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1

Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the economics literature on welfare reform over the 1990s. A brief summary of the policy changes over this period is followed by a discussion of the methodological techniques utilized to analyze the effects of these changes on outcomes. The paper then critically reviews the econometric and experimental literature on caseload changes, labor force changes, poverty and income

Rebecca M. Blank

2002-01-01

2

Children and Welfare Reform: High States, Low Coverage. Content Analysis on Welfare Reform Reporting. A Report by Children Now.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of the way welfare reform is presented in the national news media can provide insight into which aspects of the reform news consumers consider important. This study used a content analysis to examine all stories about welfare reform in the national press from: (1) June through August 1996, during which time the federal legislation…

Heintz-Knowles, Katharine

3

Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 16 chapters in this five-part book, each by different authors, trace the effects of welfare reform (mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), upon poor people in rural areas of the United States. The book begins with an introduction called "As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural…

Weber, Bruce A., Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Whitener, Leslie A., Ed.

4

Welfare Reform Briefing Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents information on the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program in light of efforts at welfare reform. Following a listing of whom to call at the Children's Defense Fund (CDF) regarding various welfare issues, the report's first section, "Basic Facts on Welfare," presents information on the AFDC in a…

Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

5

45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-10-01 true How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's... Section 261.80 Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF...THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect...

2013-10-01

6

Welfare Reform and Children: A Synthesis of Impacts in Five States. Project on State-Level Child Outcomes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report focuses on the question of whether and how pilot welfare reform programs launched in five states Connecticut, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, and Minnesota affected childrens developmental outcomes. We synthesize results from experimental studies (in ...

C. Ross E. Beecroft J. Brooks K. Moore K. Tout M. Zaslow Z. Redd

2004-01-01

7

Women, Children, and Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Who are the targets of welfare reform? How should welfare be reformed? How are the issues of reforming welfare and the national interest in investing in children related, ideologically and strategically? This article sheds light on these questions by discussing the poverty status of female-headed families with children, the impact of public income transfers on reducing the poverty rate of

Martha N. Ozawa

1994-01-01

8

Children and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

2002-01-01

9

Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

2011-01-01

10

Welfare Reforms, Family Resources, and Child Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated…

Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

2003-01-01

11

Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

Sawhill, Isabel V.

2000-01-01

12

Implementing Welfare Reform: Solutions to the Substance Abuse Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implementing welfare reform will require difficult decisions from states about how to treat welfare clients who have problems with alcohol or other drugs (AOD). The processes by which states may respond to welfare reform are detailed in this guidebook. It is suggested that states begin with values clarification regarding welfare clients who abuse…

Young, Nancy K.; Gardner, Sidney L.

13

Welfare reforms, family resources, and child maltreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated maltreatment-physical abuse and neglect-and the number of children living in out-of-home

Christina Paxson; Jane Waldfogel

2003-01-01

14

Two Steps Forward, One Step Back: Merkel's CDU\\/CSU and the Politics of Welfare State Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given its traditional support for conservative welfare state policies, the Christian Democratic Union's embrace of major reform measures in late 2003 seemingly marked a significant shift in the party's direction. The extent of its commitment to this new course became a key question in German politics during the election of 2005 and the early phase of Angela Merkel's Grand Coalition.

Clay Clemens

2007-01-01

15

The Implications of Welfare Reform for Housing and School Instability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses studies on the housing outcomes of welfare recipients to examine the potential influence of welfare reform on housing instability, which influences school instability. State studies suggest that welfare reform has increased rates of family mobility, evictions, and sharing housing. Limited research suggests that housing instability and…

Nichols, Laura; Gault, Barbara

2003-01-01

16

Medicaid For Children: Federal Mandates, Welfare Reform, And Policy Backsliding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1996 federal welfare reform law delinked Medicaid enrollment from welfare participation. This paper estimates the impact of welfare reform on children's Medicaid enrollment using a methodology that both adjusts for in- come and other demographic differences over time and across states, and provides income-specific estimates of enrollment. The results indicate large enrollment declines: Between 1995 and 1998, enrollment probabilities

Karl Kronebusch

2001-01-01

17

45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2012-10-01 true Do welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 261.36 Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF...They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect...

2013-10-01

18

Welfare recipients’ involvement with child protective services after welfare reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study identifies factors associated with child protective services (CPS) involvement among current and former welfare recipients after welfare reform legislation was passed in the US in 1996.

Yunju Nam; William Meezan; Sandra K. Danziger

2006-01-01

19

Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training. NBER Working Paper No. 16659  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results indicate that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

2011-01-01

20

Welfare Reform and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines conflicting evidence regarding the impacts of welfare reform on children's wellbeing. Research shows that poverty rates, teen crime and fertility, and child maltreatment are down. Lack of appropriate state-level data on indicators of child wellbeing precludes serious analysis of the role of welfare reform for most indicators.…

Duncan, Greg J.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

21

Nobody Asked Us: The WV Welfare Reform Listening Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

West Virginia's state welfare reform plan was in effect by the end of 1997. In 1999, over 175 interviews were conducted with past and present welfare recipients to bring their experiences and concerns to the attention of the public and policymakers. Nearly all interviewees were women and were taking part in work activities. In general, welfare

Wilson, Rick

22

What has Welfare Reform Accomplished? Impacts on Welfare Participation, Employment, Income, Poverty, and Family Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of recent welfare reforms, investigating the effects of both state-specific waivers in the early 1990s and the 1996 federal reform legislation. Unlike earlier work, we analyze a wide array of indicators, including welfare participation, labor market involvement, earnings, income and poverty, and family formation. While no single methodology is entirely satisfying, the results in this

Robert F. Schoeni; Rebecca M. Blank

2000-01-01

23

Ten Things Everyone Should Know about Welfare Reform. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A, No. A-52. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief presents 10 key findings about welfare reform, using research from the Urban Institute's Assessing the New Federalism project. Welfare reform has taken hold, and, in the immediate aftermath of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), states have made major changes to their welfare systems that…

Weil, Alan

24

Welfare Recipients' Involvement with Child Protective Services after Welfare Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study identifies factors associated with child protective services (CPS) involvement among current and former welfare recipients after welfare reform legislation was passed in the US in 1996. Method: Data come from the Women's Employment Study, a longitudinal study of randomly selected welfare recipients living in a Michigan city…

Nam, Yunju; Meezan, William; Danziger, Sandra K.

2006-01-01

25

Meeting the Challenges of Welfare Reform: Programs with Promise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of federal legislation aimed at welfare reform, states have been transforming welfare in new ways. Critical questions remain, however, and policymakers must continue to develop new ideas and implement programs from other states. This book contributes to the learning process among states by sharing program innovations and analyses to…

Tweedie, Jack; Christian, Steve; Groginsky, Scott; Reichert, Dana; Brown, Amy

26

Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

27

Welfare Reform. Final National Summary Report on Regional Outreach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DHEW's regional offices conducted a national welfare reform outreach effort in 1977, gathering the views of over 10,000 individuals and organizations, conducting 145 conferences and public meetings in all States, and reaching many people through 300 newsp...

1977-01-01

28

[Proposals for health reform and equity in Uruguay: a redefinition of the Welfare State?].  

PubMed

This article reviews and analyzes health sector reform proposals in Uruguay and the possible effects of such reforms in terms of equity, the health sector's institutional structure, and the power relationship between the various actors in the process. The authors contend that a highly structured yet simultaneously fragmented system has conspired against any attempt to introduce major reforms into the system. Thus the only possibility for reform resides neither in the consolidation of the so-called Institutions for Collective Medical Care (IAMCs) nor in the move towards a residual model. Rather, Uruguay is witnessing the system's passive restructuring (i.e., reform by default). In this context and given the system's built-in inequities, the current trend is towards an even more regressive distribution of goods and services. The authors use qualitative and quantitative techniques to show that inequities in expenditure, access, and quality have resulted from long-term developments and adaptive movements of an IAMC system in fiscal stress and the public system's declining quality. Thus, in the absence of changes in state policy that redefine the actors' power or in the absence of system collapse, the country should expect this same regressive trend to deepen. PMID:12118314

Mitjavila, Myriam; Fernandez, José; Moreira, Constanza

2002-01-01

29

Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes.

Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

30

Welfare Reform. Hearing before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (April 9, 1987). Part 1 of 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing, the first of three on welfare reform, focuses on "how we can reform welfare programs to conserve the best of the past and give us new latitude to deal with the emerging problems of the future," according to Senator Lloyd Bentsen, the Chairman of the Committee. The following individuals were witnesses: (1) Richard E. Lyng, Department…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

31

Children and Welfare Reform: A View from an Experimental Welfare Program in Minnesota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used a three-group design to determine the effects on child development of the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), a state welfare reform program. Findings showed that MFIP increased employment rates and decreased poverty. According to mother-reports, children were less likely to exhibit problem behaviors and more likely to perform better…

Gennetian, Lisa A.; Miller, Cynthia

2002-01-01

32

Welfare Reform and Child Care: Evidence from 10 Experimental Welfare-to-Work Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the employment and child care responses of families participating in 10 experimental welfare reform programs conducted in the United States between 1989 and 2002. For the programs analyzed, child care use increases by about the same amount as the increase in employment. Most of the increased child care comprises informal care…

Robins, Philip K.

2007-01-01

33

Beyond welfare reform: reframing undocumented immigrants' entitlement to health care in the United States, a critical review.  

PubMed

This article addresses the main scholarly frames that supported the deservingness of unauthorized immigrants to health benefits in the United States (U.S.) following the passage of the Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), known as the Welfare Reform bill, in 1996. Based on a critical literature review, conducted between January 1997 and March 2011, this article begins with an analysis of the public health rhetorics that endorsed immigrants' inclusion into the U.S. health safety net. In this vein, the "cost-saving" and "the effortful immigrant" frames underscore immigrants' contributions to society vis-à-vis their low utilization of health services. These are complemented by a "surveillance" account that claims to protect the American public from communicable diseases. A "maternalistic" frame is also discussed as a tool to safeguard families, and particularly immigrant mothers, in their roles as bearers and caretakers of their American-born children. The analyses of the "chilling" and the "injustice" frames are then introduced to underscore major anthropological contributions to the formulation of counter-mainstream discourses on immigrants' selective inclusion into the U.S. health care system. First, the "chilling effect," defined as the voluntary withdrawal from health benefits, is examined in light of unauthorized immigrants' internalized feelings of undeservingness. Second, an "injustice" narrative highlights both the contributions and the limitations of a social justice paradigm, which advocated for the restoration of government benefits to elderly immigrants and refugees after the passage of PRWORA. By analyzing the contradictions among all these diverse frames, this paper finally reflects on the conceptual challenges faced by medical anthropology, and the social sciences at large, in advancing health equity and human rights paradigms. PMID:21745706

Viladrich, Anahí

2012-03-01

34

The Economic Impact of Welfare Reform on Arkansas Families. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1997, the Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA) program was established in Arkansas as the state's version of welfare reform. Although there has been a 44 percent decrease in TEA cash assistance since the program's inception, questions continue regarding the impact of welfare reform on families with children. This report highlights some of…

Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, Little Rock.

35

Welfare Reform: Implications for the Black Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The centerpiece of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA) is the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) Act, which directs states to provide a broad range of educational, training, and employment services. FSA offers states an opportunity to design humane and effective programs to assist welfare recipients to move out of poverty. FSA also has…

McLaughlin, Megan E.

36

Welfare Reform and Teenage Pregnancy, Childbirth, and School Dropout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study estimates the effect of welfare reform on adolescent behaviors using a difference-indifferences approach. After defining the prereform and reform cohorts and considering the life course development of adolescent behavior by following each cohort from age 14 to age 16, we compare the welfare-target and nontarget populations in the two…

Hao, Lingxin; Cherlin, Andrew J.

2004-01-01

37

The Unfinished Business of Welfare Reform: Improving Prospects for Poor Children and Youth. Perspectives from Research. A Special Child Trends Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As federal and state officials consider the reauthorization of the block grants at the center of the 1996 federal welfare reform law, it is critical that they use findings from research regarding the impact of welfare reform to guide their decisions. This special report examines the impact of welfare reform on children and youth, drawing on…

Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.

38

The Effect of the 1981 Welfare Reforms on AFDC Participation and Labor Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1992 to 1995, forty states applied for federal waivers in order to test new welfare reforms. About 80 percent of these waiver applications included expansions of earnings disregards and asset limits for welfare recipients. These changes would effectively reverse the changes imposed by the 1981 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA81), which significantly restricted eligibility and reduced earnings disregards for

Paul A. Smith

39

One Step Forward, One Step Back: Children's Health Coverage after CHIP and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Passed in 1997, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) was designed to expand and complement the Medicaid program, thereby reducing the number of U.S. children without health insurance. However, as states implemented welfare reform, many children and parents lost welfare benefits, and thereby Medicaid coverage. This study examined…

Pulos, Victoria; Denker, Peggy

40

Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

2014-01-01

41

Losing Health Insurance: Unintended Consequences of Welfare Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conducted by Families USA, a health consumer group, this first national study of the connection between welfare reform and the loss of health insurance estimates that up to 675,000 people were uninsured in 1997 as a direct result of welfare reform. As 1997 was the first year of welfare reform implementation, the group expects the number of uninsured to increase dramatically in the next several years. Available in .pdf format, the report features a list of key findings and numerous graphs, tables, and sidebars.

Klein, Rachel.

1999-01-01

42

Psychiatry, homeless patients and welfare reforms: historical links and chains.  

PubMed

The birthplace of the specialty of psychiatry was in the asylum, which was created to divert patients from workhouses where the most disadvantaged and destitute people with mental illness were to be found. The current welfare reforms are endangering the welfare and livelihood of the most disadvantaged of our patients. These reforms in the authors' opinion are related more to the historical cycle of societal attitude to homeless people than to seeing them as the undeserving poor. This is particularly true since the current economic crisis was not caused by the poor, so it is very unfair that our poorest patients should suffer most as a result of the welfare reforms. PMID:23564721

Abdul-Hamid, Walid Khalid; Bhui, Kamaldeep

2014-02-01

43

Financing Services for Young Children and Their Families: Meeting the Challenges of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines strategies for state and local leaders to finance supports and services for young children and their families in the wake of welfare reform. It focuses on strategies for revenue reform and for creating public/private partnerships to provide decision makers with current and relevant information on a variety of effective tools…

Hayes, Cheryl D.

44

Crafting a federal legislative framework for child welfare reform.  

PubMed

The nature and scope of the problems plaguing child welfare systems across the country make federal solutions especially urgent. A decade after enactment of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act (PL 96-272), legislation is pending that builds on its framework to enhance services and supports for vulnerable children and their families. The legislation reflects a growing consensus about the nature of the child welfare crisis and about the reform strategies that will be effective. PMID:1746640

Allen, M

1991-10-01

45

Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation of Jobs First (JF) compared the experiences of JF participants who were subject to welfare reform policies with those of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) participants who were subject to prior welfare rules. It collected information for four years about JF's impacts on participants' children and analyzed its financial…

Bloom, Dan; Scrivener, Susan; Michalopoulos, Charles; Morris, Pamela; Hendra, Richard; Adams-Ciardullo, Diana; Walter, Johanna

46

Cambodian Refugee Families in the Shadows of Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provisions in the 1996 Federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, commonly known as welfare reform, sought to limit refugees and other legal immigrants’ access to government services and assistance. Although the 1997 Balanced Budget Act restored some benefits to those who arrived before the law was passed, little is known about how refugee families navigated the new welfare

Karen Quintiliani

2009-01-01

47

Public Views on Welfare Reform and Children in the Current Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent national survey of U.S. adults examined public opinion about welfare reform and measured support for specific policy recommendations. Respondents report ambivalence about the success of welfare reform, though they agree on what the goals of welfare should be and what shape future reforms should take. They favor welfare policies that help…

Lake Snell Perry & Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

48

Does Welfare Reform Affect Fertility? Evidence from the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents evidence on the fertility effect of welfare from a set of reforms that took place in the UK in 1999 and that substantially increased support for poorer families with children. The reforms, including the introduction of the Working Families Tax Credit and an increase in means-tested income support, raised benefits by up to 10 per cent of

Mike Brewer; Anita Ratcliffe; Sarah Smith

2007-01-01

49

Do Welfare Asset Limits Affect Household Saving? Evidence from Welfare Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to estimate the effect of new saving incentives implemented as part of the 1996 welfare reform on household saving. Economic theory predicts that loosening asset limits will increase total savings for households with a large ex-ante probability of welfare receipt such as female-headed households…

Hurst, Erik; Ziliak, James P.

2006-01-01

50

3 N.J. Community Colleges Set Up New Programs as Part of State's Plans for Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bergen Community College, Middlesex County College, and Union County College are setting up (1) counseling programs to help welfare recipients determine their job interests and skills, (2) job-training courses, and (3) day-care centers for participants children. (MLW)

Jaschik, Scott

1987-01-01

51

Welfare Reform and Lone Parents in the UK &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of reforms to help low income families with children were introduced in the UK in 1999, including in-work tax credits and welfare-to-work programmes. Lone parents were a key target for these reforms – they comprised 22% of all families by 1998 but 55% of families with children in poverty. Previous studies have shown that the reforms raised employment

Paul Gregg; Susan Harkness; Sarah Smith

2009-01-01

52

A "Third Way" in Welfare Reform? Evidence from the United Kingdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

U.S. welfare reforms, whether promoting work first or human capital development, have had in common an emphasis on employment as the key to improving the life chances of children living in single-mother families. We describe in this article a different type of reform--a "third way" in welfare reform. The welfare reforms carried out in the United…

Hills, John; Waldfogel, Jane

2004-01-01

53

Recent Changes in Wisconsin Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 8. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wisconsin's new welfare program was a dramatic departure from the old income maintenance system of welfare and moved beyond other states' work-based welfare reform programs. This report describes Wisconsin's approach to welfare reform, using data collected in 1999 and 2000 from state and local administrators, direct service providers, and, in some…

Ehrle, Jennifer; Seefeldt, Kristin; Snyder, Kathleen; McMahon, Pat

54

The Earned Income Tax Credit, Welfare Reform, and the Employment of Low-Skilled Single Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 15 years there have been enormous changes in federal and state income assistance for low-income single families with children. Welfare reform has led to a dramatic reduction in the generosity of state cash assistance through the AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children, now TANF, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families) program. At the same time, there has

Hilary Hoynes

2008-01-01

55

Welfare Reform's Impact on Adolescents: Early Warning Signs. Child Trends Research Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the passage of the 1996 welfare reform law, numerous commentators expressed concern about the impact of welfare reform on young children of welfare recipients, while few expressed concern about adolescents. However, recent evidence suggests that adolescents are affected negatively when their parents participate in welfare-to-work programs.…

Brooks, Jennifer L.; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Zaslow, Martha J.

56

Welfare Reform on Rosebud Reservation: Challenges for Tribal Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with low-income, American Indian, single parents on the Rosebud Reservation in Todd County, South Dakota, included families who were on and who had left Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Welfare reform issues discussed included transportation problems; access to affordable, quality child care; food insecurity; and the scarcity of…

Biolsi, Thomas; Cordier, Rose; Two Eagle, Marvine Douville; Weil, Melinda

2002-01-01

57

Community Development Corporations and Welfare Reform: Linkages, Roles, and Impacts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of welfare reform on housing owned by community development corporations (CDCs), investigating how early implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) affected the financial status of CDCs' affordable housing developments. Five types of financial impacts were…

Wright, David J.; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Schill, Michael H.

58

Governing welfare reform symbolically: evidence based or iconic policy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports findings from an ethnographic study of welfare reform in which the discursive negotiation of policy implementation at the local level was key to understanding the phenomenon of unintended consequences. Using policy give-aways or ‘freebies’ as a primary source of data, the article demonstrates how, despite the rhetoric of evidence based policy and practice, the meanings of policy

Pam Carter

2011-01-01

59

Workforce Development and Welfare Reform: Potential Impact upon Persons with Disabilities and Community Rehabilitation Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details the outcomes of a study conducted in response to concerns about the impact of workforce development and welfare reform upon persons with disabilities being served by community rehabilitation programs. Twenty-three focus groups involving over 200 individuals were held in 13 different cities across eight states. Participants came…

Coker, Charles C.; Flynn, Mary; Menz, Fredrick E.; McAlees, Daniel C.

60

Delivering Family Literacy in the Context of Welfare Reform: Lessons Learned.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advent of welfare reform in the United States has provided new challenges in preparing adults to become economically self-sufficient. As one response to this challenge, the National Center for Family Literacy (NCFL) in Louisville, Kentucky began the Family Independence Initiative in 1997 to promote family literacy as one solution for assisting…

Alamprese, Judith A.; Voight, Janet D.

61

The Impact of Welfare Reform on Head Start Disability and Family Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1997 study assessed the impact of welfare reform as reported by Head Start staff served by the Great Lakes Resource Access Project (GLRAP), a federally funded program providing training and technical assistance to Head Start staff in the area of disability services. The states served by the project are Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota,…

Bennett, Tess; Bhagwanji, Yash; Thomas, Dawn; Allison, Anita

62

Income Maintenance and Welfare Reform: Papers and Comments. Discussion Paper No. 202-74.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers and discussions which follow were presented at the December 1973 meetings of the Allied Social Science Associations in New York City. They provide a stimulating review and perspective on the state of policy and reform possibilities in income maintenance and the welfare system. In his paper, "The Role of Income-Conditioning in the…

Lampman, Robert J.; And Others

63

Welfare and Labour Market Reforms: A New Framework for Social Dialogue and Collective Bargaining?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the challenges raised for the social partners and collective bargaining by recent and planned reforms of the welfare state, necessitated by major changes in the labour market and the socio-economic context over the past three decades. The article highlights thesechanges as well as their policy implications. It shows how government policy has been constrained by a broad

Hedva Sarfati

2003-01-01

64

Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use.

Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

2014-01-01

65

Families' Experience with Welfare Reform on Reservations in Arizona  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article documents the impact of the 1996 federal welfare legislation on American Indian families in the state of Arizona over a period of four years. The authors analyzed primary data obtained from interviews with 445 former or current welfare families with children from three Indian reservations: Navajo, San Carlos, and Salt River. Compared…

Pandey, Shanta; Zhan, Min; Collier-Tenison, Shannon

2004-01-01

66

For Better and for Worse: Welfare Reform and the Well-Being of Children and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the 1996 welfare reform bill reduced welfare rolls, falling caseloads do not necessarily mean a better standard of living for families. This book examines the evidence and evaluates whether welfare reform has met one of its chief goals--improving the well-being of the nation's poor children. The chapters of the book are as follows: (1)…

Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, Ed.

67

The Welfare State vs. the Redistributive State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the principles of progressive taxation and the welfare state have come to be almost universally accepted, it would be a serious error to infer that American policy has ever embraced the idea of income redistribution. (Author)

Plattner, Marc F.

1979-01-01

68

The Continuing Good News about Welfare Reform. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the time of its enactment, liberal groups passionately denounced the welfare reform legislation, predicting that it would result in substantial increases in poverty, hunger, and other social ills. Contrary to these alarming forecasts, welfare reform has been effective in meeting each of its goals. Data from various sources show that overall…

Rector, Robert; Fagan, Patrick F.

69

"Responding to Welfare Reform" Conference (Syracuse, NY, February 26, 1998). Conference Presentation Summaries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains presentation summaries from a conference on "Responding to Welfare Reform." The first presentation, from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), deals with the impact of welfare reform on two-year colleges. It discusses the national impact of TANF, the results from a July 1997 AACC survey concerning community…

State Univ. of New York, Albany. Two Year Coll. Development Center.

70

Impact of the 1996 Welfare Reform on Child and Family Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examined the impact of the 1996 Welfare Reform, based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using a sample of 1,681 single mothers living in poverty, this study compared the effects of economic well-being and home environment scores on their children during pre- and post-Welfare Reform years. Following the 1996…

Lee, Kyunghee

2009-01-01

71

President Carter's Proposal for Welfare Reform: Work and Training Opportunities Act of 1979 and The Social Welfare Reform Amendments of 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Work and Training Opportunities Act of 1979 and the Social Welfare Reform Amendments of 1979 are designed to help more needy families become self - sufficient and to establish nationwide standards for minimum welfare benefits. The Act, which will be i...

1979-01-01

72

Assessing the effects of welfare reform policies on reproductive and infant health.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The welfare reform law of 1996 marked a historical moment in US policy toward the poor by ending the entitlement to cash assistance, by requiring work, and by establishing time limits. This article examines the potential impact on the health of women and children, the primary recipients of welfare benefits. METHODS: The authors outline the reproductive health outcomes most likely to be sensitive to welfare policies, identify indicators that might be used to assess these outcomes, review empirical evidence, and suggest specific methods and data sources. RESULTS: State welfare requirements could improve health outcomes or deter families from Medicaid and food stamps, as well as income support, thus worsening health outcomes. National and state data may prove useful in detecting these effects; however, new data sources may be required for specific health-related questions. CONCLUSIONS: Assessing the effects of welfare policies on reproductive and infant health is possible, although challenging. Reauthorization of the legislation is required in 2002; it is essential that the consequences for health be included in the next round of public debate.

Wise, P; Chavkin, W; Romero, D

1999-01-01

73

From social security to individual responsibility (Part Two): Writing off poor women's work in the Welfare Reform Act 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second paper of a 2-part article which draws on interdisciplinary feminist perspectives to critique New Labour's welfare reform agenda. Through examining the Welfare Reform Bill and the subsequent Welfare Reform Act 2009, the paper argues that the increased use of conditionality and sanctions in relation to female benefit claimants – particularly lone mothers – “writes-off” their caring

Emily Grabham; Jenny Smith

2010-01-01

74

Welfare Regimes for Aging Populations: No Single Path for Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider recent trends in pension policies in OECD countries in light of demographic aging associated with welfare regime type (Liberal, Social Democratic, Continental, and Southern European). These regime types represent different responsibilities assumed for social security on the part of the market, the state, and the family. While there are significant differences in labor market characteristics, the demographic similarities

Mehmet F. Aysan; Roderic Beaujot

2009-01-01

75

The Welfare Reform Debate: Implications for Child Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shifts in child care policies are on the horizon. Congress has passed landmark changes in federal welfare programs that will have a major impact on the demand for child care and require states to re-examine many of their current child care policies. This paper by the Children's Defense Fund is intended to help child care advocates understand the…

Blank, Helen

76

Welfare to Work: Child Care Assistance Limited; Welfare Reform May Expand Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From 1991 through 1993, federal and state spending on child care subsidies to help current and former welfare recipients work or go to school grew from just over $600 million to over $1 billion. As the Congress and the states consider and test various app...

1995-01-01

77

State Welfare Rules, TANF Exits, and Geographic Context: Does Place Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research compares the likelihood of exiting TANF with and without employment and the effects of important state TANF rules on welfare exits in more disadvantaged (large Rustbelt cities and poor southern nonmetro) and less disadvantaged (other metro and other nonmetro) areas during the 1996-2003 post-welfare reform period. Hierarchical…

Irving, Shelley K.

2008-01-01

78

Policy experts, politicians, and others debate successes and failures of welfare reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On and off the rolls, women work to get aheadhttp://www.kansascity.com/mld/kansascity/news/local/15329233.htmNPR: Legislator Offers First-Person View of Welfare [Real Player]http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5689095In Focus: Ten Years of Welfare Reform [pdf]http://www.brookings.edu/comm/infocus/welfare.htmNPR: Where the Welfare Law Failed Fathershttp://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5671231Fact Sheet: The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/ofa/prwora96.htmSome sixty years after its introduction during the New Deal era, the essence of social welfare in the United States was dramatically transformed with the passage of The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. Despite its cumbersome name, the Act effectively placed a five-year time limit on welfare assistance, and also required a significant commitment on the part of recipients to find work. As various groups and individuals reflected on the past ten years, some were quick to note that the number of people on welfare has dropped 60 percent. Others have been more sanguine, noting that these reforms continue to inadequately address deeper problems, particularly those of single mothers with few job qualifications or education. Some critics continue to suggest that these problems are related to structural changes in the economy, and others continue to blame the so-called âÂÂculture of povertyâÂÂ. The debates over what to do in order to solve the problems of working families continues to be intense, with some groups pushing to encourage marriage as a solution, and others seeking to provide more money for child care and higher minimum wages. The first link will take users to a piece from the Pittsburgh Post-GazetteâÂÂs own Steve Levin that takes a closer look at the effects of welfare reform on several local residents. The second link leads to a similar piece which looks at womenâÂÂs experience with the welfare system in and around Kansas City. The third link leads to a provocative piece from National Public Radio which features Montana legislator Mary Caferro talking about her own first-hand experience as a welfare recipient. Moving right along, visitors will find a diverse set of scholarly writings on welfare reform at the fourth site, offered courtesy of The Brookings Institution. The fifth link offers commentary by two scholars (Ron Haskins and Ronald Mincy) about how public policy should be adjusted over the next decade to meet the needs of poor families. Finally, the last link leads to a basic fact sheet on The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.

Grinnell, Max

2006-01-01

79

Welfare Reform. Hearings on S. 869, S. 1001, S. 1511, before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (October 14 and 28, 1987). Part 2 of 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of hearings, the second of three on welfare reform, focuses on the following legislation: (1) the Family Security Act (S. 1511); (2) child support enforcement bills (S. 1001 and S. 869); and (3) the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Employment and Training Reorganization Act. Among the speakers and witnesses were the following:…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

80

Child Welfare in 25 States: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview presents a summary of the major findings of a 25-state survey of child welfare service delivery systems, as studied by Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. in association with the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) during the period of November 1975 through February 1976. The initial products of the survey were 25 state profiles; these…

National Center for Child Advocacy (DHEW/OHD), Washington, DC.

81

Integration into the Social Demographic Welfare State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the assumption that the social democratic welfare state is better than others in integrating immigrants into society, or at least that the comprehensive welfare state should compensate for the problems of labour market entry. A number of key indicators from The Living Conditions Survey are used to show that this assumption is…

Hjerm, Mikael

2005-01-01

82

Doing Effective Evaluations: A Case Study of Family Empowerment Due to Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a comprehensive evaluation framework and applies it to a family empowerment program in Montana that was developed as an aspect of welfare reform. The framework encompasses seven areas from developing objectives to developing a sound conceptual framework. (SLD)

Dunnagan, Tim; Duncan, Stephen F.; Paul, Lynn

2000-01-01

83

45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-10-01 true How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 260.73 Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF...260.73 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the...

2013-10-01

84

Welfare Reform Impacts on the Public Housing Program: A Preliminary Forecast: HUD USER  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users may download this report and accompanying charts from the HUD USER site. The report "examines the implications of welfare reform for public housing authorities (PHAs), whose residents traditionally contribute a portion of their incomes for rent." The report focuses on a small number of diverse housing authorities and finds that the effects of welfare reform on tenant incomes and PHA rent revenues will most probably vary considerably.

85

Welfare Reform and the Need for a Two-Generational Approach: A Wisconsin Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

ne particular challenge of welfare reform, according to Corbett (1993), is the difficulty of achieving two important but oftentimes conflicting goals—reducing family dependency on welfare while enhancing the well- being of children. Reaching either goal alone would be relatively simple, but at- tempting to reach both goals at the same time has proven extraordinarily com- plex. For example, dependency on

Karen Bogenschneider

86

Making the 1996 Welfare Reform Work: The Promise of a Job  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy makers often tout the finding that Temporary Assistance for Needy Families caseloads have shrunk by 50% or more since the passage of the 1996 welfare reform act (Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Reconciliation Act). Less well publicized is the economic fate of these “welfare leavers.” Extensive evidence shows that, despite the fact that as many as 60% exit with

Anthony J. Mallon; Guy V. G. Stevens

2011-01-01

87

Reforming Welfare: What Does It Mean for Rural Areas? Issues in Food Assistance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 2000, a conference on the rural dimensions of welfare reform and food assistance policy brought together researchers, welfare policy experts, and rural scholars. This issue brief summarizes some major findings of the conference and suggests future policy options to better address the differing needs of rural and urban families. Between 1994…

Whitener, Leslie A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Weber, Bruce A.

88

Constructing deservingness: federal welfare reform, supplemental security income, and elderly immigrants.  

PubMed

On August 22, 1996, President Clinton signed the welfare reform law that ended eligibility for all immigrants to federal means tested entitlements. Poor elderly immigrants on Supplemental Security Income were specifically targeted. This article documents how the print media responded to these policy changes. The following are the major research questions: (1) How were older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income portrayed in the print media before and after federal welfare reform? (2) Who was involved in the print media coverage of older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income before and after federal welfare reform? (3) What types of statements were made by those involved in the print media coverage of older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income, before and after federal welfare reform? The approach used was an in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles from major U.S. newspapers. The findings demonstrate that older immigrants were constructed as "undeserving" in news articles prior to the passage of the federal welfare reform bill. However, after the passage of the federal welfare reform bill the coverage of older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income started to change, and older immigrants were portrayed as "deserving." In advancing aging policy for poor, vulnerable elderly, such as elderly immigrants, advocates, health and social service providers can play an influential role in bringing their voices to the print media. PMID:12418380

Yoo, G J

2001-01-01

89

Progressing beyond the Welfare State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines a neo-Deweyan strategy to transform American public schools into genuine community schools that function as central agencies for the development of a democratic welfare society. John Dewey's thesis was that a well-functioning school system constitutes the necessary, though not sufficient, condition for a well-functioning…

Benson, Lee; Harkavy, Ira

1991-01-01

90

Welfare state regimes and population health: integrating the East Asian welfare states.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that population health varies significantly by welfare state regime. However, these studies have focused exclusively on the welfare states of Europe, North America and Australasia. This focus ignores the existence of welfare states in other parts of the world, specifically in East Asia. This study therefore investigates whether the association between population health (Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth) and welfare state regimes is still valid when the welfare states of East Asia are added into the analysis. It also examines whether population health is worse in the East Asian welfare states. Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth as well as GDP per capita and social and health expenditures as a percentage of GDP were examined in 30 welfare states, categorised into six different regimes (Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern, Eastern European and East Asian). ANOVA analysis showed significant differences by welfare state regime in the magnitude of IMR, LE, SE, HE and GDP per capita. However, when controlling for GDP per capita in the ANCOVA analyses, only Life Expectancy (R(2)=0.58, adjusted R(2)=0.47, p<0.05) and Social Expenditure (R(2)=0.70, adjusted R(2)=0.61, p<0.05) differed significantly by welfare state regime. 47% of the variation in Life Expectancy was explained by welfare state regime type. Further, the East Asian welfare states did not have the worst health outcomes. The study concludes by highlighting the need to expand comparative health analysis both in terms of the range of countries examined and also in terms of incorporating other societal and public health factors-towards a 'public health regime' analysis. PMID:19748149

Abdul Karim, Syahirah; Eikemo, Terje A; Bambra, Clare

2010-01-01

91

Distributive Justice and Attitudes Toward the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current debates concerning the viability of the welfare state evoke the question of the social bases of support of the welfare state. Past research has documented fairly consistent relationships between sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes toward welfare policies. Yet, the nature of these relationships is not well understood. In the paper we argue that the level of support for the welfare

Noah Lewin-Epstein; Amit Kaplan; Asaf Levanon

2003-01-01

92

In welfare reform's wake, lawmakers take multifaceted approach to teen pregnancy.  

PubMed

In response to the 1996 US federal welfare reform law, states have prioritized legislative initiatives to reduce the incidence of adolescent pregnancy. By 1994, 31 states and the District of Columbia already had adolescent pregnancy prevention initiative in place, with most granting financial support to community-based efforts, conducting media or outreach campaigns, sponsoring education-related activities, and providing contraceptive services. Additional federal funding to reduce out-of-wedlock births to women on welfare has been almost exclusively channeled by states into programs for adolescents. The five states that achieve the largest decreases in numbers of illegitimate births without increasing numbers of abortions will receive a bonus of $20-25 million from the federal government. Louisiana and Arizona enacted measures that appear to respond to this incentive. In Louisiana, the initiative bonus would be passed on to the ten parishes with the most success, and Arizona allocated its entire federal portion of the new welfare block grant to the Department of Health for programs to decrease pregnancy without increasing abortion rates. While the federal government's program emphasizes proscriptive measures, such as abstinence-only education, a number of states have begun, continued, or expanded comprehensive programs to prevent adolescent pregnancy. These include Arkansas, Rhode Island, Iowa, Mississippi, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Efforts were made to improve public awareness about adolescent pregnancy in Florida, Louisiana, and Pennsylvania. Broad-based bills fell to gubernatorial vetos in California and South Carolina, and a measure to create an independent commission to develop a state plan to reduce adolescent pregnancy rates is pending in Massachusetts. PMID:12292777

Kaeser, L

1997-09-01

93

Workfare and Trade Unions: Labor Market Repercussions of Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workfare proposals concentrate on the work incentives for welfare recipients, thus focusing on the labor supply side. This paper analyzes the effects workfare has on labor demand when the labor market is unionized. As workfare reduces the number of recipients of public financial assistance, a workfare regime, as opposed to a welfare system, weakens the outside option of trade unions

Ronnie Schöb

2003-01-01

94

European Imperatives and the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of social policy within the context of the European Union has mostly been analysed from a supranational view. This thesis will assess the impact of European integration on national welfare state and thus will analyse how the supranational institution affects the social policies of member states. This thesis will discuss the impact of European integration, and more specifically

Patrik Marier

1997-01-01

95

How Are Immigrants Faring after Welfare Reform? Preliminary Evidence from Los Angeles and New York City. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999 and 2000, immigrants in Los Angeles, California, and New York, New York were aurveyed about their status in the context of welfare reform, examining the living conditions of 3,447 immigrant families roughly 3 years after welfare reform was implemented and several months before the federal government issued guidance about the public charge…

Capps, Randy; Ku, Leighton; Fix, Michael; Furgiuele, Chris; Passel, Jeff; Ramchand, Rajeev; McNiven, Scott; Perez-Lopez, Dan; Fielder, Eve; Greenwell, Michael; Hays, Tonya

96

Child Health, Medicaid, and Welfare "Reform." Report III, Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Confronting the New Politics of Child and Family Policy in the United States" is an 18-month project designed to help states, local government, and the voluntary sector as they respond to the social policy debates and changes precipitated by the 104th Congress. The project's main vehicle, aside from exploratory and analytic work, is a series of…

Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.; Kahn, Alfred J., Ed.

97

Welfare Reform: Outcomes for TANF Recipients with Impairments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA), the Congress made sweeping changes to federal welfare policy for needy families. PRWORA created the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) ...

2002-01-01

98

Complaint Resolution in the Context of Welfare Reform: How W-2 Settles Disputes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtually rewriting how government assistance would be administered to those in need, Wisconsin's Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 has had a dramatic impact on all people previously eligible for federally administered Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). In particular, PRWORA and the subsequent Wisconsin Works, or W-2, program has mandated that no one receive benefits for no more than twenty four months and that, over the course of that period, vocational training is actively sought and put to use. Highly controversial and replacing a system more than sixty years old, both PRWORA and W-2 have met with a great deal of criticism and a number of legal challenges, many of which have been filed on behalf of those failing to meet the demands of a more stringent system of needs and compliance analyses. Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation's Report "Complaint Resolution in the Context of Welfare Reform: How W-2 Settles Disputes" thoroughly details the selection and appeals provisions of Wisconsin's radically revamped, welfare statutes. While challenging reading at times, the report does a magnificent job of outlining the steps put in place by the Wisconsin State Legislature to ensure that all potential recipients enjoy due process in their requests for government assistance. Additionally, for those attempting to assess the scope and efficacy of the W-2 program, the report also offers valuable historical perspective.

Lynn, Suzanne.

2001-01-01

99

Marriage, Family Structure and Economic Well-Being: The Second Round of Welfare Reform. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that many from across the ideological spectrum suggest that welfare reform address policies that promote marriage and two-parent families. Discusses marriage, family structure and economic well-being, the benefits of marriage for adults and children, and low-income unwed mothers and marriage. Suggests that marriage and two-parent families…

Lindjord, Denise

2002-01-01

100

Welfare Reform and Older Immigrants: Food Stamp Program Participation and Food Insecurity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The welfare reform bill of 1996 severely constrained noncitizens' eligibility for the Food Stamp Program (FSP). This study examined the effects of eligibility restrictions on older immigrants' FSP participation and food insecurity. We paid special attention to household composition and household eligibility as well as older immigrants'…

Nam, Yunju; Jung, Hyo Jin

2008-01-01

101

FYI: Reforming Social Welfare Policy...Indiana's Children...Lead Poisoning Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes results of reports and resources concerning the reform of social welfare policy. Focuses on a profile of Indiana children, hospital policies and programs designed to meet the psychosocial needs of hospitalized children and their families, a senior center/latchkey program, and lead poisoning prevention. (BB)

Children Today, 1989

1989-01-01

102

Welfare Reforms and Employment of Single Mothers: Are Rural Areas Keeping Pace?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1996 welfare reforms narrowed rural-urban differences in employment for both less-educated and more-educated single mothers, and raised the employment rate of single mothers, overall and for all racial/ethnic groups except nonmetro Hispanics. These findings suggest that the aggregate effects of obstacles to employment are no greater in…

Lerman, Robert I.; McKernan, Signe-Mary; Pindus, Nancy

2001-01-01

103

Effects of Welfare Reform on Educational Acquisition of Young Adult Women. NBER Working Paper No. 14466  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital accumulation among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, has promoted work rather than educational acquisition for this group.…

Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope

2008-01-01

104

Work, Income, and Material Hardship after Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of women who went off welfare between 1997 and 1998 (n=753, 693) showed that those with the most work involvement over the year had higher levels of financial and subjective well-being. Regardless of work involvement, substantial numbers reported serious economic difficulties and financial strain. Many still needed income supplements and…

Danziger, Sandra; Corcoran, Mary; Danziger, Sheldon; Heflin, Colleen M.

2000-01-01

105

Child Care Issues Impacting Welfare Reform in the Rural South.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Access to affordable, quality child care is a major barrier to successful employment for many families. About one-fifth of families return to welfare within a few months of leaving, with lack of accessible child care and transportation being the most frequently cited reasons. These issues are likely to be compounded in the rural South. Information…

Ghazvini, Alisa S.; Mullis, Ann K.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Park, Jennifer J.

1999-01-01

106

Welfare Reform: What about the Children? Welfare, Children & Families: A Three-City Study. Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief describes children from "Welfare, Children and Families: A Three-City Study," using data from the first wave of the study which involved a random-sample survey of about 2,400 low-income children and their caregivers (mainly mothers) in low-income neighborhoods. Researchers collected information from mothers on their employment,…

Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lohman, Brenda J.; Pittman, Laura D.

107

Welfare Reform and Lone Parents in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last thirty years saw dramatic increases in the proportion of children living in lone parent households. In 1997 the incoming Labour government initiated a series of policy reforms aimed at reducing this high level of child poverty. A key element of their strategy was a move towards increasing employment rates among families with children by a combination of increased

Paul Gregg; Susan Harkness; Sarah Smith

2007-01-01

108

Immigrants' Access to Public Assistance: Missed Opportunities following Welfare Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Personal Responsibility and Work Reconciliation Act of 1996 reformed public assistance programs and reduced the safety net of supports for low-income families. Children living in low-income immigrant families face particular challenges in the current policy environment. In this article, the authors consider what these changes have meant for…

Crosby, Danielle A.; Hatfield, Bridget E.

2008-01-01

109

Welfare Reform: Former TANF Recipients with Impairments Less Likely to Be Employed and More Likely to Receive Federal Supports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Debates surrounding the reauthorization of welfare reform legislation have involved some discussion regarding outcomes for TANF recipients with physical or mental impairments. To inform this discussion, GAO was asked to report on (1) whether recipients wi...

2002-01-01

110

Welfare Reform and Community Colleges: A Policy and Research Context. MDRC Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the state of welfare after the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) passed by Congress in 1996. The National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS) is a federally initiated study that explores the questions of what works best and for whom. NEWWS evaluated seven areas across the…

Brock, Thomas; Matus-Grossman, Lisa; Hamilton, Gayle

111

Long-Term Implications of Welfare Reform for the Development of Adolescents and Young Adults  

PubMed Central

We draw upon the 3-wave longitudinal dataset called Welfare Children and Families: A Three-City Study to examine the long-term implications for adolescents and young adults (N=783) of mothers’ welfare receipt and labor force participation from 1999 to 2005. In general, changes in mothers’ work and welfare patterns were not associated with deterioration or improvement in youth development (ages 16 to 20 years at wave 3). The few significant associations suggested that youth whose mothers increased employment (net of welfare participation) were more likely to show declines in serious behavior problems and delinquency compared to youth whose mothers were unemployed or employed part-time during the study period. Welfare roll exits (controlling for employment experiences) were unrelated to adolescent and young adult outcomes. Mothers’ employment transitions were linked to improvements in household income and mothers’ self esteem in addition to reductions in financial strain and their own illegal activities. However, these associations did not explain the relation between maternal employment and youths’ improved behavior. These results do not support the predictions of either the supporters or the opponents of welfare reform, an outcome we discuss.

Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Cherlin, Andrew J.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Fomby, Paula; Ribar, David C.; Coley, Rebekah Levine

2011-01-01

112

45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-10-01 true How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 260.74 Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF...260.74 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect...

2013-10-01

113

Culture, class, and service delivery: The politics of welfare reform and an urban bioethics Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  Culture and class remain contested terrains in policy narratives about the right of the urban poor to access health and social\\u000a services delivery systems under welfare reform. An urban bioethics agenda is needed to address these dilemmas that have arisen\\u000a in the context of PRWORA and had an impact on access to health and social services in the urban environment.2;18

Gerard Fergerson

2001-01-01

114

Welfare Time Limits: State Policies, Implementation, and Effects on Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of welfare time limits on families in different states was examined in a comprehensive study that involved the following activities: (1) a survey of state welfare administrators regarding states' time-limit policies and experiences to date; (2) site visits to five states; and (3) a synthesis of research on time limits. The following…

Bloom, Dan; Farrell, Mary; Fink, Barbara

115

Delivering Health Care and Mental Health Care Services to Children in Family Foster Care after Welfare and Health Care Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the essential features of a health care system that can meet the special needs of children in out-of-home care. Discusses some of the major recent changes brought about by welfare and health care reform. Notes that it remains to be seen whether the quality of services will improve as a result of these reforms. (Author)

Simms, Mark D.; Freundlich, Madelyn; Battistelli, Ellen S.; Kaufman, Neal D.

1999-01-01

116

Child Protective Intervention in the Context of Welfare Reform: The Effects of Work and Welfare on Maltreatment Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent changes in welfare policy have produced changes in parental work and welfare receipt. These factors are assessed in relation to investigated reports of child abuse and neglect using survey data on 1998 welfare recipients in nine Illinois counties, in conjunction with longitudinal administrative data on cash welfare benefits, employment, and…

Slack, Kristen Shook; Holl, Jane L.; Lee, Bong Joo; McDaniel, Marla; Altenbernd, Lisa; Stevens, Amy Bush

2003-01-01

117

Methodology and estimation of the welfare impact of energy reforms on households in Azerbaijan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation develops a new approach that enables policy-makers to analyze welfare gains from improvements in the quality of infrastructure services in developing countries where data are limited and supply is subject to interruptions. An application of the proposed model in the former Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan demonstrates how this approach can be used in welfare assessment of energy sector reforms. The planned reforms in Azerbaijan include a set of measures that will result in a significant improvement in supply reliability, accompanied by a significant increase in the prices of energy services so that they reach the cost recovery level. Currently, households in rural areas receive electricity and gas for only a few hours a day because of a severe deterioration of the energy infrastructure following the collapse of the Soviet Union. The reforms that have recently been initiated will have far-reaching poverty and distributional consequences for the country as they result in an improvement in supply reliability and an increase in energy prices. The new model of intermittent supply developed in this dissertation is based on the household production function approach and draws on previous research in the energy reliability literature. Since modern energy sources (network gas and electricity) in Azerbaijan are cleaner and cheaper than the traditional fuels (fuel wood, etc.), households choose modern fuels whenever they are available. During outages, they rely on traditional fuels. Theoretical welfare measures are derived from a system of fuel demands that takes into account the intermittent availability of energy sources. The model is estimated with the data from the Azerbaijan Household Energy Survey, implemented by the World Bank in December 2003/January 2004. This survey includes an innovative contingent behavior module in which the respondents were asked about their energy consumption patterns in specified reform scenarios. Estimation results strongly indicate that households in the areas with poor supply quality have a high willingness to pay for reliability improvements. However, a relatively small group of households may incur substantial welfare losses from an electricity price increase even when it is combined with a partial reliability improvement. Unlike an earlier assessment of the same reforms in Azerbaijan, analysis in this dissertation clearly shows that targeted investments in improving service reliability may be the best way to mitigate adverse welfare consequences of electricity price increases. Hence, policymakers should focus their attention on ensuring that quality improvements are a central component of power sector reforms. Survey evidence also shows that, although households may incur sizable welfare losses from indoor air pollution when they rely on traditional fuels, they do not recognize indoor air pollution as a factor contributing to the high incidence of respiratory illness among fuel wood users. Therefore, benefits may be greater if policy interventions that improve the reliability of modern energy sources are combined with an information campaign about the adverse health effects of fuel wood use. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Klytchnikova, Irina

118

Individual Attitudes towards Immigrants: Welfare-State Determinants Across Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes welfare-state determinants of individual attitudes towards im- migrants - within and across countries - and their interaction with labor-market drivers of preferences. We consider two difierent mechanisms through which a redistributive welfare system might adjust as a result of immigration. Under the flrst scenario, immi- gration has a larger impact on individuals at the top of the

Giovanni Facchini; Anna Maria Mayda

119

Marijuana and cocaine use among female African-American welfare recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key issue that came to the forefront during the welfare reform debate in the United States during the 1990s concerned the relationship between welfare receipt and drug use and abuse. This paper examines the relationship between persistent welfare assistance, welfare background, and marijuana and cocaine use among African-American women. We hypothesize that women who have received welfare assistance for

Chyvette T Williams; Hee-Soon Juon; Margaret E Ensminger

2004-01-01

120

United States: Social Welfare Policy and Privatization in Postindustrial Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is widely acknowledged that the US welfare state evolved differently from those of other industrialized nations (Karger\\u000a & Stoesz, 2002; Chatterjee, 1996). Pragmatic, rather than ideological, in origin, it relied less on the national government\\u000a and more on the private sector than its European counterparts (Midgley, 1997). In comparison to the welfare states of Western\\u000a Europe, the US version

Michael Reisch

121

Effectiveness of the Postemployment Services Demonstration: Preliminary Findings. Off Welfare and into Work: A Report Series of the Postemployment Services Demonstration. Preliminary Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sustained employment is the primary route to self-sufficiency. Recent welfare reforms focus on intensifying efforts to move individuals from welfare into work. As states impose work requirements and limitations on a larger group of welfare recipients, mor...

A. Rangarajan A. Meckstroth T. Novak

1998-01-01

122

Class Action, Community Organization, and School Reform. Aspira of New York, Philadelphia Welfare Rights Organization and Harlem Parents Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on educational reform shows how three dynamic but quite different organizations are currently attempting to secure quality education for urban disadvantaged children. Aspira of New York, Philadelphia Welfare Rights Organization, and Harlem Parents Union are three self-help groups that seek quality education for poor children but differ…

Goldberg, Gertrude S.

1976-01-01

123

A Review of the Major Issues and Problems of Welfare Reform; A Background Paper Developed for the Community Services Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This background paper was developed for the Community Services Administration (CSA) in order to provide background information concerning welfare reform. It examines possible public assistance strategies, such as the following: (1) broad-based cash transfer (negative income tax, wage rate subsidies, demogrants, and family allowances), (2)…

Technical Assistance Research Programs, Inc., Washington, DC.

124

New Hope for People with Low Incomes: Two-Year Results of a Program To Reduce Poverty and Reform Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document details the 2-year results of the New Hope Project, which was conducted in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to reduce poverty, reform welfare, and improve the overall well-being of poor people by providing a mix of incentives and services, including supplemental income, child care subsidies, guaranteed affordable health insurance, and…

Bos, Johannes M.; Huston, Aletha C.; Granger, Robert C.; Duncan, Greg J.; Brock, Thomas W.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.; And Others

125

Finance and Welfare States in Globalizing Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is theoretically clear and may be verified empirically that efficient financial markets can make it less necessary for policy to try and offset the welfare effects of labour income risk and unequal consumption dynamics. The literature has also pointed out that, since international competition exposes workers to new sources of risk at the same time as it makes it

Giuseppe Bertola

2007-01-01

126

Federal Habeas Corpus Reform: The State's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing a national survey of assistant state attorneys general, this article examines the effects of the Rehnquist Court's judicially initiated habeas corpus reforms upon the justice system. Although the Court's initiatives were directed at the branch of government about which the justices presumably possess their greatest knowledge and expertise, the reforms generated unanticipated consequences. Contrary to the justices' goal of

Christopher E. Smith

1995-01-01

127

Political order and the ambivalence of expertise: Count Rumford and welfare reform in late eighteenth-century Munich.  

PubMed

From 1784 to 1798, the military expert and natural philosopher Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, worked in Munich for Elector Karl Theodor of Bavaria on a series of reforms that demanded a careful articulation of the reformer's expertise. This case study of Rumford's welfare reforms posits that the ambivalent nature of expertise, which relies simultaneously on generally accessible and on exclusive knowledge, was already present in the conceptual framework of Rumford's mechanical experimental philosophy and that this ambivalence was visible in the performative practice of the experimenter. Gestures of revelation and concealment and of displaying and obscuring were crucial to Rumford's (temporary) success in establishing his authority in Bavaria. Challenged by local advisers, the reformer called on a newly emergent form of public. Rumford's conceptual and practical articulation of expertise thus contributed to an increasing polarization of the political order in the Bavarian capital. PMID:20973458

Maerker, Anna

2010-01-01

128

Workforce Development and Welfare Reform: Potential Impact Upon Persons with Disabilities and Community Rehabilitation Programs. Finding Answers, Providing Solutions, Ensuring Futures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Center conducted this study in response to concerns about the impact of workforce development and welfare reform upon persons with disabilities being served by community rehabilitation programs. Twenty-three focus groups involving over 200 individuals...

C. C. Coker M. Flynn F. E. Menz D. C. McAlees

1998-01-01

129

Have the 1996 welfare reforms and expansion of the earned income tax credit eliminated the need for a basic income guarantee in the US?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare was reformed significantly in 1996, and the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) was expanded substantially during the last decade. In the wake of these events, welfare rolls have shrunk dramatically and employment among the poor has increased, leading many to conclude that these policies have achieved important equity and efficiency goals. It is argued here that these conclusions are

James B. Bryan

2005-01-01

130

Text, Lies, and the Welfare State: The Portrayal of Welfare Recipients in Welfare-to-Work Educational Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed the ideological messages about welfare recipients promoted in two welfare-to-work educational programs. Data were collected through interviews with students, teachers, and administrators at an adult literacy classroom serving unemployed women on welfare and an employment preparation program designed to increase job skills of women…

Sandlin, Jennifer A.

131

The project organization as a policy tool in implementing welfare reforms in the public sector.  

PubMed

Organizational design is considered in policy literature as a forceful policy tool to put policy to action. However, previous research has not analyzed the project organization as a specific form of organizational design and, hence, has not given much attention to such organizations as a strategic choice when selecting policy tools. The purpose of the article is to investigate the project as a policy tool; how do such temporary organizations function as a specific form of organization when public policy is implemented? The article is based on a framework of policy implementation and is illustrated with two welfare reforms in the Swedish public sector, which were organized and implemented as project organizations. The case studies and the analysis show that it is crucial that a project organization fits into the overall governance structure when used as a policy tool. If not, the project will remain encapsulated and will not have sufficient impact on the permanent organizational structure. The concept of encapsulation indicates a need to protect the project from a potential hostile environment. The implication of this is that organizational design as a policy tool is a matter that deserves more attention in the strategic discussion on implementing public policies and on the suitability of using certain policy tools. PMID:22733712

Jensen, Christian; Johansson, Staffan; Löfström, Mikael

2013-01-01

132

The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Education, Welfare Reform, Reducing Smoking, Workman's Compensation, Children's Health & Safety, Unintended Pregnancies/Births. Report No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A telephone survey of a random sample of over 1,650 Pennsylvania citizens solicited opinions on proposals for improvements in the areas of: (1) welfare reform; (2) smoking reduction; (3) unintended pregnancies and unwanted births; (4) education reform; (5) children's health and safety; and (6) workmen's compensation. Each section of this report…

Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

133

Remember the Children: Mothers Balance Work and Child Care under Welfare Reform. Growing Up in Poverty Project 2000; Wave 1 Findings--California, Connecticut, Florida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details a study that sought to answer whether welfare reform was meeting its goals of reducing mothers' dependency and boosting children's futures, and whether these reforms were having discernable effects on young children. During the second half of 1998, the study randomly selected 948 single mothers with young children from 5…

Policy Analysis for California Education, Berkeley, CA.

134

The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act: Implementation Issues and a Look Ahead at Additional Child Welfare Reforms. Working Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The passage of the Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act (P.L. 110-351) represents the most significant federal child welfare reform in more than a decade. While the scope and nature of the federal reforms are far reaching, the actual impact of the legislation on children will depend largely upon how it is implemented.…

Geen, Rob

2009-01-01

135

Social citizenship, solidarity and welfare in regionalized and plurinational states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social welfare literature has often assumed the existence of a unified, territorial nation-state. This would provide the basis for solidarity and social citizenship, while mobilizing the resources for redistribution. Spatial rescaling and boundary-opening have put the model in question as market-making, market regulation and market-correction have migrated to different levels. States have also widely decentralized. Some fear that this

Michael Keating

2009-01-01

136

Medicaid, the States and Health Care Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care reform in the US is relying extensively on Medicaid for achieving universal health coverage. This article addresses the question of whether Medicaid is an appropriate foundation for reducing the ranks of the uninsured, given its dependence on economic conditions and the vulnerability of state budgets, along with the ever-changing preferences of governors and legislators. This article assesses the

Laura Katz Olson

2012-01-01

137

Women's Political Representation and Welfare State Spending in 12 Capitalist Democracies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the sharpest criticisms of welfare state research is insufficient attention to factors relating to gender relations and inequalities. Recent scholarship has begun to address welfare state effects on gender-related outcomes, but the evaluation of theories of welfare development with respect to gender factors is somewhat less developed,…

Bolzendahl, Catherine; Brooks, Clem

2007-01-01

138

Responses to Food Insecurity in the Changing Canadian Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the post-Depression era, Canada developed as a welfare state. However, the past 15 years have been characterized by high levels of poverty and unemployment. With the gradual erosion of social programs, a variety of ad hoc, community-based programs have emerged in response to problems of poverty. These include food assistance programs and self-help and community development initiatives designed to

Valerie Tarasuk; Barbara Davis

1996-01-01

139

Useful and Priceless Children in Contemporary Welfare States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is an exercise in historical sociology. It deals with inconsistencies, absences, and unresolved issues in understandings of children’s usefulness. Demography, histories of childhood, feminist research on housework and welfare states, time-use studies, psychology, ethnography, and “new sociology of childhood” often use incompatible notions of the productivity of children’s time and effort. What does and does not constitute work

PAVLA MILLER

2005-01-01

140

Across the Great Divide. From a Welfare State to a New Market State: The Case of VET  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper revisits the crucial period following the Arab oil boycott of 1973, when the welfare state in the UK finally collapsed along with the heavy industrial base upon which it rested. Unlike the post-war welfare-state "settlement", the new post-welfare market state was imposed by Margaret Thatcher's governments. It was marked for vocational…

Ainley, Patrick

2007-01-01

141

Telecare, surveillance, and the welfare state.  

PubMed

In Europe, telecare is the use of remote monitoring technology to enable vulnerable people to live independently in their own homes. The technology includes electronic tags and sensors that transmit information about the user's location and patterns of behavior in the user's home to an external hub, where it can trigger an intervention in an emergency. Telecare users in the United Kingdom sometimes report their unease about being monitored by a "Big Brother," and the same kind of electronic tags that alert telecare hubs to the movements of someone with dementia who is "wandering" are worn by terrorist suspects who have been placed under house arrest. For these and other reasons, such as ordinary privacy concerns, telecare is sometimes regarded as an objectionable extension of a "surveillance state." In this article, we defend the use of telecare against the charge that it is Orwellian. In the United States, the conception of telecare primarily as telemedicine, and the fact that it is not typically a government responsibility, make a supposed connection with a surveillance state even more doubtful than in Europe. The main objection, we argue, to telecare is not its intrusiveness, but the danger of its deepening the isolation of those who use it. There are ways of organizing telecare so that the independence and privacy of users are enhanced, but personal isolation may be harder to address. As telecare is a means of reducing the cost of publicly provided social and health care, and the need to reduce public spending is growing, the correlative problem of isolation must be addressed alongside the goal of promoting independence. PMID:22881854

Sorell, Tom; Draper, Heather

2012-01-01

142

In Harm's Way? Domestic Violence, AFDC Receipt, and Welfare Reform. Research-in-Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted in Massachusetts to determine the effect of some welfare policy changes among families who receive public assistance and have experienced domestic violence. Interviews were conducted with a representative sample of 734 Massachusetts women who received welfare between January and June 1996. The survey found that one-fifth of…

Albelda, Randy

143

Double Jeopardy: An Assessment of the Felony Drug Provision of the Welfare Reform Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1996 the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program was replaced with a federal block grant program called Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), which imposed time limits and work requirements on welfare recipients. The welfare legislation placed a lifetime ban on TANF and food stamp benefits for convicted drug felons, although…

Adams, Rukaiyah; Onek, David; Riker, Alissa

144

Health system reform in the United States.  

PubMed

In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider. PMID:24596894

McDonough, John E

2014-01-01

145

Initial Impacts of Welfare Reform on the Incomes of Single-Mother Families.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several developments have enhanced the economic well-being of the nation's poorest families with children in recent years. Strong economic growth, unusually low unemployment rates, continued expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), and welfare po...

W. Primus L. Rawlings K. Larin K. Porter

1999-01-01

146

The impact of welfare reform on the parenting role of women in rural communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current family policy suggests that in order to restore family values we, as a society, need to focus on reviving a child-centered household. Full-time mothering is lauded as an honorable choice that will advance this goal and ultimately strengthen traditional family values. However, current welfare policy is contrary to this notion in that mandatory welfare-to-work programs deny women receiving public

Debra A. Henderson; Ann R. Tickamyer; Barry L. Tadlock

2005-01-01

147

State Child Welfare Program Self-Assessment Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides a systematic method for administrators and child welfare specialists to assess a child welfare service delivery system. The management of child welfare programs is considered within the framework of five management functions: planning, resource development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The manual contains seven…

Sundel, Martin; And Others

148

Welfare Reform. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the testimony and submissions presented at one of a series of hearings on welfare reform and reauthorization of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. The statement by Cynthia M. Fagnoni, managing director of education, workforce, and income security issues at the U.S. General Accounting Office, assesses…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

149

Family Welfare Reform Act of 1987. House of Representatives, 100th Congress, 1st Session Report Together with Additional and Dissenting Views to Accompany H.R. 1720.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report recommends that the Social Security Act Title XIX be amended to include a 24-month extension of Medicaid to families who become ineligible for cash assistance under the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. This amendment accompanies the Family Welfare Reform Act of 1987 (H.R. 1720), which is proposed to replace the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

150

Marriage and Welfare Reform: The Overwhelming Evidence That Marriage Education Works. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The erosion of marriage has caused enormous difficulties for children, parents, and society. Compared to children born within marriage, those born outside of marriage are overwhelmingly more likely to live in poverty, depend on welfare, and have behavior problems. They also may suffer depression and physical abuse, fail in school, abuse drugs, and…

Fagan, Patrick F.; Patterson, Robert W.; Rector, Robert E.

151

Teenage Childbearing and Welfare Reform: Lessons from a Decade of Demonstration and Evaluation Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews important facts and findings from the research on the causes and consequences of teenage childbearing. Describes those parents on welfare and their life circumstances that facilitate or impede their success as young parents and ways of mitigating the adverse consequences of early childbearing for the young mothers and their children. (AA)

Maynard, Rebecca

1995-01-01

152

Welfare Reform and Children: A Comparison of Leavers and Stayers in Georgia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the status of children living in families leaving welfare, including closed child-only cases. Describes the child and the adult outcomes that predict long-term child outcomes. Data for about 2,210 single-parent leaver families and about 660 child-only cases provide details about how these families joined the working poor. (SLD)

Rickman, Dana K.; Foster, E. Michael

2001-01-01

153

The Juggling Act: Navigating Parent Involvement in the Welfare Reform Era  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how parents supported their children's education while transitioning from welfare to work. Interviews with parents, elementary school educators, and staff at a community-based organization were conducted in an urban Tennessee community. Navigating work and parenting responsibilities was particularly challenging when children…

Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

2013-01-01

154

Bridging the Gap: Higher Education and Career-Centered Welfare Reform. Proceedings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference examined the current welfare policy and the continued use of higher education as a tool for moving low-income people into self-supporting careers. The proceedings include: welcoming remarks by Stephen Greenwald; keynote addresses by William Spriggs and Danny Simmons; a lunch address by Rae Alexander-Minter; remarks by Patricia…

Kosar, Kevin R., Ed.

155

‘The language of shirkers and scroungers?’ Talking about illness, disability and coalition welfare reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following establishment of the Conservative?Liberal Democrat coalition, welfare benefits and those who receive them have become of increased significance, with the government and the media alike lamenting the amount of people receiving benefits and what could, and indeed should, be done about it. With a recent White Paper outlining a new Universal Credit, an integrated working age credit that will

Kayleigh Garthwaite

2011-01-01

156

Work, health, and welfare: the association between working conditions, welfare states, and self-reported general health in Europe.  

PubMed

This article is the first to examine the association between self-reported general health and a wide range of working conditions at the European level and by type of welfare state regime. Data for 21,705 men and women ages 16 to 60 from 27 European countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. The influence of individual-level sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial working conditions and of the organization of work were assessed in multilevel logistic regression analyses, with additional stratification by welfare state regime type (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Eastern European, Scandinavian, and Southern). At the European level, we found that "not good" general health was more likely to be reported by workers more exposed to hazardous working conditions. Most notably, tiring working positions, job strain, and temporary job contracts were strongly associated with a higher likelihood of reporting "not good" health. Analysis by welfare state regime found that only tiring or painful working conditions were consistently associated with worse self-reported health in all regimes. There was no evidence that the Scandinavian welfare regime protected against the adverse health effects of poor working conditions. The article concludes by examining the implications for comparative occupational health research. PMID:24684087

Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; Van der Wel, Kjetil A; Eikemo, Terje A; Dragano, Nico

2014-01-01

157

Reclaiming the Disengaged: Reform of New Zealand's Vocational Education and Training and Social Welfare Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses Habermas' theory of the state and his idea of legitimation crisis to critically evaluate recent reforms in New Zealand designed to engage young people (16-24 years of age) in paid employment and/or education and training. The paper identifies three broad strategies adopted by the state to reclaim the disengaged and hence,…

Strathdee, Rob

2013-01-01

158

No Exit, No Voice: Women's Economic Dependency and the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the welfare state has been particularly concerned with variations in inequality between societies. These studies tend to view the family as a unit of shared interests where incomes are pooled and distributed equally This study makes a theoretical and empirical case for why it is important to look at economic dependency within the family in comparative welfare state

Barbara Hobson

1990-01-01

159

Welfare impacts of the 1996 United States - Canada Softwood Lumber (trade) Agreement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates welfare impacts of the 1996 United States - Canada Softwood Lumber (trade) Agree- ment (SLA), which set up a tariff-regulated quota system to restrict softwood lumber export from Canada to the United States. An aggregate price model is used to estimate the price impact of the SLA, and the implied quantity and welfare effects are examined. The

Daowei Zhang

2001-01-01

160

The Macroeconomic Effects of German Unification: Real Adjustments and the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effects of German unification in a model with capital accumulation, skill differences, and a welfare state. We argue that this event is similar to a mass migration of low-skilled agents holding no capital into a foreign country. Absent a welfare state, we observe an investment boom, depressed output, and employment conditions. Capital owners and high-skilled agents are

Fabio Canova; Morten O. Ravn

2000-01-01

161

The Welfare State and Relative Poverty in Rich Western Democracies, 1967-1997  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relationship between the welfare state and poverty with multiple measures of the welfare state and poverty in an unbalanced panel of 18 Western nations from 1967 to 1997. While addressing the limitations of past research, the analysis shows that social security transfers and public health spending significantly reduce…

Brady, David

2005-01-01

162

Impact of Recent Welfare and Immigration Reforms on Use of Medicaid for Prenatal Care by Immigrants in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the impact of the recent welfare and immigration changes on the use of Medicaid by low-income pregnant immigrant women in California. The study presents findings from interviews with government officials, safety-net prenatal care providers, and immigrant advocates who serve low-income pregnant Asian and Latina immigrants at the national, state, or local levels. These informants spoke of policy

Lisa Sun-Hee Park; Rhonda Sarnoff; Catherine Bender; Carol Korenbrot

2000-01-01

163

State health care reform: An analysis of strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States health care system faces significant challenges, particularly with problems of the uninsured and with the rising costs of care. These problems lead many to study and discuss strategies for reforming the health care system. Four different plans for ideal health care reform, set forth by notable scholars or organizations, are explained herein. Then, states within the United

Jennifer M Wrathall

2007-01-01

164

Market Inefficiency, Insurance Mandate and Welfare: U.S. Health Care Reform 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a stochastic dynamic general equilibrium overlapping generations (OLG) model with endogenous health capital to study the macroeconomic effects of the Affordable Care Act of March 2010 also known as the Obama health care reform. We find that the insurance mandate enforced with fines and premium subsidies successfully reduces adverse selection in private health insurance markets

Chung Tran; Juergen Jung

2011-01-01

165

Market Inefficiency, Insurance Mandate and Welfare: U.S. Health Care Reform 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a stochastic dynamic general equilibrium overlapping generations (OLG) model with endogenous health capital to study the macroeconomic effects of the Affordable Care Act of March 2010 also known as the Obama health care reform. We find that the insurance mandate enforced with fines and premium subsidies successfully reduces adverse selection in private health insurance markets

Juergen Jung; Chung Tran

2010-01-01

166

Tamil Refugees in Pain: Challenging Solidarity in the Norwegian Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses issues of power, stigmatisation and marginalisation associated with social structures and values promoted as part of a welfare project of individual rights and solidarity. Based on my fieldwork in northern Norway, the encounters of Tamil refugees with the Norwegian welfare state are described, focusing on the difficulties they experience in consulting health officials in the diagnosis and

Anne Sigfrid Grønseth

2011-01-01

167

Still Social and Democratic? Inclusive Education Policies in the Nordic Welfare States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, education policy is analyzed from a welfare state perspective. The aim is to Analise the significance attributed to social-inclusive aspects of education in contemporary education policies of the Nordic countries, and the extent to which education is regarded as an element in welfare policies. Four aspects are addressed: (1)…

Arnesen, Anne-Lise; Lundahl, Lisbeth

2006-01-01

168

Child Welfare: States Use Flexible Federal Funds, But Struggle to Meet Service Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In fiscal year 2011, over 675,000 children were found to be victims of abuse or neglect. To help ensure that such children have safe and permanent homes, state and local child welfare agencies secure child welfare services, such as parenting classes and s...

2013-01-01

169

The effects of welfare vehicle asset rules on vehicle assets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before 1996, households were typically ineligible for welfare if they had assets worth more than $1000, where $1500 from each vehicle's value was excluded from this determination. However, the 1996 welfare reform act began allowing states to increase their asset limits and vehicle exclusions. This may prompt low-income households to reallocate resources to or from vehicles. We examine the effects

Mark F. Owens; Charles L. Baum

2012-01-01

170

The effects of welfare vehicle asset rules on vehicle assets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before 1996, households were typically ineligible for welfare if they had assets worth more than $1000, where $1500 from each vehicle's value was excluded from this determination. However, the 1996 welfare reform act began allowing states to increase their asset limits and vehicle exclusions. This may prompt low-income households to reallocate resources to or from vehicles. We examine the effects

Mark F. Owens; Charles L. Baum

2011-01-01

171

Using School Change States to Analyze Comprehensive School Reform Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive school reform (CSR) projects are being funded throughout the United States in a determined effort to improve the performance of public education. The multidimensional nature of comprehensive school reform presents unique challenges for explaining widely discrepant outcomes among schools. These challenges are addressed in a study of 8…

Wetherill, Karen S.; Applefield, James M.

2005-01-01

172

Uruguay: Population Geography of a Troubled Welfare State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is whether or not Uruguay's elaborate welfare system can be maintained by a deteriorating economy plagued by social tension and political unrest. Historical background is presented, demographic variables are discussed and modern influences are measured. (Author/DB)

Tata, Robert J.

1977-01-01

173

State Welfare ADP Application. System Number 120019, Pilot Federal Reporting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of the Pilot Federal Reporting System provides a variable length record tape containing all of the data elements required to fulfill federal reporting requirements in four areas: Welfare Assistance, Personnel Staffing, Child Adoption, and Youth...

D. A. Bangert

1972-01-01

174

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United...

2013-07-01

175

Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

2001-01-01

176

Pathologizing poverty: new forms of diagnosis, disability, and structural stigma under welfare reform.  

PubMed

In 1996 the U.S. severely restricted public support for low income people, ending "welfare as we know it." This led to dramatic increases in medicalized forms of support for indigent people, who increasingly rely on disability benefits justified by psychiatric diagnoses of chronic mental illness. We present case studies drawn from ethnographic data involving daily participant-observation between 2005 and 2012 in public clinics and impoverished neighborhoods in New York City, to describe the subjective experience of structural stigma imposed by the increasing medicalization of public support for the poor through a diagnosis of permanent mental disability. In some cases, disability benefits enable recipients to fulfill important social roles (sustaining a vulnerable household and promoting stable parenting). The status of family members who receive a monthly disability check improves within their kin and neighborhood-based networks, counterbalancing the felt stigma of being identified by doctors as "crazy". When a diagnosis of mental pathology becomes a valuable survival strategy constituting the basis for fulfillment of household responsibilities, stigmatizing processes are structurally altered. Through the decades, the stigmatized labels applied to the poor have shifted: from being a symptom of racial weakness, to the culture of poverty, and now to permanent medical pathology. The neoliberal bureaucratic requirement that the poor must repeatedly prove their "disabled" status through therapy and psychotropic medication appears to be generating a national and policy-maker discourse condemning SSI malingerers, resurrecting the 16th century specter of the "unworthy poor". PMID:24507913

Hansen, Helena; Bourgois, Philippe; Drucker, Ernest

2014-02-01

177

Social Welfare Policy and Public Assistance for Low-Income Substance Abusers: The Impact of 1996 Welfare Reform Legislation on the Economic Security of Former Supplemental Security Income Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Beneficiaries.  

PubMed

Prior to January 1, 1997, individuals with drug- or alcohol-related disabilities could qualify for federal public assistance through the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. During the welfare reforms of the Clinton administration, this policy was changed resulting in lost income and health care benefits for many low-income substance abusers. This paper examines the historical underpinnings to the elimination of drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) as qualifying impairments for SSI disability payments. Following this, empirical evidence is presented on the effect this policy change had on the subsequent economic security of former SSI DA&A beneficiaries. Findings indicate that study participants that lost SSI benefits suffered increased economic hardship following the policy change. These findings have important implications for future social welfare policymaking decisions. PMID:20396645

Hogan, Sean R; Unick, George J; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C

2008-01-01

178

Social Welfare Policy and Public Assistance for Low-Income Substance Abusers: The Impact of 1996 Welfare Reform Legislation on the Economic Security of Former Supplemental Security Income Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Beneficiaries  

PubMed Central

Prior to January 1, 1997, individuals with drug- or alcohol-related disabilities could qualify for federal public assistance through the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. During the welfare reforms of the Clinton administration, this policy was changed resulting in lost income and health care benefits for many low-income substance abusers. This paper examines the historical underpinnings to the elimination of drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) as qualifying impairments for SSI disability payments. Following this, empirical evidence is presented on the effect this policy change had on the subsequent economic security of former SSI DA&A beneficiaries. Findings indicate that study participants that lost SSI benefits suffered increased economic hardship following the policy change. These findings have important implications for future social welfare policymaking decisions.

Hogan, Sean R; Unick, George J.; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C.

2009-01-01

179

Effects of demographic factors and information sources on United States consumer perceptions of animal welfare.  

PubMed

As consumers have become more interested in understanding how their food is produced, scrutiny and criticism have increased regarding intensified food animal production methods. Resolution of public concerns about animal agricultural practices depends on understanding the myriad factors that provide the basis for concerns. An online survey of 798 U.S. households was conducted to investigate relationships between household characteristics (demographics, geographic location, and experiences) and level of concern for animal welfare as well as sources used to obtain information on the subject. Because recent media attention has focused on animal care practices used in the U.S. swine industry, respondents were also asked specific questions pertaining to their perceptions of pig management practices and welfare issues and their corresponding pork purchasing behavior. Respondents reporting higher levels of concern about animal welfare were more frequently female, younger, and self-reported members of the Democratic Party. Fourteen percent of respondents reported reduction in pork consumption because of animal welfare concerns with an average reduction of 56%. Over half of the respondents (56%) did not have a primary source for animal welfare information; those who identified a primary information source most commonly used information provided by animal protection organizations, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Midwest participants were significantly, at the 5% significance level, less concerned about domestic livestock animal welfare and more frequently reported not having a source for animal welfare information than those from other regions of the United States. Overall, the U.S. livestock and poultry industries and other organizations affiliated with animal agriculture appear to be less used public sources of information on animal welfare than popular animal protection organizations. Improved understanding of the factors that contribute to consumers' evolving perceptions of the care and welfare of farm animals is an essential step toward enhanced sustainability and social responsibility in contemporary food production systems. PMID:24962533

McKendree, M G S; Croney, C C; Widmar, N J O

2014-07-01

180

Exploring Attitudes Towards the Welfare State: Students' Views in Eight Democracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the dimensionality of attitudes towards the welfare state among university students in eight countries representing four worlds of welfare: liberal, radical, conservative and social democratic. We use new data from cross-nationally comparable 25-item questionnaires to derive a two-level bi-factorial hierarchical model that specifies six different attitude facets. These facets are clustered into two distinct sets of attitudes: the

CLARA SABBAGH; PIETER VANHUYSSE

2006-01-01

181

States Will Lead the Way toward Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains remarks delivered by the Secretary of Education who spoke at the 2009 Governors Education Symposium. Secretary Duncan spoke about uses of Recovery Act funding to drive reform in four core areas of education: (1) Robust data systems that track student achievement and teacher effectiveness; (2) Teacher and principal quality;…

Duncan, Arne

2009-01-01

182

Welfare Reform and American Indian Tribes: Critical Decisions for the Future of Indian Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRETORIA) gives American Indian tribes the option to run their own Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program or leave these services under state administration. Eight case studies were conducted in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Arizona with the Klamath Tribes,…

Kauffman, Jo Ann

183

A Crisis of Caring: A Catholic Critique of American Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current deterioration of the American economy is bringing new attention to the problem of poverty in the United States. After falling over the last few years, the number of Americans living in poverty has begun to rise once again. Notwithstanding the achievements of recent \\

Vincent D. Rougeau

2003-01-01

184

CASAWORKS for Families: A Promising Approach to Welfare Reform and Substance-Abusing Women. A CASA White Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CASAWORKS for Families is the first national demonstration program to provide simultaneously drug and alcohol treatment; literacy, job, parenting, and social skills training; family violence prevention; and health care to help substance-abusing welfare parents recover. Its mission is to help women on welfare with substance abuse problems achieve…

Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

185

Is Christian Religious Conservatism Compatible with the Liberal Social Welfare State?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the rise of Christian religious conservatism and explores whether the theological views of the conservative Christian movement are compatible with the liberal social welfare state. The authors conclude that the driving force behind social change should remain with the state, even though faith-based initiatives can provide…

Belcher, John R.; Fandetti, Donald; Cole, Danny

2004-01-01

186

Feminist Perspectives on TANF Reauthorization: An Introduction to Key Issues for the Future of Welfare Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1996, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) replaced the federal cash public assistance program Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) with the state-level block grant Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program. By September 30, 2002, the TANF program has to receive congressional reauthorization, and it is expected that Congress will consider making changes to this program during the reauthorization debates. As a result, some feminist scholars and advocates are adamant that the realities of poor women's lives are not ignored during the upcoming TANF discussions. Written by Janice Peterson, this paper identifies "some of the key issues and goals that are emerging in TANF reauthorization discussions," and considers a feminist agenda for a TANF reauthorization program. The report, which is in HTML format, includes a brief introduction, a summary of key elements and impacts of the TANF program, a discussion of critical TANF reauthorization issues, and a feminist agenda for TANF reauthorization.

2002-01-01

187

Using Unspent TANF Funds to Further Self-Sufficiency among Welfare Recipients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of unspent Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) funds has become increasingly important with the progression of welfare reform. Some support reserving the funds for an eventual economic downturn, whereas others urge investing the funds in services for hard-to-serve welfare recipients and broader low-income participation. States

Copeland, Ivory

2000-01-01

188

The Mid-1990s Earned Income Tax Credit Expansion: EITC and Welfare Caseloads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research and policy scholars have suggested that recent welfare caseload reductions have coincided with welfare reform efforts; however, few studies have incorporated the impacts of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) expansions in the 1990s. Using annual state-level administrative data, the author estimated the effects of the fully phased-in…

Lim, Younghee

2008-01-01

189

The Democratization of Welfare Between Rhetoric and Reality: Local Planning, Participation, and Third Sector in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third sector, traditionally considered in the Italian welfare state as a residual actor of social policies, has increasingly engaged itself in various types of partnerships and collaborative planning processes with the local authority in recent years. In the rhetoric of welfare reform, third sector organizations play an important role, for they contribute to regenerating local democracy, stimulating communities, and

Luca Fazzi

2009-01-01

190

The relation of family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict. Methods Logistic regression models were used to analyze panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4,780 married or cohabiting persons reinterviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments. Results Unemployed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence than employed respondents, after alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors are controlled for; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after other factors are controlled for, increases the risk of family violence, and satisfaction with social support from family and friends is associated with its decrease. Conclusions Alcohol misuse has an important effect on domestic violence, and the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence needs to be monitored.

Rodriguez, Eunice; Lasch, Kathryn E; Chandra, Pinky; Lee, Jennifer

2001-01-01

191

Toward a Neoliberal Europe?Pension Reforms and Transformed Citizenship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors argue that starting from a welfare state, based on specific assumptions regarding generations, gender, and labor markets, two extreme directions of possible development—toward privatization and toward solidarity—are currently being taken. European welfare reforms transfer many services, needs, and responsibilities to the market, examples of a neoliberal tendency. However, there is also a contrasting and striking development toward solidarity,

Patricia Frericks; Robert Maier; Willibrord de Graaf

2009-01-01

192

Funding Special Education by Capitation: Evidence from State Finance Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines responses to state capitation policies for special education finance between 1991-92 and 2003-4. Capitation refers to distributing funds based on the entire student enrollment. We find that disability rates tended to fall following capitation reforms, primarily in subjectively diagnosed categories and in early and late grades.…

Dhuey, Elizabeth; Lipscomb, Stephen

2011-01-01

193

Transforming State Education Agencies To Support Education Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To answer the question of how to build the capacity of state and local educational systems to implement systemic reform, the National Governors' Association (NGA) convened two meetings of educators and policymakers and commissioned three supporting papers from knowledgeable educators. This volume contains an overview report of the conferences and…

David, Jane L.

194

The Dilemmas of State-Local Tax Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary problem for American educational finance is not how to tax but how much to tax. In modern fiscal arrangements, States and localities extract resources from their citizens in some combination of sales, income, or wealth taxes. Any tax reform juggles the relative contribution of each source, but the total amount extracted is still the…

Thomson, Procter

195

Child welfare workplace: the state of the workforce and strategies to improve retention.  

PubMed

Child welfare systems throughout the United States are being closely scrutinized as sensational cases appear in the media in nearly every state. At the federal level, with the Child and Family Service Review process, the government is documenting that states across the country are not conforming to federal child welfare requirements (DHHS, 2007) put in place to ensure the safety and wellbeing of children. One of the most crucial underlying causes of these inadequacies is a workforce that lacks the manpower for the tasks it confronts. To meet performance standards for the seven major Adoption and Safe Family Act child welfare safety outcomes, child protection agencies must stop the outward flow of staff from the workplace. This paper presents a study examining correlates related to retention. It was found supervisors and co-workers play a crucial role in the retention of workers. Strategies are presented aimed at assisting states in ways to slow the turnover rate of workers in child welfare. PMID:18456981

Scannapieco, Maria; Connell-Carrick, Kelli

2007-01-01

196

Vitalizing Planning for a Neo-Welfare State: A Suggestion Based on Swedish Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning in Sweden is intimately connected with the welfare state, whose ethos and methods are in crisis. The aim of this article is a) to bring in and accommodate new postmodern theories to the planning context in Sweden and b) to examine how the planning profession in Sweden in line with these theories can adapt to the radical societal and

Lars Orrskog; Karin Bradley

2006-01-01

197

Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

Odebode, Stella O.

2009-01-01

198

Welfare States, Solidarity and Justice Principles: Does the Type Really Matter&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we investigate whether and, if so, to what extent, people's notions of solidarity and their choices of justice principles are related to the type of welfare state regime they live under, as well as to individual socio-demographic and ideological factors. We analyse data from the International Social Survey Program 1996 and the European Values Study 1999, which

Wil Arts; J. P. T. M. Gelissen

2001-01-01

199

THE WELFARE STATE AND THE SKILL MIX OF MIGRATION: DYNAMIC POLICY FORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Tthe native-born young, whether skilled or unskilled, benefit from letting in migrants of all skill types, because their high birth rates can help increase the tax base in the next period. In this re- spect, skilled migrants help the welfare state more than unskilled migrants, to the extent that the offspring resemble their parents with respect to skill. On

Assaf Razin; Efraim Sadka; Benjarong Suwankiri

2009-01-01

200

THE PERMANENCE OF DISTINCTIVENESS: PERFORMANCES AND CHANGING SCHOOLING GOVERNANCE IN THE SOUTHERN EUROPEAN WELFARE STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the performance and the emerging forms of governance of schooling in the countries of the southern model of welfare state (Ferrera, 1996, 2000). Four countries - Spain, Portugal, Greece and Italy - will be analysed in the context of the 'lifelong learning policy' and the wider Lisbon strategy. The common belonging of these countries to the Southern

PAOLO LANDRI

201

Welfare Reform: An Examination of Effects. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (September 20, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Congressional report contains the testimony and documents presented for the record of the first of two hearings to gather testimony on the effects of welfare reform and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant. The oral and written testimony focuses on TANF legislation's outcomes and impact on work and families in…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

202

The Skill Composition of Migration and the Generosity of the Welfare State. NBER Working Paper No. 14738  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skilled migrants typically contribute to the welfare state more than they draw in benefits from it. The opposite holds for unskilled migrants. This suggests that a host country is likely to boost (respectively, curtail) its welfare system when absorbing high-skill (respectively, low-skill) migration. In this paper we first examine this hypothesis…

Cohen, Alon; Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim

2009-01-01

203

Animal welfare: concepts and measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The term “welfare” refers to the state of an individual in relation to its environment, and this can be measured. Both failure to cope with the environment and difficulty in coping are indicators of poor welfare. Suffering and poor welfare often occur together, but welfare can be poor without suffering and welfare should not be defined solely in terms

D. M. Broom

1991-01-01

204

Labour Market Aspects of State Enterprise Reform in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, as China’s reform of state–owned enterprises (SOEs) has gathered momentum, the number of workers made redundant has been rising. Until now, the dismissals have affected only a fraction of the “surplus labour”, which has been estimated at 20–25 per cent of total industrial employment in SOEs. If concerns for social stability have so far dictated a gradual

Fan Gang; Maria Rosa Lunati; David O’Connor

1998-01-01

205

The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-272): The First Ten Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 (PL 96-272) provided major federal initiatives to reform the state child welfare system. The goals of the act were to keep families together by providing them with services and to find permanent adoptive homes for children who could not be reunited with their parents. This report examines the…

National Foundation for Consumer Credit, Silver Spring, MD.

206

Health Care Reform Tracking Project: Tracking State Health Care Reforms as They Affect Children and Adolescents with Emotional Disorders and Their Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Health Care Reform Tracking Project is a 5-year national project to track and analyze state health care reform initiatives as they affect children and adolescents with emotional/behavioral disorders and their families. The study's first phase was a baseline survey of all 50 states to describe current state reforms as of 1995. Among findings of…

Pires, Sheila A.; Stroul, Beth A.

207

In Search of a New Welfare State in Europe: An International Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Modern social policy represents a key component in Europe’s advanced political economies. The European welfare state in the\\u000a shape and form in which it developed in the second half of the twentieth century represents a unique historical achievement.\\u000a Never before in history, as Fritz Scharpf puts it, ‘has democratic politics been so effectively used to promote civil liberty,\\u000a economic growth,

Anton Hemerijck

208

Is there a need for a new cultural policy strategy in the Nordic welfare state?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural policies have existed as a structural element of the Nordic welfare states from the very beginning. Today these policies are being re?evaluated, and there are some indications that they may be gradually dismantled. Local cultural politicians in municipalities (cultural boards) and professionals (e.g. cultural secretaries) have become uncertain and anxious about their future role and legitimacy.This new situation is

Anita Kangas

1996-01-01

209

ELECTRONIC DATA EXCHANGE TO SAVE THE WELFARE STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid rise of information technologies is one eye-catching innovation of recent decades, which will have consequences that can as yet not fully be gauged. Of course, of old the gathering and processing of military, police and related information has been an essential activity of the State, if only to improve its own chances of survival. But in western Europe,

C. A. DE KAM

210

Teachers' Response to Standards-Based Reform: Probing Reform Assumptions in Washington State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because teachers' efforts are central to the success of standards-based reform, it behooves the policy community to look carefully at the beliefs about instruction that are rooted in this reform theory. Building on teacher-centric research on standards-based reform and ideas about teaching practice from research on multicultural education, this…

Loeb, Hilary; Knapp, Michael S.; Elfers, Ana M.

2008-01-01

211

Effects of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on premarital childbearing among white adolescents.  

PubMed

This study develops an empirical model that measures the influence of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on decisions concerning premarital pregnancy, abortion and single parenthood. Data are based on the fertility and marital experiences of white females from the three youngest cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, for 1979-1986. The results show that laws restricting contraceptive availability are associated with a higher risk of pregnancy. Restrictive policies on public funding of abortions reduce the likelihood of abortion, while greater availability of abortion services is associated with a higher likelihood that adolescents will obtain abortions. Finally, the estimates indicate that higher welfare benefits reduce the probability that pregnant adolescents will marry before bearing their children. PMID:2289541

Lundberg, S; Plotnick, R D

1990-01-01

212

Understanding State School Funding: The First Step toward Quality Reforms. The Progress of Education Reform. Volume 13, Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quote, taken from a piece written by the Education Commission of the States (ECS) nearly 30 years ago, demonstrates that researchers have long recognized the relationship between quality education reform and the structure of a state's school funding system. However, many policymakers continue to view their state's school funding formula not…

Griffith, Michael

2012-01-01

213

Measuring Performance in Child Welfare: Secondary Effects of Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draws on findings from evaluations of recent reform initiatives in Alabama, North Carolina, and Ohio to suggest that performance-measurement systems for state child-welfare programs must adapt to changing circumstances, especially when improvements in one area can influence standards and expectations in others. (Author/KB)

Usher, Charles L.; Gibbs, Deborah A.; Wildfire, Judith B.

1999-01-01

214

Privatizing the welfarist state: health care reforms in Malaysia.  

PubMed

In Malaysia, the shifting balance between market and state has many nuances. Never a significant welfare state in the usual mold, the Malaysian state nonetheless has been a dominant social and economic presence dictated by its affirmative action-type policies, which eventually metamorphosed into state-led indigenous capitalism. Privatisation is also intimately linked with emergence of an indigenous bourgeoisie with favored access to the vast accumulation of state assets and prerogatives. Internationally, it is conditioned by the fluid relationships of converging alliances and contested compromise with international capital, including transnational health services industries. As part of its vision of a maturing, diversified economy, the Malaysian government is fostering a private-sector advanced health care industry to cater to local demand and also aimed at regional and international patrons. The assumption is that, as disposable incomes increase, a market for such services is emerging and citizens can increasingly shoulder their own health care costs. The government would remain the provider for the indigent. But the key assumption remains: the growth trajectory will see the emergence of markets for an increasingly affluent middle class. Importantly, the health care and social services market would be dramatically expanded as the downsizing of public-sector health care proceeds amid a general retreat of government from its provider and financing roles. PMID:17208722

Khoon, Chan Chee

2003-01-01

215

Windows of Opportunity: Strategies To Support Families Receiving Welfare and Other Low-Income Families in the Next Stage of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes an array of innovative strategies and practical ideas for helping low-income families with children. There is a window of opportunity for these new strategies as many states have tremendous financial resources available. The Temporary Assistance For Needy Families (TANF) program rules have been clarified, and families are…

Sweeney, Eileen; Schott, Liz; Lazere, Ed; Fremstad, Shawn; Goldberg, Heidi; Guyer, Jocelyn; Super, David; Johnson, Clifford

216

On the Declining Health Status of Welfare Caseloads: Emerging Dilemmas for Serving the Poor  

PubMed Central

An emerging concern for public policy is welfare reform’s potential to inadvertently affect caseload composition by increasing the proportion of recipients with health-related barriers to employment. We examine this using data from the Welfare Client Longitudinal Study, an in-depth case study of a large California county. Through quantitative analyses, we examine the extent of change in health-related problems since welfare reform and their potential to progressively impact overall composition of the caseload. We augment this with qualitative data on how local welfare providers are responding to the health-related needs of aid recipients. Results suggest that the burden of health-related problems is growing and that welfare providers may be poorly equipped to respond effectively on their own. The changing composition of welfare caseloads may foster several new policy dilemmas that demand broader attention: states and localities may face difficulties meeting federal workforce participation requirements, may need to restructure welfare-to-work programs to serve a more functionally impaired population, and take steps to better integrate health and welfare services at the local level.

Schmidt, Laura A.; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Henderson, Stuart; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, James

2014-01-01

217

Foster Care, Child Welfare, and Adoption Reforms. Joint Hearings before the Subcommittee on Public Assistance and Unemployment Compensation of the Committee on Ways and Means and Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (April 13 and 28; May 12, 1988).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A hearing was held to explore issues of foster care, child welfare, and adoption reforms, and to examine the implementation of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Amendments of 1980. The Amendments were designed to emphasize preventive services that would strengthen families, prevent the unnecessary placement of children in foster care,…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

218

Migrant Child Welfare: A State of the Field Study of Child Welfare Services for Migrant Children and Their Families Who Are In-Stream, Home Based, Or Settled-Out. Final Report, June 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The five parts of this report present the findings and recommendations of the Migrant Child Welfare study. Part I briefly summarizes the impact of the child welfare services and the family interview results, and reviews the organizational structure of program delivery at the state and local levels. Part II synthesizes the information obtained from…

Cavenaugh, David N.; And Others

219

Family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States: what is the relation?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—This study examined the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual, and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict.?METHODS—Logistic regression models were used to analyse panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4780 married or cohabiting persons re-interviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments.?RESULTS—It was found that non-employed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence in comparison with employed respondents, after controlling for alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after controlling for other factors, increases the risk of family violence while satisfaction with social support from family and friends decreases it.?CONCLUSION—These results underscore the important effect of alcohol misuse on domestic violence, and the need to monitor the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence.???Keywords: family violence; alcohol misuse; employment status; welfare benefits

Rodriguez, E; Lasch, K; Chandra, P; Lee, J

2001-01-01

220

Welfare System Reform: Coordinating Federal, State, and Local Public Assistance Programs. Studies in Social Welfare Policies and Programs, Number 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 16 chapters in this book are intended to stimulate thinking about approaches to dealing with the substance of public assistance policy as it bears on coordination issues, organizational arrangements for policy development and delivery, and processes for building linkages between disparate but related programs. Part I, an introduction, contains…

Jennings, Edward T., Jr., Ed.; Zank, Neal S., Ed.

221

Heart of Economic Reform: China's Banking Reform and State Enterprise Restructuring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Significant market-oriented reforms carried out in China have brought tremendous changes in the real sector. However, the reform of the financial sector has lagged that of the real sector. The weakness of the financial sector and the alarm of the Asian fi...

D. Tong

1999-01-01

222

Reforming state-level chemicals management policies in the United States: status, challenges, and opportunities.  

PubMed

During the last several years there has been increasing public concern about chemicals in everyday products. Scientific studies are increasingly revealing the build-up of some substances in ecosystems and in our bodies and new findings are linking exposures to hazardous chemicals to a range of adverse human health effects. Despite these trends, there has been little federal initiative in the United States on reforming chemicals management policies for well over two decades, even though a variety of analyses have identified significant gaps in the regulatory structure. As has historically been the case, states are beginning to fill the holes in federal leadership. This article explores this emerging state leadership and establishes a vision for and elements of policies to reduce hazardous chemicals in the products we buy and the places we go. It examines international efforts to reform chemicals management policies, such as the European REACH legislation and corporate leadership in advancing safer products. Finally, it outlines specific challenges states face in developing integrated, comprehensive chemicals management policies. We conclude that while there are plenty of challenges to implementation of chemicals policy reforms, it is a propitious time for states to become leaders in policy innovation that can help achieve safer production systems and products for future generations. This article is part of a Lowell Center for Sustainable Production report entitled "Options for State Chemicals Policy Reform" that provides in-depth analysis of the pros and cons of policy options to address a range of aspects of state-level chemicals policy reform. The article has been edited slightly for use in New Solutions. The report has been widely distributed to policy-makers, advocates, and others across the United States. PMID:19447756

Geiser, Ken; Tickner, Joel; Torrie, Yve

2009-01-01

223

U.S. Immigration in the 1980s: Reappraisal and Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The introductory chapter of this volume on immigration into the United States is entitled "Overview: A Time of Reform and Reappraisal" (D. Simcox), and it introduces the topics of reform, legal and illegal immigration, the effect of immigration on the labor market and social welfare, and immigration enforcement methods that are discussed in the…

Simcox, David E., Ed.

224

Federal tax reform and the financing of state and local governments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Reagan Administration tax reform proposals would reduce federal income tax liabilities for most taxpayers, federal tax reform would also create strong pressures on state and local governments to cut taxes and public services. These pressures would arise primarily because itemizers would no longer be able to deduct state and local taxes in determining their federal income tax liabilities.

Howard Chernick; Andrew Reschovsky

1986-01-01

225

Happy Marriage or Uneasy Alliance? The Relationship between Comprehensive School Reform and State Accountability Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine how the relationship between comprehensive school reform (CSR) and state accountability systems helps or hinders school improvement efforts. This article draws on case study data collected in schools in 3 states that received funding to implement reforms through the federal CSR program. Findings show that…

Datnow, Amanda

2005-01-01

226

Business Participation in Welfare-to-Work: Lessons from the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies of 19 U.S. companies involved in welfare-to-work programs found that political and economic factors have accelerated the rate at which employers are hiring welfare recipients. Although participation in welfare-to-work programs is dominated by larger firms in a few industries (such as service and retail sectors), there is potential for…

Mills, Jack; Kazis, Richard

227

Welfare traps in Australia: Do they bite?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimising disincentives to employment participation that arise as a consequence of providing welfare has been a major objective of the recent welfare reform agenda in Australia. Of particular concern have been the high effective marginal tax rates (EMTRs) and replacement rates (RRs) facing welfare recipients as a result of the interaction of the tax and benefits system. Based on the

ALFRED M. DOCKERY; RACHEL ONG; GAVIN A. WOOD

228

Reforming Welfare and Rewarding Work: Final Report on the Minnesota Family Investment Program. Volume 1: Effects on Adults [and] Volume 2: Effects on Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP) began in 1994 as a major welfare initiative that differed from the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) by featuring the following elements: financial incentives to work; participation requirements for long-term welfare recipients; and simplification of welfare rules and procedures. In…

Miller, Cynthia; Knox, Virginia; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Dodoo, Martey; Hunter, Jo Anna; Redcross, Cindy

229

The Coordinated Implementation of National and State-by-State Reform in School Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In September of 1989, a working conference was held to launch a decade-long effort to provide leadership in implementing the school reform movement. This report contains the position statements and the Association of State Supervisors of Mathematics (ASSM) national action agenda for the following five spheres of influence: (1) "An Environment…

Association of State Supervisors of Mathematics.

230

Labor Market Reform and the Changing Structure of Wage Determination in China's State Sector during the 1980s  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's market-oriented labor market reform has been in place for about one and a half decades. This study uses individual data for 1981 and 1987 to examine the success of the first half of the reform program. Success is evaluated by examining changes in the wage setting structure in the state-owned sector over the reform period. Have the market reforms

Xin Meng; Michael P. Kidd

1997-01-01

231

The British welfare state and mental health problems: the continuing relevance of the work of Claus Offe.  

PubMed

It is now over thirty years since Claus Offe theorised the crisis tendencies of the welfare state in late capitalism. As part of that work he explored ongoing and irresolvable forms of crisis management in parliamentary democracies: capitalism cannot live with the welfare state but also cannot live without it. This article examines the continued relevance of this analysis by Offe, by applying its basic assumptions to the response of the British welfare state to mental health problems, at the turn of the twenty first century. His general theoretical abstractions are tested against the empirical picture of mental health service priorities, evident since the 1980s, in sections dealing with: re-commodification tendencies; the ambiguity of wage labour in the mental health workforce; the emergence of new social movements; and the limits of legalism. PMID:22530616

Pilgrim, David

2012-09-01

232

Politics of State-Led Reform in Education: Market Competition and Electoral Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-led educational initiatives have gained prominence across the nation. In this study, the authors examine two very different types of reform-state adoption of charter school legislation and state implementation of school district take-over-to explore the proposition that the type of education reform a state chooses will be significantly affected by a state's electoral dynamics, that is, the extent to which

Kenneth K. Wong; Francis X. Shen

2002-01-01

233

Women in solidarity: Women's community work, the welfare state, and the politics of narrative identity in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars from various disciplines have turned their attention to the study of narratives as the means to understand sociopolitical processes and the construction of the self. One line of inquiry argues that institutions such as medicine and the welfare state are constituted through narratives. Doctors, public health professionals, and state officials tell about their work through narratives. In doing so

Jesus Ramirez-valles

1999-01-01

234

Teacher Job Satisfaction in a Reform State: The Influence of Teacher Characteristics, Job Dimensions, and Psychological States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the importance of job satisfaction, little research exists about this factor as it relates to teachers working in a school reform environment. This study addressed teacher characteristics, job dimensions, and work-related psychological states that predict public school teacher job satisfaction in a school reform state. Teachers (N = 578)…

Winter, Paul A.; Brenner, Doris B.; Petrosko, Joseph M.

2006-01-01

235

45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms. 148...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Requirements Relating to Access and...128 State flexibility in individual market reformsâalternative mechanisms....

2013-10-01

236

School Reform in the United States: Frames and Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay reviews six competing positions on U.S. school reform: a speech from Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan; Diane Ravitch's "The Death and Life of the Great American School System"; Frederick Hess's "The Same Thing Over and Over"; Charles Payne's "So Much Reform, So Little Change"; Anthony Byrk and others' "Organizing School for…

Shannon, Patrick

2012-01-01

237

Fundamental causes of health disparities: stratification, the welfare state, and health in the United States and Iceland.  

PubMed

Research has established that those with higher social status have better health. Less is known about whether this relationship differs cross-nationally and whether it operates similarly across different institutional arrangements. To examine the relationship between stratification and health, two Western, industrialized societies at opposite ends of an equal/unequal continuum are compared: the United States and Iceland. Using data from the 1998 General Social Survey and the 1998 Health and Living Standards of Adult Icelanders survey, I draw from two theoretical perspectives. First, I explore the notion of fundamental causes of disease by examining whether stratification has similar effects on health. Second, I examine whether the organization of welfare states affects this relationship. The results show that education, employment, and relative poverty have similar effects on health in both nations, thus supporting the notion of a fundamental cause. However in Iceland relative affluence has a weaker relationship with health. Further, being a parent, regardless of marital status, has a stronger positive relationship with good health in Iceland. Welfare state intervention may be most successful in equalizing health outcomes by supporting families and by removing advantages traditionally accumulated by the wealthy in capitalist societies. PMID:17982866

Olafsdottir, Sigrun

2007-09-01

238

Assessment of the Economic Reform in Poland's State-Owned Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Note provides an empirical assessment of the economic reforms introduced in Poland's state-owned industry since 1982. Much of the current literature on the Polish reform is of a theoretical nature; this study is intended to contribute to the empirica...

K. Crane

1988-01-01

239

The Sustainability of Comprehensive School Reform Models in Changing District and State Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the sustainability of comprehensive school reform (CSR) models in the face of turbulent district and state contexts. It draws on qualitative data gathered in a longitudinal case study of six CSR models implemented in 13 schools in one urban district. Why do reforms sustain in some schools and not in others? How do changing…

Datnow, Amanda

2005-01-01

240

Effects of a Data-Driven District Reform Model on State Assessment Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A district-level reform model created by the Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE) provided consultation with district leaders on strategic use of data and selection of proven programs. Fifty-nine districts in seven states were randomly assigned to CDDRE or control conditions. A total of 397 elementary and 225 middle schools were…

Slavin, Robert E.; Cheung, Alan; Holmes, GwenCarol; Madden, Nancy A.; Chamberlain, Anne

2013-01-01

241

Mandating Academic Excellence: High School Responses to State Curriculum Reform. Sociology of Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past decade, states have taken an increasingly active role in designing new policies intended to reform America's high schools. This book offers a systematic, empirical look at the most widely adopted policy reform strategy--mandatory changes in high school graduation requirements. Maryland is used as a case study, exploring five…

Wilson, Bruce L.; Rossman, Gretchen B.

242

Does new public management work in reforming the state's role in agricultural marketing in developing countries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research investigated the extent to which 'new public management' style reforms (in which the state confines itself to contracting, guiding, facilitating and financing in providing public services, rather than delivering them itself through civil service organizations) are successful in the institutional context of developing countries. Studies of reform of public services to agricultural marketing were conducted in Ghana, India,

Michael Hubbard; Marisol Smith

1999-01-01

243

Marijuana and cocaine use among female African-American welfare recipients.  

PubMed

A key issue that came to the forefront during the welfare reform debate in the United States during the 1990s concerned the relationship between welfare receipt and drug use and abuse. This paper examines the relationship between persistent welfare assistance, welfare background, and marijuana and cocaine use among African-American women. We hypothesize that women who have received welfare assistance for a period of 5 years or more will be more likely to use drugs compared to those who have never received welfare assistance or who have received it for a shorter duration. Data for this analysis comes from a longitudinal study of African-Americans living in a Chicago community followed from first grade (N = 1242) to age 32. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between years of welfare receipt and three categories of marijuana and cocaine use (never, past, and current) among female respondents (N = 496). Results indicate an increased risk of past-year cocaine and marijuana use for women who reported receiving welfare benefits for 5 years or more. Growing up in a family that received welfare did not significantly predict adult drug use, but did significantly predict an adult welfare experience. Implications of results are discussed. PMID:15276224

Williams, Chyvette T; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E

2004-08-16

244

Perspectives on animal welfare legislation and study considerations for field-oriented studies of raptors in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concern for the welfare of animals used in research and teaching has increased over the last 50 yr. Animal welfare legislation has resulted in guidelines for the use of animals in research, but the guidelines can be problematic because they focus on animals used in laboratory and agriculture research. Raptor biologists can be constrained by guidelines, restrictions, and oversight that were not intended for field research methods or wild animals in the wild or captivity. Field researchers can be further hampered by not understanding animal welfare legislation, who is subject to oversight, or that oversight is often provided by a committee consisting primarily of scientists who work with laboratory animals. Raptor researchers in particular may experience difficulty obtaining approval due to use of various species-specific trapping and handling methods. We provide a brief review of animal welfare legislation and describe the basic components and responsibilities of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in the United States. We identify topics in raptor research that are especially problematic to obtaining IACUC approval, and we provide insight on how to address these issues. Finally, we suggest that all raptor researchers, regardless of legal requirements, abide by the spirit of the animal welfare principles. Failure to do so may bring about further regulatory and permitting restrictions. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Boal, C. W.; Wallace, M. C.; Strobel, B.

2010-01-01

245

Promoting cross-sector partnerships in child welfare: qualitative results from a five-state strategic planning process.  

PubMed

Little is known about effective strategic planning for public and private child welfare agencies working together to serve families. During a professionally facilitated, strategic planning event, public and private child welfare administrators from five states explored partnership challenges and strengths with a goal of improving collaborative interactions in order to improve outcomes for children and families. Summarizing thematic results of session notes from the planning event, this article describes effective strategies for facilitation of such processes as well as factors that challenge or promote group processes. Implications for conducting strategic planning in jurisdictions seeking to improve public/private partnerships are discussed. PMID:23984485

Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Armstrong, Mary I; McBeath, Bowen; Chuang, Emmeline

2013-01-01

246

Promoting Supervisory Practice Change in Public Child Welfare: Lessons from University/Agency Collaborative Research in Four States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes qualitative findings regarding lessons learned from research and demonstration projects in four states focused on the implementation of clinical supervision within their public child welfare agencies. This was part of a larger mixed methods study of the effectiveness of these new clinical supervision models on practice,…

Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Millar, Kenneth

2012-01-01

247

The Assessment Of Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter adopts the perspective that welfare is based upon subjective states experienced by the animal, i.e. those equated with emotions and feelings. While current methods do not allow us to access any animal's mental state directly, indirect approaches can be used. One approach attempts to assess the welfare of a cat using behavioural and physiological measures of stress, while

Rachel A. Casey; John W. S. Bradshaw

248

Welfare Transitions in the 1990s: The Economy, Welfare Policy, and the EITC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid decline in the welfare caseload remains a subject of keen interest to both policymakers and researchers. In this paper, I use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation spanning the period from 1986 to 1999 to analyze how the economy, welfare reform, the earned income tax credit (EITC), and other factors influence welfare

Grogger, Jeffrey

2004-01-01

249

The Impact of State Behavioral Health Reform on Native American Individuals, Families, and Communities  

PubMed Central

In 2005, the State of New Mexico undertook a sweeping transformation of all publicly funded behavioral health services. The reform was intended to enhance the cultural responsiveness and appropriateness of these services. To examine achievement of this objective, we conducted a qualitative study of the involvement of Native Americans in reform efforts and the subsequent impacts of reform on services for Native Americans. We found that the reform was relatively unsuccessful at creating mechanisms for genuine community input or improving behavioral health care for this population. These shortcomings were related to limited understandings of administrators concerning how tribal governments and health care systems operate, and the structural limitations of a managed care system that does not allow flexibility for culturally appropriate utilization review, screening, or treatment. However, interaction between the State and tribes increased, and we conclude that aspects of the reform could be strengthened to achieve more meaningful involvement and service improvements.

Willging, Cathleen E.; Goodkind, Jessica; Lamphere, Louise; Saul, Gwendolyn; Fluder, Shannon; Seanez, Paula

2012-01-01

250

A Welfare Reform--Homelessness--Foster Care Connection? The Story of "Lag Families" and "Limbo Children" in San Diego.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of data from a survey of more than 100 parents residing in emergency shelter in San Diego, California, reveals a portrait of poverty that is prevalent among women and children in the United States today. Homeless families in San Diego, as in the rest of the country, are most often headed by women in their early thirties whose prospects…

Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

251

The welfare cost of inflation in Canada and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper follows Lucas (Econometrica 68 (2000) 247) and estimates the welfare cost of inflation in the post-World War II Canadian and U.S. economies. We use recent advances in the field of applied econometrics to estimate the interest elasticity of money demand and report significantly smaller welfare costs estimates than Lucas (Econometrica 68 (2000) 247).

Apostolos Serletis; Kazem Yavari

2004-01-01

252

Supporting Families in Transition. A Guide to Expanding Health Coverage in the Post-Welfare Reform World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program with a new state-run Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program and ended the automatic link between eligibility for cash assistance and eligibility for Medicaid for poor families. Since then, a number of new policies and programs seeking to extend free or affordable health coverage to low-income families have developed. This new publication from the Health Care Financing Administration and the Administration for Children and Families of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) guides readers through some of the options states have in their efforts to broaden Medicaid coverage. Organized in four chapters, the guide addresses reaching families inside and outside the TANF system, maintaining coverage for families who leave the system, and related funding opportunities.

1999-01-01

253

Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States  

PubMed Central

Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage.

Hoffman, Beatrix

2003-01-01

254

Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States  

PubMed Central

Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage.

Hoffman, Beatrix

2008-01-01

255

Screening for Domestic Violence in Public Welfare Offices  

PubMed Central

Despite a high prevalence of domestic violence among welfare clients, most studies of the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform find that women rarely receive domestic violence services in welfare offices. This study reviews findings from current research on the factors that improve the likelihood that women will reveal their domestic violence experiences to service personnel, and uses the guidelines drawn from this review to evaluate domestic violence screening practices in welfare offices using 782 transcribed interviews between welfare workers and clients from 11 sites in four states. The analysis found that only 9.3% of case encounters involved screening for domestic violence. Screening rates differed by state, interview type, and length of worker employment. Qualitative analysis of the interviews showed that the majority of screening by workers was routinized or consisted of informing clients of the domestic violence policy without asking about abuse. Only 1.2% of the interviews incorporated at least two of the procedures that increase the likelihood of disclosure among domestic violence survivors, suggesting deeply inadequate approaches to screening for abuse within the context of welfare offices, and a need for improved training, protocol, and monitoring of FVO implementation.

Lindhorst, Taryn; Meyers, Marcia; Casey, Erin

2008-01-01

256

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused disasters, as prescribed in âGuidelines for the...public assistance cases in the event of disaster or attack; (7) Preparing plans...

2013-10-01

257

Annual Report to Congress on State Child Welfare Expenditures Reported on the CFS-101.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report to Congress provides national totals of planned spending by service category for the Stephanie Tubbs Jones Child Welfare Services program and planned and actual spending by service category for the Promoting Safe and Stable Families program.

2012-01-01

258

Corporate Education Reform and the Rise of State Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The election of Barack Obama appeared to signal a shift in U.S. policy toward the Left, particularly since Obama has been framed as a "socialist," but the education discourse and policy pursued under Obama and voiced by Secretary of Education Arne Duncan has shown that education reform remains in the midst of a powerful corporate model. This essay…

Thomas, P. L.

2013-01-01

259

45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). (a) Scope...and local appropriated funds for child welfare services under title...

2009-10-01

260

45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). (a) Scope...and local appropriated funds for child welfare services under title...

2010-10-01

261

Family, welfare state generosity and the vulnerability of older adults: A cross-national study.  

PubMed

The availability of family can be considered a protective factor for aging well. In this article, we examine to what extent the family situation of older people creates vulnerability with respect to their quality of life. Because not everyone is vulnerable to the same degree, we try to identify the conditions under which older people benefit more from having family resources. Based on the resources perspective, we argue that the impact of family resources on life satisfaction is stronger for older people with fewer resources at both the individual level (material, physical and non-familial social resources) and the country level (welfare state services targeted at older adults). To test our hypotheses we make use of the fourth wave of the European Values Study, and the MULTILINKS Social Policy Indicators database. In general our data offer support for the idea that the presence of intimate family ties (with partner and children) can be considered an important resource for achieving psychological well-being, whereas their absence or loss may act as a constraint. Our vulnerability argument is partly supported by the findings. Partner resources are more important for the life satisfaction of older people with a low education and health problems. Similarly, having children only improves the life-satisfaction of lower educated older adults. However, family resources are not more important for older people with fewer material resources or for older people living in countries with low services levels targeted at older adults. PMID:24300055

Moor, Nienke; de Graaf, Paul M; Komter, Aafke

2013-12-01

262

A Hand Up: How State Earned Income Tax Credits Help Working Families Escape Poverty in 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The federal government administers an Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), as do many states. States that enact EITCs can reduce child poverty, support welfare-to-work, and cut taxes for working poor families. The popularity of state EITCs results from continued child poverty, welfare reform, and tax changes. Research confirms the effectiveness of…

Johnson, Nicholas

263

Leave No City Behind: England/United States Dialogue on Urban Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the United States and England initiated ambitious standards-based education reform to eliminate large gaps between their highest and lowest achievers. England appears to be ahead, having started in 1988 with a national curriculum, tests, and performance tables. The United States' No Child Left Behind Act began rewriting state rules in 2002…

Hannaway, Jane; Murphy, Marilyn; Reed, Jodie

2004-01-01

264

Equal Educational Opportunity in Connecticut. Review and Recommendations for State School Finance Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formed by the Connecticut legislature to monitor the state's educational aid plan, the Educational Equity Study Committee in this report joins with the state Board of Education in recommending amendments to Connecticut's 1979 school finance reform law, involving changes in the state's Minimum Expenditure Requirement (MER) plan and Guaranteed Tax…

Connecticut State Educational Equity Study Committee, Hartford.

265

Globalization and the Nation-State: Sovereignty and State Welfare in Jeopardy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the fact that although globalization cannot be resisted by the nation-state, it is often confronted by mixed reactions from both the GN (Global North) and the GS (Global South). The essay charges that globalization has political, economic and cultural impact on the nation-state, which ultimately impacts the issue of identity…

Jotia, Agreement Lathi

2011-01-01

266

Helping Families Transition from Welfare to Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extension program, Building Nebraska Families, works with Employment First families, Nebraska's welfare reform program, to teach family management and life skills using an individualized, flexible curriculum to help families make successful transitions from welfare to work. Evaluation strategies include an entry/exit behavior checklist and…

Thayer, Carol E.; Fox, Marilyn; Koszewski, Wanda

2002-01-01

267

The Impacts of State Health Reform Initiatives on Adults in New York and Massachusetts  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze the effects of health reform efforts in two large states—New York and Massachusetts. Data Sources/Study Setting National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data from 1999 to 2008. Study Design We take advantage of the “natural experiments” that occurred in New York and Massachusetts to compare health insurance coverage and health care access and use for adults before and after the implementation of the health policy changes. To control for underlying trends not related to the reform initiatives, we subtract changes in the outcomes over the same time period for comparison groups of adults who were not affected by the policy changes using a differences-in-differences framework. The analyses are conducted using multiple comparison groups and different time periods as a check on the robustness of the findings. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Nonelderly adults ages 19–64 in the NHIS. Principal Findings We find evidence of the success of the initiatives in New York and Massachusetts at expanding insurance coverage, with the greatest gains reported by the initiative that was broadest in scope—the Massachusetts push toward universal coverage. There is no evidence of improvements in access to care in New York, reflecting the small gains in coverage under that state's reform effort and the narrow focus of the initiative. In contrast, there were significant gains in access to care in Massachusetts, where the impact on insurance coverage was greater and a more comprehensive set of reforms were implemented to improve access to a full array of health care services. The estimated gains in coverage and access to care reported here for Massachusetts were achieved in the early period under health reform, before the state's reform initiative was fully implemented. Conclusions Comprehensive reform initiatives are more successful at addressing gaps in coverage and access to care than are narrower efforts, highlighting the potential gains under national health reform. Tracking the implications of national health reform will be challenging, as sample sizes and content in existing national surveys are not currently sufficient for in-depth evaluations of the impacts of reform within many states.

Long, Sharon K; Stockley, Karen

2011-01-01

268

Splintered Accountability: State Governance and Education Reform. SUNY Series in Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The No Child Left Behind Act declared that improving education in every school in the United States was a top national priority. However, this act did not acknowledge how state departments of education have successfully constructed reforms for the past few decades, despite the power struggle between governors, legislators, school districts, and…

Shober, Arnold F.

2010-01-01

269

Symposium Review of Books. The Welfare of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares and contrasts the issues presented in two books pertaining to child poverty, policy, and welfare reform: "The Welfare of Children" (Duncan Lindsey) and "Rethinking Child Welfare in Canada" (Brian Wharf, Editor). Both provide excellent analysis and recommendations but lack attention to tracking systems that place children in different…

Rossi, Peter H.; Sarri, Rosemary

1995-01-01

270

WRP: Final Report on Vermont's Welfare Restructuring Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation was conducted of Vermont's Welfare Restructuring Project (WRP), one of the earliest statewide welfare reform programs designed to increase work and reduce reliance on welfare. To assess the difference WRP made, parents applying for or receiving cash assistance in Vermont from July 1994 to December 1996 were assigned randomly to one…

Scrivener, Susan; Hendra, Richard; Redcross, Cindy; Bloom, Dan; Michalopoulos, Charles; Walter, Johanna

271

Caring for America: Home Health Workers in the Shadow of the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a sweeping analytical narrative, from the Great Depression of the 1930s to the Great Recession of today, Caring for America shows how law and social policy shaped home care into a low-wage job, stigmatized as part of public welfare, primarily funded through Medicaid, and relegated to the bottom of the medical hierarchy. Care work became a job for African

Eileen Boris; Jennifer Klein

272

Overhauling welfare: implications for reproductive health policy in the United States.  

PubMed

The overhaul of the welfare system in 1996 broke the historic link between eligibility for welfare benefits and eligibility for Medicaid, ended a longstanding requirement that welfare recipients be given access to family planning services, and, at the same time, included a number of controversial features directed at reducing out-of-wedlock childbearing and promoting abstinence-only education. Five years later, the number of women enrolled in Medicaid is down, the number not covered by insurance is up, and abstinence-only education has become a prominent feature of the government's effort to decrease the incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies. Very little is known about how well these interventions are working and what impact, positive or negative, they have had. As Congress heads for reauthorization of the nation's welfare law later this year, policy makers should give increased attention to the provision of information and services, including those related to family planning, in order to better address the reproductive health needs of low-income women. PMID:11905491

Boonstra, Heather; Gold, Rachel Benson

2002-01-01

273

A Multilevel Analysis of Factors Related to Poverty in Welfare States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to investigate factors contributing to poverty, one of the most significant social problems in Western societies. To this end, 13 countries that have made a variety of efforts to reduce poverty, and therefore experienced similar development processes related to welfare, were selected. To overcome the methodological limitations of…

Kim, Kyo-seong; Lee, Yongwoo; Lee, Yu-jeong

2010-01-01

274

Implementing health care reform in the United States: intergovernmental politics and the dilemmas of institutional design.  

PubMed

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was enacted, and continues to operate, under conditions of political polarization. In this article, we argue that the law's intergovernmental structure has amplified political conflict over its implementation by distributing governing authority to political actors at both levels of the American federal system. We review the ways in which the law's demands for institutional coordination between federal and state governments (and especially the role it preserves for governors and state legislatures) have created difficulties for rolling out health-insurance exchanges and expanding the Medicaid program. By way of contrast, we show how the institutional design of the ACA's regulatory reforms of the insurance market, which diminish the reform's political salience, has allowed for considerably less friction during the implementation process. This article thus highlights the implications of multi-level institutional designs for the post-enactment politics of major reforms. PMID:24508181

Béland, Daniel; Rocco, Philip; Waddan, Alex

2014-05-01

275

Examining the impact of welfare reform, labor market conditions, and the Earned Income Tax Credit on the employment of black and white single mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Annual Demographic Files of the March Current Population Survey, we estimate the effects of welfare policies, labor market conditions, and the Earned Income Tax Credit on the probability of employment for black and white single mothers, and we investigate the extent to which changes in these macro-level factors account for racial differences in employment growth over this period.

Mary C. Noonan; Sandra S. Smith; Mary E. Corcoran

2007-01-01

276

Will Welfare Reform Hurt Low-Skilled Workers? Discussion Papers. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The entry of working welfare mothers into the labor market will have an impact on the wages and employment of low-skilled workers. This impact was examined through a labor market analysis of available statistical data about the U.S. population and employment patterns. The characteristics of workers likely to enter the labor market because of…

Enchautegui, Maria E.

277

Substance abuse and employment among welfare mothers: from welfare to work and back again?  

PubMed

We have very little research on how substance use impacts employment among welfare mothers. But welfare reform's emphasis on moving aid recipients into the workforce has brought this issue to the fore. Using Cox proportional hazard and logistic regression in a longitudinal study of California welfare mothers in 2001-2003, we examine how substance use impacts the ability to move from welfare to work and to remain economically independent after welfare. While education, work history, and family size consistently predict transitions from welfare to work and back again, substance use-related problems consistently do not. However, the jobs obtained by welfare mothers are short-term and poorly paid regardless of whether they misuse alcohol or use drugs. We argue that, if all that is open to welfare mothers are short-lived work assignments, substance use may have little time to impact job retention. Limitations of the study are noted. PMID:17668326

Schmidt, Laura; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, Jim

2007-01-01

278

Some Reasoned Utopian Proposals for National Health System Reform in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health system in the United States today is in need of serious reform. Several suggestions offered are utopian, not in the sense that they are wildly unrealistic, impossible to implement, or exorbitantly expensive but, rather, in that they envision restructuring the health system on the basis of reason and rationality without regard to what is already in place. Most

Pauline Vaillancourt Rosenau

1993-01-01

279

State-Level Support for Comprehensive School Reform: Implications for Policy and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current context of standards-based reform and heightened accountability for school performance, state education agencies (SEAs) have an important, but not yet well-articulated, role to play in local school improvement efforts. This article starts to articulate such a role by examining the variety of approaches and strategies used by 7 SEAs…

Lane, Brett; Gracia, Susan

2005-01-01

280

Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Lessons from PISA for the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume draws lessons from the education systems of a selection of top-scoring and rapidly improving countries as measured by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). While this volume relates these lessons to the education reform agenda in the United States, they…

OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

281

Solidarity in Swedish welfare--standing the test of time?  

PubMed

Swedish welfare has for decades served as a role model for universalistic welfare. When the economic recession hit Swedish economy in the beginning of the 1990s, a period of more than 50 years of continuous expansion and reforms in the welfare sector came to an end. Summing up the past decade, we can see that the economic downturn enforced rationing measures in most parts of the welfare state, although most of this took place in the beginning of the decade. Today, most of the retrenchment has stopped and in some areas we can see tendencies of restoration--but more so in financial benefits than in the caring sectors. In the article this process is discussed as a process of reallocation where general principles of solidarity become manifest. Various levels of decision making are discussed within the context of socio-political action. Current transitions in Swedish health care are described with respect to coverage rates, content, marketization and distribution. Basic principles of distribution are highlighted in order to analyse the meaning of social solidarity in a concrete allocative setting. The significance of popular opinion--it's shifts and determinants--is also considered. The article concludes with a discussion of how the (once salient) features of universalism in welfare and health care provision have been affected by the developments in the past decade in Sweden. PMID:11155559

Bergmark, A

2000-01-01

282

A "Marshall Plan" Is Urged to Reform State Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A panel of educators, business leaders, and government officials convened by the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), recommends massive, state-by-state educational change by increasing the proportion of American college graduates, giving public institutions major responsibility for teacher education, and encouraging…

Palmer, Stacy E.

1986-01-01

283

The State, Markets and Higher Education Reform in Botswana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Market forces are being introduced in public spheres such as higher education and public health, which hitherto were closed to such forces. Ironically, it is the state that is responsible for this process of marketisation. Some see this state action as leading to a growing influence of the state in public policy while others see an attenuation of…

Tabulawa, Richard; Polelo, Mino; Silas, Onalenna

2013-01-01

284

The European influence on workers' compensation reform in the United States  

PubMed Central

Workers' compensation law in the United States is derived from European models of social insurance introduced in Germany and in England. These two concepts of workers' compensation are found today in the federal and state workers' compensation programs in the United States. All reform proposals in the United States are influenced by the European experience with workers' compensation. In 2006, a reform proposal termed the Public Health Model was made that would abolish the workers' compensation system, and in its place adopt a national disability insurance system for all injuries and illnesses. In the public health model, health and safety professionals would work primarily in public health agencies. The public health model eliminates the physician from any role other than that of privately consulting with the patient and offering advice solely to the patient. The Public Health Model is strongly influenced by the European success with physician consultation with industry and labor.

2011-01-01

285

The EU’s Impact on the Spanish Welfare State: The Role of Cognitive Europeanization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses to what extent the enlargement of the EU towards Spain has impacted the reform of social policies up to the present. Despite the fact that the norms issued by the European Union regarding the regulation of social-protection policies is scant, becoming a member of such a supranational institution can be expected to have influenced the redesign of

Ana M. Guillén; Santiago Álvarez

2004-01-01

286

Are health inequalities really not the smallest in the Nordic welfare states? A comparison of mortality inequality in 37 countries  

PubMed Central

Background Research comparing mortality by socioeconomic status has found that inequalities are not the smallest in the Nordic countries. This is in contrast to expectations given these countries’ policy focus on equity. An alternative way of studying inequality has been little used to compare inequalities across welfare states and may yield a different conclusion. Methods We used average life expectancy lost per death as a measure of total inequality in mortality derived from death rates from the Human Mortality Database for 37 countries in 2006 that we grouped by welfare state type. We constructed a theoretical ‘lowest mortality comparator country’ to study, by age, why countries were not achieving the smallest inequality and the highest life expectancy. We also studied life expectancy as there is an important correlation between it and inequality. Results On average, Nordic countries had the highest life expectancy and smallest inequalities for men but not women. For both men and women, Nordic countries had particularly low younger age mortality contributing to smaller inequality and higher life expectancy. Although older age mortality in the Nordic countries is not the smallest. There was variation within Nordic countries with Sweden, Iceland and Norway having higher life expectancy and smaller inequalities than Denmark and Finland (for men). Conclusions Our analysis suggests that the Nordic countries do have the smallest inequalities in mortality for men and for younger age groups. However, this is not the case for women. Reducing premature mortality among older age groups would increase life expectancy and reduce inequality further in Nordic countries.

Popham, Frank; Dibben, Chris; Bambra, Clare

2013-01-01

287

Mortality of White Americans, African Americans, and Canadians: The Causes and Consequences for Health of Welfare State Institutions and Policies  

PubMed Central

The life expectancy of African Americans has been substantially lower than that of white Americans for as long as records are available. The life expectancy of all Americans has been lower than that of all Canadians since the beginning of the 20th century. Until the 1970s this disparity was the result of the low life expectancy of African Americans. Since then, the life expectancy of white Americans has not improved as much as that of all Canadians. This article discusses two issues: racial disparities in the United States, and the difference in life expectancy between all Canadians and white Americans. Each country's political culture and institutions have shaped these differences, especially national health insurance in Canada and its absence in the United States. The American welfare state has contributed to and explains these differences.

Kunitz, Stephen J; Pesis-Katz, Irena

2005-01-01

288

The Context of Higher Education Reform in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education in the United States has received much scrutiny in the recent past from the federal and state governments, the press and the general public. In response to this scrutiny, a number of blue ribbon panels have been formed to examine how effectively higher education is serving American society. In this article, I analyse the…

Heller, Donald E.

2009-01-01

289

Focus on Teacher Reform Legislation in SREB States: Evaluation Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent wave of new legislation affecting public school teachers has its roots, in part, in the budget shortfalls that have challenged states for the past several years. The first signs of fiscal troubles for many states became evident in 2008, and most instituted midyear budget reductions in 2009. In response, the U.S. Congress passed the…

Dixon, Asenith

2011-01-01

290

Reasserting the 'social' in social rented housing: politics, housing policy and housing reforms in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a decade of wide-ranging social welfare reforms in New Zealand, that have resulted in a considerable restructuring of the role of the state in housing provision, the introduction of new housing legislation in 2000 marked a significant attempt to reassert the notion of social provision. This article examines the manner in which housing policy has recast the role of

Laurence Murphy

2003-01-01

291

A Re-Examination of Welfare States and Inequality in Rich Nations: How In-Kind Transfers and Indirect Taxes Change the Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies find large cross-national differences in inequality amongst rich Western nations, due in large part to differences in the generosity of welfare state transfers. The United States is the least generous nation and the one having the most after-tax and transfer inequality. But these analyses are limited to the effects of cash and…

Garfinkel, Irwin; Rainwater, Lee; Smeeding, Timothy M.

2006-01-01

292

Analysis of State School Finance Reform Legislation in Florida, 1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On June 26, 1973, the system for financing elementary and secondary education in Florida was radically altered when the Florida legislature passed the Florida Education Finance Program Act of 1973. Significant features of this act include (1) substantially increased fiscal equalization; (2) a systematic plan and substantial State commitment to…

Mintz, Steven

293

Surprising Momentum: Spurring Education Reforms in States and Localities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter first examines how the Obama administration was able to promote its K-12 agenda using the vehicle of economic stimulus policy, and how that agenda compares with prior federal and state education policy. As a basis for explaining President Obama's policy choices, a second section discusses the ideas and political dynamics shaping his…

McDonnell, Lorraine M.

2010-01-01

294

Organized labor and health reform: union interests and the Clinton plan.  

PubMed

The fringe benefits on which most Americans have come to rely for health insurance constitute a critical foundation of both the postwar regime of labor relations and the distinctive American welfare state. One legacy of these complementary regimes was a wide variety of institutional commitments and organizational arrangements in the area of health benefits. That diversity of experiences created a range of political incentives for unions when it came to health reform. Thus, when President Clinton proposed a "managed competition" approach to health reform in 1993, divisions within the labor movement contributed to the ineffectiveness of the campaign mounted by supporters of the effort. This article reviews the development of a "private-sector welfare state" in the United States, documents the range of accompanying institutional arrangements, and suggests how they may have shaped the political calculations of certain unions when faced with the Clinton White House's reform proposal. PMID:9170787

Weil, L A

1997-01-01

295

A strategy for assessing costs of implementing new practices in the child welfare system: adapting the English cost calculator in the United States.  

PubMed

In decisions to adopt and implement new practices or innovations in child welfare, costs are often a bottom-line consideration. The cost calculator, a method developed in England that can be used to calculate unit costs of core case work activities and associated administrative costs, is described as a potentially helpful tool for assisting child welfare administrators to evaluate the costs of current practices relative to their outcomes and could impact decisions about whether to implement new practices. The process by which the cost calculator is being adapted for use in US child welfare systems in two states is described and an illustration of using the method to compare two intervention approaches is provided. PMID:20976620

Chamberlain, Patricia; Snowden, Lonnie R; Padgett, Courtenay; Saldana, Lisa; Roles, Jennifer; Holmes, Lisa; Ward, Harriet; Soper, Jean; Reid, John; Landsverk, John

2011-01-01

296

Education for the Handicapped, 1973 - Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Handicapped of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare United States Senate - Ninety-Third Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the proceedings of the hearings before the Subcommittee on Handicapped of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare on Senate Bills 896, 6, 34, and 808 which would provide financial assistance to the states for improved educational services for handicapped children, support research and development in the care and treatment of…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

297

When Child Welfare Agencies Rely on Voluntary Kinship Placements: New Federalism Issues and Options for States. An Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizing findings from a forthcoming book, this policy brief examines when and how child welfare agencies rely on kin to care for children who are taken into state custody. The discussion is based on intensive case studies of local kinship care policies and practices; the case studies were conducted in 13 counties in Alabama, California,…

Malm, Karin; Geen, Rob

298

Can We Improve the Measurement of Attitudes towards the Welfare State? A Constructive Critique of Survey Instruments with Evidence from Focus Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a large and growing literature on welfare state attitudes, most of which is built on random-sample population surveys with standardised closed-question items. This article criticises the existing survey instruments, especially those that are used within the International Social Survey Programme, in a novel approach with focus group data…

Goerres, Achim; Prinzen, Katrin

2012-01-01

299

Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

Horne, Thomas A.

1990-01-01

300

The association between life course socioeconomic position and life satisfaction in different welfare states: European comparative study of individuals in early old age  

PubMed Central

Background: whether socioeconomic position over the life course influences the wellbeing of older people similarly in different societies is not known. Objective: to investigate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction among individuals in early old age and the influence of the welfare state regime on the associations. Design: comparative study using data from Wave 2 and SHARELIFE, the retrospective Wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected during 2006–07 and 2008–09, respectively. Setting: thirteen European countries representing four welfare regimes (Southern, Scandinavian, Post-communist and Bismarckian). Subjects: a total of 17,697 individuals aged 50–75 years. Methods: slope indices of inequality (SIIs) were calculated for the association between life course socioeconomic position (measured by the number of books in childhood, education level and current wealth) and life satisfaction. Single level linear regression models stratified by welfare regime and multilevel regression models, containing interaction terms between socioeconomic position and welfare regime type, were calculated. Results: socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction were present in all welfare regimes. Educational inequalities in life satisfaction were narrowest in Scandinavian and Bismarckian regimes among both genders. Post-communist and Southern countries experienced both lower life satisfaction and larger socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction, using most measures of socioeconomic position. Current wealth was associated with large inequalities in life satisfaction across all regimes. Conclusions: Scandinavian and Bismarckian countries exhibited narrower socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction. This suggests that more generous welfare states help to produce a more equitable distribution of wellbeing among older people.

Niedzwiedz, Claire L.; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Pell, Jill P.; Mitchell, Richard

2014-01-01

301

Child Welfare Policy Manual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document conveys mandatory policies that have their basis in Federal Law and/or program regulations. It also provides interpretations of Federal Statutes and program regulations initiated by inquiries from State Child Welfare agencies or Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Regional Offices. The manual replaces the Children's…

Administration for Children & Families, 2008

2008-01-01

302

Child Welfare in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting the current state of theory and practice in child welfare in Canada, these eight papers suggest a contemporary view of Canadian children and the contexts in which they develop as defined by legal rights and society. First, Henry S. Maas argues that attention to normal social development and its contexts, and to related ongoing theory…

McBroom, Elizabeth, Ed.

1983-01-01

303

Political economy of coal-mine safety and its contribution to the theory of the welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservative, liberal, and marxist explanations of the origins and function of social welfare benefits are identified. The conservatives see defined right benefits as error in the system, resulting from excesses of political democracy and functioning to interfere with the market, and functioning to reduce the viability of the economy. Individual action alone produces real benefit. Liberals disconnect social welfare and

1987-01-01

304

Civilizing the State Bureaucracy: The Unfulfilled Promise of Public Administration Reform in Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic (1990-2000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an analysis of the politics of public administration reform in Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic that examines why, despite the ambition and scope of such reform, its results have been disappointing and sometimes even counterproductive. It examines the genesis, implementation, and political consequences of policies to reform state administration. The first section lays out the theory

Conor ODwyer

2002-01-01

305

The 110 Percent Solution: Building Private Alternatives to Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to reform welfare will fail if steps are not taken to increase the involvement of local private charities. Ohio should adopt a 110 percent tax credit for donations contributed to qualified private support organizations.

David F Forte

1995-01-01

306

Welfare Policies and Adolescents: Exploring the Roles of Sibling Care, Maternal Work Schedules, and Economic Resources  

PubMed Central

This study uses data from three longitudinal experimental evaluations of US state welfare reform programs to examine whether program-induced changes in families’ reliance on sibling care are linked with the effects of welfare programs on selected schooling outcomes of high risk, low-income adolescents. The findings from two of the welfare programs indicate that increased reliance on sibling care was concomitant with unfavorable effects of the programs on adolescent schooling outcomes. In the third welfare program examined, the program did not yield any increases in the use of sibling care or unfavorable effects on adolescent schooling outcomes, suggesting that sibling care is one likely contributor to the negative effects of welfare programs on adolescent schooling outcomes. These findings are discussed in terms of the pattern of the programs’ effects on families’ income, as well as maternal work on nonstandard schedules, aside from the programs’ effects on maternal employment, which play contributory roles in shaping the extent to which welfare programs led to less favorable effects on the schooling outcomes of adolescents with younger siblings.

Hsueh, JoAnn; Gennetian, Lisa A.

2011-01-01

307

Why China's economic reforms differ: the M-form hierarchy and entry\\/expansion of the non-state sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's thirteen years of reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical structure based on the functional or specialization

Yingyi Qian; Chenggang Xu

1993-01-01

308

Creating State-based Alliances to Support Earth and Space Science Education Reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven years after the publication of the National Science Education Standards and adoption of new state science education standards, Earth and space science remains outside the mainstream K-12 curriculum. Currently, less than ten percent of high school students in the United States of America take an Earth or space science course before graduation. This state of affairs is simply unacceptable. "All of us who live on this planet have the right and the obligation to understand Earth's unique history, its dynamic processes, its abundant resources, and its intriguing mysteries. As citizens of Earth, with the power to modify our climate and ecosystems, we also have a personal and collective responsibility to understand Earth so that we can make wise decisions about its and our future". As one step toward addressing this situation, we support the establishment of state-based alliances to promote Earth and space science education reform. "In many ways, states are the most vital locus of change in our nation's schools. State departments of education define curriculum frameworks, establish testing policies, support professional development and, in some cases, approve textbooks and materials for adoption". State alliance partners should include a broad spectrum of K-16 educators, scientists, policy makers, parents, and community leaders from academic institutions, businesses, museums, technology centers, and not-for profit organizations. The focus of these alliances should be on systemic and sustainable reform of K-16 Earth and space science education. Each state-based alliance should focus on specific educational needs within their state, but work together to share ideas, resources, and models for success. As we build these alliances we need to take a truly collaborative approach working with the other sciences, geography, and mathematics so that collectively we can improve the caliber and scope of science and mathematics education for all students.

Geary, E. E.; Manduca, C. A.; Barstow, D.

2002-05-01

309

The Role of State Departments of Education in Comprehensive School Reform. Benchmark. Volume 5, Issue 2, Spring 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States have the legal responsibility and authority to provide public education for their citizens. How each state fulfills its responsibility varies. Whether state education agencies (SEAs) are supporting school reform efforts, providing technical assistance, defining and controlling educational content, or assessing the outcomes of education, it…

Hamann, Edmund T.; Lane, Brett

2004-01-01

310

Educational Opportunities in Washington's High Schools under State Education Reform: High School Responses to Expectations for Change. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes educational programs and opportunities available to Washington state's high school students, emphasizing changes brought about by the state's education reform. Information came from surveys and interviews with teachers, students, and parents and state and national data. The study examined whether high schools were increasing…

McLain, Barbara; Thompson, Madeleine

311

Evaluation of State Efforts To Improve the Primary Care Workforce. Scholarship/Loan Programs and Medical Education Reforms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines performance evaluations of state loan/scholarship programs and direct support for medical education reform programs for the education and training of health care professionals. It is based on a survey of all administrators of state scholarship and loan repayment programs and a mail survey of officials in the 34 states which…

Henderson, Tim M.; Fox-Grage, Wendy

312

Overview of the Common Core State Standard initiative and educational reform movement from the vantage of speech-language pathologists.  

PubMed

Educational reform is sweeping the country. The adoption and the implementation of the Common Core State Standards in almost every state are meant to transform education. It is intended to update the way schools educate, the way students learn, and to ultimately prepare the nation's next generation for the global workplace. This article will describe the Common Core State Standard initiative and the underlying concerns about the quality of education in the United States as well as the opportunities this reform initiative affords speech-language pathologists. PMID:22538706

Staskowski, Maureen

2012-05-01

313

Revalidating External Prison Classifications Systems: The Experience of Ten States and Model for Classification Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) funded projects to assist ten states with the revalidation of their external objective classification systems that determine which facility an inmate should be housed. The ten participating states included Delaware, Montana, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. Written by Patricia L. Hardyman, James Austin, and Owan C. Tulloch, this 146-page report reveals the work undertaken by the participating states, provides an overall outline of the essential tasks required for revalidation, and summarizes external classification trends along with the lessons learned from these reforms. The report also includes copies of classification instruments and statistical tables to describe options for other states faced with similar problems.

Austin, James, 1948-; Hardyman, Patricia L.; Tulloch, Owan C.

2002-01-01

314

Recent developments in European and international welfare regulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Protocol on Animal Welfare annexed to the EC Treaty in 1999 obliges the European Institutions to fully consider animal welfare in the drafting and implementation of Community legislation. The reform of the common agricultural policies (CAP) foreseen by Agenda 2000 follows the trend of more market oriented measures decoupling subsidies from production. Farming is seen as fundamental to other

H. J. Blokhuis

2004-01-01

315

Reforming pharmaceutical industry-physician financial relationships: lessons from the United States, France, and Japan.  

PubMed

This article compares the means that the United States, France, and Japan use to oversee pharmaceutical industry-physician financial relationships. These countries rely on professional and/or industry ethical codes, anti-kickback laws, and fair trade practice laws. They restrict kickbacks the most strictly, allow wide latitude on gifts, and generally permit drug firms to fund professional activities and associations. Consequently, to avoid legal liability, drug firms often replace kickbacks with gifts and grants. The paper concludes by proposing reforms that address problems that persist when firms replace kickbacks with gifts and grants based on the experience of the three countries. PMID:22084852

Rodwin, Marc A

2011-01-01

316

The View from the Field: As Time Limits Approach, Welfare Recipients and Staff Talk about Their Attitudes and Expectations. The Cross-State Study of Time-Limited Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined time limits from the perspectives of welfare recipients and line staff in welfare agencies. Data on time-limited welfare were drawn from staff surveys and from group and individual interviews with both staff and recipients in selected locations in Florida, Vermont, and Wisconsin during the first half of 1996. Findings indicated…

Brown, Amy; Bloom, Dan; Butler, David

317

A Stock-Flow Analysis of the Welfare Caseload: Insights from California Economic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, the welfare caseload peaked and then declined by about half. The decline occurred simultaneously with a robust economic expansion and a series of major welfare reforms. This paper reconsiders the methods used in the previous studies to explain these changes. The authors explicitly model the welfare caseload as the net outcome of past flows onto and off

Jacob A. Klerman; Steven J. Haider

2001-01-01

318

Effects of welfare reform and the state children’s health insurance program on medicaid and total health expenditures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicaid expenditures account for a sizeable proportion of U.S. GDP - $360.3 billion in 2009 or 2.55 percent of GDP. Despite this, the Affordable Care Act of 2010 (i.e. the new Obama healthcare initiative) further expands eligibility criteria for the Medicaid program. However, there is little literature on the effect on healthcare spending from earlier expansions of Medicaid such as

Anusua Datta; Donald Vandegrift

2011-01-01

319

Parental Leave in Romania and Hungary and European Accession: Welfare State Untransformed  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the nature of the relationship between the political and economic structures of the EU and those of nation states seems a conflict-ridden one - featuring integrative tendencies of the former against the occasional self-preserving and self-reinforcing ambitions of the latter -, arguably leading to the slow surrender of state sovereignty as the prerogative of the final (political) decision 2,

Borbála Kovács

320

Reform and the politics of hybridization in mature health care states.  

PubMed

This article examines the cases of three health care states -- two of which (Britain and the Netherlands) have undergone major policy reform and one of which (Canada) has experienced only marginal adjustments. The British and Dutch reforms have variously altered the balance of power, the mix of instruments of control, and the organizing principles. As a result, mature systems representing the ideal-typical health care state categories of national health systems and social insurance (Britain and the Netherlands, respectively) were transformed into distinctive national hybrids. These processes have involved a politics of redesign that differs from the politics of earlier phases of establishment and retrenchment. In particular, the redesign phase is marked by the activity of institutional entrepreneurs who exploit specific opportunities afforded by public programs to combine public and private resources in innovative organizational arrangements. Canada stands as a counterpoint: no window of opportunity for major change occurred, and the bilateral monopoly created by its prototypical single-payer model provided few footholds for entrepreneurial activity. The increased significance of institutional entrepreneurs gives greater urgency to one of the central projects of health policy: the design of accountability frameworks to allow for an assessment of performance against objectives. PMID:22466051

Tuohy, Carolyn Hughes

2012-08-01

321

Constraints on the retreat from a welfare-orientated approach to public health care in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Both in its articulation of values and through incremental changes, the Malaysian government has signalled a change in attitude towards the welfare approach which had hitherto characterized public health care policy. This change envisions an end to reliance upon the state for the provision and financing of health services and the fostering of a system of family-based welfare. In the future citizens should finance their own health care through savings, insurance or as part of their terms of employment. While the state will still accept a degree of responsibility for those unable to pay for their health care, it wishes to share this burden with the corporate sector and non-government organizations as part of a national policy of the 'Caring Society'. In this article the retreat from a commitment to a welfare model of public health care is documented and some of the serious obstacles to such a policy are discussed. It is concluded that the government's aspirations for reforming the welfare model will need to be tempered by both practical and political considerations. Moreover, the socio-economic consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997 are likely to increase the need for government welfare action. PMID:10387810

Barraclough, S

1999-04-01

322

Florida's Lessons for Indiana K-12 Reform. School Choice Issues in the State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jeb Bush campaigned for Governor on a clear and bracing set of education reforms in 1998. Having won office, he immediately pursued a dual track strategy of education reform: standards and accountability for public schools, choice options for dissatisfied parents. Florida lawmakers followed these reforms with additional measures, including…

Ladner, Matthew

2009-01-01

323

Improving Student Achievement in Science... The NSRC Blueprint: Science Education Reform for School Districts and States...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Systemic reform requires leaders with technical knowledge of the five essential components of science education reform, as well as access to products and services that can be used to move leaders through the various stages of reform. During the past two decades, the National Science Resources Center (NSRC) has developed differentiated products and…

National Science Resources Center, 2006

2006-01-01

324

Assessment of Behavior Management and Behavioral Interventions in State Child Welfare Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Official state program reviews of 204 substitute care facilities were assessed for the types of behavior management and behavioral interventions used and the extent to which agency practices were consistent with learning theory principles. Data were also collected on the type and number of professional staff available to implement and oversee…

Wong, Stephen E.

2006-01-01

325

The Mental Health Benefits of Work: Do They Apply to Welfare Mothers with a Drinking Problem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longstanding tradition of employment-related research has shown the mental health advantages of employment. However, given\\u000a welfare reform mandates for employment and a welfare population with disproportionately high rates of depression and co-occurring\\u000a substance abuse problems, it is unclear if women on welfare reap this advantage. This analysis draws on 4 years of data from\\u000a the Welfare Client Longitudinal Study to

Denise Zabkiewicz; Laura A. Schmidt

2009-01-01

326

ALBANIA'S RADICAL AGRARIAN REFORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agrarian reform in Albania included free distribution of land to rural households and the complete break up of the former collective and state farms. These key features of the Albanian reform are in sharp contrast with other Central and Eastern European countries. Our paper explains the choice of the Albanian agricultural privatization and land reform process and the radical

Azeta Cungu; Johan F. M. Swinnen

1998-01-01

327

The School-to-College Transition in the Context of Educational Reform: Student Retention and the State Policy Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the impact of state-level educational reform in Kentucky on college student retention. By tracking the educational progress of students who graduated from high school in a large school district and who subsequently enrolled in a research university in the same metropolitan area, the study reveals that the accountability…

Welsh, John F.; Petrosko, Joseph; Taylor, Hal

2007-01-01

328

Timing Is Everything: Building State Policy on Teacher Credentialing in an Era of Multiple, Competing, and Rapid Education Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Senate Bill (SB) 2042, authored by Senator Marion Bergeson, was passed to establish a new system for providing teacher preparation within the state of California. The credentialing reforms introduced in SB 2042 follow a tradition described by Irving Hendrik and stake their own claims regarding the locus of control over teacher quality, the role of…

Sandy, Mary Vixie

2006-01-01

329

The Early Childhood and Elementary Education Continuum: Constructing an Understanding of P-3 as State-Level Policy Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State-level policy attention to young children's early learning opportunities burgeons; a sense of urgency exists to identify reform agendas that are both effective and sustainable. "P-3" often is used as the term for the first level of a seamless P-20 system that stretches from early childhood through post-secondary education. While it is…

Kauerz, Kristie Anne

2009-01-01

330

Education Reform and Decentralization in Mexico and the Creation of Educación Cívica in the State of Jalisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors investigate Mexican education reform and decentralization and how the state of Jalisco focused in the early twenty-first century on developing a sequential curriculum for teaching civics in grades 1-6. The authors use the term educación cívica because in Mexico the curriculum emphasizes the acquisition of values and attitudes that facilitate a harmonious social life and

Gloria Contreras; Marion J. Rice

2009-01-01

331

The long shadow of the past: risk pooling and the political development of health care reform in the States.  

PubMed

Why do the states seem to be pursuing different types of policy innovation in their health reform? Why so some seem to follow a "solidarity principle," while others seem guided by a commitment to "actuarial fairness"? Our analysis highlights the reciprocal influence of stakeholder mobilization and public policy over time. We find that early policy choices about how to achieve cost containment led the states down different paths of reform. In the 1970s and 1980s, states that featured oligopolistic or near-monopolistic markets for private insurance (usually dominated by Blue Cross) and strong urban-academic hospitals tended to adopt regulatory strategies for cost containment that led to broader forms of pooling and financing the costs of health risks--which subsequently positioned them to pursue major, solidaristic reform on favorable terms. On the other hand, states with competitive markets for private insurance and weak, decentralized hospitals tended to adopt market-based strategies for cost containment that led to the hypersegmentation of risk and the uneven financing of costs--thereby encouraging the proliferation of incremental policies that reinforce the principle of actuarial fairness. We illustrate our analysis with a brief comparison of Massachusetts and California, and we conclude with some thoughts on what our findings imply for the federal role in catalyzing health reform. PMID:19778929

Chen, Anthony S; Weir, Margaret

2009-10-01

332

Continuously Uncertain Reform Effort: State-Mandated History and Social Science Curriculum and the Perceptions of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined teachers' attitudes and beliefs in one over-performing urban/suburban high school of the state-mandated curriculum framework under conditions that I label a continuously uncertain reform effort or a top-down mandated curriculum involving constant mixed-messages as to its content, accountability demands, and future existence.…

Martell, Christopher

2010-01-01

333

The Challenge of Educational Reform in Microstates: A Case-Study of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes efforts to improve educational access and quality in the seven small nations that comprise the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States. Asserts that curriculum reform and textbook development are hindered by intellectual and financial dependence on larger nations. Concludes that cooperation among the nations is one way to help solve…

Fergus, Howard A.

1991-01-01

334

Why do rich countries prefer free trade over free migration? The role of the modern welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to traditional trade theory (Heckscher–Ohlin), free trade and free migration are equivalent measures of economic integration leading both to an equalization of factor prices. This prediction is in sharp opposition to the observed preference of rich countries for free trade over free migration. We provide an explanation for this inconsistency: the redistribution policies in the countries. Social welfare in

Dietmar Wellisch; Uwe Walz

1998-01-01

335

Why do rich countries prefer free trade over free migration? The role of the modern welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to traditional trade theory (Heckscher—Ohlin), free trade and free migration are equivalent measures of economic integration leading both to an equalization of factor prices. This prediction is in sharp opposition to the observed preference of rich countries for free trade over free migration. We provide an explanation for this inconsistency: the redistribution policies in the countries. Social welfare in

Dietmar Wellisch; Uwe Walz

1997-01-01

336

The Transition of Youth with Disabilities from the Child Welfare System: An Analysis of State Administrative Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth with disabilities are disproportionately represented in the child welfare system (Crosse, Kaye, & Ratnofsky, 1992; Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Although research on this topic is limited, youth with disabilities who are emancipating from foster care are at risk for particularly poor outcomes, experiencing even lower rates of employment,…

Hill, Katharine Miller

2010-01-01

337

Protections for ERISA Self-Insured Employee Welfare Benefit Plan Participants: New Possibilities for State Action in the Event of Plan Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employees who receive health benefits through ERISA self-insured plans need protection when self-insured plans fail. Because of the breadth of ERISA preemption, states have been unable to assess ERISA self-insured plans for contribution to state insurance guaranty funds, and thus\\u000ahave been unable to include those employees in the protection of those funds. Further, attempts at federal reform to protect

Mark A. Edwards

1997-01-01

338

Farm-Animal Welfare, Legislation, and Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US has among the weakest farm-animal-welfare standards in the developed world. Although improvements in farm-animal welfare are economically feasible, nations and states enacting protective regulation are threatened by competition with cheaper, non-compliant imports. Although recognition in trade agreements and restrictions on sale could help to protect animal welfare, they may rarely be politically feasible. Campaigns directed at consumers and

Gaverick Matheny; Cheryl Leahy

2007-01-01

339

The State of America's Children Yearbook: 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Children's Defense Fund 1997 report on the state of America's children highlights the critical need for renewed commitment to children by all sectors of society. The introduction discusses Americans' values and presents 25 tips for effective child advocacy. The report then details the following: (1) the impact of welfare reform on children…

Weill, James D., Ed.; Jablonski, Donna M., Ed.

340

MYTHS AS BARRIERS TO HEALTH CARE REFORM IN THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. health care system is deteriorating in terms of decreasing access, increased costs, unacceptable quality, and poor system performance compared with health care systems in many other industrialized Western countries. Reform efforts to establish universal insurance coverage have been defeated on five occasions over the last century, largely through successful opposition by pro-market stakeholders in the status quo. Reform

John P. Geyman

2003-01-01

341

Comprehensive School Reform: A Longitudinal Study of School Improvement in One State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on comprehensive school reform (CSR) reform in 48 schools over 6 consecutive years. In 1998, a total of 24 schools received CSR awards to improve student achievement. Control schools were carefully matched on 26 demographic variables to form a comparison group. Students' average performance, as represented in publicly available school…

Good, Thomas L.; Burross, Heidi Legg; McCaslin, Mary M.

2005-01-01

342

National Standards and School Reform in Japan and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a collection of works that explore the implications of a national U.S. curriculum through the study of Japanese education. It consists of 10 chapters: (1) "The Development of the Course of Study and the Structure of Educational Reform in Japan" (Hiroshi Azuma); (2) "Setting National Standards: Educational Reform, Social Change, and…

DeCoker, Gary, Ed.

343

Affirming, Transforming, or Neglecting Gender? Conceptualizing Gender in the Pension Reform Process 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the gender visions adopted by policy actors in pension reform debates. Based on the work of Fraser (Fraser, N. 1994. “After the Family Wage: Gender Equity and the Welfare State.” Political Theory 22 : 591–618; Fraser, N. 1995. “From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a ‘PostSocialist’ Age.” New Left Review 212:68–93), four gendered visions of

PATRIK MARIER

2007-01-01

344

Losing the Safety Net: How a Time-Limited Welfare Policy Affects Families at Risk of Reaching Time Limits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the effects of Florida's Family Transition Program (FTP), one of the first welfare reform initiatives to include a time limit on the receipt of federal cash assistance with other welfare requirements, on single-mother welfare-receiving families. Using a regression-based subgroup approach, they identified a group of families…

Morris, Pamela A.; Hendra, Richard

2009-01-01

345

Teen Pregnancy: State and Federal Efforts to Implement Prevention Programs and Measure Their Effectiveness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of interest in efforts to prevent teen pregnancy, we were asked to provide information on (1) state strategies to reduce teen pregnancy and how states fund these efforts, (2) how welfare reform affected state's strategies, (3) the extent to which ...

1998-01-01

346

Democratic participation, fiscal reform and local governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's rural village elections have been acclaimed as a crucial step in China's democratization and a success in improving villagers' welfare and self-governance. Around 2002 the central government implemented another influential reform: the Tax-for-Fee reform. Using a unique two-year panel of village data from rural China covering more villages than the previous literature and spanning over these two reforms, our

Xiangyi Meng; Li Zhang

2011-01-01

347

A cross-national comparison of income gradients in oral health quality of life in four welfare states: application of the Korpi and Palme typology  

PubMed Central

Background The extent to which welfare states may influence health outcomes has not been explored. It was hypothesised that policies which target the poor are associated with greater income inequality in oral health quality of life than those that provide earnings-related benefits to all citizens. Methods Data were from nationally representative surveys in the UK (n=4064), Finland (n=5078), Germany (n=1454) and Australia (n=2292) conducted from 1998 to 2002. The typology of Korpi and Palme classifies these countries into four different welfare states. In each survey, subjects completed the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire, which evaluates the adverse consequence of dental conditions on quality of life. For each country, survey estimation commands were used to create linear regression models that estimated the slope of the gradient between four quartiles of income and OHIP-14 severity scores. Parameter estimates for income gradients were contrasted across countries using Wald ?2 tests specifying a critical p value of 0.008, equivalent to a Bonferroni correction of p<0.05 for the six pairwise tests. Results Statistically significant income gradients in OHIP-14 severity scores were found in all countries except Germany. A global test confirmed significant cross-national differences in the magnitude of income gradients. In Australia, where a flat rate of benefits targeted the poor, the mean OHIP-14 severity score reduced by 1.7 units (95% CI ?2.15 to ?1.34) with each increasing quartile of household income, a significantly steeper gradient than in other countries. Conclusion The coverage and generosity of welfare state benefits appear to influence levels of inequality in population oral health quality of life.

Sanders, A E; Slade, G D; John, M T; Steele, J G; Suominen-Taipale, A L; Lahti, S; Nuttall, N M; Allen, P Finbarr

2013-01-01

348

Clarifying the Multiple Linkages between Curriculum and Instruction in Programs of Urban Teacher Preparation and State Educational Policy Promoting School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines interrelationships between curriculum and instruction in an urban teacher education program and state educational policies promoting school reform. It notes how national policy talk and organizational strategies promoting systemic reform in schools serving low-income students influence the work of teacher educators preparing…

Weiner, Lois; Bloom, Arlene; Hall, Althea; Juncker, JoAnne; Obi, Roselynn; Pagano, Alicia; Rand, Muriel

349

HIGHTEX: A Computer Program for the Steady-State Simulation of Steam-Methane Reformers Used in a Nuclear Process Heat Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a computational model and the input procedure of HIGHTEX, a computer program for steady-state simulation of the steam-methane reformers used in a nuclear process heat plant. The HIGHTEX program simulates rapidly a single reformer tub...

Y. Tad.ro T. Seya

1977-01-01

350

Immigration Policy in the United States: Future Prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Program for Resarch on Immigration Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immigration to the United States has fluctuated considerably over the course of the nation's history and has elicited various policy responses at different times. In recent years, concern about undocumented, illegal immigration has given rise to efforts to reform immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 was intended…

Espenshade, Thomas J.; And Others

351

Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.  

PubMed

Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate. PMID:24094999

Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

2014-04-01

352

Migrant Child Welfare: A State of the Field Study of Child Welfare Services for Migrant Children and Their Families Who Are In-Stream, Home-Based, or Settled-Out.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The migrant child welfare study identifies and presents programs serving the needs of migrant families and problems in improving services to more adequately address migrant family needs. The study finds a critical shortage of data available on social serv...

D. N. Cavenaugh L. J. Lynch S. M. Porteous H. A. Gordon

1977-01-01

353

Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste  

SciTech Connect

A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: (1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; (2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and (3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Wood, R.A.; Barnes, C.M.

2002-08-15

354

Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste  

SciTech Connect

A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: 1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; 2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and 3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Wood, Richard Arthur; Barnes, Charles Marshall

2002-08-01

355

Protecting Confederate Soldiers and Mothers: Pensions, Gender, and the Welfare State in the U.S. South, a Case Study from Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

foundation of social welfare. 2 However, this wealth of scholarship has largely neglected the South and its regional variation on Civil War pensions. Little scholarly work has yet been done on the relationship between Civil War pensions and the development of social welfare in the region, or in fact on social welfare policy in the South at all. 3 This

Elna C. Green

2006-01-01

356

Does it pay to move from welfare to work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act requires welfare recipients to look for work and has made it more difficult for nonworking recipients to remain on the welfare rolls. In addition, the economic boom of the 1990s and changes in federal and state policies have raised the net income gain associated with moving from welfare to work. This

Sheldon Danziger; Colleen M. Heflin; Mary E. Corcoran; Elizabeth Oltmans; Hui-Chen Wang

2002-01-01

357

Foreword: Health Care Reform in the United States—The Presidential Task Force  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay serves as the foreword to Implementing U.S. Health Care Reform, a symposium held in 1993.\\u000aThe exact specifications of the new health care system depend on the package that President Clinton will send to Capitol Hill and the changes that Congress will make in the reform package. Some of the basic structures and organizing principles of the new

Lawrence O. Gostin

1993-01-01

358

General Framework of Administrative Convergence Provided by the Reforms of National Public Administrations in South Eastern Europe States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper synthetically tackles the institutional, normative and functional framework resulting from the reforms of the national public administrations of the South-Eastern European states, aiming at the administrative convergence. Approached in a double-folded manner, both theoretical and empirical, the important topics on which the paper focuses are: - relevant features of administrative convergence and their singularity in certain South-Eastern European

Tatiana Dogaru; Ani Matei; Lucica Matei; Oana Stoian

2010-01-01

359

The U.S. 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and undocumented migration to the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major goals of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) is to reduce the number of undocumented immigrants\\u000a coming to and residing in the United States. This goal is pursued by allocating increased resources to Border Patrol enforcement,\\u000a imposing penalties on employers for hiring undocumented workers, and offering to legalize the undocumented population that\\u000a has resided

Michael J. White; Frank D. Bean; Thomas J. Espenshade

1990-01-01

360

The Influence of Perceived Health Status on Poor Women's Confidence in Leaving Welfare: Implications for Social Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the realities poor women living in Georgia face in the pursuit of employment. The inquiry focuses on 107 women (84.1%?African American, 15.9%?white) who were respondents to a survey undertaken by the Welfare Reform Project in Georgia to predict the participants' self-reported confidence in leaving welfare. Predictors of confidence to leave welfare involved health, age, welfare dependency,

Mónica M. Alzate; David P. Moxley; Stephanie A. Bohon; Larry Nackerud

2009-01-01

361

Why do rich countries prefer free trade over free migration? The role of the modern welfare state.  

PubMed

"According to traditional trade theory (Heckscher-Ohlin), free trade and free migration are equivalent measures of economic integration leading both to an equalization of factor prices. This prediction is in sharp opposition to the observed preference of rich countries for free trade over free migration. We provide an explanation for this inconsistency: the redistribution policies in the countries. Social welfare in countries with a relatively small number of low-skilled native workers is higher with free trade than with free migration due to redistribution of income towards immigrating workers." PMID:12321972

Wellisch, D; Walz, U

1998-01-01

362

Health Care Reform: Out Greatest Opportunity...Ever!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses inevitability of health care reform in United States, considers the reform process itself, and explains the plan of the President's Task Force on National Health Care Reform. Also considers the prospects for Congressional response to reform proposals. (NB)

Keigher, Sharon M.

1993-01-01

363

An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.  

PubMed

Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented. PMID:24079487

Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

2013-01-01

364

Nash social welfare orderings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the problem of description of social welfare orderings (SWOs) on the entire utility (Euclidean) space Rn satisfying Scale Independence. These orderings and the functions representing them are called the Nash social welfare orderings and the Nash social welfare functions (SWFs), respectively. The more properties of the SWOs into consideration are Strong Pareto and two variants of weakening

Natalia Naumova; Elena Yanovskaya

2001-01-01

365

The Small State, Markets and Tertiary Education Reform in a Globalised Knowledge Economy: Decoding Policy Texts in Botswana's Tertiary Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of global discourses have gained currency in national education policies. The need to reform education systems is coated in economic terms, the rationale of which is efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. Education is assigned the task of producing a competitive workforce in the global market. In these reforms, education is…

Polelo, Mompati Mino

2009-01-01

366

Teen Pregnancy. State and Federal Efforts To Implement Prevention Programs and Measure Their Effectiveness. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teenage pregnancy and parenthood have unfortunate consequences for society, teenage mothers, and the children born to them. This report to the Senate is intended to provide information on (1) state strategies to reduce teen pregnancy and how states fund these efforts; (2) how welfare reform affected states' strategies; (3) the extent to which…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

367

Reforming science: structural reforms.  

PubMed

Science has a critical role to play in addressing humanity's most important challenges in the twenty-first century. However, the contemporary scientific enterprise has developed in ways that prevent it from reaching maximum effectiveness and detract from the appeal of a research career. To be effective, the methodological and culture reforms discussed in the accompanying essay must be accompanied by fundamental structural reforms that include a renewed vigorous societal investment in science and scientists. PMID:22184420

Fang, Ferric C; Casadevall, Arturo

2012-03-01

368

Reforming Science: Structural Reforms  

PubMed Central

Science has a critical role to play in addressing humanity's most important challenges in the twenty-first century. However, the contemporary scientific enterprise has developed in ways that prevent it from reaching maximum effectiveness and detract from the appeal of a research career. To be effective, the methodological and culture reforms discussed in the accompanying essay must be accompanied by fundamental structural reforms that include a renewed vigorous societal investment in science and scientists.

2012-01-01

369

Back to the Future? Reflections on past reforms and future prospects for health services in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991 the New Zealand health system began to experience what has been termed the `turbulent decade'. Without health sector\\u000a consultation or public mandate, an era of imposed market oriented reforms began. These changed the overall culture of health\\u000a care delivery and the expectations of New Zealanders regarding the role of the state in the provision of welfare. In retrospect

Ross Barnett; Pauline Barnett

2004-01-01

370

Welfare to Work: Early Childhood Care and Education. SERVE Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief of the Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE) provides information for policymakers, educators, parents, and citizens on the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act. The brief discusses potential effects of welfare reform on children, describes research on welfare recipients and their children,…

Ahearn, Charles, Ed.; Chapman, Stephen, Ed.; Nalley, Donna, Ed.

371

Work Attitudes, Employment Barriers, and Mental Health Symptoms in a Sample of Rural Welfare Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the extant research on welfare reform has neglected to consider the experiences of families in rural settings. Fifty women receiving welfare for their dependent children in a rural community were interviewed about their work experiences and aspirations, barriers to employment and service use, as well as mental health and social support. The findings indicate that the majority of

Lorraine C. Taylor

2001-01-01

372

Department of Agriculture's Animal Welfare Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the Animal Welfare Act, the Department of Agriculture inspects sites that handle certain warm-blooded animals to ensure their humane care and treatment. GAO obtained information in six states on (1) training and guidance given to Agriculture's inspe...

1985-01-01

373

WHY PAY FOR WELFARE? A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF REASONS FOR WELFARE SOLmARITYl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fear of a welfare state 1egitimacy crisis due to decreasing popular support bas been expressed by various authors since the 1970s. The early concerned prophets included Illich (1973) and Lasch (1978), who worried about the detri- mental effects of the increasingly bureaucratic and statist aspects of welfare. From a political economy perspective, Rose and Peters (1978) c1aimed that sup-

WIM VAN OORSCHOT

374

Participatory democracy by default: land reform, social movements and the state in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing literature on the experiences of participatory democracy in Latin America. Largely focused on urban areas and municipal service provision, the literature provides important lessons as to whether, how, and why participation works to improve the quality of democracy. In this paper, I examine an unlikely case of participatory democracy: the struggle for land reform in the

Wendy Wolford

2010-01-01

375

African Universities and the State: Prospects for Reform in Senegal and Uganda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In both Senegal and Uganda, higher education reform will occur only if the universities have more administrative and fiscal autonomy. A shift from government participation in governance, enrollment, and use of resources in favor of more indirect control is recommended. However, the specific policy approaches recommended for the two countries…

Eisemon, Thomas Owen; Salmi, Jamil

1993-01-01

376

"Becoming" Effective: Lessons from One State's Reform Initiative in Schools Serving Low-Income Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the change process in 54 schools serving diverse, low-income students over four years as they strove to become more effective. Case study data highlighted distinct differences in the approach to reform among schools. Schools in which adults perceived a real opportunity to improve students' academic circumstances were able to transform…

Brock, Karen Johannesen; Groth, Cori

2003-01-01

377

Drivers of health reform in the United States: 2012 and beyond.  

PubMed

American medicine has seen radical changes in the past decade. In particular, radiology has been affected, notably first with the passage of the Deficit Reduction Act in 2005 and then with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2010. Health care reforms are not only driven by political agendas. This process is also a response to underlying social, economic, and technological realities. It is unlikely that reform efforts will just evaporate because of a single change in government or with a decision by the US Supreme Court. Regardless of who sits in the Oval Office and which party controls Congress, there are forces that will need to be addressed through policy changes in the coming years. The underlying drivers of health care reform are legion, but health care inflation, fiscal mismanagement by government, poor planning for demographic changes that affect entitlement programs, questions about the quality of health outcomes, and a desire for universal health care were all central factors in the reforms put forth since 2009. Radiologists should be preparing now for continued change in both the public and private sectors in health care for the foreseeable future. These changes are likely to have profound impacts on our profession. Radiologists and their groups should plan to pay greater attention to these events and should seek to have a much greater level of involvement in the political and social processes that lead to policy changes in health care. PMID:23025861

Lexa, Frank J

2012-10-01

378

Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although becoming widespread, especially in view of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and without a universally-accepted definition, most discussions of standards-based reforms (SBR) include certain commonalities, including: (1) Academic expectations for students; (2) Alignment of key elements of the educational system to promote attainment of these…

Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Yuan, Kun

2008-01-01

379

New Zealand's public sector management reform: Implications for the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the reforms to the functions of central government in New Zealand that have been introduced since 1985. It sketches the political and economic situation which motivated the changes to the systems of public management. Some of the theoretical influences that provided insights to the advice given to the government by its officials are noted. The essential elements

Graham Scott; Ian Ball; Tony Dale

1997-01-01

380

The Administration's Education Reform Proposal. Hearing on Examining the Administration's Proposal To Reform the National Education System before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Senator Edward M. Kennedy, chairman of the committee, opened the hearing by commending President Bush and U.S. Department of Education Secretary Lamar Alexander for putting forward an education reform plan. Kennedy then stated his reservations: the plan does not devote enough attention to school readiness; the administration emphasizes choice as a…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

381

Prison Reform: How Can the Federal Government Reform Prisons and Jails in the United States? National Debate Topic for High Schools, 1989-1990. Pursuant to Public Law 88-246.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document compiles materials and bibliographic references to assist national high school debaters in researching the 1989-1990 topic, "How Can the Federal Government Reform Prisons and Jails in the United States?" Materials are organized into a section of general materials and around each of three official debate propositions within the topic:…

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

382

Reforming and Consolidating Federal Job Training Programs. Hearing on Examining Proposals To Reform and Consolidate Federal Job Training Programs, before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing is a continuation of a bipartisan effort to consolidate, reform, and revitalize federally funded job training programs. Testimony includes statements of U.S. senators and individuals representing the following: National Association of State Job Training Coordinating Council and Human Resource Investment Council; American Federation of…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

383

State Implementation of Reforms Promoted under the Recovery Act. A Report from Charting the Progress of Education Reform: An Evaluation of the Recovery Act's Role. NCEE 2014-4011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA or the Recovery Act) of 2009 provided an unprecedented level of funding for K-12 education. The program created a "historic opportunity to save hundreds of thousands of jobs, support states and school districts, and advance reforms and improvements that will create long-lasting results for our…

Webber, Ann; Troppe, Patricia; Milanowski, Anthony; Gutmann, Babette; Reisner, Elizabeth; Goertz, Margaret

2014-01-01

384

Toward Self Sufficiency: Social Issues in the Nineties. Proceedings of the National Association for Welfare Research and Statistics (33rd, Scottsdale, Arizona, August 7-11, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The presentations compiled in these proceedings on welfare and self-sufficiency reflect much of the current research in areas of housing, health, employment and training, welfare and reform, nutrition, child support, child care, and youth. The first section provides information on the conference and on the National Association for Welfare Research…

National Association for Welfare Research and Statistics, Olympia, WA.

385

Indian Child Welfare Act. Hearing on Oversight Hearings on the Indian Child Welfare Act, before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (November 10, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Senate hearing produced testimony on how the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) has been administered by government agencies and the courts. Three members of the Select Committee on Indian Affairs presented background information on the act's intent to confirm the tribe as the primary authority in matters involving an Indian child's…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

386

Understanding Economic Policy Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the eventual consequences of the global debt crisis was a wave of market-oriented economic reforms. This paper discusses the state of our knowledge on the political economy of this process. Why were inefficient, and often unsustainable policies maintained for so long? Why are so many governments reforming now, after decades of adherence to policies of an opposite kind?

Dani Rodrik

1996-01-01

387

Financing long-term care for frail elderly in France: the ghost reform.  

PubMed

Like many welfare states, France is faced with increasing demand for long term care (LTC) services. Public LTC coverage has evolved over the past 15 years, reaching a coverage depth of 70%. Nonetheless, it does not provide adequate and equitable financial protection for the growing number of frail elderly individuals, who are expected to constitute 3% of the population by the year 2060. Since 2005, various financing reform proposals have been debated, ranging from a newly covered risk under the social security system to targeted subsidies for private LTC insurance. However, to date no reform measure has been enacted. This article provides a brief history of publicly financed LTC in France in order to provide a context for the ongoing debate, including the positions and relative political power of the various stakeholders and the doubtful short-term prospect for reform. PMID:23827261

Chevreul, Karine; Berg Brigham, Karen

2013-08-01

388

What made Ataturk's reforms possible?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies on Ataturk's reforms focus on the intentions of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, but the intentions alone do not explain how the reforms became possible. This paper rather looks at the conditions prevailing at the time of the reforms. It shows that, as a result of a variety of factors, both domestic and international, the state and society in Turkey

Birol Ba?kan

2010-01-01

389

Kudzu, Rabbits, and School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essay on school reform argues that quality teachers are key to successful reform, not reform rhetoric by state governors and U.S. Presidents. Asserts that primary mission of schooling is to provide students an educational apprenticeship in democracy. Qualified, caring, competent teachers are essential to accomplish this mission. (PKP)

Goodlad, John I.

2002-01-01

390

China's State-Owned Enterprises in the First Reform Decade: An Analysis of a Declining Monopsony  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the evolution of employment and wage outcomes in Chinese SOEs during the first decade of economic reforms, using a panel of data for almost 1000 enterprises covering the years 1980–90. Unlike the 1990s, which were marked by growing labor redundancy in the SOE sector, we find that CPE-fostered capital-intensity remained so extreme during the 1980s that workers' marginal

Xiao-Yuan Dong; Louis Putterman

2002-01-01

391

For the Welfare of Children: Lessons Learned from Class Action Litigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of papers brings together distinguished experts writing on the use of class action litigation to reform public child welfare systems. It is an effort to tease out of four decades of experience in this work, the factors that increase the likelihood that litigation will result in successful system reform. This publication is an outgrowth…

Meltzer, Judith, Ed.; Joseph, Rachel Molly, Ed.; Shookhoff, Andy, Ed.

2012-01-01

392

Child Health 2000: Report Card for New York State, Regions and Counties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details the impact of the changing health environment on children's health and access to health care in New York state. The report links key measures of child health with recent policy changes, such as expansions in health insurance coverage, Medicaid managed care, and welfare reform. Data from 1997 are used as a baseline measure for…

New York Academy of Medicine, NY.

393

Standards-Based Reform and the Charter School Movement in 1998-99: An Analysis of Four States. Final Report to the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Institute for Education and Social Policy assessed the relationship between standards-based reform and the charter school movement in four states: Texas, Massachusetts, California, and Louisiana. These states were selected because they are the focus of other projects sponsored by the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation and because, as a group,…

Ascher, Carol; Jacobowitz, Robin; McBride, Yolanda

394

Transforming Education through the Arts. Proceedings of a Special Hearing on Arts and Education Reform in the States (Washington, D.C., January 12-14, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an edited version of testimony presented to a special hearing on the role of arts education in education reform. A special committee of eight state legislators assembled to hear testimony from 12 organizations, including the National Endowment for the Arts and the U.S. Department of Education, the Council for Chief State School…

Loyacono, Laura, Ed.

395

Immigration reform in France and the United States: reflections and documentation.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes similarities and dissimilarities in French and American efforts to come to grip with irregular migration. The symbolic importance of immigration reform is argued to be a key political concern in both nations, although the politics of immigration reform has assumed a more partisan flavor in France, particularly since the municipal elections of 1983. In France, the theme of control and security, associated with the notion of preventing "automatic" immigration which would endanger the cohesion of French society, was widely utilized for political ends prior to and after May 10, 1981 (the date of Francois Mitterand's investiture). The American government, on the other hand, is confronted with the unenviable task of obtaining a legislative consensus on legalization and employer sanctions through an approach seeking to harmonize and integrate the demands articulated by various groups: employers, unions, and alien and ethnic interest groups (principally Hispanic groups divided into a hierarchy along a recently arrived/established cleavage). The American situation most sharply differs from the French case in terms of the absence of a right/left political cleavage. The real effects of clandestine immigration are to be found at the local level. In France, as in the US, the ability of local actors to exert pressure raises the fear that legalization and sanctions will change little, except in terms of symbolic legitimacy. PMID:12339925

Wenden, C W; Costa-lascoux, J

1984-01-01

396

Pension Reform during the Demographic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to quantify the welfare effects of some currently discussed pension reform proposals in Germany. The analysis is based on an extended overlapping-generations model which accounts for intra-generational heterogeneity, rising life expectancy and declining fertility. Given a baseline path of the economy under the existing unfunded pension system, the model calculates the macroeconomic impact as

Hans Fehr

2000-01-01

397

Welfare Regimes and Educational Inequality: A Cross-National Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on welfare state regimes and research on educational policy share a common concern for the reduction of social inequality. On one hand, welfare state research is typically designed within a comparative approach where scholars investigate similarities and differences in social institutions across selected countries. On the other hand, the…

Peter, Tracey; Edgerton, Jason D.; Roberts, Lance W.

2010-01-01

398

Wages, Welfare Benefits and Migration  

PubMed Central

Differences in economic opportunities give rise to strong migration incentives, across regions within countries, and across countries. In this paper we focus on responses to differences in welfare benefits across States. We apply the model developed in Kennan and Walker (2008), which emphasizes that migration decisions are often reversed, and that many alternative locations must be considered. We model individual decisions to migrate as a job search problem. A worker starts the life-cycle in some home location and must determine the optimal sequence of moves before settling down. The model is sparsely parameterized. We estimate the model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Our main finding is that income differences do help explain the migration decisions of young welfare-eligible women, but large differences in benefit levels provide surprisingly weak migration incentives.

Kennan, John; Walker, James R.

2012-01-01

399

Supporting child welfare supervisors to improve worker retention.  

PubMed

Recent child welfare research has identified supervisors as key to retaining qualified and committed workers. This paper describes implementation of a federally funded child welfare training initiative designed to improve worker retention largely through developing, implementing, and evaluating a statewide supervisor training program in a Midwestern state. Unique to this collaborative effort was involving all child welfare supervisors in identifying needed content components, developing competencies, and conducting self-assessments. PMID:17533775

Landsman, Miriam

2007-01-01

400

Welfare states and social mobility: How educational and social policy may affect cross-national differences in the association between occupational origins and destinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-national differences in the association between origins and destinations correspond to differences in both welfare regime type and access to post-secondary education. Socialist and social democratic welfare regimes foster a weaker origin–destination association than liberal, corporatist, or mixed regimes do. Nations with better-educated labor forces tend to also be the nations where the association between origins and destinations is weakest.

Emily Beller; Michael Hout

2006-01-01

401

MY CHILDREN COME FIRST: Welfare-Reliant Women's Post-TANF Views of Work-Family Tradeoffs, and Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we focus on how welfare-reliant mothers view work-family trade-offs in the age of welfare reform. We use data from in-depth, qualitative interviews with approximately 80 welfare-reliant mothers living in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty in Philadelphia and Cleveland. These interviews were conducted under the auspices of Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation's Project on Devolution and Urban Change, which seeks

Ellen K. Scott; Kathryn Edin; Andrew S. London; Joan Maya Mazelis

1999-01-01

402

Projected effect of alternative management strategies on profit and animal welfare in extensive sheep production systems in Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reform of agricultural policies may lead to adjustments to the inputs of extensive sheep farming systems. Such adjustments may have consequences for animal welfare. These consequences must be understood so that they can be incorporated in the decision-making process. This will help farmers and policy makers meet consumer demands for higher standards of animal welfare. However, identifying and quantifying

A. W. Stott; C. E. Milne; P. J. Goddard; A. Waterhouse

2005-01-01

403

Shaping Health Reform: State Government Influence in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has significant implications for state governments and its passage presents an opportunity to contribute to inquiries into ways that state officials wield influence in the national legislative process. State officials were occasionally influential when they drew on state experience and expertise and congress members were willing to benefit from this knowledge. State officials

John Dinan

2011-01-01

404

Welfare: Who Should be Entitled to Public Help? 1985 National Issues Forum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appropriate for secondary school social studies or community programs, this publication considers the issue of welfare in the United States. The first of five sections, "Reassessing the Welfare State," looks at the history of welfare in America since Franklin Roosevelt and assesses the need for reexamining policy. "The Generous Revolution" looks…

Melville, Keith; Longman, Phillip

405

Evaluation of an Innovative Social Work Education Model: The Kentucky Public Child Welfare Certification Program (PCWCP)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research evaluated the effectiveness of the Public Child Welfare Certification Program, a specialized child welfare program delivered in bachelor of social work (BSW) curricula across the state of Kentucky. This evaluation gathered data for 10 years on satisfaction with the program, preparation for work in the state's child welfare agency,…

Barbee, Anita; Sullivan, Dana; Borders, Kevin; Antle, Becky; Hall, J. Christopher; Fox, Steve; Moran, Erin Beth

2009-01-01

406

Enabling Access to Welfare Services - the Place of Social Solidarity and Dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The welfare state in the UK presents immigrant communities with a set of institutions, which are potentially new and unknown. What is the best way to ensure that the questions of access tothe welfare institutions are best managed? Trusting, understanding and feeling solidarity with the welfare state will obviously help with this problem. In order to shed ,light on

Rachana Patni

407

Child Welfare Services for Indigenous Populations: A Comparison of Child Welfare Histories, Policies, Practices and Laws for American Indians and Norwegian Samis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article takes Dixon and Scheurell's framework for understanding colonisation processes within social welfare policies and applies it to child welfare for Indigenous populations in the United States and Norway. While those countries' historical child welfare policies follow Dixon and Scheurell's hypotheses regarding colonisation, each nation…

Jacobs, Mary Ann; Saus, Merete

2012-01-01

408

Farmers, Scientists, and Officers of Industry: The Formation and Reformation of Land-Grant Colleges in the Northeastern United States, 1862-1906  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the formation, reformation, and standardization of land-grant colleges in the Northeastern United States during the last four decades of the nineteenth century. It is a history that explores the turbulent origins of land-grant colleges in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont,…

Sorber, Nathan M.

2011-01-01

409

The Appalachian Math Science Partnership: A Multi-State Umbrella Partnership Promoting Local Mathematics and Science Reform. Close-Up Papers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers presented in this paper accompany a core report about the Appalachian Math Science Partnership (AMSP) entitled "The Appalachian Math Science Partnership: A Multi-State Umbrella Partnership Promoting Local Mathematics and Science Reform Report." Each of them focuses on an especially effective strategy or component of the AMSP umbrella…

Inverness Research, 2008

2008-01-01

410

Social reformers and regulation: the prohibition of cigarettes in the United States and Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-smoking legislation in North America reached its peak early in the last century. In 1903, the Canadian Parliament passed a resolution to prohibit the manufacture, importation, and sale of cigarettes. Fifteen states in the United States banned the sale of cigarettes and 37 states considered prohibitory legislation. In both the United States and Canada, prohibition was part of the Progressive

Lee J. Alston; Ruth Dupré; Tomas Nonnenmacher

2002-01-01

411

Trade agreements by Colombia, Ecuador and Peru with the United States: effects on trade, production and welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Computable General Equilibrium model, based on the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model, is used to evaluate the impact of separate bilateral free trade agreements by Colombia, Ecuador and Peru with the United States of America (USA). As the Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA) is to expire shortly, a number of different scenarios have been analyzed:

José Elías Durán Lima; Carlos J. De Miguel; Andrés R. Schuschny

2006-01-01

412

Social welfare and adolescent vaccination programs in the United States: the economic opportunities for a systematic expansion.  

PubMed

In this article, the authors review current literature to analyze the cost-effectiveness of seven vaccines now available for adolescents and one that is in development. An analysis is also performed regarding the cutoff price that deems a vaccine "cost-effective." Often, $50,000 is the limit below which a drug is viewed as cost-effective. Our article contends that $160,000 could be a new limit below which the cost-effectiveness of a vaccine is better reflected. Based on standard economic valuations of life years in the United States and the preponderance of evidence from the cost-effectiveness literature, there is a compelling case for expanding adolescent vaccine programs, guidelines, and educational initiatives in the United States; there exist considerable economic benefits in excess of costs from policies that may achieve this objective. PMID:19731186

Vernon, John A; Payette, Michael; Chatterjee, Abhishek

2009-01-01

413

Notes from the laboratories of democracy: state government enactments of market- and state-based health insurance reforms in the 1990s.  

PubMed

We identify two policy strategies that state governments pursue to reduce uninsurance, and we classify policies as being either state based or market based. The two policy strategies are distinguished by whether states rely on the institutional capabilities of the state or market processes to provide insurance. We develop and test models to explain states' adoptions of each type of policy. Using Poisson regression, we evaluate hypotheses suggested by the two strategies with data from U.S. states in the 1990s. The results indicate that institutionally more-capable state governments with strong liberal-party presence in the legislature adopt more state-based policies and fewer market-based policies. By contrast, the model of market-based, business-targeted reforms reveals that government capability plays a smaller role. Instead, these policies are driven by economic affluence, political competition, higher incomes, greater uninsurance, and more previous attempts to address the uninsurance problem. These findings reveal distinct institutional, partisan, electoral and demographic influences that shape state-based and market-based strategies. First, policy choices can be driven by the presence or absence of state capability. The domain of feasible policy choices open to states with institutional capability may be decidedly different than that available to states with fewer institutional resources. Second, while market-based policy approaches may be the most feasible politically, they may be the least successful in remedying practical uninsurance issues. These results thus reveal that institutional characteristics of states create an important foundation for policy choice and policy success or failure. These results would suggest that the national government's strategy of pursuing market-based solutions to the problem will not result in its being solved. PMID:17639016

Barrilleaux, Charles; Brace, Paul

2007-08-01

414

Measuring Success of Constitutional Reforms: Evidence from Territorial Reforms in Eight Western Democracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of constitutional reforms so far have equated formal ratification with a successful reform. The paper goes beyond this narrow focus by adding substantive success as a second dimension based on two indicators: degree of agenda fulfilment and degree to which the reform contributes to solve the constitutional problem. Analysing territorial reforms in unitary or federal states, we distinguish two

Nathalie Behnke; Bettina Petersohn; Andrea Fischer-Hotzel; Dominic Heinz

2011-01-01

415

Power Sector Reforms in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power sector reforms in India were initiated in the face of mounting commercial losses due to poor fiscal health of State Utilities, endemic capacity and energy shortages and increasing subsidy burden on the states. Investment in the sector was falling far short of demand in power supply. The Government of India, in 1991 embarked upon an ambitious program for reforming

Harbans L. Bajaj; D. Sharma

2006-01-01

416

Conducting Culturally Competent Evaluations of Child Welfare Programs and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the population of the United States has changed over the last two decades, so has the population of children who come to the attention of the child welfare system, resulting in increasing calls for cultural competence in all aspects of child welfare programming and practice. Given the changing demographics among children involved in the child…

Dettlaff, Alan J.; Fong, Rowena

2011-01-01

417

Professionalism and the Reform of Teachers and Teacher Education in the Republic of Korea & the United States of America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper compares how educational reform documents in Korea and the U.S.A. conceptualize teachers and teacher education and examines how, if at all, the discourses of one country appear to influence those of the other. Special attention is paid to the ways in which reform documents incorporate different conceptions of professionalism in framing…

Yeom, Minho; Ginsburg, Mark

2007-01-01

418

Explaining Whole System Reform in Small States: The Case of Trinidad and Tobago Secondary Education Modernization Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes drivers and impediments to secondary school reform in Trinidad and Tobago during the period from 1999 to 2009. International assessment data suggested limited progress on improving system quality and equity. Several policy levers and barriers have been defined in current system reform theory. However, explanations for the…

De Lisle, Jerome

2012-01-01

419

Nicaragua's School Autonomy Reform: Fact or Fiction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reviews Nicaragua's school autonomy reform -- whether or not the state schools that joined the reform exercise greater autonomy over their own management and operations than state schools that did not participate in the reform, and whether or not the local stakeholders in the so- called autonomous schools perceive an increase in their influence over school decisions. De

Elizabeth M. King; Berk Özler; Laura B. Rawlings

420

Blueprints for Reform: Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Blueprints for Reform is a summation of reports offering teachers, parents, policymakers, business leaders, and others a starting point for their exploration of the education system and its response to reform. This chapter looks at how student assessment in American schools might be redesigned to match the goals of science education reform put forth in that are exemplified in efforts such as Project 2061's Benchmarks for Science Literacy. It is divided into three sections that describe current assessment practice in the United States, suggest changes that are needed in order for science reform goals to be implemented, and explore possibilities and recommendations for closing the gap between current practice and a more ideal vision of science assessment.

421

Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization  

PubMed Central

Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996.

Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

2010-01-01

422

[Health targets for health promotion in an area of conflict between individual freedom, state paternalism and common welfare].  

PubMed

In Germany, a growing number of health targets has been adopted in the last years by various actors. While health targets are a useful instrument of governance, the priority setting and a respective redistribution of resources have to be legitimised in the cause of their advantages and disadvantages for population groups. The involved sciences including ethics can support decision-making, but not fully justify decisions. Therefore, decisions on health targets must be made in a transparent and participative process. In spite of a growing number of health targets, the lack of targets in health policies is to be criticised. Within the health targets, those measures assigned to curative medicine and prevention have a greater weight than health promotion. Health promotion should follow the WHO Ottawa-Charter and be embedded in the concept of "capabilities". Under these conditions, a stronger consideration of health promotion in the health target process would be desirable. However, the present actor constellations within health target processes make such a direction improbable. The struggle around capabilities and individual freedom occurs through, in and about institutions of the civil society as well as political and legal institutions. To restrict the discussion about public health and health promotions to an juxtaposition of individual freedom and state paternalism minimises societal and social restrictions of individual freedom as well as the possibility of a safeguard and enlargement of individual freedoms through political and legal institutions. PMID:20104435

Michelsen, K

2010-01-01

423

[Current aspects of the state and improvement of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of workers and passengers of Russian railways].  

PubMed

The data on the sanitary-epidemiological state of Railways objects of Russia are presented. Bacteriological examination of drinking water taken from the water systems of passenger cars showed that 3.9-5.0% of the samples did not meet the health standards (p < 0.01). Samples of workplace air in industrial enterprises did not meet hygienic standards: on vapors and gases--4.6%, dust and aerosols--13.6%. In 52.9 +/- 2.6% of examined drivers cabs there was revealed noncompliance to hygienic standards on physical factors: on the noise--45.1 +/- 2.7%, vibration--35.6 +/- 2.7%, etc. Out of the total number of occupational diseases locomotive drivers account for about 40% of cases, including sensorineural hearing loss up to 80%. Morbidity with temporary disability among drivers of locomotives are 20-25% higher (p < 0.05), than in the whole railway transport. The suggestions on the improvement of sanitary-hygienic monitoring in rail transport are given. PMID:24340904

Kas'kov, Iu N; Farkhatdinov, G A; Podkorytov, Iu I; Khusnutdinova, N Sh

2013-01-01

424

State and Local Level Special Education Programs That Work and Federal Barriers to Innovation. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the transcript of a hearing before the House Subcommittee on Education Reform about state and local level special education programs that work and federal barriers to innovation as part of efforts to reform the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Highlights of the testimony include: (1) progress in New York in…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

425

Neo-Liberal Reforms in Israel's Education System: The Dialectics of the State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a reading of the Dovrat Report with the aim of assessing the convoluted and dialectical manifestations of the state--"the weak and the strong state"--in the era of global neo-liberalism. The Dovrat Report (Ministry Of Education 2005) includes a set of recommendations aiming to bring about structural and comprehensive changes in…

Yonah, Yossi; Dahan, Yossi; Markovich, Dalya

2008-01-01

426

Six Degrees of Separation: School Reform and Global Education in Russia and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of the partnership between Indiana University (Bloomington) and Ryazan State Pedagogical University (Russia) in March 1994 that is funded by the United States Information Agency. Reports that the areas of activity include global education, university administration, the library, research training, and continuing…

Mehlinger, Howard D.

1999-01-01

427

Charter Reform and the Education Bureaucracy: Lessons from New York State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes New York's charter-school legislation; explains charter-school responsibilities at state department of education and local boards of education; includes the development of the application form; discusses how state and local agencies shape charter schools through the application-review process. (PKP)

Ascher, Carol; Greenberg, Arthur R.

2002-01-01

428

State Policy and Classroom Performance: Mathematics Reform in California. CPRE Policy Briefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the last decade, many states have tried to devise more robust and coherent instructional policies in an effort to make teaching and learning more thoughtful and demanding. As instructional policy has moved to the top of many state education agendas in the past 10-15 years, interest in the relationship between policy and practice has grown.…

Cohen, David K.; Hill, Heather C.

429

Governance of State Wildlife Management: Reform and Revive or Resist and Retrench?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governance of state wildlife management has been under scrutiny with respect to its ability to change to reflect the values, norms, and cultural beliefs of contemporary society. This article reviews the existing model of governance for state wildlife management; outlines concerns about this model in light of a changing social context; discusses alternative approaches; and offers considerations for how governance

Cynthia A. Jacobson; Daniel J. Decker

2008-01-01

430

The expanding role of animal welfare within EU legislation and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal welfare is being accorded an increasingly important role in today's civil society. Within the EU, this has been enshrined within the specific “Protocol on Protection and Welfare of Animals” annexed to the EC Treaty, obliging Member States and the EU Institutions to pay full regard to the welfare of animals when formulating and implementing Community legislation. There is a

R. Horgan; A. Gavinelli

2006-01-01

431

Evaluation of minimum animal welfare conditions in national standards and farm certification schemes for pig fattening  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at assessing the status of animal welfare in Austria and Germany as it is regulated by private, national, and European animal welfare legislation. In order to achieve this, an inventory of existing private and state-driven animal welfare certification schemes that are relevant for fattening pigs in Austria and Germany is done, and the overlap between legislative and

D. N. Annen; C. Wieck; M. Kempen

2011-01-01

432

Welfare to Well-Being Framework for Research, Education, and Outreach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a systems approach to reframe welfare assistance as well-being for the many, not welfare for the few. The framework outlines the state of family economic functioning (crisis, at risk, safe, thriving), type of welfare assistance (entitlement, subsidy, self-sufficiency, sustainability), poverty levels (below, at, 150%, 200%), and supports…

Bauer, Jean W.; Braun, Bonnie; Olson, Patricia D.

2000-01-01

433

Are We Understanding the Impact of Economic Conditions on Welfare Rolls?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we argue that welfare participation is more sensitive to economic conditions than previously believed. Why? Prior research focused on short-term economic fluctuations and ignored differences between high- and low-skilled workers. As welfare reform is long-term (i.e., permanent) it makes more sense to make comparisons with long-term economic trends. Also, since low-skilled workers are more likely to end

Dan Black; Terra McKinnish

2002-01-01

434

Welfare, Tax Burden and Fiscal Balance in Artificial Societies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan's social security system is facing a crisis by short-sighted policies to balance of the accounts in a financial crisis. However, such a balance of accounts does not necessarily bring remedy of financial difficulties. If it is possible to reduce the social security payments because the weak become independent, it is considered that short-sighted reforms cause a further financial crisis. This study explores how welfare and tax burden influence fiscal balance using multi-agent simulations. The results of simulation show that fiscal balance is improved by high-welfare than a cut in fiscal expenditures, and that welfare reducing is impossible unless the three relations of social configuration (market, obligatory, and communal relations) function in balance with each other.

Kikuchi, Toshiko

435

Studies in Public Welfare. Paper No. 12 (Part I): The Family, Poverty, and Welfare Programs; Factors Influencing Family Instability. A Volume of Studies Prepared for the Use of the Subcommittee on Fiscal Policy of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contents of this volume of studies analyzing the causes of the alarming growth in illegitimacy, families lacking a father, and welfare caseloads, include the following studies: "The Family, Poverty, and Welfare Programs: An Introductory Essay on Problems of Analysis and Policy," Robert I. Lerman; "The Impact of Welfare Payment Levels on Family…

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

436

A "Uniform" Education: Reform of Local Property Tax School Finance Systems through State Constitutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines Wisconsin's school finance system in light of recent legislation and the education clause in the state constitution. Argues for judicial involvement to correct the finance system. Available from Marquette Law Review, 1103 West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53233. (IRT)

Kaster, James H.

1979-01-01

437

Assessment of the Impact of an Animal Welfare Educational Course with First Grade Children in Rural Schools in the State of Morelos, Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an educational package used for animal welfare teaching would have significant effects on the knowledge of first grade children in a rural area of Mexico. The research was conducted with 276 students in six public schools. In the experimental group, 177 children participated in a 10 week-long animal…

Aguirre, Virginio; Orihuela, Agustin

2010-01-01

438

Welfare Policies and Black Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The family is an important resource for minority persons, and many minority families depend on public welfare for their survival. This article offers a compact analysis of how welfare policies often work to the disadvantage of poor Black families. (Author)

Trader, Harriet Peat

1979-01-01

439

Health Insurance Market Reforms: Portability  

MedlinePLUS

... Reforms, Georgetown University Health Policy Institute. Figure 2 Credit for Prior Coverage, Individual Health Plan Portability, January ... TX IL FL AL State requires insurers to credit only for small group coverage (1) State requires ...

440

Reform on the Move  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aurora (Colorado) Public Schools responded to the Colorado State Model Content Standards for Reading and Writing and the accountability measures attached to the state assessments by implementing the Aurora Achievement Initiative in 2001. Originating from literature on best practices and large-scale school reform, the goal of the districtwide…

Clark, Janet; Otte, Michelle; Fair, Lynn

2006-01-01

441

Animal Welfare and Social Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the standard welfare economics assumption of anthropocentric welfarism, i.e., that only human well-being counts intrinsically. Alternatives where animal welfare matters intrinsically are explored theoretically, based on moral philosophical literature, and empirically where the general public‘s ethical preferences are measured through a survey with a representative sample in Sweden. It is concluded that welfare economics should be generalized

Thomas Aronsson; Olof Johansson-Stenman

2011-01-01

442

Understanding and measuring child welfare outcomes.  

PubMed

The new "Children's and Family Services Reviews" (CFSR) process focuses on the effectiveness of services to children and families by measuring client outcomes. This article reviews the research literature related to child welfare outcomes in order to provide a context for federal accountability efforts. It also summarizes the 2001 federal mandate to hold states accountable for child welfare outcomes and describes California's response to this mandate. Implications of the outcomes literature review and measurement problems in the CFSR process suggest CSFR measures do not always capture meaningful outcomes. Recommendations for change are made. PMID:19064447

D'Andrade, Amy; Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Austin, Michael J

2008-01-01

443

Multiple-Father Families and Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, multipartnered fertility (MPF) has become commonplace. This study provides the first nationally representative measures of women's MPF, across multiple years, using the U.S. Census Bureau's Surveys of Income and Program Participation. Because welfare rules contain strong incentives for MPF, and because MPF is especially…

Evenhouse, Eirik; Reilly, Siobhan

2012-01-01

444

European approaches to ensure good animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventions to protect domestic animals during transport, farming and slaughter were established by the Council of Europe and approved by many European states. Conventions are followed by recommendations that specify how the general principles of conventions apply for the different species. The European Union (EU) started discussions on animal welfare in the 1980s and adopted a series of Directives to

Isabelle Veissier; Andrew Butterworth; Bettina Bock; Emma Roe

2008-01-01

445

Measuring Racial Disparity in Child Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overrepresentation of certain racial/ethnic groups in the foster care system is one of the most troubling and challenging issues in child welfare today. In response, many states have started reporting outcomes by race and ethnicity to identify disproportionately high rates of system contact. The identification of disproportional representation is…

Shaw, Terry V.; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Magruder, Joseph; Needell, Barbara

2008-01-01

446

Summary: Ecosystem Services and Human Welfare  

EPA Science Inventory

The ecosystem services paradigm is a framework conceived to engage support among people, especially policy- and decision-makers, for the recognition that human welfare, prosperity, security, and well-being are intrinsically linked to the health of the environment. Simply stated, ...

447

Teacher Education Reform and Global Education: United States and Russian Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how teacher educators in the United States prepare preservice teachers to incorporate global perspectives in their teaching and offers recommendations that could strengthen U.S. teacher education programs. Analyzes the globally-oriented teacher education in Russia focusing on implementing global education by developing specific attitudes,…

Haakenson, Paul; Savukova, Galina; Mason, Terrence C.

1999-01-01

448

School Reform and Decentralization in the United States: The National Alliance Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 2 decades, the United States has had a more troubled experience in establishing common standards and decentralized authority than comparable school systems in other cultures. This paper describes how the National Center for Education and Economy (NCEE) has been working through the National Alliance (NA) for Restructuring Education to…

Marsh, David D.

449

Making Standards Meaningful: High School Reform Efforts in Washington State. Making Standards Work, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the 10th grade Washington Assessment of Student Learning, researchers selected 26 high schools across the state of Washington that had made greater gains in school improvement than other schools serving similar populations of students. Interviews were held with the principals of these schools and with 13 comparison schools that had…

Taggart, Sara

450

State-Mandated Principal Preparation Program Redesign: Impetus for Reform or Invitation to Chaos?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing criticism of practicing educational leaders has led to additional critiques of the university programs in which they are prepared. In response, many states have mandated statewide university preparation program redesign. The articles in this special issue describe five unique cases of principal preparation program redesign--including…

Phillips, Joy C.

2013-01-01

451

Illinois Initiatives for Educational Reform: Evaluation of the 1993 State Prekindergarten Program. Research, Evaluation & Planning Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report evaluates the Chicago Public Schools' 1992-93 Prekindergarten Program for 3- to 5-year old children at risk of academic failure. During the 1992-93 academic year, the State Prekindergarten Program served 10,735 3- and 4-year-olds at 286 sites throughout the city. The report describes and evaluates the program's four components: (1) a…

Borger, Jeanne; And Others

452

Educational Reform in North Cyprus--Towards the Making of a Nation/State?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC) aspires to take its place in Europe and the global "knowledge economy". In order to do so, it needs not only to be politically recognised as legitimate and to develop the kinds of economic and governance structures that signify a functional state, but also to produce a cultural imaginary of itself as a…

Mertkan-Ozunlu, Sefika; Thomson, Pat

2009-01-01

453

Middle Grades Reform. Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers and policymakers have pointed to the lagging scores of eighth graders on international, national, and state assessments as evidence that students are not prepared to meet high academic standards and that middle grades reform is needed. In response to these concerns, educators have introduced reforms designed to provide middle-level…

Blazer, Christie

2008-01-01

454

Security Sector Reform in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the experience of the United Nations interventions to reform Haiti's security sector as part of a larger effort to rebuild the Haitian state. Despite multilateral attempts in the 1990s to demobilize the army, create a police force and implement reforms, the lack of elite support, insufficient judicial sector capacity and persistence of corruption led to the current

JOHANNA M ENDELSON-FORMAN

2006-01-01

455

Welfare. Opposing Viewpoints Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The opinions expressed in the selections in each series title examine many different aspects of a single issue. Detractors of the welfare system have long argued that the system promotes dependency. They…

Cozic, Charles P., Ed.; Winters, Paul A., Ed.

456

Off Welfare, into Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned with the increasing feminization of poverty, the Rockefeller Foundation launched in 1982 a $12 million welfare-to-work research and demonstration project, presently midway into a 5-year evaluation. The Minority Female Single Parent Demonstration project involved four community-based organizations: Atlanta Urban League (Georgia);…

BCEL Newsletter for the Business and Literacy Communities, 1991

1991-01-01

457

National Income and Welfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to appraise from the standpoint of a community's welfare a governmental measure with wide impact, the economist may proceed variously, but almost inevitably he refers to national income data. How such data are to be construed in the appraisal, ho...

A. Bergson

1964-01-01

458

Inflation and Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research on the welfare cost of inflation. New estimates are provided, based on U.S. time series for 1900-94, interpreted in a variety of ways. It is estimated that the gain from reducing the annual inflation rate from 10 percent to zero is equivalent to an increase in real income of slightly less than one percent. Using aggregate

2000-01-01

459

Procedural tort reform in the United States: lessons from other nations. Part I : The background.  

PubMed

As currently constituted, the tort system in the United States has induced distortions that have resulted in a crisis in medical litigation with escalating awards, as well as in product liability. This article outlines views of the structural defects in the American system and contrasts it with the experience in Britain and the major commonwealth nations. In particular, the author stresses the inefficiencies of the civil jury system. In a subsequent article, he will offer some possible remedies to this problem. PMID:15523770

Bernstein, David E

2004-01-01

460

[Reformation of occupational health in France: state of the problem and new law].  

PubMed

The state of the problem and new law of France No 2011-867 on occupational health organization and two decrees are described. These introduce services of health at work mainly with prophylactic tasks and whose functions are performed by interdisciplinary teams including doctors, assistants and specialists on occupational risk prevention. The documents are based on ILO Convention No 161 "Occupational health services". PMID:24000725

Denisov, É I

2013-01-01

461

Procedural tort reform in the United States: lessons from other nations, part II.  

PubMed

As currently constituted, the tort system in the United States has induced distortions that have resulted in a crisis in medical litigation with escalating awards, as well as in product liability. In Part I (Journal of Medical Practice Management 2004; Vol.20#2: 72-76), the author outlined his views of the structural defects in the American system and contrasted it with the experience in Britain and the major commonwealth nations. In particular, he stressed the inefficiencies of the civil jury system. In Part II, he offers some possible remedies to this problem. PMID:15672907

Bernstein, David E

2004-01-01

462

Regulatory Reform: Economic Analysis and British Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory reform had its beginnings in the United States in the 1970s, and today it is taking place around the globe. One of the central questions for industrial policy is how to regulate firms with market power. Regulatory Reform tackles this important policy issue in two parts: it describes an analytical framework for studying the main issues in regulatory reform,

Mark Armstrong; Simon Cowan; John Vickers

1994-01-01

463

Shahrashoub Razavi - Does Paid Work Enhance Women's Access to Welfare? Evidence from Selected Industrializing Countries - Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society 14:1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citizenship has become increasingly associated—both symbolically and programmatically—with a person's capacity to perform paid work. For feminists this raises a key question: can women's participation in paid work become the basis for their inclusion in welfare settlements? The question is examined here by exploring the extent to which women's absorption into export-oriented manufacturing industries has created the conditions for their

Shahra Razavi

2007-01-01

464

Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen  

DOEpatents

The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

1990-01-01

465

Green Tax Reforms and the Double Dividend: an Updated Reader's Guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws on the literature on the double dividend to explore whether an environmental tax reform yields not only a cleaner environment but also non-environmental benefits. In doing so, it investigates how environmental tax reforms impact welfare, the distribution of income, and employment. Also the political economy of environmental taxation is discussed. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

A. Lans Bovenberg

1999-01-01

466

Small Group Employer Participation in New Mexico's State Coverage Insurance Program: Lessons for Federal Reform  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify factors associated with small group employer participation in New Mexico's State Coverage Insurance (SCI) program. Data Sources Telephone surveys of employers participating in SCI (N=269) and small employers who inquired about SCI (N=148) were fielded September 2008–January 2009. Study Design Descriptive and multivariate analyses investigated differences between employer samples, including employer characteristics, concerns that applied to the business when deciding whether to participate in SCI, prior offerings of insurance to workers, and perceived affordability of the program. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Unweighted employer samples yielded 88 and 75 percent response rates for the participating and inquiring employers, respectively. Principal Findings The administrative issue most commonly selected by inquiring employers as applying to their business was difficulty understanding how eligibility requirements applied to their business and its employees (53.5 percent). Inquiring businesses were significantly more likely to report concern about affording to pay the premiums in the first month (35.6 versus 18.7 percent) and the cost to the business over the long run (46.5 versus 26.6 percent) relative to participating employers. From the model results, businesses with the fewest full-time employees (zero to two) were 19 percentage points less likely to participate relative to businesses with six or more full-time employees. Conclusions Administrative and cost barriers to participation in SCI reported by employers suggest that the tax credit offered to small businesses under new federal provisions, which merely offsets the employer portion of premium, could be more effective if accompanied by additional supports to businesses.

Sommers, Anna S; Abraham, Jean Marie; Spicer, Laura; Mikow, Asher; Spaulding-Bynon, Mari

2011-01-01

467

Science-based management of livestock welfare in intensive systems: looking to the future.  

PubMed

As welfare is a multidimensional concept, its assessment should be a multidisciplinary process, providing a comprehensive assessment of animal welfare in any given system. The different measurable aspects of welfare may be turned into welfare indicators and assessed in a scientific manner. Assessment of welfare may combine different approaches that include the assessment of the production system and measurement of animal-based welfare indicators. With both approaches, however, risk managers face difficulties related to the availability of resources for implementing regulations and training staff. Most animal-based welfare indicators have the advantage that they can be measured whatever the production system; they relate to the animal's experience of its own state. It is essential to confirm the reliability of the measures and their robustness to ensure valid welfare assessment, especially for a science-based management approach. Many welfare indicators, even those measured at the individual level, are expressed at group level, as a proportion of the animals. This allows benchmarking and following of trends over time. The decision on what is or is not acceptable from a welfare point of view is an ethical or managerial one. The advantage of a graded welfare indicator is that it allows different thresholds to be set by different people, countries or organisations, depending on the purpose of the assessment. The development of a set of harmonised international welfare indicators for global trade is also discussed. PMID:25000787

Vannier, P; Michel, V; Keeling, L J

2014-04-01

468

Examining Comprehensive School Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban school reformers for decades have tried to improve educational outcomes for underserved and disadvantaged students, with the assistance of constantly evolving federal and state policies. In recent years, education policies have shifted from targeting individual students to developing universal standards for teaching and learning, and…

Aladjem, Daniel K., Ed.; Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.

2006-01-01

469

Dairy animal welfare. Introduction.  

PubMed

Organizations devoted to proper animal care have focused the attention of society on humane animal treatment. In recent years, some groups have raised questions as to what constitutes proper animal care on the farm and in the research laboratory. Philosophical questions about animal rights have been raised. Several groups are active in the animal welfare, animal rights arena and they vary widely in their objectives and methods of operation. Many of these groups are well-funded. Some resort to civil disobedience to achieve their ends. Farm animal commodity groups, animal-oriented research agencies, and animal-related industry groups have become increasingly aware of the public interest in animal welfare and are organizing programs and groups to better understand and educate the public on the issues. PMID:3448117

Blosser, T H

1987-12-01

470

Recent Changes in New York Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief updates "Income Support and Social Services for Low-Income People in New York," an overview of benefits and services in the state in 1997. Information comes from reviews of state and local program documents and interviews with selected officials responsible for policy and program operations in Erie County (Buffalo) and New York City.…

Fender, Lynne; O'Brien, Carolyn; Thompson, Terri; Snyder, Kathleen; Bess, Roseana

471

The effects of behavioral health reform on safety-net institutions: a mixed-method assessment in a rural state.  

PubMed

In July 2005, New Mexico initiated a major reform of publicly-funded behavioral healthcare to reduce cost and bureaucracy. We used a mixed-method approach to examine how this reform impacted the workplaces and employees of service agencies that care for low-income adults in rural and urban areas. Information technology problems and cumbersome processes to enroll patients, procure authorizations, and submit claims led to payment delays that affected the financial status of the agencies, their ability to deliver care, and employee morale. Rural employees experienced lower levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment and higher levels of turnover intentions under the reform when compared to their urban counterparts. PMID:23307162

Willging, Cathleen E; Sommerfeld, David H; Aarons, Gregory A; Waitzkin, Howard

2014-03-01

472

Welfare And Macroeconomic Interdependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a baseline model of monetary and fiscal transmission in interdependent economies. The welfare effects of expansionary policies are related to monopolistic supply in production and monopoly power of a country in trade. An unanticipated exchange rate depreciation can be beggar-thyself rather than beggar-thy-neighbor, as gains in domestic output are offset by deteriorating terms of trade. Smaller and more

Giancarlo Corsetti; Paolo Pesenti

2001-01-01

473

What Next in School Reform?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the current state of education reform in the United Kingdom and uses the BBC film "The Choir to explore alternative ways of improving the quality of learning and teaching in schools.

Barker, Bernard

2009-01-01

474

Democratic participation, fiscal reform and local governance: Empirical evidence on Chinese villages  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's rural village elections have been acclaimed as a crucial step in China's democratization and a success in improving villagers' welfare and self-governance. Around 2002 the central government implemented another influential reform: the Tax-for-Fee reform. Using a unique two-year panel of village data from rural China covering more villages than the previous literature and spanning over these two reforms, our

Xiangyi Meng; Li Zhang

2011-01-01

475

Emergency Department-Based Disaster Response System as a Social Welfare Resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the corrosion of a societal safety net progresses in the era of social welfare reform, there are few institutions that can still guarantee assistance to those in need. Emergency departments (EDs) in the hospitals are perhaps the only local institution where professional help is mandated by law, with guaranteed availability for all persons, all the time (including mass casualty

Tzong-Luen Wang; Chi-Ren Hung

2005-01-01

476

For My Children: Mexican American Women, Work, and Welfare. Focus Study Report #2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the final report of the National Council of La Raza's (NCLR) Focus Study examining the opinions, attitudes, and needs of Mexican American single women, relating to implementation of national welfare reform legislation. Over a 2-year period NCLR staff held focus groups with Mexican American women in four communities: Phoenix, Arizona; Mora,…

Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina

477

Is Work Enough? The Experiences of Current and Former Welfare Mothers Who Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Project on Devolution and Urban Change studied the effects of welfare reform in the counties encompassing the following cities: Cleveland, Ohio; Los Angeles, California; Miami, Florida; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In May 1995, the 3,900 women in the sample were receiving public assistance and living in high-poverty neighborhoods. After 3-4…

Polit, Denise F.; Widom, Rebecca; Edin, Kathryn; Bowie, Stan; London, Andrew S.; Scott, Ellen K.; Valenzuela, Abel

478

The Disappearing Provision: Medical Liability Reform Vanishes From The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Despite State Court Split  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legal and medical communities have debated the impact and necessity of medical liability reform for over twenty years. At the heart of the debate is the question of how to strike a balance between compensating patients and their families for the thousands of deaths and injuries resulting from medical errors that occur annually, and encouraging physicians to continue to

Rafael Andre Roberti

2012-01-01

479

A Synthesis and Critique of Four Recent Reviews of Whole-School Reform in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of the four guides to schoolwide reform models (by Herman and others, Northwest Regional Education Laboratory, Robert Slavin, and Margaret Wang and associates), Herman's volume provides the most detailed, scholarly review. Practical information abounds, but more well-controlled and designed longitudinal studies are essential. (Contains 32…

Stringfield, Sam

2000-01-01

480

Bound-state Ni species — a superior form in Ni-based catalyst for CH 4\\/CO 2 reforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of nickel loading, calcination temperature, support, and basic additives on Ni-based catalyst structure and reactivity for CH4 reforming with CO2 were investigated. The results show that the structure of the nickel active phase strongly depends on the interactions of the metal and the support, which are related to the support properties, the additives and the preparation conditions. “Free”

Zheng Xu; Yumin Li; Jiyan Zhang; Liu Chang; Rongqi Zhou; Zhanting Duan

2001-01-01

481

Slab reformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

Spurrier, Francis R. (Inventor); DeZubay, Egon A. (Inventor); Murray, Alexander P. (Inventor); Vidt, Edward J. (Inventor)

1984-01-01

482

Slab reformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

Spurrier, Francis R. (Inventor); DeZubay, Egon A. (Inventor); Murray, Alexander P. (Inventor); Vidt, Edward J. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

483

Social welfare, genetic welfare? Boundary-work in the IVF\\/PGD clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the lens of the ‘welfare of the child’ assessment, this paper explores how staff working in the area of in vitro fertilisation and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (IVF\\/PGD) balance reflexive relations of legitimacy and accountability between the public and private spheres, and between medicine, the citizen and the state. The wider research of which this analysis is a part uses

Kathryn Ehrich; Clare Williams; Rosamund Scott; Jane Sandall; Bobbie Farsides

2006-01-01

484

The Tender Years: Toward Developmentally Sensitive Child Welfare Services for Very Young Children. Child Welfare Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the United States has seen a record influx of infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged children into the foster care system in the past decade, there has not been an accompanying shift in policy or practice to attend to the developmental issues these younger children bring to child welfare. This textbook addresses the spectrum of child…

Berrick, Jill Duerr; Needell, Barbara; Barth, Richard P.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

485

Unions' Role in Argentine and Chilean Pension Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1981 privatization of Chilean pensions created immediate winners and observable benefits. It also created a model for Latin American pension reform. This study compares the Chilean and Argentine experiences by using political economy models of social welfare development as a framework for discussion. We suggest privatizing pensions could divide workers or create opportunities for unions to garner control over

Teresa Ghilarducci; Patricia Ledesma Liébana

2000-01-01

486

National Health Care Reform, Medicaid, and Children in Foster Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines access to health care for children in out-of-home care under current law, reviews how health care access for these children would be affected by President Clinton's health care reform initiative, and proposes additional measures that could be considered to improve access and service coordination for children in the child welfare system.…

Halfon, Neal; And Others

1994-01-01

487

When Economic Reform Goes Wrong: Cashews in Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mozambique liberalized its cashew sector in the early 1990s in response to pressure from the World Bank. Opponents of the reform have argued that the policy did little to benefit poor cashew farmers while bankrupting factories in urban areas. Using a welfare-theoretic framework, we analyze the available evidence and provide an accounting of the distributional and efficiency consequences of the

Margaret McMillan; Dani Rodrik; Karen Horn Welch

2002-01-01

488

How the Child Welfare System Works  

MedlinePLUS

... Welfare Information Gateway. (2013). How the child welfare system works. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children's Bureau. This material may be freely reproduced and distributed. However, when doing so, please credit Child Welfare ...

489

Toward Reform in Land Reform: Coupling Local Control and Social Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An alternative to the traditional land reform movement in the United States and the recent land use reform movement would result in a merging of social control with local control over land. Traditional land reformers perceive that land is a private commodity subject to fee-simple ownership and near absolute control over its use and disposition.…

Geisler, Charles C.

490

School Finance Reform: Analysis of the Ballot and Statutory Reform Proposals. Issue Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On December 24, 1994, the Michigan State Legislature passed a comprehensive school finance reform package for the K-12 education system. This document analyzes the school finance reform package and presents a comprehensive review of the issues affected by the proposed reforms. The first section reviews the overall financial components of the…

Michigan State Legislature, Lansing, Senate Fiscal Agency.

491

CAP Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter re-examines the case for reforming the Common Agricultural Policy. The health and environmental aspects of modern agriculture have been highlighted by British experience with BSE and FMD. Historically, agricultural support has been rationalised by reference to security of supply, income maintenance, or, increasingly, environmental concerns. It is argued that production price supports, the scale of which is set

Giancarlo Corsetti; John Flemming; Seppo Honkapohja; Willi Leibfritz; Gilles Saint-Paul; Hans-Werner Sinn; Xavier Vives

2002-01-01

492

What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

Webster, A. J. F.

1998-06-01

493

Health Reform Redux: Learning From Experience and Politics  

PubMed Central

The 2008 presidential campaign season featured health care reform proposals. I discuss 3 approaches to health care reform and the tools for bringing about reform, such as insurance market reforms, tax credits, subsidies, individual and employer mandates, and public program expansions. I also discuss the politics of past and current health care reform efforts. Market-based reforms and mandates have been less successful than public program expansions at expanding coverage and controlling costs. New divisions among special interest groups increase the likelihood that reform efforts will succeed. Federal support for state efforts may be necessary to achieve national health care reform. History suggests that state-level success precedes national reform. History also suggests that an organized social movement for reform is necessary to overcome opposition from special interest groups.

2009-01-01

494

The Impact of Disease on Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Welfare is usually defined in terms either of an animal’s ability to cope (Broom, 1986) or of health and behavioural needs.\\u000a Indeed the very word “dis-ease” implies a state lacking “ease” or well-being. We feel it is important to consider disease\\u000a holistically: that is to consider the animal’s ability to resist stress and the environmental challenges it faces. Whereas\\u000a the

Andrew Butterworth

495

Social Capital and Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines social and economic inequalities in the United Kingdom. Demonstrates how children's welfare and family functioning are crucially dependent upon locally available social support. Argues that building social capital in poor communities is more effective in promoting children's welfare than is present emphasis on formal child-protection and…

Jack, Gordon; Jordan, Bill

1999-01-01

496

Career Maturity of Welfare Recipients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate the career maturity of welfare recipients, this thesis examines six independent variables: (1) race; (2) sex; (3) age; (4) level of formal education; (5) general intelligence; and (6) locus of control. Scales taken from the Career Maturity Inventory served as the dependent variables. The sample consisted of 83 welfare recipients who…

Beckman, Carol M.

497

Issues in Rural Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with some of the unique aspects of rural practice in child welfare, such as the interface between juvenile justice agencies and child welfare programs, poverty, and the changing roles (especially economic) of rural women. Demonstrates urban-type programs are often not appropriate in dealing with rural problems. (Author)

Jankovic, Joanne

1981-01-01

498

Development of animal welfare understanding drives change in minimum welfare standards.  

PubMed

The process by which societies adapt to increasing knowledge about the mental and physical capacities of animals and the ways in which they are affected by human activities has been described as a journey. Different countries and regions are at various stages of this journey, and will take a unique path, depending on their specific social and cultural dynamics. However, all participants are unified by an increasing awareness of, and concern for, animal welfare. This journey has been characterised by a number of landmark events, one of which was the release of the Five Freedoms concept. Although aspirational and abstract, as it did not outline specific practical goals, nonetheless this concept became a catalyst for moving animal welfare thinking in a new direction, and set up a number of important targets for research. This eventually led to a key shift in thinking from a focus on biological functioning and resources, to ways of assessing welfare outcomes in terms of animals' experiences, i.e. their affective states. Behaviour science played an important role in the interpretation of animals' affective experiences, receiving compelling support from parallel studies in affective neuroscience. An important aspect of our understanding of animal welfare is that affective states can be negative or positive. Enabling animals to perform specific behaviours at key times when they are needed is central to the achievement of positive affective states. Another important event has been the development of practical ways to shift the spectrum of affective states towards a positive balance and their incorporation into welfare codes and regulations. The recent focus on positive affective states does not mean that negative experiences should be given less attention. In fact, in those countries that are at the early stages of the journey, improving function and productivity may be the most effective way to promote some important aspects of animal welfare. For example, alleviating pain is a useful entry point. Finally, it is important that the pace of the journey, in terms of public awareness and shifts in understanding, be supported by high-quality science that is rigorously assessed and validated in its practical application to the management of animal welfare. PMID:25000784

Mellor, D J; Webster, J R

2014-04-01

499

Labor of love: foster mothers, caregiving, and welfare reform.  

PubMed

Using a telephone survey, this study examined the experiences of 100 foster mothers who receive aid through Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Foster mothers reported numerous difficulties with TANF, including frequent sanctions and case closings, limited work and training opportunities, and pervasive material hardships. Foster children exhibited high levels of emotional and behavior problems. The data suggest that lack of access to child care and pressure to become self-sufficient may contribute to a decreased pool of foster mothers. PMID:19391465

Critelli, Filomena M

2008-01-01

500

Welfare Reform and New York City's Low-Income Population  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this recent paper from the Institute for Poverty Research's Working Papers series, Howard Chernick and Cordelia Reimers examine the Current Population Survey in 1994-1995 and 1997-1999 to see if there was a discernible drop in households receiving public assistance in New York City. While they found that the proportion of households receiving at least one public assistance benefit remained the same over the period, the decline in the number of Hispanic households receiving public assistance was greater than among African-Americans. Importantly, the paper also addresses the differing family structures and educational attainment levels that may account for some of this change.

Chemick, Howard.; Reimers, Cordelia K.

2002-01-01