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1

Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States  

E-print Network

1 Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States Rebecca M. Blank University of Michigan and NBER the United States fundamentally changed the structure of its public assistance programs to low, labor force changes, poverty and income changes, and family formation changes. A growing body

Shyy, Wei

2

Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the economics literature on welfare reform over the 1990s. A brief summary of the policy changes over this period is followed by a discussion of the methodological techniques utilized to analyze the effects of these changes on outcomes. The paper then critically reviews the econometric and experimental literature on caseload changes, labor force changes, poverty and income

Rebecca M. Blank

2002-01-01

3

Workfare With Welfare: Recent Reforms of the Danish Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denmark has recently seen a significant drop in unemployment that has not been matched by any corresponding increase in inflation. This article assumes that this remarkable achievement is rooted in the ongoing transition from the Keynesian welfare state (KWS) to a Schumpeterian workfare regime (SWR). The article compares the main features of the KWS with those of the SWR. It

Jacob Torfing

1999-01-01

4

State Flexibility: The Minimum Wage and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, Congress for the first time, is debating a federal minimum wage hike that will affect low-skilled people who have dramatically fewer options if they cannot find work. This public policy debate has been occasioned by the new state focus on welfare reform that, to some, suggests that a state flexibility approach be applied to the minimum…

Employment Policies Inst., Washington, DC.

5

States Can Use Family Literacy Programs To Support Welfare Reform Goals. Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have shown an inextricable link between under-education and chronic, intergenerational welfare dependency. With welfare reform focusing on moving individuals into the workforce more quickly, state welfare reform efforts to assist low-income parents and their children are needed. Incorporating family literacy instruction into…

Peyton, Tony; Wheeler, Mary Gwen; Dalton, Debbie

6

Children and Welfare Reform: High States, Low Coverage. Content Analysis on Welfare Reform Reporting. A Report by Children Now.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of the way welfare reform is presented in the national news media can provide insight into which aspects of the reform news consumers consider important. This study used a content analysis to examine all stories about welfare reform in the national press from: (1) June through August 1996, during which time the federal legislation…

Heintz-Knowles, Katharine

7

Welfare Reform at 15 and the State of Policy Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and…

Pimpare, Stephen

2013-01-01

8

Welfare Reform and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

2005-01-01

9

Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 16 chapters in this five-part book, each by different authors, trace the effects of welfare reform (mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), upon poor people in rural areas of the United States. The book begins with an introduction called "As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural…

Weber, Bruce A., Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Whitener, Leslie A., Ed.

10

Welfare Reform: Few States Are Likely to Use the Simplified Food Stamp Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, released by the US General Accounting Office (GAO), examines some of the consequences of the federal Welfare Reform Act of 1996. The report studies the Simplified Food Stamp Program provision of the Welfare Reform Act to identify the seven states that have adopted the program, describe the concerns of the non-participant states regarding increased casework and restricted options, and examines the program's limited effects on households's eligibility and benefits.

1999-01-01

11

Managing Welfare Reform in Five States: The Challenge of Devolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book analyzes the responses of five states (Florida, Mississippi, New York, Washington, and Wisconsin) to challenges posed by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 to alter state welfare programs and management systems. Using case studies, the book highlights similarities and differences in the states'…

Liebschutz, Sarah F., Ed.

12

Lessons of United States welfare reforms for Australian social policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in policies towards lone parents in Australia have emphasised the role of employment in increasing income and self- sufficiency. The emphasis on employment is also the case in other OECD countries with a general trend towards benefits for lone parents being made dependent on participation in the labour market. The United States of America has undertaken substantial reforms

Matthew Gray; David Stanton

2004-01-01

13

Welfare Reform: States' Experiences in Providing Employment Assistance to TANF Clients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, recently released by the US General Accounting Office (GAO), examines some of the consequences of the federal Welfare Reform Act of 1996. The report studies how five states -- Arizona, Massachusetts, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin -- have been implementing the new Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, which supplies time-limited assistance to recipients while helping them to find and maintain work. The report concludes that, although states are making changes to the structure of their welfare and workforce development systems, only one state, Wisconsin, has fully integrated both systems.

14

Children and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

2002-01-01

15

Child Care and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 establishes mandatory work requirements. This review article describes the child care provisions of the welfare reform act, addressing some of the issues related to these provisions and highlighting selected state initiatives in this area. (Author)

Lino, Mark

1998-01-01

16

Reforming Welfare in America. Book Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews three books on welfare reform: "The Poverty of Welfare Reform" (Joel F. Handler); "The Politics of Welfare Reform" (Donald F. Norris, Lyke Thompson, editors); and "Living on the Edge: The Realities of Welfare in America" (Mark Robert Rank). (JOW)

Jennings, Edward T., Jr.

1996-01-01

17

Is Welfare Reform Succeeding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare Reform and the Earned Income Tax Credit have apparently caused a dramatic increase in the labor force participation rates of single parents. Between the first quarters of 1994 and 1998, labor force participation rates rose 25.4 percent for never-married women caring for children, rose 15.5 percent for mothers separated from their spouse and rose 4.9 percent for divorced single

John H. Bishop

1998-01-01

18

Reforming a Breadwinner Welfare State: Gender, Race, Class, and Social Security Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key challenge facing western welfare states is that they offset income risks faced by those in breadwinner families. Social Security is an excellent example. It best protects individuals with lengthy work histories or individuals who get married, stay married, and are never employed. Most women fit neither model. Thus, I analyze "women-friendly"…

Herd, Pamela

2005-01-01

19

Welfare Reforms, Family Resources, and Child Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated…

Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

2003-01-01

20

Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

Sawhill, Isabel V.

2000-01-01

21

The Implications of Welfare Reform for Housing and School Instability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses studies on the housing outcomes of welfare recipients to examine the potential influence of welfare reform on housing instability, which influences school instability. State studies suggest that welfare reform has increased rates of family mobility, evictions, and sharing housing. Limited research suggests that housing instability and…

Nichols, Laura; Gault, Barbara

2003-01-01

22

Learning from Leaders: Welfare Reform Politics and Policy in Five Midwestern States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines welfare reform, occasioned by the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which abolished Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and replaced it with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). It is based on research in Ohio, Kansas, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan that…

Weissert, Carol S., Ed.

23

Essays on public policy and consumer choice : applications to welfare reform and state lotteries  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates individual decision-making in response to government policies, in particular, state lotteries and the welfare "family cap." Despite considerable controversy surrounding the use of state lotteries ...

Kearney, Melissa Schettini, 1974-

2002-01-01

24

Devolution and Welfare Reform: Re-Evaluating "Success"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The passage of welfare reform shifted significant authority for welfare provision from the federal government to state and local governments. Proponents of devolution point to drastic caseload declines as evidence that state-run programs are decreasing dependency among families. However, welfare rolls in many states have remained stagnant or…

Sheely, Amanda

2012-01-01

25

Economic Conditions and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 10 papers on three key questions regarding the effects of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which ended the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program: why welfare caseloads are falling; how welfare recipients are faring; and how the states are responding to changing…

Danziger, Sheldon H., Ed.

26

Implementing the Abstinence Education Provision of the Welfare Reform Legislation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of its 1996 welfare reform bill, the U.S. Congress enacted a $50 million per year program to fund abstinence education. The welfare reform law addresses the problem of births to single adolescents by enforcing child support payments, giving states financial incentives to reduce nonmarital births, and creating the abstinence education…

Haskins, Ron; Bevan, Carol Statuto

27

Welfare Reform and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines conflicting evidence regarding the impacts of welfare reform on children's wellbeing. Research shows that poverty rates, teen crime and fertility, and child maltreatment are down. Lack of appropriate state-level data on indicators of child wellbeing precludes serious analysis of the role of welfare reform for most indicators.…

Duncan, Greg J.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

28

Nobody Asked Us: The WV Welfare Reform Listening Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

West Virginia's state welfare reform plan was in effect by the end of 1997. In 1999, over 175 interviews were conducted with past and present welfare recipients to bring their experiences and concerns to the attention of the public and policymakers. Nearly all interviewees were women and were taking part in work activities. In general, welfare

Wilson, Rick

29

What has Welfare Reform Accomplished? Impacts on Welfare Participation, Employment, Income, Poverty, and Family Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of recent welfare reforms, investigating the effects of both state-specific waivers in the early 1990s and the 1996 federal reform legislation. Unlike earlier work, we analyze a wide array of indicators, including welfare participation, labor market involvement, earnings, income and poverty, and family formation. While no single methodology is entirely satisfying, the results in this

Robert F. Schoeni; Rebecca M. Blank

2000-01-01

30

Ten Things Everyone Should Know about Welfare Reform. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A, No. A-52. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief presents 10 key findings about welfare reform, using research from the Urban Institute's Assessing the New Federalism project. Welfare reform has taken hold, and, in the immediate aftermath of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), states have made major changes to their welfare systems that…

Weil, Alan

31

Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

32

Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women.  

PubMed

Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women's education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

Dave, Dhaval M; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E

2012-06-01

33

Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

34

Welfare Reform in European Countries: A Microsimulation Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the welfare and distributional impact of two types of welfare reform in the 15 (pre-enlargement) member countries of the European Union. The reforms are revenue neutral and financed by an overall and uniform increase in marginal tax rates on earnings. The first reform distributes the additional tax revenue uniformly to everybody (traditional welfare) while the second reform

Herwig Immervoll; Henrik Jacobsen Kleven; Claus Thustrup Kreiner; Emmanuel Saez

2005-01-01

35

Welfare Reform in European Countries: A MicroSimulation Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Paper estimates the welfare and distributional impact of two types of welfare reform in 14 member countries of the European Union. The reforms are revenue neutral and financed by an overall and uniform increase in marginal tax rates on earnings. The first reform distributes the additional tax revenue uniformly to everybody (traditional welfare) while the second reform distributes tax

Herwig Immervoll; Henrik Kleven; Claus Thustrup Kreiner; Emmanuel Saez

2004-01-01

36

Reforming child welfare: an integrated approach.  

PubMed

Throughout the 1990s, child welfare systems were exposed to intense pressure. As a result, most systems have undertaken processes of reform and change. This article discusses the strategic development of New Zealand's service system in child welfare. A partnership between managerial discipline and professional leadership has been critical in the service system reform. With respect to management, a strong vision, a culture of high performance, and greater organizational stability and confidence provided the platform on which professional reforms could be established-including the knowledge framework, the service model, the practice package, and staff support. The managerial efforts that have provided the platform for the professional reforms are discussed, followed by an exploration of the professional reform package. PMID:20945803

Connolly, Marie; Smith, Ray

2010-01-01

37

After welfare reform and an economic boom: why is child  

E-print Network

, Sweden, June 2001. Economic conditions in the United States in 1999 (the latest year for which data1 After welfare reform and an economic boom: why is child poverty still so much higher in the U on poverty are currently available) were excellent. Inflation and unemployment were low (2.2 percent and 4

Shyy, Wei

38

Welfare Reform. Hearing before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (April 9, 1987). Part 1 of 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing, the first of three on welfare reform, focuses on "how we can reform welfare programs to conserve the best of the past and give us new latitude to deal with the emerging problems of the future," according to Senator Lloyd Bentsen, the Chairman of the Committee. The following individuals were witnesses: (1) Richard E. Lyng, Department…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

39

Welfare Reform and Child Care: Evidence from 10 Experimental Welfare-to-Work Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the employment and child care responses of families participating in 10 experimental welfare reform programs conducted in the United States between 1989 and 2002. For the programs analyzed, child care use increases by about the same amount as the increase in employment. Most of the increased child care comprises informal care…

Robins, Philip K.

2007-01-01

40

Welfare Reform: Federal Oversight of State and Local Contracting Can Be Strengthened. Report to Congressional Requesters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed existing procedures to manage Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) contracting and also identified problems with regard to management of TANF contracting. The major data collection activities were as follows: (1) a national survey of all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the 10 counties…

Nilsen, Sigurd R.

41

Decentralization and welfare reform in Andalusia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decentralization of the Spanish welfare state has stimulated regional policy innovation. A ‘demonstration effect’ among all Spanish Comunidades Autónomas has so far acted as a policy equalizer. In Andalusia, where a strong sense of common identity is widely shared, the regional government (Junta) has implemented new welfare policies which have contributed to consolidate its institutional legitimacy. This article reviews the

Luis Moreno; Carlos Trelles

2005-01-01

42

Welfare Reform, Fertility and Father Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing that most poor families are single-parent families, the federal welfare reform law of 1996 emphasized the responsibility of both parents to support their children. In addition to strengthening the child support enforcement system, the law included several provisions to decrease nonmarital childbearing and to promote two-parent families. This article focuses on the important role fathers play in children?s lives

Sara S. McLanahan; Marcia J. Carlson

2002-01-01

43

The Impact of Welfare Reform on Men's Violence against Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare reform is likely to have a profound effect on the lives of poor women who are being abused. This article proposes exchange theory and the feminist “backlash hypothesis” as frameworks with which to assess the impact of welfare reform on violence levels in abusive relationships. Exchange theory suggests that if a woman leaves welfare and obtains employment that increases

Stephanie Riger; Maryann Krieglstein

2000-01-01

44

More Promises To Keep: Sustaining Arizona's Capacity for Welfare and Health Reform (December 1, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents the views expressed by the major speakers at "More Promises to Keep: Sustaining Arizona's Capacity for Welfare and Health Reform," concluding a 3-year study of welfare and health reform in the state. The publication also summarizes the discussions of three special interest sessions. The speakers' op-ed-style pieces and…

Arizona State Univ., Tempe. Morrison Inst. for Public Policy.

45

Welfare Reform and Teenage Pregnancy, Childbirth, and School Dropout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study estimates the effect of welfare reform on adolescent behaviors using a difference-indifferences approach. After defining the prereform and reform cohorts and considering the life course development of adolescent behavior by following each cohort from age 14 to age 16, we compare the welfare-target and nontarget populations in the two…

Hao, Lingxin; Cherlin, Andrew J.

2004-01-01

46

Welfare Reform and the Long-Term Care Workforce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported in this paper examined the role of welfare reform in increasing the availability of entry-level workers to meet the rising demand for long-term care employees. Findings from national and statewide evaluations of welfare programs show mixed results in the extent to which beneficiaries could be shifted from welfare caseloads to…

Filinson, Rachel; Cone, Donna; Ray, Eileen

2005-01-01

47

The Unfinished Business of Welfare Reform: Improving Prospects for Poor Children and Youth. Perspectives from Research. A Special Child Trends Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As federal and state officials consider the reauthorization of the block grants at the center of the 1996 federal welfare reform law, it is critical that they use findings from research regarding the impact of welfare reform to guide their decisions. This special report examines the impact of welfare reform on children and youth, drawing on…

Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.

48

THE WELFARE STATE'S MAKING OF COSMOPOLITAN EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to analyze the extent of welfare state tendencies towards individualization of social citizenship rights from the perspective of Cosmopolitan Europe (Beck and Grande 2007, Cosmopolitan Europe). Empirical study of legislated reforms to national insurance benefit schemes in three European countries since 1980 suggests that individualization processes transform modern West European societies through the construction of self-sufficiency, the

Minna van Gerven; Marinus Ossewaarde

2012-01-01

49

THE WELFARE STATE'S MAKING OF COSMOPOLITAN EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to analyze the extent of welfare state tendencies towards individualization of social citizenship rights from the perspective of Cosmopolitan Europe (Beck and Grande 2007, Cosmopolitan Europe). Empirical study of legislated reforms to national insurance benefit schemes in three European countries since 1980 suggests that individualization processes transform modern West European societies through the construction of self-sufficiency, the

Minna van Gerven; Marinus Ossewaarde

2011-01-01

50

Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

2014-01-01

51

Losing Health Insurance: Unintended Consequences of Welfare Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conducted by Families USA, a health consumer group, this first national study of the connection between welfare reform and the loss of health insurance estimates that up to 675,000 people were uninsured in 1997 as a direct result of welfare reform. As 1997 was the first year of welfare reform implementation, the group expects the number of uninsured to increase dramatically in the next several years. Available in .pdf format, the report features a list of key findings and numerous graphs, tables, and sidebars.

Klein, Rachel.

1999-01-01

52

[Toward further reform of mental health care and welfare].  

PubMed

The Committee for Investigating the Future of Mental Health Care and Welfare, launched in 2008 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, issued its final report in September 2009. The 2009 report was an expert-driven interim review of implementation of the 10-year plan proposed in the 2004 "Vision for Reforming Mental Health Care and Welfare," which marked its midpoint in 2009, and was conducted in order to identify priority issues in the final five years of the plan. The report recognizes that "mental illness significantly impairs quality of life and causes great socioeconomic loss"; that "health care and welfare assistance systems that support the ability of people with mental disorders to live in the community are inadequate"; and that "large numbers of patients with schizophrenia remain institutionalized over the long term. The report notes that this is due to previous policies that promoted institutionalized care, with regard to which concerned parties, including government entities, have expressed regret." The new approach described in the report can be summarized as (1) promoting the basic principle of moving from institutionalized care toward community-based care, based on the vision for reform noted above; (2) creating a society where patients who have mental disorders can receive high-quality health care, and depending on the patients' symptoms and wishes where they can receive appropriate health care and welfare services while continuing to live independently and securely in the community; and (3) speeding up the process of reform in mental health care and welfare. The core focus of reform is expressed in four fundamental principles: (1) restructuring mental health care (restructuring and improving the healthcare system by upgrading community-centered healthcare, shifting the focus of hospital care to the acute stage, and similar efforts) ; (2) improving the quality of mental health care (improving the quality of health care provided to each individual patient, whether it involves pharmacological or psychosocial therapy, and also improving the quality of health care by promoting staff development) ; (3) strengthening community living support systems (developing welfare services that support the ability of persons with disabilities to live in the community, improving care management, improving emergency and community health services, securing places of residence, etc.) ; and (4) prioritizing increased awareness and understanding of psychiatric illness (promoting an accurate understanding of mental disorders so that patients can obtain help at an early stage, and so that people with mental disorders can live as fully-participating members of the community). The committee also reviewed the targets stated in the vision for reform, and established a new maximum limit of 150,000 patients institutionalized with schizophrenia (the number was 196,000 in 2005). By 2011, the committee will also set a concrete target for the number of patients institutionalized with dementia. Preserving the 2004 goals expressed under the vision for reform, the mean target ratio of patients remaining hospitalized in psychiatric wards less than one year, for all prefectures, was set at 24% or less, while the target discharge rate for patients hospitalized for one year or longer, for each prefecture, was fixed at a minimum of 29%. PMID:21706855

Higuchi, Teruhiko

2011-01-01

53

Cambodian Refugee Families in the Shadows of Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provisions in the 1996 Federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, commonly known as welfare reform, sought to limit refugees and other legal immigrants’ access to government services and assistance. Although the 1997 Balanced Budget Act restored some benefits to those who arrived before the law was passed, little is known about how refugee families navigated the new welfare

Karen Quintiliani

2009-01-01

54

WHAT HAS WELFARE REFORM ACCOMPLISHED? IMPACTS ON WELFARE PARTICIPATION, EMPLOYMENT, INCOME,  

E-print Network

, and Family Structure 1. INTRODUCTION Recent welfare reform efforts have been undertaken for many reasons by promoting job preparation, work, and marriage; (ii) aid needy families so that children may be cared

Shyy, Wei

55

Do Welfare Asset Limits Affect Household Saving? Evidence from Welfare Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to estimate the effect of new saving incentives implemented as part of the 1996 welfare reform on household saving. Economic theory predicts that loosening asset limits will increase total savings for households with a large ex-ante probability of welfare receipt such as female-headed households…

Hurst, Erik; Ziliak, James P.

2006-01-01

56

Keynes and the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keynes's role in the foundation of the Welfare State has not been investigated in detail. The aim of this paper is to propose some further thoughts on the matter, focusing on two aspects in particular. The first is an assessment of Keynes's views vis-à-vis what we now understand by the Welfare State, the second a comparison between these views and

Maria Cristina Marcuzzo

57

The Health of Poor Women Under Welfare Reform  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We compared the health of single mothers affected by welfare reform with the health of a nationally representative sample of women to document the prevalence of poor health as single mothers experience the effects of welfare reform. Methods. We compared risk factors and measures of health among women randomly sampled from the welfare rolls with similar data from a nationally representative sample of women. Results. Women in our welfare recipient sample had higher rates of elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (? 6%; prevalence ratio [PR]=4.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.69, 7.04), hypertension (systole ? 140 or diastole ? 90; PR=2.36; 95% CI = 1.47, 3.24), high body mass index ( ? 30; PR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.49, 2.08), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (? 35 mg/dL; PR=1.91; 95% CI=1.17, 2.65); lower peak expiratory flow; and less physical functioning. Current smoking rates were higher (PR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.50, 2.19) and smoking cessation rates were lower (PR=0.62; 95% CI=0.37, 0.86) than in the national sample. Conclusions. Current and former welfare recipients bear a substantial burden of illness. Further studies are necessary to interpret our findings of worsened health in the wake of welfare reform. PMID:15983277

Kaplan, George A.; Siefert, Kristine; Ranjit, Nalini; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.; Young, Elizabeth A.; Tran, Diem; Danziger, Sandra; Hudson, Susan; Lynch, John W.; Tolman, Richard

2005-01-01

58

Reforming Poor Women: The Cultural Politics and Practices of Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article employs participant observation and interviewing at a community-based job readiness program operating under welfare reform to explore how attempts at cultural retraining (that is, bringing presumably deviant behavior in line with dominant cultural norms) are delivered, received, and interpreted by welfare-reliant women. This study finds that poor women—the targets of these reforms—largely resist cultural retraining, but, ironically, assert

Chad Broughton

2003-01-01

59

What Works in Welfare Reform: Evidence and Lessons To Guide TANF Reauthorization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To inform policymakers as they deliberate over the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) reauthorization, this guide reviews what states have done with the flexibility afforded them by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act. The first section examines how states have shaped their welfare reform strategies…

Berlin, Gordon L.

60

Welfare Reform's Impact on Adolescents: Early Warning Signs. Child Trends Research Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the passage of the 1996 welfare reform law, numerous commentators expressed concern about the impact of welfare reform on young children of welfare recipients, while few expressed concern about adolescents. However, recent evidence suggests that adolescents are affected negatively when their parents participate in welfare-to-work programs.…

Brooks, Jennifer L.; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Zaslow, Martha J.

61

Community Development Corporations and Welfare Reform: Linkages, Roles, and Impacts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of welfare reform on housing owned by community development corporations (CDCs), investigating how early implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) affected the financial status of CDCs' affordable housing developments. Five types of financial impacts were…

Wright, David J.; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Schill, Michael H.

62

Welfare Reform in Rural America: A Review of Current Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research review suggests that welfare reform policy should recognize the differences between rural and urban poor families. The rural poor are more likely to be employed, married, and non-Hispanic white. Rural-urban labor market differences are also likely to influence the effects of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity…

Findeis, Jill L.; Henry, Mark; Hirschl, Thomas A.; Lewis, Willis; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael; Peine, Emelie; Zimmerman, Julie N.

63

Welfare Reform and New York City's Low-Income Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract To evaluate the initial effects of welfare reform and changes in New York City policies and administrative procedures, we use the Current Population Survey (CPS) to compare receipt of public benefit programs, earnings, and income among vulnerable households, defined as those households with low education or single mothers in 1994–95 and 1997–99. Over this period, the CPS shows a

Howard Chernick; Cordelia Reimers

2002-01-01

64

The Effect of Welfare Reform on Childbirth, Marriage, and Divorce  

E-print Network

are not affected by the welfare reform. I further investigate the effect of the family cap policy. Using a semi-natural experiment, I compare the birth rate of women who already have had a second or higher order birth (treatment group) to women who have had one...

Pakdeethai, Pimrak

2010-10-12

65

The Volunteer Citizen After Welfare Reform in the United States: An Ethnographic Study of Volunteerism in Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, neoliberal strategies for social, economic, and state organization have been accompanied by frequent calls for volunteers to solve serious social problems. A case study of a community mobilization of middle-class volunteers to provide one-on-one support to families in poverty shows both possibilities and limitations. Volunteers provide social support to families in poverty, thus alleviating social isolation.

Leslie Rebecca Bloom; Deborah Kilgore

2003-01-01

66

The Impact of Welfare Reform on Head Start Disability and Family Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1997 study assessed the impact of welfare reform as reported by Head Start staff served by the Great Lakes Resource Access Project (GLRAP), a federally funded program providing training and technical assistance to Head Start staff in the area of disability services. The states served by the project are Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota,…

Bennett, Tess; Bhagwanji, Yash; Thomas, Dawn; Allison, Anita

67

Welfare Reform and Information Management: Rewiring the Human Service System. Rockefeller Report No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 places vast new information burdens on state and local governments and the nonprofit and private sectors. Three classes of problems confront program and information managers implementing welfare reform: developing information infrastructure, redesigning applications to…

Maxwell, Terrence A.

68

Maternal work behavior under welfare reform: How does the transition from welfare to work affect child development?  

E-print Network

child development? Rachel Dunifon1 Cornell University Ariel Kalil University of Chicago Sandra K welfare to work affect child development? Abstract Using data from a longitudinal sample of former reform: How does the transition from welfare to work affect child development? In 1996 a new welfare

Shyy, Wei

69

Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860

Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

2014-01-01

70

For Better and for Worse: Welfare Reform and the Well-Being of Children and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the 1996 welfare reform bill reduced welfare rolls, falling caseloads do not necessarily mean a better standard of living for families. This book examines the evidence and evaluates whether welfare reform has met one of its chief goals--improving the well-being of the nation's poor children. The chapters of the book are as follows: (1)…

Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, Ed.

71

Welfare Reform Proposals. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Domestic Marketing, Consumer Relations, and Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing seeks to examine the Family Welfare Reform Act, H.R. 1720, now pending, and determine what changes in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and the Food Stamp Program are needed to ensure that the United States has an integrated welfare system. H.R. 1720 includes benefit reforms, a new employment and training…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

72

TAX PROTEST AND WELFARE STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do some welfare states experience more tax protest than others? Quantitative analysis of a new database of tax protest in twelve European coun tries from 1980 to 1995, combined with in- depth comparative-historical analysis of selected c ountries, shows that tax protest was most prevalent where there was a poor fit between produc tion regimes and social protection regimes.

Isaac William Martin; Nadav Gabay

2008-01-01

73

Sharp Reduction in Black Child Poverty Due to Welfare Reform. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report asserts that welfare reform has been very successful in reducing child poverty. For a quarter-century prior to reform, black child poverty and poverty among single mothers remained virtually constant. Six years after reform, poverty among both groups dropped rapidly, reaching the lowest levels in U.S. history. Welfare rolls have…

Pardue, Melissa G.

74

The Welfare State vs. the Redistributive State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the principles of progressive taxation and the welfare state have come to be almost universally accepted, it would be a serious error to infer that American policy has ever embraced the idea of income redistribution. (Author)

Plattner, Marc F.

1979-01-01

75

The Forgotten Children: African American Children and Child Welfare Reform in St. Louis, 1890-1930  

E-print Network

Abstract Forgotten Children examines the influence of racial ideology on the trajectory of child welfare reform in late nineteenth century and early twentieth century St. Louis. The modern American child welfare system emerged in this time period...

Thirlkel, Thomas E.

2010-05-07

76

Globalization and the welfare state: a retrospective  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are basically three stories about the globalization-welfare state nexus. The first story argues that globalization is the cause of the chronic crisis of the welfare state. As national economies open to the international market, governments are forced to adapt to the imperatives of global competition, and this means cutting cost-intensive welfare programmes (globalization theory). The second story argues that,

Philipp Genschel

2004-01-01

77

Poverty, women, and reproduction. Welfare reform and social justice.  

PubMed

As they attempt to redesign the welfare system in the US, policy-makers could learn much by referring to the social justice teachings of the Catholic Church. As early as 1891, the pope was calling for the social protection of the poor. This view was expanded by papal edicts in 1971 and 1981 as well as by US bishops in 1986 and by the new catechism in 1994. In 1992, there were more than 39 million people living in poverty in the US. While the poor are overwhelmingly White, Blacks, who make up 12% of the population, account for 34% of the poor (children account for 70%). The poverty rate increases from 7.2% when both parents are present to 18% in father-only families and 44.7% in mother-only families. The four main definitions of poverty are poverty as deprivation, poverty as inequality, poverty as culture, and poverty as exploitation. The true nature of poverty encompasses all of these aspects. The goals of welfare, then should be to provide assistance and opportunity. While Americans are divided over which proposed changes should be enacted, no one argues against assisting children (which by extension provides aid to the mothers who raise them). The welfare reform movement, however, is fueled by racist and sexist attitudes. All of the potential changes are directed at women and ignore the hundreds of thousands of men benefiting from the system. Even when women have jobs, their income remains below the poverty level. Policy-makers also seek to control the private sphere of women's reproduction through welfare reform. A just welfare system would attempt to help people who need it; integrate the poor into solving the problem of poverty; provide real job training and jobs; offer support during the transition from welfare to self-sufficiency; provide sex education, reproductive services and counseling, and child care; and offer hope to poor children. This requires respect for the poor, access to information, a lack of coercion, the inclusion of poor men, repudiating an arbitrary cap on assistance (including when a person enters employment), the provision of education and training, setting realistic goals, and understanding that the role of the private sector is limited. PMID:12178865

1996-01-01

78

Welfare Reform, Work, and Literacy: Issues of Gender, Class, and Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study focused on the effect of welfare reform legislation on literacy or social service providers and families participating in the programs. Program staff and participants in Wisconsin and California were surveyed and interviewed to determine how welfare reform impacted what they do programmatically or personally. Findings indicated receipt of…

Sheared, Vanessa

79

Impact of the 1996 Welfare Reform on Child and Family Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examined the impact of the 1996 Welfare Reform, based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using a sample of 1,681 single mothers living in poverty, this study compared the effects of economic well-being and home environment scores on their children during pre- and post-Welfare Reform years. Following the 1996…

Lee, Kyunghee

2009-01-01

80

Welfare reform and changes in the economic well-being of children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the implementation of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program in late-1996, welfare rolls have declined by more than half. This paper explores whether improvements in the economic well-being of children have accompanied this dramatic reduction in welfare participation. Further, we examine the degree to which the success or failure of welfare reform has been shared equally among

Neil G. Bennett; Hsien-Hen Lu; Younghwan Song

2005-01-01

81

Welfare Reform. Hearings on S. 869, S. 1001, S. 1511, before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (October 14 and 28, 1987). Part 2 of 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of hearings, the second of three on welfare reform, focuses on the following legislation: (1) the Family Security Act (S. 1511); (2) child support enforcement bills (S. 1001 and S. 869); and (3) the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Employment and Training Reorganization Act. Among the speakers and witnesses were the following:…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

82

Immigration and the welfare state in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the connection between the permission to immigrate and the rights to benefits in the welfare state. Drawing on the concept of ‘status’ as developed by Jellinek, the impact of status on the social position of immigrants is examined. Jellinek's definition of status lends itself well to determining different degrees of inclusion into the welfare state of different

Hubert Heinelt

1993-01-01

83

Welfare Reform. Helping the Least Fortunate Become Less Dependent. Children of Poverty: Studies on the Effects of Single Parenthood, the Feminization of Poverty, and Homelessness. A Garland Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides background for evaluating public policy choices in the area of welfare reform. Although it focuses on Missouri's Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) program, it incorporates and compares national data and it raises the same fundamental questions about the fate of welfare in the United States. The eight chapters of the book…

Koon, Richard L.

84

The impact of welfare reform for families with children: Evidence from New York: A report of the New York city social indicators center, Columbia university school of social work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses data from the Current Population Survey and administrative data from New York to simulate the poverty impact of the recent federal and state welfare reforms. We find that the federal welfare reforms would in the absence of additional state or local aid raise the poverty rate of families with children and the poverty gap (the amount needed

Jane Waldfogel; Patrick Villeneuve; Irwin Garfinkel

2000-01-01

85

Impact of welfare reform on teenage parent recipients: an analysis of two cohorts.  

PubMed

To assess early effects of welfare reform, administrative data was used to compare prereform and postreform cohorts of teenage parents regarding the impact of reform on welfare enrollments, case closures, child maltreatment, and subsequent births. The relation of mandated living arrangements to outcomes was also examined. Cohort differences were observed in enrollments and reasons for closure, but not in maltreatment or birth rates. Living arrangements were found to be associated with case closure. PMID:10702858

Collins, M E

2000-01-01

86

Progressive Welfare Reform? Ending General Assistance Cash Grants for Homeless People in San Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines Care-Not-Cash, a welfare reform measure that replaced cash General Assistance payments for homeless people in San Francisco with in-kind social services. Unlike most welfare reform measures, Care-Not-Cash was framed by proponents as a progressive policy, aimed at expanding social services and government care for poor people. Drawing on primary and secondary documents, as well as extensive interviews,

Darren Noy

2009-01-01

87

Welfare Reform Impacts on the Public Housing Program: A Preliminary Forecast: HUD USER  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users may download this report and accompanying charts from the HUD USER site. The report "examines the implications of welfare reform for public housing authorities (PHAs), whose residents traditionally contribute a portion of their incomes for rent." The report focuses on a small number of diverse housing authorities and finds that the effects of welfare reform on tenant incomes and PHA rent revenues will most probably vary considerably.

88

The effect of welfare reform on prenatal care and birth weight.  

PubMed

Welfare reform has resulted in a dramatic decline in welfare caseloads and some have claimed that a significant number of low-income women may be without health insurance as a result. The loss of insurance may reduce low-income, pregnant women's health care utilization, and this may adversely affect infant health. Welfare reform also may affect healthcare utilization and health of pregnant women and infants because of welfare-induced changes in family disposable income, time available for health investments, and levels of stress. In this paper we examine the effect of welfare reform on prenatal care utilization and birth weight of low-educated women and their infants. We find that a 50% reduction in the caseload, which is similar to that which occurred in the 1990s, is associated with a zero to seven percent decrease in first trimester prenatal care; a zero to five percent decrease in the number of prenatal care visits; and a zero to 10% increase in low birth weight. Since welfare reform was responsible for only part of the decline in the caseload, welfare reform per se had even smaller effects. PMID:15386659

Kaestner, Robert; Lee, Won Chan

2005-05-01

89

Whose Job Is It? Employers' Views on Welfare Reform. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 130 Minnesota employers who had participated in local welfare-to-work partnerships with social service agencies and other community members were interviewed by telephone for their views on welfare reform. (This nonrandom sample was selected by partnership staff.) Differences among rural and urban/suburban employers were examined, and…

Owen, Greg; Shelton, Ellen; Stevens, Amy Bush; Nelson-Christinedaughter, Justine; Roy, Corinna; Heineman, June

90

Struggle for Self-Sufficiency: Impact of Welfare Reform on Families with Children in Kansas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, Kansas has dramatically reduced its welfare roles. Noting that achieving self-sufficiency is the real measure of success in combating poverty, this study examines welfare reform efforts in Kansas. To gather information, United Way member agencies and…

Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

91

Welfare Reform and Immigrants: Noncitizen Eligibility Restrictions, Vulnerable Immigrants, and the Social Service Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare reform act of 1996 imposed restrictive welfare eligibility rules for noncitizens. As a result, noncitizens have more limited access to major public assistance programs than ever before. Existing studies document the dramatic impacts of these policy changes on immigrants, their communities, and service providers. Specifically, the percentages of noncitizens receiving public benefits declined sharply, reports of their hardships

Yunju Nam

2011-01-01

92

Reforming Welfare: What Does It Mean for Rural Areas? Issues in Food Assistance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 2000, a conference on the rural dimensions of welfare reform and food assistance policy brought together researchers, welfare policy experts, and rural scholars. This issue brief summarizes some major findings of the conference and suggests future policy options to better address the differing needs of rural and urban families. Between 1994…

Whitener, Leslie A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Weber, Bruce A.

93

Constructing deservingness: federal welfare reform, supplemental security income, and elderly immigrants.  

PubMed

On August 22, 1996, President Clinton signed the welfare reform law that ended eligibility for all immigrants to federal means tested entitlements. Poor elderly immigrants on Supplemental Security Income were specifically targeted. This article documents how the print media responded to these policy changes. The following are the major research questions: (1) How were older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income portrayed in the print media before and after federal welfare reform? (2) Who was involved in the print media coverage of older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income before and after federal welfare reform? (3) What types of statements were made by those involved in the print media coverage of older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income, before and after federal welfare reform? The approach used was an in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles from major U.S. newspapers. The findings demonstrate that older immigrants were constructed as "undeserving" in news articles prior to the passage of the federal welfare reform bill. However, after the passage of the federal welfare reform bill the coverage of older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income started to change, and older immigrants were portrayed as "deserving." In advancing aging policy for poor, vulnerable elderly, such as elderly immigrants, advocates, health and social service providers can play an influential role in bringing their voices to the print media. PMID:12418380

Yoo, G J

2001-01-01

94

Depression and Welfare Reform: From Barriers to Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors identify ways to facilitate work among current and recent welfare recipients with mental illness. Their analysis assesses the relationship between a particular mental illness, depression, and labor force involvement in a statewide sample of welfare recipients, identifies the factors that promote work for those with depression, and…

Lewis, Dan A.; Lee, Bong Joo; Altenbernd, Lisa M.

2006-01-01

95

Nonmetro Labor Markets in the Era of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural job growth remains behind that of metro areas, hindering efforts to move welfare recipients into successful employment. Those most in need of public assistance have less education, lower earnings, and higher unemployment than average. Welfare recipients are concentrated in rural areas marked by chronic economic distress and low-skilled,…

Gibbs, Robert

2001-01-01

96

School Inequality and the Welfare State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book begins with an examination of school inequality in the United States. The discussion focuses successively on the issues of: the paradox of unequal schools in a welfare state, the distribution of educational resources in American cities: some new empirical evidence, inequalities in the allocation of educational resources among cities and…

Owen, John D.

97

Life After Welfare Reform: Low-Income Single Parent Families, Pre and Post-TANF  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Research-in-Brief is based on selected findings from a forthcoming Institute for Women's Policy Research study, Life After Welfare Reform: The Characteristics, Work, and Well Being of Low-Income Single Parent Families, Pre- and Post-PRWORA. The findings in this study underscore the need to make improvements to the welfare system to address gender and racial inequities and focus on poverty reduction.

Janice Peterson; Xue Song; Avis Jones-DeWeever

2002-01-01

98

Children in Single-Parent Families Living in Poverty Have Fewer Supports after Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since welfare reform, impoverished children in single-parent families receive less aid than under the previous system and the most disadvantaged of these children have slipped deeper into poverty. This Research-in-Brief summarizes a study that explores the economic well-being of children in low-income single-parent families since the 1996 passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) or welfare

Deanna M. Lyter; Melissa Sills; Gi-Taik Oh

99

Food prices, tax reforms and consumer Welfare in Tanzania 1991–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the effect of observed food price changes on household consumption (welfare) in Tanzania and from this\\u000a simulates the welfare effect attributable to tax (tariffs and VAT) reforms. The three rounds of the Tanzania Household Budget\\u000a Survey (1991\\/92, 2000\\/01 and 2007) are used to apply Deaton’s method based on median unit values (prices) and household budget\\u000a shares. The

Vincent Leyaro; Oliver Morrissey; Trudy Owens

2010-01-01

100

Single Mothers Working at Night: Standard Work, Child Care Subsidies, and Implications for Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a data set from the post welfare reform environment (the 1999 National Survey of America's Families), this paper investigates the impact of child care subsidies on the standard work (i.e., work performed during the traditional work hours of 8 a.m. and 6 p.m. through Monday and Friday) decision of single mothers and tests whether this impact differs between welfare

Erdal Tekin

2004-01-01

101

Whose Job Is It? Employers' Views on Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes selected results from qualitative telephone interviews with 130 Minnesota employers who participated in local welfare-to-work partnerships with social service agencies and other community members. Differences among rural and urban\\/suburban employers are examined and comparsions are explored between welfare participants and employer views on service needs and barriers to self-sufficiency. Very few differences emerged between urban\\/suburban and rural

Greg Owen; Ellen Shelton; Amy Bush Stevens; Justine Nelson-Christinedaughter; Corinna Roy; June Heineman

2000-01-01

102

Child Care Assistance under Welfare Reform: Early Responses by the States. Occasional Paper Number 15. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the Assessing the New Federalism project, this report describes the child care assistance system in place just before the implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) and provides some early indications of how states will use the increased freedom of the Child Care and…

Long, Sharon K.; Kirby, Gretchen G.; Kurka, Robin; Waters, Shelley

103

The Impact of Welfare Reform on Adult Literacy Education: Conference Papers and Themes from Small Group Sessions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three commissioned papers and other materials from a 2-day conference. "Politics, Policy, Practice and Personal Responsibility: Adult Education in an Era of Welfare Reform" (Deborah D'Amico) examines the relationship between literacy, poverty, and welfare reform and the implications of those relationships for literacy…

National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy, Boston, MA.

104

Welfare Reform. Assessing the Effectiveness of Various Welfare-to-Work Approaches. Report to Congressional Committees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined research conducted on the effectiveness of different welfare-to-work approaches. Five evaluations begun in the 1980s with five-year results indicated that programs focusing on rapid employment and job search activities combined with education and training activities more often increased employment and earnings and reduced welfare

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

105

REFORM, LOBBIES AND WELFARE: A COMMON AGENCY APPROACH  

E-print Network

by policy makers. Therefore the following questions arises: How do policy makers take policy decisions? What are a reform and a compensating taxation. The main feature of the reform is that it creates gainers and losers. Redistributive taxation can be used to compensate losers. Formally, the relationship between the citizens

Royal Holloway, University of London

106

Effects of welfare reform on teenage parents and their children.  

PubMed

A key question in welfare policy concerns the potential that welfare-to-work programs have to develop in teenage parents the motivation and skills to provide financially for themselves and their children. The Teenage Parent Welfare Demonstration was a major experiment initiated in 1986 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and evaluated by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., to test the impact of a welfare-to-work program for teenage parents which anticipated many features of the federal Job Opportunities and Basic Skills training program later established in the Family Support Act of 1988. Teenage mothers entering the welfare system were randomly assigned to a regular services group or to an enhanced services group. Teen mothers in the enhanced services group faced mandatory school and work requirements enforced by financial sanctions and received support services such as case management, parenting workshops, child care assistance, and education and training opportunities. This article reviews the policy context in which the Teenage Parent Welfare Demonstration was designed and implemented, and describes how participation in the enhanced services group affected the teen mothers as adults and as parents. Results showed that, for the reasonable aggregate annual cost of $2,400 per participant, the program increased the 'teenagers' attendance at school and job training programs, and modestly increased the proportion who were employed to 48%, compared with 43% among those receiving regular welfare services. As the participants' earnings from employment increased, their welfare grants shrank. Because these changes offset each other, the program did not improve the economic well-being of the families, although fewer tax dollars were needed to support them. The program did not discourage further childbearing, however, or affect either the parenting behavior of the young women or the development of their children, although the mothers who were most engaged in self-sufficiency activities were more positive and supportive when playing with their children. The Teenage Parent Welfare Demonstration experience revealed that the problems faced by teenage parents vary widely, making tailored services necessary. The evaluation results suggest that supportive, mandatory welfare-to-work interventions need not harm parents or their children in the short term, and that their modest positive effects on the financial independence of the teenage mothers may yield long-term rewards. PMID:8528688

Aber, J L; Brooks-Gunn, J; Maynard, R A

1995-01-01

107

Child Care after Leaving Welfare: Early Evidence from State Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents key findings from a review of data focusing on child care arrangements among people who have left welfare. Most states have conducted studies of former welfare recipients using administrative data, surveys of welfare leavers, or a combination of the two. Data from these surveys indicate that most people who have left welfare

Schumacher, Rachel; Greenberg, Mark

108

Welfare Reform and Older Immigrants: Food Stamp Program Participation and Food Insecurity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The welfare reform bill of 1996 severely constrained noncitizens' eligibility for the Food Stamp Program (FSP). This study examined the effects of eligibility restrictions on older immigrants' FSP participation and food insecurity. We paid special attention to household composition and household eligibility as well as older immigrants'…

Nam, Yunju; Jung, Hyo Jin

2008-01-01

109

Welfare Reform Policy From Nixon to Clinton: What Role for Social Science?  

E-print Network

is Henry J. Meyer Collegiate Professor of Social Work and Public Policy, Director of the Center on Poverty--e.g., physical and mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence problems--that make their labor market1 Welfare Reform Policy From Nixon to Clinton: What Role for Social Science? Sheldon Danziger

Shyy, Wei

110

Reforming Household Energy Markets: Some Welfare Effects in the United Catherine Waddams Price  

E-print Network

final energy prices (though those of monopoly inputs such as transmission and distribution remainReforming Household Energy Markets: Some Welfare Effects in the United Kingdom by Catherine Waddams Price Centre for Competition and Regulation and School of Management University of East Anglia, UK

Feigon, Brooke

111

THREE CITIES STUDY OF WELFARE REFORM AND THE WELL-BEING OF CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies the effects of the 1996 Welfare Reform Bill on children in three Northeastern, Southwestern and Midwestern cities, Boston, San Antonio, and Chicago, over a four-year period. The project also addresses the broader issue of the effects of parental time and money resources o...

112

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series Welfare Reform, Saving, and Vehicle Ownership  

E-print Network

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #05-07 May 2005 Welfare Reform, Saving, and Vehicle at the National Poverty Center Working Paper Series index at: http of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the National Poverty Center or any sponsoring agency

Shyy, Wei

113

Marriage, Family Structure and Economic Well-Being: The Second Round of Welfare Reform. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that many from across the ideological spectrum suggest that welfare reform address policies that promote marriage and two-parent families. Discusses marriage, family structure and economic well-being, the benefits of marriage for adults and children, and low-income unwed mothers and marriage. Suggests that marriage and two-parent families…

Lindjord, Denise

2002-01-01

114

Welfare reform and child poverty: effects of maternal employment, marriage, and cohabitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare reform debate centers on whether the best strategy to reduce poverty is to raise work participation among low-income women or to promote marriage. Using the 1992–2001 demographic supplements of the Current Population Survey, we track child poverty rates before and after passage of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act. We find that increasing maternal employment

Daniel T Lichter; Martha L Crowley

2004-01-01

115

WELFARE REFORM, SUBSTANCE USE, AND MENTAL HEALTH1 Rukmalie Jayakody2  

E-print Network

Substance Abuse Policy Research Program. Any opinions expressed are those of the authors. 2 Assistant employability. This paper focuses on substance abuse and mental health problems among single mothers-sufficiency that are increasingly important in this era of time-limited benefits. KEYWORDS: welfare reform, substance abuse, mental

Shyy, Wei

116

Child Care Issues Impacting Welfare Reform in the Rural South.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Access to affordable, quality child care is a major barrier to successful employment for many families. About one-fifth of families return to welfare within a few months of leaving, with lack of accessible child care and transportation being the most frequently cited reasons. These issues are likely to be compounded in the rural South. Information…

Ghazvini, Alisa S.; Mullis, Ann K.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Park, Jennifer J.

1999-01-01

117

Employers' Perceptions of Welfare Reform: Implications for Cooperative Extension Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 12 employers participating in the Virginia Initiative for Employment, Not Work identified factors affecting welfare recipients' work force entry: skills, work experience, education/training, support system, childcare, transportation, and clothing. They are wiling to hire if supported by extension, social services, and government…

Wilson, Bernice B.; Stewart, Daisy L.

2000-01-01

118

Welfare reform in European countries: a microsimulation analysis &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD microsimulation model to estimate current marginal and participation tax rates. We quantify the equity-efficiency trade-off for

Herwig Immervoll; Henrik Jacobsen Kleven; Claus Thustrup Kreiner; Emmanuel Saez

2007-01-01

119

Welfare Indignities: Homeless Women, Domestic Violence, and Welfare Reform in San Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data collected during a 4 year ethnography, this paper examines how the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity\\u000a Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) has impacted homeless women in San Francisco who are also victims of domestic violence. Specifically\\u000a this paper looks at how the behavior of abusive men prevents homeless women from successfully navigating the new welfare-to-work\\u000a requirements and maintaining stable employment.

Anne R. Roschelle

2008-01-01

120

Substate nationalism and the welfare state: Quebec and Canadian federalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the relationship between sub-state nationalism and the welfare state through the case of Quebec in Canada. It argues that social policy presents mobilisation and identity-building potential for sub-state nationalism, and that nationalist movements affect the structure of welfare states. Nationalism and the welfare state revolve around the notion of solidarity. Because they often involve transfers of money

DANIEL BELAND

2006-01-01

121

Clinton plans effort to combat teenage pregnancy as part of welfare reform.  

PubMed

Actions taken by the Clinton Administration suggest adolescent reproductive health policy may finally receive serious consideration, at least where welfare dependency is an issue. US Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders is a strong advocate of abortion rights and sex education. The Adolescent Family Life Program, championed by previous Republican Administrations and based entirely on the promotion of abstinence, has been discontinued. The Centers for Disease Control have released 10 public service announcements as part of an Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Prevention Marketing Initiative, 7 of which encourage consistent condom use among sexually active 18-25 year olds. Although the inadequate "just say no" approach to adolescent sexuality seems to have been abandoned, there are concerns that teen pregnancy will be addressed in the context of welfare reform rather than the more broadly based health care reform effort. At this point, Clinton's strategy seems to be to prevent teen pregnancies that lead to families headed by young single mothers in need of public assistance by making educational and vocational services available to these young women. Such a strategy threatens to overlook the needs of adolescents who are not public assistance recipients but are at risk of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. By linking health care and welfare reform, advocates of one campaign but not the other are excluded from the coalition. Teen mothers comprise a relatively small subset of sexually active teens, and those on public assistance are an even smaller population; thus, youth advocates are urged to push for a less restrictive focus. PMID:12318675

1994-01-21

122

From "Boys Town" to "Oliver Twist": Separating Fact from Fiction in Welfare Reform and Out-of-Home Placement of Children and Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of the rationale for responding to welfare reform is followed by an overview of orphanages and child and youth care workers. A therapeutic parent model of reform is presented, and welfare reform proposals are evaluated in the model's context. (SLD)

Shealy, Craig N.

1995-01-01

123

Delivering Health Care and Mental Health Care Services to Children in Family Foster Care after Welfare and Health Care Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the essential features of a health care system that can meet the special needs of children in out-of-home care. Discusses some of the major recent changes brought about by welfare and health care reform. Notes that it remains to be seen whether the quality of services will improve as a result of these reforms. (Author)

Simms, Mark D.; Freundlich, Madelyn; Battistelli, Ellen S.; Kaufman, Neal D.

1999-01-01

124

Poverty, Welfare Reform, and Disproportionate Rates of Disability among Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of data from state programs providing financial assistance for needy persons and disability prevalence data led to recommendations such as expanding access to health care and quality early childhood care for at-risk children, promoting the use of behavioral health services, lowering eligibility standards, and increasing the use of Social…

Birenbaum, Arnold

2002-01-01

125

After Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past few years, the American RadioWorks has raised the bar for like-minded radio documentary programs, producing thought-provoking and insightful studies on topics such as, Congressional reform, intelligent design, and international adoption programs. In this recently released documentary, John Biewen has created this introspective look into the world of welfare reform in the United States, and how it has affected the lives of five different women and their families. The women profiled come from a host of different backgrounds, and visitors may be surprised at some of the findings that Biewen presents in the documentary. The site also includes an interactive feature that allows users to find out how their own state ranks in terms of welfare and foodstamp recipients, welfare check sizes, time limits, and unemployment rates. Visitors can also look over a list of additional external links of interest and also read the complete transcript of the program.

Biewen, John

2006-01-01

126

Gender justice and the welfare state in post-communism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some Romanian feminist scholars argue that welfare policies of post-communist states are deeply unjust to women and preclude them from reaching economic autonomy. The upshot of this argument is that liberal economic policy would advance feminist goals better than the welfare state. How should we read this dissonance between Western and some Eastern feminist scholarship concerning distributive justice? I identify

Anca Gheaus

2008-01-01

127

The welfare state: a glossary for public health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been a surge in comparative social epidemiology, and a sizeable amount of this has examined the relation between different aspects of the welfare state and population health. Such research draws strongly, though usually implicitly, on welfare state theories and concepts. In this glossary, we explicitly define these concepts in order to enable more researchers, practitioners and policy-makers

T. A. Eikemo; C. Bambra

2008-01-01

128

Rethinking the western construction of the welfare state.  

PubMed

This article employs case studies of China and Hong Kong to question the western ethnocentric construction of the welfare state that predominates in comparative social policy research. The authors argue that welfare regimes, and particularly the "welfare state," have been constructed as capitalist-democratic projects and that this has the damaging effect of excluding from analyses not only several advanced capitalist societies in the Asian-Pacific area but also the world's most populous country. If welfare state regimes can only coexist with western political democracies, then China and Hong Kong are excluded automatically. A similar result occurs if the traditional social administration approach is adopted whereby a "welfare state" is defined in terms only of direct state provision. The authors argue that such assumptions are untenable if state welfare is to be analyzed as a universal phenomenon. Instead of being trapped within an ethnocentric welfare statism, what social policy requires is a global political economy perspective that facilitates comparisons of the meaning of welfare and the state's role in producing it north, south, east and west. PMID:8932602

Walker, A; Wong, C K

1996-01-01

129

Individual Attitudes towards Immigrants: Welfare-State Determinants Across Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes welfare-state determinants of individual attitudes towards im- migrants - within and across countries - and their interaction with labor-market drivers of preferences. We consider two difierent mechanisms through which a redistributive welfare system might adjust as a result of immigration. Under the flrst scenario, immi- gration has a larger impact on individuals at the top of the

Giovanni Facchini; Anna Maria Mayda

130

How does the welfare state influence individuals’ social capital?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current literature there is emerging consensus about a positive correlation between countries' welfare efforts and the social capital of their inhabitants: the larger the welfare state, the more social capital its inhabitants have. This paper pulls the discussion an important step further by asking what mechanisms can be responsible for this correlation. Based on theory and previous findings,

John P. T. M. Gelissen; Wim J. H. van Oorschot; Ellen Finsveen

2012-01-01

131

Open markets and welfare values Welfare values, inequality and social change in the silver age of the welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market principles are becoming more prominent in citizen experience of public policy across Europe, as a result of economic globalization and the Maastricht commitment to ‘open markets’, and cost-constraint, privatization and labour market activation pursued in response to the various pressures confronting welfare states. These principles (inequality, competitiveness, allocation through ability to pay) contradict those traditionally associated with social policy

Peter Taylor-Gooby

2004-01-01

132

Welfare Reform in a Hard Place: The West Virginia Experience. Rockefeller Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structured work and training activities for welfare recipients in West Virginia began in 1962 when the state's entire caseload of two-parent families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children was enrolled in mandatory work and training activities. In 1980s-1990s, the Community Work Experience Program became an important tool in…

Plein, L. Christopher

133

The economic well-being of low-income immigrants in the U.S.: An examination of the impact of the 1996 welfare reform on immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1996 welfare reform, for the first time in U.S. history, set a five-year residence requirement for immigrants to be eligible for federal welfare benefits. This dissertation assessed the impact of the 1996 welfare reform, specifically the immigrant provisions, on the economic well-being of low-income immigrants. This dissertation also explored the roles that migration selection theory and social capital theory

Rui Song

2007-01-01

134

State Reforms Threaten Remote Community Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an ethnographic study of administrators, faculty, parents and community members in one remote Michigan school district. The purpose of the study is to describe and explain how Michigan's educational reform perspective--arguably similar to the education reform perspectives of many states--encountered the educational…

Kirby, Angela M.

2011-01-01

135

Children in Single-Parent Families Living in Poverty Have Fewer Supports after Welfare Reform. IWPR Research in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1996 passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (welfare reform), impoverished children in single-parent families receive less aid than under the previous system, and the most disadvantaged of these children have slipped deeper into poverty. This research brief summarizes a study that explored the economic well-being…

Lyter, Deanna M.; Sills, Melissa; Oh, Gi-Taik

136

A Review of the Major Issues and Problems of Welfare Reform; A Background Paper Developed for the Community Services Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This background paper was developed for the Community Services Administration (CSA) in order to provide background information concerning welfare reform. It examines possible public assistance strategies, such as the following: (1) broad-based cash transfer (negative income tax, wage rate subsidies, demogrants, and family allowances), (2)…

Technical Assistance Research Programs, Inc., Washington, DC.

137

Changing Work Ethic and Welfare Dependence through Welfare Reform: The 100-Hour Rule Waiver Experiment for AFDC-U.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested assumptions about welfare dependency and work by waiving a rule allowing primary wage-earners to work more than 100 hours a week without losing welfare eligibility. Results from an impact analysis that considered 3,591 experimental and control families indicate that the rule waiver had no effect on primary wage earners' work activity and…

Lewin, Alisa C.

2001-01-01

138

Maternal Work Behavior under Welfare Reform: How Does the Transition from Welfare to Work Affect Child Development? JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a longitudinal sample of former and current welfare recipients in Michigan spanning 1997 through 1999, the Womens Employment Study, this analysis examined how transitions from welfare to work affect parenting behavior and child behavior problems. Researchers used a fixed-effects regression design to control for all time-invariant…

Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Danziger, Sandra K.

139

Marijuana and cocaine use among female African-American welfare recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key issue that came to the forefront during the welfare reform debate in the United States during the 1990s concerned the relationship between welfare receipt and drug use and abuse. This paper examines the relationship between persistent welfare assistance, welfare background, and marijuana and cocaine use among African-American women. We hypothesize that women who have received welfare assistance for

Chyvette T Williams; Hee-Soon Juon; Margaret E Ensminger

2004-01-01

140

Toward State Tax Reform: Lessons from State Tax Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews recent state tax-commission recommendations in selected states and identifies critical factors for the success of state tax-reform commissions. The paper focuses on factors linked to the process of forming a commission and generating the necessary consensus to enact tough reforms. It describes and compares comprehensive studies…

McGuire, Therese J.; Rio, Jessica E.

141

Recent Changes in Michigan Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 4. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Michigan is a leader in state efforts to gain more autonomy over social service programs. Many changes, including those made to the child care and child welfare systems, were part of the governor's blueprint for reform, To Strengthen Michigan Families. This report begins with a profile of Michigan's demographic, economic, and political conditions,…

Seefeldt, Kristin S.; Leos-Urbel, Jacob; McMahon, Patricia; Snyder, Kathleen

142

International migration and welfare states: Is increased cross-border mobility a major challenge to redistributive welfare states, and if so, how would we know?1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the basis for claiming that international migration is diminishing the sustainability of redistributive welfare states. Immigration might potentially lessen pressures related to demographic ageing and the funding of future pensions in these welfare states. The paper addresses different accounts of why this kind of mutually beneficial relationship between immigration and welfare state sustainability appears to be difficult

Bjørn Hvinden

143

SPENDING ON SOCIAL WELFARE PROGRAMS IN RICH AND POOR STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social welfare programs strive to improve the well-being of needy and vulnerable populations. The fact that states spend different amounts on these programs is well known, but why they do so is less understood, including the extent to which differences are affected by states’ relative fiscal capacity, defined as their ability to raise revenue through taxation. The federal government has

Richard Toikka; Thomas Gais; Plamen V Nikolov; Patricia Billen

2004-01-01

144

The problem of dependency: immigration, gender, and the welfare state.  

PubMed

This article discusses the regulation of marriage migration to Norway through an analysis of the subsistence requirement rule which entails that a person who wants to bring a spouse to Norway must achieve a certain level of income. Policy-makers present two main arguments for this regulation. First, the subsistence requirement is a means to prevent forced marriage. Second, its aim is to prevent family immigrants from becoming a burden on welfare budgets. The major concern of both these arguments is that of dependency, either on the family or on the welfare state. The article investigates the representations of the “problems” underpinning this specific policy proposal and argues that the rule in question, and immigration policy more generally, needs to be analyzed with reference to the broader concerns and aims of welfare state policy and gender equality policy. PMID:20821899

Eggebø, Helga

2010-01-01

145

Reform and retreat in United States immigration policy.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of changes in US Immigration Policy that compartmentalize legal from illegal immigration. Legal immigration was not reformed in the recent past, with the exception of welfare benefit restrictions among legal immigrants who were not citizens and income requirements for sponsors of permanent immigrants. Restrictions on illegal immigration were substantial, and included patrolling the border. Some reforms of illegal immigration were narrowly defeated or defeated through the efforts of organized Christian Coalitions. Reforms of legal immigration included few organized or effective allies, but did include environmental and population control organizations with influence in the capital. After Republican control of Congress in 1994, illegal immigration bargaining was replaced by partisanship. Populist pressures came from Proposition 187 in the state of California (local costs of a failed national policy to control immigration) and Presidential candidate Patrick Buchanan. The courts generally countered populist politics and supported immigrants. At present, expansionist measures continue to be adopted. Client politics that dominated over 3 or 4 decades no longer prevail. Client politics are defined by J. Q. Wilson as confined to small groups of people who are economically supported by the larger population. Congress sets policy according to organized interests which benefit directly from large numbers of legal and illegal permanent and temporary migrants. The most prominent struggle over immigration occurred in 1996. This policy period is reviewed. PMID:12294850

Freeman, G P

1998-01-01

146

The Challenge of Compliance: Food Security in Rural Households Affected by Welfare Reform. Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined welfare reform and food security issues. Interviews were conducted with 32 rural Louisiana women in 1997-98 when they were receiving welfare payments, in 1998-99 when they were in transition, and in 2000-01 when none received Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Most women were African-American; about half had not…

Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol; Tiller, Vicky V.; Smith, Jennifer

147

The State, Legal Rigor and the Poor: The Daily Practice of Welfare Control Social Analysis, forthcoming.  

E-print Network

1 The State, Legal Rigor and the Poor: The Daily Practice of Welfare Control Social Analysis on ethnographic fieldwork on the control of welfare recipients by public welfare agencies in France. I consider investigations conducted in the homes of welfare recipients as a form of bureaucratic interrogation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

148

State Capacity: The Missing Piece in Child Welfare Privatization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Privatization has been used to address the limited capacity of government to achieve positive results in child welfare systems. Privatized systems have not realized better outcomes than their public counterparts, however, and many states continue to struggle with implementation. In order to demonstrate that privatization is in fact an investment…

Barillas, Katherine Howard

2011-01-01

149

Biobank research and the welfare state project: the HUNT story  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health surveys and biobank research projects involve large groups of people, in the role of participants as well as potential beneficiaries. In this article, the nature of biobank participation in ambitious welfare states is explored by a description and an analysis of the Norwegian HUNT project. The analysis of HUNT material brings forth a transformation of the ethical side of

Lars Øystein Ursin

2010-01-01

150

77 FR 69629 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Administration for Children...

2012-11-20

151

75 FR 71710 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Administration for Children...

2010-11-24

152

76 FR 9788 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Administration for Children...

2011-02-22

153

Limiting National Interventionism in the United States: The Warfare-Welfare State as Restrictive Governance Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to business fears about growing national interventionism during the 1930s and 1940s, the United States channelled national state power into an indiosyncratic strong warfare\\/weak welfare governance paradigm. By making the welfare state a weak adjunct to a powerful warfare state and a subordinate and controversial part of postwar U.S. governance this paradigm has delimited, skewed, and distorted postwar

Brian Waddell

2001-01-01

154

Health system reform in the United States  

PubMed Central

In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider. PMID:24596894

McDonough, John E

2014-01-01

155

Women's Political Representation and Welfare State Spending in 12 Capitalist Democracies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the sharpest criticisms of welfare state research is insufficient attention to factors relating to gender relations and inequalities. Recent scholarship has begun to address welfare state effects on gender-related outcomes, but the evaluation of theories of welfare development with respect to gender factors is somewhat less developed,…

Bolzendahl, Catherine; Brooks, Clem

2007-01-01

156

DEVELOPING PARTICIPATORY WELFARE STATE. CAN SERVICE USERS PRODUCE SOME ESSENTIAL LOCAL KNOWLEDGE ON  

E-print Network

OF DEVELOPMENT The following analysis is meant to help clarify the direction of the development of social welfare1 DEVELOPING PARTICIPATORY WELFARE STATE. CAN SERVICE USERS PRODUCE SOME ESSENTIAL LOCAL KNOWLEDGE welfare state. Can service users produce some essential local knowledge on public services? 1. SERVICE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

157

African American Children in the Child Welfare System: Requiem or Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sobering statistics concerning the plight of African American children have become routine excerpts found in nearly every publication concerning the child welfare system. This article examines the laws that govern the child welfare system in this country and assesses the manner in which these laws do not rectify or prevent the poor outcomes experienced by African American children. The

Carla M. Curtis; Ramona W. Denby

2011-01-01

158

Child Care Quality: States' Difficulties Enforcing Standards Confront Welfare Reform Plans. Statement of Joseph F. Delfico, Director, Income Security Issues, Health, Education, and Human Services. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Regulation, Business Opportunities, and Technology, Committee on Small Business, House of Representatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This statement: (1) discusses the growth in demand and supply of child care in the United States during the last 20 years; (2) defines quality child care and its importance; (3) examines what states do to protect children in care and why this has become increasingly difficult; and (4) notes further complications for states under proposed reforms

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

159

Welfare Reform. States' Implementation and Effects on the Workforce Development System. Statement of Cynthia M. Fagnoni, Director, Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues, Health, Education, and Human Services Division. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Training, and Life-Long Learning, Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on effectiveness of welfare-to-work approaches shows programs that combine approaches--job search assistance and education and training--have better employment and earnings outcomes than either approach alone. Consistent with findings and the work focus of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, states have…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

160

Across the Great Divide. From a Welfare State to a New Market State: The Case of VET  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper revisits the crucial period following the Arab oil boycott of 1973, when the welfare state in the UK finally collapsed along with the heavy industrial base upon which it rested. Unlike the post-war welfare-state "settlement", the new post-welfare market state was imposed by Margaret Thatcher's governments. It was marked for vocational…

Ainley, Patrick

2007-01-01

161

Welfare-Induced Migration at State Borders: New Evidence from Micro-Data*  

PubMed Central

This paper extends and synthesizes the various approaches used in the recent welfare migration literature to both offer the most comprehensive set of tests to date for welfare migration and to also determine the relative importance of short-distance moves in welfare migration flows. The current study follows on the finding of McKinnish (2005) of welfare migration effects obtained by comparing welfare participation at state borders to state interiors. This identification strategy is extended to micro-data from the 1980 and 1990 Decennial Censuses and combined with the demographic comparisons used elsewhere in the welfare migration literature. The signs and patterns of the estimates are consistent with the presence of welfare migration effects, and the magnitudes of the estimates are consistent with the importance of short-distance moves in welfare-induced migration flows, but most of the estimates are not statistically significant. PMID:21949449

McKinnish, Terra

2011-01-01

162

Is increased cross-border mobility incompatible with redistributive welfare states? The North European case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the claim that international migration and increased ethnic diversity challenge the sustainability and legitimacy of redistributive welfare states. Immigration might potentially lessen pressures related to demographic ageing, labour shortages in welfare services and the funding of future pensions in many European countries. The paper discusses three accounts of why a mutually beneficial relationship between immigration and welfare

Bjørn Hvinden

2006-01-01

163

The impact of welfare reform on parents' ability to care for their children's health.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Most of the national policy debate regarding welfare assumed that if middle-income mothers could balance work while caring for their children's health and development, mothers leaving welfare for work should be able to do so as well. Yet, previous research has not examined the conditions faced by mothers leaving welfare for work. METHODS: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study examined the availability of benefits that working parents commonly use to meet the health and developmental needs of their children; paid sick leave, vacation leave, and flexible hours. RESULTS: In comparison with mothers who had never received welfare, mothers who had been on Aid to Families with Dependent Children were more likely to be caring for at least 1 child with a chronic condition (37% vs 21%, respectively). Yet, they were more likely to lack sick leave for the entire time they worked (36% vs 20%) and less likely to receive other paid leave or flexibility. CONCLUSIONS: If current welfare recipients face similar conditions when they return to work, many will face working conditions that make it difficult or impossible to succeed in the labor force at the same time as meeting their children's health and developmental needs. PMID:10191791

Heymann, S J; Earle, A

1999-01-01

164

Taming the Beast: Categorizing State Welfare Policies--A Typology of Welfare Policies Affecting Recipient Job Entry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an overall approach, statistical techniques, and a public-use database that can be used for understanding state welfare policies and measuring their relationship with key outcomes of interest, all while learning helpful statistical techniques. We use descriptive statistics and correlations to describe state policies. We find…

McKernan Signe-Mary; Bernstein, Jen; Fender, Lynne

2005-01-01

165

Running To Keep in Place: The Continuing Evolution of Our Nation's Child Welfare System. Occasional Paper. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, researchers conducted case studies on 12 states and multiple local sites to document how welfare reform and other changes affected child welfare agencies, following up on 1997 case studies. They conducted interviews with welfare and child welfare stakeholders and focus groups with child welfare workers. Respondents discussed the impact of…

Malm, Karin; Bess, Roseana; Leos-Urbel, Jacob; Geen, Robert; Markowitz, Teresa

166

President Clinton signs the welfare reform bill, turning his back on the poorest and most vulnerable populations and undermining health care for legal immigrants.  

PubMed

President Clinton signed a welfare reform responsibility bill in August, following eighteen months of contentious debate. The bill, The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, is expected to lead to cuts in food stamp programs, aid to illegal immigrants, and safety net programs for children. Specific program cuts are detailed. PMID:11367428

Maldonado, M

1996-01-01

167

Welfare Reform. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the testimony and submissions presented at one of a series of hearings on welfare reform and reauthorization of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. The statement by Cynthia M. Fagnoni, managing director of education, workforce, and income security issues at the U.S. General Accounting Office, assesses…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

168

Bridging the Gap: Higher Education and Career-Centered Welfare Reform. Proceedings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference examined the current welfare policy and the continued use of higher education as a tool for moving low-income people into self-supporting careers. The proceedings include: welcoming remarks by Stephen Greenwald; keynote addresses by William Spriggs and Danny Simmons; a lunch address by Rae Alexander-Minter; remarks by Patricia…

Kosar, Kevin R., Ed.

169

The Juggling Act: Navigating Parent Involvement in the Welfare Reform Era  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how parents supported their children's education while transitioning from welfare to work. Interviews with parents, elementary school educators, and staff at a community-based organization were conducted in an urban Tennessee community. Navigating work and parenting responsibilities was particularly challenging when children…

Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

2013-01-01

170

Marriage and Welfare Reform: The Overwhelming Evidence That Marriage Education Works. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The erosion of marriage has caused enormous difficulties for children, parents, and society. Compared to children born within marriage, those born outside of marriage are overwhelmingly more likely to live in poverty, depend on welfare, and have behavior problems. They also may suffer depression and physical abuse, fail in school, abuse drugs, and…

Fagan, Patrick F.; Patterson, Robert W.; Rector, Robert E.

171

Child Care Selection under Welfare Reform: How Mothers Balance Work Requirements and Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the reasoning and experiences of African American, Anglo, and Latina mothers in selecting child care while meeting welfare-to-work requirements. Critiqued three theoretical positions in light of a structured developmental psychology perspective. Found that mothers' preeminent criterion is that they trust the provider. Concluded that…

Mensing, James F.; French, Desiree; Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon Lynn

2000-01-01

172

Single Mothers Working at Night: Standard Work, Child Care Subsidies, and Implications for Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the effect of child care subsidies on the standard work decision of single mothers and examines whether this effect differs between welfare recipients and nonrecipients. The analysis uses data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families. Results suggest that child care subsidy receipt is associated with a 6.9 percentage point increase in the probability of single

Erdal Tekin

2005-01-01

173

‘The language of shirkers and scroungers?’ Talking about illness, disability and coalition welfare reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following establishment of the Conservative?Liberal Democrat coalition, welfare benefits and those who receive them have become of increased significance, with the government and the media alike lamenting the amount of people receiving benefits and what could, and indeed should, be done about it. With a recent White Paper outlining a new Universal Credit, an integrated working age credit that will

Kayleigh Garthwaite

2011-01-01

174

Reclaiming the Disengaged: Reform of New Zealand's Vocational Education and Training and Social Welfare Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses Habermas' theory of the state and his idea of legitimation crisis to critically evaluate recent reforms in New Zealand designed to engage young people (16-24 years of age) in paid employment and/or education and training. The paper identifies three broad strategies adopted by the state to reclaim the disengaged and hence,…

Strathdee, Rob

2013-01-01

175

Work, health, and welfare: the association between working conditions, welfare states, and self-reported general health in Europe.  

PubMed

This article is the first to examine the association between self-reported general health and a wide range of working conditions at the European level and by type of welfare state regime. Data for 21,705 men and women ages 16 to 60 from 27 European countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. The influence of individual-level sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial working conditions and of the organization of work were assessed in multilevel logistic regression analyses, with additional stratification by welfare state regime type (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Eastern European, Scandinavian, and Southern). At the European level, we found that "not good" general health was more likely to be reported by workers more exposed to hazardous working conditions. Most notably, tiring working positions, job strain, and temporary job contracts were strongly associated with a higher likelihood of reporting "not good" health. Analysis by welfare state regime found that only tiring or painful working conditions were consistently associated with worse self-reported health in all regimes. There was no evidence that the Scandinavian welfare regime protected against the adverse health effects of poor working conditions. The article concludes by examining the implications for comparative occupational health research. PMID:24684087

Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; Van der Wel, Kjetil A; Eikemo, Terje A; Dragano, Nico

2014-01-01

176

Market Inefficiency, Insurance Mandate and Welfare: U.S. Health Care Reform 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a stochastic dynamic general equilibrium overlapping generations (OLG) model with endogenous health capital to study the macroeconomic effects of the Affordable Care Act of March 2010 also known as the Obama health care reform. We find that the insurance mandate enforced with fines and premium subsidies successfully reduces adverse selection in private health insurance markets

Juergen Jung; Chung Tran

2011-01-01

177

Market Inefficiency, Insurance Mandate and Welfare: U.S. Health Care Reform 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a stochastic dynamic general equilibrium overlapping generations (OLG) model with endogenous health capital to study the macroeconomic effects of the Affordable Care Act of March 2010 also known as the Obama health care reform. We find that the insurance mandate enforced with fines and premium subsidies successfully reduces adverse selection in private health insurance markets

Juergen Jung; Chung Tran

2010-01-01

178

Work after Welfare Reform and the Well-being of Children* Rucker C. Johnson  

E-print Network

has negative consequences for children only when it is in jobs that offer limited potential for wage that require the cognitive skills that lead to higher wage growth prospects. Finally, fluctuating levels subsidies) and; (3) the implementation of these policy reforms during a period of sustained economic growth

Shyy, Wei

179

AFDC, SSI, and Welfare Reform Aggressiveness: Caseload Reductions versus Caseload Shifting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of reforms of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) on caseloads of another program that is Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is examined. The results reveal that a decrease in caseloads in one program cannot be interpreted as an equal-sized decrease in the number of families receiving public assistance.

Schmidt, Lucie; Sevak, Purvi

2004-01-01

180

The concept of social care and the analysis of contemporary welfare states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Care is now a widely-used concept in welfare state research, é rmly established in the literature by feminist analysis. We believe that the concept as it has been used and developed to date has limitations that have hampered its development as a general categor y of welfare state analysis. In essence we argue that the political economy aspects of the

Mary Daly; Jane Lewis

2000-01-01

181

The Welfare State and Relative Poverty in Rich Western Democracies, 1967-1997  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relationship between the welfare state and poverty with multiple measures of the welfare state and poverty in an unbalanced panel of 18 Western nations from 1967 to 1997. While addressing the limitations of past research, the analysis shows that social security transfers and public health spending significantly reduce…

Brady, David

2005-01-01

182

WORKING PAPER N 2008 -43 Immigration and natives' attitudes towards the welfare state  

E-print Network

WORKING PAPER N° 2008 - 43 Immigration and natives' attitudes towards the welfare state: Evidence, D64, I3, Z13 Keywords: welfare state, immigration, income redistribution, reciprocity, European PONTS ET CHAUSS�ES ­ �COLE NORMALE SUP�RIEURE halshs-00586256,version1-15Apr2011 #12;Immigration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

183

Immigration and Natives' Attitudes towards the Welfare State: Evidence from the European Social Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does immigration reduce natives' support for the welfare state? Evidence from the European Social Survey (2002/2003) suggests a more qualified relation. For Europe as a whole, there is only weak evidence of a negative association between the perceived presence of immigrants and natives' support for the welfare state. However, this weak average…

Senik, Claudia; Stichnoth, Holger; Van der Straeten, Karine

2009-01-01

184

Child Care in the Welfare State A critique of the Rosen model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent study of the welfare state in Sweden, Rosen (1995, 1996, 1997), concludes that child care subsidies may lead to substantial deadweight losses that may impede economic growth and the future of the welfare state. In this article we show that the deadweight losses are highly sensitive to some parameter restrictions implied by Rosen's theoretical model. We then critically

2000-01-01

185

The Road to Economic Self-Sufficiency: Job Quality & Job Transition Patterns After Welfare Reform*  

E-print Network

that the best way to succeed in the labor market is to take any job, even one that may not pay well and may the labor market at much greater rates than in the past.1 Much of the reform's success in moving so many and wages measured at a point in time by including non-wage attributes of compensation and aspects of jobs

Shyy, Wei

186

Community College Participation in Welfare Programs: Do State Policies Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports that 80% of community colleges have implemented programs targeting welfare recipients. Examines policies affecting community college participation in welfare-to-work programs, and how, why, and to what extent community colleges are responding to these initiatives. Identifies qualities of some of the most successful programs. Includes five…

Melendez, Edwin; Falcon, Luis; Bivens, Josh

2003-01-01

187

China's state-owned enterprises: economic reform and organizational restructuring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the Chinese economic reform process has engendered significant changes in the structure and management of work organizations. Central to this process has been the “marketization” of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). The paper reviews the attempts to reform SOEs as conducted, primarily, under the modern enterprise system (MES) and group company

John Hassard; Jonathan Morris; Jackie Sheehan; Xiao Yuxin

2010-01-01

188

From the Welfare State to the Warfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the nature of the post-9\\/11 global order? What types of transnational conflicts are we likely to see in the years ahead? Will the United States dominate this new world order? Can it? A panel of distinguished sociologists tackles these questions.

Edward A. Tiryakian

2005-01-01

189

Child Welfare: States Use Flexible Federal Funds, But Struggle to Meet Service Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In fiscal year 2011, over 675,000 children were found to be victims of abuse or neglect. To help ensure that such children have safe and permanent homes, state and local child welfare agencies secure child welfare services, such as parenting classes and s...

2013-01-01

190

Ethnic diversity, social policy and the Scandinavian welfare states: Similar or different policy responses?  

E-print Network

2011 Abstract It is widely acknowledged that immigration ­ and integration policies in the Scandinavian. But is this fairly harmonic picture of a Scandinavian welfare model downsized, when we are dealing with immigrants1 Ethnic diversity, social policy and the Scandinavian welfare states: Similar or different policy

Hansen, René Rydhof

191

Attitudes among the Finnish population towards the Nordic welfare state in 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been increasing signs of the weakening of universalism in the Nordic welfare system. While earlier research has mainly concentrated on general attitudes towards the welfare state, we aim to examine whether general attitudes and attitudes specific to the organization and funding of services form separate dimensions, as well as to explore the background factors connected to these attitudes.

Anu Muuri; Kristiina Manderbacka; Marko Elovainio

2012-01-01

192

Tamil Refugees in Pain: Challenging Solidarity in the Norwegian Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses issues of power, stigmatisation and marginalisation associated with social structures and values promoted as part of a welfare project of individual rights and solidarity. Based on my fieldwork in northern Norway, the encounters of Tamil refugees with the Norwegian welfare state are described, focusing on the difficulties they experience in consulting health officials in the diagnosis and

Anne Sigfrid Grønseth

2011-01-01

193

Still Social and Democratic? Inclusive Education Policies in the Nordic Welfare States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, education policy is analysed from a welfare state perspective. The aim is to analyse the significance attributed to social?inclusive aspects of education in contemporary education policies of the Nordic countries, and the extent to which education is regarded as an element in welfare policies. Four aspects are addressed: (1) access to education and measures to prevent social

Lisbeth Lundahl

2006-01-01

194

Divergence and Convergence: In Search of a Common base of the Notion of the Welfare state in china and in the West  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare state is not the monopoly of the West, though it is always perceived to be so. A review of the Chinese history discovers that the notion of welfare state and related welfare system has long existed in China. However, these two conceptions of the welfare state have different value and philosophical bases and, hence, different welfare systems evolved.

Tsui Ming-sum; Chan Kwok-hong Raymond

1995-01-01

195

Sector Models of the Welfare State: A Cross-National Analysis  

E-print Network

in the Small College: Issues and Applications (Greenwood Press, 1986). ..•J' '-- ~ ,I -:1 -I Sectoral Models of the Welfare State SECTOR MODELS OF THE WELFARE STATE: A CROSS-NATIONAL ANALYSIS Stanley DeViney University of Kansas Mid-American Review of Sociology... development to five subsets of welfare-state programs: 1) old-age pensions; 2) disability pensions; 3) worker compensation; 4) une m ployment compensation; and 5) sick benefits. Analysis of a sample of 18 Western industrial nations shows that no single model...

DeViney, Stanley

1987-01-01

196

Pathologizing poverty: new forms of diagnosis, disability, and structural stigma under welfare reform.  

PubMed

In 1996 the U.S. severely restricted public support for low income people, ending "welfare as we know it." This led to dramatic increases in medicalized forms of support for indigent people, who increasingly rely on disability benefits justified by psychiatric diagnoses of chronic mental illness. We present case studies drawn from ethnographic data involving daily participant-observation between 2005 and 2012 in public clinics and impoverished neighborhoods in New York City, to describe the subjective experience of structural stigma imposed by the increasing medicalization of public support for the poor through a diagnosis of permanent mental disability. In some cases, disability benefits enable recipients to fulfill important social roles (sustaining a vulnerable household and promoting stable parenting). The status of family members who receive a monthly disability check improves within their kin and neighborhood-based networks, counterbalancing the felt stigma of being identified by doctors as "crazy". When a diagnosis of mental pathology becomes a valuable survival strategy constituting the basis for fulfillment of household responsibilities, stigmatizing processes are structurally altered. Through the decades, the stigmatized labels applied to the poor have shifted: from being a symptom of racial weakness, to the culture of poverty, and now to permanent medical pathology. The neoliberal bureaucratic requirement that the poor must repeatedly prove their "disabled" status through therapy and psychotropic medication appears to be generating a national and policy-maker discourse condemning SSI malingerers, resurrecting the 16th century specter of the "unworthy poor". PMID:24507913

Hansen, Helena; Bourgois, Philippe; Drucker, Ernest

2014-02-01

197

Child Care and the Welfare to Work Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the role of child care in the welfare to work transition using an unusually large and comprehensive data base. Our data are for Massachusetts, a state that began welfare reform in 1995 under a federal waiver, for the period July 1996 through August 1997. We find that both the nature of the child care market and the availability

Robert J. Lemke; Ann Dryden Witte; Magaly Queralt; Robert Witt

2000-01-01

198

Child Care and the Welfare to Work Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the role of child care in the welfare to work transition using an unusually large and comprehensive data base. Our data are for Massachusetts, a state that began welfare reform in 1995 under a federal waiver, for the period July 1996 through August 1997. We find that both the nature of the child care market and the availability

Robert J. Lemke; Robert Witt; Ann Dryden Witte

2001-01-01

199

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United...

2013-07-01

200

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United...

2014-07-01

201

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United...

2011-07-01

202

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United...

2012-07-01

203

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United...

2010-07-01

204

Racial Insurgency, the State, and Welfare Expansion: Local and National Level Evidence from the Postwar United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the relationship between insurgent political action and state-supported social services, with particular emphasis on the relationship between urban riots and welfare. Findings from analysis of activism and welfare since the Second World War indicate that urban riots played an important role nationally in short-term expansion…

Isaac, Larry; Kelly, William R.

1981-01-01

205

Health Care System Reform in China: Issues, Challenges and Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines health care reform in urban and rural China. Before health care reform, Chinese health service facilities were run entirely by the state and basically they performed a social welfare function. This health care system greatly improved the population health conditions but many problems started to emerge in 1980s when the economic reform started. Since then, the government

Rong Hu; Chunli Shen; Heng-fu Zou

2011-01-01

206

Neoliberalism, "globalization," unemployment, inequalities, and the welfare state.  

PubMed

This analysis of "neoliberalism" and its economic and social consequences is presented in six sections. Section I begins by describing the impact of neoliberal public policies on economic growth and inflation, on business profits and business investments, on productivity, on business credit, on unemployment and social inequalities, on social expenditures, and on poverty and family debt. The author shows that, except in the area of business profits and control of inflation, neoliberal policies have not proved superior to those they replaced. Section II deals with unemployment and social polarization in the developed capitalist countries. The author criticizes some of the theories put forward to explain these social problems, such as the introduction of new technologies and globalization of the economy, and suggests that a primary reason for these problems is the implementation of neoliberal policies. Section III challenges the widely held neoliberal perception that the U.S. economy is highly efficient and the E.U. economies are "sclerotic" due to their "excessive" welfare states and "rigid" labor markets. The author shows that the U.S. economy is not so dynamic, nor the E.U. economies so sclerotic. Some developed countries with greater social protection and more regulated labor markets are shown to be more successful than the United States in producing jobs and lowering unemployment. The reasons for the growing polarization in developed capitalist countries, rooted in political rather than economic causes, are discussed in section IV--especially the enormous power of the financial markets and their influence on international agencies and national governments, and the weakness of the labor movements, both nationally and internationally. Section V questions the major theses of globalization. The author shows that rather than globalization of commerce and investments, we are witnessing a regionalization of economic relations stimulated by political considerations. He also analyzes the globalization of capital finance, criticizing the thesis that capital markets are determining public policies. The economic determinism that underlies the globalization position is questioned, uncovering the importance of political explanations for understanding major social problems such as unemployment. Finally, section VI shows that neoliberal public policies on the deregulation of labor markets are creating enormous instability in the labor force, worsening the living conditions of the majority of the populations. PMID:9842492

Navarro, V

1998-01-01

207

What About Curriculum Reform at the State Level?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the impact of federal and state government on the autonomy of local school districts, particularly in the area of curriculum reform. Examines the effect of recent state legislation on New Jersey school districts, describing two local school district programs that illustrate the influence of state and federal government. (JG)

Hall, Kenneth D.; Brinson, Virginia

1978-01-01

208

Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

2001-01-01

209

Workforce Development and Welfare Block Grants: Implications for Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews possible effects of pending workforce development and welfare reform legislation on the delivery of support services to communities. Highlights structural reforms involved in state-based initiatives. Suggests that community colleges may have to reconfigure program lengths and accountability methods to adapt. (MAB)

Ganzglass, Evelyn

1996-01-01

210

Welfare Reform and American Indian Tribes: Critical Decisions for the Future of Indian Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRETORIA) gives American Indian tribes the option to run their own Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program or leave these services under state administration. Eight case studies were conducted in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Arizona with the Klamath Tribes,…

Kauffman, Jo Ann

211

A Crisis of Caring: A Catholic Critique of American Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current deterioration of the American economy is bringing new attention to the problem of poverty in the United States. After falling over the last few years, the number of Americans living in poverty has begun to rise once again. Notwithstanding the achievements of recent \\

Vincent D. Rougeau

2003-01-01

212

Oral health and welfare state regimes: a cross-national analysis of European countries.  

PubMed

Very little is known about the potential relationship between welfare state regimes and oral health. This study assessed the oral health of adults in a range of European countries clustered by welfare regimes according to Ferrera's typology and the complementary Eastern type. We analysed data from Eurobarometer wave 72.3, a cross-sectional survey of 31 European countries carried out in 2009. We evaluated three self-reported oral health outcomes: edentulousness, no functional dentition (<20 natural teeth), and oral impacts on daily living. Age-standardized prevalence rates were estimated for each country and for each welfare state regime. The Scandinavian regime showed lower prevalence rates for all outcomes. For edentulousness and no functional dentition, there were higher prevalence rates in the Eastern regime but no significant differences between Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, and Southern regimes. The Southern regime presented a higher prevalence of oral impacts on daily living. Results by country indicated that Sweden had the lowest prevalences for edentulousness and no functional dentition, and Denmark had the lowest prevalence for oral impacts. The results suggest that Scandinavian welfare states, with more redistributive and universal welfare policies, had better population oral health. Future research should provide further insights about the potential mechanisms through which welfare-state regimes would influence oral health. PMID:23659239

Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol C; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

2013-06-01

213

Exploring Attitudes Towards the Welfare State: Students' Views in Eight Democracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the dimensionality of attitudes towards the welfare state among university students in eight countries representing four worlds of welfare: liberal, radical, conservative and social democratic. We use new data from cross-nationally comparable 25-item questionnaires to derive a two-level bi-factorial hierarchical model that specifies six different attitude facets. These facets are clustered into two distinct sets of attitudes: the

CLARA SABBAGH; PIETER VANHUYSSE

2006-01-01

214

An approach to teaching animal welfare issues at The Ohio State University.  

PubMed

Despite the growing importance of animal welfare and the critical role of the veterinary profession, animal welfare is not formally taught in many veterinary curricula. In addition, veterinary students are often not exposed to current contentious animal welfare issues, which are subject to much debate and often proposed regulation. To address this deficiency in our curriculum at The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, we have developed a course titled "Contemporary Issues in Animal Welfare." Our specific objectives for the course are: 1) to provide students with the opportunity to objectively evaluate and discuss current issues in the welfare of animals as companions, and in the industries of agriculture, science, education, conservation, and entertainment; 2) to increase students' awareness of current important animal welfare issues; and 3) to develop students' skills in the critical evaluation of written and visual material used in the scientific literature and lay press. We hope that, over time, this teaching model will be considered a means to educate veterinary students about animal welfare issues in other veterinary curricula. PMID:19861714

Lord, Linda K; Walker, Jennifer B

2009-01-01

215

The Effect of Child Care Costs on the Labor Force Participation and Welfare Recipiency of Single Mothers: Implications for Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the effect of child care costs on two labor market outcomes for single mothers whether to participate in the labor market and whether to receive welfare. Hourly child care expenditures are estimated for all women in the sample (using data drawn from the 1992 and 1993 panels of the SIPP), whether or not they are currently using

Rachel Connelly; Jean Kimmel

2001-01-01

216

Accountability Mechanisms for State Education Reform: Some Organizational Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from a study to explore organizational alternatives available to states for overseeing educational reform are presented in this paper. The structures and uses of eight exemplary state accountability mechanisms were analyzed. Seven of these mechanisms have already been implemented in South Carolina, Connecticut, Texas, Tennessee, Virginia,…

Wohlstetter, Priscilla

217

Options in School Finance Reform in New York State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York State's system of financing education needs reform. Children in school districts where poverty pervades do not receive an adequate education; disparities in available funding resources have produced uneven levels of school spending among school districts; and state-aid formulas fail to correct for differences among districts. Children in…

Scheuer, Joan

218

CASAWORKS for Families: A Promising Approach to Welfare Reform and Substance-Abusing Women. A CASA White Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CASAWORKS for Families is the first national demonstration program to provide simultaneously drug and alcohol treatment; literacy, job, parenting, and social skills training; family violence prevention; and health care to help substance-abusing welfare parents recover. Its mission is to help women on welfare with substance abuse problems achieve…

Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

219

The state of animal welfare in the context of refinement.  

PubMed

The ultimate goal of the Three Rs is the full replacement of animals used in biomedical research and testing. However, replacement is unlikely to occur in the near future; therefore the scientific community as a whole must continue to devote considerable effort to ensure optimal animal welfare for the benefit of the science and the animals, i.e., the R of refinement. Laws governing the care and use of laboratory animals have recently been revised in Europe and the US and these place greater emphasis on promoting the well-being of the animals in addition to minimizing pain and distress. Social housing for social species is now the default condition, which can present a challenge in certain experimental settings and for certain species. The practice of positive reinforcement training of laboratory animals, particularly non-human primates, is gathering momentum but is not yet universally employed. Enhanced consideration of refinement extends to rodents, particularly mice, whose use is still increasing as more genetically modified models are generated. The wastage of extraneous mice and the method of their euthanasia are refinement issues that still need to be addressed. An international, concerted effort into defining the needs of laboratory animals is still necessary to improve the quality of the animal models used as well as their welfare. PMID:24448759

Zurlo, Joanne; Hutchinson, Eric

2014-01-01

220

Family policy and inequalities in health in different welfare states.  

PubMed

This article focuses on differences in health and welfare outcomes for families with children in three European countries, discussed in relation to national policies for child and family welfare. Data consist of policy documents and cross-national surveys. The document analysis was based on policy documents that described government policies. The statistical analyses utilize data from the European Social Survey. For the analyses in this article, a sub-sample of child families was selected from the countries Slovenia, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Data showed that England's policy has mainly addressed socially disadvantaged groups and areas. Sweden and Slovenia are mainly developing universal policies. The United Kingdom has high scores for subjective general health, but a steep income gradient in the population. Parents in England experience the highest level of at-risk-of-poverty. Sweden generally scores well on health outcomes and on level of at-risk-of-poverty, and the gradient in self-rated general health is the mildest. Slovenia has the weakest economy, but low levels of inequality and low child at-risk-for-poverty scores. The Slovenian example suggests that not only the level of economic wealth, but also its distribution in the population, has bearings on health and life satisfaction, not least on the health of children. PMID:24919301

Fosse, Elisabeth; Bull, Torill; Burström, Bo; Fritzell, Sara

2014-01-01

221

Old Age Pension Reform in China's State-Owned Enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

The old-age pension scheme in China's state-owned enterprises (SOEs) is experiencing a difficult transition period; in the past, SOEs were responsible for providing retirees with pension benefits. However, in the 1980s and 1990s, the financial position of SOEs deteriorated, making it difficult for them to honor their social welfare commitments. The background of the current pension crisis is examined, and

Russell Smyth

2000-01-01

222

The Common Core "State" Standards: The Arts and Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this commentary, Alice Wexler notes that as the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) become reality, teachers have reason for concern. She contends that this reform to public education has consequently marginalized the arts and exacerbated the inequities of people in poverty and those with disabilities. Teachers, principals and, ultimately,…

Wexler, Alice

2014-01-01

223

The Dilemmas of State-Local Tax Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary problem for American educational finance is not how to tax but how much to tax. In modern fiscal arrangements, States and localities extract resources from their citizens in some combination of sales, income, or wealth taxes. Any tax reform juggles the relative contribution of each source, but the total amount extracted is still the…

Thomson, Procter

224

Reforms and Productivity Dynamics in Chinese State-Owned Enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutional change has taken place incrementally since 1978 for State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) in the Industrial Sector of China. We will provide evidence for the notion that this is largely due to increased domestic competitive pressures and the opportunities arising from the integration of international markets. In this paper we estimate the effect of deep reform (the right to hire and

Peter McGoldrick; Patrick Paul Walsh

2004-01-01

225

Reforms and Productivity Dynamics in Chinese State-Owned Enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutional change has taken place gradually since 1978 for State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) in the Industrial Sector of China. In this paper we estimate the effect of deep reform (the right to hire and fire labour, buy and sell capital and operate on international markets) on the productivity dynamics of enterprises. Using a unique balanced panel of 681 SOEs for the

Peter McGoldrick; Patrick Paul Walsh

2004-01-01

226

[State reform and Flemish health policy].  

PubMed

Three subjects are discussed: firstly, the most important stages in the process of federalization, secondly, the organizational structures and the activity of the ministry of the Flemish Community, thirdly, the position of the Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium within the new structures of the ministry. With regard to the federalization process an outline of the history of the constitutional reforms is given with special attention to the redistribution of the responsibilities concerning health care. Furthermore, future perspectives concerning curative care, preventive care and health education are examined. Regarding the organizational structure and the activities of the ministry of the Flemish Community, the following aspects are treated: the basic organization, the difference between horizontal and vertical departments, the function of the superstructure and of the Board of Permanent Secretaries. Three other important pillars of the development of the organization are explained, namely the charter of the ministry of the Flemish Community, the homogeneous plans for organization and development and the new personnel management. Attention is finally focused on the scientific activities of the Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium. Its problems with regard to understaffing as well as the budget of the institution as part of the institutional concerns of the administration of Health within the ministry of the Flemish Community are dealt with. PMID:7618368

Schrijvers, J

1995-01-01

227

the great invisible pension reform in the uni ted states the economics of social insurance  

E-print Network

126 the great invisible pension reform in the uni ted states 127 the economics of social insurance failure around the world 128 the great invisible pension reform in the uni ted states 129 · every working

Ostaszewski, Krzysztof M.

228

After Welfare Reform and an Economic Boom: Why Is Child Poverty Still So Much Higher in the U.S. Than in Europe?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that the U.S.'s experience during the economic boom of the 1990s, together with its choices concerning social welfare policies, imply that child poverty in the United States will be much higher than that in most European countries. It hypothesizes that Americans reveal their preferences about the extent of poverty they are…

Danziger, Sheldon

229

The Welfare to Work Transition in the United States: Implications for Work-Related Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes the legislation upon which the current welfare-to-work transition in the United States is based and describes characteristics of the former welfare population from which various tiers of employment options have emerged: unsubsidized-employed workers, subsidized-employed workers, subsidized-unemployed recipients, and unsubsidized-unemployed individuals. It also discusses current program emphases, and presents a format for directions for future program development which includes academic programs, situated cognition programs, integrated literacy/occupational skills programs, and integrated literacy/soft skills training.

Fisher, James C.; Martin, Larry G.

2000-11-01

230

Child Welfare Outcome Research in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ideally, there is a close interaction between research and practice in human services, and program planning is based on such interaction, particularly the findings of outcome research. This book reviews the bodies of outcome research about child welfare programs from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, particularly outcomes in…

Maluccio, Anthony N.; Ainsworth, Frank; Thoburn, June

231

Universalism without the Targeting: Privatizing the Old-Age Welfare State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decades of conservative attempts to scale back Social Security and Medicare, by limiting the program's universality through means testing and drastic benefit cuts, have failed. Thus, after numerous unsuccessful attempts at dismantling the U.S.'s universal old-age welfare state, or even meaningfully restraining its growth, conservative critics have…

Herd, Pamela

2005-01-01

232

Welfare policies and migration of the poor in the United States: An empirical note  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has investigated the impact of geographic welfare benefit differentials upon migration in the United States. Unlike other related studies, which typically focus upon black migration (as a surrogate measure of migration of the poor), the present study focuses directly upon migration of the poor per se. A variety of reduced-form estimates are provided. The evidence strongly suggests that

Richard J. Cebula; James V. Koch

1989-01-01

233

Immigration and the Welfare State: Immigrant Participation in Means-Tested Entitlement Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the extent to which immigrants participate in the many programs that make up the welfare state. The immigrant-native difference in the probability of receiving cash benefits is small but the gap widens once other programs are included in the analysis: 21 percent of immigrant households receive some type of assistance as compared with only 14 percent of

George J Borjas; Lynette Hilton

1996-01-01

234

Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

Odebode, Stella O.

2009-01-01

235

Politics and Policy in State Health Reform  

E-print Network

Health Care Justice Act of 2004, in which then State Senator Barack Obamahealth care system. The access component–part of, but less visible in, Obama’Obama Administration may find itself in the high-concern/low-capacity Box B. Rising Health Care

Zelman, Walter; Melamed, Alex

2009-01-01

236

Towards an Archaeology of the Welfare State in Britain, 1945–2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I develop an argument for the specific contribution which archaeology might make to the study of the ‘classic’\\u000a welfare state in Britain (c. 1945–1975) and its aftermath (c. 1976 to present). This period saw massive state investment in\\u000a infrastructure which transformed both the material and social worlds of its citizens, through new state policies, new networks\\u000a of

Rodney Harrison

2009-01-01

237

"They Get You out of Courage:" Persistent Deep Poverty among Former Welfare-Reliant Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We looked closely at families who remain in persistent deep poverty in the remote rural areas of one state, using welfare reform as the contextual backdrop. We examined the lives of 10 women who have participated in this qualitative research for over 6 years. The woman heading each family was a welfare program participant; she engaged (more or…

Blalock, Lydia L.; Tiller, Vicky R.; Monroe, Pamel A.

2004-01-01

238

Understanding Educational Reform in Global Context: Economy, Ideology, and the State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a set of national case studies on educational reform of higher education that views reform as processes of ideological and social struggles. The titles and authors are as follows: "Educational Reform: Social Struggles, the State and the World Economic System" (Mark B. Ginsburg, et al.); "Restructuring Education and the State in…

Ginsburg, Mark B., Ed.

239

Welfare Reform: Success in Moving toward Work. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (October 16, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Congressional report contains the testimony and documents presented for the record at the second of two hearings on the effects of welfare reform and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant. Other areas receiving particular attention from witnesses included the impacts of education and training on employment patterns…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

240

Welfare Reform: An Examination of Effects. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (September 20, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Congressional report contains the testimony and documents presented for the record of the first of two hearings to gather testimony on the effects of welfare reform and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant. The oral and written testimony focuses on TANF legislation's outcomes and impact on work and families in…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

241

State-Level Reforms That Support College-Level Program Changes in North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter describes the concurrent reforms occurring in North Carolina--both campus-level changes focused on such issues as developing structured programs of study and state-level reforms aimed at supporting the campus efforts.

Bowling, R. Edward; Morrissey, Sharon; Fouts, George M.

2014-01-01

242

Welfare Reform on American Indian Reservations: Initial Experience of Service Providers and Recipients on Reservations in Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with service providers and welfare recipients on 15 Arizona American Indian reservations indicated that low levels of education and work experience were barriers to employment, and employment was scarce. In remote areas, the lack of support services, paved roads, transportation, and communication made it impossible for many residents to…

Pandey, Shanta; Brown, Eddie F.; Scheuler-Whitaker, Leslie; Collier-Tenison, Shannon

2002-01-01

243

The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Abortion, Education, Term Limits, Welfare Reform, Health Insurance, Riverboat Gambling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the annual survey of public opinion in Pennsylvania. Telephone surveys were conducted with 1,744 people whose telephone numbers were randomly selected from all listed telephone numbers. Results of the survey indicate that: (1) Pennsylvanians strongly favor mandatory birth control counseling for welfare mothers, but opinion is…

Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

244

"Newstart" or "Stop-Start"? the Implications of Recent Welfare Reforms on Undergraduate Students Who Are Sole Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the implications of recent income support payment changes for sole-parented families in Australia, and in particular, their capacity to access tertiary education. The government's program to reduce welfare benefit payments to sole-parented families already at high risk of economic disadvantage and social marginalization…

Lenette, Caroline; McDonald, Donna; Fowler, Jane L.

2014-01-01

245

Curbing Corruption Through Social Welfare Reform? The Effects of Mexico’s Conditional Cash Transfer Program on Good Government  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditional cash transfer programs, an innovation in social welfare administration, have received considerable acclaim as a means of enhancing human capital and reducing leakage of public resources through corruption. While numerous studies examine the effects of the program on human capital indicators in Mexico and various other countries that have adopted the approach, little is known about the effects of

Marcia Grimes; Lena Wängnerud

2010-01-01

246

A Need For Correction: Reforming New York's Juvenile Justice System. Child Welfare Watch. Vol. 18, Fall 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the wake of a U.S. Justice Department investigation that found widespread use of excessive force by staff at upstate psychiatric care facilities for mentally ill children, this new edition of Child Welfare Watch identifies shortcomings in mental health services and explores possible solutions, including the expansion of alternatives to…

White, Andrew; Hemphill, Clara; Hurley, Kendra

2009-01-01

247

Welfare Policies and Adolescents: Exploring the Roles of Sibling Care, Maternal Work Schedules, and Economic Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses data from three longitudinal experimental evaluations of US state welfare reform programs to examine whether\\u000a program-induced changes in families’ reliance on sibling care are linked with the effects of welfare programs on selected\\u000a schooling outcomes of high risk, low-income adolescents. The findings from two of the welfare programs indicate that increased\\u000a reliance on sibling care was concomitant

JoAnn Hsueh; Lisa A. Gennetian

248

Small group insurance reform: how are state programs measuring up?  

PubMed

In the past decade, states have responded to the health insurance needs of small businesses by launching a number of reforms. According to authors Michael Morrisey and Gail Jensen, more than 30 states have implemented "bare-bones" policies that seek to make minimum-benefit, affordable coverage available to small employers. Almost all states have enacted legislation modifying the underwriting practices that insurers may use with respect to such things as pre-existing conditions and occupational exclusions. Other states have provided tax or employer subsidies. But despite the efforts of the states, the authors found the state policies have had little success. Drawing from a survey found that the few employers who were aware of the programs found them to be unappealing. In discovering what doesn't work, the authors are able to suggest remedies for the states' small group insurance ills, such as offering long-term instead of short-term subsidies. PMID:10167489

Morrisey, M; Jensen, G

1997-01-01

249

Health Care Reform Tracking Project: Tracking State Health Care Reforms as They Affect Children and Adolescents with Emotional Disorders and Their Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Health Care Reform Tracking Project is a 5-year national project to track and analyze state health care reform initiatives as they affect children and adolescents with emotional/behavioral disorders and their families. The study's first phase was a baseline survey of all 50 states to describe current state reforms as of 1995. Among findings of…

Pires, Sheila A.; Stroul, Beth A.

250

Variations in labor supply between female and male hospital physicians: results from a modern welfare state.  

PubMed

In industrialized countries, female physicians have up to 10h lower labor supply a week than male physicians. At the same time, the number of female physicians is increasing. The question analyzed in this article is whether these differences in labor supply for female and male hospital physicians persist in a modern welfare society, such as Norway, where comprehensive welfare reforms aim to reduce gender inequality are implemented. Information on weekly working hours from all hospital physicians in Norway during the period 2001-2007 was merged with economic variables (wages, income from other sources, net personal dept), demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, children born in the year, number of children), managerial positions and variables describing the hospital, specialty and time (year). The estimation method employed both random and fixed-effects models. Labor supply for women was 10-11 percent or 4-4.5 h per week lower than among men. The effects of children diverged strongly between the sexes. For instance, childbirth in a given year reduced the supply of working hours by women by approximately 80% but had no effects for men. After controlling for children and other factors, female physicians worked some 3-4% or 1-1.5 fewer hours than comparable male physicians. Although significant, variation in labor supply between female and male physicians is much lower in Norway then in other advanced industrialized countries. PMID:22739127

Johannessen, Karl-Arne; Hagen, Terje P

2012-09-01

251

Welfare Analysis of Fiscal Reforms: Does the Representation of the Family Decision Process Matter? Evidence for Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares predictions obtained for the analysis of tax reforms with collective and unitary models of household labour supply and consumption behaviour. We simulate real world microdata by means of a collective approach, using a compound procedure of estimation and calibration based on the 1998 wave of the German socioeconomic panel. We estimate a unitary model on this ?collective?

François Laisney; Denis Beninger; Miriam Beblo

2003-01-01

252

Statistics and Health Care Reform in the United States Jasjeet Singh Sekhon  

E-print Network

domestic accomplishment of the Obama Administration thus far has been the enactment of health care reformStatistics and Health Care Reform in the United States Jasjeet Singh Sekhon 6/14/2010 The signature issues related to health care reform that may be of particular interest to readers of Significance

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

253

Public Pension Reforms in the United States and JapanA Study of Comparative Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1980s, facing the financial crises in their public pension systems, the governments of both the United States and Japan proposed reform. In each case the reform efforts failed. A few years later policy proposals by special commissions led to the enactment of reform legislation in both countries. No major political upheavals occurred in the intervening years; but

JUNKO KATO

1991-01-01

254

Dynamics of the intergenerational transmission of welfare receipt in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this article expands upon earlier empirical efforts to understand intergenerational\\u000a welfare participation in the United States. Empirical studies have suggested that growing up in a household that receives\\u000a Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) increases the probability that a child will receive AFDC, although little insight\\u000a exists on the dynamics

John V. Pepper

1995-01-01

255

How the Child Welfare System Works  

MedlinePLUS

... Training Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies ... System reform Training Workforce Systemwide Assessment Courts Cultural competence Domestic violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & policies ...

256

Kinship Caregivers and the Child Welfare System  

MedlinePLUS

... Training Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies ... System reform Training Workforce Systemwide Assessment Courts Cultural competence Domestic violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & policies ...

257

Longitudinal Effects of Domestic Violence on Employment and Welfare Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses longitudinal data spanning 13 years from a study of 234 adolescent mothers to evaluate the effects of cumulative domestic violence on employment and welfare use before and after welfare reform. Domestic violence increased the odds of unemployment after welfare reform, but not before; domestic violence had no effect on welfare use…

Lindhorst, Taryn; Oxford, Monica; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

2007-01-01

258

Tax Savings as a Provision of Corporate Welfare is a State-Corporate Crime When it Becomes Socially Injurious  

E-print Network

History of Corporate Welfare p.1 p.2 Literature Review Sutherland and White-Collar Crimewhite-collar crime and state-corporate crimes are more recent fields of research, the functionalist perspective of criminology has a much longer history.

Nery, Annebelle

2010-01-01

259

The critical role of ERISA in state health reform.  

PubMed

Despite prominent roles for employers and state regulation in the Clinton administration's Health Security Act, relatively little attention has been accorded to the impact of federal preemption of state legislation through the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA). As interpreted by the U.S. Supreme Court, ERISA permits state regulation of insured employee health plans but otherwise preempts analogous regulation relating to self-insured benefit plans. This has prompted lower courts to find that hospital rate-setting legislation, regulation of preferred provider organizations (PPOs), and medical malpractice suits for utilization review decisions are preempted by ERISA. Several issues with major implications for health reform remain unresolved, such as the availability of ERISA preemption to self-insured health alliances and health maintenance organizations (HMOs). PMID:8056368

Chirba-Martin, M A; Brennan, T A

260

The Newest New Federalism for Welfare: Where Are We Now and Where Are We Headed? Rockefeller Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1996 welfare reform law--the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act--has contradictory aspects. It gives the states greatly increased fiscal flexibility and at the same time sets extensive and elaborate new behavioral requirements. The dynamics of welfare since the passage of the Social Security Act in 1935 have been…

Nathan, Richard P.

261

Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries  

PubMed Central

Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05–0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22–0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08–0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10–0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26–0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14–3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86–3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health. PMID:23538729

Chung, Haejoo; Ng, Edwin; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Karlsson, Bjorn; Benach, Joan; Espelt, Albert; Muntaner, Carles

2013-01-01

262

Welfare and immigration reform and use of prenatal care among women of Mexican ethnicity in San Diego, California.  

PubMed

Foreign-born women and, in particular, Hispanic foreign-born women, are less likely to have insurance, are less likely to have insurance that covers prenatal care, and are less likely to utilize prenatal care compared with US-born Hispanic women. Significant concern has been raised regarding the ability of immigrant women to access prenatal care services because of severe restrictions imposed on immigrants' eligibility for Medicaid-funded services following the passage in 1996 of the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reform Act (PRWORA) and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRAIRA). We conducted an interview-based study of prenatal care utilization with women of Mexican ethnicity and diverse immigration statuses in San Diego County, California. Our findings indicate that, despite increased levels of fear associated with recent immigration and with undocumented status, there were no statistically significant differences across immigration statuses in length of time to receipt of medical care for gynecological events and for prenatal care. PMID:15744476

Loue, Sana; Cooper, Marlene; Lloyd, Linda S

2005-01-01

263

Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Federal Agencies Could Play a Stronger Role in Helping States Reduce the Number of Children Placed Solely To Obtain Mental Health Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child welfare directors in 19 states and juvenile justice officials in 30 counties estimated that in fiscal year 2001 parents placed over 12,700 children into the child welfare or juvenile justice systems so that these children could receive mental health services. Neither the child welfare nor the juvenile justice system was designed to serve…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

264

Medicaid expansions and welfare contractions: offsetting effects on prenatal care and infant health?  

PubMed

Most states have adopted administrative measures to encourage the use of prenatal care among medicaid-eligible women. At the same time, declining welfare caseloads have caused many women to lose medicaid. We examine the effects of changes in income eligibility, administrative procedures, and welfare caseloads using data from all birth certificates for 1990-1996. Higher income cutoffs increased use of prenatal care, while decreases in welfare caseloads reduced it. Changes in income cutoffs also reduced fetal deaths. These results suggest that the administrative reforms have not broken the close link between welfare participation and access to medicaid. PMID:11939244

Currie, Janet; Grogger, Jeffrey

2002-03-01

265

Happy Marriage or Uneasy Alliance? The Relationship between Comprehensive School Reform and State Accountability Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine how the relationship between comprehensive school reform (CSR) and state accountability systems helps or hinders school improvement efforts. This article draws on case study data collected in schools in 3 states that received funding to implement reforms through the federal CSR program. Findings show that…

Datnow, Amanda

2005-01-01

266

Educational Opportunities in Washington's High Schools under State Education Reform: Background and Student Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses educational outcomes for Washington state's public high school students, describing national trends in high school reform. Information came from surveys and interviews with teachers, students, and parents and national and state data. Many reforms have been tried nationwide. Most Washington high schools had students in…

Harding, Edie

267

On the Declining Health Status of Welfare Caseloads: Emerging Dilemmas for Serving the Poor  

PubMed Central

An emerging concern for public policy is welfare reform’s potential to inadvertently affect caseload composition by increasing the proportion of recipients with health-related barriers to employment. We examine this using data from the Welfare Client Longitudinal Study, an in-depth case study of a large California county. Through quantitative analyses, we examine the extent of change in health-related problems since welfare reform and their potential to progressively impact overall composition of the caseload. We augment this with qualitative data on how local welfare providers are responding to the health-related needs of aid recipients. Results suggest that the burden of health-related problems is growing and that welfare providers may be poorly equipped to respond effectively on their own. The changing composition of welfare caseloads may foster several new policy dilemmas that demand broader attention: states and localities may face difficulties meeting federal workforce participation requirements, may need to restructure welfare-to-work programs to serve a more functionally impaired population, and take steps to better integrate health and welfare services at the local level. PMID:21400369

Schmidt, Laura A.; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Henderson, Stuart; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, James

2014-01-01

268

School Reform in the United States: Frames and Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay reviews six competing positions on U.S. school reform: a speech from Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan; Diane Ravitch's "The Death and Life of the Great American School System"; Frederick Hess's "The Same Thing Over and Over"; Charles Payne's "So Much Reform, So Little Change"; Anthony Byrk and others' "Organizing School for…

Shannon, Patrick

2012-01-01

269

Reform of state owned enterprises and challenges in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to provide a review of the challenges facing the reform of SOEs, and to address the impacts of SOE reform on business executives, on the base of literature review and empirical data collected in Guangzhou, China. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A qualitative research on the base of literature review, supported by empirical data collected from surveys, interviews,

Sharon Moore; Julie Jie Wen

2006-01-01

270

Community College Role: A State Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role of Oregon's community colleges in the state's economic development, focusing on the state's benchmarks for progress over the next 20 years, economic restructuring, regional workforce development, welfare reform, and business school partnerships. (MAB)

Roberts, Barbara

1993-01-01

271

The Sustainability of Comprehensive School Reform Models in Changing District and State Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the sustainability of comprehensive school reform (CSR) models in the face of turbulent district and state contexts. It draws on qualitative data gathered in a longitudinal case study of six CSR models implemented in 13 schools in one urban district. Why do reforms sustain in some schools and not in others? How do changing…

Datnow, Amanda

2005-01-01

272

Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Education Reform Strategy: Report on Country Consultations and Work Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991 a working group from the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) released a report, the OECS Education Reform Strategy (OERS), which detailed proposed reform strategies for the region. This document summarizes the report's nine recommendations and responses to the report. The report was distributed to Ministries of Education and…

Charles, Hubert J.

273

Shadow Factor Price Convergence and the Response of Chinese State-Owned Construction Enterprises to Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalized (nonminimum or shadow) cost function is used to evaluate the response of Chinese state-owned construction enterprises to economic reforms from 1985 to 1991. Generalized cost function estimates are used to calculate the variances of the shadow factor price ratios that characterize price efficiency, and these variances are regressed against reform variables to determine whether convergence took place. There

Elliott Parker

1995-01-01

274

Effect of a Family Policy Reform on Immigrants' Labour Supply and Earnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractAn important feature of Scandinavian welfare states is the transfer of resources to families with children. Long parental leave and provision of high-quality subsidized day care are important policies in this regard. This paper evaluates the impact of a recent Norwegian family policy reform on the labour supply of native and immigrant women in Norway. The reform provides cash benefits

Ghazala Naz

2010-01-01

275

U.S. Immigration in the 1980s: Reappraisal and Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The introductory chapter of this volume on immigration into the United States is entitled "Overview: A Time of Reform and Reappraisal" (D. Simcox), and it introduces the topics of reform, legal and illegal immigration, the effect of immigration on the labor market and social welfare, and immigration enforcement methods that are discussed in the…

Simcox, David E., Ed.

276

Preparing Welfare and Other Low-Income Adults for Work and Better Jobs: A Report on Low-Income Students Enrolled in Colleges and the Start-Up of WorkFirst Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report on Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges' assistance of low-income adults under the state's welfare reform initiative, WorkFirst. Current and former welfare students attending community and technical colleges comprise 9% of all college student enrollments. Combining work and training leads to higher wages.…

Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia. Education Div.

277

A Welfare Reform--Homelessness--Foster Care Connection? The Story of "Lag Families" and "Limbo Children" in San Diego.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of data from a survey of more than 100 parents residing in emergency shelter in San Diego, California, reveals a portrait of poverty that is prevalent among women and children in the United States today. Homeless families in San Diego, as in the rest of the country, are most often headed by women in their early thirties whose prospects…

Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

278

Restructuring the welfare state: reforms in long-term care in Western European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faced with the problems associated with an ageing society, many European countries have adopted innovative policies to achieve a better balance between the need to expand social care and the imperative to curb public spending. Although embedded within peculiar national traditions, these new policies share some characteristics: (a) a tendency to combine monetary transfers to families with the provision of

Emmanuele Pavolini; Costanzo Ranci

2008-01-01

279

The University in the Making of the Welfare State: The 1970s Degree Reform in Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In just a couple of decades, Finland evolved from one of Europe's lowest educated countries to the top performer of the international PISA ranking. Behind this "success story", there was a conscious strategy to use educational policies for creating a more equal society. Tracing the development of Finnish higher education system after WWII, this…

Jalava, Marja

2012-01-01

280

Immigration and Welfare Magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates if the location choices made by immigrants when they arrive in the United States are influenced by the interstate dispersion in welfare benefits. Income-maximizing behavior implies that foreign-born welfare recipients, unlike their native-born counterparts, may be clustered in the states that offer the highest benefits. The empirical analysis indicates that immigrant welfare recipients are indeed more heavily

George J. Borjas

1999-01-01

281

Tell Me Why: The States' Leadership Role in General Education Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some states are taking a greater role in general education reform, with some moving to rationalize general education requirements. Establishing transfer policies to promote educational coherence is bringing some order to the chaos of general education. (SLD)

Schoenberg, Robert

2003-01-01

282

Published in J. Lewis (Ed), Gender, Social care and Welfare State Restructuring in Europe, Aldershot, Ashgate, 1998, p. 139-174  

E-print Network

1 Published in J. Lewis (Ed), Gender, Social care and Welfare State Restructuring in Europe : towards a commodification of social care ? Claude Martin* , Antoine Math** , Evelyne Renaudat-21Dec2007 Author manuscript, published in "Gender, social care and welfare state restructuring in Europe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

283

Assimilation to a Welfare State: Labor Market Performance and Use of Social Benefits by Immigrants to Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis paper documents the economic performance of immigrants in a country characterized by an extensive welfare state and a short immigration history. Upon arrival, immigrants to Finland have substantially lower employment rates than comparable natives. While they experience rapid employment growth, only men from OECD countries catch up with natives. Despite the persisting employment and earnings differences between non?OECD immigrants

Matti Sarvimäki

2011-01-01

284

Assimilation to a Welfare State: Labor Market Performance and Use of Social Benefits by Immigrants to Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the economic performance of immigrants in a country characterized by an extensive welfare state and a short immigration history. Upon arrival, immigrants to Finland have substantially lower employment rates than comparable natives. While they experience rapid employment growth, only men from OECD countries catch up with natives. Despite the persisting employment and earnings differences between non?OECD immigrants

Matti Sarvimäki

2011-01-01

285

West Virginia. The Demonstration of State Work/Welfare Initiatives. Final Report on the Community Work Experience Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings of a three-year evaluation of West Virginia's Community Work Experience Program (CWEP), which requires public service in exchange for welfare payments by able-bodied recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Overall findings indicate that the state has succeeded in its principal objective:…

Friedlander, Daniel; And Others

286

Promoting Supervisory Practice Change in Public Child Welfare: Lessons from University/Agency Collaborative Research in Four States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes qualitative findings regarding lessons learned from research and demonstration projects in four states focused on the implementation of clinical supervision within their public child welfare agencies. This was part of a larger mixed methods study of the effectiveness of these new clinical supervision models on practice,…

Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Millar, Kenneth

2012-01-01

287

Job Expectations and Intention to Leave in a State Child Welfare Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross–sectional survey of Connecticut's child welfare staff examined reasons for taking a public child welfare position and job expectations to better understand why workers leave. Workers who take jobs because they are committed to the mission of the agency were more satisfied and less inclined to leave. Regardless of why workers accepted the position, they were more likely to

Roslyn H. Chernesky; Marion K. Israel

2009-01-01

288

An Examination of State Takeover as a School Reform Strategy in a Small Rural School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore state takeover as a school reform strategy in a small rural school district. Since 1988, more than 50 U.S. school districts in 20 states have been subject to some form of state takeover. A number of factors generally contribute to a state takeover, some of which include: poor student…

Brookover, Chester Wayne

2010-01-01

289

Welfare Implications of Fiscal Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper investigates the effect of a food subsidy programme,in India on child malnutrition by addressing the following linked questions using household survey data that includes information on usage of the public distribution system. First, does the food subsidy induce higher expenditures on food? Second, are there gender inequalities in the distribution of food within the household, and in

Sonia Bhalotra

290

The outer limits of the welfare state: discrimination, racism and their effect on human services.  

PubMed

The European social democracies have been more generous than the United States in social provision, including services to aged. The momentum of provision has slowed down in recent years. We suggest that prosperity which has led to use of foreign laborers in menial jobs has caused this slow down. The dynamics are similar to the historical U.S. use of "non-100% Americans" as our menial workers. Changes in social policy strategies are needed: 1) universal provision, rather than programs aimed at minorities, is needed to enlist support of stable working and middle classes; 2) tax reforms, which lower progressive income-tax structures for middle incomes, and value-added tax, may be necessary to overcome anti-tax ideologies; 3) clear priorities as to most necessary services must be established by the gerontological community. PMID:478661

Wershow, H J

291

Considerations in Medicare reform: the impact of Medicare preemption on state laws.  

PubMed

This article explores the key issues involved in understanding the impact of Medicare preemption on state laws affecting the federal purchase of managed care products, as a consideration in future Medicare reform. Author Commander Jackonis argues that any further Medicare reform must address the impact of federal preemption on quality and quantity of care purchased in order to ensure the existence of a market of product providers, as well as to ensure protection of patient rights and benefits. PMID:15002184

Jackonis, Michael J

2004-01-01

292

P-16: The Last Education Reform. Book Two: Emerging Local, Regional, and State Efforts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second book in a series entitled "P-16: The Last Education Reform." It was the purpose of the authors to chronicle the growth of existing state and local P-16 councils and compacts across the United States and to look at what might constitute successful efforts and an ideal relationship between state and local efforts. The methodology…

Rochford, Joseph A.

2007-01-01

293

Emerging State-Level Themes: Strengths and Stressors in Educational Accountability Reform. Topical Review 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this topical review is to present Educational Policy Reform Research Institute's (EPRRI's) state-level qualitative findings collected during in depth interviews in the four core study states of California, Maryland, New York, and Texas. The data presented reflect the perspectives of state-level personnel who were involved with the…

Nagle, Katherine

2005-01-01

294

The Liberal State and Criminal Law Reform in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Throughout the nineteenth century, European legal science experienced a profound transformation, the consequences of which\\u000a are still relevant today1. It would be a mistake to suppose, however, that all the legal reforms that took place in Europe in the nineteenth century,\\u000a originated and developed from nothing. The roots of this process of transformation can already be seen in the sixteenth,

Aniceto Masferrer

295

One perspective on sentencing reform in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusion  The most difficult part of constructing a system of criminal sentencing is to be able to give a rationale for each sentence.\\u000a Historically, this has been an unsurmountable hurdle because it required reformers to resolve the irresolvable conflict between\\u000a utility and desert as sentencing goals and to measure the immeasurably complex relative utility of the alterative utilitarian\\u000a strategies

Paul H. Robinson

1997-01-01

296

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...business and professional organizations and associations, in developing emergency operating plans and attaining operational readiness; (5) Preparing and maintaining data on kinds, numbers, and locations of essential welfare resources,...

2012-10-01

297

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...business and professional organizations and associations, in developing emergency operating plans and attaining operational readiness; (5) Preparing and maintaining data on kinds, numbers, and locations of essential welfare resources,...

2010-10-01

298

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...business and professional organizations and associations, in developing emergency operating plans and attaining operational readiness; (5) Preparing and maintaining data on kinds, numbers, and locations of essential welfare resources,...

2013-10-01

299

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...business and professional organizations and associations, in developing emergency operating plans and attaining operational readiness; (5) Preparing and maintaining data on kinds, numbers, and locations of essential welfare resources,...

2011-10-01

300

Comparison or consumption? Distinguishing between different effects of income on health in Nordic welfare states.  

PubMed

In the relation between income and health it has been suggested that individual level mechanisms are related either to absolute or to relative income. Both absolute income level and the individual's own income in relation to that of others are likely to affect health, but to distinguish between these effects in analyses has been difficult. The aim of this study is to distinguish between the effect on health of one's own position in the income distribution and the effect on health of the individual's ability to consume. Combining data from Sweden, Finland and Norway provides a setting where individuals with the same absolute income level may occupy different positions within their national income distribution. The data come from Swedish, Finnish and Norwegian surveys of living conditions from the mid 1990s. Both the position in the income distribution and the ability to consume is measured by household disposable equivalent income. In order to eliminate differences in price levels, household income is adjusted for purchasing power parities. The outcome measure used is limiting long-standing illness. There was a clear income gradient in health over the individual's relative position in their national income distribution. Stratifying for groups of household income adjusted for purchasing power parities, we still find a significant effect of the individual's relative position. In Nordic welfare states the relative position in the income distribution is related to limiting long-standing illness independently of the ability to consume among individuals with high ability to consume. PMID:15899321

Yngwe, Monica Aberg; Fritzell, Johan; Burström, Bo; Lundberg, Olle

2005-08-01

301

Family, welfare state generosity and the vulnerability of older adults: A cross-national study.  

PubMed

The availability of family can be considered a protective factor for aging well. In this article, we examine to what extent the family situation of older people creates vulnerability with respect to their quality of life. Because not everyone is vulnerable to the same degree, we try to identify the conditions under which older people benefit more from having family resources. Based on the resources perspective, we argue that the impact of family resources on life satisfaction is stronger for older people with fewer resources at both the individual level (material, physical and non-familial social resources) and the country level (welfare state services targeted at older adults). To test our hypotheses we make use of the fourth wave of the European Values Study, and the MULTILINKS Social Policy Indicators database. In general our data offer support for the idea that the presence of intimate family ties (with partner and children) can be considered an important resource for achieving psychological well-being, whereas their absence or loss may act as a constraint. Our vulnerability argument is partly supported by the findings. Partner resources are more important for the life satisfaction of older people with a low education and health problems. Similarly, having children only improves the life-satisfaction of lower educated older adults. However, family resources are not more important for older people with fewer material resources or for older people living in countries with low services levels targeted at older adults. PMID:24300055

Moor, Nienke; de Graaf, Paul M; Komter, Aafke

2013-12-01

302

Welfare state regimes, health and health inequalities in adolescence: a multilevel study in 32 countries.  

PubMed

Comparative research on health and health inequalities has recently started to establish a welfare regime perspective. The objective of this study was to determine whether different welfare regimes are associated with health and health inequalities among adolescents. Data were collected from the 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' study in 2006, including 11- to 15-year-old students from 32 countries (N?=?141,091). Prevalence rates and multilevel logistic regression models were calculated for self-rated health (SRH) and health complaints. The results show that between 4 per cent and 7 per cent of the variation in both health outcomes is attributable to differences between countries. Compared to the Scandinavian regime, the Southern regime had lower odds ratios for SRH, while for health complaints the Southern and Eastern regime showed high odds ratios. The association between subjective health and welfare regime was largely unaffected by adjusting for individual socioeconomic position. After adjustment for the welfare regime typology, the country-level variations were reduced to 4.6 per cent for SRH and to 2.9 per cent for health complaints. Regarding cross-level interaction effects between welfare regimes and socioeconomic position, no clear regime-specific pattern was found. Consistent with research on adults this study shows that welfare regimes are important in explaining variations in adolescent health across countries. PMID:22497661

Richter, Matthias; Rathman, Katharina; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Zambon, Alessio; Boyce, William; Hurrelmann, Klaus

2012-07-01

303

Deinstitutionalization and Welfare Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before America began creating a federally based welfare state in the 1930s, most publicly funded responses to social problems had an institutional bias. The ways in which the welfare programs initiated 50 years ago have helped to influence institutional trends, and are likely to continue doing so in the future, constitute the major focus of this analysis. Four special problem

Paul Lerman

1985-01-01

304

Primary care and the maelstrom of health care reform in the United States of America.  

PubMed Central

Recent reform in the National Health Service has moved general practice towards a more intense market and competition structure. Meanwhile in the United States of America there has been an attempt to modify the free enterprise approach to medical care towards a more socially responsive system. This discussion paper provides a family doctor's perspective of primary care and the maelstrom of health care reform in the USA. The cultural, economic and organizational issues underlying the need for reform are considered in turn, and the current situation with regard to health care provision, medical research, medical education and primary care are outlined. General practitioners in the United Kingdom would do well to pay attention to the effects of market reform occurring in general practice among their American counterparts. PMID:7576850

Curtis, P

1995-01-01

305

Welfare work requirements and child well-being: Evidence from the effects on breast-feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central theme of welfare reform is that recipients are required to engage in work activities. In many states, these work requirements apply to mothers whose children are a few months old, which may increase the costs and decrease the prevalence of breast-feeding. Given the substantial benefits of breast-feeding, any reduction represents an important negative consequence of these require- ments.

Steven J. Haider; Alison Jacknowitz; Robert F. Schoeni

2003-01-01

306

Globalization and the Nation-State: Sovereignty and State Welfare in Jeopardy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the fact that although globalization cannot be resisted by the nation-state, it is often confronted by mixed reactions from both the GN (Global North) and the GS (Global South). The essay charges that globalization has political, economic and cultural impact on the nation-state, which ultimately impacts the issue of identity…

Jotia, Agreement Lathi

2011-01-01

307

Splintered Accountability: State Governance and Education Reform. SUNY Series in Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The No Child Left Behind Act declared that improving education in every school in the United States was a top national priority. However, this act did not acknowledge how state departments of education have successfully constructed reforms for the past few decades, despite the power struggle between governors, legislators, school districts, and…

Shober, Arnold F.

2010-01-01

308

Enterprise reform and technical efficiency of China's state-owned enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates whether the enterprise reforms were helpful for the technical efficiency of China's state-owned enterprises. A stochastic varying coefficients frontier approach is applied on enterprise survey data in 1992. The results suggest that exposure to market competition (or less state intervention) is positively correlated with firms' level of technical efficiency. There is no evidence, however, of positive contribution

Yiping Huang; K. P. Kalirajan

1998-01-01

309

Inertia in reforming China's state-Owned enterprises: The case of Chongqing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research analyzes the current reform status of Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Through field trips and interviews (that took place July–August 1995) with state enterprises in Chongqing, one of China's largest industrial cities, the author wishes to provide insights into the operation and mentality of Chinese SOEs. The author finds that the Chinese SOEs' inability to phase out government protection

Aimin Chen

1998-01-01

310

Screening for Domestic Violence in Public Welfare Offices  

PubMed Central

Despite a high prevalence of domestic violence among welfare clients, most studies of the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform find that women rarely receive domestic violence services in welfare offices. This study reviews findings from current research on the factors that improve the likelihood that women will reveal their domestic violence experiences to service personnel, and uses the guidelines drawn from this review to evaluate domestic violence screening practices in welfare offices using 782 transcribed interviews between welfare workers and clients from 11 sites in four states. The analysis found that only 9.3% of case encounters involved screening for domestic violence. Screening rates differed by state, interview type, and length of worker employment. Qualitative analysis of the interviews showed that the majority of screening by workers was routinized or consisted of informing clients of the domestic violence policy without asking about abuse. Only 1.2% of the interviews incorporated at least two of the procedures that increase the likelihood of disclosure among domestic violence survivors, suggesting deeply inadequate approaches to screening for abuse within the context of welfare offices, and a need for improved training, protocol, and monitoring of FVO implementation. PMID:18096857

Lindhorst, Taryn; Meyers, Marcia; Casey, Erin

2008-01-01

311

Experience of the veterans health administration in massachusetts after state health care reform.  

PubMed

Starting in 2006, Massachusetts enacted a series of health insurance reforms that successfully led to 96.6% of its population being covered by 2011. As the rest of the nation undertakes similar reforms, it is unknown how the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), one of many important Federal health care programs, will be affected. Our state-level study approach assessed the effects of health reform on utilization of VHA services in Massachusetts from 2005 to 2011. Models were adjusted for state-level demographic and economic characteristics, including health insurance rates, unemployment rates, median household income, poverty rates, and percent of population 65 years and older. No statistically significant associative change was observed in Massachusetts relative to other states over this time period. The findings raise important questions about the continuing role of VHA in American health care as health insurance coverage is one of many factors that influence decisions on where to seek health care. PMID:25373056

Chan, Stephanie H; Burgess, James F; Clark, Jack A; Mayo-Smith, Michael F

2014-11-01

312

Higher Rates of Adolescent Substance Use in Child Welfare Versus Community Populations in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objective: Youth substance use exacts costly consequences for a variety of important health outcomes. We examined and compared prevalence rates and a common set of psychosocial factors of lifetime and current substance use among child welfare–involved youths and community youths from two nationally representative data sets. Method: Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we compared prevalence rates and conducted logistic regression models for eight binary outcome measures of substance use: lifetime and current use of alcohol, inhalant, marijuana, and other illicit drugs to examine predictors of substance involvement in the two samples. Results: Substance use prevalence was higher among child welfare–involved youths than community youths for lifetime marijuana use, lifetime and current inhalant use, and lifetime and current other illicit drug use. Among both child welfare–involved and community youths, delinquency was the factor most strongly associated with all lifetime substance use outcomes. Notably, family structure and parental closeness were important protective factors against current substance use among child welfare–involved youths. For community youths, poorer emotional health was the strongest indicator of current substance use. Conclusions: Substance use among all adolescents is a critical public health concern. Given the heightened vulnerability of child welfare–involved youths, it is particularly important to focus prevention and early intervention efforts on this population. Further research should explore additional factors associated with substance use among these youths so that child welfare and behavioral health systems may jointly target prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:24172108

Fettes, Danielle L.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Green, Amy E.

2013-01-01

313

Implementing health care reform in the United States: intergovernmental politics and the dilemmas of institutional design.  

PubMed

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was enacted, and continues to operate, under conditions of political polarization. In this article, we argue that the law's intergovernmental structure has amplified political conflict over its implementation by distributing governing authority to political actors at both levels of the American federal system. We review the ways in which the law's demands for institutional coordination between federal and state governments (and especially the role it preserves for governors and state legislatures) have created difficulties for rolling out health-insurance exchanges and expanding the Medicaid program. By way of contrast, we show how the institutional design of the ACA's regulatory reforms of the insurance market, which diminish the reform's political salience, has allowed for considerably less friction during the implementation process. This article thus highlights the implications of multi-level institutional designs for the post-enactment politics of major reforms. PMID:24508181

Béland, Daniel; Rocco, Philip; Waddan, Alex

2014-05-01

314

The current state of health care reform: the physicians' burden.  

PubMed

Congress has passed expansive legislation to "fix" health care. US health care, however, is not "broken"; rather, it functions according to purpose. The legal standard sets health care's purpose as high-quality care, not care at a pervasive quantity or low cost. Juries focus on quality irrespective of cost, and the court's concern is not cost but whether the defendant physician has met the standard of care. As the US health system does deliver high-quality (albeit high-cost) care, it is not broken; instead, the system that defines it is broken. The legal system defines the standard of care as the care that an average physician would deliver under similar circumstances. As 91% of physicians admit to practicing defensively excessive care, the legal care standard is therefore excessive care. However, the new health care legislation passed by Congress does not address tort reform. Instead, it reduces physician remuneration and increases penalty-driven cost care control regulations. Caught between a care standard that demands high quality regardless of cost and penalty-driven federal mandates demanding low-cost care regardless of the legal care standard, physicians bear the new law's ultimate burden. US health care should not continue to focus on quality over cost and quantity; more important, the law should not continue to dictate that it do so. Rather, the system must import cost-effective care, and the law must so direct. To reduce health care costs, the legal system must first recognize a standard of care that respects cost-or tort reform that protects those physicians who do. PMID:22328692

Horton, J Bauer; Hollier, Larry H

2012-02-01

315

From the Welfare Rolls to the Low-Wage Labor Market Sheldon Danziger and Rucker C. Johnson1  

E-print Network

1 From the Welfare Rolls to the Low-Wage Labor Market Sheldon Danziger and Rucker C. Johnson1-educated single mothers left welfare and entered the labor force at a record pace after welfare reform. Figure 1

Shyy, Wei

316

A Multilevel Analysis of Factors Related to Poverty in Welfare States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to investigate factors contributing to poverty, one of the most significant social problems in Western societies. To this end, 13 countries that have made a variety of efforts to reduce poverty, and therefore experienced similar development processes related to welfare, were selected. To overcome the methodological limitations of…

Kim, Kyo-seong; Lee, Yongwoo; Lee, Yu-jeong

2010-01-01

317

Urban poverty and social welfare policy in the united states: an undergraduate research\\/training programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, interdisciplinary, research and training programme focusing on urban poverty and social welfare policy in the USA has been established recently at UCLA. This paper describes the structure and organisation of the programme, assesses student reactions and experiences and discusses the importance of major research universities encouraging faculty to develop training of this type.

James H. Johnson Jr; Melvin L. Oliver

1991-01-01

318

Recent Changes in Texas Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 1. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief updates an overview of welfare benefits and services in Texas in 1997, when House Bill 1863 and the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 first went into effect. Since 1997, Texas and 12 other states from the Assessing the New Federalism study have implemented many changes in social safety net…

Capps, Randy; Pindus, Nancy; Snyder, Kathleen; Leos-Urbel, Jacob

319

Spatial Divisions of Welfare: The Geography of Welfare Benefit Expenditure and of Housing Benefit in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamnett C. Spatial divisions of welfare: the geography of welfare benefit expenditure and of housing benefit in Britain, Regional Studies. This paper examines the structure of state welfare expenditure in Britain. It argues that the geography of state welfare expenditure and its impacts have been relatively neglected given their importance in terms of state expenditure, regional distribution and spatial equality.

Chris Hamnett

2009-01-01

320

Reforming Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue highlights the diversity of reform initiatives in order to provide a deep understanding of the complexities associated with educational reform in general and the reform of science education in particular. Systemic reform initiatives at the national and state levels along with locally-inspired efforts at reform are outlined.…

Donmoyer, Robert, Ed.; Merryfield, Merry M., Ed.

1995-01-01

321

The Superintendent and Educational Reform in the United States of America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the last two decades the intensity and complexity of educational reform in the United States of America have heightened interest among policymakers, practitioners, and professors in large-scale, systemic change. As a consequence, superintendents are being viewed as pivotal actors in the complex algorithm for managing districts and leading…

Björk, Lars G.; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Kowalski, Theodore J.

2014-01-01

322

State-Level Support for Comprehensive School Reform: Implications for Policy and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current context of standards-based reform and heightened accountability for school performance, state education agencies (SEAs) have an important, but not yet well-articulated, role to play in local school improvement efforts. This article starts to articulate such a role by examining the variety of approaches and strategies used by 7 SEAs…

Lane, Brett; Gracia, Susan

2005-01-01

323

Educational Reform in a Small State: Bhutan's New Approach to Primary Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bhutan's experience with the New Approach to Primary Education (NAPE) shows what can be accomplished in a small, developing state when conditions are favorable. Curricula are more closely aligned to the nature of Bhutanese society, and NAPE is replacing passive, rote learning with a more active inquiry-based approach. Smallness assisted reform

Bray, Mark

1996-01-01

324

A Legal Guide to State Pension Reform. Education Sector Policy Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just 18 minutes before the midnight signing deadline on May 15, 2010, Minnesota state legislators breathed a sigh of relief. Their bipartisan pension reform legislation, which passed both chambers by large margins and aimed to help shore up a potentially failing pension system, had just escaped a veto threat. Under pressure from his Republican…

Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

2012-01-01

325

Kerala: Radical Reform As Development in an Indian State. 2nd Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kerala, a state in southwestern India, has implemented radical reform as a development strategy. As a result, Kerala now has some of the Third World's highest levels of health, education, and social justice. Originally published in 1989, this book traces the role that movements of social justice played in Kerala's successful struggle to…

Franke, Richard W.; Chasin, Barbara H.

326

Evaluating ARRA Programs and Other Educational Reforms: A Guide for States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) developed this guide to help you consider evaluation issues likely to arise as you launch ARRA-funded initiatives and other educational reform activities. Many states are already involved in evaluation, so many of the ideas presented here may be familiar. The authors…

Perez-Johnson, Irma; Walters, Kirk; Puma, Michael; Herman, Rebecca; Garet, Michael; Heppen, Jessica; Lemke, Mariann; Aladjem, Daniel; Amin, Samia; Burghardt, John

2011-01-01

327

Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Lessons from PISA for the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume draws lessons from the education systems of a selection of top-scoring and rapidly improving countries as measured by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). While this volume relates these lessons to the education reform agenda in the United States, they…

OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

328

Economic Reform and State-Owned Enterprises in China 1979-87  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is an investigation into China's reform process during the period 1979 to 1987, with especial reference to the effect of the process on the industries (mostly manufacturing) that are still owned by the state. The data on which this book is based results from a large-scale study in which the authors collaborated with the Institute of Economics of

Donald Hay; Derek Morris; Guy Liu; Shujie Yao

329

Social Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is commonly agreed that social welfare ideas and philosophies emanate from many faith traditions, the complex\\u000a link between religion and social welfare merits careful examination. Prowelfare values only set the overall social expectations;\\u000a they do not create formal social welfare programs. Helping the needy can range from a one-time help for a known neighbor to\\u000a the establishment of

Ram A. Cnaan; Charlene C. McGrew

330

The State, Markets and Higher Education Reform in Botswana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Market forces are being introduced in public spheres such as higher education and public health, which hitherto were closed to such forces. Ironically, it is the state that is responsible for this process of marketisation. Some see this state action as leading to a growing influence of the state in public policy while others see an attenuation of…

Tabulawa, Richard; Polelo, Mino; Silas, Onalenna

2013-01-01

331

Welfare versus Workfare: Policy Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews evolution of workfare programs during the past 25 years. Summarizes both positive and negative outcomes of such programs, and identifies some key issues and unanswered questions resulting from these outcomes. Suggests a more viable direction for welfare reform in the areas of child care responsibility, balance of rights and obligations,…

Chung, Woo Sik; Pardeck, John T.

1996-01-01

332

Tort reform and the obstetric access crisis. The case of the WAMI states.  

PubMed Central

The states of Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho (WAMI) have all had declines in the proportion of physicians offering obstetric services during the past few years, a decline precipitated by rising medical malpractice premiums. One response to the problem of rising liability premiums has been the passage of extensive tort reform legislation. We present the results of recent studies of physicians' obstetric practices in the WAMI states and summarize the major changes in tort legislation and regulation that have occurred in these states. Most general and family physicians in the WAMI region no longer provide obstetric care; by contrast, more than 80% of the obstetrician-gynecologists in the WAMI states are still practicing obstetrics. Despite the fact that only a minority of family physicians are still active in obstetrics, most rural family physicians in all four states still deliver babies. Most physicians in all four states limit the amount of care they provide to those covered by Medicaid, which suggests that significant barriers to care exist for medically indigent persons. All four states have adopted significant tort reforms. Despite these changes in the legal environment, the cost of malpractice premiums and concerns over the likelihood of being sued continue to limit the number of physicians willing to provide obstetric care. Although it cannot be inferred from these data that tort reform has decreased the rate at which physicians give up obstetric practice, the evidence is compatible with such a conclusion. PMID:1812852

Rosenblatt, R. A.; Bovbjerg, R. R.; Whelan, A.; Baldwin, L. M.; Hart, L. G.; Long, C.

1991-01-01

333

The European influence on workers' compensation reform in the United States.  

PubMed

Workers' compensation law in the United States is derived from European models of social insurance introduced in Germany and in England. These two concepts of workers' compensation are found today in the federal and state workers' compensation programs in the United States. All reform proposals in the United States are influenced by the European experience with workers' compensation. In 2006, a reform proposal termed the Public Health Model was made that would abolish the workers' compensation system, and in its place adopt a national disability insurance system for all injuries and illnesses. In the public health model, health and safety professionals would work primarily in public health agencies. The public health model eliminates the physician from any role other than that of privately consulting with the patient and offering advice solely to the patient. The Public Health Model is strongly influenced by the European success with physician consultation with industry and labor. PMID:22151643

Ladou, Joseph

2011-01-01

334

The European influence on workers' compensation reform in the United States  

PubMed Central

Workers' compensation law in the United States is derived from European models of social insurance introduced in Germany and in England. These two concepts of workers' compensation are found today in the federal and state workers' compensation programs in the United States. All reform proposals in the United States are influenced by the European experience with workers' compensation. In 2006, a reform proposal termed the Public Health Model was made that would abolish the workers' compensation system, and in its place adopt a national disability insurance system for all injuries and illnesses. In the public health model, health and safety professionals would work primarily in public health agencies. The public health model eliminates the physician from any role other than that of privately consulting with the patient and offering advice solely to the patient. The Public Health Model is strongly influenced by the European success with physician consultation with industry and labor. PMID:22151643

2011-01-01

335

Employment among Current and Former Welfare Recipients: A Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of welfare reform is to move recipients from welfare to work. Several factors influence the employment of welfare recipients. The purpose of this content analysis is to offer a comprehensive understanding of employment characteristics and important personal, family, and employment characteristics that either promote or deter…

Morris, Susan; Santhiveeran, Janaki; Lam, Brian Trung

2006-01-01

336

Symposium Review of Books. The Welfare of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares and contrasts the issues presented in two books pertaining to child poverty, policy, and welfare reform: "The Welfare of Children" (Duncan Lindsey) and "Rethinking Child Welfare in Canada" (Brian Wharf, Editor). Both provide excellent analysis and recommendations but lack attention to tracking systems that place children in different…

Rossi, Peter H.; Sarri, Rosemary

1995-01-01

337

From Welfare to Work: The Transition of an Illiterate Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With welfare reform now a reality, policy makers and employers must grapple with the employment impediments that keep much of the welfare population out of the work force. The foremost problem is illiteracy. One-third of welfare recipients are functionally illiterate; another third possesses only marginally better reading skills, still unable to…

Employment Policies Inst., Washington, DC.

338

EMPLOYER DEMAND FOR WELFARE RECIPIENTS AND THE BUSINESS CYCLE  

E-print Network

or supports to welfare recipients (such as child care, transportation assistance, training, etc0 EMPLOYER DEMAND FOR WELFARE RECIPIENTS AND THE BUSINESS CYCLE: EVIDENCE FROM RECENT EMPLOYER for the conference, "Welfare Reform and the Macroeconomy" sponsored by the Joint Center for Poverty Research

Shyy, Wei

339

Productivity performance and priorities for the reform of China's state?owned enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the results of a survey of 300 state?owned, collective and foreign?funded industrial enterprises conducted in three of China's coastal provinces; Guangdong, Fujian and Shanghai?shi in 1993.’ Its major focus and policy relevance is to identify which of China's recent enterprise, market and ownership reforms have been most effective in improving the productivity performance of China's state

F. C. Perkins

1996-01-01

340

Analysis on Constraints of Heilongjiang State-owned Forest Tenure Reform Based on ISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heilongjiang Forestry Department of the local state-owned forest is under the jurisdiction of forestry department, and includes about 49.3% of the province's total area. In order to adjust the unreasonable structure of forest ownership and change the traditional management model of forestry, Forestry Department of Heilongjiang Province in some counties (cities) and state-owned ranch and farm implement forest tenure reform

Zhong Weiwei; Cao Yukun

2010-01-01

341

Focus on Teacher Reform Legislation in SREB States: Evaluation Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent wave of new legislation affecting public school teachers has its roots, in part, in the budget shortfalls that have challenged states for the past several years. The first signs of fiscal troubles for many states became evident in 2008, and most instituted midyear budget reductions in 2009. In response, the U.S. Congress passed the…

Dixon, Asenith

2011-01-01

342

The legal rights of LGBT youth in state custody: what child welfare and juvenile justice professionals need to know.  

PubMed

Youth in state custody, regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity, have federal and state constitutional and statutory rights. These rights guarantee a young person safety in their placement as well as freedom from deprivation of their liberty interest. Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth have these rights violated on a regular basis. Many cases in both the child welfare and juvenile justice contexts have resulted in extensive and time-consuming consent decrees as well as sizable damages awards. Knowledge of a youth's legal rights can help providers avoid legal liability while creating a safer and healthier environment for LGBT youth. This article provides a general overview of the successful federal legal claims that youth in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems have made, discussion of the rights generated as a result, particle application of these rights to the experiences of LGBT youth with hypothetical scenarios, a focus on specific rights that emanate from certain state laws, and a focus on specific concerns of transgender youth. PMID:16846111

Estrada, Rudy; Marksamer, Jody

2006-01-01

343

Regulation and federalism: legal impediments to state health care reform.  

PubMed

In recent years, many states have attempted to address the cost and access problems that face their health care systems. Such efforts, however, are significantly impeded by a variety of federalism doctrines that limit the ability of states to regulate the health care market. This Article surveys some of those federalism barriers, including the constitutional restraints imposed by the Commerce Clause, the Privileges and Immunities Clause, and the Fourteenth Amendment, and the statutory hurdles created by ERISA, the Social Security Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. This Article concludes that the restraints that these doctrines and statutes place on states reflect not only federalism concerns, but also deeper ambivalence about governmental regulation of the health care market. Only when that ambivalence is resolved can a proper division of labor between the states and federal government be determined. PMID:8368199

Parmet, W E

1993-01-01

344

The Role of District Leadership in Radical Reform: Philadelphia's Experience under the State Takeover, 2001-2006. An Occasional Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leadership is key in the success of any reform, especially one as ambitious and complex as that in Philadelphia. "The case of Philadelphia is noteworthy as an exemplar of the implementation of paradigm-breaking new reforms in the governance and delivery of urban education." This report follows the first five years of the state takeover and the…

Useem, Elizabeth; Christman, Jolley Bruce; Boyd, William Lowe

2006-01-01

345

The New Math. An Historical Account of the Reform of Mathematics Instruction in the United States of America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this document is to give an outline of the reform movement within mathematics education in the United States from 1951 until the late 1970's. The reform movement is divided into three phases which are distinguished by certain features common to events of the period. The material is divided into the following main chapter…

Barlage, Elisabeth

346

Mortality of white Americans, African Americans, and Canadians: the causes and consequences for health of welfare state institutions and policies.  

PubMed

The life expectancy of African Americans has been substantially lower than that of white Americans for as long as records are available. The life expectancy of all Americans has been lower than that of all Canadians since the beginning of the 20th century. Until the 1970s this disparity was the result of the low life expectancy of African Americans. Since then, the life expectancy of white Americans has not improved as much as that of all Canadians. This article discusses two issues: racial disparities in the United States, and the difference in life expectancy between all Canadians and white Americans. Each country's political culture and institutions have shaped these differences, especially national health insurance in Canada and its absence in the United States. The American welfare state has contributed to and explains these differences. PMID:15787952

Kunitz, Stephen J; Pesis-Katz, Irena

2005-01-01

347

Mortality of White Americans, African Americans, and Canadians: The Causes and Consequences for Health of Welfare State Institutions and Policies  

PubMed Central

The life expectancy of African Americans has been substantially lower than that of white Americans for as long as records are available. The life expectancy of all Americans has been lower than that of all Canadians since the beginning of the 20th century. Until the 1970s this disparity was the result of the low life expectancy of African Americans. Since then, the life expectancy of white Americans has not improved as much as that of all Canadians. This article discusses two issues: racial disparities in the United States, and the difference in life expectancy between all Canadians and white Americans. Each country's political culture and institutions have shaped these differences, especially national health insurance in Canada and its absence in the United States. The American welfare state has contributed to and explains these differences. PMID:15787952

Kunitz, Stephen J; Pesis-Katz, Irena

2005-01-01

348

Analysis of State School Finance Reform Legislation in Florida, 1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On June 26, 1973, the system for financing elementary and secondary education in Florida was radically altered when the Florida legislature passed the Florida Education Finance Program Act of 1973. Significant features of this act include (1) substantially increased fiscal equalization; (2) a systematic plan and substantial State commitment to…

Mintz, Steven

349

FLAT TAX REFORMS IN THE U.S.: A BOON FOR THE INCOME POOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we queantify the aggregate, distributional and welfare consequences of two revenue neutral flat-tax reforms using a model economy that replicates the U.S. distributions of earnings, income and wealth in very much detail. We find that the less progressive reform brings about a 2.4 percent increase in steady-state output and a more unequal distribution of after-tax income. In

Javier Díaz-Giménez; Josep Pijoan-Mas

2006-01-01

350

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and Health Care Reform in the United States.  

PubMed

Among OECD nations, the United States is an outlier in having the highest per capita health care costs in a system that unnecessarily exposes many individuals to financial hardship, physical suffering, and even death. President Obama and Congress are currently involved in a process to reform the flawed health care system. The OECD has contributed to that process by releasing a paper, "Health Care Reform in the United States," which describes some of the problems that must be addressed, but then provides proposed solutions that omit consideration of a more equitable and efficient universal public insurance program. The same omission is taking place in Washington, DC. By reinforcing proposals that support the private insurance industry, the source of much of the waste and inequities in health care, the authors of the OECD paper have failed in their responsibility to inform on policies rather than politics. PMID:19927410

McCanne, Don R

2009-01-01

351

Solidarity in Swedish welfare--standing the test of time?  

PubMed

Swedish welfare has for decades served as a role model for universalistic welfare. When the economic recession hit Swedish economy in the beginning of the 1990s, a period of more than 50 years of continuous expansion and reforms in the welfare sector came to an end. Summing up the past decade, we can see that the economic downturn enforced rationing measures in most parts of the welfare state, although most of this took place in the beginning of the decade. Today, most of the retrenchment has stopped and in some areas we can see tendencies of restoration--but more so in financial benefits than in the caring sectors. In the article this process is discussed as a process of reallocation where general principles of solidarity become manifest. Various levels of decision making are discussed within the context of socio-political action. Current transitions in Swedish health care are described with respect to coverage rates, content, marketization and distribution. Basic principles of distribution are highlighted in order to analyse the meaning of social solidarity in a concrete allocative setting. The significance of popular opinion--it's shifts and determinants--is also considered. The article concludes with a discussion of how the (once salient) features of universalism in welfare and health care provision have been affected by the developments in the past decade in Sweden. PMID:11155559

Bergmark, A

2000-01-01

352

Welfare to Work. States Begin JOBS, but Fiscal and Other Problems May Impede Their Progress. Report to the Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed states' implementation of the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) Training Program. GAO studied states' progress in implementing JOBS, decisions about which welfare recipients to serve and what services to provide, views on implementation problems or difficulties, and the nature and extent to…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

353

Welfare Regimes in Relation to Paid Work and Care A View from the United States on Social Protection in the European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents throughout Europe and the United States share the common chal- lenge of balancing responsibilities in the labor market and at home; mothers and fathers everywhere grapple with establishing divisions of labor at home that are equitable and economically viable. Yet despite relatively common problems across contemporary welfare states, social and labor market poli- cies vary dramatically in the level

Janet C. Gornick; Marcia K. Meyers

354

A Re-Examination of Welfare States and Inequality in Rich Nations: How In-Kind Transfers and Indirect Taxes Change the Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies find large cross-national differences in inequality amongst rich Western nations, due in large part to differences in the generosity of welfare state transfers. The United States is the least generous nation and the one having the most after-tax and transfer inequality. But these analyses are limited to the effects of cash and…

Garfinkel, Irwin; Rainwater, Lee; Smeeding, Timothy M.

2006-01-01

355

Welfare's Children. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States with family cap public assistance policies deny or reduce additional welfare benefits to mothers who conceive and give birth to additional children while they are receiving aid. By 1999, 22 states had family cap policies in place. This paper reports estimates of the number and cost implications of infants conceived by mothers receiving…

Wiseman, Michael

356

State innovation models: early experiences and challenges of an initiative to advance broad health system reform.  

PubMed

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and states are partnering to transform health care systems by creating and testing new models of care delivery and payment. Interviews with officials from states participating in the State Innovation Models (SIM) Initiative reveal that the readiness of providers and payers to adopt innovations var­ies, requiring different starting points, goals, and strategies. So far, effective strategies appear to include: building on past reform efforts; redesigning health information technol­ogy to provide reliable, targeted data on care costs and quality; and using standard perfor­mance measures and financial incentives to spur alignment of providers' and payers' goals. State governments also have policy levers to encourage efficient deployment of a diverse health care workforce. As federal officials review states' innovation plans, set timetables, and provide technical assistance, they can also take steps to accommodate the budgetary, political, and time constraints that states are facing. PMID:24133696

Silow-Carroll, Sharon; Lamphere, JoAnn

2013-09-01

357

GOVERNMENTS AND VOLUNTARY SECTOR WELFARE: HISTORIANS' PERSPECTIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines recent themes in the history of welfare as they apply to the relationship between government and the voluntary or non-profit sector. These include a shift from a focus on the welfare state to a \\

Margaret Tennant

2001-01-01

358

Are health inequalities really not the smallest in the Nordic welfare states? A comparison of mortality inequality in 37 countries  

PubMed Central

Background Research comparing mortality by socioeconomic status has found that inequalities are not the smallest in the Nordic countries. This is in contrast to expectations given these countries’ policy focus on equity. An alternative way of studying inequality has been little used to compare inequalities across welfare states and may yield a different conclusion. Methods We used average life expectancy lost per death as a measure of total inequality in mortality derived from death rates from the Human Mortality Database for 37 countries in 2006 that we grouped by welfare state type. We constructed a theoretical ‘lowest mortality comparator country’ to study, by age, why countries were not achieving the smallest inequality and the highest life expectancy. We also studied life expectancy as there is an important correlation between it and inequality. Results On average, Nordic countries had the highest life expectancy and smallest inequalities for men but not women. For both men and women, Nordic countries had particularly low younger age mortality contributing to smaller inequality and higher life expectancy. Although older age mortality in the Nordic countries is not the smallest. There was variation within Nordic countries with Sweden, Iceland and Norway having higher life expectancy and smaller inequalities than Denmark and Finland (for men). Conclusions Our analysis suggests that the Nordic countries do have the smallest inequalities in mortality for men and for younger age groups. However, this is not the case for women. Reducing premature mortality among older age groups would increase life expectancy and reduce inequality further in Nordic countries. PMID:23386671

Popham, Frank; Dibben, Chris; Bambra, Clare

2013-01-01

359

The Impact of Federal and State Laws on Children Exposed to Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, few federal and state laws specifically addressed the needs of children in families in which there is domestic violence. Yet, many laws, particularly in the areas of domestic violence, family law, child welfare, welfare reform, and immigration, can have profound effects on the well-being of these children. The growing understand- ing by legislators and policymakers of the potential

Martha A. Matthews

360

Creating State-based Alliances to Support Earth and Space Science Education Reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven years after the publication of the National Science Education Standards and adoption of new state science education standards, Earth and space science remains outside the mainstream K-12 curriculum. Currently, less than ten percent of high school students in the United States of America take an Earth or space science course before graduation. This state of affairs is simply unacceptable. "All of us who live on this planet have the right and the obligation to understand Earth's unique history, its dynamic processes, its abundant resources, and its intriguing mysteries. As citizens of Earth, with the power to modify our climate and ecosystems, we also have a personal and collective responsibility to understand Earth so that we can make wise decisions about its and our future". As one step toward addressing this situation, we support the establishment of state-based alliances to promote Earth and space science education reform. "In many ways, states are the most vital locus of change in our nation's schools. State departments of education define curriculum frameworks, establish testing policies, support professional development and, in some cases, approve textbooks and materials for adoption". State alliance partners should include a broad spectrum of K-16 educators, scientists, policy makers, parents, and community leaders from academic institutions, businesses, museums, technology centers, and not-for profit organizations. The focus of these alliances should be on systemic and sustainable reform of K-16 Earth and space science education. Each state-based alliance should focus on specific educational needs within their state, but work together to share ideas, resources, and models for success. As we build these alliances we need to take a truly collaborative approach working with the other sciences, geography, and mathematics so that collectively we can improve the caliber and scope of science and mathematics education for all students.

Geary, E. E.; Manduca, C. A.; Barstow, D.

2002-05-01

361

Why China's economic reforms differ: the M-form hierarchy and entry\\/expansion of the non-state sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's thirteen years of reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical structure based on the functional or specialization

Yingyi Qian; Chenggang Xu

1993-01-01

362

Revalidating External Prison Classifications Systems: The Experience of Ten States and Model for Classification Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) funded projects to assist ten states with the revalidation of their external objective classification systems that determine which facility an inmate should be housed. The ten participating states included Delaware, Montana, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. Written by Patricia L. Hardyman, James Austin, and Owan C. Tulloch, this 146-page report reveals the work undertaken by the participating states, provides an overall outline of the essential tasks required for revalidation, and summarizes external classification trends along with the lessons learned from these reforms. The report also includes copies of classification instruments and statistical tables to describe options for other states faced with similar problems.

Austin, James, 1948-; Hardyman, Patricia L.; Tulloch, Owan C.

2002-01-01

363

Overview of the Common Core State Standard initiative and educational reform movement from the vantage of speech-language pathologists.  

PubMed

Educational reform is sweeping the country. The adoption and the implementation of the Common Core State Standards in almost every state are meant to transform education. It is intended to update the way schools educate, the way students learn, and to ultimately prepare the nation's next generation for the global workplace. This article will describe the Common Core State Standard initiative and the underlying concerns about the quality of education in the United States as well as the opportunities this reform initiative affords speech-language pathologists. PMID:22538706

Staskowski, Maureen

2012-05-01

364

The association between life course socioeconomic position and life satisfaction in different welfare states: European comparative study of individuals in early old age  

PubMed Central

Background: whether socioeconomic position over the life course influences the wellbeing of older people similarly in different societies is not known. Objective: to investigate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction among individuals in early old age and the influence of the welfare state regime on the associations. Design: comparative study using data from Wave 2 and SHARELIFE, the retrospective Wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected during 2006–07 and 2008–09, respectively. Setting: thirteen European countries representing four welfare regimes (Southern, Scandinavian, Post-communist and Bismarckian). Subjects: a total of 17,697 individuals aged 50–75 years. Methods: slope indices of inequality (SIIs) were calculated for the association between life course socioeconomic position (measured by the number of books in childhood, education level and current wealth) and life satisfaction. Single level linear regression models stratified by welfare regime and multilevel regression models, containing interaction terms between socioeconomic position and welfare regime type, were calculated. Results: socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction were present in all welfare regimes. Educational inequalities in life satisfaction were narrowest in Scandinavian and Bismarckian regimes among both genders. Post-communist and Southern countries experienced both lower life satisfaction and larger socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction, using most measures of socioeconomic position. Current wealth was associated with large inequalities in life satisfaction across all regimes. Conclusions: Scandinavian and Bismarckian countries exhibited narrower socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction. This suggests that more generous welfare states help to produce a more equitable distribution of wellbeing among older people. PMID:24476800

Niedzwiedz, Claire L.; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Pell, Jill P.; Mitchell, Richard

2014-01-01

365

Reforming pharmaceutical industry-physician financial relationships: lessons from the United States, France, and Japan.  

PubMed

This article compares the means that the United States, France, and Japan use to oversee pharmaceutical industry-physician financial relationships. These countries rely on professional and/or industry ethical codes, anti-kickback laws, and fair trade practice laws. They restrict kickbacks the most strictly, allow wide latitude on gifts, and generally permit drug firms to fund professional activities and associations. Consequently, to avoid legal liability, drug firms often replace kickbacks with gifts and grants. The paper concludes by proposing reforms that address problems that persist when firms replace kickbacks with gifts and grants based on the experience of the three countries. PMID:22084852

Rodwin, Marc A

2011-01-01

366

In Supreme Judgment of the Poor: The Role of the United States Supreme Court in Welfare Law and Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article examines the major Supreme Court rulings since the late 1960s that have directly addressed Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), commonly known as welfare. The Supreme Court decided cases, such as King v. Smith, Shapiro v. Thompson, and Goldberg v. Kelly, in favor of welfare recipients. The outcomes of these cases suggest that while the Supreme Court

Bridgette Baldwin

2008-01-01

367

The states and health care reform: the road traveled and lessons learned from seven that took the lead.  

PubMed

During the past decade, an area of major policy activity among the states has been that of health care reform. As of May 1993, seven states--Florida, Hawaii, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington--had progressed the furthest in enacting comprehensive statutes designed to expand health insurance coverage and slow the growth of health care costs. This article reviews the activities of these states to achieve health care reform and the lessons learned from those activities. The analysis focuses specifically on identifying the common problems addressed and determining the common factors that maximized states' opportunities for success. In all, some nine lessons are identified that have relevance for other states wishing to follow a similar road to reform. Most important among these are a "window of opportunity" for policy action, having entrepreneurial leadership to push the reform agenda forward, and support from key stakeholder interests. If these conditions of opportunity, policy entrepreneurship, and stakeholder commitment are met, a state can move forward in addressing key aspects of its health care reform agenda. PMID:9565896

Paul-Shaheen, P A

1998-04-01

368

Challenging the neoliberal trend: the Venezuelan health care reform alternative.  

PubMed

Throughout the 1990s, all Latin American countries but Cuba implemented to varying degrees health care sector reforms underpinned by a neoliberal paradigm that redefined health care as less of a social right and more of a market commodity. These health care sector reforms were couched in the broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states prescribed consistently by international financial institutions since the mid-1980s. However, since 2003, Venezuela has been developing an alternative to this neoliberal trend through its health care reform program called Misión Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighbourhood). In this article, we introduce Misión Barrio Adentro in its historical, political, and economic contexts. We begin by analyzing Latin American neoliberal health sector reforms in their political economic context, with a focus on Venezuela. The analysis reveals that the major beneficiaries of both broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states and neoliberal health reforms have been transnational capital interests and domestic Latin American elites. We then provide a detailed description of Misión Barrio Adentro as a challenge to neoliberalism in health care in its political economic context, noting the role played in its development by popular resistance to neoliberalism and the unique international cooperation model upon which it is based. Finally, we suggest that the Venezuelan experience may offer valuable lessons not only to other low- to middle-income countries, but also to countries such as Canada. PMID:17203729

Muntaner, Carles; Salazar, René M Guerra; Rueda, Sergio; Armada, Francisco

2006-01-01

369

Alternatives and the Animal Welfare Act  

E-print Network

Alternatives and the Animal Welfare Act REDUCTION Minimize the number of animals used REFINEMENT, Maryland, USA 20705 ANIMAL WELFARE INFORMATION CENTER Congressional Record - House 17 December 1985 Senator to a minimum." United States Department of Agriculture ANIMAL WELFARE INFORMATION CENTER National Agricultural

Krstic, Miroslav

370

Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

Horne, Thomas A.

1990-01-01

371

45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How...part 260 of this chapter and section 415 of the Act. [64 FR 17884, Apr. 12, 1999. Redesignated at 71 FR 37479, June 29,...

2010-10-01

372

Part IV: Reformers in medical education and practice: Effect of managed care organization in the United States  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Part I (Can J Plast Surg 2000;8:25–29) established that standards of professional practice shift constantly. When a standard falls short of professional expectation or when a physician becomes more concerned with financial gain rather than patient care, society needs the action of a reformer. Parts I, II (Can J Plast Surg 2001;9:59–68) and III (Can J Plast Surg 2002;10:103–108) covered 500 BC to 1970 AD and comprised 31 physicians who introduced innovations in medical knowledge or medical philosophy. Part IV deals with a time in which new conditions have been imposed on medical practice. In the United States, medical education and practice felt the repercussions of financial institutions participating in health care management. STUDY DESIGN: The reformers were scientists who conformed to our definition of ‘reformer’: a person whose action restored, reshaped or advanced the structure or ideology of medical practice. RESULTS: This survey demonstrated that the reforms were accomplished by scientists possessing critical judgement and analytical qualities that enabled them to influence the direction of medical education and practice. In the last 20 years, financial institutions imposed different criteria that may require future reformers to reestablish lost objectives. CONCLUSION: Reforms have been achieved through intuitive leaps, alterations of conventional practice, painstaking research or administrative restructuring. The present health management in the United States requires new solutions. PMID:24222993

Entin, Martin A

2003-01-01

373

Welfare Reform: Moving the Hard-to-Employ Recipients into the Workforce. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study collected information on the participation of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients in work and work activities and their characteristics and how they have changed over time. Data were gathered on strategies states use to help hard-to-employ (HTE) TANF recipients get and keep jobs and on challenges states face in…

Fagnoni, Cynthia M.

374

Welfare Reform: Tribes Are Using TANF Flexibility To Establish Their Own Programs. Testimony before the Committee on Indian Affairs, U.S. Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study requested by the U.S. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs examined tribal implementation of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Questionnaires were returned by TANF program directors in 34 states and by 148 American Indian tribes. Meetings were conducted with tribal leaders, program officials, and TANF officials in five states,…

Fagnoni, Cynthia M.

375

Reform and the politics of hybridization in mature health care states.  

PubMed

This article examines the cases of three health care states -- two of which (Britain and the Netherlands) have undergone major policy reform and one of which (Canada) has experienced only marginal adjustments. The British and Dutch reforms have variously altered the balance of power, the mix of instruments of control, and the organizing principles. As a result, mature systems representing the ideal-typical health care state categories of national health systems and social insurance (Britain and the Netherlands, respectively) were transformed into distinctive national hybrids. These processes have involved a politics of redesign that differs from the politics of earlier phases of establishment and retrenchment. In particular, the redesign phase is marked by the activity of institutional entrepreneurs who exploit specific opportunities afforded by public programs to combine public and private resources in innovative organizational arrangements. Canada stands as a counterpoint: no window of opportunity for major change occurred, and the bilateral monopoly created by its prototypical single-payer model provided few footholds for entrepreneurial activity. The increased significance of institutional entrepreneurs gives greater urgency to one of the central projects of health policy: the design of accountability frameworks to allow for an assessment of performance against objectives. PMID:22466051

Tuohy, Carolyn Hughes

2012-08-01

376

45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms. 148.128 Section 148.128 ...individual market reforms—alternative mechanisms. (a) Waiver of requirements...implements an acceptable alternative mechanism in accordance with the following...

2010-10-01

377

Immigration, Welfare Magnets and the Geography of Child Poverty in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a detailed look at the immigration and internal migration dynamics of child poverty for US States based on the 1990 US census. It assesses the impact of two policy-relevant factors on the migration of poor children across States: (1) the role of high immigration levels as a potential “push” for native-born and longer-term resident poor children whose

William H. Frey

1997-01-01

378

Florida's Lessons for Indiana K-12 Reform. School Choice Issues in the State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jeb Bush campaigned for Governor on a clear and bracing set of education reforms in 1998. Having won office, he immediately pursued a dual track strategy of education reform: standards and accountability for public schools, choice options for dissatisfied parents. Florida lawmakers followed these reforms with additional measures, including…

Ladner, Matthew

2009-01-01

379

45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

2013-10-01

380

45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

2012-10-01

381

45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

2010-10-01

382

45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

2011-10-01

383

Welfare Reform: Tribal TANF Allows Flexibility To Tailor Programs, but Conditions on Reservations Make It Difficult To Move Recipients into Jobs. Report to Congressional Requesters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act gave American Indian and Alaska Native tribes the option to administer Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) programs either alone or in a tribal consortium. The law also granted tribal TANF programs more flexibility in program design than it gave to state programs.…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

384

45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?  

(a)(1) If a State is implementing a time-limit component under a waiver, in accordance with this subpart, the provisions of section 408(a)(7) of the Act will not apply in determining if a penalty should be imposed, to the extent that they are inconsistent with the...

2014-10-01

385

Children's Budget Watch: Investments in Our Future. A Profile of State and Federal Spending for Children in Pennsylvania, FY 1989-1990 through FY 1995-1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report profiles trends in state and federal spending for children in Pennsylvania from fiscal year (FY) 1989-1990 through 1995-1996, and highlights budgetary trends and the impact of federal welfare reform on selected children's health, nutrition, early care and education, elementary and secondary education, income support, and child welfare

Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children, Harrisburg.

386

Economic Hardship and Depression across the Life Course: The Impact of Welfare State Regimes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research in the United States suggests that depression related to economic hardship decreases with age. We test whether this pattern can be generalized to other developed nations. Based on data from 23 countries in the European Social Survey (2006-2007), multilevel analyses show that the moderating role of age depends on the…

Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan; De Boyser, Katrien; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

2011-01-01

387

Marital Status and Fertility in the United States: Welfare and Labor Market Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of marriage and the proportion of childbearing that occurs within marriage have decreased sharply in the United States in the last several decades. This paper examines whether the probability that a woman is currently married and the number of children she has borne, as reported in the 1980 U.S. Census, are related to two identifiable factors: the variation

T. Paul Schultz

1994-01-01

388

Can We Improve the Measurement of Attitudes Towards the Welfare State? A Constructive Critique of Survey Instruments with Evidence from Focus Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a large and growing literature on welfare state attitudes, most of which is built on random-sample population surveys\\u000a with standardised closed-question items. This article criticises the existing survey instruments, especially those that are\\u000a used within the International Social Survey Programme, in a novel approach with focus group data from Germany. The article\\u000a demonstrates: firstly, these instruments underestimate the

Achim Goerres; Katrin Prinzen

389

Social security reform in the twenty-first century: the United States.  

PubMed

The paper reviews the history of the Social Security system in the United States in the twentieth century and discusses options for the twenty-first. Because of the steady aging of the U.S. population and the impending retirement of the large baby boom cohort, the Social Security program now is in long-term actuarial deficit. The standard twentieth century approach to this actuarial deficit would be to raise payroll taxes enough to pay for anticipated future benefit increases, but for several reasons that approach may not be so popular this time around. The author's preferred approach is a gradual trimming of long-term benefit growth, plus "add on" individual accounts to provide new saving, for the economy and for the retirement system. The paper also criticizes proposals for Social Security reform made by President Clinton and a committee appointed by President Bush, generally because these proposals do not provide enough new saving. PMID:12503330

Gramlich, Edward M

2002-01-01

390

Underlying forces, characteristics analysis and essence judgment of forest ownership reform of Heilongjiang local state-owned forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local state-owned forests of Heilongjiang Province are in the charge of Heilongjiang Forestry Department, and the management area takes 49.3% of the whole province. In order to solve the three prominent problems about forest regions, forestry and forest workers existed in the local state-owned forestry, Heilongjiang Forestry Department started to perform forestry ownership reform of state-owned forests in some

Weiwei Zhong; Yukun Cao

2010-01-01

391

Enhancing Efficiency or Crying over Spilled Milk: The Benefits of Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the welfare gains from the reform of existinggovernment-induced distortions. Our results provide support forpolicies aimed at eliminating monopoly and other types of economicdistortion. Welfare gains over the status quo exist wheneverderegulation occurs. The threat of deregulation can induce amonopoly or cartel to modify its behavior, so a reform policy canprove beneficial even if reform does not actually occur.

Marc Poitras; Daniel Sutter

2000-01-01

392

Predicting public child welfare employees' intentions to remain employed with the child welfare organizational culture inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

High employee turnover continues to be a serious problem in the field of public child welfare. In a statewide study of public child welfare employees in a southern state, the Child Welfare Organizational Culture Inventory was used to assess employees' perceptions of organizational culture and to examine which factors might be predictors of employees' intentions to remain on the job

Tonya M. Westbrook; Alberta J. Ellett; Kia Asberg

2012-01-01

393

Welfare Policy as Social ControlA Specific Test of the Piven and Cloward Thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most macrolevel analyses of governmental aid to the poor focus on the relationship between indicators of social threat and the expansion of welfare programs. In this article, the authors' investigation extends that research by exploring the consequences of welfare contraction. Taking advantage of Wisconsin's ongoing natural experiment with welfare reform, the authors examine the extent to which the codification of

Mitchell B. Chamlin; Melissa W. Burek; John K. Cochran

2007-01-01

394

Cracks in the Seams: Durability of Child Care in JOBS Welfare-to-Work Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of recent welfare reforms will depend, in part, on the ability of local welfare programs to meet the child care needs of low-income parents. A key challenge is the integration of targeted child care subsidies into a “seamless” system for parents who are making transitions between welfare, training, and employment. This article uses data from a one-year panel

Marcia K. Meyers

1997-01-01

395

Teaching Note-CASA Volunteerism: Preparing MSW Students for Public Child Welfare Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to reform public child welfare systems across the nation, Title IV-E child welfare training programs were established over 2 decades ago. Participating students typically engage in a customized educational experience as part of their MSW program that prepares them to work in the field of child welfare upon graduation. This article…

Berrick, Jill Duerr; Durst, Wendy

2014-01-01

396

Adapting Systems of Care for Child Welfare Practice with Immigrant Latino Children and Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent reform efforts in the child welfare system have called for child welfare agencies to provide community-based services and to increase the involvement of external stakeholders in identifying and developing services within the community. At the same time, child welfare agencies are faced with the challenge of providing services to an…

Dettlaff, Alan J.; Rycraft, Joan R.

2010-01-01

397

Phases of capitalism, welfare states, medical dominance, and health care in Ontario.  

PubMed

There has been a lacuna in previous studies of medicine and health care of concepts or structures relating changes in health care with their contextualizing social structures. That is, there is a need to more adequately account for health care and social structure in terms of dynamic rather than static concepts. This article reports the application of a general schema outlining the transformation of capitalism through the phases of entrepreneurial, monopoly, and global capitalism, first presented by Ross and Trachte, to help understand both the changing role of medicine in Canada and the historical trajectory of the development of health insurance. These related events are shown to be partly reflective of the transformed class dynamic involved in a changing capitalist mode of production. The recent history of challenges to medicare in Canada as well as evidence of the declining power of medicine are both related directly and indirectly to the increased power of business and the decline in the relative autonomy of the state accompanying globalization. The application of the phases of capitalism sequence does roughly fit the Canadian instance although some modifications will be required to account for the specifics of the Canadian case. The schema also helps resolve two previously competing class arguments about the rise of health insurance in Canada. PMID:10615577

Coburn, D

1999-01-01

398

State of Connecticut: The Report of the Governor's Commission on Tax Reform. Volume III--Taxpayers: People and Business.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Commission made an in depth study of the entire tax structure of Connecticut and developed a model for tax reform for the State that would allow for lessening of inequalities for many classes of taxpayers and create a more favorable climate for industry to increase employment for Connecticut people. This volume (the third of three) is in three…

Governor's Commission on Tax Reform, Hartford, CT.

399

Timing Is Everything: Building State Policy on Teacher Credentialing in an Era of Multiple, Competing, and Rapid Education Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Senate Bill (SB) 2042, authored by Senator Marion Bergeson, was passed to establish a new system for providing teacher preparation within the state of California. The credentialing reforms introduced in SB 2042 follow a tradition described by Irving Hendrik and stake their own claims regarding the locus of control over teacher quality, the role of…

Sandy, Mary Vixie

2006-01-01

400

More to Do, But Less Capacity to Do It: States' Progress in Implementing the Recovery Act Education Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), also known as the economic stimulus bill, channeled an unprecedented $100 billion into the nation's public education system. These funds were intended not only to avert teacher layoffs and stabilize state and local education budgets in the short term, but also to encourage reforms that…

Kober, Nancy; Rentner, Diane Stark

2011-01-01

401

Education Reform and Decentralization in Mexico and the Creation of "Educacion Civica" in the State of Jalisco  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors investigate Mexican education reform and decentralization and how the state of Jalisco focused in the early twenty-first century on developing a sequential curriculum for teaching civics in grades 1-6. The authors use the term "educacion civica" because in Mexico the curriculum emphasizes the acquisition of values and…

Contreras, Gloria; Rice, Marion J.

2009-01-01

402

Public Higher Education Reform Five Years after the Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land-Grant Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land grant Universities existed between January 1996 and March 2000 in order to create an awareness among public universities of the need for higher education reform. The Commission, consisting of the presidents and chancellors of 25 major public universities, produced six reports and held numerous…

Byrne, John V.

2006-01-01

403

Continuously Uncertain Reform Effort: State-Mandated History and Social Science Curriculum and the Perceptions of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined teachers' attitudes and beliefs in one over-performing urban/suburban high school of the state-mandated curriculum framework under conditions that I label a continuously uncertain reform effort or a top-down mandated curriculum involving constant mixed-messages as to its content, accountability demands, and future existence.…

Martell, Christopher

2010-01-01

404

Reforming China's State Owned Enterprises: What Can Be Learned From the Experiences of Other Economies in Transition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of China's large state owned enterprises (SOEs) are widely recognised as being inefficient, loss making and a major drain upon the country's resources. For the sustained progress of the country twoards that of a market economy, further emphasis will need to be placed upon the reform of such enterprises.

C. Harvie

1997-01-01

405

Recent Changes in California Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief updates the Urban Institute's "Income Support and Social Services for Low-Income People in California," an overview of benefits and services in California in 1997, just before the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 was enacted. Since 1997, various states have made changes across the spectrum…

Montgomery, Deborah; Kaye, Laura; Geen, Rob; Martinson, Karin

406

The Food Marketing Institute and the National Council of Chain Restaurants: animal welfare and the retail food industry in the United States of America.  

PubMed

In order to achieve real change, there must be a motivating force and all the stakeholders need to be involved. This is the premise of the animal welfare programme developed for the food retail, wholesale and chain restaurant industries in the United States of America (USA) by the Food Marketing Institute (FMI) and the National Council of Chain Restaurants (NCCR). This paper outlines a collaborative process that retailers and producers in the USA are using to enhance the care and welfare of animals in commercial food production. Although the efforts of the FMI and the NCCR are still underway, the process provides one example of how different parts of the food production system can work together to achieve positive change. PMID:16358516

Brown, K H; Hollingsworth, J

2005-08-01

407

Welfare Reform and Urban Children. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest, which is based on findings from a large variety of studies, reviews the known effects of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 on children to date and discusses the Act's possible future effects. Federal statistics show a positive trend in poverty reduction, though other sources are not optimistic…

Schwartz, Wendy

408

Welfare recipients' job skills and employment prospects.  

PubMed

The welfare reform goal of moving mothers who rely on welfare into private-sector employment cannot be achieved only by changes in public policy. Employment rates reflect the job qualifications of individuals, obstacles to work outside the home, the attractiveness of available jobs, and the capacity of the labor market to absorb new workers at particular skill levels. This article examines how each of these factors is likely to influence current welfare recipients' success in finding employment and the wages they are likely to earn. The author concludes that the skill deficiencies of recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children do not represent an insurmountable barrier to employment, although these deficiencies do restrict the wages recipients can earn. Without continued public assistance in the form of wage subsidies, child care payments, or help securing health insurance, most families that move from welfare to work will remain below the poverty level. PMID:9170731

Burtless, G T

1997-01-01

409

Comprehensive School Reform: A Longitudinal Study of School Improvement in One State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on comprehensive school reform (CSR) reform in 48 schools over 6 consecutive years. In 1998, a total of 24 schools received CSR awards to improve student achievement. Control schools were carefully matched on 26 demographic variables to form a comparison group. Students' average performance, as represented in publicly available school…

Good, Thomas L.; Burross, Heidi Legg; McCaslin, Mary M.

2005-01-01

410

MYTHS AS BARRIERS TO HEALTH CARE REFORM IN THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. health care system is deteriorating in terms of decreasing access, increased costs, unacceptable quality, and poor system performance compared with health care systems in many other industrialized Western countries. Reform efforts to establish universal insurance coverage have been defeated on five occasions over the last century, largely through successful opposition by pro-market stakeholders in the status quo. Reform

John P. Geyman

2003-01-01

411

Engendering New Labour's Workfarist Regime: Exploring the intersection of welfare state restructuring and labour market policies in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deconstructs New Labour's emerging workfarist regime to reveal the complex and contradictory gender relations embodied in and through its work–welfare policy. Starting from the decline of manufacturing employment within the UK, it traces the deregulation of the labour market and the range of structural and social changes initiated by this process. Noting, in particular, how the ‘feminisation of

JULIE MACLEAVY

2007-01-01

412

The Transition of Youth with Disabilities from the Child Welfare System: An Analysis of State Administrative Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth with disabilities are disproportionately represented in the child welfare system (Crosse, Kaye, & Ratnofsky, 1992; Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Although research on this topic is limited, youth with disabilities who are emancipating from foster care are at risk for particularly poor outcomes, experiencing even lower rates of employment,…

Hill, Katharine Miller

2010-01-01

413

Fundamental Causes of Health Disparities: Stratification, the Welfare State, and Health in the United States and Iceland?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has established that those with higher social status have better health. Less is known about whether this relationship differs cross-nationally and whether it operates similarly across different institutional arrangements. To examine the relationship between stratification and health, two Western, industrialized societies at opposite ends of an equal\\/unequal continuum are compared: the United States and Iceland. Using data from the

Sigrun Olafsdottir

2007-01-01

414

Recent Changes in Florida Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 2. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief examines changes in Florida's welfare-to-work, child care, and child welfare systems since 1997, presenting information from visits conducted in 1999 and 2000. It profiles Florida's population, economy, and politics, reviewing its income support and social services safety net. Three sections detail current policies and recent changes in…

Botsko, Christopher; Snyder, Kathleen; Leos-Urbel, Jacob

415

Recent Changes in Washington Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 6. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief examines changes in Washington's welfare-to-work, child care, and child welfare systems since 1997, presenting information from visits to Washington in 1999 and 2000. It profiles Washington's demographic, economic, and political conditions, reviewing its income support and social services systems and highlighting recent changes,…

Thompson, Terri S.; Snyder, Kathleen; Malm, Karin; O'Brien, Carolyn

416

Immigration Policy in the United States: Future Prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Program for Resarch on Immigration Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immigration to the United States has fluctuated considerably over the course of the nation's history and has elicited various policy responses at different times. In recent years, concern about undocumented, illegal immigration has given rise to efforts to reform immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 was intended…

Espenshade, Thomas J.; And Others

417

An Evaluation of the Implementation of the Educational Reform in Kwara State: A Case Study of the Primary School Level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the educational reform going on in Kwara State, Nigeria. One thousand six hundred 1600 teachers were selected from the 3 senatorial districts of Kwara State using simple random sampling technique. A researcher- designed questionnaire andchecklist were developed to collect relevant data on the educational reform going on in the state. Frequency count and the percentage were employed in analyzing the data collected. The results of the study revealed that the organizational set up, textbooks, procedure for the selection of the curriculum and teachers were quite appropriate. Instructional materials and utilization of human and material resources were moderately appropriate.Space and furniture for teaching was adjudged inadequate. It was recommended that more classroom, furniture and textbooks should be provided in the areas they are lacking and a learner-centred teaching method should be embraced in all schools.

Abdulrasaq Oladimeji, Akanbi; Ibrahim, I. A.; Adebayo, S. A.

2012-10-01

418

Substance abuse and the course of welfare dependency.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: New provisions in welfare reform target recipients with addictions, even though there is limited research on how substance abuse affects people's experiences on welfare. This prospective study examined substance abuse as a determinant of subsequent welfare dependency. METHODS: Representative samples of clients on Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and general assistance in a California county were interviewed while applying for services in 1989 and were reinterviewed in 1995. RESULTS: Among AFDC recipients, substance abuse was not a significant determinant of long welfare stays, repeat welfare use, or the total time a person remained on welfare during the 6-year period. However, substance abuse was a strong predictor of repeat welfare use among general assistance recipients. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol and drug problems have played dramatically different roles in welfare dependency within the AFDC and general assistance populations. Under welfare reform, local general assistance programs will be the final safety net for recipients removed from federal entitlement programs. These programs will probably be confronted with clients with more complex disabilities related to addiction, as well as with greater family needs for cash assistance. PMID:9807526

Schmidt, L; Weisner, C; Wiley, J

1998-01-01

419

Constructing the objects of our discourse: The welfare wars, the orphanage, and the silenced welfare mom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent welfare reform debates featured the return of the orphanage as a talked?about policy initiative. This institution's sudden return presented a problem for both its supporters and its detractors. Both groups had to make sense of the orphanage as they argued for or against its efficacy. Through our discourse we resolve such problems, Michel Foucault explains, constructing the objects about

Robert Asen

1996-01-01

420

Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste  

SciTech Connect

A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: (1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; (2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and (3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Wood, R.A.; Barnes, C.M.

2002-08-15

421

Political economy of coal-mine safety and its contribution to the theory of the welfare state  

SciTech Connect

Conservative, liberal, and marxist explanations of the origins and function of social welfare benefits are identified. The conservatives see defined right benefits as error in the system, resulting from excesses of political democracy and functioning to interfere with the market, and functioning to reduce the viability of the economy. Individual action alone produces real benefit. Liberals disconnect social welfare and the economy, offering an explanation in formal electoral processes and asserting fulfillment of the humanitarian impulse as the function of welfare. Technical innovation leads to progress. This study tests these theories in a case study of the benefit of decreased death and injury derived by U.S. coal miners from 1970 to 1977. The benefit is compared in magnitude to that of miners other than coal. Results show that a considerable benefit in reduced death and injury was derived and that this benefit can best explained through a complex neo-marxist analysis of the economic and social conditions affecting coal miners then. Wildcat strikes, defying union, company and, government combined with permissive economic conditions such as, rising demand for coal, labor intensity requirements, and increased production and profitability, to make safety salient.

Williams, D.P.

1987-01-01

422

The U.S. 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and undocumented migration to the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major goals of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) is to reduce the number of undocumented immigrants\\u000a coming to and residing in the United States. This goal is pursued by allocating increased resources to Border Patrol enforcement,\\u000a imposing penalties on employers for hiring undocumented workers, and offering to legalize the undocumented population that\\u000a has resided

Michael J. White; Frank D. Bean; Thomas J. Espenshade

1990-01-01

423

Reform and Exploration of Innovative and Entrepreneurial Talents Fostering Mode on Mechanical Engineering under the New State  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In order to achieve the cultivation of innovative and entrepreneurial talents of mechanical engineering under the new state,\\u000a our school has always been committed to the reform and exploration of innovative and entrepreneurial talents fostering model,\\u000a and has established the modern educational concepts, and built a wholly new teaching model, making the formation theories\\u000a of education, experimental teaching, practice base

Junyong Sang; Chen Hao

424

Nonmarital Births and State Abortion Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on nonmarital childbearing since the passage of the 1996 welfare reform bill. The empirical results find that the price of an abortion, a Medicaid funding restriction, and a waiting period law are associated with a decrease in a state's nonmarital birthrate. The negative effects of restrictive abortion laws on a

Marshall H. Medoff

2010-01-01

425

Reforming Science: Structural Reforms  

PubMed Central

Science has a critical role to play in addressing humanity's most important challenges in the twenty-first century. However, the contemporary scientific enterprise has developed in ways that prevent it from reaching maximum effectiveness and detract from the appeal of a research career. To be effective, the methodological and culture reforms discussed in the accompanying essay must be accompanied by fundamental structural reforms that include a renewed vigorous societal investment in science and scientists. PMID:22184420

2012-01-01

426

Health Care Reform: Out Greatest Opportunity...Ever!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses inevitability of health care reform in United States, considers the reform process itself, and explains the plan of the President's Task Force on National Health Care Reform. Also considers the prospects for Congressional response to reform proposals. (NB)

Keigher, Sharon M.

1993-01-01

427

Phantom Welfare: Public Relief for Corporate America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and quantifies major types of federal subsidies to American businesses, calling subsidies important policies that directly affect more traditional welfare programs. Notes that policies responsible for "phantom welfare state" represent major redistribution of wealth that partially accounts for growing gap between rich and poor. Discusses…

Huff, Daniel D.; Johnson, David A.

1993-01-01

428

Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

2005-01-01

429

Adoption Assistance by State  

MedlinePLUS

... Training Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies ... System reform Training Workforce Systemwide Assessment Courts Cultural competence Domestic violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & policies ...

430

Something's ironic in Denmark: an otherwise progressive welfare state lags well behind in care of patients at the end of life.  

PubMed

Tremendous strides have been made in the last two decades with regard to the quality of palliative care available to patients at the end of life. But progress has not been uniform, even among countries in the same region of the world. The objective of this study is to describe, in a comparative context, the current status of end-of-life palliative care in Denmark using quantitative research published in the past five years. This study's conclusions, based on a synthesis of the research, suggest that despite its well earned reputation as a generally progressive welfare state, Denmark tends to trail well behind its European neighbors when it comes to end-of-life care. Understanding the cultural forces that underlie this reality may help Danish health care professionals and policy makers overcome the barriers that stand in the way of providing state-of-the-art medical care to patients who suffer at the end of life. PMID:21183240

Hoefler, James M; Vejlgaard, Tove Bahn

2011-12-01

431

Minorities, the Poor and School Finance Reform. Vol. 1: An Impact Study of Six States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To study the impact of school finance reform on minorities and the poor, researchers gathered data on educational revenues and spending, tax effort, district wealth and income, ethnicity, and urban location in California, Colorado, Florida, Michigan, New Mexico, and Texas. Their data analysis used various measures of educational equity and fiscal…

Brischetto, Robert; Vaughan, David

432

State of Transition: Post-Apartheid Educational Reform in South Africa. Monographs in International Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reviews the major dimensions of post-apartheid educational change and continuity in South Africa since 1994. It sets educational reform in the context of the nature of the anti-apartheid struggle inside South Africa and in the global economic environment in which South Africa re-entered the world stage as a legitimate actor. Recognizing…

Harber, Clive

433

China's State-Owned Enterprises in the First Reform Decade: An Analysis of a Declining Monopsony  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the evolution of employment and wage outcomes in Chinese SOEs during the first decade of economic reforms, studying a panel of data for almost 1000 enterprises covering the years 1980-90. Despite the consensus on the persistence of labor redundancy in the SOE sector, we find that capital-intensity remained so extreme that workers' marginal products exceeded their full wages,

Xiao-Yuan Dong; Louis Putterman

1997-01-01

434

Reforming Long-Term Care in the United States: Findings from a National Survey of Specialists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Theories of the policy process recognize that policy proposals are typically generated, debated, redrafted, and accepted for consideration through the gradual accumulation of knowledge within communities of specialists. Thus, to inform long-term care (LTC) reform efforts, we conducted a Web-based survey of 1,147 LTC specialists…

Miller, Edward Alan; Mor, Vincent; Clark, Melissa

2010-01-01

435

Employment and earnings trends during a period of regulatory reform in the United States electricity sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines trends in employment and earnings in the U.S. electricity sector during a period of regulatory reform. Econometric models are specified using a large data set of individual employees from the Current Population Survey. OLS earnings estimations find no evidence of an adverse effect on employee earnings during the period of regulatory reform, even after correction for sample selectivity bias using the Heckman two-step approach. In fact, earnings premiums in the electricity sector have increased over the period of regulatory reform. Probit models do find strong evidence that declines in the probability of electricity sector employment, for many occupations, have occurred during the regulatory reform period. These findings deviate significantly from other restructured industries, with the electricity sector being the first industry to show significant employment declines associated with regulatory reform. Using the Blinder-Oaxaca technique, earnings premiums are calculated for electricity sector employees by occupation. These earnings differential variables are found to have a significant negative impact on employment for a number of occupations. Lastly, a longitudinal analysis is used to examine the experiences of electricity sector workers who leave this industry for new employment. This longitudinal procedure allows for analyzing whether electricity sector earnings premiums depict a compensating differential. While the sample size for this analysis is small, an examination of the mean wages of the employees that made an industry change from the electricity sector suggest they continue to receive high earnings in their new positions. These findings suggest that electric utilities, either unable or unwilling to cut employee earnings, have chosen to become more competitive in a deregulated environment through employment actions.

Niederjohn, Matthew Scott

436

Healthcare Reform and the Next Generation: United States Medical Student Attitudes toward the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act  

PubMed Central

Context Over one year after passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), legislators, healthcare experts, physicians, and the general public continue to debate the implications of the law and its repeal. The PPACA will have a significant impact on future physicians, yet medical student perspectives on the legislation have not been well documented. Objective To evaluate medical students' understanding of and attitudes toward healthcare reform and the PPACA including issues of quality, access and cost. Design, Setting, and Participants An anonymous electronic survey was sent to medical students at 10 medical schools (total of 6982 students) between October–December 2010, with 1232 students responding and a response rate of 18%. Main Outcome Measures Medical students' views and attitudes regarding the PPACA and related topics, measured with Likert scale and open response items. Results Of medical students surveyed, 94.8% agreed that the existing United States healthcare system needs to be reformed, 31.4% believed the PPACA will improve healthcare quality, while 20.9% disagreed and almost half (47.7%) were unsure if quality will be improved. Two thirds (67.6%) believed that the PPACA will increase access, 6.5% disagreed and the remaining 25.9% were unsure. With regard to containing healthcare costs, 45.4% of participants indicated that they are unsure if the provisions of the PPACA will do so. Overall, 80.1% of respondents indicated that they support the PPACA, and 78.3% also indicated that they did not feel that reform efforts had gone far enough. A majority of respondents (58.8%) opposed repeal of the PPACA, while 15.0% supported repeal, and 26.1% were undecided. Conclusion The overwhelming majority of medical students recognized healthcare reform is needed and expressed support for the PPACA but echoed concerns about whether it will address issues of quality or cost containment. PMID:21931604

Huntoon, Kristin M.; McCluney, Colin J.; Scannell, Christopher A.; Wiley, Elizabeth A.; Bruno, Richard; Andrews, Allen; Gorman, Paul

2011-01-01

437

Calculating Child Welfare Separation, Replacement, and Training Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across the country, incoming child welfare caseworkers have an average tenure of 2 years, and states are being evaluated on the quality of caseworker training programs and their ability to provide child welfare services that meet federally mandated outcomes. Policy makers do not know the cost of workforce turnover and replacement or the cost of training child welfare workers. The

Edwina Dorch; Mary L. McCarthy; Daniel Denofrio

2008-01-01

438

Public Welfare of Juveniles. Hearing before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on S.520, a Bill to Promote the Public Welfare by Protecting Dependent Children and Others from Institutional Abuse and S.552, a Bill to Promote the Public Welfare by Removing Juveniles from Adult Jails. (June 14, 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine proposed legislation concerning the public welfare of juveniles. The two bills considered were proposed to promote the public welfare by protecting dependent children and others from institutional abuse (S.520) and by removing juveniles from…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

439

Agrarian Reforms in Turkmenistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkmenistan has implemented significant reforms in agriculture, increasing the size of the household plot sector, enabling the emergence of independent private farms, and most importantly individualizing to a certain extent the production arrangements in former collective farms through the introduction of leasehold contracts. Yet the policies underlying these reforms are not entirely consistent: state orders are retained for the main

Zvi Lerman; Ivan Stanchin

440

Reform: To What End?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author looks at school reform in light of his experiences documenting effective public education in classrooms across the United States. Observing in an inner-city 1st grade classroom, he sees a teacher who is knowledgeable, resourceful, and particularly effective with her students. He notes that none of the current high-profile reform ideas…

Rose, Mike

2010-01-01

441

Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.  

PubMed

This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations. PMID:21485454

Chandler, Andrea

2011-01-01

442

China's State-Owned Enterprises in the First Reform Decade: An Analysis of a Declining Monopsony  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the evolution of employment and wage outcomes in Chinese SOEs during the first decade of economic reforms, using a panel of data for almost 1000 enterprises covering the years 1980–90. Unlike the 1990s, which were marked by growing labor redundancy in the SOE sector, we find that CPE-fostered capital-intensity remained so extreme during the 1980s that workers' marginal

Xiao-Yuan Dong; Louis Putterman

2002-01-01

443

Recent Changes in Alabama Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 10. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alabama has a long history of providing a modest safety net for low-income families and children. This report examines Alabama's cash assistance, workforce development, child care, and child welfare systems for low-income families with children. Information comes from interviews with managers and front-line workers, focus groups with parents and…

Holcomb, Pamela A.; Schlichter, Kathryn; Schmidt, Stefanie R.; Adams, Gina; Leos-Urbel, Jacob

444

Failing to Make Ends Meet: Dubious Financial Success Among Employed Former Welfare to Work Program Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To many, declining caseloads and increased labor market entry substantiate welfare reform’s success. This study examines how\\u000a Louisiana welfare to work program participants who succeeded by leaving assistance and obtaining employment are making ends meet, if their needs are met and which characteristics are\\u000a associated with having their needs met. Telephone survey data reveal low wages, informal labor market activity,

Michelle LivermoreRebecca; Rebecca S. Powers; Belinda Creel Davis; Younghee Lim

2011-01-01

445

Reforming the Private Insurance Market  

E-print Network

. President Obama and Members of Congress have made health care reform a top priority and legislation SUMMARY s national health care reform efforts go forward, it is instructive to review states' experience INTRODUCTION he prospects for national health care reform are more promising than at any time since 1994

Kammen, Daniel M.

446

Kudzu, Rabbits, and School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essay on school reform argues that quality teachers are key to successful reform, not reform rhetoric by state governors and U.S. Presidents. Asserts that primary mission of schooling is to provide students an educational apprenticeship in democracy. Qualified, caring, competent teachers are essential to accomplish this mission. (PKP)

Goodlad, John I.

2002-01-01

447

Back to the Future? Reflections on past reforms and future prospects for health services in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991 the New Zealand health system began to experience what has been termed the `turbulent decade'. Without health sector\\u000a consultation or public mandate, an era of imposed market oriented reforms began. These changed the overall culture of health\\u000a care delivery and the expectations of New Zealanders regarding the role of the state in the provision of welfare. In retrospect

Ross Barnett; Pauline Barnett

2004-01-01

448

The Health Care System Under French National Health Insurance: Lessons for Health Reform in the United States  

PubMed Central

The French health system combines universal coverage with a public–private mix of hospital and ambulatory care and a higher volume of service provision than in the United States. Although the system is far from perfect, its indicators of health status and consumer satisfaction are high; its expenditures, as a share of gross domestic product, are far lower than in the United States; and patients have an extraordinary degree of choice among providers. Lessons for the United States include the importance of government’s role in providing a statutory framework for universal health insurance; recognition that piecemeal reform can broaden a partial program (like Medicare) to cover, eventually, the entire population; and understanding that universal coverage can be achieved without excluding private insurers from the supplementary insurance market. PMID:12511380

Rodwin, Victor G.

2003-01-01

449

Teen Pregnancy. State and Federal Efforts To Implement Prevention Programs and Measure Their Effectiveness. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teenage pregnancy and parenthood have unfortunate consequences for society, teenage mothers, and the children born to them. This report to the Senate is intended to provide information on (1) state strategies to reduce teen pregnancy and how states fund these efforts; (2) how welfare reform affected states' strategies; (3) the extent to which…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

450

How Welfare and Work Policies Affect Employment and Income: A Synthesis of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of 29 welfare reform initiatives conducted by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation were synthesized in an exploration of how welfare and work policies affect employment and income. Each of the studies reviewed focused on one or more of the following key program features: mandatory employment services, earnings supplements, and…

Bloom, Dan; Michalopoulos, Charles

451

Eighteenth International Conference on Social Welfare, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1976. Swedish National Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report discusses achievements in Sweden's economic and social reforms which have led to an increase in equality. Intended as Sweden's contribution to the exchange of information regarding social welfare action in developed and developing nations, the report is presented in eight chapters. Chapter I enumerates Sweden's policies of welfare,…

1976

452

Working their way out of poverty? Sole motherhood, work, welfare and material well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 20 years, Australian social policy has increasingly focused on raising the labour market participation level of sole parents. The extension of mutual obligation to sole parents under welfare reform further concentrates this policy direction. Yet while increased workforce activity may reduce ‘welfare dependency’, the efficacy of employment to raise the level of material well-being in sole parent

Maggie Walter

2002-01-01

453

Work Attitudes, Employment Barriers, and Mental Health Symptoms in a Sample of Rural Welfare Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the extant research on welfare reform has neglected to consider the experiences of families in rural settings. Fifty women receiving welfare for their dependent children in a rural community were interviewed about their work experiences and aspirations, barriers to employment and service use, as well as mental health and social support. The findings indicate that the majority of

Lorraine C. Taylor

2001-01-01

454

Welfare to Work: Early Childhood Care and Education. SERVE Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief of the Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE) provides information for policymakers, educators, parents, and citizens on the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act. The brief discusses potential effects of welfare reform on children, describes research on welfare recipients and their children,…

Ahearn, Charles, Ed.; Chapman, Stephen, Ed.; Nalley, Donna, Ed.

455

Maternal Working Conditions and Child Well-Being in Welfare-Leaving Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the wake of welfare reform, thousands of low-income single mothers have transitioned into the labor market. In this article, the authors examine how the work conditions of mothers leaving welfare for employment are associated with the emotional well-being of 372 children ages 5 to 15 years. The authors examine the cumulative incidence, over a…

Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Bajracharya, Ashish

2005-01-01

456

A qualitative look at child care selection among rural welfare-to-work participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare reforms of 1996 changed the administration of public assistance to children and families. One of the key provisions, requiring parents to join the workforce, resulted in an expanded need for child care. Prior research demonstrates that welfare recipients, particularly in rural areas, utilize informal child care arrangements. Further, recipients in rural communities face greater challenges due to a

Allison De Marco

2008-01-01

457

Mary Lily Walker of Dundee: Social Worker and Reformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mary Lily Walker (1863-1913) was Dundee's leading activist in matters of social welfare and social reform during the late Victorian and Edwardian period. As the Honourary Superintendent of the Dundee Social Union (DSU), she initiated a number of social welfare services in Dundee for working class women and children. The Grey Lodge Settlement Association, a bustling community centre in present-day

Myra Baillie

1996-01-01

458

The Tennessee State-Local Tax System with Reform Proposals. A Preliminary Report on the Tennessee State-Local Tax System with Reform Proposals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the Tennessee state-local tax structure to determine whether tax inequities have given rise to a situation in which taxes have contributed to an inadequate or inequitable flow of financial resources to the public schools. It investigates the possibility that some structural changes in the tax system might improve both tax…

Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Center for Business and Economic Research.

459

Immigration and native welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

We unify two approaches towards identifying native welfare effects of immigration, one emphasizing the immigration surplus (Borjas, 1995,1999), the other identifying a welfare loss due to terms-of-trade effects (Davis & Weinstein, 2002). We decompose the native welfare effect of immigration into the standard complementarity effect, augmented by a Stolper-Samuelson effect, and a terms-of-trade effect. Using a structural model with three

Gabriel J. Felbermayr; Wilhelm Kohler

2004-01-01

460

Transforming Education through the Arts. Proceedings of a Special Hearing on Arts and Education Reform in the States (Washington, D.C., January 12-14, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an edited version of testimony presented to a special hearing on the role of arts education in education reform. A special committee of eight state legislators assembled to hear testimony from 12 organizations, including the National Endowment for the Arts and the U.S. Department of Education, the Council for Chief State School…

Loyacono, Laura, Ed.

461

Is the Consociational system reformable ? The current state of public life in Lebanon is neither the proper place for esoteric debate nor  

E-print Network

1 Is the Consociational system reformable ? The current state of public life in Lebanon is neither groups and the majority of the Islamic fundamentalist movements, had already thrown in the sponge of the population by the political class and its loyalty towards a State whose authority would thus appear all

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

462

Human stewardship and animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal welfare must be clearly defined and understood in all languages. Welfare means well-being, so that `bad-welfare' is contradictory. Welfare depends upon the provision of all necessary physiological and psychological requirements and the absence or control of adverse factors. Recognition of animals' sentience led to concerns for their welfare. Since animals can neither obtain nor sustain rights for themselves they

J. H Seamer

1998-01-01

463

Remembering and Rethinking the Social Divisions of Welfare: 50 Years On  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper revisits Titmuss's essay on the Social Divisions of Welfare (SDW) and reflects on its continuing relevance. Titmuss first presented the SDW in an Eleanor Rathbone Memorial lecture at Birmingham University in 1955 but it is best known from his Essays on the Welfare State published in 1958. Titmuss challenged the stereotype of 'welfare' as simply public welfare dependency

KIRK MANN

2009-01-01

464

Hospital contributory schemes and the NHS debates 1937-46: the rejection of social insurance in the British welfare state?  

PubMed

This article considers the discussion and rejection of social insurance model of funding for the British National Health Service. Specifically it asks why the hospital contributory scheme movement had so little impact on policy debates in the 1940s. We argue that at the start of the policy-making process serious consideration was given to the incorporation of this mode of funding, not least because the contributory schemes, with some ten million members, played a major role in financing existing voluntary hospital provision. Early sections describe the growth and nature of the schemes, noting that, despite their large working-class constituency and the presence of labour movement representatives amongst their leadership, they remained peripheral to discussion of reform in the interwar period. We then trace the emergence of the proposal for an insurance-based 'hotel-charge' in civil servants' discussions about hospital funding the Beveridge Report. Officials, however, remained sceptical about the contributory schemes' capacity to deliver a comprehensive and efficient funding mechanism, given their lack of uniformity, the gaps in their coverage, and the limited progress of reciprocal arrangements between them. Finally, we note the ineffectiveness of the British Hospital Contributory Schemes Association as a player in the policy community. Its leadership had no clear strategy for influencing events and was reluctant to deploy pressure group tactics such as lobbying through the press or parliament. Crucially, the movement was divided internally between those members who supported the voluntary system and others who welcomed a publicly funded health service. PMID:16075492

Gorsky, Martin; Mohan, J; Willis, T

2005-01-01

465

Immigration reform in France and the United States: reflections and documentation.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes similarities and dissimilarities in French and American efforts to come to grip with irregular migration. The symbolic importance of immigration reform is argued to be a key political concern in both nations, although the politics of immigration reform has assumed a more partisan flavor in France, particularly since the municipal elections of 1983. In France, the theme of control and security, associated with the notion of preventing "automatic" immigration which would endanger the cohesion of French society, was widely utilized for political ends prior to and after May 10, 1981 (the date of Francois Mitterand's investiture). The American government, on the other hand, is confronted with the unenviable task of obtaining a legislative consensus on legalization and employer sanctions through an approach seeking to harmonize and integrate the demands articulated by various groups: employers, unions, and alien and ethnic interest groups (principally Hispanic groups divided into a hierarchy along a recently arrived/established cleavage). The American situation most sharply differs from the French case in terms of the absence of a right/left political cleavage. The real effects of clandestine immigration are to be found at the local level. In France, as in the US, the ability of local actors to exert pressure raises the fear that legalization and sanctions will change little, except in terms of symbolic legitimacy. PMID:12339925

Wenden, C W; Costa-lascoux, J

1984-01-01

466

Toward Self Sufficiency: Social Issues in the Nineties. Proceedings of the National Association for Welfare Research and Statistics (33rd, Scottsdale, Arizona, August 7-11, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The presentations compiled in these proceedings on welfare and self-sufficiency reflect much of the current research in areas of housing, health, employment and training, welfare and reform, nutrition, child support, child care, and youth. The first section provides information on the conference and on the National Association for Welfare Research…

National Association for Welfare Research and Statistics, Olympia, WA.

467

For the Welfare of Children: Lessons Learned from Class Action Litigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of papers brings together distinguished experts writing on the use of class action litigation to reform public child welfare systems. It is an effort to tease out of four decades of experience in this work, the factors that increase the likelihood that litigation will result in successful system reform. This publication is an outgrowth…

Meltzer, Judith, Ed.; Joseph, Rachel Molly, Ed.; Shookhoff, Andy, Ed.

2012-01-01

468

Ethical Child Welfare Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

469

Welfare Payments and Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests the hypothesis that the timing of welfare payments affects criminal activity. Analysis of daily reported incidents of major crimes in twelve U.S. cities reveals an increase in crime over the course of monthly welfare payment cycles. This increase reflects an increase in crimes that are likely to have a direct financial motivation like burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle

C. Fritz Foley

2008-01-01

470

The Legal Rights of LGBT Youth in State Custody: What Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Professionals Need to Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth in state custody, regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity, have federal and state constitutional and statutory rights. These rights guarantee a young person safety in their placement as well as freedom from deprivation of their liberty interest. Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth have these rights…

Estrada, Rudy; Marksamer, Jody

2006-01-01

471

Evaluating Interdependent Watershed Conservation and Ground Water Management Reforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conserving the watershed can help to preserve ground water recharge. Preventing overuse of available water through pricing reforms can also substantially increase the value of an aquifer. Inasmuch as users are accustomed to low prices, efficiency pricing may be politically infeasible, and watershed conservation may be considered as an alternative. We estimate and compare welfare gains from pricing reform and watershed conservation for a water management district in Oahu that obtains its water supply from the Pearl Harbor aquifer. We find that pricing reform is welfare superior to watershed conservation unless the latter is able to prevent very large recharge losses. Watershed conservation that yields net gains in combination with pricing reform may cause net losses without the pricing reform. If adoption of watershed conservation delays the implementation of pricing reform, the benefits of the latter are significantly reduced.

Pitafi, Basharat A.; Roumasset, James A.

2006-12-01

472

The Lessons of Historical Reform Movements: The Racism Mental Health Equation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of reform and the origins of unrest in America are briefly reviewed. Concurrent reform streams of the past are examined in terms of an emerging awareness of the relationship between racism and poverty and social environment. The mental health and social welfare movements paralleled this recognition, but did not lead the new reform.…

Lourie, Norman; Walden, Daniel

473

"HEALTH REFORM: MOVING FORWARD, FOCUS ON THE STATES" Join us Monday, March 28, 2011 from 6:00pm -7:30pm for an interactive video conference. Health policy  

E-print Network

"HEALTH REFORM: MOVING FORWARD, FOCUS ON THE STATES" Join us Monday, March 28, 2011 from 6:00pm - 7:30pm for an interactive video conference. Health policy experts at both the Harvard Kennedy School and Georgetown University will explore health care reform initiatives and state responses to the federal law

Schrag, Daniel

474

Implementing Welfare-to-Work Services: A Study of Staff Decision-Making  

E-print Network

). Recent changes in California welfare and work, child care, and child welfare systems. (State Update No. 11). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. Morgen, S. (2001). The agency of welfare workers: Negotiating devolution, privatization, and the meaning... and fell while playing at the child care provider's apartment. Michelle A. Johnson, MSW, is a doctoral student, School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley. Julian Chun-Chung Chow, PhD, is associate professor, School of Social Welfare...

Johnson, Michelle A.; Chow, Julian Chun-Chung; Ketch, Virginia; Austin, M. J.

2006-01-01

475

State Education Agency Funding and Staffing in the Education Reform Era  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cuts in state funding for elementary and secondary education in recent years have taken a toll in many vital areas, including teaching jobs and student services. State budget cuts have also affected a less visible target--state education agencies (SEAs), which are responsible for supervising elementary and secondary education in each state and…

Kober, Nancy; Rentner, Diane Stark

2012-01-01

476

The welfare gain from replacing the health insurance tax exclusion with lump-sum tax credits.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the welfare gain from replacing the tax exclusion of employer-provided health insurance with a lump-sum tax credit. It differs from earlier studies in that we look at the welfare cost of health insurance tax exclusion as coming directly from excessive health insurance rather than from overconsumption of medical care and that we account for the labor market effect of the tax exclusion on welfare. Both differences work to produce a smaller tax reform welfare gain. For a set of mid-range parameter values, the welfare gain is about 21% of current health insurance tax expenditures. In addition, government tax expenditures would fall by 38%, and health insurance spending would fall by 77% after the reform. PMID:21461915

Liu, Liqun; Rettenmaier, Andrew J; Saving, Thomas R

2011-06-01

477

Contesting citizenship : race, gender, and the politics of participation in the U.S. and Japanese welfare states, 1962-1982  

E-print Network

welfare who wished to participate in job training, establishing child carechild-care issue. They criticized the (implicit) goals of “welfarewelfare” either as a gift or a “Program: ANC Mother’s Annonymous[sic] Child Care

Tsuchiya, Kazuyo

2008-01-01

478

The Politics of Teacher Reform in Florida: Analyzing Causal Narratives Surrounding State Adoption of Performance-Based Evaluations, Performance Pay, and Tenure Elimination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a multiyear debate, Florida lawmakers passed the "Student Success Act" in March 2011, introducing some of the most sweeping educational reforms in the state's history--the introduction of teacher evaluation systems based on value-added modeling, mandatory "performance pay" for teachers, and the elimination of long-term professional…

Harrison, Christopher; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

2012-01-01

479

Feasibility Study on the Development of Teachers Resource Centres: Consultants Report. Organization of Eastern Caribbean States Education Reform Strategy Project 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is based on the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Educational Reform Strategy Project No. 5 which found that a Teachers Resource Center (TRC) can be a vehicle to provide essential equipment and materials to schools organized in clusters and to serve as meeting places for officials, principles, and teachers. Approximately…

Brown, Gerald R.; Halliday, Joseph J.

480

Adjustment of State Owned and Foreign-Funded Enterprises in China to Economic Reforms,1980s-2007: a logistic smooth transition regression (LSTR) approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies a logistic smooth transition regression approach to the estimation of a homogenous aggregate value added production function of the State Owned (SOE) and Foreign-Funded Enterprises (FFE) in China, 1980s-2007. The transition associated with the economic reforms in China is estimated applying a curvilinear logistic function, where the speed and the timing of the transition are endogenously determined

Joshua Aizenman; Nan Geng

2009-01-01

481

The Impact of Federal and State Laws on Children Exposed to Domestic Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes current and proposed federal and state civil laws to better understand their potential impact on children affected by domestic violence. Considers legislation and policy trends related to domestic violence, child custody and visitation, child protection systems, welfare reform, and immigration. (Contains 100 references.) (SLD)

Matthews, Martha A.

1999-01-01

482

Pension Reform during the Demographic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to quantify the welfare effects of some currently discussed pension reform proposals in Germany. The analysis is based on an extended overlapping-generations model which accounts for intra-generational heterogeneity, rising life expectancy and declining fertility. Given a baseline path of the economy under the existing unfunded pension system, the model calculates the macroeconomic impact as

Hans Fehr

2000-01-01

483

A History of Social Welfare Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cornell University Library's Social Welfare Digital Collection brings together manuscripts, early journals, narratives, reports, letters, photographs, prints, and much more that document the history of social welfare in the United States. The two foci here include the historical development of social welfare services in New York and the history of social welfare provisions by and for African Americans. On the homepage, visitors can look over the Featured Item and then Browse around at their leisure through more than 25 titles, such as "Dangerous Classes of New York, and twenty years' work among them" and "North of Slavery." Visitors can also look over two timelines documenting the parallel foci mentioned above. The siteâÂÂs Search feature allows for a basic search across all items in the collection.

484

Welfare states and social mobility: How educational and social policy may affect cross-national differences in the association between occupational origins and destinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-national differences in the association between origins and destinations correspond to differences in both welfare regime type and access to post-secondary education. Socialist and social democratic welfare regimes foster a weaker origin–destination association than liberal, corporatist, or mixed regimes do. Nations with better-educated labor forces tend to also be the nations where the association between origins and destinations is weakest.

Emily Beller; Michael Hout

2006-01-01

485

Promote the general welfare to ourselves and our posterity: the founding documents of the United States and the nation's health care debate.  

PubMed

A recent on-line discussion asked whether healthcare for Americans is a constitutional right or a privilege. One can debate whether one can extract a legal right to healthcare from the Declaration of Independence depending on whether one sees it is a philosophical or as a legal document. The Constitution of the United States of America lists "promote the general welfare" and protect "ourselves and our posterity" as some of its aims. Perhaps this would demand the inclusion of certain basic health services such as immunizations and antimicrobial therapy for every citizen; even for illegal immigrants, in order to protect the public. America must decide whether health care is a privilege or a right! If it is a privilege, one must accept the exclusion of some individuals and the unintended consequences of epidemics. If it is a constitutional right, one must accept paying for that right with increased taxes and the unintended consequences on the economy. But who should pay, how much and for what? PMID:20872179

Bengtsson, Bengt-Ola S

2011-08-01

486

New Jersey. The Demonstration of State Work/Welfare Initiatives. Final Report on the Grant Diversion Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed the implementation, impact, and cost-effectiveness of an on-the-job training (OJT) program for recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in New Jersey, operated as part of the state's Work Incentive (WIN) Demonstration system. Enrollees in the program, mostly female single heads of household, were placed with…

Freedman, Stephen; And Others

487

Trade agreements by Colombia, Ecuador and Peru with the United States: effects on trade, production and welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Computable General Equilibrium model, based on the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model, is used to evaluate the impact of separate bilateral free trade agreements by Colombia, Ecuador and Peru with the United States of America (USA). As the Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA) is to expire shortly, a number of different scenarios have been analyzed:

José Elías Durán Lima; Carlos J. De Miguel; Andrés R. Schuschny

2006-01-01

488

45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...availability in the individual market, do not apply in a State...coverage offered in the individual market in the State. (B) A standard...health insurance coverage, or open enrollment by one or more health...individuals in the individual market in the State, in...

2011-10-01

489

45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...availability in the individual market, do not apply in a State...coverage offered in the individual market in the State. (B) A standard...health insurance coverage, or open enrollment by one or more health...individuals in the individual market in the State, in...

2013-10-01

490

45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...availability in the individual market, do not apply in a State...coverage offered in the individual market in the State. (B) A standard...health insurance coverage, or open enrollment by one or more health...individuals in the individual market in the State, in...

2012-10-01

491

A Child's Right to Human Dignity: Reforming Anti-Bullying Laws in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the findings of research into the bullying laws in the United States. Against the backdrop of international law, it addresses children's rights to protection from bullying in US schools. It includes recommendations for improving anti-bullying legislation based on state anti-bullying legislation in the United States, and…

Dayton, John; Dupre, Anne Proffitt

2009-01-01

492

A child's right to human dignity: reforming anti-bullying laws in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the findings of research into the bullying laws in the United States. Against the backdrop of international law, it addresses children's rights to protection from bullying in US schools. It includes recommendations for improving anti-bullying legislation based on state anti-bullying legislation in the United States, and provides a framework for further efforts to improve laws and school

John Dayton; Anne Proffitt Dupre

2009-01-01

493

Anode-supported intermediate temperature direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell. I: model-based steady-state performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical modelling is an essential tool for the design of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The present paper aims to report on the development of a dynamic anode-supported intermediate temperature direct internal reforming planar solid oxide fuel cell stack model, that allows for both co-flow and counter-flow operation. The developed model consists of mass and energy balances, and an electrochemical model that relates the fuel and air gas composition and temperature to voltage, current density, and other relevant fuel cell variables. The electrochemical performance of the cell is analysed for several temperatures and fuel utilisations, by means of the voltage and power density versus current density curves. The steady-state performance of the cell and the impact of changes in fuel and air inlet temperatures, fuel utilisation, average current density, and flow configuration are studied. For a co-flow SOFC operating on a 10% pre-reformed methane fuel mixture with 75% fuel utilisation, inlet fuel and air temperatures of 1023 K, average current density of 0.5 A cm -2, and an air ratio of 8.5, an output voltage of 0.66 V with a power density of 0.33 W cm -2 and a fuel efficiency of 47%, are predicted. It was found that cathode activation overpotentials represent the major source of voltage loss, followed by anode activation overpotentials and ohmic losses. For the same operating conditions, SOFC operation under counter-flow of the fuel and air gas streams has been shown to lead to steep temperature gradients and uneven current density distributions.

Aguiar, P.; Adjiman, C. S.; Brandon, N. P.

494

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

495

Animal Welfare in Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare of farmed fish has become an increasingly important issue for the general public (both those who eat farmed fish\\u000a and those who do not) and for governments and regulators. In response to such concerns, the aquaculture industry is taking\\u000a steps to ensure good welfare in farmed fish, most particularly by setting up Codes of Practice for responsible aquaculture

Felicity Huntingford

496

A study of optimal state shares in mixed oligopoly: Implications for SOE reform and foreign competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies the optimal state share in a partially state-owned enterprise (SOE) from the perspectives of a social planner and a transition-economy government that is under pressure to provide employment. In a mixed-oligopoly model, we find that when the SOE is cost inefficient relative to the private firm, the effects of employment burden on the optimal state shares are

Qunyan SUN; Anming ZHANG; Jie LI

2005-01-01

497

Blueprints for Reform: Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Blueprints for Reform is a summation of reports offering teachers, parents, policymakers, business leaders, and others a starting point for their exploration of the education system and its response to reform. This chapter looks at how student assessment in American schools might be redesigned to match the goals of science education reform put forth in that are exemplified in efforts such as Project 2061's Benchmarks for Science Literacy. It is divided into three sections that describe current assessment practice in the United States, suggest changes that are needed in order for science reform goals to be implemented, and explore possibilities and recommendations for closing the gap between current practice and a more ideal vision of science assessment.

498

Governance of State Wildlife Management: Reform and Revive or Resist and Retrench?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governance of state wildlife management has been under scrutiny with respect to its ability to change to reflect the values, norms, and cultural beliefs of contemporary society. This article reviews the existing model of governance for state wildlife management; outlines concerns about this model in light of a changing social context; discusses alternative approaches; and offers considerations for how governance

Cynthia A. Jacobson; Daniel J. Decker

2008-01-01

499

A Model for Comprehensive Reform in General Education: Portland State University  

E-print Network

of the State system of Higher Education's enrolled graduate students. In November of 1993, the Portland State's response to problems of student retention and degree completion. The General Education Working Group students actively in their educations. Often, the first courses our freshmen encounter are large

500

Neo-Liberal Reforms in Israel's Education System: The Dialectics of the State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a reading of the Dovrat Report with the aim of assessing the convoluted and dialectical manifestations of the state--"the weak and the strong state"--in the era of global neo-liberalism. The Dovrat Report (Ministry Of Education 2005) includes a set of recommendations aiming to bring about structural and comprehensive changes in…

Yonah, Yossi; Dahan, Yossi; Markovich, Dalya

2008-01-01