Science.gov

Sample records for state welfare reform

  1. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? A welfare reform waiver could affect the calculation of a State's participation rate, pursuant...

  2. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect State Penalties? § 261.80 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's...

  3. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect State Penalties? § 261.80 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's...

  4. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? A welfare reform waiver could affect the calculation of a State's participation rate, pursuant...

  5. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  6. Welfare Reform at 15 and the State of Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpare, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and…

  7. Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Bruce A., Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Whitener, Leslie A., Ed.

    The 16 chapters in this five-part book, each by different authors, trace the effects of welfare reform (mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), upon poor people in rural areas of the United States. The book begins with an introduction called "As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural…

  8. National Welfare State Reforms and the Question of Europeanization: From Impact to Usages 

    E-print Network

    Jacquot, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerned with the interaction between the European Union and national welfare state reforms. Its interest lies in the studies that have been proposed of the interplay between the European ...

  9. Managing Welfare Reform in Five States: The Challenge of Devolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebschutz, Sarah F., Ed.

    This book analyzes the responses of five states (Florida, Mississippi, New York, Washington, and Wisconsin) to challenges posed by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 to alter state welfare programs and management systems. Using case studies, the book highlights similarities and differences in the states'…

  10. Minnesota's Children and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Kids Count, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on welfare reform and programs that help low-income children in Minnesota, including articles on the basic values which should guide welfare reform; current welfare reform proposals; the cost of welfare; the role of charities and the religious community; an overview of programs in Minnesota which assist low-income…

  11. Children and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

  12. Child Welfare Reform in the United States: Findings from a Local Agency Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Lorelei B.; Barth, Richard P.; Green, Rebecca; Wall, Ariana; Biemer, Paul; Berrick, Jill Duerr; Webb, Mary Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Efforts to improve the public welfare and child welfare system sparked an unprecedented amount of federal legislation in the 1990s, including the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 (ASFA), the Multiethnic Placement Act of 1994 and Interethnic Adoption Provisions of 1996 (MEPA-IEP), and welfare reform. Such reforms allow an unprecedented degree…

  13. Welfare Reforms, Family Resources, and Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated…

  14. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

  15. Rural Housing and Welfare Reform: HAC's 1997 Report on the State of the Nation's Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housing Assistance Council.

    This report, prepared by the Housing Assistance Council (HAC), presents the context within which welfare reform will affect the housing conditions of rural Americans. HAC is a nonprofit corporation that supports the development of rural low-income housing nationwide. Although the federal welfare reform legislation effective in 1997 makes few…

  16. Welfare Reform in Missouri. A Report of the Welfare Reform Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Peter, Ed.; Kunz, Julia, Ed.

    This report outlines findings and recommendations of a committee study of whether the State of Missouri is in need of welfare reform. The major finding is that Missouri's current welfare system is substantially deficient and requires correction of laws, policies, practices, and resource allocation. Three major themes are the following: (1) welfare

  17. Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Steven J.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Bao, Yuhua; Danielson, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The welfare reform bill adopted in the United States in 1996 limited the eligibility of immigrants for several government assistance programs, and early projections estimated that nearly half of the savings associated with the reforms would come from these immigrant restrictions. Several studies have found that subsequent program participation…

  18. The Implications of Welfare Reform for Housing and School Instability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Laura; Gault, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Discusses studies on the housing outcomes of welfare recipients to examine the potential influence of welfare reform on housing instability, which influences school instability. State studies suggest that welfare reform has increased rates of family mobility, evictions, and sharing housing. Limited research suggests that housing instability and…

  19. Welfare Reform: Serving America's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynihan, Daniel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    The poorest group in our population is children. This article discusses past and present public assistance programs that affect children and the disproportionate number of minority group children and children in single-parent homes who live in poverty. The need for welfare reform is discussed also. (IAH)

  20. Devolution, Workforce Development and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savner, Steve

    Congress will likely soon enact work force development legislation that consolidates education and training programs, reduces federal funding, and gives states greater discretion in program and services design. It may also adopt welfare reform legislation that creates a block grant commingling cash assistance and Job Opportunities and Basic Skills…

  1. Devolution and Welfare Reform: Re-Evaluating "Success"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheely, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The passage of welfare reform shifted significant authority for welfare provision from the federal government to state and local governments. Proponents of devolution point to drastic caseload declines as evidence that state-run programs are decreasing dependency among families. However, welfare rolls in many states have remained stagnant or…

  2. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in full-time vocational education and had no significant effects on part-time vocational education or participation in other types of work-related courses, though there appears to be considerable heterogeneity across states with respect to the strictness of educational policy and the strength of work incentives under welfare reform. In addition, we find evidence of heterogeneous effects by prior educational attainment. We find no evidence that the previously-observed negative effects of welfare reform on formal education (including college enrollment), which we replicated in this study, have been offset by increases in vocational education and training. PMID:22125356

  3. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training.

    PubMed

    Dave, Dhaval M; Reichman, Nancy E; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-12-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in full-time vocational education and had no significant effects on part-time vocational education or participation in other types of work-related courses, though there appears to be considerable heterogeneity across states with respect to the strictness of educational policy and the strength of work incentives under welfare reform. In addition, we find evidence of heterogeneous effects by prior educational attainment. We find no evidence that the previously-observed negative effects of welfare reform on formal education (including college enrollment), which we replicated in this study, have been offset by increases in vocational education and training. PMID:22125356

  4. Economic Conditions and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sheldon H., Ed.

    This book contains 10 papers on three key questions regarding the effects of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which ended the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program: why welfare caseloads are falling; how welfare recipients are faring; and how the states are responding to changing…

  5. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training. NBER Working Paper No. 16659

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results indicate that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

  6. Ten Things Everyone Should Know about Welfare Reform. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A, No. A-52. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Alan

    This brief presents 10 key findings about welfare reform, using research from the Urban Institute's Assessing the New Federalism project. Welfare reform has taken hold, and, in the immediate aftermath of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), states have made major changes to their welfare systems that…

  7. Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

  8. Did Welfare Reform Influence the Fertility of Young Teens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopoo, Leonard M.; DeLeire, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    During the 1990s, states made several reforms to their welfare programs designed to reduce teenage fertility among minors. Among the most prominent of these changes, states started requiring teenage mothers younger than 18 to live with a parent or legal guardian and enroll in high school in order to receive welfare benefits. Using natality data…

  9. Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

  10. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? 260.73 Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? (a) If a State...

  11. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? 260.73 Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? (a) If a State...

  12. Beyond welfare reform: reframing undocumented immigrants' entitlement to health care in the United States, a critical review.

    PubMed

    Viladrich, Anahí

    2012-03-01

    This article addresses the main scholarly frames that supported the deservingness of unauthorized immigrants to health benefits in the United States (U.S.) following the passage of the Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), known as the Welfare Reform bill, in 1996. Based on a critical literature review, conducted between January 1997 and March 2011, this article begins with an analysis of the public health rhetorics that endorsed immigrants' inclusion into the U.S. health safety net. In this vein, the "cost-saving" and "the effortful immigrant" frames underscore immigrants' contributions to society vis-à-vis their low utilization of health services. These are complemented by a "surveillance" account that claims to protect the American public from communicable diseases. A "maternalistic" frame is also discussed as a tool to safeguard families, and particularly immigrant mothers, in their roles as bearers and caretakers of their American-born children. The analyses of the "chilling" and the "injustice" frames are then introduced to underscore major anthropological contributions to the formulation of counter-mainstream discourses on immigrants' selective inclusion into the U.S. health care system. First, the "chilling effect," defined as the voluntary withdrawal from health benefits, is examined in light of unauthorized immigrants' internalized feelings of undeservingness. Second, an "injustice" narrative highlights both the contributions and the limitations of a social justice paradigm, which advocated for the restoration of government benefits to elderly immigrants and refugees after the passage of PRWORA. By analyzing the contradictions among all these diverse frames, this paper finally reflects on the conceptual challenges faced by medical anthropology, and the social sciences at large, in advancing health equity and human rights paradigms. PMID:21745706

  13. The Economic Impact of Welfare Reform on Arkansas Families. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, Little Rock.

    In 1997, the Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA) program was established in Arkansas as the state's version of welfare reform. Although there has been a 44 percent decrease in TEA cash assistance since the program's inception, questions continue regarding the impact of welfare reform on families with children. This report highlights some of…

  14. Welfare Reform. Hearing before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (February 4, 1988). Part 3 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

    This hearing, the third of three on welfare reform, focuses on the problem of child support and ways to improve the current system. One child in four now lives with a single parent; these children must receive the support that they are due. The hearings also focused on the problems of unemployed parents, and how the welfare system can help prepare…

  15. Welfare Reform and Teenage Pregnancy, Childbirth, and School Dropout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Lingxin; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    This study estimates the effect of welfare reform on adolescent behaviors using a difference-indifferences approach. After defining the prereform and reform cohorts and considering the life course development of adolescent behavior by following each cohort from age 14 to age 16, we compare the welfare-target and nontarget populations in the two…

  16. The Unfinished Business of Welfare Reform: Improving Prospects for Poor Children and Youth. Perspectives from Research. A Special Child Trends Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.

    As federal and state officials consider the reauthorization of the block grants at the center of the 1996 federal welfare reform law, it is critical that they use findings from research regarding the impact of welfare reform to guide their decisions. This special report examines the impact of welfare reform on children and youth, drawing on…

  17. Psychiatry, homeless patients and welfare reforms: historical links and chains.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hamid, Walid Khalid; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2014-02-01

    The birthplace of the specialty of psychiatry was in the asylum, which was created to divert patients from workhouses where the most disadvantaged and destitute people with mental illness were to be found. The current welfare reforms are endangering the welfare and livelihood of the most disadvantaged of our patients. These reforms in the authors' opinion are related more to the historical cycle of societal attitude to homeless people than to seeing them as the undeserving poor. This is particularly true since the current economic crisis was not caused by the poor, so it is very unfair that our poorest patients should suffer most as a result of the welfare reforms. PMID:23564721

  18. The Local Politics and Partnerships of Successful Welfare Reform at Modesto Junior College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Pamila J.

    2001-01-01

    Considers the effects of internal and external constituencies on the role of welfare reform in community colleges. Describes how Modesto Junior College (California) built partnerships with county and state employment, social services, welfare, and other agencies to develop effective job-training programs. (NB)

  19. A Framework for Child Welfare Reform in Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Action Alliance, Phoenix, AZ.

    This report creates a framework for child welfare reform in Arizona that balances continued improvements in the current system with simultaneous testing of a more fundamentally restructured system. A new service delivery system that integrates the separate child welfare, juvenile justice, and children's mental health systems is recommended.…

  20. A "Third Way" in Welfare Reform? Evidence from the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, John; Waldfogel, Jane

    2004-01-01

    U.S. welfare reforms, whether promoting work first or human capital development, have had in common an emphasis on employment as the key to improving the life chances of children living in single-mother families. We describe in this article a different type of reform--a "third way" in welfare reform. The welfare reforms carried out in the United…

  1. The Impact of Welfare Reform on Head Start Disability and Family Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Tess; Bhagwanji, Yash; Thomas, Dawn; Allison, Anita

    A 1997 study assessed the impact of welfare reform as reported by Head Start staff served by the Great Lakes Resource Access Project (GLRAP), a federally funded program providing training and technical assistance to Head Start staff in the area of disability services. The states served by the project are Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota,…

  2. Delivering Family Literacy in the Context of Welfare Reform: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamprese, Judith A.; Voight, Janet D.

    The advent of welfare reform in the United States has provided new challenges in preparing adults to become economically self-sufficient. As one response to this challenge, the National Center for Family Literacy (NCFL) in Louisville, Kentucky began the Family Independence Initiative in 1997 to promote family literacy as one solution for assisting…

  3. The Structure of the TANF Block Grant. Welfare Reform and Beyond. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Kent

    The 1996 welfare reform legislation replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program with a new Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant. This new program has a fixed funding level that is not altered by inflation or economic cycles or caseload size. Individual states' shares are based on the amount they…

  4. Family Literacy as a Welfare Reform Strategy. Family Independence Initiative Audioconference. Family Independence Initiative Publication #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Family Literacy, Louisville, KY.

    In 1997, the National Center for Family Literacy convened four state policymakers for an audioconference to discuss five issues related to family literacy and its role as a welfare reform strategy. First, with regard to the value of family literacy, policymakers saw literacy as the key to employment and job retention. Second, family literacy was a…

  5. Risk and the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Gooby, P; Dean, H; Munro, M; Parker, G

    1999-06-01

    The British welfare state developed as a state-centred response to the problem of handling the risks encountered in a typical life-course. The influential work of Giddens and others implies that the traditional welfare state is under attack from two directions: a changing international politico-economic environment limits the freedom of national governments to pursue independent policies involving relatively high taxation to finance social spending. At the same time, changes in the experience of risk and declining confidence in the expertise of welfare state planners and professionals undermine support for state-centred solutions. This approach fails to acknowledge that available non-state services are often inadequate to meet many everyday life risks and that the authority of private sector advisers, insurers and professionals is also increasingly open to question. This article discusses whether people reject welfare state solutions to problems of risk in the context of research on the perceptions and behaviour of people buying or selling their homes, considering provision for long-term care needs and defrauding social security carried out by the ESRC's Economic Beliefs and Behaviour programme. Individual responses endorse the continued provision of state welfare in order to meet unprovided risks alongside disenchantment with the record of both state and private professionals and planners and awareness that state retrenchment requires greater individual responsibility for meeting one's own needs. The theory of risk society requires development to recognize that citizens are not necessarily alienated from state welfare. PMID:15260022

  6. Families' Experience with Welfare Reform on Reservations in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Zhan, Min; Collier-Tenison, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    This article documents the impact of the 1996 federal welfare legislation on American Indian families in the state of Arizona over a period of four years. The authors analyzed primary data obtained from interviews with 445 former or current welfare families with children from three Indian reservations: Navajo, San Carlos, and Salt River. Compared…

  7. New Lives for Poor Families? Mothers and Young Children Move through Welfare Reform. The Growing Up in Poverty Wave 2 Findings: California, Connecticut, and Florida. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Loeb, Susanna

    This report examines how state welfare-to-work programs have affected young children since the 1996 welfare reform act, which moved millions of women into low-wage jobs. Researchers followed a sample of 948 mothers and young children for 2-4 years after the women entered new welfare programs in California, Connecticut, and Florida. After…

  8. The Forgotten Children: African American Children and Child Welfare Reform in St. Louis, 1890-1930

    E-print Network

    Thirlkel, Thomas E.

    2010-05-07

    Abstract Forgotten Children examines the influence of racial ideology on the trajectory of child welfare reform in late nineteenth century and early twentieth century St. Louis. The modern American child welfare system emerged in this time period...

  9. Welfare Reform and Black Women's Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, the United States Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, placing emphasis on individuals to take responsibility for separating themselves from governmental dependence by becoming economically self-sufficient through employment. Using a qualitative approach, this study explored the experiences…

  10. The Welfare State vs. the Redistributive State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattner, Marc F.

    1979-01-01

    While the principles of progressive taxation and the welfare state have come to be almost universally accepted, it would be a serious error to infer that American policy has ever embraced the idea of income redistribution. (Author)

  11. Feminist Perspectives on TANF Reauthorization: An Introduction to Key Issues for the Future of Welfare Reform. Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Janice

    Current debates about welfare reform center on the upcoming reauthorization of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) legislation. The provisions of TANF include the elimination of the entitlement to cash assistance, block grant funding to the states, mandatory work requirements, sanctions, a 5-year limit on cash assistance, and…

  12. Youth Attitudes on Family, Work, and Community Service: Implications for Welfare Reform. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A, No. A-47. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brett V.

    This brief presents trends in youth attitudes in three areas relevant to welfare reform: family formation and parenting, work and work preparation, and community service. The data in this study come from the 1985-99 Monitoring the Future survey, a nationally representative annual survey of high school seniors that monitors changes in attitudes,…

  13. Reconsidering Schools and the American Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses her comparative study of the history of the welfare state in the United States, England, and France, she studies some of the usual features of the welfare state, which include important entitlement programs, such as social insurance, and protective labor legislation, but she also focuses on the development of…

  14. Integration into the Social Demographic Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjerm, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the assumption that the social democratic welfare state is better than others in integrating immigrants into society, or at least that the comprehensive welfare state should compensate for the problems of labour market entry. A number of key indicators from The Living Conditions Survey are used to show that this assumption is…

  15. The Lived Experience of Welfare Reform in Drug-Using Welfare-Needy Households in Inner-City New York

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Welfare reform has transformed a needs-based family income support into temporary assistance for persons entering the workforce. This paper uses observations from an ethnographic study covering the period from 1995–2001 to examine the impact on drug-using welfare-needy households in inner-city New York. The analysis suggests that studies may underestimate the extent to which substance use is associated with welfare problems. Nearly all of these already distressed households lost their AFDC/TANF benefits, had difficulty with work programs, and were having more difficulty covering expenses. The conclusion highlights ways to better study this population and policy initiatives that could help them reform their impoverished lives for themselves and their children. PMID:25382890

  16. Progressing beyond the Welfare State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Lee; Harkavy, Ira

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines a neo-Deweyan strategy to transform American public schools into genuine community schools that function as central agencies for the development of a democratic welfare society. John Dewey's thesis was that a well-functioning school system constitutes the necessary, though not sufficient, condition for a well-functioning…

  17. Depression and Welfare Reform: From Barriers to Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Dan A.; Lee, Bong Joo; Altenbernd, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors identify ways to facilitate work among current and recent welfare recipients with mental illness. Their analysis assesses the relationship between a particular mental illness, depression, and labor force involvement in a statewide sample of welfare recipients, identifies the factors that promote work for those with depression, and…

  18. The Effect of Welfare Reform on Childbirth, Marriage, and Divorce 

    E-print Network

    Pakdeethai, Pimrak

    2010-10-12

    marital and non-marital statuses suggesting that bearing a child is not appealing for women who are more progressive in careers. However, the most aggressive welfare policy significantly increases marital birth as expected. Birth rates among teenage girls...

  19. How Are Immigrants Faring after Welfare Reform? Preliminary Evidence from Los Angeles and New York City. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randy; Ku, Leighton; Fix, Michael; Furgiuele, Chris; Passel, Jeff; Ramchand, Rajeev; McNiven, Scott; Perez-Lopez, Dan; Fielder, Eve; Greenwell, Michael; Hays, Tonya

    In 1999 and 2000, immigrants in Los Angeles, California, and New York, New York were aurveyed about their status in the context of welfare reform, examining the living conditions of 3,447 immigrant families roughly 3 years after welfare reform was implemented and several months before the federal government issued guidance about the public charge…

  20. From Boys Town to Oliver Twist. Separating fact from fiction in welfare reform and out-of-home placement of children and youth.

    PubMed

    Shealy, C N

    1995-08-01

    Recent debate following the suggestion to place children of "welfare mothers" in "orphanages" illustrates the need to evaluate the relative goodness of residential care and to examine many of the basic assumptions underlying current welfare reform proposals. Nearly half a million children and youth are currently in government-funded out-of-home care in the United States. As custodians of this challenging population, child and youth care workers are neither parents nor therapists, but appear to perform both of these roles as "therapeutic parents." Two comprehensive and mature literatures--common factors of therapist efficacy and parental correlates of offspring psychopathology--provide theoretical and empirical support for this model of child and youth care. Current welfare reform proposals are evaluated in the context of the therapeutic parent model; assumptions about welfare mothers are also examined. PMID:7645809

  1. Welfare Reform and New York City's Low-Income Population. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernick, Howard; Reimers, Cordelia

    This paper uses Current Population Survey data to evaluate the initial effects of welfare reform on the economic well-being of low-income and vulnerable families (defined as those with low levels of education or with single mothers). To do so, it examines the changes in New York City policies and administrative procedures, comparing receipt of…

  2. Family Literacy Guide to Welfare Reform. Family Independence Initiative Publication #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Family Literacy, Louisville, KY.

    This guide provides the information family literacy programs, practitioners, and friends need to understand the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) and its ramifications. It also addresses how to advocate on behalf of family literacy and to adapt programs to meet welfare reform requirements, while…

  3. THREE CITIES STUDY OF WELFARE REFORM AND THE WELL-BEING OF CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies the effects of the 1996 Welfare Reform Bill on children in three Northeastern, Southwestern and Midwestern cities, Boston, San Antonio, and Chicago, over a four-year period. The project also addresses the broader issue of the effects of parental time and money resources o...

  4. Is Welfare Reform Responsible for Low Skilled Women's Declining Health Insurance Coverage in the 1990s?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeire, Thomas; Levine, Judith A.; Levy, Helen

    2006-01-01

    We use data from the 1989-2001 March Supplements to the Current Population Survey to determine whether welfare reform contributed to declines in health insurance coverage experienced by low-skilled women. Between 1988 and 2000, women with less than a high school education experienced an 8.0 percentage point decline in the probability of having…

  5. Do Social Policy Reforms Have Different Impacts on Employment and Welfare Use as Economic Conditions Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses March Current Population Survey data from 1985 to 2004 to explore whether social policy reforms implemented throughout the 1990s have different impacts on employment and welfare use depending on economic conditions, a topic with important policy implications but which has received little attention from researchers. I find evidence…

  6. Welfare Reform and Older Immigrants: Food Stamp Program Participation and Food Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Yunju; Jung, Hyo Jin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The welfare reform bill of 1996 severely constrained noncitizens' eligibility for the Food Stamp Program (FSP). This study examined the effects of eligibility restrictions on older immigrants' FSP participation and food insecurity. We paid special attention to household composition and household eligibility as well as older immigrants'…

  7. 45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions? 260.74 Section 260.74 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to....74 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit...

  8. 45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions? 260.74 Section 260.74 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to....74 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit...

  9. Child Care Issues Impacting Welfare Reform in the Rural South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazvini, Alisa S.; Mullis, Ann K.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Park, Jennifer J.

    1999-01-01

    Access to affordable, quality child care is a major barrier to successful employment for many families. About one-fifth of families return to welfare within a few months of leaving, with lack of accessible child care and transportation being the most frequently cited reasons. These issues are likely to be compounded in the rural South. Information…

  10. Work, Income, and Material Hardship after Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sandra; Corcoran, Mary; Danziger, Sheldon; Heflin, Colleen M.

    2000-01-01

    A study of women who went off welfare between 1997 and 1998 (n=753, 693) showed that those with the most work involvement over the year had higher levels of financial and subjective well-being. Regardless of work involvement, substantial numbers reported serious economic difficulties and financial strain. Many still needed income supplements and…

  11. From "Boys Town" to "Oliver Twist": Separating Fact from Fiction in Welfare Reform and Out-of-Home Placement of Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shealy, Craig N.

    1995-01-01

    A description of the rationale for responding to welfare reform is followed by an overview of orphanages and child and youth care workers. A therapeutic parent model of reform is presented, and welfare reform proposals are evaluated in the model's context. (SLD)

  12. Delivering Health Care and Mental Health Care Services to Children in Family Foster Care after Welfare and Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Mark D.; Freundlich, Madelyn; Battistelli, Ellen S.; Kaufman, Neal D.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the essential features of a health care system that can meet the special needs of children in out-of-home care. Discusses some of the major recent changes brought about by welfare and health care reform. Notes that it remains to be seen whether the quality of services will improve as a result of these reforms. (Author)

  13. Relationship of Paternity Status, Welfare Reform Period, and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Infant Mortality.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Emmanuel M; Cortright, Alicia L; Michalski, Karen

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of paternity status, welfare reform period, and racial/ethnic disparities in infant mortality. The study used retrospective analysis of birth outcomes data from singleton birth/infant death data in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, from 1993 to 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between paternity status, welfare reform period, and infant mortality, adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics. Data consisted of almost 185,000 singleton live births and 1,739 infant deaths. Although unmarried women with no father on record made up about 32% of the live births, they accounted for over two thirds of the infant deaths compared with married women with established paternity who made up 39% of live births but had about a quarter of infant deaths. After adjustments, any form of paternity establishment was protective against infant mortality across all racial/ethnic groups. Unmarried women with no father on record had twice to triple the odds of infant mortality among all racial/ethnic groups. The likelihood of infant mortality was only significantly greater for African American women in the postwelfare (1999-2004; odds ratio = 1.27; 95% confidence interval = 1.10-1.46) period compared with the 1993 to 1998 period. Study findings suggest that any form of paternity establishment may have protective effect against infant mortality. Welfare reform changes may have reduced some of the protection against infant mortality among unmarried African American women that was present before the welfare legislation. Policies and programs that promote or support increased paternal involvement and establishment of paternity may improve birth outcomes and help reduce infant mortality. PMID:25061086

  14. Built To Last: Why Skills Matter for Long-Run Success in Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Karin; Strawn, Julie

    Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) gives states the flexibility to design programs to help low-income families move into employment. However, the law discourages states from allowing welfare recipients to participate in education and training programs. Because the law limits the extent to which education activities count toward federal…

  15. Sponsored Privatization of Schooling in a Welfare State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Michael

    This paper examines the emergence of privatization in Israel's educational system. The first part provides an overview of the provision of educational services in a welfare state. The second part describes educational privatization in a welfare state, and the third part presents examples of two forms of privatization that have emerged in the…

  16. Adolescent Outcomes, Poverty Status, and Welfare Reform: An Analysis Based on the Survey of Program Dynamics. Final Report. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzcinski, Eileen; Brandell, Jerry

    This study investigated the potential effects of welfare reform on children in late childhood through adolescence, examining how poverty status and family welfare receipt interacted with current poverty status and welfare receipt during adolescence to influence various outcomes. The study examined how 1998 outcomes varied for adolescents based on…

  17. How Welfare Reform Might Affect Children: Updating the Conceptual Model. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication # 2004-30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.; Zaslow, Martha J.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, a quite sophisticated body of research and data has developed on the implications of welfare reform and devolution for children and on the development of children in low-income families more generally. However, policy initiatives and findings from recent research suggest several ways to improve and expand available data.…

  18. Children in Single-Parent Families Living in Poverty Have Fewer Supports after Welfare Reform. IWPR Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyter, Deanna M.; Sills, Melissa; Oh, Gi-Taik

    Since the 1996 passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (welfare reform), impoverished children in single-parent families receive less aid than under the previous system, and the most disadvantaged of these children have slipped deeper into poverty. This research brief summarizes a study that explored the economic well-being…

  19. The Role of European Welfare States in Explaining Resources Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muffels, Ruud; Fouarge, Didier

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper in this journal (Headey et al., 2000) a comparison was made between three so-called 'best cases' of welfare regime types, the 'Liberal' US, 'the 'Corporatist' Germany and the 'Social-Democratic' Netherlands. The main conclusion was that the Social-Democratic welfare state performed best on nearly all social and economic…

  20. Measuring Is Believing! Improving Conventional Indicators of Welfare State Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon; Alaez-Aller, Ricardo; Diaz-de-Basurto, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Welfare effort (social spending as a percentage of GDP) has conventionally been the preferred measure for comparisons in space and time of the level of development of welfare states. However, a wide variety of other measuring systems are potentially available in this field, because there are different sources and different methods for calculating…

  1. Welfare Time Limits: An Update on State Policies, Implementation, and Effects on Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Mary; Rich, Sarah; Turner, Lesley; Seith, David; Bloom, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Time limits on benefit receipt became a central feature of federal welfare policy in the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA). Proponents of welfare reform argued that the time limits in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, would send a firm message to recipients that welfare is…

  2. 45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-spreading mechanism (among issuers or policies of an issuer) or otherwise provides for some financial... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State flexibility in individual market reforms... mechanism as of January 1, 1998. (ii) Provides CMS with the information necessary to review the...

  3. 45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-spreading mechanism (among issuers or policies of an issuer) or otherwise provides for some financial... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false State flexibility in individual market reforms... mechanism as of January 1, 1998. (ii) Provides CMS with the information necessary to review the...

  4. 45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-spreading mechanism (among issuers or policies of an issuer) or otherwise provides for some financial... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State flexibility in individual market reforms... mechanism as of January 1, 1998. (ii) Provides CMS with the information necessary to review the...

  5. 45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-spreading mechanism (among issuers or policies of an issuer) or otherwise provides for some financial... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State flexibility in individual market reforms... mechanism as of January 1, 1998. (ii) Provides CMS with the information necessary to review the...

  6. 77 FR 69629 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Administration for... percentages for States under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program (CFDA No... Welfare Services State Grants Program. Under section 423(a), the allotment percentages are one of...

  7. 76 FR 9788 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Administration for... publication of allotment percentages for States under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State...-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program. Under section 423(a), the...

  8. 75 FR 71710 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Administration for... percentages for States under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program (CFDA No... Welfare Services State Grants Program. Under section 423(a), the allotment percentages are one of...

  9. Maternal Work Behavior under Welfare Reform: How Does the Transition from Welfare to Work Affect Child Development? JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Danziger, Sandra K.

    Using data from a longitudinal sample of former and current welfare recipients in Michigan spanning 1997 through 1999, the Womens Employment Study, this analysis examined how transitions from welfare to work affect parenting behavior and child behavior problems. Researchers used a fixed-effects regression design to control for all time-invariant…

  10. Political order and the ambivalence of expertise: Count Rumford and welfare reform in late eighteenth-century Munich.

    PubMed

    Maerker, Anna

    2010-01-01

    From 1784 to 1798, the military expert and natural philosopher Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, worked in Munich for Elector Karl Theodor of Bavaria on a series of reforms that demanded a careful articulation of the reformer's expertise. This case study of Rumford's welfare reforms posits that the ambivalent nature of expertise, which relies simultaneously on generally accessible and on exclusive knowledge, was already present in the conceptual framework of Rumford's mechanical experimental philosophy and that this ambivalence was visible in the performative practice of the experimenter. Gestures of revelation and concealment and of displaying and obscuring were crucial to Rumford's (temporary) success in establishing his authority in Bavaria. Challenged by local advisers, the reformer called on a newly emergent form of public. Rumford's conceptual and practical articulation of expertise thus contributed to an increasing polarization of the political order in the Bavarian capital. PMID:20973458

  11. Built to Last: Why Skills Matter for Long-Run Success in Welfare Reform. Revised April 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Karin; Strawn, Julie

    Federal welfare funding through the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant gives states flexibility to help low income parents move into employment. However, the law discourages states from allowing welfare recipients to participate in education and training programs. These restrictions are at odds with recent research…

  12. Old age pension reform in China's state-owned enterprises.

    PubMed

    Smyth, R

    2000-01-01

    The old-age pension scheme in China's state-owned enterprises (SOEs) is experiencing a difficult transition period; in the past, SOEs were responsible for providing retirees with pension benefits. However, in the 1980s and 1990s, the financial position of SOEs deteriorated, making it difficult for them to honor their social welfare commitments. The background of the current pension crisis is examined, and recent attempts to improve the funding of pensions in China's state-owned sector are reviewed, focusing on the period since the State Council issued its "Decision on the Establishment of Unified Pension Insurance" in 1997. The article concludes with a review of priorities for further reform. PMID:11148831

  13. Trends of Social Welfare Systems: From Convergence to Attractiveness. An Exploratory Approach. 

    E-print Network

    Bouget, Denis

    2009-01-01

    The analyses of the national reforms in the welfare states over the last decades were partly focused on this notion of convergence. In the eighties and the nineties, the transformation in many welfare states provided a literature on the retrenchment...

  14. The Challenge of Compliance: Food Security in Rural Households Affected by Welfare Reform. Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol; Tiller, Vicky V.; Smith, Jennifer

    A study examined welfare reform and food security issues. Interviews were conducted with 32 rural Louisiana women in 1997-98 when they were receiving welfare payments, in 1998-99 when they were in transition, and in 2000-01 when none received Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Most women were African-American; about half had not…

  15. Remember the Children: Mothers Balance Work and Child Care under Welfare Reform. Growing Up in Poverty Project 2000; Wave 1 Findings--California, Connecticut, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Analysis for California Education, Berkeley, CA.

    This report details a study that sought to answer whether welfare reform was meeting its goals of reducing mothers' dependency and boosting children's futures, and whether these reforms were having discernable effects on young children. During the second half of 1998, the study randomly selected 948 single mothers with young children from 5…

  16. Child Welfare: Most States Are Developing Statewide Information Systems, but Reliability of Child Welfare Data Could Be Improved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrowiak, Diana; Schibanoff, Sara L.

    To better monitor children and families served by state child welfare agencies, Congress authorized matching funds for the development of statewide automatic child welfare information systems (SACWIS) and required that U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) compile information on children served by state agencies. This report to…

  17. The problem of dependency: immigration, gender, and the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Eggebø, Helga

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the regulation of marriage migration to Norway through an analysis of the subsistence requirement rule which entails that a person who wants to bring a spouse to Norway must achieve a certain level of income. Policy-makers present two main arguments for this regulation. First, the subsistence requirement is a means to prevent forced marriage. Second, its aim is to prevent family immigrants from becoming a burden on welfare budgets. The major concern of both these arguments is that of dependency, either on the family or on the welfare state. The article investigates the representations of the “problems” underpinning this specific policy proposal and argues that the rule in question, and immigration policy more generally, needs to be analyzed with reference to the broader concerns and aims of welfare state policy and gender equality policy. PMID:20821899

  18. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and State Child Welfare Systems.

    PubMed

    Bounds, Dawn; Julion, Wrenetha A; Delaney, Kathleen R

    2015-01-01

    In several states, commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is now a reportable child abuse offense. Illinois has taken the lead in tackling the issue and the Illinois experience illuminates valuable lessons. This article delineates the protection, practice, and policy implications that evolve when CSEC falls under a state child welfare system. The specific aims are to (a) discuss CSEC, its victims, risks, harms, and challenges inherent in providing effective care; (b) use Illinois as an exemplar to explicate the consequences and implementation challenges of establishing a state reporting system that frames CSEC as a child welfare issue; (c) recommend strategies for developing effective state reporting models, and (d) demonstrate how nurses are well poised to advocate for victims of human trafficking on both state and national levels. Recommendations for improving the identification of CSEC victims and overcoming challenges to state implementation are offered. PMID:25908664

  19. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  20. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare. PMID:26403650

  1. Health system reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, John E

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider. PMID:24596894

  2. Double Jeopardy: An Assessment of the Felony Drug Provision of the Welfare Reform Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Rukaiyah; Onek, David; Riker, Alissa

    In 1996 the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program was replaced with a federal block grant program called Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), which imposed time limits and work requirements on welfare recipients. The welfare legislation placed a lifetime ban on TANF and food stamp benefits for convicted drug felons, although…

  3. Women's Political Representation and Welfare State Spending in 12 Capitalist Democracies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolzendahl, Catherine; Brooks, Clem

    2007-01-01

    One of the sharpest criticisms of welfare state research is insufficient attention to factors relating to gender relations and inequalities. Recent scholarship has begun to address welfare state effects on gender-related outcomes, but the evaluation of theories of welfare development with respect to gender factors is somewhat less developed,…

  4. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...State emergency welfare preparedness. (a) Under...for emergency welfare preparedness. Such activities...resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders...cases in the event of disaster or attack; (7...Participating in preparedness exercises for...

  5. The impact of welfare reform on parents' ability to care for their children's health.

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, S J; Earle, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Most of the national policy debate regarding welfare assumed that if middle-income mothers could balance work while caring for their children's health and development, mothers leaving welfare for work should be able to do so as well. Yet, previous research has not examined the conditions faced by mothers leaving welfare for work. METHODS: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study examined the availability of benefits that working parents commonly use to meet the health and developmental needs of their children; paid sick leave, vacation leave, and flexible hours. RESULTS: In comparison with mothers who had never received welfare, mothers who had been on Aid to Families with Dependent Children were more likely to be caring for at least 1 child with a chronic condition (37% vs 21%, respectively). Yet, they were more likely to lack sick leave for the entire time they worked (36% vs 20%) and less likely to receive other paid leave or flexibility. CONCLUSIONS: If current welfare recipients face similar conditions when they return to work, many will face working conditions that make it difficult or impossible to succeed in the labor force at the same time as meeting their children's health and developmental needs. PMID:10191791

  6. Reclaiming the Disengaged: Reform of New Zealand's Vocational Education and Training and Social Welfare Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strathdee, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Habermas' theory of the state and his idea of legitimation crisis to critically evaluate recent reforms in New Zealand designed to engage young people (16-24 years of age) in paid employment and/or education and training. The paper identifies three broad strategies adopted by the state to reclaim the disengaged and hence,…

  7. From welfare states to welfare sectors: Explaining sectoral differences in occupational pensions with economic and political power of employees

    PubMed Central

    Wiß, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Studies analysing welfare have previously focused on countries as units. In the course of pension cuts and the increasing importance of occupational welfare, our traditional understanding of a homogeneous welfare state is being challenged. In this article, I distinguish between both economic individual power (employee skills) and political collective power (trade unions), and their relation with different occupational pensions. A combined analysis by both factors is not common, where employee skills and power resources are traditionally treated as separate, rival explanations of public welfare. Combining the ‘method of difference’ with the ‘method of agreement’, the article first presents the within-country variety of occupational pensions in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and Denmark. Occupational pensions in the same economic sectors across countries are then used as the units of analysis in order to illustrate the plausible determinants of economic individual power and political collective power. PMID:26663983

  8. Across the Great Divide. From a Welfare State to a New Market State: The Case of VET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This paper revisits the crucial period following the Arab oil boycott of 1973, when the welfare state in the UK finally collapsed along with the heavy industrial base upon which it rested. Unlike the post-war welfare-state "settlement", the new post-welfare market state was imposed by Margaret Thatcher's governments. It was marked for vocational…

  9. Bridging the Gap: Higher Education and Career-Centered Welfare Reform. Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosar, Kevin R., Ed.

    This conference examined the current welfare policy and the continued use of higher education as a tool for moving low-income people into self-supporting careers. The proceedings include: welcoming remarks by Stephen Greenwald; keynote addresses by William Spriggs and Danny Simmons; a lunch address by Rae Alexander-Minter; remarks by Patricia…

  10. Beyond Job Search or Basic Education: Rethinking the Role of Skills in Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Julie

    Most welfare-to-work programs may be classified as quick employment programs emphasizing individual or group job searches or skill-building programs emphasizing basic education. Although both types of programs offer benefits, they also suffer from significant limitations. To be more effective than their predecessors, current-generation…

  11. The Juggling Act: Navigating Parent Involvement in the Welfare Reform Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how parents supported their children's education while transitioning from welfare to work. Interviews with parents, elementary school educators, and staff at a community-based organization were conducted in an urban Tennessee community. Navigating work and parenting responsibilities was particularly challenging when children…

  12. Marriage and Welfare Reform: The Overwhelming Evidence That Marriage Education Works. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Patrick F.; Patterson, Robert W.; Rector, Robert E.

    The erosion of marriage has caused enormous difficulties for children, parents, and society. Compared to children born within marriage, those born outside of marriage are overwhelmingly more likely to live in poverty, depend on welfare, and have behavior problems. They also may suffer depression and physical abuse, fail in school, abuse drugs, and…

  13. 76 FR 9788 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ...the Title IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants...Administration, Administration for Children and Families, telephone (202...Commissioner, Administration on Children, Youth and Families. [FR...am] BILLING CODE...

  14. 77 FR 69629 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ...the Title IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants...Administration, Administration for Children and Families, telephone (202...Commissioner, Administration on Children, Youth and Families. [FR...am] BILLING CODE...

  15. 75 FR 71710 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...the Title IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants...Administration, Administration for Children and Families, telephone (202...Commissioner, Administration on Children, Youth and Families. [FR...11-23-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  16. Trends in mental health inequalities in England during a period of recession, austerity and welfare reform 2004 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ben; Kinderman, Peter; Whitehead, Margaret

    2015-12-01

    Several indicators of population mental health in the UK have deteriorated since the financial crisis, during a period when a number of welfare reforms and austerity measures have been implemented. We do not know which groups have been most affected by these trends or the extent to which recent economic trends or recent policies have contributed to them. We use data from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey to investigate trends in self reported mental health problems by socioeconomic group and employment status in England between 2004 and 2013. We then use panel regression models to investigate the association between local trends in mental health problems and local trends in unemployment and wages to investigate the extent to which these explain increases in mental health problems during this time. We found that the trend in the prevalence of people reporting mental health problems increased significantly more between 2009 and 2013 compared to the previous trends. This increase was greatest amongst people with low levels of education and inequalities widened. The gap in prevalence between low and high educated groups widened by 1.29 percentage points for women (95% CI: 0.50 to 2.08) and 1.36 percentage points for men (95% CI: 0.31 to 2.42) between 2009 and 2013. Trends in unemployment and wages only partly explained these recent increases in mental health problems. The trend in reported mental health problems across England broadly mirrored the pattern of increases in suicides and antidepressant prescribing. Welfare policies and austerity measures implemented since 2010 may have contributed to recent increases in mental health problems and widening inequalities. This has led to rising numbers of people with low levels of education out of work with mental health problems. These trends are likely to increase social exclusion as well as demand for and reliance on social welfare systems. PMID:26623942

  17. Is Christian religious conservatism compatible with the liberal social welfare state?

    PubMed

    Belcher, John R; Fandetti, Donald; Cole, Danny

    2004-04-01

    This article examines the rise of Christian religious conservatism and explores whether the theological views of the conservative Christian movement are compatible with the liberal social welfare state. The authors conclude that the driving force behind social change should remain with the state, even though faith-based initiatives can provide some basic supports that the social welfare state can use. PMID:15124967

  18. Child Welfare Workplace: The State of the Workforce and Strategies to Improve Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scannapieco, Maria; Connell-Carrick, Kelli

    2007-01-01

    Child welfare systems throughout the United States are being closely scrutinized as sensational cases appear in the media in nearly every state. At the federal level, with the Child and Family Service Review process, the government is documenting that states across the country are not conforming to federal child welfare requirements (DHHS, 2007)…

  19. Why Do Schools Respond Differentially to State School Reform Legislation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Paul; Conley, David T.

    Is it possible for state legislation designed to initiate systemic school reform to influence curriculum, instruction, and assessment at the classroom and building level? This paper presents findings of a longitudinal study of Oregon educators' reactions to school-reform legislation since it was passed in 1991. The Oregon Educational Act for the…

  20. Immigration and Natives' Attitudes towards the Welfare State: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senik, Claudia; Stichnoth, Holger; Van der Straeten, Karine

    2009-01-01

    Does immigration reduce natives' support for the welfare state? Evidence from the European Social Survey (2002/2003) suggests a more qualified relation. For Europe as a whole, there is only weak evidence of a negative association between the perceived presence of immigrants and natives' support for the welfare state. However, this weak average…

  1. The Welfare State and Relative Poverty in Rich Western Democracies, 1967-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, David

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the welfare state and poverty with multiple measures of the welfare state and poverty in an unbalanced panel of 18 Western nations from 1967 to 1997. While addressing the limitations of past research, the analysis shows that social security transfers and public health spending significantly reduce…

  2. Pathologizing Poverty: New Forms of Diagnosis, Disability, and Structural Stigma under Welfare Reform

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Helena; Bourgois, Philippe; Drucker, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    In 1996 the U.S. severely restricted public support for low income people, ending “welfare as we know it.” This led to dramatic increases in medicalized forms of support for indigent people, who increasingly rely on disability benefits justified by psychiatric diagnoses of chronic mental illness. We present case studies drawn from ethnographic data involving daily participant-observation between 2005-2012 in public clinics and impoverished neighborhoods in New York City, to describe the subjective experience of structural stigma imposed by the increasing medicalization of public support for the poor through a diagnosis of permanent mental disability. In some cases, disability benefits enable recipients to fulfill important social roles (sustaining a vulnerable household and promoting stable parenting). The status of family members who receive a monthly disability check improves within their kin and neighborhood-based networks, counterbalancing the felt stigma of being identified by doctors as “crazy”. A structural disjunction in stigmatizing processes emerges when a diagnosis of permanent medical cognitive pathology becomes a valuable survival strategy constituting the basis for fulfillment of household responsibilities. Through the decades, the stigmatized labels applied to the poor have shifted: from being a symptom of racial weakness, to the culture of poverty, and now to permanent medical pathology. The neoliberal bureaucratic requirement that the poor must repeatedly prove their “disabled” status through therapy and psychotropic medication appears to be generating a national and policy-maker discourse condemning SSI malingerers, resurrecting the 16th century specter of the “unworthy poor”. PMID:24507913

  3. Pathologizing poverty: new forms of diagnosis, disability, and structural stigma under welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Helena; Bourgois, Philippe; Drucker, Ernest

    2014-02-01

    In 1996 the U.S. severely restricted public support for low income people, ending "welfare as we know it." This led to dramatic increases in medicalized forms of support for indigent people, who increasingly rely on disability benefits justified by psychiatric diagnoses of chronic mental illness. We present case studies drawn from ethnographic data involving daily participant-observation between 2005 and 2012 in public clinics and impoverished neighborhoods in New York City, to describe the subjective experience of structural stigma imposed by the increasing medicalization of public support for the poor through a diagnosis of permanent mental disability. In some cases, disability benefits enable recipients to fulfill important social roles (sustaining a vulnerable household and promoting stable parenting). The status of family members who receive a monthly disability check improves within their kin and neighborhood-based networks, counterbalancing the felt stigma of being identified by doctors as "crazy". When a diagnosis of mental pathology becomes a valuable survival strategy constituting the basis for fulfillment of household responsibilities, stigmatizing processes are structurally altered. Through the decades, the stigmatized labels applied to the poor have shifted: from being a symptom of racial weakness, to the culture of poverty, and now to permanent medical pathology. The neoliberal bureaucratic requirement that the poor must repeatedly prove their "disabled" status through therapy and psychotropic medication appears to be generating a national and policy-maker discourse condemning SSI malingerers, resurrecting the 16th century specter of the "unworthy poor". PMID:24507913

  4. A Society without a "State"? Political Organization, Social Conflict, and Welfare Provision in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skocpol, Theda

    The programmatic structure and modes of implementation of U.S. social provisions must be understood in order to gain insight into social programs in the United States. National standards have not been established for public benefits and "social security" has remained firmly separated, both institutionally and symbolically, from "welfare." Many…

  5. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  6. Welfare Reform and American Indian Tribes: Critical Decisions for the Future of Indian Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jo Ann

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRETORIA) gives American Indian tribes the option to run their own Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program or leave these services under state administration. Eight case studies were conducted in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Arizona with the Klamath Tribes,…

  7. The State Data Analysis Gap: A Threat to Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeky, Art

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the 2001 passage of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), states have faced a federal mandate to improve their ability to collect and analyze education data for the purpose of tracking and reporting the progress of their education reform efforts. With the assistance of federal funds, virtually all of the states are developing…

  8. Neoliberalism, "globalization," unemployment, inequalities, and the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1998-01-01

    This analysis of "neoliberalism" and its economic and social consequences is presented in six sections. Section I begins by describing the impact of neoliberal public policies on economic growth and inflation, on business profits and business investments, on productivity, on business credit, on unemployment and social inequalities, on social expenditures, and on poverty and family debt. The author shows that, except in the area of business profits and control of inflation, neoliberal policies have not proved superior to those they replaced. Section II deals with unemployment and social polarization in the developed capitalist countries. The author criticizes some of the theories put forward to explain these social problems, such as the introduction of new technologies and globalization of the economy, and suggests that a primary reason for these problems is the implementation of neoliberal policies. Section III challenges the widely held neoliberal perception that the U.S. economy is highly efficient and the E.U. economies are "sclerotic" due to their "excessive" welfare states and "rigid" labor markets. The author shows that the U.S. economy is not so dynamic, nor the E.U. economies so sclerotic. Some developed countries with greater social protection and more regulated labor markets are shown to be more successful than the United States in producing jobs and lowering unemployment. The reasons for the growing polarization in developed capitalist countries, rooted in political rather than economic causes, are discussed in section IV--especially the enormous power of the financial markets and their influence on international agencies and national governments, and the weakness of the labor movements, both nationally and internationally. Section V questions the major theses of globalization. The author shows that rather than globalization of commerce and investments, we are witnessing a regionalization of economic relations stimulated by political considerations. He also analyzes the globalization of capital finance, criticizing the thesis that capital markets are determining public policies. The economic determinism that underlies the globalization position is questioned, uncovering the importance of political explanations for understanding major social problems such as unemployment. Finally, section VI shows that neoliberal public policies on the deregulation of labor markets are creating enormous instability in the labor force, worsening the living conditions of the majority of the populations. PMID:9842492

  9. CASAWORKS for Families: A Promising Approach to Welfare Reform and Substance-Abusing Women. A CASA White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    CASAWORKS for Families is the first national demonstration program to provide simultaneously drug and alcohol treatment; literacy, job, parenting, and social skills training; family violence prevention; and health care to help substance-abusing welfare parents recover. Its mission is to help women on welfare with substance abuse problems achieve…

  10. Oral health and welfare state regimes: a cross-national analysis of European countries

    PubMed Central

    Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol C; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the potential relationship between welfare state regimes and oral health. This study assessed the oral health of adults in a range of European countries clustered by welfare regimes according to Ferrera's typology and the complementary Eastern type. We analysed data from Eurobarometer wave 72.3, a cross-sectional survey of 31 European countries carried out in 2009. We evaluated three self-reported oral health outcomes: edentulousness, no functional dentition (<20 natural teeth), and oral impacts on daily living. Age-standardized prevalence rates were estimated for each country and for each welfare state regime. The Scandinavian regime showed lower prevalence rates for all outcomes. For edentulousness and no functional dentition, there were higher prevalence rates in the Eastern regime but no significant differences between Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, and Southern regimes. The Southern regime presented a higher prevalence of oral impacts on daily living. Results by country indicated that Sweden had the lowest prevalences for edentulousness and no functional dentition, and Denmark had the lowest prevalence for oral impacts. The results suggest that Scandinavian welfare states, with more redistributive and universal welfare policies, had better population oral health. Future research should provide further insights about the potential mechanisms through which welfare-state regimes would influence oral health. PMID:23659239

  11. Superintendent Retirement in a Reform State: Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyland, Lori; Ellis, John

    2015-01-01

    Indiana recently gained status as a national leader in educational reform. At the same time, a record number of superintendents retired, with 62 retirements in 2012 and 2013, representing 21% of superintendents in the state. The purpose of this study was to explore factors influencing superintendents' decisions to retire during this time.…

  12. The Dilemmas of State-Local Tax Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Procter

    The primary problem for American educational finance is not how to tax but how much to tax. In modern fiscal arrangements, States and localities extract resources from their citizens in some combination of sales, income, or wealth taxes. Any tax reform juggles the relative contribution of each source, but the total amount extracted is still the…

  13. The Common Core "State" Standards: The Arts and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Alice

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, Alice Wexler notes that as the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) become reality, teachers have reason for concern. She contends that this reform to public education has consequently marginalized the arts and exacerbated the inequities of people in poverty and those with disabilities. Teachers, principals and, ultimately,…

  14. The context of child welfare performance measures.

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Samples, Mark; Lawson, Jennifer; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States seeks to improve the outcomes achieved by public agencies through performance measurement strategies. In child welfare policy, a federally mandated performance measurement system has evolved since the 1980s, establishing the federal Child and Family Services Review which uses a series of performance indicators for evaluating the child welfare system. This article reviews the literature on performance measurement and performance management in the public sector in order to develop a conceptual framework for examining the federal child welfare performance measurement system. It briefly summarizes the evolution of federal policy related to performance measurement in child welfare. The framework is then used to guide an analysis of the debate surrounding the establishment of the current child welfare performance measurement system, concluding with recommendations for consideration in future reform efforts. PMID:23705647

  15. Is Christian Religious Conservatism Compatible with the Liberal Social Welfare State?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, John R.; Fandetti, Donald; Cole, Danny

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the rise of Christian religious conservatism and explores whether the theological views of the conservative Christian movement are compatible with the liberal social welfare state. The authors conclude that the driving force behind social change should remain with the state, even though faith-based initiatives can provide…

  16. The Public Understanding of Assessment in Educational Reform in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States education system depends on legislation and funding at the federal, state and local levels. Public understanding of assessment therefore is important to educational reform in the USA. Educational reformers often invoke assessment information as a reason for reform, typically by citing unacceptable achievement on some measure or…

  17. Understanding Educational Reform in Global Context: Economy, Ideology, and the State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Mark B., Ed.

    This book presents a set of national case studies on educational reform of higher education that views reform as processes of ideological and social struggles. The titles and authors are as follows: "Educational Reform: Social Struggles, the State and the World Economic System" (Mark B. Ginsburg, et al.); "Restructuring Education and the State in…

  18. 45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms. 148.128 Section 148.128...individual market reforms—alternative mechanisms. The rules for a State to implement an acceptable alternative mechanism for purposes of...

  19. State-Level Reforms That Support College-Level Program Changes in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling, R. Edward; Morrissey, Sharon; Fouts, George M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the concurrent reforms occurring in North Carolina--both campus-level changes focused on such issues as developing structured programs of study and state-level reforms aimed at supporting the campus efforts.

  20. Health Care Reform Tracking Project: Tracking State Health Care Reforms as They Affect Children and Adolescents with Emotional Disorders and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Sheila A.; Stroul, Beth A.

    The Health Care Reform Tracking Project is a 5-year national project to track and analyze state health care reform initiatives as they affect children and adolescents with emotional/behavioral disorders and their families. The study's first phase was a baseline survey of all 50 states to describe current state reforms as of 1995. Among findings of…

  1. Welfare Reform: Success in Moving toward Work. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (October 16, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This Congressional report contains the testimony and documents presented for the record at the second of two hearings on the effects of welfare reform and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant. Other areas receiving particular attention from witnesses included the impacts of education and training on employment patterns…

  2. The Choice Before Congress on Welfare Reauthorization: Real Jobs or Make Work? Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, David; Rankin, Nancy; Levitan, Mark; Waller, Margy

    Work requirements in welfare reform proposed by the George W. Bush administration would impose much tougher work requirements on welfare recipients. Seventy percent of all adults would be required to work 40 hours per week, versus the 50 percent who are required to work 30 hours per week currently. In addition, states would be given little leeway…

  3. The Mid-1990s Earned Income Tax Credit Expansion: EITC and Welfare Caseloads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Younghee

    2008-01-01

    Research and policy scholars have suggested that recent welfare caseload reductions have coincided with welfare reform efforts; however, few studies have incorporated the impacts of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) expansions in the 1990s. Using annual state-level administrative data, the author estimated the effects of the fully phased-in…

  4. Welfare Reform on American Indian Reservations: Initial Experience of Service Providers and Recipients on Reservations in Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Brown, Eddie F.; Scheuler-Whitaker, Leslie; Collier-Tenison, Shannon

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with service providers and welfare recipients on 15 Arizona American Indian reservations indicated that low levels of education and work experience were barriers to employment, and employment was scarce. In remote areas, the lack of support services, paved roads, transportation, and communication made it impossible for many residents to…

  5. Politics, Policy, Practice and Personal Responsibility: Adult Education in an Era of Welfare Reform. NCSALL Reports #10A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Deobrah

    The relationship of literacy to work should be considered in terms of the political and economic conditions that structure the experiences of the working and non-working poor with respect to education and work. Research shows welfare-to-work programs constitute behavioral solutions to what are structural economic problems; literacy alone cannot…

  6. A Need For Correction: Reforming New York's Juvenile Justice System. Child Welfare Watch. Vol. 18, Fall 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Andrew; Hemphill, Clara; Hurley, Kendra

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of a U.S. Justice Department investigation that found widespread use of excessive force by staff at upstate psychiatric care facilities for mentally ill children, this new edition of Child Welfare Watch identifies shortcomings in mental health services and explores possible solutions, including the expansion of alternatives to…

  7. The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Abortion, Education, Term Limits, Welfare Reform, Health Insurance, Riverboat Gambling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

    This report presents the annual survey of public opinion in Pennsylvania. Telephone surveys were conducted with 1,744 people whose telephone numbers were randomly selected from all listed telephone numbers. Results of the survey indicate that: (1) Pennsylvanians strongly favor mandatory birth control counseling for welfare mothers, but opinion is…

  8. How Welfare States Shape the Gender Pay Gap: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Hadas; Shalev, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We assess the impact of the welfare state on cross-national variation in the gender wage gap. Earnings inequality between men and women is conceptualized as resulting from their different locations in the class hierarchy, combined with the severity of wage differentials between and within classes. This decomposition contributes to identifying…

  9. State Investments in Work Participation: Meeting the Promise of Welfare-to-Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venner, Sandra H.

    As states implement new strategies to help more families make the transition from welfare to work, they will be faced with the challenge of designing programs that address the needs of an extremely diverse population of families. Some families will be able to make the transition to work with limited assistance, especially in a strong economy.…

  10. Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebode, Stella O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

  11. Statistics and Health Care Reform in the United States Jasjeet Singh Sekhon

    E-print Network

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    Statistics and Health Care Reform in the United States Jasjeet Singh Sekhon 6/14/2010 The signature domestic accomplishment of the Obama Administration thus far has been the enactment of health care reform issues related to health care reform that may be of particular interest to readers of Significance

  12. Exploring the compatibility of mental health nursing, recovery-focused practice and the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Conlon, M M M; Bush, C J; Ariyaratnam, M I; Brennan, G K; Owtram, R

    2015-06-01

    Mental health nurses are expected to adhere to a range of professional values. The values of social integration that mental health nurses practise are somewhat at odds with the values of the British welfare state. Alternative systems of welfare support are demonstrated in other countries. Mental health nurses must consider models of practice, such as that described by Clifton et?al. (2013b), to manage the disconnection between what is expected and what can be achieved. This discussion paper considers the implications for mental health nursing practice when working alongside individuals in receipt of state benefits. There is arguably a profound impact on an individual's recovery from mental ill health when that individual is also dependent on financial support from the government. Access to welfare benefits can have a significant impact on the recovery journey of that individual. This discussion paper will consider the practice implications for mental health nurses whose professional values include maxims such as 'challenging inequality' and 'respecting diversity', and will seek to examine the implications for practice when such values are divergent from those demonstrated in government policy. The paper will make comparisons with international welfare systems to demonstrate the way in which alternative configurations of state welfare can promote a system of social justice that is in greater equilibrium with the professional values of mental health nurses. Finally, the discussion will focus on the options for mental health nurses to either subscribe to government policy or to find compromise solutions that enable attention to remain focused and active on a strong value base of social justice and recovery-focused practice. PMID:26014831

  13. Research-Infused STEM Reform at South Carolina State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Daniel M., Jr.; Anderson, J. A.; Adzievski, K.

    2006-12-01

    South Carolina State University (SCSU) has embarked upon a mission to transform its science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines by offering more scholarships to students talented in the sciences, by introducing advanced topics in the introductory STEM courses, and by expanding research opportunities for STEM students. Specific examples will be provided from physics and astronomy. Program accomplishments after one year of operation will be highlighted, along with the difficulties of instituting such a broad-based reform. NSF HBCU-UP Award #0506062

  14. Educational Reform: The Need To Redefine State-Local Governance of Schools. Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Thomas B.

    This document examines recent state school reform efforts from two perspectives: the strategies states adopt to improve educational excellence and the influence those strategies have on the functional dimensions of education policy. The paper reports the research findings of a study that examined state reform strategies nationally. The study…

  15. The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-272): The First Ten Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Foundation for Consumer Credit, Silver Spring, MD.

    The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 (PL 96-272) provided major federal initiatives to reform the state child welfare system. The goals of the act were to keep families together by providing them with services and to find permanent adoptive homes for children who could not be reunited with their parents. This report examines the…

  16. Privatizing the welfarist state: health care reforms in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khoon, Chan Chee

    2003-01-01

    In Malaysia, the shifting balance between market and state has many nuances. Never a significant welfare state in the usual mold, the Malaysian state nonetheless has been a dominant social and economic presence dictated by its affirmative action-type policies, which eventually metamorphosed into state-led indigenous capitalism. Privatisation is also intimately linked with emergence of an indigenous bourgeoisie with favored access to the vast accumulation of state assets and prerogatives. Internationally, it is conditioned by the fluid relationships of converging alliances and contested compromise with international capital, including transnational health services industries. As part of its vision of a maturing, diversified economy, the Malaysian government is fostering a private-sector advanced health care industry to cater to local demand and also aimed at regional and international patrons. The assumption is that, as disposable incomes increase, a market for such services is emerging and citizens can increasingly shoulder their own health care costs. The government would remain the provider for the indigent. But the key assumption remains: the growth trajectory will see the emergence of markets for an increasingly affluent middle class. Importantly, the health care and social services market would be dramatically expanded as the downsizing of public-sector health care proceeds amid a general retreat of government from its provider and financing roles. PMID:17208722

  17. How Educators Process and Respond to State-Level Education Reform Policies: The Case of Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.; Goldman, Paul

    This paper reports on an investigation of educator reaction to one state's systemic school reform legislation. Educators have generally been reticent to embrace state-level legislation reform initiatives while simultaneously agreeing with their ultimate goals. Findings are the latest data in a 5-year longitudinal study begun in 1992 that focused…

  18. Commentary: recent reforms in the British National Health Service--lessons for the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, W W; Graham, C

    1994-01-01

    President Clinton recently announced his reform plan for health care in the United States. The United Kingdom, along with other countries, has already enacted reforms in an effort to overcome the basic problem of having insufficient funds to provide a health service to meet modern demands. This paper briefly describes the recent health reforms in the United Kingdom and highlights some lessons for the United States, which include the need to choose procedures that should be universally provided. Health reforms that involve some fundamental restructuring need to be evaluated everywhere and agreed to by the staff in advance. PMID:8296937

  19. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES...welfare of the United States (including, but not limited to, fish, shellfish, wildlife, other natural resources,...

  20. Reforming state-level chemicals management policies in the United States: status, challenges, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Ken; Tickner, Joel; Torrie, Yve

    2009-01-01

    During the last several years there has been increasing public concern about chemicals in everyday products. Scientific studies are increasingly revealing the build-up of some substances in ecosystems and in our bodies and new findings are linking exposures to hazardous chemicals to a range of adverse human health effects. Despite these trends, there has been little federal initiative in the United States on reforming chemicals management policies for well over two decades, even though a variety of analyses have identified significant gaps in the regulatory structure. As has historically been the case, states are beginning to fill the holes in federal leadership. This article explores this emerging state leadership and establishes a vision for and elements of policies to reduce hazardous chemicals in the products we buy and the places we go. It examines international efforts to reform chemicals management policies, such as the European REACH legislation and corporate leadership in advancing safer products. Finally, it outlines specific challenges states face in developing integrated, comprehensive chemicals management policies. We conclude that while there are plenty of challenges to implementation of chemicals policy reforms, it is a propitious time for states to become leaders in policy innovation that can help achieve safer production systems and products for future generations. This article is part of a Lowell Center for Sustainable Production report entitled "Options for State Chemicals Policy Reform" that provides in-depth analysis of the pros and cons of policy options to address a range of aspects of state-level chemicals policy reform. The article has been edited slightly for use in New Solutions. The report has been widely distributed to policy-makers, advocates, and others across the United States. PMID:19447756

  1. Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Haejoo; Ng, Edwin; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Karlsson, Björn; Benach, Joan; Espelt, Albert; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05–0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22–0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08–0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10–0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26–0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14–3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86–3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health. PMID:23538729

  2. Young Adult Dependent Coverage: Were the State Reforms Effective?

    PubMed Central

    Burgdorf, James R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the robustness of findings regarding state-level adult dependent coverage expansions using detailed outcomes that specify coverage source. Data Sources This study uses the 2001–2009 files of the Current Population Survey's Annual Social and Economic Supplement, covering calendar years 2000–2008, and considers young adults ages 19 through 29. Study Design Difference-in-differences methods were used to estimate the effect of state-level dependent coverage expansions on finely detailed categories of coverage, and falsification tests were used to evaluate the models themselves. Principal Findings Certain published results on state-level parental coverage expansions are flawed, with reported increases driven by changes in spousal coverage. Other published results appear to be in fact driven by parental coverage, but they are not robust to alternative model adjustments. Conclusions This study shows evidence that one study's results on “dependent” coverage are in fact driven by changes in rates of spousal coverage. Results from a second study, though not robust to use of a more conventional DD model, would seem to apply most strongly to individuals at ages at which one would typically have lost parental coverage before reform, consistent with a “passive” effect rather than an “active” effect that enrolls previously uninsured youths. PMID:25142384

  3. U.S. Immigration in the 1980s: Reappraisal and Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simcox, David E., Ed.

    The introductory chapter of this volume on immigration into the United States is entitled "Overview: A Time of Reform and Reappraisal" (D. Simcox), and it introduces the topics of reform, legal and illegal immigration, the effect of immigration on the labor market and social welfare, and immigration enforcement methods that are discussed in the…

  4. Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Federal Agencies Could Play a Stronger Role in Helping States Reduce the Number of Children Placed Solely To Obtain Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Child welfare directors in 19 states and juvenile justice officials in 30 counties estimated that in fiscal year 2001 parents placed over 12,700 children into the child welfare or juvenile justice systems so that these children could receive mental health services. Neither the child welfare nor the juvenile justice system was designed to serve…

  5. Effects of a Data-Driven District Reform Model on State Assessment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Cheung, Alan; Holmes, GwenCarol; Madden, Nancy A.; Chamberlain, Anne

    2013-01-01

    A district-level reform model created by the Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE) provided consultation with district leaders on strategic use of data and selection of proven programs. Fifty-nine districts in seven states were randomly assigned to CDDRE or control conditions. A total of 397 elementary and 225 middle schools were…

  6. Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Education Reform Strategy: Report on Country Consultations and Work Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Hubert J.

    In 1991 a working group from the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) released a report, the OECS Education Reform Strategy (OERS), which detailed proposed reform strategies for the region. This document summarizes the report's nine recommendations and responses to the report. The report was distributed to Ministries of Education and…

  7. A Call for Reformation of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Ashley Ireland

    2014-01-01

    Although current research, educational theorists, and international comparison prove a need for reform, the United States' teacher preparation programs are failing. The following paper will call for the reform of teacher preparation programs in three distinct areas. Examination of current data, application of educational theorists'…

  8. School Reform in the United States: Frames and Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This essay reviews six competing positions on U.S. school reform: a speech from Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan; Diane Ravitch's "The Death and Life of the Great American School System"; Frederick Hess's "The Same Thing Over and Over"; Charles Payne's "So Much Reform, So Little Change"; Anthony Byrk and others' "Organizing School for…

  9. The New Zealand State and Educational Reforms: 'Competing' Interests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Liz

    Ways in which the shape of New Zealand's educational system crucially affected the implementation process of market oriented educational reforms are examined in this paper. The first part discusses educational reform in New Zealand as political management. The Labour government's program from 1987 to 1990 was designed to reduce the size and scope…

  10. On the Declining Health Status of Welfare Caseloads: Emerging Dilemmas for Serving the Poor

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Laura A.; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Henderson, Stuart; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, James

    2014-01-01

    An emerging concern for public policy is welfare reform’s potential to inadvertently affect caseload composition by increasing the proportion of recipients with health-related barriers to employment. We examine this using data from the Welfare Client Longitudinal Study, an in-depth case study of a large California county. Through quantitative analyses, we examine the extent of change in health-related problems since welfare reform and their potential to progressively impact overall composition of the caseload. We augment this with qualitative data on how local welfare providers are responding to the health-related needs of aid recipients. Results suggest that the burden of health-related problems is growing and that welfare providers may be poorly equipped to respond effectively on their own. The changing composition of welfare caseloads may foster several new policy dilemmas that demand broader attention: states and localities may face difficulties meeting federal workforce participation requirements, may need to restructure welfare-to-work programs to serve a more functionally impaired population, and take steps to better integrate health and welfare services at the local level. PMID:21400369

  11. From Rags to Rifles: The Economics of Deprevation, Conflict and Welfare State

    E-print Network

    Rohner, Dominic

    " with respect to the other dimension. In countries such as Sri Lanka, Colombia, Brazil or Nigeria raising taxes and conducting ?scal and welfare state policies is possible. The presence of rebel groups in some of those countries makes the collection of taxes... more di¢ cult in some regions than in others, but larger ?rms cannot escape taxation inde- pendently of their location. Also, some kinds of taxes, such as export taxes or import tari¤s (which de facto at least partially reduce the surplus...

  12. Welfare state retrenchment and increasing mental health inequality by educational credentials in Finland: a multicohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinen, Lauri; Muntaner, Carles; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Varje, Pekka; Väänänen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological studies have shown an association between educational credentials and mental disorders, but have not offered any explanation for the varying strength of this association in different historical contexts. In this study, we investigate the education-specific trends in hospitalisation due to psychiatric disorders in Finnish working-age men and women between 1976 and 2010, and offer a welfare state explanation for the secular trends found. Setting Population-based setting with a 25% random sample of the population aged 30–65?years in 7 independent consecutive cohorts (1976–1980, 1981–1985, 1986–1990, 1991–1995, 1996–2000, 2001–2005, 2006–2010). Participants Participants were randomly selected from the Statistics Finland population database (n=2?865?746). These data were linked to diagnosis-specific records on hospitalisations, drawn from the National Hospital Discharge Registry using personal identification numbers. Employment rates by educational credentials were drawn from the Statistics Finland employment database. Primary and secondary outcome measures Hospitalisation and employment. Results We found an increasing trend in psychiatric hospitalisation rates among the population with only an elementary school education, and a decreasing trend in those with higher educational credentials. The employment rate of the population with only an elementary school education decreased more than that of those with higher educational credentials. Conclusions We propose that restricted employment opportunities are the main mechanism behind the increased educational inequality in hospitalisation for psychiatric disorders, while several secondary mechanisms (lack of outpatient healthcare services, welfare cuts, decreased alcohol duty) further accelerated the diverging long-term trends. All of these inequality-increasing mechanisms were activated by welfare state retrenchment, which included the liberalisation of financial markets and labour markets, severe austerity measures and narrowing down of public sector employment commitment. PMID:26041491

  13. The Impact of State Behavioral Health Reform on Native American Individuals, Families, and Communities

    PubMed Central

    Willging, Cathleen E.; Goodkind, Jessica; Lamphere, Louise; Saul, Gwendolyn; Fluder, Shannon; Seanez, Paula

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the State of New Mexico undertook a sweeping transformation of all publicly funded behavioral health services. The reform was intended to enhance the cultural responsiveness and appropriateness of these services. To examine achievement of this objective, we conducted a qualitative study of the involvement of Native Americans in reform efforts and the subsequent impacts of reform on services for Native Americans. We found that the reform was relatively unsuccessful at creating mechanisms for genuine community input or improving behavioral health care for this population. These shortcomings were related to limited understandings of administrators concerning how tribal governments and health care systems operate, and the structural limitations of a managed care system that does not allow flexibility for culturally appropriate utilization review, screening, or treatment. However, interaction between the State and tribes increased, and we conclude that aspects of the reform could be strengthened to achieve more meaningful involvement and service improvements. PMID:22427455

  14. A Framework for Rebuilding Initial Certification and Preparation Programs in Educational Leadership: Lessons from Whole-State Reform Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph; Moorman, Hunter N.; McCarthy, Martha

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: This study examines the extent of reform in preparation programs in school leadership in six states employing a comprehensive, whole-state intervention design. Although no studies of these or other comprehensive reform designs are available, there is a rich context surrounding preparation reform work that informed our…

  15. The A B Cs of Welfare Reform: A Guide to the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Candace J.; Sugarman, Jule M.

    The passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 means that, for the first time, the federal government has shifted substantial responsibility for maintaining a social safety net for the most vulnerable populations to the state governments. This guide summarizes the contents of the new law, identifies…

  16. The Aftermath of Welfare Reform: Health, Health Insurance, and Access to Care among Families Leaving TANF in Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seccombe, Karen; Hartley, Heather; Newsom, Jason; Hoffman, Kim; Marchand, Gwen C.; Albo, Christina; Gordon, Cathy; Zaback, Tosha; Lockwood, Richard; Pope, Clyde

    2007-01-01

    This research reports the initial findings of a statewide study that looks at health, insurance, and access to health care among families leaving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) for work. Most national and state-level evaluation projects focus primarily on the employment characteristics of TANF leavers and pay little or no attention…

  17. A Welfare Reform--Homelessness--Foster Care Connection? The Story of "Lag Families" and "Limbo Children" in San Diego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    An analysis of data from a survey of more than 100 parents residing in emergency shelter in San Diego, California, reveals a portrait of poverty that is prevalent among women and children in the United States today. Homeless families in San Diego, as in the rest of the country, are most often headed by women in their early thirties whose prospects…

  18. Welfare Reform: Work-Site-Based Activities Can Play an Important Role in TANF Programs. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagnoni, Cynthia M.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined worksite-based activities currently in place to help recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) develop the skills required for successful transition to unsubsidized employment. Data were collected from the following sources: (1) data reported by states to the Department of Health and…

  19. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... development and planning activities for emergency welfare preparedness. Such activities must relate to...) Safekeeping essential documents and records; (2) Planning and developing emergency operating capability for... individuals are responsible for the planning and operation of each welfare function essential under...

  20. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... development and planning activities for emergency welfare preparedness. Such activities must relate to...) Safekeeping essential documents and records; (2) Planning and developing emergency operating capability for... individuals are responsible for the planning and operation of each welfare function essential under...

  1. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... development and planning activities for emergency welfare preparedness. Such activities must relate to...) Safekeeping essential documents and records; (2) Planning and developing emergency operating capability for... individuals are responsible for the planning and operation of each welfare function essential under...

  2. Children of divorce in a Scandinavian welfare state: are they less affected than US children?

    PubMed

    Breivik, Kyrre; Olweus, Dan

    2006-02-01

    A fairly common view holds that children's risks of negative outcomes associated with family dissolution are generally small or even nonexistent in Scandinavia, and clearly smaller than what is usually found in the United States. This view was empirically examined in a recent large-scale study of 4,127 12-15-year-old children in Norway, of whom 623 had experienced parental divorce and lived in a single-mother family. The somewhat paradoxical pattern of findings was as follows: (a) The negative associations between parental divorce and various outcomes were found to be generally very similar in Norway and the United States in spite of the great differences in family policy and welfare benefits for single mothers (at the macro level); and (b) Mediational effects of family economic resources were in both countries most marked for the academic achievement area, and the predictive power of such variables was quite similar, again in spite of the great differences in absolute level of the economic resources available to single-mother families in the two countries. The results cast some doubt on the value of the absolute economic deprivation perspective in explaining the results, and the many Norwegian welfare benefits do not seem to mitigate the association between divorce and negative outcomes for the children involved. Also policy implications derived from the economic deprivation perspective are questioned. Alternative interpretations of the findings involving relative deprivation and economic resources as a partial proxy for other non-economic factors are briefly discussed. PMID:16433663

  3. Preparing Welfare and Other Low-Income Adults for Work and Better Jobs: A Report on Low-Income Students Enrolled in Colleges and the Start-Up of WorkFirst Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia. Education Div.

    This is a report on Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges' assistance of low-income adults under the state's welfare reform initiative, WorkFirst. Current and former welfare students attending community and technical colleges comprise 9% of all college student enrollments. Combining work and training leads to higher wages.…

  4. The University in the Making of the Welfare State: The 1970s Degree Reform in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalava, Marja

    2012-01-01

    In just a couple of decades, Finland evolved from one of Europe's lowest educated countries to the top performer of the international PISA ranking. Behind this "success story", there was a conscious strategy to use educational policies for creating a more equal society. Tracing the development of Finnish higher education system after WWII, this…

  5. An Examination of State Takeover as a School Reform Strategy in a Small Rural School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookover, Chester Wayne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore state takeover as a school reform strategy in a small rural school district. Since 1988, more than 50 U.S. school districts in 20 states have been subject to some form of state takeover. A number of factors generally contribute to a state takeover, some of which include: poor student…

  6. Health care reform and social movements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2008-09-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or "change from below," in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:18687625

  7. Understanding the role of welfare state characteristics for health and inequalities – an analytical review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The past decade has witnessed a growing body of research on welfare state characteristics and health inequalities but the picture is, despite this, inconsistent. We aim to review this research by focusing on theoretical and methodological differences between studies that at least in part may lead to these mixed findings. Methods Three reviews and relevant bibliographies were manually explored in order to find studies for the review. Related articles were searched for in PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Database searches were done in PubMed and Web of Science. The search period was restricted to 2005-01-01 to 2013-02-28. Fifty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Results Three main approaches to comparative welfare state research are identified; the Regime approach, the Institutional approach, and the Expenditure approach. The Regime approach is the most common and regardless of the empirical regime theory employed and the amendments made to these, results are diverse and contradictory. When stratifying studies according to other features, not much added clarity is achieved. The Institutional approach shows more consistent results; generous policies and benefits seem to be associated with health in a positive way for all people in a population, not only those who are directly affected or targeted. The Expenditure approach finds that social and health spending is associated with increased levels of health and smaller health inequalities in one way or another but the studies are few in numbers making it somewhat difficult to get coherent results. Conclusions Based on earlier reviews and our results we suggest that future research should focus less on welfare regimes and health inequalities and more on a multitude of different types of studies, including larger analyses of social spending and social rights in various policy areas and how these are linked to health in different social strata. But, we also need more detailed evaluation of specific programmes or interventions, as well as more qualitative analyses of the experiences of different types of policies among the people and families that need to draw on the collective resources. PMID:24369852

  8. Current State and Problems of Higher Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salnikov, N.; Burukhin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Russia is experiencing changes in curriculum and in the specialization and function of institutions in the search for a better model for a post-Soviet society. The early 1990s saw the start of the reform of the system of education in Russia. However, problems of quality and of continuity with secondary education have still not…

  9. Corporate Education Reform and the Rise of State Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, P. L.

    2013-01-01

    The election of Barack Obama appeared to signal a shift in U.S. policy toward the Left, particularly since Obama has been framed as a "socialist," but the education discourse and policy pursued under Obama and voiced by Secretary of Education Arne Duncan has shown that education reform remains in the midst of a powerful corporate model. This essay…

  10. P-16: The Last Education Reform. Book Two: Emerging Local, Regional, and State Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochford, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    This is the second book in a series entitled "P-16: The Last Education Reform." It was the purpose of the authors to chronicle the growth of existing state and local P-16 councils and compacts across the United States and to look at what might constitute successful efforts and an ideal relationship between state and local efforts. The methodology…

  11. Equal Educational Opportunity in Connecticut. Review and Recommendations for State School Finance Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Educational Equity Study Committee, Hartford.

    Formed by the Connecticut legislature to monitor the state's educational aid plan, the Educational Equity Study Committee in this report joins with the state Board of Education in recommending amendments to Connecticut's 1979 school finance reform law, involving changes in the state's Minimum Expenditure Requirement (MER) plan and Guaranteed Tax…

  12. EXPLAINING THE DISTINCTIVENESS OF MEXICAN-IMMIGRANT WELFARE BEHAVIORS: THE IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYMENT-RELATED CULTURAL REPERTOIRES

    PubMed Central

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Bean, Frank D.

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists generally seek to explain welfare-related behaviors in terms of economic choice, social structural, or culture of poverty theories. Because such explanations incompletely account for nativity differences in public assistance receipt among those of Mexican origin, this paper draws upon the sociology of migration and culture literatures to develop alternative materialist-based cultural repertoire hypotheses to explain the welfare behaviors of Mexican immigrants. We argue that immigrants from Mexico arrive and work in the United States under circumstances fostering employment-based cultural repertoires that, compared with natives and other immigrant groups, encourage less welfare participation (in part because such repertoires lead to faster welfare exits) and more post-welfare employment, especially in states with relatively more generous welfare-policies. Using individual-level data predating Welfare Reform from multiple panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), merged with state-level information on welfare-benefit levels, we assess these ideas by examining immigrant-group differences in welfare receipt, retention, and transition to employment across locales with varying levels of welfare benefits. Overall, the results are consistent with the notion that cultural repertoires incline Mexican immigrants to utilize welfare not primarily to avoid work, cope with disadvantage, or perpetuate a culture of dependency, but rather mostly to minimize employment discontinuities. This result carries important theoretical and policy implications. PMID:24489383

  13. Perspectives on animal welfare legislation and study considerations for field-oriented studies of raptors in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Strobel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Concern for the welfare of animals used in research and teaching has increased over the last 50 yr. Animal welfare legislation has resulted in guidelines for the use of animals in research, but the guidelines can be problematic because they focus on animals used in laboratory and agriculture research. Raptor biologists can be constrained by guidelines, restrictions, and oversight that were not intended for field research methods or wild animals in the wild or captivity. Field researchers can be further hampered by not understanding animal welfare legislation, who is subject to oversight, or that oversight is often provided by a committee consisting primarily of scientists who work with laboratory animals. Raptor researchers in particular may experience difficulty obtaining approval due to use of various species-specific trapping and handling methods. We provide a brief review of animal welfare legislation and describe the basic components and responsibilities of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in the United States. We identify topics in raptor research that are especially problematic to obtaining IACUC approval, and we provide insight on how to address these issues. Finally, we suggest that all raptor researchers, regardless of legal requirements, abide by the spirit of the animal welfare principles. Failure to do so may bring about further regulatory and permitting restrictions. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  14. Primary care and the maelstrom of health care reform in the United States of America.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, P

    1995-01-01

    Recent reform in the National Health Service has moved general practice towards a more intense market and competition structure. Meanwhile in the United States of America there has been an attempt to modify the free enterprise approach to medical care towards a more socially responsive system. This discussion paper provides a family doctor's perspective of primary care and the maelstrom of health care reform in the USA. The cultural, economic and organizational issues underlying the need for reform are considered in turn, and the current situation with regard to health care provision, medical research, medical education and primary care are outlined. General practitioners in the United Kingdom would do well to pay attention to the effects of market reform occurring in general practice among their American counterparts. PMID:7576850

  15. Marijuana and cocaine use among female African-American welfare recipients.

    PubMed

    Williams, Chyvette T; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2004-08-16

    A key issue that came to the forefront during the welfare reform debate in the United States during the 1990s concerned the relationship between welfare receipt and drug use and abuse. This paper examines the relationship between persistent welfare assistance, welfare background, and marijuana and cocaine use among African-American women. We hypothesize that women who have received welfare assistance for a period of 5 years or more will be more likely to use drugs compared to those who have never received welfare assistance or who have received it for a shorter duration. Data for this analysis comes from a longitudinal study of African-Americans living in a Chicago community followed from first grade (N = 1242) to age 32. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between years of welfare receipt and three categories of marijuana and cocaine use (never, past, and current) among female respondents (N = 496). Results indicate an increased risk of past-year cocaine and marijuana use for women who reported receiving welfare benefits for 5 years or more. Growing up in a family that received welfare did not significantly predict adult drug use, but did significantly predict an adult welfare experience. Implications of results are discussed. PMID:15276224

  16. Reforming Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert, Ed.; Merryfield, Merry M., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue highlights the diversity of reform initiatives in order to provide a deep understanding of the complexities associated with educational reform in general and the reform of science education in particular. Systemic reform initiatives at the national and state levels along with locally-inspired efforts at reform are outlined.…

  17. Using Pre-K to Advance Education Reform: Opportunities for State Advisory Councils. Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffin, Stacie G.; Regenstein, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    By strengthening linkages between pre-k programs and education reform agendas, Early Childhood Councils are well positioned to influence their states' school improvement activities. This brief identifies specific steps councils can take to maximize their states' investments in early education including aligning policy prior to and following Pre-K.…

  18. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused disasters... necessary to care for public assistance cases in the event of disaster or attack; (7) Preparing plans...

  19. Globalization and the Nation-State: Sovereignty and State Welfare in Jeopardy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jotia, Agreement Lathi

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the fact that although globalization cannot be resisted by the nation-state, it is often confronted by mixed reactions from both the GN (Global North) and the GS (Global South). The essay charges that globalization has political, economic and cultural impact on the nation-state, which ultimately impacts the issue of identity…

  20. A comparison snapshot of states' small group market reform on access and enhancing valued plan features, 1999.

    PubMed

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Stoskopf, Carleen H; Shrader, William R; Glover, Saundra H

    2004-01-01

    Small group health insurance statutes of 48 states and the District of Columbia, as of 1999, were reviewed. Reform provisions judged to have some relevance for the market are catalogued and total 74 distinct regulations. Judgment of market relevance was based on actuarial experience at a leading health insurance company. The regulations are categorized under: (1) Access improvement; (2) Pricing and Rating Reforms; (3) Improving stability of coverage; and (4) Improving valued features of plans. The nuances and variety of these regulations, adopted in various combinations by the states, are discussed. The complexity of the reform scenario suggests the need for impact studies that take into account the totality of reform. Past studies have evaluated the impact of selected major reforms in isolation, and, thus, have been inadequate to provide definitive conclusions on the reforms' impact. PMID:15829454

  1. Education Reform for the Knowledge Economy in the State of Sangon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the issues associated with the implementation of education reform policies relating to "future schools" in a small state in the Middle East and North Africa region. The study points to the consistency with which global corporations and the supranational organisations, such as UNESCO and the World Bank,…

  2. Evaluating ARRA Programs and Other Educational Reforms: A Guide for States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Johnson, Irma; Walters, Kirk; Puma, Michael; Herman, Rebecca; Garet, Michael; Heppen, Jessica; Lemke, Mariann; Aladjem, Daniel; Amin, Samia; Burghardt, John

    2011-01-01

    The American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) developed this guide to help you consider evaluation issues likely to arise as you launch ARRA-funded initiatives and other educational reform activities. Many states are already involved in evaluation, so many of the ideas presented here may be familiar. The authors…

  3. Reconsidering Genre Theory in K-12 Schools: A Response to School Reforms in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebhard, Meg; Harman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Education reforms in the United States have placed new demands on English language learners (ELLs) and their teachers in K-12 public schools. In response, many teachers, teacher educators, and literacy scholars are reexamining genre theory and genre-based pedagogy as a way of supporting the academic literacy development of the growing number of…

  4. Finding Common Ground in Pension Reform: Lessons from the Washington State Pension System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    As states and localities across the nation consider the tradeoffs between defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) pension systems, it is important to gain insight into what implications pension reforms might have on workforce composition and teachers' retirement savings behavior. Moreover, it is also important to consider that…

  5. A Legal Guide to State Pension Reform. Education Sector Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Just 18 minutes before the midnight signing deadline on May 15, 2010, Minnesota state legislators breathed a sigh of relief. Their bipartisan pension reform legislation, which passed both chambers by large margins and aimed to help shore up a potentially failing pension system, had just escaped a veto threat. Under pressure from his Republican…

  6. State-Level Support for Comprehensive School Reform: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Brett; Gracia, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In the current context of standards-based reform and heightened accountability for school performance, state education agencies (SEAs) have an important, but not yet well-articulated, role to play in local school improvement efforts. This article starts to articulate such a role by examining the variety of approaches and strategies used by 7 SEAs…

  7. The Superintendent and Educational Reform in the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björk, Lars G.; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Kowalski, Theodore J.

    2014-01-01

    During the last two decades the intensity and complexity of educational reform in the United States of America have heightened interest among policymakers, practitioners, and professors in large-scale, systemic change. As a consequence, superintendents are being viewed as pivotal actors in the complex algorithm for managing districts and leading…

  8. Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Lessons from PISA for the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This volume draws lessons from the education systems of a selection of top-scoring and rapidly improving countries as measured by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). While this volume relates these lessons to the education reform agenda in the United States, they…

  9. State-Mandated Reform of Programs Preparing School Principals: One University's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupton, Sandra Lee

    This report provides a first-hand description and analysis of reforms initiated in the administrator-preparation program at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM). USM is one among eight public and private institutions in Mississippi that are currently redesigning their administrator-preparation programs in accordance with state mandates and…

  10. Climb On! From Welfare to a Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Patti; Kime, Bruce

    In operation since 1990, the Gateway Program is a collaborative welfare reform effort developed by Colorado Mountain College (CMC), the county department of social services, and the local Job Training Partnership Act provider. One component of the program is the Link Program, developed to prepare welfare recipients for enrollment in vocational…

  11. Higher Rates of Adolescent Substance Use in Child Welfare Versus Community Populations in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fettes, Danielle L.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Green, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Youth substance use exacts costly consequences for a variety of important health outcomes. We examined and compared prevalence rates and a common set of psychosocial factors of lifetime and current substance use among child welfare–involved youths and community youths from two nationally representative data sets. Method: Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we compared prevalence rates and conducted logistic regression models for eight binary outcome measures of substance use: lifetime and current use of alcohol, inhalant, marijuana, and other illicit drugs to examine predictors of substance involvement in the two samples. Results: Substance use prevalence was higher among child welfare–involved youths than community youths for lifetime marijuana use, lifetime and current inhalant use, and lifetime and current other illicit drug use. Among both child welfare–involved and community youths, delinquency was the factor most strongly associated with all lifetime substance use outcomes. Notably, family structure and parental closeness were important protective factors against current substance use among child welfare–involved youths. For community youths, poorer emotional health was the strongest indicator of current substance use. Conclusions: Substance use among all adolescents is a critical public health concern. Given the heightened vulnerability of child welfare–involved youths, it is particularly important to focus prevention and early intervention efforts on this population. Further research should explore additional factors associated with substance use among these youths so that child welfare and behavioral health systems may jointly target prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:24172108

  12. National Education Reform and New York State: A Report Card. Proceedings of the New York Education Policy Seminar (Albany, New York, February 4, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmerer, Frances; And Others

    A review and assessment of states' reform actions, measurement techniques, and the relevance of the reforms for New York State are addressed in this collection of papers from a working seminar on the purpose of schooling and the means of producing higher levels of achievement. The first paper, "Education Reform in the State: A Comparative View and…

  13. God and the Welfare State - Substitutes or Complements? An Experimental Test of the Effect of Belief in God's Control

    PubMed Central

    Be’ery, Gilad; Ben-Nun Bloom, Pazit

    2015-01-01

    Belief in God’s control of the world is common to many of the world’s religions, but there are conflicting predictions regarding its role in shaping attitudes toward the welfare state. While the devout are expected to support pro-social values like helping others, and thus might be supportive of the welfare state, the possibility of taking action is undermined by the belief in God’s absolute control over world affairs and in a morally perfect providence, who is responsible for the fates of individuals. As the literature provides mixed results on this question, this study examines the role of belief in God’s control on welfare attitudes using three priming experiments and two priming tasks, carried out with a design that is both cross-cultural (US vs. Israel) and cross-religious tradition (Judaism vs. Catholicism). We find evidence that, largely, belief in God’s control increases support for income redistribution among Israeli Jews (study 1), American Jews (study 2), and American Catholics (study 3). The findings suggest that the traditional and common political gap between the economic left and the religious, based on the evaluation that religious beliefs lead to conservative economic preferences, may be overstated. PMID:26061050

  14. The European influence on workers' compensation reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Workers' compensation law in the United States is derived from European models of social insurance introduced in Germany and in England. These two concepts of workers' compensation are found today in the federal and state workers' compensation programs in the United States. All reform proposals in the United States are influenced by the European experience with workers' compensation. In 2006, a reform proposal termed the Public Health Model was made that would abolish the workers' compensation system, and in its place adopt a national disability insurance system for all injuries and illnesses. In the public health model, health and safety professionals would work primarily in public health agencies. The public health model eliminates the physician from any role other than that of privately consulting with the patient and offering advice solely to the patient. The Public Health Model is strongly influenced by the European success with physician consultation with industry and labor. PMID:22151643

  15. Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

  16. The Role of District Leadership in Radical Reform: Philadelphia's Experience under the State Takeover, 2001-2006. An Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useem, Elizabeth; Christman, Jolley Bruce; Boyd, William Lowe

    2006-01-01

    Leadership is key in the success of any reform, especially one as ambitious and complex as that in Philadelphia. "The case of Philadelphia is noteworthy as an exemplar of the implementation of paradigm-breaking new reforms in the governance and delivery of urban education." This report follows the first five years of the state takeover and the…

  17. A Multilevel Analysis of Factors Related to Poverty in Welfare States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyo-seong; Lee, Yongwoo; Lee, Yu-jeong

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate factors contributing to poverty, one of the most significant social problems in Western societies. To this end, 13 countries that have made a variety of efforts to reduce poverty, and therefore experienced similar development processes related to welfare, were selected. To overcome the methodological limitations of…

  18. Children's Agency and the Welfare State: Policy Priorities and Contradictions in Australia and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, liberal welfare regimes have begun to treat lone parents as workers rather than as carers. This has happened in conjunction with an ongoing "moral panic" about the need to develop policies to invest in children, and to protect them from adult worlds. The purpose of this article is to analyse contradictions within and between…

  19. Recent Changes in Texas Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 1. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randy; Pindus, Nancy; Snyder, Kathleen; Leos-Urbel, Jacob

    This brief updates an overview of welfare benefits and services in Texas in 1997, when House Bill 1863 and the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 first went into effect. Since 1997, Texas and 12 other states from the Assessing the New Federalism study have implemented many changes in social safety net…

  20. The State of Teacher Evaluation Reform: State Education Agency Capacity and the Implementation of New Teacher-Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The Obama administration's Race to the Top competitive grant program initiated an unprecedented wave of state teacher-evaluation reform across the country. To date, most of the scholarly analysis of this activity has focused on the design of the evaluation instruments or the implementation of the new evaluations by districts and schools. But…

  1. The State, Markets and Higher Education Reform in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabulawa, Richard; Polelo, Mino; Silas, Onalenna

    2013-01-01

    Market forces are being introduced in public spheres such as higher education and public health, which hitherto were closed to such forces. Ironically, it is the state that is responsible for this process of marketisation. Some see this state action as leading to a growing influence of the state in public policy while others see an attenuation of…

  2. Substance Abuse and Child Welfare: Clear Linkages and Promising Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semidei, Joseph; Radel, Laura Feig; Nolan, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of substance abuse among families involved with the child welfare system and the impact of substance abuse on child welfare practice. Discusses how both the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 and welfare reform legislation intensify the need to address parental substance abuse effectively. Considers strategies for…

  3. The Context of Higher Education Reform in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in the United States has received much scrutiny in the recent past from the federal and state governments, the press and the general public. In response to this scrutiny, a number of blue ribbon panels have been formed to examine how effectively higher education is serving American society. In this article, I analyse the…

  4. Focus on Teacher Reform Legislation in SREB States: Evaluation Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Asenith

    2011-01-01

    The recent wave of new legislation affecting public school teachers has its roots, in part, in the budget shortfalls that have challenged states for the past several years. The first signs of fiscal troubles for many states became evident in 2008, and most instituted midyear budget reductions in 2009. In response, the U.S. Congress passed the…

  5. Surprising Momentum: Spurring Education Reforms in States and Localities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first examines how the Obama administration was able to promote its K-12 agenda using the vehicle of economic stimulus policy, and how that agenda compares with prior federal and state education policy. As a basis for explaining President Obama's policy choices, a second section discusses the ideas and political dynamics shaping his…

  6. Education Source Book: The State Legislators' Guide for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Nanette

    A compendium of proposals for model state laws intended to restore parental and local control and to improve teaching and discipline in elementary and secondary education is presented in this report. The proposals, together with explanatory passages, are presented in three categories: (1) parents' role in education, (2) teachers' role in…

  7. Innovation waivers: an opportunity for states to pursue their own brand of health reform.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Deborah; Ario, Joel; Davis, Hailey

    2015-04-01

    States have long been the testing ground for new models of health care and coverage. Section 1332 of the Affordable Care Act, which takes effect in less than two years, throws open the door to innovation by authorizing states to rethink the law's coverage designs. Under State Innovation Waivers, states can modify the rules regarding covered benefits, subsidies, insurance marketplaces, and individual and employer mandates. States may propose broad alternatives or targeted fixes, but all waivers must demonstrate that coverage will remain as accessible, comprehensive, and affordable as before the waiver and that the changes will not add to the federal deficit. This issue brief describes how states may use State Innovation Waivers to reallocate subsidies, expand or streamline their marketplaces, replace or modify the mandates, and otherwise pursue their own brand of reform tailored to local market conditions and political preferences. PMID:25915973

  8. Designing Inter-Organizational Networks to Implement Education Reform: An Analysis of State Race to the Top Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jennifer Lin; Meredith, Julie; Childs, Joshua; Stein, Mary Kay; Prine, Deanna Weber

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with the implementation of state designed Race to the Top (RttT) funded reform networks. Drawing on a conceptual framework developed from the networked governance literature, we analyzed the 12 state RttT grantees' applications. Our analysis revealed that states

  9. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  10. Creating State-based Alliances to Support Earth and Space Science Education Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, E. E.; Manduca, C. A.; Barstow, D.

    2002-05-01

    Seven years after the publication of the National Science Education Standards and adoption of new state science education standards, Earth and space science remains outside the mainstream K-12 curriculum. Currently, less than ten percent of high school students in the United States of America take an Earth or space science course before graduation. This state of affairs is simply unacceptable. "All of us who live on this planet have the right and the obligation to understand Earth's unique history, its dynamic processes, its abundant resources, and its intriguing mysteries. As citizens of Earth, with the power to modify our climate and ecosystems, we also have a personal and collective responsibility to understand Earth so that we can make wise decisions about its and our future". As one step toward addressing this situation, we support the establishment of state-based alliances to promote Earth and space science education reform. "In many ways, states are the most vital locus of change in our nation's schools. State departments of education define curriculum frameworks, establish testing policies, support professional development and, in some cases, approve textbooks and materials for adoption". State alliance partners should include a broad spectrum of K-16 educators, scientists, policy makers, parents, and community leaders from academic institutions, businesses, museums, technology centers, and not-for profit organizations. The focus of these alliances should be on systemic and sustainable reform of K-16 Earth and space science education. Each state-based alliance should focus on specific educational needs within their state, but work together to share ideas, resources, and models for success. As we build these alliances we need to take a truly collaborative approach working with the other sciences, geography, and mathematics so that collectively we can improve the caliber and scope of science and mathematics education for all students.

  11. Post-Adoption Contact Reform: Compounding the State-Ordered Termination of Parenthood?

    E-print Network

    Sloan, Brian

    2014-05-23

    .L.R. 121, at [34] (Lady Hale). 2 compulsory state foster care and to reduce the scope for post-adoption contact between such children and their birth families. The article begins by setting out English adoption law and policy, including the reforms... -Short, “Holding onto the Past: Adoption, Birth Parents and the Law in the Twenty-First Century” in R. Probert and C. Barton (eds), Fifty Years in Family Law: Essays for Stephen Cretney (Cambridge 2012) for discussion of current adoption law and policy. 5 S...

  12. State-Level Impact of Mandated Referrals from Child Welfare to Part C Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrington, Taletha Mae; Lippitt, John A.

    2008-01-01

    New federal legislation requires states to develop policies to refer children younger than age 3 with substantiated cases of abuse or neglect to state Early Intervention (EI) systems. This article presents state-by-state estimates of potential referral and enrollment increases for EI. Many states could experience a significant increase in…

  13. Positive animal welfare states and encouraging environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours.

    PubMed

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Affective neuroscience, incorporating neurophysiology and neuropsychology, is providing increasing evidence that certain behaviours of animals may be interpreted in terms of what they are intending to achieve, i.e. their goals. It is also providing evidence that allows inferences to be made about the affective contents of some goal-directed behaviours. These neuroscience-supported inferences are aligned with recommendations based on prior behaviour-based investigations of animals' preferences, aversions and priorities, and these observations together support the cautious use of particular behaviours to infer what the accompanying affects may be. In this review, therefore, some attention is given to negative affects and their relationships to poor animal welfare, but the primary focus is the positive affects animals may experience when they successfully engage in rewarding goal-directed behaviours, encapsulated in the concept of positive affective engagement. The review draws together reports of environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours observed in a range of species and under diverse circumstances in order to illustrate the likely widespread occurrence of the positive affects that may accompany them. Particular consideration is given to affects that are potentially associated with some aspects of exploration and food acquisition in stimulus rich or impoverished environments, and to those that may be associated with aspects of the affiliative interactions of bonding or bond affirmation, maternal care, play and sexual activity. It is concluded that animals given the opportunity to engage in such activities may experience some positive affects. However, the intensity of an animal's experience of particular positive affects is likely to range from zero to very high because the associated behaviours occur intermittently, variation may occur during different phases of a goal-directed behaviour, and other positive or negative affects experienced at the same time may have greater impact. As good welfare is achieved both by minimising negative affects and promoting positive ones and as conscious sentient animals may be expected to have an interest in experiencing as little pain and as much pleasure as possible, it is argued that there is an ethical obligation to take practical steps to help them to achieve these outcomes. Such steps would include providing them with opportunities to express more behaviours that are associated with rewarding or satisfying experiences understood in terms of positive affective engagement. PMID:24875367

  14. The science of animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and values; thus they may view an animal’s welfare status as good or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of these human differences in perception the actual state of welfare for the animal does exist in a range from good ...

  15. Reform and the politics of hybridization in mature health care states.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Carolyn Hughes

    2012-08-01

    This article examines the cases of three health care states -- two of which (Britain and the Netherlands) have undergone major policy reform and one of which (Canada) has experienced only marginal adjustments. The British and Dutch reforms have variously altered the balance of power, the mix of instruments of control, and the organizing principles. As a result, mature systems representing the ideal-typical health care state categories of national health systems and social insurance (Britain and the Netherlands, respectively) were transformed into distinctive national hybrids. These processes have involved a politics of redesign that differs from the politics of earlier phases of establishment and retrenchment. In particular, the redesign phase is marked by the activity of institutional entrepreneurs who exploit specific opportunities afforded by public programs to combine public and private resources in innovative organizational arrangements. Canada stands as a counterpoint: no window of opportunity for major change occurred, and the bilateral monopoly created by its prototypical single-payer model provided few footholds for entrepreneurial activity. The increased significance of institutional entrepreneurs gives greater urgency to one of the central projects of health policy: the design of accountability frameworks to allow for an assessment of performance against objectives. PMID:22466051

  16. 45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms. 148.128 Section 148.128 ...individual market reforms—alternative mechanisms. (a) Waiver of requirements...implements an acceptable alternative mechanism in accordance with the following...

  17. 45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms. 148.128 Section 148.128 ...individual market reforms—alternative mechanisms. (a) Waiver of requirements...implements an acceptable alternative mechanism in accordance with the following...

  18. 45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms. 148.128 Section 148.128 ...individual market reforms—alternative mechanisms. (a) Waiver of requirements...implements an acceptable alternative mechanism in accordance with the following...

  19. Can We Improve the Measurement of Attitudes towards the Welfare State? A Constructive Critique of Survey Instruments with Evidence from Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goerres, Achim; Prinzen, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    There is a large and growing literature on welfare state attitudes, most of which is built on random-sample population surveys with standardised closed-question items. This article criticises the existing survey instruments, especially those that are used within the International Social Survey Programme, in a novel approach with focus group data…

  20. Building state capacity in Russia: A case study of energy sector reform, 1992--1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younkyoo

    This study seeks an explanation for the neglect of state building in Russia. The major hypothesis is that dependence on external rent leads to the weakness of the state. Three intervening variables---transaction costs, bargaining power of the state, and discount rates---are posited to explain variance on the dependent variable, the weakness of the state. Based on the exploration of three dimensions of energy sector reform, the dissertation argues that in the short run resource rents may be the only reliable and adequate source of finance for the Russian government. The division of resource rents among the many claimants (state vs. business, state vs. society, Moscow vs. regions, and Russia vs. foreign companies), it submits, will pose a stringent test of the viability of democratic governance in Russia. The dissertation concludes that some evidence indicates that Russia has in fact met the characteristics of the rentier state. The greater reliance on a large resource sector for revenue has led to high transaction costs of tax collection, weak bargaining power of the state, and high discount rates of government officials in Russia.

  1. Florida's Lessons for Indiana K-12 Reform. School Choice Issues in the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladner, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Jeb Bush campaigned for Governor on a clear and bracing set of education reforms in 1998. Having won office, he immediately pursued a dual track strategy of education reform: standards and accountability for public schools, choice options for dissatisfied parents. Florida lawmakers followed these reforms with additional measures, including…

  2. Welfare Reform: Tribal TANF Allows Flexibility To Tailor Programs, but Conditions on Reservations Make It Difficult To Move Recipients into Jobs. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act gave American Indian and Alaska Native tribes the option to administer Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) programs either alone or in a tribal consortium. The law also granted tribal TANF programs more flexibility in program design than it gave to state programs.…

  3. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR 92.43 and 92.44 will apply. (e) Matching or cost-sharing. Federal financial participation is... with the grants administration requirements of 45 CFR part 92 with the following conditions— (1) The..., child welfare services). 1357.30 Section 1357.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  4. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR 92.43 and 92.44 will apply. (e) Matching or cost-sharing. Federal financial participation is... with the grants administration requirements of 45 CFR part 92 with the following conditions— (1) The..., child welfare services). 1357.30 Section 1357.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  5. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 92.43 and 92.44 will apply. (e) Matching or cost-sharing. Federal financial participation is... with the grants administration requirements of 45 CFR part 92 with the following conditions— (1) The..., child welfare services). 1357.30 Section 1357.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  6. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR 92.43 and 92.44 will apply. (e) Matching or cost-sharing. Federal financial participation is... with the grants administration requirements of 45 CFR part 92 with the following conditions— (1) The..., child welfare services). 1357.30 Section 1357.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  7. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR 92.43 and 92.44 will apply. (e) Matching or cost-sharing. Federal financial participation is... with the grants administration requirements of 45 CFR part 92 with the following conditions— (1) The..., child welfare services). 1357.30 Section 1357.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  8. Literacy, Welfare & Work: Longitudinal Research Project. Final Report and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Janet

    The 3-year Literacy, Welfare, and Work Longitudinal Research Project explored the complex relationship between literacy and employment within the context of welfare reform in Manitoba, in an attempt to identify the barriers to education and employment that adult learners experience, as well as the policies, programs, and support services that best…

  9. Welfare Policies and Adolescents: Exploring the Roles of Sibling Care, Maternal Work Schedules, and Economic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, JoAnn; Gennetian, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from three longitudinal experimental evaluations of US state welfare reform programs to examine whether program-induced changes in families’ reliance on sibling care are linked with the effects of welfare programs on selected schooling outcomes of high risk, low-income adolescents. The findings from two of the welfare programs indicate that increased reliance on sibling care was concomitant with unfavorable effects of the programs on adolescent schooling outcomes. In the third welfare program examined, the program did not yield any increases in the use of sibling care or unfavorable effects on adolescent schooling outcomes, suggesting that sibling care is one likely contributor to the negative effects of welfare programs on adolescent schooling outcomes. These findings are discussed in terms of the pattern of the programs’ effects on families’ income, as well as maternal work on nonstandard schedules, aside from the programs’ effects on maternal employment, which play contributory roles in shaping the extent to which welfare programs led to less favorable effects on the schooling outcomes of adolescents with younger siblings. PMID:21347556

  10. From a conservative to a liberal welfare state: decomposing changes in income-related health inequalities in Germany, 1994-2011.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Martin; Vogt, Verena; Sundmacher, Leonie

    2014-05-01

    Individual socio-economic status and the respective socio-economic and political contexts are both important determinants of health. Welfare regimes may be linked with health and health inequalities through two potential pathways: first, they may influence the associations between socio-economic status and health. Second, they may influence the income-related distributions of socio-economic determinants of health within a society. Using the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for the years 1994-2011, we analyze how income-related health inequalities evolved in the context of the transformation from a conservative to a liberal welfare system in Germany. We use the concentration index to measure health inequalities, and the annual concentration indices are decomposed to reveal how the contributions of the explanatory variables age, sex, income, education, and occupation changed over time. The changes in the contributions are further decomposed to distinguish whether changes in health inequalities stem from redistributions of the explanatory variables, from changes in their associations with health, or from changes in their means. Income-related health inequalities to the disadvantage of the economically deprived roughly doubled over time, which can largely be explained by changes in the contributions of individual characteristics representing weaker labor market positions, particularly income and unemployment. The social and labor market reforms coincide with the observed changes in the distributions of these characteristics and, to a lesser extent, with changes of their associations with health. PMID:24607705

  11. Social security reform in the twenty-first century: the United States.

    PubMed

    Gramlich, Edward M

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of the Social Security system in the United States in the twentieth century and discusses options for the twenty-first. Because of the steady aging of the U.S. population and the impending retirement of the large baby boom cohort, the Social Security program now is in long-term actuarial deficit. The standard twentieth century approach to this actuarial deficit would be to raise payroll taxes enough to pay for anticipated future benefit increases, but for several reasons that approach may not be so popular this time around. The author's preferred approach is a gradual trimming of long-term benefit growth, plus "add on" individual accounts to provide new saving, for the economy and for the retirement system. The paper also criticizes proposals for Social Security reform made by President Clinton and a committee appointed by President Bush, generally because these proposals do not provide enough new saving. PMID:12503330

  12. The Trojan Horse of Educational Reform: A Look at One State's Experience and the Perceptions of Selected School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Edward W.

    1993-01-01

    A survey addressed the financial impact of state-mandated reforms on 40 rural Oklahoma school districts. A majority of school administrators surveyed reported that they did not receive adequate dollars to meet curriculum standard mandates and the minimum teacher salary schedule. Long-term results may include consolidation. (LP)

  13. State of Connecticut: The Report of the Governor's Commission on Tax Reform. Volume III--Taxpayers: People and Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Commission on Tax Reform, Hartford, CT.

    The Commission made an in depth study of the entire tax structure of Connecticut and developed a model for tax reform for the State that would allow for lessening of inequalities for many classes of taxpayers and create a more favorable climate for industry to increase employment for Connecticut people. This volume (the third of three) is in three…

  14. A "New Breed" of Principal: Marcus Foster and Urban School Reform in the United States, 1966-1969

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, John

    2009-01-01

    In the 1960s, as part of the black freedom struggle in the United States, African-American educators increasingly achieved the position of school principal in the nation's big cities, helping to transform that office into a more dynamic force for school reform. This article presents the accomplishments and the struggles of one such principal,…

  15. The Early Childhood and Elementary Education Continuum: Constructing an Understanding of P-3 as State-Level Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauerz, Kristie Anne

    2009-01-01

    State-level policy attention to young children's early learning opportunities burgeons; a sense of urgency exists to identify reform agendas that are both effective and sustainable. "P-3" often is used as the term for the first level of a seamless P-20 system that stretches from early childhood through post-secondary education. While it is…

  16. More to Do, But Less Capacity to Do It: States' Progress in Implementing the Recovery Act Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; Rentner, Diane Stark

    2011-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), also known as the economic stimulus bill, channeled an unprecedented $100 billion into the nation's public education system. These funds were intended not only to avert teacher layoffs and stabilize state and local education budgets in the short term, but also to encourage reforms that…

  17. Continuing Medical Education in the United States: Why It Needs Reform and How We Propose to Accomplish It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivey, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    As the continuing medical education (CME) enterprise evolved over the last half century, a variety of rules, national and state regulations, and reporting requirements developed, with a resultant substantial variation in what is required of a physician. That CME needs fundamental reform is not news to those who read the literature. Yet many of the…

  18. Education Reform and Decentralization in Mexico and the Creation of "Educacion Civica" in the State of Jalisco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Gloria; Rice, Marion J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate Mexican education reform and decentralization and how the state of Jalisco focused in the early twenty-first century on developing a sequential curriculum for teaching civics in grades 1-6. The authors use the term "educacion civica" because in Mexico the curriculum emphasizes the acquisition of values and…

  19. The School-to-College Transition in the Context of Educational Reform: Student Retention and the State Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, John F.; Petrosko, Joseph; Taylor, Hal

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of state-level educational reform in Kentucky on college student retention. By tracking the educational progress of students who graduated from high school in a large school district and who subsequently enrolled in a research university in the same metropolitan area, the study reveals that the accountability…

  20. Economic Hardship and Depression across the Life Course: The Impact of Welfare State Regimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan; De Boyser, Katrien; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2011-01-01

    Previous research in the United States suggests that depression related to economic hardship decreases with age. We test whether this pattern can be generalized to other developed nations. Based on data from 23 countries in the European Social Survey (2006-2007), multilevel analyses show that the moderating role of age depends on the…

  1. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357...Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER...ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...

  2. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357...Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER...ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...

  3. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357...Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER...ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...

  4. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357...Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER...ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...

  5. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357...Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER...ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...

  6. Adapting Systems of Care for Child Welfare Practice with Immigrant Latino Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettlaff, Alan J.; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reform efforts in the child welfare system have called for child welfare agencies to provide community-based services and to increase the involvement of external stakeholders in identifying and developing services within the community. At the same time, child welfare agencies are faced with the challenge of providing services to an…

  7. Clarifying the Multiple Linkages between Curriculum and Instruction in Programs of Urban Teacher Preparation and State Educational Policy Promoting School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Lois; Bloom, Arlene; Hall, Althea; Juncker, JoAnne; Obi, Roselynn; Pagano, Alicia; Rand, Muriel

    This paper examines interrelationships between curriculum and instruction in an urban teacher education program and state educational policies promoting school reform. It notes how national policy talk and organizational strategies promoting systemic reform in schools serving low-income students influence the work of teacher educators preparing…

  8. Constraints on the retreat from a welfare-orientated approach to public health care in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, S

    1999-04-01

    Both in its articulation of values and through incremental changes, the Malaysian government has signalled a change in attitude towards the welfare approach which had hitherto characterized public health care policy. This change envisions an end to reliance upon the state for the provision and financing of health services and the fostering of a system of family-based welfare. In the future citizens should finance their own health care through savings, insurance or as part of their terms of employment. While the state will still accept a degree of responsibility for those unable to pay for their health care, it wishes to share this burden with the corporate sector and non-government organizations as part of a national policy of the 'Caring Society'. In this article the retreat from a commitment to a welfare model of public health care is documented and some of the serious obstacles to such a policy are discussed. It is concluded that the government's aspirations for reforming the welfare model will need to be tempered by both practical and political considerations. Moreover, the socio-economic consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997 are likely to increase the need for government welfare action. PMID:10387810

  9. Health Care Reform: Out Greatest Opportunity...Ever!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keigher, Sharon M.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses inevitability of health care reform in United States, considers the reform process itself, and explains the plan of the President's Task Force on National Health Care Reform. Also considers the prospects for Congressional response to reform proposals. (NB)

  10. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Timothy P.; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent’s personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes. PMID:26554361

  11. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as policy and strategy for social work action in child welfare in the United States.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, James L

    2012-01-01

    The United States and Somalia are the only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Opposition in the United States stems from the CRC's demand for a cultural change in how a society cares for children and a political hesitancy to become involved in binding international agreements. An earlier analysis for understanding the CRC is reviewed and replaced with one that uses a policy analysis model. This new model provides a basis for uniform child welfare policy and strategy throughout the nation. Although NASW has been supportive, it has not actively studied the consequences of implementation of the CRC, nor has it incorporated the CRC into its policy statements as a fundamental tenet. This article recommends that the NASW use the CRC as a basis for all child welfare policy statements and reference the CRS in future articles on child welfare issues. It also urges social workers to become politically active on behalf of the CRC to achieve ratification. Finally, it recommends a national committee to not only coordinate efforts toward ratification, but also oversee implementation of the CRC once it is ratified. PMID:22768625

  12. Reforming Science: Structural Reforms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Science has a critical role to play in addressing humanity's most important challenges in the twenty-first century. However, the contemporary scientific enterprise has developed in ways that prevent it from reaching maximum effectiveness and detract from the appeal of a research career. To be effective, the methodological and culture reforms discussed in the accompanying essay must be accompanied by fundamental structural reforms that include a renewed vigorous societal investment in science and scientists. PMID:22184420

  13. Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Wood, R.A.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-08-15

    A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: (1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; (2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and (3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

  14. Fixing the national security state: commissions and the politics of disaster and reform

    E-print Network

    Kirchhoff, Christopher

    2010-10-12

    In the U.S. federal system, “crisis commissions” are powerful instruments of social learning that actively mediate the politics of disaster and reform. Typically endowed with the legal authority to establish causes of dramatic policy failures...

  15. Recent Changes in Washington Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 6. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Terri S.; Snyder, Kathleen; Malm, Karin; O'Brien, Carolyn

    This brief examines changes in Washington's welfare-to-work, child care, and child welfare systems since 1997, presenting information from visits to Washington in 1999 and 2000. It profiles Washington's demographic, economic, and political conditions, reviewing its income support and social services systems and highlighting recent changes,…

  16. The Small State, Markets and Tertiary Education Reform in a Globalised Knowledge Economy: Decoding Policy Texts in Botswana's Tertiary Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polelo, Mompati Mino

    2009-01-01

    A number of global discourses have gained currency in national education policies. The need to reform education systems is coated in economic terms, the rationale of which is efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. Education is assigned the task of producing a competitive workforce in the global market. In these reforms, education is…

  17. Developmental logics: Brain science, child welfare, and the ethics of engagement in Japan.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Kathryn E

    2015-10-01

    This article explores the unintended consequences of the ways scholars and activists take up the science of child development to critique the Japanese child welfare system. Since World War II, Japan has depended on a system of child welfare institutions (baby homes and children's homes) to care for state wards. Opponents of institutional care advocate instead for family foster care and adoption, and cite international research on the developmental harms of institutionalizing newborns and young children during the "critical period" of the first few years. The "critical period" is understood as the time during which the caregiving a child receives shapes neurological development and later capacity to build interpersonal relationships. These discourses appear to press compellingly for system reform, the proof resting on seemingly objective knowledge about child development. However, scientific evidence of harm is often mobilized in tandem with arguments that the welfare system is rooted in Japanese culture, suggesting durability and resistance to change. Further, reform efforts that use universalizing child science as "proof" of the need for change are prone to slip into deterministic language that pathologizes the experiences of people who grew up in the system. This article explores the reasons why deterministic models of child development, rather than more open-ended models like neuroplasticity, dominate activist rhetorics. It proposes a concept, "ethics of engagement," to advocate for attention to multiple scales and domains through which interpersonal ties are experienced and embodied over time. Finally, it suggests the possibility of child welfare reform movements that take seriously the need for caring and transformative relationships throughout life, beyond the first "critical years," that do not require deterministic logics of permanent delay or damage. PMID:25530189

  18. Reform: To What End?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The author looks at school reform in light of his experiences documenting effective public education in classrooms across the United States. Observing in an inner-city 1st grade classroom, he sees a teacher who is knowledgeable, resourceful, and particularly effective with her students. He notes that none of the current high-profile reform ideas…

  19. Political economy of coal-mine safety and its contribution to the theory of the welfare state

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Conservative, liberal, and marxist explanations of the origins and function of social welfare benefits are identified. The conservatives see defined right benefits as error in the system, resulting from excesses of political democracy and functioning to interfere with the market, and functioning to reduce the viability of the economy. Individual action alone produces real benefit. Liberals disconnect social welfare and the economy, offering an explanation in formal electoral processes and asserting fulfillment of the humanitarian impulse as the function of welfare. Technical innovation leads to progress. This study tests these theories in a case study of the benefit of decreased death and injury derived by U.S. coal miners from 1970 to 1977. The benefit is compared in magnitude to that of miners other than coal. Results show that a considerable benefit in reduced death and injury was derived and that this benefit can best explained through a complex neo-marxist analysis of the economic and social conditions affecting coal miners then. Wildcat strikes, defying union, company and, government combined with permissive economic conditions such as, rising demand for coal, labor intensity requirements, and increased production and profitability, to make safety salient.

  20. A cross-national comparison of income gradients in oral health quality of life in four welfare states: application of the Korpi and Palme typology

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, A E; Slade, G D; John, M T; Steele, J G; Suominen-Taipale, A L; Lahti, S; Nuttall, N M; Allen, P Finbarr

    2013-01-01

    Background The extent to which welfare states may influence health outcomes has not been explored. It was hypothesised that policies which target the poor are associated with greater income inequality in oral health quality of life than those that provide earnings-related benefits to all citizens. Methods Data were from nationally representative surveys in the UK (n=4064), Finland (n=5078), Germany (n=1454) and Australia (n=2292) conducted from 1998 to 2002. The typology of Korpi and Palme classifies these countries into four different welfare states. In each survey, subjects completed the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire, which evaluates the adverse consequence of dental conditions on quality of life. For each country, survey estimation commands were used to create linear regression models that estimated the slope of the gradient between four quartiles of income and OHIP-14 severity scores. Parameter estimates for income gradients were contrasted across countries using Wald ?2 tests specifying a critical p value of 0.008, equivalent to a Bonferroni correction of p<0.05 for the six pairwise tests. Results Statistically significant income gradients in OHIP-14 severity scores were found in all countries except Germany. A global test confirmed significant cross-national differences in the magnitude of income gradients. In Australia, where a flat rate of benefits targeted the poor, the mean OHIP-14 severity score reduced by 1.7 units (95% CI ?2.15 to ?1.34) with each increasing quartile of household income, a significantly steeper gradient than in other countries. Conclusion The coverage and generosity of welfare state benefits appear to influence levels of inequality in population oral health quality of life. PMID:19351621

  1. The State of America's Children Yearbook: 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weill, James D., Ed.; Jablonski, Donna M., Ed.

    This Children's Defense Fund 1997 report on the state of America's children highlights the critical need for renewed commitment to children by all sectors of society. The introduction discusses Americans' values and presents 25 tips for effective child advocacy. The report then details the following: (1) the impact of welfare reform on children…

  2. The American Welfare System and Family Structure: An Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moehling, Carolyn M.

    2007-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies find a positive relationship between a state's welfare benefits and single motherhood. But is this evidence of a "welfare effect" or rather of cross state differences in social attitudes that influence both policy and behavior? This paper demonstrates that the spatial variation in welfare policy long preceded the spatial…

  3. State, District, and School Implementation of Reforms Promoted under the Recovery Act: 2009-10 through 2011-12. The Final Report from Charting the Progress of Education Reform: An Evaluation of the Recovery Act's Role. NCEE 2015-4016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troppe, Patricia; Milanowski, Anthony; Garrison-Mogren, Roberta; Webber, Ann; Gutmann, Babette; Reisner, Elizabeth; Goertz, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This report, based on surveys completed by all 50 State Education Agencies (SEAs) and the District of Columbia (DC) and nationally representative samples of districts and schools during spring 2011 and 2012, examines implementation of the key education reform strategies promoted by the Recovery Act in 2011-12, the extent to which implementation…

  4. State Implementation of Reforms Promoted under the Recovery Act. A Report from Charting the Progress of Education Reform: An Evaluation of the Recovery Act's Role. NCEE 2014-4011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Ann; Troppe, Patricia; Milanowski, Anthony; Gutmann, Babette; Reisner, Elizabeth; Goertz, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA or the Recovery Act) of 2009 provided an unprecedented level of funding for K-12 education. The program created a "historic opportunity to save hundreds of thousands of jobs, support states and school districts, and advance reforms and improvements that will create long-lasting results for our…

  5. Analysis of a State School Finance Reform Legislative Proposal in Kansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhehey, M. A.

    This paper traces the development of school reform pressures in Kansas from the implementation of the foundation program in 1965 to the passage of substitute Senate Bill 92 during the 1973 legislative session. Bill 92 is designed to produce equalization of school district expenditures and tax levies by a formula based on the concept of funding the…

  6. Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Yuan, Kun

    2008-01-01

    Although becoming widespread, especially in view of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and without a universally-accepted definition, most discussions of standards-based reforms (SBR) include certain commonalities, including: (1) Academic expectations for students; (2) Alignment of key elements of the educational system to promote attainment of these…

  7. African Universities and the State: Prospects for Reform in Senegal and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisemon, Thomas Owen; Salmi, Jamil

    1993-01-01

    In both Senegal and Uganda, higher education reform will occur only if the universities have more administrative and fiscal autonomy. A shift from government participation in governance, enrollment, and use of resources in favor of more indirect control is recommended. However, the specific policy approaches recommended for the two countries…

  8. Drivers of health reform in the United States: 2012 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Lexa, Frank J

    2012-10-01

    American medicine has seen radical changes in the past decade. In particular, radiology has been affected, notably first with the passage of the Deficit Reduction Act in 2005 and then with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2010. Health care reforms are not only driven by political agendas. This process is also a response to underlying social, economic, and technological realities. It is unlikely that reform efforts will just evaporate because of a single change in government or with a decision by the US Supreme Court. Regardless of who sits in the Oval Office and which party controls Congress, there are forces that will need to be addressed through policy changes in the coming years. The underlying drivers of health care reform are legion, but health care inflation, fiscal mismanagement by government, poor planning for demographic changes that affect entitlement programs, questions about the quality of health outcomes, and a desire for universal health care were all central factors in the reforms put forth since 2009. Radiologists should be preparing now for continued change in both the public and private sectors in health care for the foreseeable future. These changes are likely to have profound impacts on our profession. Radiologists and their groups should plan to pay greater attention to these events and should seek to have a much greater level of involvement in the political and social processes that lead to policy changes in health care. PMID:23025861

  9. Do Family Caps on Welfare Affect Births among Welfare Recipients? Reconciling Efficacy and Effectiveness Estimates of Impact through a Blended Design Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagannathan, Radha; Camasso, Michael J.; Killingsworth, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a blended experimental and quasi-experimental research strategy which we believe will help improve the external validity of evaluations of welfare reform and other social policies. We draw upon data from New Jersey's imposition of a family cap, where welfare benefits instead of increasing remained the same for women who…

  10. Promoting marriage as welfare policy: looking at a public role in private lives.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Jane

    2002-02-15

    This paper discusses the interest in and politics surrounding government's using welfare reform legislation to carve out a stronger role in promoting marriage. It examines trends in family formation, their impact on society, and the effect of single parenting, divorce, and step-parenting on child well-being. The paper also looks at the treatment of marriage in current government programs, new state activities to promote marriage, proposals for a stronger government role, and marriage experts' expectations for the success of marriage education programs. PMID:11878356

  11. Race and the local politics of punishment in the new world of welfare.

    PubMed

    Fording, Richard C; Soss, Joe; Schram, Sanford F

    2011-03-01

    To illuminate how race affects the usage of punitive tools in policy implementation settings, we analyze sanctions imposed for noncompliant client behavior under welfare reform. Drawing on a model of racial classification and policy choice, we test four hypotheses regarding client race, local context, and sanctioning. Based on longitudinal and cross-sectional multilevel analyses of individual-level administrative data, we find that race plays a significant role in shaping sanction implementation. Its effects, however, are highly contingent on client characteristics, local political contexts, and the degree to which state governments devolve policy control to local officials. PMID:21675307

  12. Hen Welfare in Different Housing Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg production systems have become subject to heightened levels of scrutiny due to animal welfare concerns. Multiple factors such as disease, skeletal and foot health, pest and parasite load, behavior, stress, affective states, nutrition, and genetics influence the level of welfare laying hens exper...

  13. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  14. Steering without navigation equipment: the lamentable state of Australian health policy reform

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Commentary on health policy reform in Australia often commences with an unstated logical error: Australians' health is good, therefore the Australian Health System is good. This possibly explains the disconnect between the options discussed, the areas needing reform and the generally self-congratulatory tone of the discussion: a good system needs (relatively) minor improvement. Results This paper comments on some issues of particular concern to Australian health policy makers and some areas needing urgent reform. The two sets of issues do not overlap. It is suggested that there are two fundamental reasons for this. The first is the failure to develop governance structures which promote the identification and resolution of problems according to their importance. The second and related failure is the failure to equip the health services industry with satisfactory navigation equipment - independent research capacity, independent reporting and evaluation - on a scale commensurate with the needs of the country's largest industry. These two failures together deprive the health system - as a system - of the chief driver of progress in every successful industry in the 20th Century. Conclusion Concluding comment is made on the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission (NHHRC). This continued the tradition of largely evidence free argument and decision making. It failed to identify and properly analyse major system failures, the reasons for them and the form of governance which would maximise the likelihood of future error leaning. The NHHRC itself failed to error learn from past policy failures, a key lesson from which is that a major - and possibly the major - obstacle to reform, is government itself. The Commission virtually ignored the issue of governance. The endorsement of a monopolised system, driven by benevolent managers will miss the major lesson of history which is illustrated by Australia's own failures. PMID:19948044

  15. Emerging Lessons From Regional and State Innovation in Value-Based Payment Reform: Balancing Collaboration and Disruptive Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Douglas A; Grembowski, David; Hernandez, Susan E; Lau, Bernard; Marcus-Smith, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Policy Points: Public and private purchasersmust create a "burning bridge" of countervailing pressure that signals "no turning back" to fee-for-service in order to sustain the momentum for value-based payment. Multi-stakeholder coalitions must establish a defined set of quality, outcomes, and cost performance measures and the interoperable information systems to support data collection and reporting of value-based payment schemes. Anti-trust vigilance is necessary to find the "sweet spot" of competition and cooperation among health plans and health care providers. Provider and health plan transparency of price and quality, supported by all-payer claims data, are critical in driving value-based payment innovation and cost constraint. Context In recent decades, practitioners and policymakers have turned to value-based payment initiatives to help contain spending on health care and to improve the quality of care. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded 7 grantees across the country to design and implement value-based, multistakeholder payment reform projects in 6 states and 3 regions of the United States. Methods As the external evaluator of these projects, we reviewed documents, conducted Internet searches, interviewed key stakeholders, cross-validated factual and narrative interpretation, and performed qualitative analyses to derive cross-site themes and implications for policy and practice. Findings The nature of payment reform and its momentum closely reflects the environmental context of each project. Federal legislation such as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and federal and state support for the development of the patient-centered medical home and accountable care organizations encourage value-based payment innovation, as do local market conditions for payers and providers that combine a history of collaboration with independent innovation and experimentation by individual organizations. Multistakeholder coalitions offer a useful facilitating structure for galvanizing payment reform. But to achieve the objectives of reduced cost and improved quality, multistakeholder payment innovation must overcome such barriers as incompatible information systems, the technical difficulties and transaction costs of altering existing billing and payment systems, competing stakeholder priorities, insufficient scale to bear population health risk, providers’ limited experience with risk-bearing payment models, and the failure to align care delivery models with the form of payment. Conclusions From the evidence adduced in this article, multistakeholder, value-based payment reform requires a trusted, widely respected “honest broker” that can convene and maintain the ongoing commitment of health plans, providers, and purchasers. Change management is complex and challenging, and coalition governance requires flexibility and stable leadership, as market conditions and stakeholder engagement and priorities shift over time. Another significant facilitator of value-based payment reform is outside investment that enables increased investment in human resources, information infrastructure, and care management by provider organizations and their collaborators. Supportive community and social service networks that enhance population health management also are important enablers of value-based payment reform. External pressure from public and private payers is fueling a “burning bridge” between the past of fee-for-service payment models and the future of payments based on value. Robust competition in local health plan and provider markets, coupled with an appropriate mix of multistakeholder governance, pressure from organized purchasers, and regulatory oversight, has the potential to spur value-based payment innovation that combines elements of “reformed” fee-for-service with bundled payments and global payments. PMID:25199900

  16. School Finance Reform in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Billy D.

    Texas public school finance is undergoing reform in response to a state Supreme Court decision in Edgewood I.S.D. v. Kirby, that declared the school finance system in violation of the "efficient clause" of the state constitution. State aid has declined since 1984 due to state revenue constraints, reform mandates largely funded from local taxes,…

  17. OFFICIAL NOTICE INDUSTRIAL WELFARE COMMISSION

    E-print Network

    OFFICIAL NOTICE INDUSTRIAL WELFARE COMMISSION ORDER NO. 4-2001 REGULATING WAGES, HOURS AND WORKING as amended Sections 4(A) and 10(C) amended and republished by the Department of Industrial Relations NOTICE: To employers and representatives of persons working in industries and occupations in the State

  18. The New York State Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1980: a legislative experiment.

    PubMed

    McClellan, D S

    1989-01-01

    Through a statistical analysis of major changes in postacquittal procedures of the Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1980 (IDRA 1980), the study reveals the Act's success in formalizing, regularizing, juridicizing, accelerating, and extending to all acquittees psychiatric examinations and review and release procedures. Although more persons are reviewed and released at postacquittal hearings than in the matched pre-1980 cohort, fewer enter nonsecure facilities at commitment or during first 18 months of hospitalization, and fewer are released at the six-month review. After 18 months more acquittees remain inmates in secure facilities. Interviews with leading figures in the formulation and enactment of IDRA provide retrospective and prospective judgments on insanity defense reform issues. PMID:2758117

  19. Health insurance: an eye on American welfare.

    PubMed

    Draper, J

    1980-02-15

    One of the great myths about the United States is that it does not have a welfare state. The myth is largely founded on the fact that America is one of the few remaining western nations with no national health insurance scheme to protect its citizens against the crippling costs of medical and hospital care. However, that does not mean that the United States does not have an extensive welfare system, writes John Draper. PMID:10245813

  20. Do Generous Welfare States Generate Efficiency Gains Which Counterbalance Short Run Losses? Testing Downside Risk Theory with Economic Panel Data for the U.S., Germany and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce; Muffels, Ruud

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the theory that the downside risk insurance provided by more generous welfare states generates long run efficiency gains, which counterbalance the short run efficiency losses caused by work disincentives in these states (Feldstein 1974, 1976; Sinn 1995, 1996). Testing downside risk theory requires long term…

  1. The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Micha?

    2010-08-01

    This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change. PMID:21057098

  2. An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.

    PubMed

    Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented. PMID:24079487

  3. Teen Pregnancy. State and Federal Efforts To Implement Prevention Programs and Measure Their Effectiveness. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    Teenage pregnancy and parenthood have unfortunate consequences for society, teenage mothers, and the children born to them. This report to the Senate is intended to provide information on (1) state strategies to reduce teen pregnancy and how states fund these efforts; (2) how welfare reform affected states' strategies; (3) the extent to which…

  4. Child Support Enforcement and Welfare Caseloads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chein-Chung Huang; Garfinkel, Irwin; Waldfogel, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Annual state panel data from 1980 to 1999 was examined to understand the effects of child support enforcement (CSE). However, in recent years, it has been found that the CSE among current and former welfare families are dramatically improved.

  5. [Current challenges and reforms for dental education in the United States of America].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Chun-yu; Sun, Yu; Zheng, Jia-wei

    2012-06-01

    American dental education development has been more mature from both the breadth and depth up to date. But there are some challenges and problems needing to be solved. These challenges include :attracting the best students into dental schools; maintaining high academic standards through the continuous training and development of new faculty; and improving dental curriculum, teaching methods, and assessing outcomes, in order to meet present and future public health care needs, and to incorporate new scientific developments into dental practice. This article was aimed to provide a reference for dental education reform in China by delivering the problems faced by the American Dental Education. PMID:22885501

  6. Welfare in horse breeding

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. L. H.; Sandøe, P.

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

  7. The Tennessee State-Local Tax System with Reform Proposals. A Preliminary Report on the Tennessee State-Local Tax System with Reform Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Center for Business and Economic Research.

    This report examines the Tennessee state-local tax structure to determine whether tax inequities have given rise to a situation in which taxes have contributed to an inadequate or inequitable flow of financial resources to the public schools. It investigates the possibility that some structural changes in the tax system might improve both tax…

  8. For the Welfare of Children: Lessons Learned from Class Action Litigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Judith, Ed.; Joseph, Rachel Molly, Ed.; Shookhoff, Andy, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This series of papers brings together distinguished experts writing on the use of class action litigation to reform public child welfare systems. It is an effort to tease out of four decades of experience in this work, the factors that increase the likelihood that litigation will result in successful system reform. This publication is an outgrowth…

  9. Assessment of welfare of Brazilian and Belgian broiler flocks using the Welfare Quality protocol.

    PubMed

    Tuyttens, F A M; Federici, J F; Vanderhasselt, R F; Goethals, K; Duchateau, L; Sans, E C O; Molento, C F M

    2015-08-01

    The Welfare Quality consortium has proposed a science-based protocol for assessing broiler chicken welfare on farms. Innovative features make the protocols particularly suited for comparative studies, such as the focus on animal-based welfare measures and an integration procedure for calculating an overall welfare status. These protocols reflect the scientific status up to 2009 but are meant to be updated on the basis of inter alia implementation studies. Because only few such studies have been done, we applied the Welfare Quality protocol to compare the welfare of broiler flocks in Belgium (representing a typical European Union (EU) country which implies stringent animal welfare legislation) versus Brazil (the major broiler meat exporter to the EU and with minimal animal welfare legislation). Two trained observers performed broiler Welfare Quality assessments on a total of 22 farms in Belgium and south Brazil. All of the farms produced for the EU market. Although the overall welfare was categorized as 'acceptable' on all farms, many country differences were observed at the level of the welfare principles, criteria, and measures. Brazilian farms obtained higher scores for 3 of the 4 welfare principles: 'good feeding' (P = 0.007), 'good housing' (P < 0.001), and 'good health' (P = 0.005). Four of the 10 welfare criteria scores were, or tended to be, higher on Brazilian than Belgian farms: 'absence of prolonged thirst' (P < 0.001), 'ease of movement' (P < 0.001), 'absence of injuries' (P = 0.002), and 'positive emotional state' (P = 0.055). The only criteria with a higher score for the Belgian farms than their Brazilian counterparts were 'absence of prolonged hunger' (P = 0.048) and 'good human-animal relationship' (P = 0.002). Application of the Welfare Quality protocol has raised several concerns about the validity, reliability, and discriminatory potential of the protocol. The results also call for more research into the effect of animal welfare legislation as broiler welfare on the south Brazilian farms appeared to be superior to that on the Belgian farms. Animal-based welfare assessments on a larger sample of farms are needed to evaluate to what extent these findings may be generalized. PMID:26049803

  10. Homeless Families in Washington State: A Study of Families Helped by Shelters and Their Use of Welfare and Social Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowin, Aaron; Demirel, Sinan; Estee, Sharon; Schreiner, Bari

    The Washington State Department of Social and Health Services conducted a study to collect information about homeless families in the state who are relying on shelters. Information was obtained from census reports from all shelters in the state, from interviews with a parent from each of the 411 families living at the shelters, and from a review…

  11. Feasibility Study on the Development of Teachers Resource Centres: Consultants Report. Organization of Eastern Caribbean States Education Reform Strategy Project 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald R.; Halliday, Joseph J.

    This report is based on the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Educational Reform Strategy Project No. 5 which found that a Teachers Resource Center (TRC) can be a vehicle to provide essential equipment and materials to schools organized in clusters and to serve as meeting places for officials, principles, and teachers. Approximately…

  12. The Politics of Teacher Reform in Florida: Analyzing Causal Narratives Surrounding State Adoption of Performance-Based Evaluations, Performance Pay, and Tenure Elimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Christopher; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

    2012-01-01

    Following a multiyear debate, Florida lawmakers passed the "Student Success Act" in March 2011, introducing some of the most sweeping educational reforms in the state's history--the introduction of teacher evaluation systems based on value-added modeling, mandatory "performance pay" for teachers, and the elimination of long-term professional…

  13. The Role of Curriculum Resources in Three Countries: The Impact of National Curriculum Reforms in the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    This project examines the impact of standards-based and curriculum reforms on the role of materials in educational systems in the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Australia. The project focused on identifying activities undertaken by publishing companies and in educational systems to develop, select and use materials in the…

  14. The Appalachian Math Science Partnership: A Multi-State Umbrella Partnership Promoting Local Mathematics and Science Reform. Close-Up Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inverness Research, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The papers presented in this paper accompany a core report about the Appalachian Math Science Partnership (AMSP) entitled "The Appalachian Math Science Partnership: A Multi-State Umbrella Partnership Promoting Local Mathematics and Science Reform Report." Each of them focuses on an especially effective strategy or component of the AMSP umbrella…

  15. Farmers, Scientists, and Officers of Industry: The Formation and Reformation of Land-Grant Colleges in the Northeastern United States, 1862-1906

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorber, Nathan M.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the formation, reformation, and standardization of land-grant colleges in the Northeastern United States during the last four decades of the nineteenth century. It is a history that explores the turbulent origins of land-grant colleges in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont,…

  16. Undergraduate Animal Welfare

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    with one on study skills before going on to look at: ethology, genetics and the development of behaviourUndergraduate Companion Animal Welfare and Behaviour Rehabilitation Faculty of Medical and Behavioural Rehabilitation is based in the University's internationally renowned Animal Welfare and Behaviour

  17. animal welfare and behavioural

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    going on to look at: ethology, genetics and the development of behaviour; understanding learning theoryCompanion animal welfare and behavioural rehabilitation Undergraduate #12;bristol.ac.uk/ug-study The Certificate of Higher Education in Companion Animal Welfare and Behavioural Rehabilitation is based

  18. Role of Directorates in Promoting Nursing and Midwifery Across the Various States of India: Call for Leadership for Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Bagga, Rajni; Jaiswal, Vaishali; Tiwari, Ritika

    2015-01-01

    Background: While the roles and responsibilities of nursing professionals have multiplied over the years, but there are huge concerns with regard to the development of the nursing workforce and human resources (HR) issues for their career growth. The major lacuna is in not involving the nursing professionals in policy framing and decision-making. As a result, there is a leadership crisis of the nursing workforce across India. Objectives: The paper, is part of the WHO supported study, entitled “Study on Nursing and Midwifery in India: a critical review”, is developed with the objective to review the current organizational and management structure for the nursing positions at the State Directorates in India and obtain a Leadership perspective to strengthen nursing management capacities to address maternal health issues. Materials and Methods: The study descriptive and qualitative in nature and the sources of information were both primary and secondary collected from 16 states of India. Results: Since none of the states have neither a Nursing Cell nor the post of Director Nursing, final decision-making powers rest with state health secretaries and medical directors. The nursing management structure majorly managed by senior policy makers from the medical fraternity, and provides very little scope for nursing professionals to participate in policy decision making to bring about reforms. There is no uniformity on HR issues concerning career graphs and pay structures across the states. Conclusions: In order to strengthen nursing as a profession and for facilitating their role at the policy level, more powers and autonomy needs to be given to them and this requires HR policy guidelines for nurses. Setting up a separate nursing directorate, to be headed by a senior nursing professional, is suggested in every state along with a strong nursing division at the National level. This total paradigm shift will empower nursing professionals to take up the leadership role at the policy level to bring about necessary reforms. Across the country, nursing professionals repeatedly echoed one requirement: To reframe nursing leadership at all levels. PMID:25861169

  19. State Education Agency Funding and Staffing in the Education Reform Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; Rentner, Diane Stark

    2012-01-01

    Cuts in state funding for elementary and secondary education in recent years have taken a toll in many vital areas, including teaching jobs and student services. State budget cuts have also affected a less visible target--state education agencies (SEAs), which are responsible for supervising elementary and secondary education in each state and…

  20. Health insurance and access to care among welfare leavers.

    PubMed

    Danziger, Sheldon; Davis, Matthew M; Orzol, Sean; Pollack, Harold A

    2008-01-01

    This analysis explores the effects of the 1996 welfare reform on health insurance coverage and access to care among former recipients of cash aid. Using panel data from the Women's Employment Study, which conducted five interviews between 1997 and 2003 in one Michigan county, we find that 25% of welfare leavers lacked health insurance coverage in fall 2003. Uninsured adults were significantly more likely than others to report that they could not afford a medical or dental visit during the year prior to the 2003 interview. Fixed-effect logistic regression analysis indicates that women who had been off the welfare rolls for at least 12 months (the duration of transitional Medicaid) were significantly more likely to be uninsured than women who had made more recent welfare exits, and were significantly more likely to report financial obstacles to the receipt of medical and dental care. PMID:18767383

  1. Reform on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Janet; Otte, Michelle; Fair, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Aurora (Colorado) Public Schools responded to the Colorado State Model Content Standards for Reading and Writing and the accountability measures attached to the state assessments by implementing the Aurora Achievement Initiative in 2001. Originating from literature on best practices and large-scale school reform, the goal of the districtwide…

  2. Child Health 2000: Report Card for New York State, Regions and Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Academy of Medicine, NY.

    This report details the impact of the changing health environment on children's health and access to health care in New York state. The report links key measures of child health with recent policy changes, such as expansions in health insurance coverage, Medicaid managed care, and welfare reform. Data from 1997 are used as a baseline measure for…

  3. Health reform: a bipartisan view.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jim; Castle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This optimistic assessment of the prospects for health reform from senior Democratic and Republican congressmen spells out several reasons why reform can be achieved early in the first year of the Obama administration. Political and policy factors suggest that President-elect Barack Obama is in a much better position than his predecessors to achieve comprehensive health reform, including universal coverage. The Obama administration will have to overcome numerous obstacles and resistance to enact reform. Still, after decades of frustration and disappointment, policymakers should set aside their differences and enable the United States to join the ranks of developed nations by making sure every American has health insurance. PMID:19151002

  4. Reform versus Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Harold

    1991-01-01

    Cites demographic figures showing that U.S. children are an endangered species. Educators alone cannot "fix" the problems of education, because dealing with poverty's root causes must involve health care, housing, transportation, job training, and social welfare bureaucracies. The United States has the resources, if not the will, to reduce the…

  5. State and Local Level Special Education Programs That Work and Federal Barriers to Innovation. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document presents the transcript of a hearing before the House Subcommittee on Education Reform about state and local level special education programs that work and federal barriers to innovation as part of efforts to reform the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Highlights of the testimony include: (1) progress in New York in…

  6. The state and health care reform: the National Health Insurance and Public Health Act of 1949 

    E-print Network

    Schemmer, Ruth Ann, 1960

    1994-01-01

    State-centered theory, elite theory, and the organizational state environment perspective have all been put forth to explain how policies come to be enacted in government and who benefits from such policy initiatives. It ...

  7. Explaining Whole System Reform in Small States: The Case of Trinidad and Tobago Secondary Education Modernization Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lisle, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes drivers and impediments to secondary school reform in Trinidad and Tobago during the period from 1999 to 2009. International assessment data suggested limited progress on improving system quality and equity. Several policy levers and barriers have been defined in current system reform theory. However, explanations for the…

  8. Moving Education Reform Forward: Grantmakers Reflect on a Convening with State and Local Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Steven

    2011-01-01

    In January 2011, teams of government education leaders and grantmakers from 13 states convened for Moving Forward with a Transformative Education Agenda: Practical Solutions for States and Districts, a first-ever national discussion of how grantmakers and state and local education officials might work together to promote elementary and secondary…

  9. A Child's Right to Human Dignity: Reforming Anti-Bullying Laws in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, John; Dupre, Anne Proffitt

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the findings of research into the bullying laws in the United States. Against the backdrop of international law, it addresses children's rights to protection from bullying in US schools. It includes recommendations for improving anti-bullying legislation based on state anti-bullying legislation in the United States, and…

  10. School Reform: Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    United States educational history is full of uncertain reform attempts beginning with colonial New England's school reform goal of salvation in this world as a preparation for eternal life in the next. A more practical type of education characterized the Early National Period. Monitorial schools and communal schools, as in New Harmony, Indiana,…

  11. Systemic Reform--Monitoring Its Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of questions that state policymakers can use to assess the systemic nature of their education reform efforts. Suggestions are offered for identifying the evidence of scope, coherence, and balance of reform. To assess the scope of reform, a first step is to determine if the performance-based standards provide the…

  12. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  13. Acquisition Reform

    E-print Network

    Sapolsky, Harvey

    This report reviews the six most recent major acquisition reform reports, starting in 1949 with the Hoover Commissions and including McNamara's Total Package Procurement, Fitzhugh Commission, the Commission on Government ...

  14. Goals 2000: Flexible Funding Supports State and Local Education Reform. Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    The Goals 2000: Educate America Act is intended to promote coordinated improvements in the nation's education system at the state and local levels. To measure the effectiveness of this initiative, Congress charged the Government Accounting Office to review Goals 2000 efforts to determine how program funds have been spent and how state and local…

  15. The State's Priority Opportunities to Support Education Reform in Georgia through Resource Reallocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Nationwide, states face declining or plateauing investments in education. These financial constraints, coupled with increased standards for student achievement through the widespread adoption of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), create a heightened need for strategic resource use. However, districts are not currently using resources…

  16. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  17. Reforming Educational Reform: A Democratic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J.

    2005-05-01

    This essay examines the status of educational reform in the United States as represented by the current Bush administration's program titled "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB). Employing the techniques of critical theory and logical analysis, contemporary reform efforts are compared with other, more progressive, educational reform movements in an effort to gain perspective and conceptual "traction" as it were, in differentiating such movements. Criteria are established for the assessment and evaluation of reform movements. These are employed in judging the efficacy of NCLB's aim, content, and methods, as well as the results of its program following four years of implementation. The merits of the centrality of standardized testing, pre-ordained curricular content, and exclusively didactic teaching methodologies are criticized, along with the extra-school societal forces which ordain these and determine their prominence in the NCLB program. The essentialism adopted by NCLB is, moreover, evaluated in the light of pragmatic, phenomenological, and postmodern educational theory. Arguing that the school is always and inevitably an instrument of societal forces, interests, and groups, it is contended that these not only be acknowledged, but that avenues be formalized for a thorough going and continuous educational "conversation," to borrow Rorty's term, for an amicable resolution of the issues of education's aim(s), content, and methods.

  18. 20 CFR 725.702 - Claims for medical benefits only under section 11 of the Reform Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims for medical benefits only under section 11 of the Reform Act. 725.702 Section 725.702 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS... Reform Act. (a) Section 11 of the Reform Act directs the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare...

  19. 20 CFR 725.702 - Claims for medical benefits only under section 11 of the Reform Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Claims for medical benefits only under section 11 of the Reform Act. 725.702 Section 725.702 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... Reform Act. (a) Section 11 of the Reform Act directs the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare...

  20. Welfare Regimes and Educational Inequality: A Cross-National Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Tracey; Edgerton, Jason D.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2010-01-01

    Research on welfare state regimes and research on educational policy share a common concern for the reduction of social inequality. On one hand, welfare state research is typically designed within a comparative approach where scholars investigate similarities and differences in social institutions across selected countries. On the other hand, the…

  1. Reforming Cardiovascular Care in the United States towards High-Quality Care at Lower Cost with Examples from Model Programs in the State of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Alyeshmerni, Daniel; Froehlich, James B; Lewin, Jack; Eagle, Kim A

    2014-07-01

    Despite its status as a world leader in treatment innovation and medical education, a quality chasm exists in American health care. Care fragmentation and poor coordination contribute to expensive care with highly variable quality in the United States. The rising costs of health care since 1990 have had a huge impact on individuals, families, businesses, the federal and state governments, and the national budget deficit. The passage of the Affordable Care Act represents a large shift in how health care is financed and delivered in the United States. The objective of this review is to describe some of the economic and social forces driving health care reform, provide an overview of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), and review model cardiovascular quality improvement programs underway in the state of Michigan. As health care reorganization occurs at the federal level, local and regional efforts can serve as models to accelerate improvement toward achieving better population health and better care at lower cost. Model programs in Michigan have achieved this goal in cardiovascular care through the systematic application of evidence-based care, the utilization of regional quality improvement collaboratives, community-based childhood wellness promotion, and medical device-based competitive bidding strategies. These efforts are examples of the direction cardiovascular care delivery will need to move in this era of the Affordable Care Act. PMID:25120917

  2. Reforming Cardiovascular Care in the United States towards High-Quality Care at Lower Cost with Examples from Model Programs in the State of Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Alyeshmerni, Daniel; Froehlich, James B.; Lewin, Jack; Eagle, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its status as a world leader in treatment innovation and medical education, a quality chasm exists in American health care. Care fragmentation and poor coordination contribute to expensive care with highly variable quality in the United States. The rising costs of health care since 1990 have had a huge impact on individuals, families, businesses, the federal and state governments, and the national budget deficit. The passage of the Affordable Care Act represents a large shift in how health care is financed and delivered in the United States. The objective of this review is to describe some of the economic and social forces driving health care reform, provide an overview of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), and review model cardiovascular quality improvement programs underway in the state of Michigan. As health care reorganization occurs at the federal level, local and regional efforts can serve as models to accelerate improvement toward achieving better population health and better care at lower cost. Model programs in Michigan have achieved this goal in cardiovascular care through the systematic application of evidence-based care, the utilization of regional quality improvement collaboratives, community-based childhood wellness promotion, and medical device-based competitive bidding strategies. These efforts are examples of the direction cardiovascular care delivery will need to move in this era of the Affordable Care Act. PMID:25120917

  3. Educational Reform in Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxcy, Spencer J.; Maxcy, Doreen O.

    1993-01-01

    Although education has appealed to southern governors as a catapult to historical recognition, future governors should consider Louisiana Governor Buddy Roemer's ill-fated educational reform plan for Louisiana State University's College of Education, particularly its teacher evaluation and internship program. Public education seems a low-priority…

  4. Pension Reform in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent. PMID:26549002

  5. State-Mandated Principal Preparation Program Redesign: Impetus for Reform or Invitation to Chaos?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Joy C.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing criticism of practicing educational leaders has led to additional critiques of the university programs in which they are prepared. In response, many states have mandated statewide university preparation program redesign. The articles in this special issue describe five unique cases of principal preparation program redesign--including…

  6. The "Regulatory" State and the Use of "Independent" Agencies as Legitimising Mechanisms of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouvias, Dionyssios

    2007-01-01

    The emergence--at the dawn of the new millennium--of "independent agencies", "national commissions" and "councils" around the world, has been based and justified on grounds of "impartiality", "reliability", "democratic-principles guardianship", or even "technical competence". These "independent" agencies are compared to state agencies, which…

  7. The Importance of Family-Based Insurance Expansions: New Research Findings about State Health Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Leighton; Broaddus, Matthew

    Although a national consensus has emerged regarding the importance of extending publicly-funded health insurance coverage to low-income children under the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) and Medicaid, substantial numbers of eligible children remain uninsured. This study examined whether extending insurance coverage to low-income…

  8. State Policies To Support Middle School Reform: A Guide for Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Phyllis

    This guide describes what states can do to support and encourage the fundamental restructuring of the education of young adolescents in the middle grades. Its framework is based on the eight principles for restructuring middle grade education developed in "Turning Points: Preparing American Youth for the 21st Century," prepared by the Carnegie…

  9. Racism as Policy: A Critical Race Analysis of Education Reforms in the United States and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David

    2014-01-01

    Critical race theory (CRT) views education as one of the principal means by which white supremacy is maintained and presented as normal in society. The article applies CRT to two real-world case studies: changes to education statutes in the state of Arizona (USA) and the introduction of a new measure of educational success in England, the English…

  10. Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

  11. Child Care: States Have Undertaken a Variety of Quality Improvement Initiatives, but More Evaluations of Effectiveness Are Needed. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    Expressing concern for the quality of care supported by Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) funds, welfare reform legislation required states to set aside at least 4 percent of their total grant to improve child care quality and availability. In preparation for reauthorizing CCDF, this General Accounting Office report was commissioned to…

  12. State Education Agencies as Agents of Change: What It Will Take for the States to Step Up on Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cynthia G.; Hess, Frederick M.; Lautzenheiser, Daniel K.; Owen, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Today, state education agencies (SEAs) and their leaders face unprecedented demands. What was once a low-profile job of managing federal aid, providing curricular guidance, and ensuring compliance with various legal obligations is now a far more visible and politically fraught task. The new roles required of state education agencies due to the No…

  13. Evaluation of an Innovative Social Work Education Model: The Kentucky Public Child Welfare Certification Program (PCWCP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbee, Anita; Sullivan, Dana; Borders, Kevin; Antle, Becky; Hall, J. Christopher; Fox, Steve; Moran, Erin Beth

    2009-01-01

    This research evaluated the effectiveness of the Public Child Welfare Certification Program, a specialized child welfare program delivered in bachelor of social work (BSW) curricula across the state of Kentucky. This evaluation gathered data for 10 years on satisfaction with the program, preparation for work in the state's child welfare agency,…

  14. Child Welfare Services for Indigenous Populations: A Comparison of Child Welfare Histories, Policies, Practices and Laws for American Indians and Norwegian Samis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Ann; Saus, Merete

    2012-01-01

    This article takes Dixon and Scheurell's framework for understanding colonisation processes within social welfare policies and applies it to child welfare for Indigenous populations in the United States and Norway. While those countries' historical child welfare policies follow Dixon and Scheurell's hypotheses regarding colonisation, each nation…

  15. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA); DeZubay, Egon A. (Mt. Lebanon, PA); Murray, Alexander P. (Murrysville, PA); Vidt, Edward J. (Churchill, PA)

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  16. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA); DeZubay, Egon A. (Mt. Lebanon, PA); Murray, Alexander P. (Murrysville, PA); Vidt, Edward J. (Churchill, PA)

    1985-03-12

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  17. Slab reformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Inventor); DeZubay, Egon A. (Inventor); Murray, Alexander P. (Inventor); Vidt, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  18. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

  19. Slab reformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Inventor); DeZubay, Egon A. (Inventor); Murray, Alexander P. (Inventor); Vidt, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  20. Managing waste from confined animal feeding operations in the United States: the need for sanitary reform.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jay P; Nachman, Keeve E

    2010-12-01

    Confined food-animal operations in the United States produce more than 40 times the amount of waste than human biosolids generated from US wastewater treatment plants. Unlike biosolids, which must meet regulatory standards for pathogen levels, vector attraction reduction and metal content, no treatment is required of waste from animal agriculture. This omission is of concern based on dramatic changes in livestock production over the past 50 years, which have resulted in large increases in animal waste and a high degree of geographic concentration of waste associated with the regional growth of industrial food-animal production. Regulatory measures have not kept pace with these changes. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) review trends that affect food-animal waste production in the United States, 2) assess risks associated with food-animal wastes, 3) contrast food-animal waste management practices to management practices for biosolids and 4) make recommendations based on existing and potential policy options to improve management of food-animal waste. PMID:20705978

  1. Toward Reform in Land Reform: Coupling Local Control and Social Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisler, Charles C.

    An alternative to the traditional land reform movement in the United States and the recent land use reform movement would result in a merging of social control with local control over land. Traditional land reformers perceive that land is a private commodity subject to fee-simple ownership and near absolute control over its use and disposition.…

  2. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lisa M; Part, Chérie E

    2013-01-01

    The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  3. Demystifying Welfare: Its Feminization and Its Effect on Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas D.

    2008-01-01

    Welfare is misunderstood, mystified, and feminized by many stakeholders (i.e. government, media, majoritarian culture, etc.). This text analysis will assess how well the text achieved the following: (1) articulate why the current U.S. welfare state is based upon myths or false assumptions, (2) analyze what these false assumptions mean for…

  4. Effects of Globalization in Welfare An Islamic Economic Evaluation

    E-print Network

    1 ABSTRACT Effects of Globalization in Welfare An Islamic Economic Evaluation Al-Jayousi, Ahmed, Effects of Globalization in Welfare: An Islamic Economic Evaluation, The Objective of this study, Distribution of wealth among people, Role of the state, Levels of education and health, Effects on ecology

  5. Assessment of the Impact of an Animal Welfare Educational Course with First Grade Children in Rural Schools in the State of Morelos, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre, Virginio; Orihuela, Agustin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an educational package used for animal welfare teaching would have significant effects on the knowledge of first grade children in a rural area of Mexico. The research was conducted with 276 students in six public schools. In the experimental group, 177 children participated in a 10 week-long animal…

  6. Quantum reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueck, Leonie

    2015-05-01

    Quantum computers potentially offer a faster way to calculate chemical properties, but the exact implications of this speed-up have only become clear over the last year. The first quantum computers are likely to enable calculations that cannot be performed classically, which might reform quantum chemistry -- but we should not expect a revolution.

  7. The Effects of Behavioral Health Reform on Safety-Net Institutions: A Mixed-Method Assessment in a Rural State

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfeld, David H.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Waitzkin, Howard

    2013-01-01

    In July 2005, New Mexico initiated a major reform of publicly-funded behavioral healthcare to reduce cost and bureaucracy. We used a mixed-method approach to examine how this reform impacted the workplaces and employees of service agencies that care for low-income adults in rural and urban areas. Information technology problems and cumbersome processes to enroll patients, procure authorizations, and submit claims led to payment delays that affected the financial status of the agencies, their ability to deliver care, and employee morale. Rural employees experienced lower levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment and higher levels of turnover intentions under the reform when compared to their urban counterparts. PMID:23307162

  8. The effects of behavioral health reform on safety-net institutions: a mixed-method assessment in a rural state.

    PubMed

    Willging, Cathleen E; Sommerfeld, David H; Aarons, Gregory A; Waitzkin, Howard

    2014-03-01

    In July 2005, New Mexico initiated a major reform of publicly-funded behavioral healthcare to reduce cost and bureaucracy. We used a mixed-method approach to examine how this reform impacted the workplaces and employees of service agencies that care for low-income adults in rural and urban areas. Information technology problems and cumbersome processes to enroll patients, procure authorizations, and submit claims led to payment delays that affected the financial status of the agencies, their ability to deliver care, and employee morale. Rural employees experienced lower levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment and higher levels of turnover intentions under the reform when compared to their urban counterparts. PMID:23307162

  9. Thoughts on farm animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestating sow welfare remains a complex and contentious issue in the US, and stakeholders keep calling for objective, scientific welfare assessments. The Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association recently published a Commentary that attempted to compare sow welfare in "the Swedish deep-...

  10. Studies in Public Welfare. Paper No. 12 (Part I): The Family, Poverty, and Welfare Programs; Factors Influencing Family Instability. A Volume of Studies Prepared for the Use of the Subcommittee on Fiscal Policy of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    Contents of this volume of studies analyzing the causes of the alarming growth in illegitimacy, families lacking a father, and welfare caseloads, include the following studies: "The Family, Poverty, and Welfare Programs: An Introductory Essay on Problems of Analysis and Policy," Robert I. Lerman; "The Impact of Welfare Payment Levels on Family…

  11. Social welfare with a foreign competitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we consider a mixed market in which a state-owned welfare-maximizing public (domestic) firm competes against a profit-maximizing private (foreign) firm. We suppose that the domestic firm is less efficient than the foreign firm. However, the domestic firm can lower its marginal costs by conducting cost-reducing R&D investment. We examine the impacts of entry of a foreign firm on decisions upon cost-reducing R&D investment by the domestic firm and how these affect the domestic welfare.

  12. STATEWIDE AUTOMATED CHILD WELFARE INFORMATION SYSTEM (SACWIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    SACWIS stands for Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System(s). It was authorized by Congress in 1993 to help states meet data collection and reporting requirements of the Social Security Act. The regulations at 45 CFR 1355.50 through 1355.57 provide the basis for Stat...

  13. Multiple-Father Families and Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenhouse, Eirik; Reilly, Siobhan

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, multipartnered fertility (MPF) has become commonplace. This study provides the first nationally representative measures of women's MPF, across multiple years, using the U.S. Census Bureau's Surveys of Income and Program Participation. Because welfare rules contain strong incentives for MPF, and because MPF is especially…

  14. SWINE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS: ANIMAL WELFARE CONSIDERATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A general public perception is that it is easy to visualize when an animals welfare is adequate. Scientifically, this determination is quite difficult. The difficulty resides in our ability to objectively assess the animals physical and psychological state; as well as to determine the difference b...

  15. Summary: Ecosystem Services and Human Welfare

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecosystem services paradigm is a framework conceived to engage support among people, especially policy- and decision-makers, for the recognition that human welfare, prosperity, security, and well-being are intrinsically linked to the health of the environment. Simply stated, ...

  16. Racial and Spatial Equity in Welfare Programs: Interstate and Intercounty Differences in Welfare Spending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark

    1999-01-01

    States where a large proportion of the poor are rural residents or racial/ethnic minorities provided less welfare support per poor child under Aid to Families with Dependent Children than did other states. No corresponding rural or racial/ethnic disadvantage was observed for the Food Stamp program, which has nationwide eligibility criteria and…

  17. Welfare to Well-Being Framework for Research, Education, and Outreach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Jean W.; Braun, Bonnie; Olson, Patricia D.

    2000-01-01

    Uses a systems approach to reframe welfare assistance as well-being for the many, not welfare for the few. The framework outlines the state of family economic functioning (crisis, at risk, safe, thriving), type of welfare assistance (entitlement, subsidy, self-sufficiency, sustainability), poverty levels (below, at, 150%, 200%), and supports…

  18. Work or welfare after cancer? Explorations of identity and stigma.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Suzanne; Noble, Emma

    2015-11-01

    With increasing numbers of people living with cancer, a greater focus is required on the social consequences of the disease. This article explores the connections between cancer and employment and the constraints imposed by ill health and wider structural conditions. Narrative data from 23 people of working age with cancer in north-east England collected longitudinally over 16 months highlight the impact of financial strain caused by temporary or permanent interruption to employment, and the positive benefits of an upstream welfare rights intervention in enabling participants to claim benefit entitlements and boost incomes. Returning to work, for those who were able, helped repair the disruption caused by the illness. For those unable to work, reliance on welfare benefits, while necessary, conferred a stigmatised identity that compounded the disruption wrought by cancer. While stigma occurs at the individual level, the structural dimensions of stigma need to be acknowledged in order to analyse the forces that cause, maintain and perpetuate the stigma associated with claiming welfare while ill. We conclude that current UK policies and welfare reforms to reduce sickness-related welfare claims will lead to greater hardship during periods of ill health and increase inequalities. PMID:26139163

  19. The Myth of "Broken Britain": Welfare Reform and the Production

    E-print Network

    Easterhouse, Glasgow, in the company of social policy professor turned community organizer Bob Holman to be "a response to the lack of support and opportunities in the community, especially for families to and communicate with people crushed by social deprivation. Du

  20. Children and Child Care: The Forgotten Component in Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranne, Kristine B.; Young, Alma H.

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates the goals and objectives of the childcare component as outlined by the Family Support Act. Following a brief discussion of the legislation's childcare provisions, the authors outline Project Independence, Louisiana's response to the federal mandate, and explore the Toyota Families in Learning Program developed through this project.…

  1. National Health Care Reform, Medicaid, and Children in Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Outlines access to health care for children in out-of-home care under current law, reviews how health care access for these children would be affected by President Clinton's health care reform initiative, and proposes additional measures that could be considered to improve access and service coordination for children in the child welfare system.…

  2. To Review Federal and State Oversight of Child Welfare Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Second Session (January 28, 2004). Serial Number 108-30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US House of Representatives, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this hearing is to review Federal and State oversight of child welfare programs and systems designed to prevent abuse and neglect of children, including those under State protection. The purpose being to provide subcommittee representatives the opportunity to learn what Federal, State, and local officials should be doing to ensure…

  3. For My Children: Mexican American Women, Work, and Welfare. Focus Study Report #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina

    This is the final report of the National Council of La Raza's (NCLR) Focus Study examining the opinions, attitudes, and needs of Mexican American single women, relating to implementation of national welfare reform legislation. Over a 2-year period NCLR staff held focus groups with Mexican American women in four communities: Phoenix, Arizona; Mora,…

  4. Evaluation of Patient Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Piedmont, Eugene B.; Dornblaser, Bright M.

    1970-01-01

    A multifaceted attempt is made to measure patients' well-being quantitatively in a complex interdisciplinary research and experimental construction project. Parallel studies were conducted in adjoining traditionally shaped and spoke-design hospital buildings. Major innovations were made, in both plants, in the organization of nursing staffs and in communications and logistical support. Smaller nursing staffs achieved significant increases in time spent in direct patient (“bedside”) care, without negative effects on patient welfare, in both buildings; but these effects were maximized in the spoke-design building. PMID:5494267

  5. Response to science education reforms: The case of three science education doctoral programs in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwekwerere, Yovita Netsai

    Doctoral programs play a significant role in preparing future leaders. Science Education doctoral programs play an even more significant role preparing leaders in a field that is critical to maintaining national viability in the face of global competition. The current science education reforms have the goal of achieving science literacy for all students and for this national goal to be achieved; we need strong leadership in the field of science education. This qualitative study investigated how doctoral programs are preparing their graduates for leadership in supporting teachers to achieve the national goal of science literacy for all. A case study design was used to investigate how science education faculty interpreted the national reform goal of science literacy for all and how they reformed their doctoral courses and research programs to address this goal. Faculty, graduate students and recent graduates of three science education doctoral programs participated in the study. Data collection took place through surveys, interviews and analysis of course documents. Two faculty members, three doctoral candidates and three recent graduates were interviewed from each of the programs. Data analysis involved an interpretive approach. The National Research Council Framework for Investigating Influence of the National Standards on student learning (2002) was used to analyze interview data. Findings show that the current reforms occupy a significant part of the doctoral coursework and research in these three science education doctoral programs. The extent to which the reforms are incorporated in the courses and the way they are addressed depends on how the faculty members interpret the reforms and what they consider to be important in achieving the goal of science literacy for all. Whereas some faculty members take a simplistic critical view of the reform goals as a call to achieve excellence in science teaching; others take a more complex critical view where they question who 'all students' refers to and what science literacy means for learners with diverse cultural, linguistic or economic backgrounds. Faculty members' views significantly influence the nature and content of the courses as well as the program focus. It was also shown that a relationship exists between faculty views and the views of their doctoral students and recent graduates. In general, faculty exhibited narrower and more in-depth views about issues they consider being important in the field of science education, than doctoral students and recent graduates. External funding is critical in doctoral studies as it enables faculty to enact their visions of achieving science literacy for all. The study provides some implications for practice, policy and research. In order to achieve both equity and excellence in science teaching, there is need for dialogue among science educators to enable them to address issues of equity more effectively than at present. If doctoral programs are to continue preparing graduates who can address important issues in the field, there is need for external funding for specific research programs.

  6. The potential impact of the World Trade Organization's general agreement on trade in services on health system reform and regulation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Skala, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Round of talks without achieving new health services liberalization presents an important opportunity to evaluate the wisdom of granting further concessions to international investors in the health sector. The continuing deterioration of the U.S. health system and the primacy of reform as an issue in the 2008 presidential campaign make clear the need for a full range of policy options for addressing the national health crisis. Yet few commentators or policymakers realize that existing WTO health care commitments may already significantly constrain domestic policy options. This article illustrates these constraints through an evaluation of the potential effects of current WTO law and jurisprudence on the implementation of a single-payer national health insurance system in the United States, proposed incremental national and state health system reforms, the privatization of Medicare, and other prominent health system issues. The author concludes with some recommendations to the U.S. Trade Representative to suspend existing liberalization commitments in the health sector and to interpret current and future international trade treaties in a manner consistent with civilized notions of health care as a universal human right. PMID:19492630

  7. Change in Health Insurance Coverage in Massachusetts and Other New England States by Perceived Health Status: Potential Impact of Health Reform

    PubMed Central

    Zack, Matthew M.; Strine, Tara W.; Druss, Benjamin G.; Simoes, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of Massachusetts health reform and its public health component (enacted in 2006) on change in health insurance coverage by perceived health. Methods. We used 2003–2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. We used a difference-in-differences framework to examine the experience in Massachusetts to predict the outcomes of national health care reform. Results. The proportion of adults aged 18 to 64 years with health insurance coverage increased more in Massachusetts than in other New England states (4.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?3.5%, 5.6%). For those with higher perceived health care need (more recent mentally and physically unhealthy days and activity limitation days [ALDs]), the postreform proportion significantly exceeded prereform (P?states—from 4.3% (95% CI?=?3.3%, 5.4%) for fewer than 14 ALDs to 9.0% (95% CI?=?4.5%, 13.5%) for 14 or more ALDs. Conclusions. On the basis of the Massachusetts experience, full implementation of the Affordable Care Act may increase health insurance coverage especially among populations with higher perceived health care need. PMID:23597359

  8. Understanding welfare conditionality in the context of a generational habitus: a qualitative study of older citizens in England

    E-print Network

    Milton, Sarah; Buckner, Stefanie; Salway, Sarah; Powell, Katie; Moffatt, Suzanne; Green, Judith

    2015-06-20

    of welfare benefits by older people in England. It situates their understandings of the British welfare state, and the role of universal and conditional benefits, within a discussion of a ‘generational habitus’. A ‘special’ generation? A constellation...

  9. Reforming Again: Now Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Educational reform responds to local and national pressures to improve educational outcomes, and reform efforts cycle as similar pressures recur. Currently, reform efforts focus on teachers, even though confidence in a host of American social institutions is dropping. One of the most widespread reforms regarding teachers is the…

  10. Learning Communities, High Schools, and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Argues for college learning communities as vehicles for high school reform, and by extension, for reform of K-12 instruction. Such learning communities can model sound academic practices that all students should master in their last year of high school and first year of college. Programs at Temple University (Pennsylvania) and Portland State

  11. Public Pension Plan Reform: The Legal Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    There is significant interest in reforming retirement plans for public school employees, particularly in light of current market conditions. This article presents an overview of the various types of state regulation of public pension plans that affect possibilities for reform. Nearly all of the various approaches to public pension plan protection…

  12. The Reform of Qatar University. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moini, Joy S.; Bikson, Tora K.; Neu, C. Richard; DeSisto, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the State of Qatar engaged the RAND-Qatar Policy Institute to assist Qatar University, the nation's first and only public higher education institution, with reform of its major administrative and academic structures, policies, and practices. This monograph summarizes that reform effort, which formally lasted from October 2003 through…

  13. Utah's Educational Reform Programs, 1991-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    In November 1983, the Utah Education Reform Steering Committee issued the report "Education in Utah: A Call to Action." To meet Utah's double challenge of rapid growth and quality enhancement, the report stated that Utah needed to: (1) increase the allocation of financial resources to education; (2) demand reforms in many aspects of education; and…

  14. Immigration Reform: An Analysis of Employer Sanctions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Estevan T.; And Others

    Recent immigration legislation has potential impacts on migrant education and Mexican American education. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 was passed after nine years of intense debate. The heart of so-called immigration reform is employer sanctions, which seek to restrict migration to the United States by prohibiting employers from…

  15. Latin American USOMs Seminar on Agrarian Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Cooperation Administration (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This report of seminar proceedings discusses land reform policies and programs and their place in the economic development of Latin America. It analyzes experiences and current situations in Latin America, the United States, and elsewhere which shed light on the problems and possibilities of agrarian reform. An appraisal of existing physical,…

  16. What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-06-01

    My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

  17. Native American Indian child welfare system change: implementation of a culturally appropriate practice model across three tribal child welfare systems.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, Maria; Iannone, Mary A

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there are 565 federally recognized tribes in the United States who are independent sovereign nations. These tribes have varying capacities to manage and administer child welfare programs. Most provide some type of child welfare service to the children and families within their tribal land. However, there are no national resources to document the number of children in foster care or the extent of abuse and neglect in the families served by tribal child welfare agencies. Information is only known about those Native American/Alaska Native families and children who are reported to state child protection agencies. Native American children represented 0.9% of all children in the United States in the late 1990s, but they comprised 3.1% of the substitute care population in state-run child welfare systems (Morrison, et al., 2010). Incident rates of child welfare referrals, substantiated referrals, and foster care placement among Native American children and families are relatively high compared to other ethnic groups (Earle & Cross, 2001) but precise interpretation of Native American status is difficult due to variations in child welfare reporting systems (Magruder & Shaw, 2008). PMID:23444794

  18. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    PubMed

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control. PMID:22688439

  19. Animal health and welfare: equivalent or complementary?

    PubMed

    Nicks, B; Vandenheede, M

    2014-04-01

    The concepts of 'health' and 'welfare', whether applied to humans or animals, are increasingly becoming linked. But are they really indissociable, or even synonymous? Although human health is generally defined as a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, animal health is still considered as simply the absence of disease. However, recent advances in scientific knowledge are forcing us to revise our ideas about the mental complexity of animals and to recognise their ability to feel emotions and to have needs and a degree of consciousness. The precise objective of animal welfare science is to study their mental states and their ability to adapt to domestication. Pending a global application of this concept of health, including mental health, to animals as well as to humans, the idea of welfare remains an important element in addition to traditional health concerns. More generally, this linkage fuels the ethical debate about the ways in which people use animals, prompting society to change its stance on some aspects of the issue. PMID:25000781

  20. Do Welfare States Raise Welfare(d) Kids? Day-Care Institutions and Inequality in the Danish Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringsmose, Charlotte; Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra; Allerup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on early-childhood education quality globally, reflecting a growing political awareness that education starts earlier than primary school, and that high quality in day-care influence children's learning and development. In Denmark, almost all children attend day-care, and day-care institutions are considered part…

  1. Improving Scientific Inquiry for Social Work in South Korea: The Center for Social Welfare Research at Yonsei University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jae-Sung; Choi, Soochan; Kim, Yujin

    2009-01-01

    This article examines current social issues and welfare needs in South Korea and discusses societal efforts to respond to these needs through social welfare systems nationwide. It also reviews how social work scholars, major contributors to the creation of a Korean welfare state, have contributed to the conditions of social work practice by…

  2. 78 FR 71535 - Guidance for Tax-Exempt Social Welfare Organizations on Candidate-Related Political Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Treas. Reg. Sec. 1.501(c)(4)-1(a)(2)(ii) to state that `` he promotion of social welfare does not... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL81 Guidance for Tax-Exempt Social Welfare Organizations... to tax-exempt social welfare organizations on political activities related to candidates that...

  3. Hospitals, finance, and health system reform in Britain and the United States, c. 1910-1950: historical revisionism and cross-national comparison.

    PubMed

    Gorsky, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Comparative histories of health system development have been variously influenced by the theoretical approaches of historical institutionalism, political pluralism, and labor mobilization. Britain and the United States have figured significantly in this literature because of their very different trajectories. This article explores the implications of recent research on hospital history in the two countries for existing historiographies, particularly the coming of the National Health Service in Britain. It argues that the two hospital systems initially developed in broadly similar ways, despite the very different outcomes in the 1940s. Thus, applying the conceptual tools used to explain the U.S. trajectory can deepen appreciation of events in Britain. Attention focuses particularly on working-class hospital contributory schemes and their implications for finance, governance, and participation; these are then compared with Blue Cross and U.S. hospital prepayment. While acknowledging the importance of path dependence in shaping attitudes of British bureaucrats toward these schemes, analysis emphasizes their failure in pressure group politics, in contrast to the United States. In both countries labor was also crucial, in the United States sustaining employment-based prepayment and in Britain broadly supporting system reform. PMID:22323233

  4. State Efforts to Comply with Federal Child Welfare Reviews. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Second Session (May 13, 2004). Serial Number 108-54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US House of Representatives, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this hearing is on State efforts to comply with Federal child welfare review requirements related to safety, permanency, and child and family well-being. This document commences with the Advisory of May 6, 2004, announcing the hearing. This is followed by witness testimonies from: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,…

  5. Are Attendance Gains Sustained? A Follow-Up on the Educational and Child Welfare Outcomes of Students with Child Welfare Involvement for Educational Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Anita; Zuel, Timothy; Swanson, Mira

    2011-01-01

    This study reexamined the school attendance and child welfare involvement of students for whom a report of educational neglect was received by child welfare during the 2000-01 school year in one midwestern state. The majority (71.9 percent) of these students experienced a marked improvement in their school attendance in the year following their…

  6. Sputnik Reform Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    Educational reforms being called for in the 1980's are compared to reforms of the 1950's. The Sputnik-inspired quest for quality called for reform in the content and structure of basic subjects. Current reports say that what educators are doing in the basic subjects is ok, but they need to do more. (RM)

  7. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and anticipates…

  8. Reform before NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    The author compared NCLB-prompted standards-based reforms with earlier reforms and found that earlier manifestations of standards-based reforms may have been more productive and constructive. NCLB, with its emphasis on accountability through high-stakes testing, has produced many perverse results alongside documented achievement gains, the author…

  9. State Education Agencies Overlooked in Education Reform? Talent Is the First Place to Start. 2011 PIE Network Summit Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Christine; DeArmond, Michael

    2011-01-01

    State education agencies have been tasked with an immense productivity challenge--increasing student outcomes on fewer funds for the unforeseeable future. The federal government has expected more from states over the last few decades in improving district and school performance: however, there were minimal gains even when states had more money.…

  10. A State of the Field Study of Child Welfare Services for Migrant Children and Their Families Who are In-Stream, Home-Based, or Settled-Out. Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porteous, Sandra McClure

    Part of a study of migrant child welfare services, this review synthesizes all available materials on the issues affecting migrant child welfare. Each chapter discusses the importance of a particular service area, assesses the migrant child's needs in that area, describes existing barriers to service delivery, and presents a history and the…

  11. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    PubMed

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools. PMID:25000783

  12. Reinventing Tenure: What Schools Can Learn from Public Reform Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick; Maranto, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Tenure has lost public legitimacy. Of 30 states reforming civil-service systems or proposing reforms, Georgia has gone the farthest. Since 1996, new state government hires have been "at will" employees. Erosion of private-sector union strength may aid antitenure political leaders' efforts. A sidebar outlines states' actions. (10 references) (MLH)

  13. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Kelsey; Angeletti, Dario; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Carere, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted. PMID:23535125

  14. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Policy and Strategy for Social Work Action in Child Welfare in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherrer, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The United States and Somalia are the only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Opposition in the United States stems from the CRC's demand for a cultural change in how a society cares for children and a political hesitancy to become involved in binding international…

  15. Career and Technical Education: States Aligning Programs to Meet Workforce Needs. The Progress of Education Reform. Volume 15, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer Dounay

    2014-01-01

    Across the 50 states, career and technical education (CTE) programs at the K-12 and postsecondary levels have seen enormous policy action - 2013 alone saw at least 78 substantive policy changes via legislation, state board rules and executive orders specific to CTE and workforce development. What are the drivers behind this sudden policymaker…

  16. Reforming Adult Literacy Education: Transforming Local Programs into National Systems in Canada, the United Kingdom, & the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticht, Thomas G.

    National activities are underway in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States to extend the right to free elementary and fundamental education to adults, and to transform the many local, independently acting programs into systems of state-supported, free education for adults across the life span. This paper summarizes these activities in…

  17. Facing the challenge of a changing system: training child welfare workers in a privatized environment.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Debora M; Levy, Michelle M

    2002-01-01

    The state of Kansas' implementation of a privatized child welfare system is arguably an ambitious shift in child welfare service delivery. In an attempt to drastically improve services to vulnerable families, privatization resulted in intended and unintended consequences for the child welfare workforce. Some of these consequences, including the influx of inexperienced new workers, high worker turnover, and managing relationships with multiple partners, are issues that affect training needs of child welfare professionals. The following paper offers one approach to addressing these needs as well as identifying the challenges involved in training in a privatized environment. PMID:12705471

  18. Multidisciplinary approaches and assessment techniques to better understand and enhance zoo nonhuman animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Siegford, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is a complex concept that encompasses an animal's biological functioning, emotional states, and opportunities to experience a natural life, including the performance of natural behaviors. Further, animal welfare can be viewed as quality of life from the perspective of the animal and thus must consider the animal's subjective experiences. Therefore, assessing and enhancing animal welfare should include multidisciplinary, scientific ventures that strive to create a complete picture of how animals' bodies and minds respond to both aversive and pleasant situations. Practical assessment of animal welfare should include outcome-based measures from the animal that provide information about the individual's welfare as well as resource-based measures that can help identify causes of or risk factors for poor welfare. Increasingly, scientists are examining the emotional states of animals as well as the impact of pain, pleasure, and consciousness on animal welfare. This article discusses approaches such as preference testing, instrumental learning, examination of space and resource use, and qualitative assessments of animal welfare that might be useful and practical for assessing and enhancing welfare in zoo settings. PMID:24079486

  19. The State of the Child: National Perspectives. DIPOV Indices and Related Indicators of Child Health and Welfare for Each State and County of the United States, 1970 - 1972. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Leonard S.; And Others

    This document presents statistical data on United States children and discusses the DIPOV Index, a set of indicators developed by the Center for Social Research, City University of New York, that might be used to describe "the state of the child" in the nation. DIPOV is an acronym for five intercorrelated factors related to an underlying dimension…

  20. What Works in Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluger, Miriam P., Ed.; Alexander, Gina, Ed.; Curtis, Patrick A., Ed.

    Noting the importance of identifying the effectiveness of child welfare programs for future policy planning, this book examines features of successful programs. The book is presented in six sections: family preservation and family support services, child protective services, out-of-home care, adoption, child care, and adolescent services. Each…

  1. Developmental Disabilities and Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rycus, Judith S.; Hughes, Ronald C.

    This monograph addresses common misconceptions about developmental disabilities, describes the conditions that child welfare workers are most likely to see, provides examples of effective interventions, and stresses the importance of early intervention to promote healthy development. Specific chapters include: (1) "Understanding Developmental…

  2. Is Welfare Bad for Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Jacqueline

    A major fear of many who are concerned with the welfare system is that the system itself tends to create pathology among recipients, and in the case of children, to cause mal-socialization. There are a number of problems with these assertions. The chief problem is that there is not much good evidence, one way or another, concerning the effects of…

  3. Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

    This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

  4. Welfare Entitlements: Addressing New Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Jon R.; Fandetti, Donald V.

    1995-01-01

    Because welfare entitlements are increasingly unpopular, social work advocates need to place greater emphasis on job growth and alternate mechanisms for wealth redistribution, including refundable tax credits for working poor people. The Internal Revenue Code can be an effective weapon in combating poverty if antipoverty approaches in the code are…

  5. Data Mining in Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoech, Dick; Quinn, Andrew; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the historical and larger context of data mining and describes data mining processes, techniques, and tools. Illustrates these using a child welfare dataset concerning the employee turnover that is mined, using logistic regression and a Bayesian neural network. Discusses the data mining process, the resulting models, their predictive…

  6. JOBS in the South. The Impact of Low Welfare Benefits and Low Education Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Mark; Strawn, Julie

    JOBS (Job Opportunities in the Business Sector) implementation faces major challenges in every state, but two issues are of particular importance in the South: the impact of low welfare benefits and the impact of low educational levels among Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients. The impact of low welfare benefits shows up…

  7. Children's Welfare Benefits and the Demographic Policy of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revun, V. I.

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the Soviet era there has been an entire system of social welfare benefits in connection with the birth and upbringing of children. Nowadays, in the independent states that came into being in the post-Soviet space, extensive use is also made of various social welfare benefits that are linked to prenatal, childbirth, and postnatal…

  8. An Assessment of the Privatization of Child Welfare Services: Challenges and Successes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn; Gerstenzang, Sarah

    Many government bodies and policymakers have embraced privatization of child welfare services, while others question whether privatization is truly more cost-effective or provides the best services. This book reports on six states' efforts to privatize their child welfare systems and their varying levels of success. This research documents the…

  9. Indian Family Exception Doctrine: Still Losing Children Despite the Indian Child Welfare Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Suzanne L.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1982, the Indian Family Exception Doctrine has been circumventing the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. Although not clearly defined, the doctrine has been pivotal in several American Indian child welfare cases in the United States. Over time, the doctrine continues to evolve and self-define. Several phrases have become part of the…

  10. Child Welfare Worker Perception of the Implementation of Family-Centered Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalopoulos, Lynn; Ahn, Haksoon; Shaw, Terry V.; O'Connor, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of Family-Centered Practice (FCP) among child welfare workers who are expected to use FCP principles in their work with children and families. Method: Nine focus groups were conducted among child welfare workers across seven different regions within one state to assess caseworker's…

  11. Public Concern with Farm-Animal Welfare: Religion, Politics, and Human Disadvantage in the Food Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Danielle R.; Lobao, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The welfare of farm animals has become a continuing source of controversy as states seek greater regulation over the livestock industry. However, empirical studies addressing the determinants of public concern for farm-animal welfare are limited. Religion and politics, two institutional bases of attitudes, are rarely explored. Nor have…

  12. Families at Risk: A Report on New York City's Child Welfare Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotbaum, Betsy

    In this report, the Child Welfare Project (CWP) of the Office of the Public Advocate examines New York City's child welfare social services infrastructure and the family court. It is based on child fatality reports for the year 2000 submitted to the Office of the Public Advocate by the New York State Office of Children and Family Services; child…

  13. 22 CFR 142.62 - Health, welfare, social, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, welfare, social, and other services. 142.62 Section 142.62 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, Social, and Other Services § 142.62 Health,...

  14. Looking through Old Lenses to Understand the Emerging New World Order: Implications for Education Reform in Small Island States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; Elliott, Bob

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing pressure on small island states to reconceptualize education policies, education management practices and curriculum to address the emerging issues caused by global economic, social and cultural changes. It has generated increasing demands on limited available resources which is further confounded by the often contradictory yet…

  15. Progressive Reformers and the Democratic Origins of Citizenship Education in the United States during the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Kathryn L.

    2013-01-01

    The birth of formal citizenship education in the United States emerged in the context of mass immigration, the Progressive Movement, and the First World War. Wartime citizenship education has been chastised for its emphasis on patriotism and loyalty, and while this is a trend, historians have minimised the ways in which the democratic goals of the…

  16. The Diffusion of Governance Reform in American Public Education: An Event History Analysis of State Takeover and Charter School Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.; Langevin, Warren E.

    2005-01-01

    The political tradition of local school governance predates the existence of the United States. Yet the most prominent mechanisms for the exercise of local discretion have evolved considerably from their colonial origins in response to the changing political climate of the nation, constituent demands, and legislative innovation. Recognizing the…

  17. Contesting Reform: Bernstein's Pedagogic Device and Madrasah Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the active role played by various pedagogic agents in contesting the state educational reforms for madrasahs in Singapore. Drawing upon Basil Bernstein's pedagogic device, the paper identifies tensions and challenges that arise from the attempts by the state to implement curriculum reforms. The paper contends that the stakes…

  18. Comparing Drug Use between Welfare-Receiving Arrestees and Non-Welfare-Receiving Arrestees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Urbach, Blake J.; Johnson, Regina J.

    2002-01-01

    Compares drug-positive rates between welfare-receiving arrestees, non-welfare receiving arrestees living below the poverty level, and non-welfare arrestees living above the poverty level. Welfare-receiving arrestees were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and to test positive for opiates and benzodiazepines than the other subgroups.…

  19. The Welfare of Cattle Jeffrey Rushen

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    The Welfare of Cattle Jeffrey Rushen Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri of research into the welfare of dairy, veal and beef cattle. The book provides a thorough and critical review of the most up-to-date research on the welfare of cattle, covering behaviour, nutrition and feeding, housing

  20. Higher Education Reform in Italy: Tightening Regulation Instead of Steering at a Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donina, Davide; Meoli, Michele; Paleari, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In December 2010, a comprehensive reform (Law 240/2010, or "Gelmini reform") changed the institutional governance and internal organization of Italian state universities. This paper investigates the redefinition of the state role in the light of public management reform narratives, linking them to the Governance Equalizer Model to…

  1. Coordination and Integration of Welfare and Workforce Development Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pindus, Nancy; Koralek, Robin; Martinson, Karin; Trutko, John

    The extent of coordination and integration of welfare and work force development systems was examined in a study that involved site visits to 12 localities in 6 states. The following factors were found to promote coordination: a previous history of coordination; a strong local economy and low unemployment; access to technology; greater financial…

  2. Aligning social welfare and agent preferences to alleviate traffic congestion

    E-print Network

    Tumer, Kagan

    Aligning social welfare and agent preferences to alleviate traffic congestion Kagan Tumer Oregon State University 204 Rogers Hall Corvallis, OR 97331 kagan.tumer@oregonstate.edu Zachary T Welch Oregon traffic congestion, Kagan Tumer, Zachary T Welch and Adrian Agogino, Proc. of 7th Int. Conf. on Autonomous

  3. American Social Welfare Policy and Social Justice for Appalachia's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNutt, John G.

    This paper examines social welfare policy and its impacts on Appalachian children. The discussion is based on a notion that a just society meets basic needs of all its members. Current social policy: (1) does not include a comprehensive family policy; (2) depends on state and local contributions which are limited in rural Appalachia; (3) has…

  4. Vouchers within Reason: A Child-Centered Approach to Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, James G.

    This book suggests that the welfare of children has been routinely subordinated to the interests and supposed rights of various groups of adults (parents, teachers, taxpayers, and advocates). It suggests that a truly child-centered approach to education reform would yield dramatically different conclusions regarding the morality and…

  5. [German poultry farming between animal welfare and global market].

    PubMed

    Erhard, Michael; Damme, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Despite the positive tendencies concerning sales output in the poultry production, the margins per single animal are extremely low. This circumstance leads inevitably to an increasing number of animals per farm. Also the German egg production is currently confronted with a great challenge due to changes of the legislation of animal welfare in animal farming (German Tierschutz-Nutztierhaltungs-Verordnung), the EU-zoonosis-regulation (2160/2003) and because of the avian influenza difficulties. In addition, the globalization has tightened the competitive conditions during production. Therefore, innovation potential and specialization are mandatory premises for the continuity within a free market economy. In all farming systems there has to be made a consideration between animal welfare, economy and ecology, whereas, based on animal welfare, the "ethical limit" has the utmost importance. It has to be accounted for the concept of fulfilment of demand and prevention of harm. The success of agricultural animal farming depends, last but not least, on a good and robust state of health of the live stock. The German consumer will have to accept that a high quality and high welfare poultry product will have their price, even in the global market. The sale orientation on non-European production methods is not acceptable under the aspect of animal welfare. PMID:19681394

  6. Electricity reform abroad and US investment

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This report reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) to illustrate how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries in these countries, which have become the largest targets of U.S. foreign investment in electricity. Two calculations of foreign investment are used. One is the foreign direct investment series produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The other is based on transactions in electric utilities of the three countries. The electricity reform and privatization experiences reviewed may offer some insight as to how the U.S. electricity industry might develop as a result of recent domestic reform efforts and deregulation at the state and national levels. 126 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Bargaining in the Chinese Leviathan: An Examination on the Steel Industry after China's SOE Reform

    E-print Network

    Li, Zichao

    2010-06-28

    This thesis centers on the competitions between enterprises in the steel industry in China after the SOE (state-owned enterprises) reform, which can be viewed as a case for mass economic reforms within Chinese Leviathan. To examine the effect...

  8. Modernization and Post-1978 Chinese Educational Reform: Impact on a Migrating Population

    E-print Network

    Deng, Weiling

    2013-01-01

    Education as a Classed Game Educational reform, a gameeducational reform, one that remodels natural man, state institutions, and the gamegame accelerates and perpetuates the inequity of opportunity in the starting, proceeding, and ending points of a person’s educational

  9. 3 CFR 13507 - Executive Order 13507 of April 8, 2009. Establishment of the White House Office of Health Reform

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Establishment of the White House Office of Health Reform 13507 Order 13507 Presidential Documents Executive... Reform By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States.... Establishment. (a) There is established a White House Office of Health Reform (Health Reform Office) within...

  10. The Impact of Total Liberalization of Domestic Air Transport on the Social Welfare and on the Dynamic of Competition: Comparison Between the United States and the European Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zbidi, Karim

    2003-01-01

    Since the lst of April 1997 date of the implementation of the third package of the liberalization, air transport, within the european Union has become totally liberalized. In the United States the deregulation of domestic air traffic was earlier and faster since it took place in October 1978 after the adoption of the only act of deregulation. This paper, in its first part, deals with the liberalization of the industry of air traffic in the european union. After a comparison with US system based on market demand, fare policy and network restrictions, we present our descriptive results coming from treatments on the OAG data. These results present several aspects such as the evolution of the competitive structure of the intra-european routes, the level of airport dominance and the growth of hub structure. The second part of the paper presents models of entry in the airline industry. As profitability" of route flown explains correctly decisions taken by airlines to serve or not a route, the paper focuses on the specification and the estimation of the determinants of city, pair profitability in the european union. Treatments done on the OAG data show a rapid development of leasing space agreement (partial and total) and code sharing practices between 1995 and 2000 in Europe that's why we differentiate first between the two type of competitive strategy of entry(direct entry and leasing space agreement) and second between the competitive strategy of entry and the alliance strategy of code sharing. So the estimation of model will be able to answer the question if the european air transport market is contestable and in case not to see if the decision of entry is more directed by the level of airport dominance (as in the domestic United States market)or essentially by the competitive structure of the routes. We try to explain the nature of entry(directleasing or code sharing) by the different levels of these two determinants.

  11. Learning What Matters: Exploring the Factors Affecting Learning Transfers in Child Welfare Competencies and Career Interest in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Aries Meng-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of the factors impacting MSW students' interests and motivation to learn child welfare competencies, and how they affect learning transfer of the subject is important for the development of a knowledgeable, competent, and committed workforce that serves children and families in the United States. Practitioners need to attain…

  12. Overcoming Obstacles To Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses five core reasons why reform efforts in institutions of higher education so often fail. Roadblocks to reform are identified as: 1) lack of agreement on problems to be solved; 2) unclear time frames and structures; 3) lack of evaluative criteria; 4) failure to articulate changes to the rest of the campus; 5) cultural exhaustion and system…

  13. School Reform. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue addresses school reform, focusing on accountability, attrition, public-supported private education, equitable education, and schoolwide reform. "School-Student Performance and Accountability" (Jose A. Cardenas) discusses what constitutes good performance in school; the shifting emphasis among the input, output, and process of…

  14. Small Schools Reform Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Beth M.; Berghoff, Beth

    2013-01-01

    This study explored complicated personal narratives of school reform generated by participants in response to a particular small schools reform initiative. Narrative data was dialogically generated in interviews with nine past participants of an urban high school conversion project planned and implemented over a span of five years toward the goal…

  15. Family planning offered in local welfare offices.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    This article describes expanded access to family planning (FP) services through community welfare offices in Washington state, US. The government aim is to decrease unintended pregnancies and to help families achieve self-sufficiency. The staff must be sensitive and respectful of clients served. The team effort includes contacting clients in other community locations to offer FP education. The approach is characterized as "1-stop shopping" that includes FP, welfare, access to jobs, training, and medical coupons. Preventing unintended pregnancies is cost effective. A state (90%) investment of $40/person for contraceptives is good business compared to $400/person as a 50/50 state/federal investment in prenatal and delivery costs. The program began in 1992, by educating staff members in community services offices (CSOs) about FP issues. In 1994, the program hired registered nurses and nurse practitioners at CSOs to provide FP services. Almost all CSOs now have nurses, and there are 8 full exam clinics. A resource handbook for CSO workers and FP nurses was compiled by state and local FP personnel. CSOs typically assign 1 staff member to FP, usually on a part time basis. Close collaboration between nurses and CSO workers usually involves more creative strategies and outreach projects. For example, in 1 CSO in Washington, the FP worker offers contraceptive counseling, pregnancy tests, and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Contraceptives are provided at a separate time with local private providers or at health department clinics. CSOs continue to provide counseling regardless of referrals to private clinics. The project is growing and forming collaborations with other FP groups. These 1-stop sites offer accessible, familiar, and comfortable services. PMID:12293169

  16. Implementing Federal Health Reform in the States: Who Is Included and Excluded and What Are Their Characteristics?

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Brett; Pintor, Jessie Kemmick; Graven, Peter; Blewett, Lynn A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the characteristics and number of nonelderly adults eligible and ineligible for Affordable Care Act (ACA) expansions. Data Sources and Settings Two secondary data sources are used in this analysis: the 2008 Panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the 2009 American Community Survey (ACS). Study Design We use multiple imputation to incorporate model-based uncertainty into the prediction of immigration status into the ACS from the SIPP. Key variables include place of birth, year of entry to the U.S., and health insurance coverage. Data Collection/Extracting Methods No primary data are used in this study. Principle Findings We estimate that potentially 3.5 million nonelderly adults will be excluded from the ACA Medicaid Expansion and 2 million from the health insurance exchanges because of their immigration status. We also find significant differences in estimates of excluded nonelderly adults across states. Conclusions Over 15 percent of income-eligible uninsured nonelderly adults will be potentially excluded from the ACA coverage expansions due to their immigration status. Policy makers must be careful to exclude ineligible nonelderly adults before estimating the impact of the ACA on coverage rates. PMID:25255892

  17. Reforming science: methodological and cultural reforms.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2012-03-01

    Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture. PMID:22184414

  18. Reforming Science: Methodological and Cultural Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture. PMID:22184414

  19. [METHODS AND TECHNOLOGIES OF HEALTH RISK ANALYSIS IN THE SYSTEM OF THE STATE MANAGEMENT UNDER ASSURANCE OF THE SANITATION AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELFARE OF POPULATION].

    PubMed

    Za?tseva, N V; Popova, A Iu; Ma?, I V; Shur, P Z

    2015-01-01

    The methodology of the analysis of health risk at the present stage of development of Russian society is in-demand at all levels of government management. In conjunction with the methods of mathematical modeling, spatial-temporal analysis and economic tools the risk assessment in the analysis of the situation makes it possible to determine the level of safety of the population, workers and consumers, to select prior resources, and threat factors as a point for exertion efforts. At the planning stage risk assessment is a basis for the establishment of most effective measures for the minimization of hazard and dangers. At the realization stage the methodology allows to estimate the efficiency of measures; at the control and supervision phase it permits to select out priorities for the concentration of efforts on the objects of maximal health risk for population. Risk assessments, including the elements of evolutionary modeling, are incorporated in the system of state hygienic regulation, the formation of evidence base of harm to health, the organization of control and supervisory activities. This allows you to harmonize the domestic legal framework with ternational legal requirements and ultimately enhances the credibility of the Russian data on the safety of the environment products and services. There is seemed to be actual the further assignment of enforcement of methodology of health risk analysis in the field of assurance of sanitary and epidemiological well-being and health of employers; he development of informational and analytical base in the part of the establishment of models of dependencies "exposure-response" for different types and levels of exposure and risk contingents; the accuracy enhancement of estimations of exposure; improvement of the economic aspects of health risk analysis and forecasting of measures aimed at mitigation of the losses associated with the negative impact of manifold factors on the health of citizens. PMID:26155657

  20. The stability of coerced economic reform : the case of IPR

    E-print Network

    Wilcox, Trudy

    2005-01-01

    Theories in international relations posit, and empirical evidence has verified, that unwilling states can be compelled by another state or by an international institution to enact domestic policy reform. However, these ...

  1. On the Road to Reform: A Sociocultural Interpretation of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I discuss how reform in science education is interpreted by Barma as she recounts the story of Catherine, a grade 9 biology teacher, who reforms her teaching practices in response to a national curriculum reform in Quebec, Canada. Unlike some cases in response to reform, this case is hopeful and positive. Also in this paper, I…

  2. Outcomes of a Freedom of Choice Reform in Community Mental Health Day Center Services.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Mona; Markström, Urban

    2015-11-01

    A freedom-of-choice reform within mental health day center services was evaluated. The reform aimed to (1) facilitate users' change between units and (2) increase the availability of service providers. Seventy-eight users responded to questionnaires about the reform, empowerment, social network, engagement and satisfaction and were followed-up after 15 months. Fifty-four percent knew about the reform. A majority stated the reform meant nothing to them; ~25 % had a negative and ~20 % a positive opinion. Satisfaction with the services had decreased after 15 months. Empowerment decreased for a more intensively followed subgroup. No positive consequences of the reform could thus be discerned. PMID:25315182

  3. Simplifying the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for broiler chicken welfare.

    PubMed

    de Jong, I C; Hindle, V A; Butterworth, A; Engel, B; Ferrari, P; Gunnink, H; Perez Moya, T; Tuyttens, F A M; van Reenen, C G

    2016-01-01

    Welfare Quality® (WQ) assessment protocols place the emphasis on animal-based measures as an indicator for animal welfare. Stakeholders, however, emphasize that a reduction in the time taken to complete the protocol is essential to improve practical applicability. We studied the potential for reduction in time to complete the WQ broiler assessment protocol and present some modifications to the protocol correcting a few errors in the original calculations. Data was used from 180 flocks assessed on-farm and 150 flocks assessed at the slaughter plant. Correlations between variables were calculated, and where correlation was moderate, meaningful and promising (in terms of time reduction), simplification was considered using one variable predicted from another variable. Correlation analysis revealed a promising correlation between severe hock burn and gait scores on-farm. Therefore, prediction of gait scores using hock burn scores was studied further as a possible simplification strategy (strategy 1). Measurements of footpad dermatitis, hock burn, cleanliness and gait score on-farm correlated moderately to highly with slaughter plant measurements of footpad dermatitis and/or hock burn, supporting substitution of on-farm measurements with slaughter plant data. A simplification analysis was performed using footpad dermatitis, hock burn, cleanliness and gait scores measured on-farm predicted from slaughter plant measurements of footpad dermatitis and hock burn (strategy 2). Simplification strategies were compared with the full assessment protocol. Close agreement was found between the full protocol and both simplification strategies although large confidence intervals were found for specificity of the simplified models. It is concluded that the proposed simplification strategies are encouraging; strategy 1 can reduce the time to complete the on-farm assessment by ~1 h (25% to 33% reduction) and strategy 2 can reduce on-farm assessment time by ~2 h (50% to 67% reduction). Both simplification strategies should, however, be validated further, and tested on farms with a wide distribution across the different welfare categories of WQ. PMID:26306882

  4. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tasha R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  5. Deep Change: Cases and Commentary on Schools and Programs of Successful Reform in High Stakes States. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Gerald, Ed.; Strahan, David, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book presents cases of schools (Part One) and programs at the district level and beyond (Part Two) in which reform, while driven by high-stakes accountability, became larger and deeper through data-driven dialogue, culture change, organizational learning, and other elements of high performing cultures. Commentaries on cross-case patterns by…

  6. Hearing on Telecommunications Policy Reform. Hearing of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    This document presents witness testimony and supplemental materials from a Congressional hearing regarding legislation to reform national telecommunications policy. Most of the proposed changes would allow Americans greater freedom to choose among communication products and services. Among the topics this hearing addresses are increasing…

  7. Testimony on the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1985 (S. 1200) before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Refugee Policy, Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yzaguirre, Raul

    The National Council of La Raza's opposition to the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1985 (S. 1200) is explained in this paper, which was presented as testimony before the Senate Subcommittee on Immigration and Refugee Policy. Three provisions of the proposed bill are analyzed: employer sanctions, legalization, and guestworkers. First, the…

  8. State and District Receipt of Recovery Act Funds. A Report from Charting the Progress of Education Reform: An Evaluation of the Recovery Act's Role. NCEE 2012-4057

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison-Mogren, Roberta; Gutmann, Babette

    2012-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA or the Recovery Act) of 2009 provided an unprecedented level of funding designed to "stimulate the economy in the short-term and invest wisely, using these funds to improve schools, raise achievement, drive reforms and produce better results for children and young people for the long-term health of…

  9. The History of Reform in Russian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Vera

    2007-01-01

    The reform of higher education became the subject of sharp debate and public concern in Russia during the current decade. The controversy still exists even if the reforms had been initiated in the early 1990s. By the mid-1990s, their most painful aspects had already become manifest: severe cuts in state funding; deteriorating working conditions of…

  10. Neoliberalism and Corporate School Reform: "Failure" and "Creative Destruction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltman, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, corporate school reform or neoliberal educational restructuring has overtaken educational policy, practice, curriculum, and nearly all aspects of educational reform. Although this movement began on the political right, the corporate school model has been heralded across the political spectrum and is aggressively embraced now…

  11. Secondary STEM Educational Reform. Secondary Education in a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Federal and state funding agencies have invested billions of dollars into secondary STEM (Science, Technology, Education, Mathematics) educational reform over the past decade. This volume addresses the interplay of external and internal variables associated with school reform and how this dynamic has impacted many efforts. The goal of this book is…

  12. School Reform in the Deep South: A Critical Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vold, David J., Ed.; DeVitis, Joseph L., Ed.

    An assessment of the school reform movement, this book focuses on the states of the Deep South--Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. Ten articles, organized into three sections, tackle such issues as the role of government in school reform, the professional growth of teachers, and the privatization of schools. Part 1 includes the following: "Public…

  13. "No Excuses": School Reform Efforts in Exemplary Schools of Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Shelby; Borko, Hilda; McIver, Monette; Elliott, Rebekah

    This report follows two elementary and two middle schools in Kentucky where educators not only talked about what they needed to do to meet the needs of the state's educational reform program, but also acted on their ideas, creating a "no excuses" atmosphere. Images of reform suggest that resource decisions are often based on human relationships…

  14. An Update of Educational Reform in Michigan. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Office of Planning Coordination, Lansing.

    In October 1970, the Governor's Commission on Educational Reform issued a report recommending changes in the administrative and financial structures of Michigan elementary and secondary education. The report, an update of an initial report, covers February through September 1970. Actions taken on educational reform legislation include (1) a State

  15. Australian Curriculum Reform II: Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    It is implied by governing organizations that Australia is presently experiencing its first national curriculum reform, when as the title suggests it is the second. However, until now Australian states and territories have been responsible for the education curriculum delivered within schools. The present national curriculum reform promises one…

  16. 77 FR 37346 - Export Control Reform Transition Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ...,'' 75 FR 76664 (December 9, 2010) and ``Revision to the United States Munitions List,'' 75 FR 76935... Parts 120, 121, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, and 130 ] Export Control Reform Transition Plan... the President's export control reform initiative, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

  17. Who's Who in a Growing Education Reform Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Innovators in Education Network, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Education reform advocacy organizations have been working at the state-level for more than twenty-five years, but the last decade has seen a significant increase in their number and in the intensity of their focus and methods. It's no coincidence that as reform organizations proliferate the movement accelerates: the mission of such organizations…

  18. Harnessing Complexity: A Framework for Analyzing School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Stephanie L.; Erlandson, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss an approach to analyzing the interactive effects of multiple reform efforts within a school or school district. The approach resulted from an intensive study of reform in one district in a state characterized by a strong accountability system. First, the authors present a brief history of educational…

  19. Working on reform. How workers' compensation medical care is affected by health care reform.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, J; Rest, K

    1996-01-01

    The medical component of workers' compensation programs-now costing over $24 billion annually-and the rest of the nation's medical care system are linked. They share the same patients and providers. They provide similar benefits and services. And they struggle over who should pay for what. Clearly, health care reform and restructuring will have a major impact on the operation and expenditures of the workers' compensation system. For a brief period, during the 1994 national health care reform debate, these two systems were part of the same federal policy development and legislative process. With comprehensive health care reform no longer on the horizon, states now are tackling both workers' compensation and medical system reforms on their own. This paper reviews the major issues federal and state policy makers face as they consider reforms affecting the relationship between workers' compensation and traditional health insurance. What is the relationship of the workers' compensation cost crisis to that in general health care? What strategies are being considered by states involved in reforming the medical component of workers compensation? What are the major policy implications of these strategies? Images p13-a p14-a p15-a p16-a p18-a p19-a p20-a p22-a p24-a PMID:8610187

  20. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take, for example, the various SSI's statements of "good educational practice." Most SSI's began their initiatives by establishing clear goals for what students should know and be able to do, reflecting the emergence of a national consensus for broad standards for just about every aspect of the educational process. The concerned persons in each SSI--policy-makers, educators, mathematicians, and scientists--have not necessarily reached the same conclusions about what children should learn or even what efforts are needed to put the necessary changes in place, but they are focused on common goals as expressed locally. The recent national dialogues about goals and standards have provided the basis for a remarkably consistent image of what states--at least the SSI states--consider good educational practice. The differences that do occur across states reflect variations in demographics, geography, resources, values, and educational structure. All the states with SSI's, regardless of their primary strategy, have address the professional development of teachers. Collectively, the SSI's reported that professional development services were provided to more than 50,000 teachers during the past year, which is approximately eight percent of the public school teachers in the participating states. The number of teachers participating varied by grade level and subject matter. Some states, for example, reported reaching more than one in every five middle-school mathematics teachers, but only one in every 20 high-school mathematics teachers. Focusing SSI resources on the professional development of classroom teachers implies changing their skill levels, knowledge, and beliefs. Attitudes and perceptions of administrators also changed in the process. The challenge lies in developing a strategy that provides on-going, in-depth professional development that reaches a significant portion of those who teach mathematics and the sciences. Not only must an effective development model(s), be provided, the infrastructure to accommodate all teachers must be created as well. Most state

  1. Social Service Availability & Proximity And The Over-Representation Of Minority Children in Child Welfare 

    E-print Network

    Bathman, Jake; Foster, David; Ingels, Laura; Lee, Chongmyoung; Miramontes, Claudia; Youngblood, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The capstone group assessed whether child welfare services were available and proximal in predominantly low income, black areas with high foster care rates in three southern cities. GIS mapping of services contained in a State 211 community services...

  2. 77 FR 28799 - Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and Licensing Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ...storefront and some animals remotely and, if...that all the covered animals they sell at retail...that establish some form of humane welfare standards for animals kept at pet stores...with State regulatory groups to develop...

  3. Catalytic reforming methods

    DOEpatents

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  4. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    DOEpatents

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  5. An animal welfare view of wildlife contraception.

    PubMed

    Grandy, J W; Rutberg, A T

    2002-01-01

    Although there is some dissent, the animal protection community generally supports the concept of wildlife contraception. However, some contraceptive agents, delivery mechanisms and specific applications will be opposed by animal welfare advocates on environmental, humane or other ethical grounds, and some animal rights advocates may oppose wildlife contraception entirely. The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) has supported and conducted wildlife contraception studies for more than 10 years. In general, we have invested in contraceptive agents (such as porcine zona pellucida) that we believe will prove environmentally, physiologically and behaviourally benign, and in delivery mechanisms that are narrowly targeted. As we consider contraception to be a major intervention into natural processes, we believe that wildlife contraception should be applied judiciously, locally and in a manner that is sensitive to the needs of animals, humans and ecosystem function. PMID:12220149

  6. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-10-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440493

  7. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440494

  8. Domestic Violence and Welfare Policy: Research Findings That Can Inform Policies on Marriage and Child Well-Being. Research Forum on Children, Families, and the New Federalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Sharmila

    Asserting that the welfare reform proposals of the mid-1990s drew attention to the problem of domestic violence among individuals receiving public assistance who are among the poorest of the poor, this report examines what is known from past research on domestic violence that may inform policies related to marriage and child well-being. In…

  9. A Nation Reformed? American Education Twenty Years after "A Nation at Risk."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David T., Ed.

    This collection of papers takes stock of 20 years of school reform in the United States, examining whether the nation was ever "at risk," and if so, whether it still is and which reforms have made a difference. Papers include "Introduction" (David T. Gordon); (1) "Riding Waves, Trading Horses: The Twenty-Year Effort to Reform Education" (Susan H.…

  10. The climate of child welfare employee retention.

    PubMed

    Cahalane, Helen; Sites, Edward W

    2008-01-01

    This article describes differences in perceptions of the child welfare work environment among Title IV-E educated individuals who remain within public child welfare and those who sought employment elsewhere after fulfilling a legal work commitment. Job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment were predictive of staying versus leaving. The empirical evidence suggests that efforts to retain highly skilled and educated public child welfare workers should focus on creating positive organizational climates within agencies. PMID:18575259

  11. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region. PMID:25000776

  12. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-27

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  13. Reforming Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkridge, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the need to reform educational technology. Topics include an obsolete foundation for the field based on 1960s psychological theory; the need to incorporate cognitive science; reasons for integrating information technology; and ideological challenges, including critical theory. (LRW)

  14. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-12

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  15. High School Science Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Bill G.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Scope, Sequence, and Coordination (SS&C) reform movement. Points out the limited science opportunities for minority students in traditional high school settings. First published in 1995. (YDS)

  16. Direct Funding through Block Grants. Oversight Hearing on Providing Direct Funding through Block Grants to Tribes To Administer Welfare and Other Social Service Programs. Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

    A hearing before the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs received testimony concerning the feasibility of providing direct federal funding through block grants to tribes and the ability of tribes to administer local welfare and social services programs. An Assistant Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) listed federal…

  17. Child Welfare: Enhanced Federal Oversight of Title IV-B Could Provide States Additional Information To Improve Services. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrowiak, Diana; St. Pierre, Michelle; Mink, Melissa; Rasmussen, J. Bryan

    Title IV-B of the Social Security Act authorizes federal funding for services to help families address problems leading to child abuse and neglect and prevent unnecessary separation of children from their families. Subpart 1 of Title IV-B provides funds for almost any child welfare activity, but has statutory limits on foster care maintenance and…

  18. Reformer Fuel Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Today's form of jet engine power comes from what is called a gas turbine engine. This engine is on average 14% efficient and emits great quantities of green house gas carbon dioxide and air pollutants, Le. nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The alternate method being researched involves a reformer and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Reformers are becoming a popular area of research within the industry scale. NASA Glenn Research Center's approach is based on modifying the large aspects of industry reforming processes into a smaller jet fuel reformer. This process must not only be scaled down in size, but also decrease in weight and increase in efficiency. In comparison to today's method, the Jet A fuel reformer will be more efficient as well as reduce the amount of air pollutants discharged. The intent is to develop a 10kW process that can be used to satisfy the needs of commercial jet engines. Presently, commercial jets use Jet-A fuel, which is a kerosene based hydrocarbon fuel. Hydrocarbon fuels cannot be directly fed into a SOFC for the reason that the high temperature causes it to decompose into solid carbon and Hz. A reforming process converts fuel into hydrogen and supplies it to a fuel cell for power, as well as eliminating sulfur compounds. The SOFC produces electricity by converting H2 and CO2. The reformer contains a catalyst which is used to speed up the reaction rate and overall conversion. An outside company will perform a catalyst screening with our baseline Jet-A fuel to determine the most durable catalyst for this application. Our project team is focusing on the overall research of the reforming process. Eventually we will do a component evaluation on the different reformer designs and catalysts. The current status of the project is the completion of buildup in the test rig and check outs on all equipment and electronic signals to our data system. The objective is to test various reformer designs and catalysts in our test rig to determine the most efficient configuration to incorporate into the specific compact jet he1 reformer test rig. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  19. Mental health care delivery system reform in Belgium: the challenge of achieving deinstitutionalisation whilst addressing fragmentation of care at the same time.

    PubMed

    Nicaise, Pablo; Dubois, Vincent; Lorant, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Most mental health care delivery systems in welfare states currently face two major issues: deinstitutionalisation and fragmentation of care. Belgium is in the process of reforming its mental health care delivery system with the aim of simultaneously strengthening community care and improving integration of care. The new policy model attempts to strike a balance between hospitals and community services, and is based on networks of services. We carried out a content analysis of the policy blueprint for the reform and performed an ex-ante evaluation of its plan of operation, based on the current knowledge of mental health service networks. When we examined the policy's multiple aims, intermediate goals, suggested tools, and their articulation, we found that it was unclear how the new policy could achieve its goals. Indeed, deinstitutionalisation and integration of care require different network structures, and different modes of governance. Furthermore, most of the mechanisms contained within the new policy were not sufficiently detailed. Consequently, three major threats to the effectiveness of the reform were identified. These were: issues concerning the relationship between network structure and purpose, the continued influence of hospitals despite the goal of deinstitutionalisation, and the heterogeneity in the actual implementation of the new policy. PMID:24582489

  20. Reforming the Human Tissue Acts.

    PubMed

    McKelvie, Helen

    2006-11-01

    The Human Tissue Acts of the various States and Territories that were enacted following the 1977 Report of the Australian Law Reform Commission on Human Tissue Transplants are in need of an overhaul as a result of rapid advances in medical science and biotechnology, as well as growing public expectations regarding the ethical use of tissues and organs obtained from autopsies and other sources. The author argues that the time is ripe for a comprehensive review and revision of the Acts throughout the country in order to maintain a consistent approach. PMID:17153521