences in inequality amongst rich Western nations, due in large part to differences in the generosity of welfare state transfers. The United States is the least generous nation and the one having the most after-tax and transfer inequality. But these analyses are limited to the effects of cash and…

  15. [Dietetics and the health and fitness cult. The risks of dietetics in the Welfare State].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez de Pablo, A

    1993-01-01

    We shall analyse the reasons why various matters related to diet have become a type of a purification ritual in the welfare society. In order to explain this circumstance three historic moments in the use of diet shall be studied: a) Diet as an explicit means in the care of the soul. Besides its function in the care of the body, diet was used in ancient times as a specific remedy to improve both the psychic and moral aspects of the mental faculties. b) Diet as an implicit remedy in moral well-being. From the Renaissance onwards diet no longer had this explicit function in curing the soul, however it tacitly retained a certain effect on the moral factors. c) Diet as an instrument of the health and fitness cult. Despite the scientific configuration of dietetics in the second half of the nineteenth century, old function of diet remained mutatis mutandis with regards to the moral sphere of the subject. Factors such as the development of how thinness or fatness was viewed at this time and the resulting explosion of interest in controlling body-weight, which acquired characteristics of pseudo-religious activity, may explain this fact. In this way the old idea of "you are what you eat" coexists with the more modern one of "you eat what you are". PMID:11625026

  16. Creating State-based Alliances to Support Earth and Space Science Education Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, E. E.; Manduca, C. A.; Barstow, D.

    2002-05-01

    Seven years after the publication of the National Science Education Standards and adoption of new state science education standards, Earth and space science remains outside the mainstream K-12 curriculum. Currently, less than ten percent of high school students in the United States of America take an Earth or space science course before graduation. This state of affairs is simply unacceptable. "All of us who live on this planet have the right and the obligation to understand Earth's unique history, its dynamic processes, its abundant resources, and its intriguing mysteries. As citizens of Earth, with the power to modify our climate and ecosystems, we also have a personal and collective responsibility to understand Earth so that we can make wise decisions about its and our future". As one step toward addressing this situation, we support the establishment of state-based alliances to promote Earth and space science education reform. "In many ways, states are the most vital locus of change in our nation's schools. State departments of education define curriculum frameworks, establish testing policies, support professional development and, in some cases, approve textbooks and materials for adoption". State alliance partners should include a broad spectrum of K-16 educators, scientists, policy makers, parents, and community leaders from academic institutions, businesses, museums, technology centers, and not-for profit organizations. The focus of these alliances should be on systemic and sustainable reform of K-16 Earth and space science education. Each state-based alliance should focus on specific educational needs within their state, but work together to share ideas, resources, and models for success. As we build these alliances we need to take a truly collaborative approach working with the other sciences, geography, and mathematics so that collectively we can improve the caliber and scope of science and mathematics education for all students.

  17. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  18. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  19. Designing Inter-Organizational Networks to Implement Education Reform: An Analysis of State Race to the Top Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jennifer Lin; Meredith, Julie; Childs, Joshua; Stein, Mary Kay; Prine, Deanna Weber

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with the implementation of state designed Race to the Top (RttT) funded reform networks. Drawing on a conceptual framework developed from the networked governance literature, we analyzed the 12 state RttT grantees' applications. Our analysis revealed that states…

  20. Reforming pharmaceutical industry-physician financial relationships: lessons from the United States, France, and Japan.

    PubMed

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    This article compares the means that the United States, France, and Japan use to oversee pharmaceutical industry-physician financial relationships. These countries rely on professional and/or industry ethical codes, anti-kickback laws, and fair trade practice laws. They restrict kickbacks the most strictly, allow wide latitude on gifts, and generally permit drug firms to fund professional activities and associations. Consequently, to avoid legal liability, drug firms often replace kickbacks with gifts and grants. The paper concludes by proposing reforms that address problems that persist when firms replace kickbacks with gifts and grants based on the experience of the three countries. PMID:22084852

  1. Are health inequalities really not the smallest in the Nordic welfare states? A comparison of mortality inequality in 37 countries

    PubMed Central

    Popham, Frank; Dibben, Chris; Bambra, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Background Research comparing mortality by socioeconomic status has found that inequalities are not the smallest in the Nordic countries. This is in contrast to expectations given these countries’ policy focus on equity. An alternative way of studying inequality has been little used to compare inequalities across welfare states and may yield a different conclusion. Methods We used average life expectancy lost per death as a measure of total inequality in mortality derived from death rates from the Human Mortality Database for 37 countries in 2006 that we grouped by welfare state type. We constructed a theoretical ‘lowest mortality comparator country’ to study, by age, why countries were not achieving the smallest inequality and the highest life expectancy. We also studied life expectancy as there is an important correlation between it and inequality. Results On average, Nordic countries had the highest life expectancy and smallest inequalities for men but not women. For both men and women, Nordic countries had particularly low younger age mortality contributing to smaller inequality and higher life expectancy. Although older age mortality in the Nordic countries is not the smallest. There was variation within Nordic countries with Sweden, Iceland and Norway having higher life expectancy and smaller inequalities than Denmark and Finland (for men). Conclusions Our analysis suggests that the Nordic countries do have the smallest inequalities in mortality for men and for younger age groups. However, this is not the case for women. Reducing premature mortality among older age groups would increase life expectancy and reduce inequality further in Nordic countries. PMID:23386671

  2. State Efforts to Reform Schools: Treading between a Regulatory Swamp and an English Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Thomas B.; Kirp, David L.

    1988-01-01

    The educational reform strategies of Texas, California, and South Carolina are examined as they relate to reform outcomes. The current effort toward educational excellence must shift its focus from regulation and compliance monitoring to mobilization of institutional capacity. (SLD)

  3. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR 92.43 and 92.44 will apply. (e) Matching or cost-sharing. Federal financial participation is... with the grants administration requirements of 45 CFR part 92 with the following conditions— (1) The..., child welfare services). 1357.30 Section 1357.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  4. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR 92.43 and 92.44 will apply. (e) Matching or cost-sharing. Federal financial participation is... with the grants administration requirements of 45 CFR part 92 with the following conditions— (1) The..., child welfare services). 1357.30 Section 1357.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  5. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 92.43 and 92.44 will apply. (e) Matching or cost-sharing. Federal financial participation is... with the grants administration requirements of 45 CFR part 92 with the following conditions— (1) The..., child welfare services). 1357.30 Section 1357.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  6. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR 92.43 and 92.44 will apply. (e) Matching or cost-sharing. Federal financial participation is... with the grants administration requirements of 45 CFR part 92 with the following conditions— (1) The..., child welfare services). 1357.30 Section 1357.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  7. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR 92.43 and 92.44 will apply. (e) Matching or cost-sharing. Federal financial participation is... with the grants administration requirements of 45 CFR part 92 with the following conditions— (1) The..., child welfare services). 1357.30 Section 1357.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  8. Designing Inter-Organizational Networks to Implement Education Reform: An Analysis of State Race to the Top Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jennifer Lin; Meredith, Julie; Childs, Joshua; Stein, Mary Kay; Prine, Deanna Weber

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with the implementation of state designed Race to the Top (RttT) funded reform networks. Drawing on a conceptual framework developed from the networked governance literature, we analyzed the 12 state RttT grantees' applications. Our analysis revealed that states…

  9. Local Board Chair Perspectives on Reform in North Carolina: State Decentralization as a Challenge for District Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keedy, John L.; Freeman, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Interviews 16 school board chairs in North Carolina to determine their attitudes toward state education reform legislation. Discusses two themes emerging from the interviews: Downsizing the state bureaucracy translates into autonomy and accountability at the local level, but paradoxically boards now lack the organizational buffering previously…

  10. Can We Improve the Measurement of Attitudes towards the Welfare State? A Constructive Critique of Survey Instruments with Evidence from Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goerres, Achim; Prinzen, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    There is a large and growing literature on welfare state attitudes, most of which is built on random-sample population surveys with standardised closed-question items. This article criticises the existing survey instruments, especially those that are used within the International Social Survey Programme, in a novel approach with focus group data…

  11. Education for the Handicapped, 1973 - Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Handicapped of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare United States Senate - Ninety-Third Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    Presented are the proceedings of the hearings before the Subcommittee on Handicapped of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare on Senate Bills 896, 6, 34, and 808 which would provide financial assistance to the states for improved educational services for handicapped children, support research and development in the care and treatment of…

  12. On Public Aid to Christian Schools in the United States: A Reformed Christian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Young Taek

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a conceptual framework for understanding the topic of public aid to Christian schools in a Reformed Christian perspective. To do so, I need to clarify a Reformed Christian approach in regard to this topic and then review the studies of the issue in legal and educational aspects in the light of the Reformed perspective.…

  13. [Philanthropy, privatization, and reform: psychiatric assistance scenarios in the state of Paraná].

    PubMed

    Wadi, Yonissa Marmitt; Olinto, Beatriz Anselmo; Casagrande, Attiliana De Bona

    2015-12-01

    The article discusses different psychiatric assistance arrangements in Paraná from the earliest years through today, taking into account the state's unique features and relations with national policies. This assistance was first provided in 1903, when the Hospício Nossa Senhora da Luz philanthropic asylum was founded. It was only in 1954 that Hospital Colônia Adauto Botelho, the state's first public hospital, began operations. In the 1960s, the Paraná government signed agreements with private hospitals for more beds in the interior, accelerating the provision of psychiatric assistance and fostering a privatization approach. This strategy led to the current situation in Paraná, where specialized hospitals are the rule, despite the existence of other facilities foreseen under the psychiatric reform legislation. PMID:26625920

  14. Employment as a "Solution" to Welfare: Challenges over the Next Ten Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2000-01-01

    Recent reforms assume that welfare recipients can achieve employment if welfare agencies just give them a "push". Over the next ten years, the "employment solution" to welfare faces the following three challenges: (1) employing all employable welfare recipients; (2) helping them get and keep good jobs; and (3) reconstructing a safety net for those…

  15. The Colonization of (M)Others in Welfare-to-Work Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Leslie Rebecca; Kilgore, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Argues that welfare reform policies colonize poor mothers. Using ethnographic data of a welfare-to-work educational program, analyzes how colonizing public and governmental discourses about welfare mothers infiltrate the program's educational policy and everyday practices. Asserts that welfare-to-work neither fully colonizes nor fully educates,…

  16. The association between life course socioeconomic position and life satisfaction in different welfare states: European comparative study of individuals in early old age

    PubMed Central

    Niedzwiedz, Claire L.; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Pell, Jill P.; Mitchell, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background: whether socioeconomic position over the life course influences the wellbeing of older people similarly in different societies is not known. Objective: to investigate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction among individuals in early old age and the influence of the welfare state regime on the associations. Design: comparative study using data from Wave 2 and SHARELIFE, the retrospective Wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected during 2006–07 and 2008–09, respectively. Setting: thirteen European countries representing four welfare regimes (Southern, Scandinavian, Post-communist and Bismarckian). Subjects: a total of 17,697 individuals aged 50–75 years. Methods: slope indices of inequality (SIIs) were calculated for the association between life course socioeconomic position (measured by the number of books in childhood, education level and current wealth) and life satisfaction. Single level linear regression models stratified by welfare regime and multilevel regression models, containing interaction terms between socioeconomic position and welfare regime type, were calculated. Results: socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction were present in all welfare regimes. Educational inequalities in life satisfaction were narrowest in Scandinavian and Bismarckian regimes among both genders. Post-communist and Southern countries experienced both lower life satisfaction and larger socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction, using most measures of socioeconomic position. Current wealth was associated with large inequalities in life satisfaction across all regimes. Conclusions: Scandinavian and Bismarckian countries exhibited narrower socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction. This suggests that more generous welfare states help to produce a more equitable distribution of wellbeing among older people. PMID:24476800

  17. Economic Hardship and Depression across the Life Course: The Impact of Welfare State Regimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan; De Boyser, Katrien; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2011-01-01

    Previous research in the United States suggests that depression related to economic hardship decreases with age. We test whether this pattern can be generalized to other developed nations. Based on data from 23 countries in the European Social Survey (2006-2007), multilevel analyses show that the moderating role of age depends on the…

  18. State Actions to Control Fetal Abuse: Ramifications for Child Welfare Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews recent case law and state statutes for dealing with a pregnant woman's actions which negatively affect her infant. Explains how statutes and case law are applied in civil law to remove a child from the mother at birth and in criminal law to punish a mother while pregnant. (MM)

  19. Rethinking Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, James C.

    2010-01-01

    As president of Miami University of Ohio from 1996 until 2006, James C. Garland redefined the public institution as a "semi-private" university by implementing the same tuition for both in-state and out-of-state students. Students from Ohio with need received large scholarships--but those who could afford to pay more did so. The reform, which…

  20. The science of animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and values; thus they may view an animal’s welfare status as good or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of these human differences in perception the actual state of welfare for the animal does exist in a range from good ...

  1. Child Welfare in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Reflecting the current state of theory and practice in child welfare in Canada, these eight papers suggest a contemporary view of Canadian children and the contexts in which they develop as defined by legal rights and society. First, Henry S. Maas argues that attention to normal social development and its contexts, and to related ongoing theory…

  2. Child Welfare Policy Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document conveys mandatory policies that have their basis in Federal Law and/or program regulations. It also provides interpretations of Federal Statutes and program regulations initiated by inquiries from State Child Welfare agencies or Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Regional Offices. The manual replaces the Children's…

  3. Uninsured Rate of Poor Children Declines, but Remains above Pre-Welfare Reform Levels: Nearly One in Two Working Poor Adults Remain Uninsured.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyer, Jocelyn

    The number of Americans without health insurance fell in 1999. This was partly driven by improvements in the extent to which children have health care coverage. Many children who gained coverage were poor children, suggesting that efforts to enroll more Medicaid-eligible children into coverage and to implement the State Children's Health Insurance…

  4. The Scope and Impact of Welfare Reform's Immigrant Provisions. Discussion Papers. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fix, Michael; Passel, Jeffrey

    This paper discusses the background and character of changes introduced by the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), examining post enactment responses by Congress, the states, and the courts. It explores the impact of the law on benefit use among immigrants, highlighting changes in usage among different…

  5. The globalization of capital, the welfare state, and old age policy.

    PubMed

    Estes, Carroll L; Phillipson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    A new political economy is shaping the lives of present and future generations of older people. The key change has been the move from the mass institutions that defined growing old in the period from 1945 through the late 1970s to the more individualized structures--privatized pensions, privatized health and social care--that increasingly inform the current period. The authors examine the role of international governmental organizations in promoting this trend, with examples drawn from the work of the World Bank, World Trade Organization, and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the relationship between international governmental organizations and the state. The article concludes with an assessment of the changes to citizenship that accompany globalization and the implications for political organization among older people themselves. PMID:12067032

  6. From a conservative to a liberal welfare state: decomposing changes in income-related health inequalities in Germany, 1994-2011.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Martin; Vogt, Verena; Sundmacher, Leonie

    2014-05-01

    Individual socio-economic status and the respective socio-economic and political contexts are both important determinants of health. Welfare regimes may be linked with health and health inequalities through two potential pathways: first, they may influence the associations between socio-economic status and health. Second, they may influence the income-related distributions of socio-economic determinants of health within a society. Using the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for the years 1994-2011, we analyze how income-related health inequalities evolved in the context of the transformation from a conservative to a liberal welfare system in Germany. We use the concentration index to measure health inequalities, and the annual concentration indices are decomposed to reveal how the contributions of the explanatory variables age, sex, income, education, and occupation changed over time. The changes in the contributions are further decomposed to distinguish whether changes in health inequalities stem from redistributions of the explanatory variables, from changes in their associations with health, or from changes in their means. Income-related health inequalities to the disadvantage of the economically deprived roughly doubled over time, which can largely be explained by changes in the contributions of individual characteristics representing weaker labor market positions, particularly income and unemployment. The social and labor market reforms coincide with the observed changes in the distributions of these characteristics and, to a lesser extent, with changes of their associations with health. PMID:24607705

  7. Financing the New Adequacy: Towards New Models of State Education Finance Systems That Support Standards Based Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses need for reinventing state education finance systems to provide adequacy and equity aligned to standards-based reform. Provides initial specifications for "The New Finance." Examines in depth approaches for determining a base spending level considered adequate for the average child to reach high educational standards. (Contains 87…

  8. The School-to-College Transition in the Context of Educational Reform: Student Retention and the State Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, John F.; Petrosko, Joseph; Taylor, Hal

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of state-level educational reform in Kentucky on college student retention. By tracking the educational progress of students who graduated from high school in a large school district and who subsequently enrolled in a research university in the same metropolitan area, the study reveals that the accountability…

  9. A "New Breed" of Principal: Marcus Foster and Urban School Reform in the United States, 1966-1969

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, John

    2009-01-01

    In the 1960s, as part of the black freedom struggle in the United States, African-American educators increasingly achieved the position of school principal in the nation's big cities, helping to transform that office into a more dynamic force for school reform. This article presents the accomplishments and the struggles of one such principal,…

  10. The Early Childhood and Elementary Education Continuum: Constructing an Understanding of P-3 as State-Level Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauerz, Kristie Anne

    2009-01-01

    State-level policy attention to young children's early learning opportunities burgeons; a sense of urgency exists to identify reform agendas that are both effective and sustainable. "P-3" often is used as the term for the first level of a seamless P-20 system that stretches from early childhood through post-secondary education. While it is…

  11. Evidence of the Impact of School Reform on Systems Governance and Educational Bureaucracies in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderman, Gail L.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter is organized as follows. The first section examines the evolving state and federal role in education and the implications of an expanded federal role on the structure of the educational system. It pays particular attention to how the debate on the causes and solutions to school reform has shifted and the impact this has had on school…

  12. Education Reform and Decentralization in Mexico and the Creation of "Educacion Civica" in the State of Jalisco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Gloria; Rice, Marion J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate Mexican education reform and decentralization and how the state of Jalisco focused in the early twenty-first century on developing a sequential curriculum for teaching civics in grades 1-6. The authors use the term "educacion civica" because in Mexico the curriculum emphasizes the acquisition of values and…

  13. The Trojan Horse of Educational Reform: A Look at One State's Experience and the Perceptions of Selected School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Edward W.

    1993-01-01

    A survey addressed the financial impact of state-mandated reforms on 40 rural Oklahoma school districts. A majority of school administrators surveyed reported that they did not receive adequate dollars to meet curriculum standard mandates and the minimum teacher salary schedule. Long-term results may include consolidation. (LP)

  14. Timing Is Everything: Building State Policy on Teacher Credentialing in an Era of Multiple, Competing, and Rapid Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Mary Vixie

    2006-01-01

    Senate Bill (SB) 2042, authored by Senator Marion Bergeson, was passed to establish a new system for providing teacher preparation within the state of California. The credentialing reforms introduced in SB 2042 follow a tradition described by Irving Hendrik and stake their own claims regarding the locus of control over teacher quality, the role of…

  15. The School-to-College Transition in the Context of Educational Reform: Student Retention and the State Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, John F.; Petrosko, Joseph; Taylor, Hal

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of state-level educational reform in Kentucky on college student retention. By tracking the educational progress of students who graduated from high school in a large school district and who subsequently enrolled in a research university in the same metropolitan area, the study reveals that the accountability…

  16. Education Reform and Decentralization in Mexico and the Creation of "Educacion Civica" in the State of Jalisco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Gloria; Rice, Marion J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate Mexican education reform and decentralization and how the state of Jalisco focused in the early twenty-first century on developing a sequential curriculum for teaching civics in grades 1-6. The authors use the term "educacion civica" because in Mexico the curriculum emphasizes the acquisition of values and…

  17. Screening for domestic violence in public welfare offices: an analysis of case manager and client interactions.

    PubMed

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Meyers, Marcia; Casey, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of domestic violence among welfare clients, most studies of the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform find that women rarely receive domestic violence services in welfare offices. This study reviews findings from current research on the factors that improve the likelihood that women will reveal their domestic violence experiences to service personnel, and uses the guidelines drawn from this review to evaluate domestic violence screening practices in welfare offices using 782 transcribed interviews between welfare workers and clients from 11 sites in four states. The analysis found that only 9.3% of case encounters involved screening for domestic violence. Screening rates differed by state, interview type, and length of worker employment. Qualitative analysis of the interviews showed that the majority of screening by workers was routine or consisted of informing clients of the domestic violence policy without asking about abuse. Only 1.2% of the interviews incorporated at least two of the procedures that increase the likelihood of disclosure among domestic violence survivors, suggesting deeply inadequate approaches to screening for abuse within the context of welfare offices, and a need for improved training, protocol, and monitoring of FVO implementation. PMID:18096857

  18. Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

  19. National Standards and School Reform in Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCoker, Gary, Ed.

    This book is a collection of works that explore the implications of a national U.S. curriculum through the study of Japanese education. It consists of 10 chapters: (1) "The Development of the Course of Study and the Structure of Educational Reform in Japan" (Hiroshi Azuma); (2) "Setting National Standards: Educational Reform, Social Change, and…

  20. Comprehensive School Reform: A Longitudinal Study of School Improvement in One State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Thomas L.; Burross, Heidi Legg; McCaslin, Mary M.

    2005-01-01

    We report on comprehensive school reform (CSR) reform in 48 schools over 6 consecutive years. In 1998, a total of 24 schools received CSR awards to improve student achievement. Control schools were carefully matched on 26 demographic variables to form a comparison group. Students' average performance, as represented in publicly available school…

  1. National Standards and School Reform in Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCoker, Gary, Ed.

    This book is a collection of works that explore the implications of a national U.S. curriculum through the study of Japanese education. It consists of 10 chapters: (1) "The Development of the Course of Study and the Structure of Educational Reform in Japan" (Hiroshi Azuma); (2) "Setting National Standards: Educational Reform, Social Change, and…

  2. An Assessment of State-Led Reform of Long-Term Services and Supports.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Mary D; Kurtzman, Ellen T; Miller, Edward Alan; Nadash, Pamela; Fitzgerald, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Health care in the United States is fragmented, inefficient, and rife with quality concerns. These shortcomings have particularly serious implications for adults with disabilities and functionally impaired older adults in need of long-term services and supports (LTSS). Three strategies have been commonly pursued by state governments to improve LTSS: expanding noninstitutional care, integrating payment and care delivery, and realigning incentives through market-based reforms. These strategies were analyzed using an evaluation framework consisting of the following dimensions: ease of access; choice of setting/provider; quality of care/life; support for family caregivers; effective transitions among multiple providers and across settings; reductions in racial/ethnic disparities; cost-effectiveness; political feasibility; and implementability. Although the analysis highlights potential benefits and drawbacks associated with each strategy, the limited breadth of the evidentiary base precludes an assessment of impact across all nine dimensions. More importantly, the analysis exposes the interdependent, complex system of care within which LTSS is situated, suggesting that policy makers will require a holistic and long-term perspective to achieve needed changes. Addressing the nation's LTSS needs will require a multipronged strategy incorporating a range of health and social services to meet the complex care needs of a diverse population in a variety of settings. PMID:25700376

  3. Immigration Policy in the United States: Future Prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Program for Resarch on Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; And Others

    Immigration to the United States has fluctuated considerably over the course of the nation's history and has elicited various policy responses at different times. In recent years, concern about undocumented, illegal immigration has given rise to efforts to reform immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 was intended…

  4. Clarifying the Multiple Linkages between Curriculum and Instruction in Programs of Urban Teacher Preparation and State Educational Policy Promoting School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Lois; Bloom, Arlene; Hall, Althea; Juncker, JoAnne; Obi, Roselynn; Pagano, Alicia; Rand, Muriel

    This paper examines interrelationships between curriculum and instruction in an urban teacher education program and state educational policies promoting school reform. It notes how national policy talk and organizational strategies promoting systemic reform in schools serving low-income students influence the work of teacher educators preparing…

  5. An Evaluation of the Implementation of the Educational Reform in Kwara State: A Case Study of the Primary School Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulrasaq Oladimeji, Akanbi; Ibrahim, I. A.; Adebayo, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the educational reform going on in Kwara State, Nigeria. One thousand six hundred 1600 teachers were selected from the 3 senatorial districts of Kwara State using simple random sampling technique. A researcher- designed questionnaire andchecklist were developed to collect relevant data on the educational reform going on in the state. Frequency count and the percentage were employed in analyzing the data collected. The results of the study revealed that the organizational set up, textbooks, procedure for the selection of the curriculum and teachers were quite appropriate. Instructional materials and utilization of human and material resources were moderately appropriate.Space and furniture for teaching was adjudged inadequate. It was recommended that more classroom, furniture and textbooks should be provided in the areas they are lacking and a learner-centred teaching method should be embraced in all schools.

  6. The Transition of Youth with Disabilities from the Child Welfare System: An Analysis of State Administrative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Katharine Miller

    2010-01-01

    Youth with disabilities are disproportionately represented in the child welfare system (Crosse, Kaye, & Ratnofsky, 1992; Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Although research on this topic is limited, youth with disabilities who are emancipating from foster care are at risk for particularly poor outcomes, experiencing even lower rates of employment,…

  7. The View from 1999: A Welfare Fantasy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olasky, Marvin

    1995-01-01

    This fantasy looks back from 1999 to chronicle the imagined scenario of welfare reform in the presidency of Forrest Gump (and the vice-presidency of William Bennett). The decline in government assistance is matched by an increase in private sources of aid and a heightened sense of personal responsibility among Americans. (SLD)

  8. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as policy and strategy for social work action in child welfare in the United States.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, James L

    2012-01-01

    The United States and Somalia are the only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Opposition in the United States stems from the CRC's demand for a cultural change in how a society cares for children and a political hesitancy to become involved in binding international agreements. An earlier analysis for understanding the CRC is reviewed and replaced with one that uses a policy analysis model. This new model provides a basis for uniform child welfare policy and strategy throughout the nation. Although NASW has been supportive, it has not actively studied the consequences of implementation of the CRC, nor has it incorporated the CRC into its policy statements as a fundamental tenet. This article recommends that the NASW use the CRC as a basis for all child welfare policy statements and reference the CRS in future articles on child welfare issues. It also urges social workers to become politically active on behalf of the CRC to achieve ratification. Finally, it recommends a national committee to not only coordinate efforts toward ratification, but also oversee implementation of the CRC once it is ratified. PMID:22768625

  9. Welfare Policies and Adolescents: Exploring the Roles of Sibling Care, Maternal Work Schedules, and Economic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, JoAnn; Gennetian, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from three longitudinal experimental evaluations of US state welfare reform programs to examine whether program-induced changes in families’ reliance on sibling care are linked with the effects of welfare programs on selected schooling outcomes of high risk, low-income adolescents. The findings from two of the welfare programs indicate that increased reliance on sibling care was concomitant with unfavorable effects of the programs on adolescent schooling outcomes. In the third welfare program examined, the program did not yield any increases in the use of sibling care or unfavorable effects on adolescent schooling outcomes, suggesting that sibling care is one likely contributor to the negative effects of welfare programs on adolescent schooling outcomes. These findings are discussed in terms of the pattern of the programs’ effects on families’ income, as well as maternal work on nonstandard schedules, aside from the programs’ effects on maternal employment, which play contributory roles in shaping the extent to which welfare programs led to less favorable effects on the schooling outcomes of adolescents with younger siblings. PMID:21347556

  10. Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Wood, R.A.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-08-15

    A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: (1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; (2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and (3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

  11. Children's Budget Watch: Investments in Our Future. A Profile of State and Federal Spending for Children in Pennsylvania, FY 1989-1990 through FY 1995-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children, Harrisburg.

    This report profiles trends in state and federal spending for children in Pennsylvania from fiscal year (FY) 1989-1990 through 1995-1996, and highlights budgetary trends and the impact of federal welfare reform on selected children's health, nutrition, early care and education, elementary and secondary education, income support, and child welfare…

  12. Recent Changes in Washington Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 6. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Terri S.; Snyder, Kathleen; Malm, Karin; O'Brien, Carolyn

    This brief examines changes in Washington's welfare-to-work, child care, and child welfare systems since 1997, presenting information from visits to Washington in 1999 and 2000. It profiles Washington's demographic, economic, and political conditions, reviewing its income support and social services systems and highlighting recent changes,…

  13. Equity in the distribution of health and welfare services: can we rely on the state to reverse the 'inverse care law?'.

    PubMed

    Smith, C J

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that the fiscal crises experienced in many industrial nations has been made worse by the drain on the state's economy of an ever-growing welfare state. Proposals to decentralize funding for health and welfare services, and to rely more on local, private, and 'grass roots' services, have been received enthusiastically. The question raised in this paper is whether the shift away from provision by the state will bring about a more or less equitable distribution of resources. The paper considers the spatial distribution of treatment services for two groups of the population who have become largely dependent on the state: namely, the mentally ill and alcoholics. The results suggest that as the federal government withdraws from the provision of services, neither the states nor the localities can be relied on to guarantee a minimum level of services to the truly needy. In the case of alcoholism services there is also some question about whether 'grass-roots' provision would be sufficiently responsive to the distribution of needs. PMID:3823972

  14. Political economy of coal-mine safety and its contribution to the theory of the welfare state

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Conservative, liberal, and marxist explanations of the origins and function of social welfare benefits are identified. The conservatives see defined right benefits as error in the system, resulting from excesses of political democracy and functioning to interfere with the market, and functioning to reduce the viability of the economy. Individual action alone produces real benefit. Liberals disconnect social welfare and the economy, offering an explanation in formal electoral processes and asserting fulfillment of the humanitarian impulse as the function of welfare. Technical innovation leads to progress. This study tests these theories in a case study of the benefit of decreased death and injury derived by U.S. coal miners from 1970 to 1977. The benefit is compared in magnitude to that of miners other than coal. Results show that a considerable benefit in reduced death and injury was derived and that this benefit can best explained through a complex neo-marxist analysis of the economic and social conditions affecting coal miners then. Wildcat strikes, defying union, company and, government combined with permissive economic conditions such as, rising demand for coal, labor intensity requirements, and increased production and profitability, to make safety salient.

  15. Adapting Systems of Care for Child Welfare Practice with Immigrant Latino Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettlaff, Alan J.; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reform efforts in the child welfare system have called for child welfare agencies to provide community-based services and to increase the involvement of external stakeholders in identifying and developing services within the community. At the same time, child welfare agencies are faced with the challenge of providing services to an…

  16. Teaching Note-CASA Volunteerism: Preparing MSW Students for Public Child Welfare Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrick, Jill Duerr; Durst, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reform public child welfare systems across the nation, Title IV-E child welfare training programs were established over 2 decades ago. Participating students typically engage in a customized educational experience as part of their MSW program that prepares them to work in the field of child welfare upon graduation. This article…

  17. Teaching Note-CASA Volunteerism: Preparing MSW Students for Public Child Welfare Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrick, Jill Duerr; Durst, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reform public child welfare systems across the nation, Title IV-E child welfare training programs were established over 2 decades ago. Participating students typically engage in a customized educational experience as part of their MSW program that prepares them to work in the field of child welfare upon graduation. This article…

  18. Importing the Poor: Welfare Magnetism and Cross-Border Welfare Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Human Resources, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A study of the welfare programs in two counties bordering different states along with comparative welfare expenditure in interior counties tests the theory that Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients migrate to counties which have a higher per capita welfare budget. Research shows that border counties with a $100 differential…

  19. The Small State, Markets and Tertiary Education Reform in a Globalised Knowledge Economy: Decoding Policy Texts in Botswana's Tertiary Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polelo, Mompati Mino

    2009-01-01

    A number of global discourses have gained currency in national education policies. The need to reform education systems is coated in economic terms, the rationale of which is efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. Education is assigned the task of producing a competitive workforce in the global market. In these reforms, education is…

  20. The Small State, Markets and Tertiary Education Reform in a Globalised Knowledge Economy: Decoding Policy Texts in Botswana's Tertiary Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polelo, Mompati Mino

    2009-01-01

    A number of global discourses have gained currency in national education policies. The need to reform education systems is coated in economic terms, the rationale of which is efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. Education is assigned the task of producing a competitive workforce in the global market. In these reforms, education is…

  1. The current state of health care in the former Soviet Union: implications for health care policy and reform.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A; Field, M G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Given the many profound health care problems facing Russia and the other former Soviet republics, there are a number of fundamental policy questions that deserve close attention as part of the reform process. METHODS. Summary data regarding Soviet health care issues were drawn from government agency reports, scholarly books and journals, recent press reports, and the authors' personal research. RESULTS. Smoking, alcohol, accidents, poor sanitation, inadequate nutrition, and extensive environmental pollution contribute to illness and premature mortality in Russia and the other newly independent states. Hospitals and clinics are poorly maintained and equipped; most physicians are poorly trained and inadequately paid; and there is essentially no system of quality management. While efforts at reform, which emphasize shifting to a system of "insurance medicine," have been largely unsuccessful, they have raised several important policy issues that warrant extensive research and discussion. CONCLUSIONS. Without considering the implications and consequences of alternative policy directions, Russia and the other states face the very real possibility of developing health care systems that improve the overall level of care but also incorporate limited access and escalating costs. Russian health care reform leaders can learn from the health care successes in the West and avoid repeating our mistakes. PMID:8604753

  2. A qualitative analysis of the impact of the reform of the College of Science undergraduate core curriculum at State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballotti, Dean

    The Dean of the College of Science at State University, a large public Midwestern research university, in a memo to the faculty and staff initiated what he called a "review" of the undergraduate science core curriculum. He formed a task force that was to investigate on three issues; a reassessment of the undergraduate core curriculum, the recruitment and retention of qualified undergraduate students with an emphasis on diversity, and strategies that would address these issues. The age of the curriculum, 40 years since the last significant change, was an important factor in the review of the curriculum. This qualitative study seeks to understand how a group of four administrators and five faculty, all from the College of Science, participated in the task force, perceived the old curriculum, and perceived the changes made and the resulting new curriculum. They were also asked to rank both the prior and new curricula. As part of an ongoing theme in higher education they were also asked if they thought the changes made to the curriculum qualified as reform and why or why not. This resulted in a discussion of what a reform might look like at State University and ultimately a definition of reform.

  3. Constraints on the retreat from a welfare-orientated approach to public health care in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, S

    1999-04-01

    Both in its articulation of values and through incremental changes, the Malaysian government has signalled a change in attitude towards the welfare approach which had hitherto characterized public health care policy. This change envisions an end to reliance upon the state for the provision and financing of health services and the fostering of a system of family-based welfare. In the future citizens should finance their own health care through savings, insurance or as part of their terms of employment. While the state will still accept a degree of responsibility for those unable to pay for their health care, it wishes to share this burden with the corporate sector and non-government organizations as part of a national policy of the 'Caring Society'. In this article the retreat from a commitment to a welfare model of public health care is documented and some of the serious obstacles to such a policy are discussed. It is concluded that the government's aspirations for reforming the welfare model will need to be tempered by both practical and political considerations. Moreover, the socio-economic consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997 are likely to increase the need for government welfare action. PMID:10387810

  4. Health Care Reform: Out Greatest Opportunity...Ever!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keigher, Sharon M.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses inevitability of health care reform in United States, considers the reform process itself, and explains the plan of the President's Task Force on National Health Care Reform. Also considers the prospects for Congressional response to reform proposals. (NB)

  5. Reforming Science: Structural Reforms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Science has a critical role to play in addressing humanity's most important challenges in the twenty-first century. However, the contemporary scientific enterprise has developed in ways that prevent it from reaching maximum effectiveness and detract from the appeal of a research career. To be effective, the methodological and culture reforms discussed in the accompanying essay must be accompanied by fundamental structural reforms that include a renewed vigorous societal investment in science and scientists. PMID:22184420

  6. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Timothy P.; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent’s personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes. PMID:26554361

  7. Animal welfare at the group level: more than the sum of individual welfare?

    PubMed

    Ohl, F; Putman, R J

    2014-03-01

    Currently assessment and management of animal welfare are based on the supposition that welfare status is something experienced identically by each individual animal when exposed to the same conditions. However, many authors argue that individual welfare cannot be seen as an 'objective' state, but is based on the animal's own self-perception; such perception might vary significantly between individuals which appear to be exposed to exactly the same challenges. We argue that this has two implications: (1) actual perceived welfare status of individuals in a population may vary over a wide range even under identical environmental conditions; (2) animals that appear to an external observer to be in better or poorer welfare condition may all in fact perceive their own individual status as the same. This would imply that optimum welfare of a social group might be achieved in situations where individual group members differ markedly in apparent welfare status and perceive their own welfare as being optimal under differing circumstances. Welfare phenotypes may also vary along a continuum between self-regarding and other-regarding behaviour; a variety of situations exist where (social) individuals appear to invest in the welfare of other individuals instead of maximising their own welfare; in such a case it is necessary to re-evaluate individual welfare within the context of a social group and recognise that there may be consequences for the welfare of individuals, of decisions made at the group level or by other group members. PMID:24114179

  8. State of Transition: Post-Apartheid Educational Reform in South Africa. Monographs in International Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Clive

    This book reviews the major dimensions of post-apartheid educational change and continuity in South Africa since 1994. It sets educational reform in the context of the nature of the anti-apartheid struggle inside South Africa and in the global economic environment in which South Africa re-entered the world stage as a legitimate actor. Recognizing…

  9. Elite Power and Educational Reform: An Historiographical Analysis of Canada and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I reopen some of the seminal theoretical debates among critical scholars on the nature of educational reform, arguing that there has been a consistent tendency in the literature to dismiss or downplay the significance of "instrumentalist" analyses in favour of cultural/hegemonic and structuralist explanations. As a result,…

  10. Elite Power and Educational Reform: An Historiographical Analysis of Canada and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I reopen some of the seminal theoretical debates among critical scholars on the nature of educational reform, arguing that there has been a consistent tendency in the literature to dismiss or downplay the significance of "instrumentalist" analyses in favour of cultural/hegemonic and structuralist explanations. As a result,…

  11. Reforming Long-Term Care in the United States: Findings from a National Survey of Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward Alan; Mor, Vincent; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Theories of the policy process recognize that policy proposals are typically generated, debated, redrafted, and accepted for consideration through the gradual accumulation of knowledge within communities of specialists. Thus, to inform long-term care (LTC) reform efforts, we conducted a Web-based survey of 1,147 LTC specialists…

  12. Reforming Long-Term Care in the United States: Findings from a National Survey of Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward Alan; Mor, Vincent; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Theories of the policy process recognize that policy proposals are typically generated, debated, redrafted, and accepted for consideration through the gradual accumulation of knowledge within communities of specialists. Thus, to inform long-term care (LTC) reform efforts, we conducted a Web-based survey of 1,147 LTC specialists…

  13. Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Yuan, Kun

    2008-01-01

    Although becoming widespread, especially in view of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and without a universally-accepted definition, most discussions of standards-based reforms (SBR) include certain commonalities, including: (1) Academic expectations for students; (2) Alignment of key elements of the educational system to promote attainment of these…

  14. Employment and earnings trends during a period of regulatory reform in the United States electricity sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederjohn, Matthew Scott

    This paper examines trends in employment and earnings in the U.S. electricity sector during a period of regulatory reform. Econometric models are specified using a large data set of individual employees from the Current Population Survey. OLS earnings estimations find no evidence of an adverse effect on employee earnings during the period of regulatory reform, even after correction for sample selectivity bias using the Heckman two-step approach. In fact, earnings premiums in the electricity sector have increased over the period of regulatory reform. Probit models do find strong evidence that declines in the probability of electricity sector employment, for many occupations, have occurred during the regulatory reform period. These findings deviate significantly from other restructured industries, with the electricity sector being the first industry to show significant employment declines associated with regulatory reform. Using the Blinder-Oaxaca technique, earnings premiums are calculated for electricity sector employees by occupation. These earnings differential variables are found to have a significant negative impact on employment for a number of occupations. Lastly, a longitudinal analysis is used to examine the experiences of electricity sector workers who leave this industry for new employment. This longitudinal procedure allows for analyzing whether electricity sector earnings premiums depict a compensating differential. While the sample size for this analysis is small, an examination of the mean wages of the employees that made an industry change from the electricity sector suggest they continue to receive high earnings in their new positions. These findings suggest that electric utilities, either unable or unwilling to cut employee earnings, have chosen to become more competitive in a deregulated environment through employment actions.

  15. Steering without navigation equipment: the lamentable state of Australian health policy reform

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Commentary on health policy reform in Australia often commences with an unstated logical error: Australians' health is good, therefore the Australian Health System is good. This possibly explains the disconnect between the options discussed, the areas needing reform and the generally self-congratulatory tone of the discussion: a good system needs (relatively) minor improvement. Results This paper comments on some issues of particular concern to Australian health policy makers and some areas needing urgent reform. The two sets of issues do not overlap. It is suggested that there are two fundamental reasons for this. The first is the failure to develop governance structures which promote the identification and resolution of problems according to their importance. The second and related failure is the failure to equip the health services industry with satisfactory navigation equipment - independent research capacity, independent reporting and evaluation - on a scale commensurate with the needs of the country's largest industry. These two failures together deprive the health system - as a system - of the chief driver of progress in every successful industry in the 20th Century. Conclusion Concluding comment is made on the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission (NHHRC). This continued the tradition of largely evidence free argument and decision making. It failed to identify and properly analyse major system failures, the reasons for them and the form of governance which would maximise the likelihood of future error leaning. The NHHRC itself failed to error learn from past policy failures, a key lesson from which is that a major - and possibly the major - obstacle to reform, is government itself. The Commission virtually ignored the issue of governance. The endorsement of a monopolised system, driven by benevolent managers will miss the major lesson of history which is illustrated by Australia's own failures. PMID:19948044

  16. The Administration's Education Reform Proposal. Hearing on Examining the Administration's Proposal To Reform the National Education System before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Senator Edward M. Kennedy, chairman of the committee, opened the hearing by commending President Bush and U.S. Department of Education Secretary Lamar Alexander for putting forward an education reform plan. Kennedy then stated his reservations: the plan does not devote enough attention to school readiness; the administration emphasizes choice as a…

  17. Reforming and Consolidating Federal Job Training Programs. Hearing on Examining Proposals To Reform and Consolidate Federal Job Training Programs, before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This hearing is a continuation of a bipartisan effort to consolidate, reform, and revitalize federally funded job training programs. Testimony includes statements of U.S. senators and individuals representing the following: National Association of State Job Training Coordinating Council and Human Resource Investment Council; American Federation of…

  18. State, District, and School Implementation of Reforms Promoted under the Recovery Act: 2009-10 through 2011-12. The Final Report from Charting the Progress of Education Reform: An Evaluation of the Recovery Act's Role. NCEE 2015-4016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troppe, Patricia; Milanowski, Anthony; Garrison-Mogren, Roberta; Webber, Ann; Gutmann, Babette; Reisner, Elizabeth; Goertz, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This report, based on surveys completed by all 50 State Education Agencies (SEAs) and the District of Columbia (DC) and nationally representative samples of districts and schools during spring 2011 and 2012, examines implementation of the key education reform strategies promoted by the Recovery Act in 2011-12, the extent to which implementation…

  19. State Implementation of Reforms Promoted under the Recovery Act. A Report from Charting the Progress of Education Reform: An Evaluation of the Recovery Act's Role. NCEE 2014-4011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Ann; Troppe, Patricia; Milanowski, Anthony; Gutmann, Babette; Reisner, Elizabeth; Goertz, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA or the Recovery Act) of 2009 provided an unprecedented level of funding for K-12 education. The program created a "historic opportunity to save hundreds of thousands of jobs, support states and school districts, and advance reforms and improvements that will create long-lasting results for our…

  20. "We are talking about saving lives": the welfare state, health care policy, and nongovernability--a case study of an Israeli Hospital.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nissim

    2013-01-01

    Literature about welfare states worldwide, and specifically in Israel, emphasizes economic and political variables and the importance of ideology in explaining a given social policy in those societies. According to this literature, ideology and strategic long-term goals account for the waning of the Israeli welfare state since the 1970s. At the same time, for upwards of a decade, the literature dealing with Israeli public policy has emphasized that Israeli society suffers from a crisis of "nongovernability" and a political culture that is characterized by illegality. The author defines nongovernability as the inability to formulate public policy and implement it effectively over time. In such an environment, long-term strategic considerations based on a coherent ideology take a back seat to short-term considerations in the conduct of the various players in the public policy arena. The author discusses the building of a hospital in Ashdod as a case study in nongovernability. The hospital's construction was steeped in political intrigue based wholly on short-term considerations and was built in a political culture characterized by either illegality or outright rejection of the law. This behavior is characteristic of Israeli politicians, bureaucrats, and interest groups. The author maintains that the creation of this hospital is emblematic of the Israeli health care policy overall, a policy shaped by bottom-up processes whose defining characteristic is a political culture based on illegality and narrow, short-term interests. PMID:23944172

  1. Developmental logics: Brain science, child welfare, and the ethics of engagement in Japan.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Kathryn E

    2015-10-01

    This article explores the unintended consequences of the ways scholars and activists take up the science of child development to critique the Japanese child welfare system. Since World War II, Japan has depended on a system of child welfare institutions (baby homes and children's homes) to care for state wards. Opponents of institutional care advocate instead for family foster care and adoption, and cite international research on the developmental harms of institutionalizing newborns and young children during the "critical period" of the first few years. The "critical period" is understood as the time during which the caregiving a child receives shapes neurological development and later capacity to build interpersonal relationships. These discourses appear to press compellingly for system reform, the proof resting on seemingly objective knowledge about child development. However, scientific evidence of harm is often mobilized in tandem with arguments that the welfare system is rooted in Japanese culture, suggesting durability and resistance to change. Further, reform efforts that use universalizing child science as "proof" of the need for change are prone to slip into deterministic language that pathologizes the experiences of people who grew up in the system. This article explores the reasons why deterministic models of child development, rather than more open-ended models like neuroplasticity, dominate activist rhetorics. It proposes a concept, "ethics of engagement," to advocate for attention to multiple scales and domains through which interpersonal ties are experienced and embodied over time. Finally, it suggests the possibility of child welfare reform movements that take seriously the need for caring and transformative relationships throughout life, beyond the first "critical years," that do not require deterministic logics of permanent delay or damage. PMID:25530189

  2. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take, for example, the various SSI's statements of "good educational practice." Most SSI's began their initiatives by establishing clear goals for what students should know and be able to do, reflecting the emergence of a national consensus for broad standards for just about every aspect of the educational process. The concerned persons in each SSI--policy-makers, educators, mathematicians, and scientists--have not necessarily reached the same conclusions about what children should learn or even what efforts are needed to put the necessary changes in place, but they are focused on common goals as expressed locally. The recent national dialogues about goals and standards have provided the basis for a remarkably consistent image of what states--at least the SSI states--consider good educational practice. The differences that do occur across states reflect variations in demographics, geography, resources, values, and educational structure. All the states with SSI's, regardless of their primary strategy, have address the professional development of teachers. Collectively, the SSI's reported that professional development services were provided to more than 50,000 teachers during the past year, which is approximately eight percent of the public school teachers in the participating states. The number of teachers participating varied by grade level and subject matter. Some states, for example, reported reaching more than one in every five middle-school mathematics teachers, but only one in every 20 high-school mathematics teachers. Focusing SSI resources on the professional development of classroom teachers implies changing their skill levels, knowledge, and beliefs. Attitudes and perceptions of administrators also changed in the process. The challenge lies in developing a strategy that provides on-going, in-depth professional development that reaches a significant portion of those who teach mathematics and the sciences. Not only must an effective development model(s), be provided, the infrastructure to accommodate all teachers must be created as well. Most states' strategies include building statewide capacity for professional development beyond the opportunities sponsored directly by the SSI's. Three factors are explicitly recognized: (1) the SSI's do not have the resources to reach all teachers in most states, (2) the SSI's funding will eventually run out, and (3) the need for professional development will be on-going. Some states have developed regional centers to serve the on-going professional development needs of teachers. Another capacity-building strategy involves the use of technology to support teachers' efforts to change their practices. New non-governmental organizations are also playing key leadership roles in a number of states. Such organizations are of particular interest because they have the potential to build broad-based, bipartisan support that can sustain the SSI vision and its activities across electoral cycles. One of the central tenets of systematic reform is the alignment of the myriad of public policies governing the educational enterprise, from teacher credentiality to student assessment to textbook adoption, with the new goals and standards. In localities where the revision of state policies is simply not considered a fruitful strategy, strong traditions of local control are to be found. Some SSI's are working to improve the preparation of teachers. A common strategy has been to issue a request for proposals (RFP) to institutions for higher education to design and implement innovative pre-service teacher education programs. Scientists and mathematicians can have an enormous impact on this aspect of the SSI's mission, by becoming intimately involved in the development of courses that are meaningful for would-be teachers. This is the area where scientists and mathematicians can leverage their technical knowledge and skills to help educate teachers. Creating and sustaining a coalition of groups powerful enough to launch fundamental reforms in public education is challenging. The coalition must be able to reach consensus on a vision of reform and, then, sustain the reform over an extended period of time. This is not easy when power and authority are highly fragmented (and perhaps at odds), where interest groups live or die on confromtation politics, when public and private sectors exhibit a basic distrust of one another, and when everyone is an expert--real or imagined--on topics more-or-less related to education. In addition, the SSI's are operating in a turbulent climate. Policy makers may be working on standards-based reforms in K-12 education at the same time they are seeking efficiencies in state government, consider deregulation, and experiment with integrated social services. Criminal justice, health, and welfare are competing in state capitols for the resources required to bring about education reforms. And, within this shifting policy landscape, the SSI's are seeking higher priority for mathematics and science, as well as attempting to develop the infrastructure and capacity to support change in the schools. Simply keeping mathematics and science education high on the agenda of state policy-makers is a challenge. Each of these component strategies of the SSI's is important. The critical question is whether, in a given state, the SSI strategies, when combined with other state reform initiatives, form a coherent, comprehensive plan for improving public education. While the oldest of the SSI's are only in their fourth year of activity, it is already clear that the reforms they are seeking will take longer than five years to accomplish. (The SSI's are supported by five-year grants from the NSF.) The instructional reforms advocated by the SSI's require time to implement, and once in place, additional time to produce results. Elected officials often focus on the short-term, and they can become impatient when the results are slow. There appears to be no ready solution to the conflict between the long-run agendas of school reforms and the short-term needs of legislators. This is clearly a race for long-distance runners.

  3. The State of America's Children Yearbook: 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weill, James D., Ed.; Jablonski, Donna M., Ed.

    This Children's Defense Fund 1997 report on the state of America's children highlights the critical need for renewed commitment to children by all sectors of society. The introduction discusses Americans' values and presents 25 tips for effective child advocacy. The report then details the following: (1) the impact of welfare reform on children…

  4. Reform: To What End?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The author looks at school reform in light of his experiences documenting effective public education in classrooms across the United States. Observing in an inner-city 1st grade classroom, he sees a teacher who is knowledgeable, resourceful, and particularly effective with her students. He notes that none of the current high-profile reform ideas…

  5. Reform: To What End?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The author looks at school reform in light of his experiences documenting effective public education in classrooms across the United States. Observing in an inner-city 1st grade classroom, he sees a teacher who is knowledgeable, resourceful, and particularly effective with her students. He notes that none of the current high-profile reform ideas…

  6. Do training programs help AFDC recipients leave the welfare rolls? An evaluation of New York City's BEGIN (Begin Employment Gain Independence Now) program.

    PubMed

    Angelo, L; March, J A

    1997-01-01

    Guided by the Federal Family Support Act of 1988 and the Job Opportunity and Basic Skills Program (JOBS), welfare reform initiatives on state and local levels were designed to foster employability among the public assistance population. Reform has focused on enhancing the supply of labor rather than the demand for labor as a route to labor force participation for the public assistance population. Program reforms assume that, by providing job training, educational services, and training-related expenses, labor market entry of the participating clientele would be facilitated while caseloads and public expenditures would decline. To date, analysis of similar programs in many states indicates that the impact of such programs in reducing public assistance caseloads is marginal. In New York City, despite the large investment of public funds in such programs, prior to this study the outcome of program implementation remained largely unknown. This study evaluates New York City's BEGIN program outcome target defined as the ability of the program to move welfare clients off public assistance and into the labor market. While the results of the study indicate that New York City's BEGIN program does not improve client's odds of leaving welfare, when compared to the odds of a non-participation client, there are several significant findings. The impact of program participation can be distinguished among distinct age groups. While older clients responded positively to BEGIN participation, access to day care was the only factor that significantly improved the probability that clients younger than 36 years of age would leave the welfare rolls within a two-year period. In response to the findings, the researchers suggest that future welfare reform efforts should grant localities broader flexibility to determine their own target population so that resources can be allocated to those groups that are most likely to benefit from specific programs. PMID:10177354

  7. The Health Care System Under French National Health Insurance: Lessons for Health Reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rodwin, Victor G.

    2003-01-01

    The French health system combines universal coverage with a public–private mix of hospital and ambulatory care and a higher volume of service provision than in the United States. Although the system is far from perfect, its indicators of health status and consumer satisfaction are high; its expenditures, as a share of gross domestic product, are far lower than in the United States; and patients have an extraordinary degree of choice among providers. Lessons for the United States include the importance of government’s role in providing a statutory framework for universal health insurance; recognition that piecemeal reform can broaden a partial program (like Medicare) to cover, eventually, the entire population; and understanding that universal coverage can be achieved without excluding private insurers from the supplementary insurance market. PMID:12511380

  8. Emerging Lessons From Regional and State Innovation in Value-Based Payment Reform: Balancing Collaboration and Disruptive Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Douglas A; Grembowski, David; Hernandez, Susan E; Lau, Bernard; Marcus-Smith, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Policy Points: Public and private purchasersmust create a "burning bridge" of countervailing pressure that signals "no turning back" to fee-for-service in order to sustain the momentum for value-based payment. Multi-stakeholder coalitions must establish a defined set of quality, outcomes, and cost performance measures and the interoperable information systems to support data collection and reporting of value-based payment schemes. Anti-trust vigilance is necessary to find the "sweet spot" of competition and cooperation among health plans and health care providers. Provider and health plan transparency of price and quality, supported by all-payer claims data, are critical in driving value-based payment innovation and cost constraint. Context In recent decades, practitioners and policymakers have turned to value-based payment initiatives to help contain spending on health care and to improve the quality of care. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded 7 grantees across the country to design and implement value-based, multistakeholder payment reform projects in 6 states and 3 regions of the United States. Methods As the external evaluator of these projects, we reviewed documents, conducted Internet searches, interviewed key stakeholders, cross-validated factual and narrative interpretation, and performed qualitative analyses to derive cross-site themes and implications for policy and practice. Findings The nature of payment reform and its momentum closely reflects the environmental context of each project. Federal legislation such as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and federal and state support for the development of the patient-centered medical home and accountable care organizations encourage value-based payment innovation, as do local market conditions for payers and providers that combine a history of collaboration with independent innovation and experimentation by individual organizations. Multistakeholder coalitions offer a useful facilitating structure for galvanizing payment reform. But to achieve the objectives of reduced cost and improved quality, multistakeholder payment innovation must overcome such barriers as incompatible information systems, the technical difficulties and transaction costs of altering existing billing and payment systems, competing stakeholder priorities, insufficient scale to bear population health risk, providers’ limited experience with risk-bearing payment models, and the failure to align care delivery models with the form of payment. Conclusions From the evidence adduced in this article, multistakeholder, value-based payment reform requires a trusted, widely respected “honest broker” that can convene and maintain the ongoing commitment of health plans, providers, and purchasers. Change management is complex and challenging, and coalition governance requires flexibility and stable leadership, as market conditions and stakeholder engagement and priorities shift over time. Another significant facilitator of value-based payment reform is outside investment that enables increased investment in human resources, information infrastructure, and care management by provider organizations and their collaborators. Supportive community and social service networks that enhance population health management also are important enablers of value-based payment reform. External pressure from public and private payers is fueling a “burning bridge” between the past of fee-for-service payment models and the future of payments based on value. Robust competition in local health plan and provider markets, coupled with an appropriate mix of multistakeholder governance, pressure from organized purchasers, and regulatory oversight, has the potential to spur value-based payment innovation that combines elements of “reformed” fee-for-service with bundled payments and global payments. PMID:25199900

  9. Kudzu, Rabbits, and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlad, John I.

    2002-01-01

    Essay on school reform argues that quality teachers are key to successful reform, not reform rhetoric by state governors and U.S. Presidents. Asserts that primary mission of schooling is to provide students an educational apprenticeship in democracy. Qualified, caring, competent teachers are essential to accomplish this mission. (PKP)

  10. The American Welfare System and Family Structure: An Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moehling, Carolyn M.

    2007-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies find a positive relationship between a state's welfare benefits and single motherhood. But is this evidence of a "welfare effect" or rather of cross state differences in social attitudes that influence both policy and behavior? This paper demonstrates that the spatial variation in welfare policy long preceded the spatial…

  11. Do Generous Welfare States Generate Efficiency Gains Which Counterbalance Short Run Losses? Testing Downside Risk Theory with Economic Panel Data for the U.S., Germany and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce; Muffels, Ruud

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the theory that the downside risk insurance provided by more generous welfare states generates long run efficiency gains, which counterbalance the short run efficiency losses caused by work disincentives in these states (Feldstein 1974, 1976; Sinn 1995, 1996). Testing downside risk theory requires long term…

  12. Do Generous Welfare States Generate Efficiency Gains Which Counterbalance Short Run Losses? Testing Downside Risk Theory with Economic Panel Data for the U.S., Germany and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce; Muffels, Ruud

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the theory that the downside risk insurance provided by more generous welfare states generates long run efficiency gains, which counterbalance the short run efficiency losses caused by work disincentives in these states (Feldstein 1974, 1976; Sinn 1995, 1996). Testing downside risk theory requires long term…

  13. Hen Welfare in Different Housing Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg production systems have become subject to heightened levels of scrutiny due to animal welfare concerns. Multiple factors such as disease, skeletal and foot health, pest and parasite load, behavior, stress, affective states, nutrition, and genetics influence the level of welfare laying hens exper...

  14. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  15. Phantom Welfare: Public Relief for Corporate America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Daniel D.; Johnson, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes and quantifies major types of federal subsidies to American businesses, calling subsidies important policies that directly affect more traditional welfare programs. Notes that policies responsible for "phantom welfare state" represent major redistribution of wealth that partially accounts for growing gap between rich and poor. Discusses…

  16. Coordinating Welfare and Substance Abuse Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jan

    2002-01-01

    State welfare agencies increasingly face the challenge of serving a caseload with multiple barriers to employment. For example, a significant proportion of clients may have substance abuse problems that hamper their ability to participate in required activities and move toward self-sufficiency. Coordinating and integrating welfare and substance…

  17. Brief report: the influence of posttraumatic stress on unprotected sex among sexually active adolescent girls and boys involved in the child welfare system of the United States.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E

    2013-10-01

    While posttraumatic stress (PTS) has been positively associated with risky sexual behavior (RSB) among adult women, there is a paucity of research examining PTS in relation to RSB among adolescent girls and boys. This study aimed to replicate findings among adult women with sexually active adolescents (179 females and 106 males) involved in a national study of children in the United States child welfare system. After controlling for age and the complex study design, sexually active adolescent girls with clinically significant PTS symptoms were more than seven times more likely than those without such symptoms to report unprotected intercourse. In contrast, sexually active adolescent boys with clinically significant PTS symptoms were less likely than those without such symptoms to report unprotected intercourse. Research is needed to 1) understand the mechanisms linking PTS and RSB, 2) further explore gender differences reported here, and 3) inform RSB interventions in this high-risk population. PMID:24011099

  18. Hospital contributory schemes and the NHS debates 1937-46: the rejection of social insurance in the British welfare state?

    PubMed

    Gorsky, Martin; Mohan, J; Willis, T

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the discussion and rejection of social insurance model of funding for the British National Health Service. Specifically it asks why the hospital contributory scheme movement had so little impact on policy debates in the 1940s. We argue that at the start of the policy-making process serious consideration was given to the incorporation of this mode of funding, not least because the contributory schemes, with some ten million members, played a major role in financing existing voluntary hospital provision. Early sections describe the growth and nature of the schemes, noting that, despite their large working-class constituency and the presence of labour movement representatives amongst their leadership, they remained peripheral to discussion of reform in the interwar period. We then trace the emergence of the proposal for an insurance-based 'hotel-charge' in civil servants' discussions about hospital funding the Beveridge Report. Officials, however, remained sceptical about the contributory schemes' capacity to deliver a comprehensive and efficient funding mechanism, given their lack of uniformity, the gaps in their coverage, and the limited progress of reciprocal arrangements between them. Finally, we note the ineffectiveness of the British Hospital Contributory Schemes Association as a player in the policy community. Its leadership had no clear strategy for influencing events and was reluctant to deploy pressure group tactics such as lobbying through the press or parliament. Crucially, the movement was divided internally between those members who supported the voluntary system and others who welcomed a publicly funded health service. PMID:16075492

  19. Race and the local politics of punishment in the new world of welfare.

    PubMed

    Fording, Richard C; Soss, Joe; Schram, Sanford F

    2011-03-01

    To illuminate how race affects the usage of punitive tools in policy implementation settings, we analyze sanctions imposed for noncompliant client behavior under welfare reform. Drawing on a model of racial classification and policy choice, we test four hypotheses regarding client race, local context, and sanctioning. Based on longitudinal and cross-sectional multilevel analyses of individual-level administrative data, we find that race plays a significant role in shaping sanction implementation. Its effects, however, are highly contingent on client characteristics, local political contexts, and the degree to which state governments devolve policy control to local officials. PMID:21675307

  20. Challenges in assessing fish welfare.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Gilson L

    2009-01-01

    Descriptions of feeling states in nonhuman animals have relied on indirect evidence from empirical data. Assumptions that fish do not experience suffering lack evidence and in fact contradict a large body of indirect scientific evidence and ethical concern. Why should the burden of proof rest on those defending the hypothesis that fish feel pain and other discomfort? In this article I address this controversy and describe typical methodsand the problems associated with themto identify animal welfare (feeling-based, physiological, and behavioral approaches intended to demonstrate feelings and welfare states). Then I urge a shift in scientific focus from efforts to either identify an internal state of well-being or determine whether an organism suffers, to efforts to identify conditions that promote a "good state" for an animal (i.e., a state it would choose). For this approach, I discuss preference tests and their implications for scientific research, teaching, aquarism, and fishing. PMID:19949249

  1. Do Family Caps on Welfare Affect Births among Welfare Recipients? Reconciling Efficacy and Effectiveness Estimates of Impact through a Blended Design Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagannathan, Radha; Camasso, Michael J.; Killingsworth, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a blended experimental and quasi-experimental research strategy which we believe will help improve the external validity of evaluations of welfare reform and other social policies. We draw upon data from New Jersey's imposition of a family cap, where welfare benefits instead of increasing remained the same for women who…

  2. Health insurance: an eye on American welfare.

    PubMed

    Draper, J

    1980-02-15

    One of the great myths about the United States is that it does not have a welfare state. The myth is largely founded on the fact that America is one of the few remaining western nations with no national health insurance scheme to protect its citizens against the crippling costs of medical and hospital care. However, that does not mean that the United States does not have an extensive welfare system, writes John Draper. PMID:10245813

  3. The Legal Rights of LGBT Youth in State Custody: What Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Professionals Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Rudy; Marksamer, Jody

    2006-01-01

    Youth in state custody, regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity, have federal and state constitutional and statutory rights. These rights guarantee a young person safety in their placement as well as freedom from deprivation of their liberty interest. Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth have these rights…

  4. Assessment of positive welfare: a review.

    PubMed

    Yeates, J W; Main, D C J

    2008-03-01

    As a complement to the concentration on negative states in welfare science, scientists are increasingly considering the desirability of measuring positive outcomes. Since evaluation of an animal's mental state is a critical goal for welfare assessment, considerations of both positive feelings (what an animal "likes") and resources that an animal is motivated to obtain (what an animal "wants") appear to be important. However, since animals may make choices that are not in their long-term interests, an assessment of positive feelings and resources should include an evaluation of any associated actual or potential harms, such as fear, distress, pain, injury and disease. A review of current evidence suggests that positive welfare can be best assessed by evaluation of resources (i.e. inputs) that are valued by an animal and by positive outcomes such as behavioural responses, influences on cognitive processes and physiological markers. Since negative welfare is often inversely correlated with positive welfare measures, current welfare policy will have been achieving some positive welfare outcomes, however the explicit inclusion of positive welfare outcomes in the framework allows for analyses that are both deeper and more in tune with commonsense, which can hopefully yield more objective policies. PMID:17613265

  5. Role of Directorates in Promoting Nursing and Midwifery Across the Various States of India: Call for Leadership for Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Bagga, Rajni; Jaiswal, Vaishali; Tiwari, Ritika

    2015-01-01

    Background: While the roles and responsibilities of nursing professionals have multiplied over the years, but there are huge concerns with regard to the development of the nursing workforce and human resources (HR) issues for their career growth. The major lacuna is in not involving the nursing professionals in policy framing and decision-making. As a result, there is a leadership crisis of the nursing workforce across India. Objectives: The paper, is part of the WHO supported study, entitled “Study on Nursing and Midwifery in India: a critical review”, is developed with the objective to review the current organizational and management structure for the nursing positions at the State Directorates in India and obtain a Leadership perspective to strengthen nursing management capacities to address maternal health issues. Materials and Methods: The study descriptive and qualitative in nature and the sources of information were both primary and secondary collected from 16 states of India. Results: Since none of the states have neither a Nursing Cell nor the post of Director Nursing, final decision-making powers rest with state health secretaries and medical directors. The nursing management structure majorly managed by senior policy makers from the medical fraternity, and provides very little scope for nursing professionals to participate in policy decision making to bring about reforms. There is no uniformity on HR issues concerning career graphs and pay structures across the states. Conclusions: In order to strengthen nursing as a profession and for facilitating their role at the policy level, more powers and autonomy needs to be given to them and this requires HR policy guidelines for nurses. Setting up a separate nursing directorate, to be headed by a senior nursing professional, is suggested in every state along with a strong nursing division at the National level. This total paradigm shift will empower nursing professionals to take up the leadership role at the policy level to bring about necessary reforms. Across the country, nursing professionals repeatedly echoed one requirement: To reframe nursing leadership at all levels. PMID:25861169

  6. Welfare in horse breeding

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. L. H.; Sandøe, P.

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

  7. State Education Agency Funding and Staffing in the Education Reform Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; Rentner, Diane Stark

    2012-01-01

    Cuts in state funding for elementary and secondary education in recent years have taken a toll in many vital areas, including teaching jobs and student services. State budget cuts have also affected a less visible target--state education agencies (SEAs), which are responsible for supervising elementary and secondary education in each state and…

  8. A study on laws related to women's welfare.

    PubMed

    Kim, E

    1991-01-01

    Since 1980, the domestic policy of every Korean government has focused on the construction of a welfare society, yet real change remains elusive, leaving women particularly neglected. This study examines social security legislation, especially the laws that define the status and welfare of women with the goal of advancing women's welfare and eliminating sexual discrimination against them. Welfare laws and literature were collected and examined from Korea and aboard, and facilities were visited. This paper reviews: 1) the theoretical background of women's welfare including the feminist critique and strategies for the welfare state and social welfare, and the significance and necessity of women's welfare; 2) women's welfare: international treaties and trends, including the World Declaration of Human Rights, international agreements on human rights, the International Labor Organization Treaty, the UN Convention on the Elimination of Sexual Discrimination Against Women, and the women's development strategies toward the year 2000; 3) the analysis of the laws and regulations related to women's welfare, including the systematic organization of women's welfare law (judicial, and systematic organization by applicable clients), the constitutional basis of the women's welfare related legislation and legal principles, the main feature and problems of the women's welfare related legislation, e.g. the Social Security Act: the National Pensions Act, Medical Insurance Act, the Livelihood Protection Act, Mother-child Welfare Act, Child Welfare Act, the Anti-prostitution Act, and the Gender Equal Employment Act, and 4) the direction of revision of the women's welfare related legislation including the revision and legislation of women's welfare related laws, restructuring of the delivery system, and the formation of proper environment conducive to the realization of women's welfare. PMID:12285932

  9. The Appalachian Math Science Partnership: A Multi-State Umbrella Partnership Promoting Local Mathematics and Science Reform. Close-Up Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inverness Research, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The papers presented in this paper accompany a core report about the Appalachian Math Science Partnership (AMSP) entitled "The Appalachian Math Science Partnership: A Multi-State Umbrella Partnership Promoting Local Mathematics and Science Reform Report." Each of them focuses on an especially effective strategy or component of the AMSP umbrella…

  10. Feasibility Study on the Development of Teachers Resource Centres: Consultants Report. Organization of Eastern Caribbean States Education Reform Strategy Project 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald R.; Halliday, Joseph J.

    This report is based on the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Educational Reform Strategy Project No. 5 which found that a Teachers Resource Center (TRC) can be a vehicle to provide essential equipment and materials to schools organized in clusters and to serve as meeting places for officials, principles, and teachers. Approximately…

  11. The Politics of Teacher Reform in Florida: Analyzing Causal Narratives Surrounding State Adoption of Performance-Based Evaluations, Performance Pay, and Tenure Elimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Christopher; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

    2012-01-01

    Following a multiyear debate, Florida lawmakers passed the "Student Success Act" in March 2011, introducing some of the most sweeping educational reforms in the state's history--the introduction of teacher evaluation systems based on value-added modeling, mandatory "performance pay" for teachers, and the elimination of long-term professional…

  12. The Appalachian Math Science Partnership: A Multi-State Umbrella Partnership Promoting Local Mathematics and Science Reform. Close-Up Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inverness Research, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The papers presented in this paper accompany a core report about the Appalachian Math Science Partnership (AMSP) entitled "The Appalachian Math Science Partnership: A Multi-State Umbrella Partnership Promoting Local Mathematics and Science Reform Report." Each of them focuses on an especially effective strategy or component of the AMSP umbrella…

  13. Farmers, Scientists, and Officers of Industry: The Formation and Reformation of Land-Grant Colleges in the Northeastern United States, 1862-1906

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorber, Nathan M.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the formation, reformation, and standardization of land-grant colleges in the Northeastern United States during the last four decades of the nineteenth century. It is a history that explores the turbulent origins of land-grant colleges in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont,…

  14. Farmers, Scientists, and Officers of Industry: The Formation and Reformation of Land-Grant Colleges in the Northeastern United States, 1862-1906

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorber, Nathan M.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the formation, reformation, and standardization of land-grant colleges in the Northeastern United States during the last four decades of the nineteenth century. It is a history that explores the turbulent origins of land-grant colleges in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont,…

  15. Allied against reform: pharmaceutical industry-academic physician relations in the United States, 1945-1970.

    PubMed

    Tobbell, Dominique A

    2008-01-01

    During the 1960s, the drug industry was the subject of two congressional investigations into its business practices and pricing policies, and in 1962, passage of the Drug Amendments mandated greater Food and Drug Administration authority over pharmaceutical development. In this article, I examine the industry's efforts to circumvent these political challenges by drawing on its longstanding relationship with academic physicians and the American Medical Association. Using the medical profession's shared concern about expanding government oversight over therapeutic practice, the industry called on academic physicians to join forces with it and establish an expert advisory body to guide government officials on pharmaceutical policy. Drawing on research in the archives of the University of Pennsylvania and the National Academy of Sciences and a careful reading of the trade and biomedical literature and congressional documents, I argue that by positioning themselves as pharmaceutical experts, the members of this industry-academic alliance gave industry a seat at the policy table and enabled it to challenge the efforts of pharmaceutical reformers to further increase the government's role in drug development. PMID:19075387

  16. Measuring welfare changes and modeling demand systems: Theory and applications to energy efficiency and environmental externalities in New York state residential energy demand

    SciTech Connect

    Dumagan, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    This study implements a generalized logit model of consumer demand. The generalized logit model conforms to the theory of consumer behavior better than the standard flexible functional form demand systems. This generalized logit was estimated using New York state-level and company-level data on residential consumption of electricity, natural gas, and fuel oil, including a composite good to complete the demand system. Results show that the estimated model satisfies the theoretical conditions of a well-behaved demand system for every data point in the sample and for a range of hypothetical households distinctly different from the sample. Results demonstrate that the generalized logit embodies utility-maximizing behavior over a much wider range of observations than standard flexible functional forms. The estimated generalized logit and money metric were combined to measure the money-metric welfare effects of (a) a variety of specific electricity-conservation options in the residential sector of New York state, and of (b) carbon taxes on electricity and fuels and an emissions penalty only on electricity.

  17. The Mexico-United States Border: Public Policy and Chicano Economic Welfare. Studies in Human Resources Development No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Vernon M., Jr.

    In 1970, the gross national product for the United States was over $974 billion; for Mexico, it was $33 billion. The U.S. per capita national income was approximately $4,300, while Mexico's was slightly above $500. Living as neighbors with the reality of these vast differences has led to the implementation of various policy measures by both…

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGY and Health Care Reform The National Health Survey of 1935-1936

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The National Health Survey undertaken in 1935 and 1936 was the largest morbidity survey until that time. It was also the first national survey to focus on chronic disease and disability. The decision to conduct a survey of this magnitude was part of the larger strategy to reform health care in the United States. The focus on morbidity allowed reformers to argue that the health status of Americans was poor, despite falling mortality rates that suggested the opposite. The focus on chronic disease morbidity proved to be an especially effective way of demonstrating the poor health of the population and the strong links between poverty and illness. The survey, undertaken by a small group of reform-minded epidemiologists led by Edgar Sydenstricker, was made possible by the close interaction during the Depression of agencies and actors in the public health and social welfare sectors, a collaboration which produced new ways of thinking about disease burdens. PMID:21233434

  19. The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Micha?

    2010-08-01

    This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change. PMID:21057098

  20. A Child's Right to Human Dignity: Reforming Anti-Bullying Laws in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, John; Dupre, Anne Proffitt

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the findings of research into the bullying laws in the United States. Against the backdrop of international law, it addresses children's rights to protection from bullying in US schools. It includes recommendations for improving anti-bullying legislation based on state anti-bullying legislation in the United States, and…