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1

Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the economics literature on welfare reform over the 1990s. A brief summary of the policy changes over this period is followed by a discussion of the methodological techniques utilized to analyze the effects of these changes on outcomes. The paper then critically reviews the econometric and experimental literature on caseload changes, labor force changes, poverty and income

Rebecca M. Blank

2002-01-01

2

45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's...80 Section 261.80 Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE...ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect State...

2012-10-01

3

45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's...80 Section 261.80 Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE...ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect State...

2010-10-01

4

The Status of State Work-Welfare Programs in 1986: Implications for Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been numerous attempts over the past seven years to replace the federally-funded Work Incentive Program (WIN) with another type of work program. As a result of increased flexibility, decreased federal funds, and continuing debate about welfare reform, there is now considerable variability among states in the types of employment and…

Nightingale, Demetra Smith; Burbridge, Lynn C.

5

Children and Welfare Reform: High States, Low Coverage. Content Analysis on Welfare Reform Reporting. A Report by Children Now.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An examination of the way welfare reform is presented in the national news media can provide insight into which aspects of the reform news consumers consider important. This study used a content analysis to examine all stories about welfare reform in the national press from: (1) June through August 1996, during which time the federal legislation…

Heintz-Knowles, Katharine

6

Welfare reform at 15 and the state of policy analysis.  

PubMed

This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and opponents alike expected the law to have profound consequences, the article considers two ways to explain this surprising outcome, showing that (1) quantitative policy analysis has been ill equipped to capture the PRWORA's effects and (2) expectations were nonetheless wrong because they failed to appreciate how thoroughly Aid to Families with Dependent Children had already been eroded in the decades prior to its reform. Welfare reform was not the beginning of a process of policy change; it was the end of one. In response to these findings, the article describes how a more critical perspective on reform matters for social work researchers, advocates, and practitioners. PMID:23409340

Pimpare, Stephen

2013-01-01

7

Explaining state AFDC and food stamp caseloads: has welfare reform discouraged food stamp participation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

State food stamp caseloads have declined dramatically since the adoption of the 1996 welfare reforms. It is likely that the movement of large numbers of individuals from the welfare rolls to the work force has contributed significantly to the decline in food stamp usage. This hypothesis is tested by examining the impact that the pre-reform AFDC program had on food

Gary J. Tschoepe; John J. Hindera

2001-01-01

8

Welfare Reform at 15 and the State of Policy Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and…

Pimpare, Stephen

2013-01-01

9

Welfare Reform and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

2005-01-01

10

45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 261.80 Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS... ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect State Penalties?...

2011-10-01

11

Race and Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of welfare reform on African American and Caucasian welfare recipients in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to determine if there were differences in their experience with employers and private welfare agencies. The study found that despite having higher education levels and higher job training completion rates, African American welfare recipients did not fare any better than Caucasians in

Michael Bonds

2006-01-01

12

Shifting the Employment Burden: The Social and Economic Foundations of Welfare State Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how governments reform the structure of the welfare state. In an environment of scal austerity, developed democracies are restructuring the welfare state in the hopes of securing the sustainability of social insurance, and labor markets are playing an increasingly important role in this endeavor. Yet, even as governments share the common goal of employment promotion, the strategies

Scott R. Powell

2009-01-01

13

Lessons of United States welfare reforms for Australian social policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in policies towards lone parents in Australia have emphasised the role of employment in increasing income and self- sufficiency. The emphasis on employment is also the case in other OECD countries with a general trend towards benefits for lone parents being made dependent on participation in the labour market. The United States of America has undertaken substantial reforms

Matthew Gray; David Stanton

2004-01-01

14

Issues in Welfare Reform.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography contains selected abstracts of documents on welfare reform issues. All of the approximately 40 documents are in the SHARE collection; most were published in the late 1970's. Documents range from journal articles to private foundation rep...

1980-01-01

15

45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 261.80 Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS... ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect State Penalties?...

2009-10-01

16

Children and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

2002-01-01

17

Towards a Schumpeterian workfare postnational regime: path-shaping and path-dependency in Danish welfare state reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article offers an analysis of the dialectics of path-shaping and path-dependency in relation to recent Danish reforms which appear to bring us from the Keynesian welfare national state to a Schumpeterian workfare postnational regime. It provides a brief outline of the theoretical framework for understanding the restructruation of the Danish welfare state along these lines of though, and

Jacob Torfing

1999-01-01

18

Welfare Reforms, Family Resources, and Child Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated…

Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

2003-01-01

19

Welfare Reforms, Family Resources, and Child Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated…

Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

2003-01-01

20

Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

2011-01-01

21

Adolescent Outcomes and Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents research that examines potential effects of welfare reform on children in late childhood through adolescence. The research used the Survey of Program Dynamics to examine the links between outcomes for adolescents, source of income, mother's employment, and welfare reform. Specifically, the research examined how poverty status and family welfare receipt during middle childhood interact with current poverty

Eileen Trzcinski; Jerrold Brandell; Lynda Ferro; Deborah Smith

2005-01-01

22

Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

Sawhill, Isabel V.

2000-01-01

23

Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

Sawhill, Isabel V.

2000-01-01

24

Reforming a Breadwinner Welfare State: Gender, Race, Class, and Social Security Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A key challenge facing western welfare states is that they offset income risks faced by those in breadwinner families. Social Security is an excellent example. It best protects individuals with lengthy work histories or individuals who get married, stay married, and are never employed. Most women fit neither model. Thus, I analyze…

Herd, Pamela

2005-01-01

25

Is Welfare Reform Succeeding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare Reform and the Earned Income Tax Credit have apparently caused a dramatic increase in the labor force participation rates of single parents. Between the first quarters of 1994 and 1998, labor force participation rates rose 25.4 percent for never-married women caring for children, rose 15.5 percent for mothers separated from their spouse and rose 4.9 percent for divorced single

John H. Bishop

1998-01-01

26

Welfare Reform. At Issue, An Opposing Viewpoints Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts to reform the welfare system in the United States have been gaining momentum since the late 1980s. Critics have been arguing that states should receive federal waivers to create their own programs to encourage welfare recipients to find work. The thrust of the 1996 welfare reform act transfers control over welfare spending to the states.…

Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

27

Welfare reform in the United States. A descriptive policy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty alleviation is an important objective of European countries and of the United States. If these ‘rich’ states offer elaborate systems of income maintenance, why is there still a considerable amount of poverty? And why are anti-poverty outcomes so different in the United States compared to European countries? This paper completes a trilogy of cross-country research papers on anti-poverty policy.

Megan C. Martin; Koen Caminada

2009-01-01

28

SOCIAL WELFARE REFORM: COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES ON EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the effects of American approaches to welfare with the effects of privatization and other recent changes in European welfare systems. European theories traditionally have held that the provision of welfare services is a state responsibility. While European governments continue to protect welfare services from economic forces, recent U.S. approaches have emphasized incorporating market principles in welfare programs.There

Maria Bordas

2001-01-01

29

State welfare reform policies and declines in health insurance.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether there is a relationship between state policies on Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), declines in both TANF and Medicaid caseloads, and the rise in the number of uninsured. METHODS: Extant data sources of state TANF policies, TANF and Medicaid participation, and uninsurance rates were analyzed, with the state as the unit of analysis. The independent variables included state TANF policies that directly address receipt of benefits or relate to health; dependent variables included changes in state TANF enrollment, Medicaid enrollment, and health insurance status since the enactment of the law. RESULTS: In the bivariate analysis, declines in Medicaid were associated with sanction for work noncompliance, lack of a child care guarantee, and strategies to deter TANF enrollment; this last factor was also associated with increased uninsurance. In the multivariate analysis, lack of a child care guarantee and deterrent strategies predicted TANF declines; deterrent strategies predicted Medicaid decline and uninsurance increases. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that policies deterring TANF enrollment may contribute to declines in Medicaid and increased uninsurance. To maintain health insurance for the poor, policymakers should consider revising policies that deter TANF enrollment.

Chavkin, W; Romero, D; Wise, P H

2000-01-01

30

State Welfare Waiver Evaluations: Will They Increase Our Understanding of the Impact of Welfare Reform on Children? Working Paper and Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As of June 1995, the federal government had granted to 28 states waivers from current federal laws and regulations, allowing states to test a wide range of welfare reform approaches. This study, conducted by the National Center for Children in Poverty, examined the evaluation plans of 21 waiver experiments in 17 states, focusing on the impact of…

Collins, Ann; Aber, J. Lawrence; Bernard, Stanley N.

31

Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The welfare reform bill adopted in the United States in 1996 limited the eligibility of immigrants for several government assistance programs, and early projections estimated that nearly half of the savings associated with the reforms would come from these immigrant restrictions. Several studies have found that subsequent program participation…

Haider, Steven J.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Bao, Yuhua; Danielson, Caroline

2004-01-01

32

45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of... 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE...

2009-10-01

33

45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of... 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE...

2011-10-01

34

Beyond welfare reform: Reframing undocumented immigrants’ entitlement to health care in the United States, a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the main scholarly frames that supported the deservingness of unauthorized immigrants to health benefits in the United States (U.S.) following the passage of the Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), known as the Welfare Reform bill, in 1996. Based on a critical literature review, conducted between January 1997 and March 2011, this article begins with an

Anahí Viladrich

35

Learning from Leaders: Welfare Reform Politics and Policy in Five Midwestern States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines welfare reform, occasioned by the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which abolished Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and replaced it with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). It is based on research in Ohio, Kansas, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan that…

Weissert, Carol S., Ed.

36

Welfare Reform and Substance Abuse  

PubMed Central

The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) changed the nature, purpose, and financing of public aid. Researchers, administrators, and policymakers expressed special concern about the act's impact on low-income mothers with substance use disorders. Before PRWORA's passage, however, little was known about the true prevalence of these disorders among welfare recipients or about the likely effectiveness of substance abuse treatment interventions for welfare recipients. Subsequent research documented that substance abuse disorders are less widespread among welfare recipients than was originally thought and are less common than other serious barriers to self-sufficiency. This research also showed significant administrative barriers to the screening, assessment, and referral of drug-dependent welfare recipients. This article summarizes current research findings and examines implications for welfare reform reauthorization.

Metsch, Lisa R; Pollack, Harold A

2005-01-01

37

Devolution and Welfare Reform: Re-Evaluating "Success"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The passage of welfare reform shifted significant authority for welfare provision from the federal government to state and local governments. Proponents of devolution point to drastic caseload declines as evidence that state-run programs are decreasing dependency among families. However, welfare rolls in many states have remained stagnant or…

Sheely, Amanda

2012-01-01

38

Welfare Reform and Elderly Immigrants' Health Insurance Coverage: The Roles of Federal and State Medicaid Eligibility Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immigrants' access to federally-funded Medicaid became limited after welfare reform imposed restrictive noncitizen eligibility rules. This study used a representative sample from the Current Population Survey (N?=?105,873) and state-level data to examine the effects of these policy changes on elderly immigrants. Triple difference-in-differences analyses show that federal restriction of eligibility had a significantly negative association with elderly immigrants' Medicaid coverage,

Yunju Nam

2011-01-01

39

Welfare recipients’ involvement with child protective services after welfare reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study identifies factors associated with child protective services (CPS) involvement among current and former welfare recipients after welfare reform legislation was passed in the US in 1996.

Yunju Nam; William Meezan; Sandra K. Danziger

2006-01-01

40

Welfare reform and women's health: review of the literature and implications for state policy.  

PubMed

In August 1996, the Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (P.L. 104-193) was signed into law, ending a 60-year federal entitlement guaranteeing families some basic level of assistance during periods of economic hardship. Several components of this new legislation have the potential to impact upon the health and well-being of women and children. We summarize studies examining the relationship between welfare participation and physical and mental well-being of women and what is known about the effects of poverty on health; the patterns of employment among welfare participants and the health consequences of low-wage work on women; domestic violence among welfare recipients; the potential health consequences of the provisions of the new Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program for women's and adolescent health; and the consequences of the new TANF provisions for the health and well-being of immigrant women. We discuss the implications for policy makers in monitoring and minimizing the negative impact of welfare reforms on women's health and well-being. PMID:9922619

O'Campo, P; Rojas-Smith, L

1998-01-01

41

Welfare Reform and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines conflicting evidence regarding the impacts of welfare reform on children's wellbeing. Research shows that poverty rates, teen crime and fertility, and child maltreatment are down. Lack of appropriate state-level data on indicators of child wellbeing precludes serious analysis of the role of welfare reform for most indicators.…

Duncan, Greg J.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

42

Welfare Reform and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines conflicting evidence regarding the impacts of welfare reform on children's wellbeing. Research shows that poverty rates, teen crime and fertility, and child maltreatment are down. Lack of appropriate state-level data on indicators of child wellbeing precludes serious analysis of the role of welfare reform for most indicators.…

Duncan, Greg J.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

43

Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training. NBER Working Paper No. 16659  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results indicate that welfare reform reduced enrollment…

Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

2011-01-01

44

Economic Conditions and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 10 papers on three key questions regarding the effects of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which ended the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program: why welfare caseloads are falling; how welfare recipients are faring; and how the states are responding to changing…

Danziger, Sheldon H., Ed.

45

Welfare reform and elderly immigrants' health insurance coverage: the roles of federal and state medicaid eligibility rules.  

PubMed

Immigrants' access to federally-funded Medicaid became limited after welfare reform imposed restrictive noncitizen eligibility rules. This study used a representative sample from the Current Population Survey (N?=?105,873) and state-level data to examine the effects of these policy changes on elderly immigrants. Triple difference-in-differences analyses show that federal restriction of eligibility had a significantly negative association with elderly immigrants' Medicaid coverage, and generous state eligibility had significantly positive relationships with Medicaid and any health insurance coverage. Findings indicate the important role of eligibility on elderly immigrants' health insurance coverage. Results call for social workers' actions to expand elderly immigrants' Medicaid eligibility. PMID:22060007

Nam, Yunju

2011-11-01

46

Lost Ground: Poverty, Welfare Reform and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mid-1980s, the popularity of Charles Murray's anti-welfare treatise Losing Ground signaled the rising influence of the right-wing critique of welfare. In Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty and Beyond, a respected array of social scientists buck the conservative trend established by Murray and his cohorts, exposing welfare reform as a sham and positing new strategies to end poverty.\\u000aSince

Randy Albelda; Ann Withorn

2002-01-01

47

Welfare Recipients' Involvement with Child Protective Services after Welfare Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This study identifies factors associated with child protective services (CPS) involvement among current and former welfare recipients after welfare reform legislation was passed in the US in 1996. Method: Data come from the Women's Employment Study, a longitudinal study of randomly selected welfare recipients living in a Michigan city…

Nam, Yunju; Meezan, William; Danziger, Sandra K.

2006-01-01

48

Meeting the Challenges of Welfare Reform: Programs with Promise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a result of federal legislation aimed at welfare reform, states have been transforming welfare in new ways. Critical questions remain, however, and policymakers must continue to develop new ideas and implement programs from other states. This book contributes to the learning process among states by sharing program innovations and analyses to…

Tweedie, Jack; Christian, Steve; Groginsky, Scott; Reichert, Dana; Brown, Amy

49

Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

50

Implementing Welfare Reform in Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is part of a broader study considering effects of welfare reform on households in rural areas. This report describes the findings of qualitative research, which examined welfare reform implementation and availability of services in 12 rural communities in Alabama, Arkansas, California, and Maine. The study sites were diverse in terms of…

Pindus, Nancy M.

51

Did Welfare Reform Influence the Fertility of Young Teens?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 1990s, states made several reforms to their welfare programs designed to reduce teenage fertility among minors. Among the most prominent of these changes, states started requiring teenage mothers younger than 18 to live with a parent or legal guardian and enroll in high school in order to receive welfare benefits. Using natality data…

Lopoo, Leonard M.; DeLeire, Thomas

2006-01-01

52

Did welfare reform influence the fertility of young teens?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, states made several reforms to their welfare programs designed to reduce teenage fertility among minors. Among the most prominent of these changes, states started requiring teenage mothers younger than 18 to live with a parent or legal guardian and enroll in high school in order to receive welfare benefits. Using natality data from the National Center for

Leonard M. Lopoo; Thomas DeLeire

2006-01-01

53

The Welfare Magnate Debate Revisited in the Context of Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper re-examines the welfare magnet hypothesis in the context of welfare reform by redefining both migration and generosity. Due to the intrastate variation in program parameters, migration is defined at the county, rather than state level, and the typical definition of generosity is expanded to control for differences in time limits. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of

Traci Mach

2000-01-01

54

IMPLEMENTING WELFARE REFORM IN MICHIGAN: THE ROLE OF STREET-LEVEL BUREAUCRATS[1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the implementation of welfare reform policies enacted by the state of Michigan. In particular, it focuses on how welfare policy is altered as it devolves from state policy makers to street-level bureaucrats in three local welfare agencies in Michigan. The analysis reveals that street-level bureaucrats in local welfare offices are in a position to interpret broadly stated

Norma M. Riccucci

2002-01-01

55

Family Poverty, Welfare Reform, and Child Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines consequences of family poverty for child development, noting evidence that deep or persistent poverty early in childhood adversely affects children's ability and achievement. Argues that although the 1996 welfare reforms spurred many welfare-to-work transitions, their time limits and sanctions are likely to deepen poverty among some…

Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2000-01-01

56

Welfare Reform and Comparative Models of Bureaucratic Behavior: Budget Maximizers and Bureau Shapers in the United States and France  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that social problems related to the most disadvantaged citizens require service delivery that is universal, focused, and of reasonable quality. Resource distribution, which makes the delivery of these services possible, is dependent on decision-making structures that pattern relationships between major stakeholder groups, but missing in the debate over welfare reform is a discussion of the decision structures

Donald J. Matthewson

1996-01-01

57

Devolution and welfare reform: re-evaluating "success".  

PubMed

The passage of welfare reform shifted significant authority for welfare provision from the federal government to state and local governments. Proponents of devolution point to drastic caseload declines as evidence that state-run programs are decreasing dependency among families. However, welfare rolls in many states have remained stagnant or decreased since the start of the recession in late 2007. The uneven responsiveness of the welfare system to growing economic needs prompts the question of whether the safety net is functioning as intended. This article evaluates the literature on the state and local implementation of welfare to assess whether devolution has yielded the positive outcomes promised by proponents. Findings suggest that, under welfare reform, state and local governments are enacting diverse programs and do not appear to be limiting welfare provision in new ways to avoid becoming "welfare magnets." However, the type of program they adopt is systematically related to the racial and ethnic composition of the caseloads and the local political climate, leading to a fragmentary system in which some states and localities are more responsive than others. Social workers can help poor families in critical need of assistance by voicing these concerns at the local, state, and national levels. PMID:23285832

Sheely, Amanda

2012-10-01

58

Welfare reform and interstate migration of poor families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis of this study is that as a result of increased inequalities in welfare rules, the 1996 welfare reform act not only\\u000a enhanced incentives for poor families to move but also (and perhaps more important) created disincentives for them to stay\\u000a in “race to the bottom” states. In testing this thesis, we evaluated the mediating and moderating roles of

Gordon F. De Jong; Deborah Roempke Graefe; Tanja St. Pierre

2005-01-01

59

Welfare reform: advocacy and intervention in the health care setting.  

PubMed Central

Welfare reform has drastically altered the lives of poor families in the US. In its wake, many former recipients are not receiving whatever transitional benefits and other safeguards to which they remain entitled under federal and state laws. Families are losing access to Medicaid and are not receiving the child care assistance or Food Stamps for which they continue to be eligible. Ill-served by stringent time limits and work requirements, lack of child care assistance, and lack of training and educational opportunities for the development of skills that will lead to better jobs, families need help to navigate the complexities of the new welfare system. Boston Medical Center's Department of Pediatrics has instituted a welfare screening project to educate families about their rights under welfare reform and assist them in advocating for themselves and their children.

Lawton, E; Leiter, K; Todd, J; Smith, L

1999-01-01

60

Is There a Link between Welfare Reform and Teen Pregnancy? Rockefeller Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the 1996 federal welfare reform law exhorts states to reduce teen and out-of-wedlock births, preliminary field research has found few links between welfare reform and pregnancy prevention, and the ones that do exist are often tenuous, hard to believe, and difficult to assess. States have established new and stronger connections between…

Nathan, Richard P.; Gentry, Paola; Lawrence, Catherine

61

Welfare reforms and socio-economic trends in the 10 new EU member states of Central and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews recent socio-economic changes in the 10 new EU member states of Central and Eastern Europe and the earlier and latest debates on the emergence of the post-communist welfare state regime. It asks two questions: are the new EU member states more similar to each other in their social problems encountered than to the rest of the EU

Jolanta Aidukaite

2011-01-01

62

Welfare Reform and “Welfare to Work” as Non-Sequitur: A Case Study of the Experiences of Latina Women in Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare reform emerged as a public policy response to a presumed “dependency” on the part of impoverished individuals and families. This behavioral view of poor people is ensconced in the adoption of welfare reform nationally, and many states including Massachusetts, where “work-first” frenzy fed the political momentum for moving families off welfare as quickly as possible, regardless of the consequences

James Jennings; Jorge Santiago

2004-01-01

63

Beyond welfare reform: reframing undocumented immigrants' entitlement to health care in the United States, a critical review.  

PubMed

This article addresses the main scholarly frames that supported the deservingness of unauthorized immigrants to health benefits in the United States (U.S.) following the passage of the Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), known as the Welfare Reform bill, in 1996. Based on a critical literature review, conducted between January 1997 and March 2011, this article begins with an analysis of the public health rhetorics that endorsed immigrants' inclusion into the U.S. health safety net. In this vein, the "cost-saving" and "the effortful immigrant" frames underscore immigrants' contributions to society vis-à-vis their low utilization of health services. These are complemented by a "surveillance" account that claims to protect the American public from communicable diseases. A "maternalistic" frame is also discussed as a tool to safeguard families, and particularly immigrant mothers, in their roles as bearers and caretakers of their American-born children. The analyses of the "chilling" and the "injustice" frames are then introduced to underscore major anthropological contributions to the formulation of counter-mainstream discourses on immigrants' selective inclusion into the U.S. health care system. First, the "chilling effect," defined as the voluntary withdrawal from health benefits, is examined in light of unauthorized immigrants' internalized feelings of undeservingness. Second, an "injustice" narrative highlights both the contributions and the limitations of a social justice paradigm, which advocated for the restoration of government benefits to elderly immigrants and refugees after the passage of PRWORA. By analyzing the contradictions among all these diverse frames, this paper finally reflects on the conceptual challenges faced by medical anthropology, and the social sciences at large, in advancing health equity and human rights paradigms. PMID:21745706

Viladrich, Anahí

2011-06-25

64

Medicaid Enrollment: Amid Declines, State Efforts to Ensure Coverage After Welfare Reform Vary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Medicaid, a joint federal-state program, spent about $160 billion in federal fiscal year 1997 to finance health coverage for more than 40 million low-income individuals, including adults and children in families and aged, blind, and disabled people. State...

1999-01-01

65

The Economic Impact of Welfare Reform on Arkansas Families. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1997, the Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA) program was established in Arkansas as the state's version of welfare reform. Although there has been a 44 percent decrease in TEA cash assistance since the program's inception, questions continue regarding the impact of welfare reform on families with children. This report highlights some of…

Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, Little Rock.

66

The Impact of Welfare Reform on Men's Violence against Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare reform is likely to have a profound effect on the lives of poor women who are being abused. This article proposes exchange theory and the feminist “backlash hypothesis” as frameworks with which to assess the impact of welfare reform on violence levels in abusive relationships. Exchange theory suggests that if a woman leaves welfare and obtains employment that increases

Stephanie Riger; Maryann Krieglstein

2000-01-01

67

Welfare Reform and Child Fostering: Pinpointing Affected Child Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of our research is to examine the impact of New Jersey's welfare reform called the Family Development Program (FDP) on child fostering among children on welfare. Copyright (c) 2005 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.

Radha Jagannathan; Michael J. Camasso; Sara S. McLanahan

2005-01-01

68

Initial Welfare Spells: Trends, Events, and Duration, with Implications for Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mother's initiation of welfare receipt is a key event for understanding the dynamics of welfare receipt and the likely consequences of welfare reform legislation passed in 1996. Using 28 years of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we conduct a number of related analyses of first welfare spells. We first examine trends in the number and

Johanne Boisjoly; Kathleen Mullan Harris; Greg J. Duncan

69

Gaining Ground? Measuring the Impact of Welfare Reform on Welfare and Work. Civic Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is the first in a series documenting the actual results of welfare reform, examining changes in the welfare and work participation of single mothers. Data come from the annual March supplement to the U.S. Current Population Survey. Results find that the number of families on welfare declined by 50 percent between passage of welfare

O'Neill, June E.; Hill, M. Anne

70

Welfare Reform and Women's Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WCHPC studied the extent of collaboration between state women's health officials and TANF officials with respect to programs that affect the health and well-being of poor women. The kinds and extent of monitoring activities designed to gather information on the health status of this population were also examined. Great unevenness across states was revealed for both collaboration and monitoring.

Lucia Rojas Smith; Patricia OCampo; Holly Grason

2002-01-01

71

Wisconsin's Welfare Reform and Its Potential Effects on the Health of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Wisconsin, like many other states seeking increased state flexibility in federalized programs, is in the midst of a bold welfare reform initiative entitled Wisconsin Works (W-2), which was signed into law on April 25, 1996. This study reviews the state's transition from the existing welfare program to one in which participants are required to work. The primary concerns with this

Earnestine Willis; Robert M. Kliegman

1997-01-01

72

Wisconsin's Welfare Reform and Its Potential Effects on the Health of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wisconsin, like many other states seeking increased state flexibility in federalized programs, is in the midst of a bold welfare reform initiative entitled Wisconsin Works (W-2), which was signed into law on April 25, 1996. This study reviews the state's transition from the existing welfare program to one in which participants are required to work. The primary concerns with this

Robert M. Kliegman

1997-01-01

73

Welfare Reform and Health Insurance: Consequences for Parents  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed the relation between the work promotion, welfare reduction, and marriage goals of welfare reform and the stability of health insurance of parents in transition from welfare to work. Methods. We analyzed a panel survey (1999–2002) of a stratified random sample of Illinois families receiving welfare in 1998 (n=1363). Results. Medicaid remains the foremost source of health insurance despite a significant decline in the proportion of parents with Medicaid. Regardless of work/welfare status in year 1, transitioning to work only or no work/no welfare increased the likelihood of having unstable health insurance in years 2 and 3 compared with those who remained on welfare only. Conclusions. Parents who meet the welfare reform goals of work promotion and reduction of welfare dependence experience significant loss and instability of health insurance.

Holl, Jane L.; Slack, Kristen Shook; Stevens, Amy Bush

2005-01-01

74

Welfare Reform and Teenage Pregnancy, Childbirth, and School Dropout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study estimates the effect of welfare reform on adolescent behaviors using a difference-indifferences approach. After defining the prereform and reform cohorts and considering the life course development of adolescent behavior by following each cohort from age 14 to age 16, we compare the welfare-target and nontarget populations in the two…

Hao, Lingxin; Cherlin, Andrew J.

2004-01-01

75

Small Towns and Welfare Reform: Iowa Case Studies and Families and Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines rural-urban differences in the implementation of welfare reform policies using Iowa as a case study. Information waas gathered at the state, community, and family levels to study community-level implications of the policy mandate to move families off the welfare rolls and into the workforce. State and community interviews with key informants were conducted using The Urban Institute's

Cynthia Needles Fletcher; Jan L. Flora; Barbara J. Gaddis; Mary Winter; Jacquelyn S. Litt

2000-01-01

76

Welfare Dynamics, Support Services, Mothers' Earnings, and Child Cognitive Development: Implications for Contemporary Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to examine the effects of welfare reform on children. Although effect sizes were generally small, the findings suggested the potential value of welfare-reform approaches that emphasized long-term human-capital development. Positive effects of support services on earnings were strongest…

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

1999-01-01

77

The Perceptions of Welfare Reform by Michigan Families Whose Children Have Disabilities and Welfare Caseworkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines family and caseworker perceptions of welfare reform and services as they relate to families who have a child with a disability. Interviews were conducted with 39 families and 77 caseworkers. Family questions addressed their perceptions of the welfare system, factors impacting their self-sufficiency, and their perceptions of needed program changes. Caseworker questions addressed their perceptions of welfare

Barbara W. Leroy; Donna M. Johnson; Nathaniel Israel

2004-01-01

78

Welfare Reform and Health Insurance of Immigrants  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) on the health insurance coverage of foreign- and U.S.-born families headed by low-educated women. Data Source Secondary data from the March series of the Current Population Surveys for 1994–2001. Study Design Multivariate regression methods and a pre- and post-test with comparison group research design (difference-in-differences) are used to estimate the effect of welfare reform on the health insurance coverage of low-educated, foreign- and U.S.-born unmarried women and their children. Heterogenous responses by states to create substitute Temporary Aid to Needy Families or Medicaid programs for newly arrived immigrants are used to investigate whether the estimated effect of PRWORA on newly arrived immigrants is related to the actual provisions of the law, or the result of fears engendered by the law. Principal Findings PRWORA increased the proportion of uninsured among low-educated, foreign-born, unmarried women by 9.9–10.7 percentage points. In contrast, the effect of PRWORA on the health insurance coverage of similar U.S.-born women is negligible. PRWORA also increased the proportion of uninsured among foreign-born children living with low-educated, single mothers by 13.5 percentage points. Again, the policy had little effect on the health insurance coverage of the children of U.S.-born, low-educated single mothers. There is some evidence that the fear and uncertainty engendered by the law had an effect on immigrant health insurance coverage. Conclusions This research demonstrates that PRWORA adversely affected the health insurance of low-educated, unmarried, immigrant women and their children. In the case of unmarried women, it may be partly because the jobs that they obtained in response to PRWORA were less likely to provide health insurance. The research also suggests that PRWORA may have engendered fear among immigrants and dampened their enrollment in safety net programs.

Kaushal, Neeraj; Kaestner, Robert

2005-01-01

79

Welfare Reform and the Well-Being of Single Female-Headed Families: A Semiparametric Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single female-headed families with children (SFHFwC) have historically been the primary recipients of federal public cash assistance payments in the United States. Recent welfare reform initiatives established work requirements and cumulative time limits on public cash assistance payments. Three findings in this paper have significant implications for the long-term efficacy of welfare reform initiatives. First, SFHFwC made significant and broad-based

Bradford F. Mills; Jefferey R. Alwang; Gautam Hazarika

2001-01-01

80

It's Not Just About the Money: Governmentality and Resistance in Post-Reform Welfare Offices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The substantial decline in the welfare rolls, expansion of collecting child support, and increased labor-force participation among,low-income,mothers,in the late 1990s demonstrated that welfare reform, along with a booming economy, compelled many welfare recipients to restructure their relationships with the state. This working,paper draws upon Foucaultian concepts of “governmentality” and “resistance” to explore how power and regulation were deployed in

Celeste Watkins

81

What Has Welfore Reform Accomplished. Impacts on Welfare Participation, Employment, Income, Poverty, and Family Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of recent welfare reforms, investigating the effects of both state-specific waivers in the early 1990s and the 1996 federal reform legislation. Unlike earlier work, we analyze a wide array of indicators, including we...

R. F. Schoeni R. M. Blank

2000-01-01

82

[Toward further reform of mental health care and welfare].  

PubMed

The Committee for Investigating the Future of Mental Health Care and Welfare, launched in 2008 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, issued its final report in September 2009. The 2009 report was an expert-driven interim review of implementation of the 10-year plan proposed in the 2004 "Vision for Reforming Mental Health Care and Welfare," which marked its midpoint in 2009, and was conducted in order to identify priority issues in the final five years of the plan. The report recognizes that "mental illness significantly impairs quality of life and causes great socioeconomic loss"; that "health care and welfare assistance systems that support the ability of people with mental disorders to live in the community are inadequate"; and that "large numbers of patients with schizophrenia remain institutionalized over the long term. The report notes that this is due to previous policies that promoted institutionalized care, with regard to which concerned parties, including government entities, have expressed regret." The new approach described in the report can be summarized as (1) promoting the basic principle of moving from institutionalized care toward community-based care, based on the vision for reform noted above; (2) creating a society where patients who have mental disorders can receive high-quality health care, and depending on the patients' symptoms and wishes where they can receive appropriate health care and welfare services while continuing to live independently and securely in the community; and (3) speeding up the process of reform in mental health care and welfare. The core focus of reform is expressed in four fundamental principles: (1) restructuring mental health care (restructuring and improving the healthcare system by upgrading community-centered healthcare, shifting the focus of hospital care to the acute stage, and similar efforts) ; (2) improving the quality of mental health care (improving the quality of health care provided to each individual patient, whether it involves pharmacological or psychosocial therapy, and also improving the quality of health care by promoting staff development) ; (3) strengthening community living support systems (developing welfare services that support the ability of persons with disabilities to live in the community, improving care management, improving emergency and community health services, securing places of residence, etc.) ; and (4) prioritizing increased awareness and understanding of psychiatric illness (promoting an accurate understanding of mental disorders so that patients can obtain help at an early stage, and so that people with mental disorders can live as fully-participating members of the community). The committee also reviewed the targets stated in the vision for reform, and established a new maximum limit of 150,000 patients institutionalized with schizophrenia (the number was 196,000 in 2005). By 2011, the committee will also set a concrete target for the number of patients institutionalized with dementia. Preserving the 2004 goals expressed under the vision for reform, the mean target ratio of patients remaining hospitalized in psychiatric wards less than one year, for all prefectures, was set at 24% or less, while the target discharge rate for patients hospitalized for one year or longer, for each prefecture, was fixed at a minimum of 29%. PMID:21706855

Higuchi, Teruhiko

2011-01-01

83

The Changing Relationship Between Nonprofit Organizations and Public Social Service Agencies in the Era of Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of welfare reform in the United States provides another opportunity to assess the relationship between nonprofits and public social service agencies. The pri- mary goal of this analysis is to identify the major forces affecting the county social ser- vices agencies as they sought to implement welfare reform and how these forces can affect the agency's relationship with

Michael J. Austin

2003-01-01

84

Comparing welfare states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing Welfare States: Britain in International Context. Edited by ALLAN COCHRANE and JOHN CLARKE. London: Sage in association with the Open University, 1993. Pp.xiv + 274, index. £35 (hardback) ISBN 0–8039–8845–1, £12.95 (paperback) 0–8039–8846?X.Women Across Continents: Feminist Comparative Social Policy By LENA DOMINELLI. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991. Pp.x + 351, biblio, index. NP (hardback). ISBN 0–7450–0336–2, £12.95 (paperback), 0–7450–0939–5.Divisions of

Chris Pierson

1995-01-01

85

Keynes and the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the question of what influence J.M. Keynes had on the evolution of the welfare state after the Second World War. First it weighs whether his non-utilitarian approach to economic theory and welfare measurement had an impact on the growth of the welfare state. Then it considers whether the influence came through Keynes’s advocacy of deficit spending. After

Roger E. Backhouse; Bradley W. Bateman

2012-01-01

86

Welfare Reform and the Caseload Decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay Douglas J. Besharov and Peter Germanis trace what is known about the large decrease in welfare recipiency and what families are doing after they leave welfare. According to them, welfare offices have been transformed from places where mothers are automatically signed up for benefits to places where mothers are helped (and at times pressured) to get a

Douglas J. Besharov; Peter Germanis

2007-01-01

87

Impact of the 1996 Welfare Reform and Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Acts on Caribbean Immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of the 1996 Welfare Reform and Illegal Immigration and Immigrant Responsibility Acts on Caribbean immigrants in the United States. Drawing from the conceptual framework posited by Dye's (1984) Elite Preference Modelof policy analysis, the author argues that the three laws have created enormous economic and psychological difficulties among families in the United States. Developing countries

Velta Clarke

2004-01-01

88

Post-secondary Education under Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the past, post-secondary education has been an option for welfare recipients wishing to increase their earning power. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) shifted federal policy and made it more difficult for welfare recipients to pursue a college education. Nevertheless, several work activities…

Cohen, Marie

1998-01-01

89

The politics of ideas in welfare state transformation: Christian Democracy and the reform of family policy in Germany.  

PubMed

The expansion of employment-centered family policies of the Grand Coalition in Germany came with some surprise, as Christian Democrats have traditionally been strongly committed to the male breadwinner model and corresponding family policies. This article investigates why Christian Democrats (though with some inconsistencies) promoted “social-democratic” family policies guided by the adult worker rather than by the male breadwinner model. Illuminating the politics of recent family policy reforms, the electoral rationale for this modernization of family policy, the role of political entrepreneurship, and intraparty political conflicts over the new policy paradigm are discussed. PMID:22292173

Fleckenstein, Timo

2011-01-01

90

Voting on welfare reform Stemming migration, assisting the needy, or promoting economic growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This paper examines the influences on voting by members of the House of Representatives on the Carter Administration's welfare\\u000a reform legislation. The analysis finds some support for the hypothesis that voting by national legislators responded to the\\u000a potential mobility of welfare recipients from low to high benefit states. Defining the public interest as promoting economic\\u000a growth and the special

Dennis Coates

2000-01-01

91

Community Development Corporations and Welfare Reform: Linkages, Roles, and Impacts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the impact of welfare reform on housing owned by community development corporations (CDCs), investigating how early implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) affected the financial status of CDCs' affordable housing developments. Five types of financial impacts were…

Wright, David J.; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Schill, Michael H.

92

Welfare Reform in Rural America: A Review of Current Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research review suggests that welfare reform policy should recognize the differences between rural and urban poor families. The rural poor are more likely to be employed, married, and non-Hispanic white. Rural-urban labor market differences are also likely to influence the effects of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity…

Findeis, Jill L.; Henry, Mark; Hirschl, Thomas A.; Lewis, Willis; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael; Peine, Emelie; Zimmerman, Julie N.

93

The effect of welfare reform and technological change on unemployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unemployment has fallen to its lowest level in a generation. Some welcome this development because they believe it increases the average person's ability to achieve the American dream. Others view low unemployment as a precursor to dire economic consequences. Jason Saving examines the issue of unemployment and reaches three main conclusions. First, welfare reform can significantly reduce unemployment, and the

Jason L. Saving

2000-01-01

94

Catholic Cacophony: Richard Nixon, the Church, and Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

President Richard Nixon’s 1969 welfare reform proposal, the Family Assistance Plan (FAP), debuted to rave reviews from conservatives (who appreciated its work requirement) and liberals (who lauded its minimum income). The two-thirds of Americans who approved of FAP included many Catholics and their bishops. However, Nixon ran out of enthusiasm, and Congress ran out of time. By 1972, the bishops

Lawrence J. McAndrews

2012-01-01

95

Welfare Reform on Rosebud Reservation: Challenges for Tribal Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interviews with low-income, American Indian, single parents on the Rosebud Reservation in Todd County, South Dakota, included families who were on and who had left Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Welfare reform issues discussed included transportation problems; access to affordable, quality child care; food insecurity; and the scarcity…

Biolsi, Thomas; Cordier, Rose; Two Eagle, Marvine Douville; Weil, Melinda

2002-01-01

96

The impact of welfare reform on men's violence against women.  

PubMed

Welfare reform is likely to have a profound effect on the lives of poor women who are being abused. This article proposes exchange theory and the feminist "backlash hypothesis" as frameworks with which to assess the impact of welfare reform on violence levels in abusive relationships. Exchange theory suggests that if a woman leaves welfare and obtains employment that increases her economic resources, violence against her will decrease. The backlash hypothesis makes a different prediction: Violence will increase as men attempt to compensate for women's enhanced status or independence. Both approaches are examined in light of current data. As demonstrated here, the incorporation into social policy analyses of feminist thinking about dominance and power will enrich our understanding of the impact of social policy changes on people. PMID:11043108

Riger, S; Krieglstein, M

2000-10-01

97

The Volunteer Citizen After Welfare Reform in the United States: An Ethnographic Study of Volunteerism in Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, neoliberal strategies for social, economic, and state organization have been accompanied by frequent calls for volunteers to solve serious social problems. A case study of a community mobilization of middle-class volunteers to provide one-on-one support to families in poverty shows both possibilities and limitations. Volunteers provide social support to families in poverty, thus alleviating social isolation.

Leslie Rebecca Bloom; Deborah Kilgore

2003-01-01

98

Whatever happened to the human altruism gene? A service user’s view of the Welfare Reform Bill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article draws on the relationship between the scientific development of social biology and the political development of the British welfare system. It concludes that although the present Welfare Reform Bill is beginning to move to a state of ‘conditional altruism’, social biology has shown, mathematically, that within nature the ‘selfish gene’ can pursue its own interest through acts of

2009-01-01

99

Redesigning the Hollow State: A Study of Florida Child Welfare Service Reform through the Lens of Principal-Agent Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

While principal-agency theory has greatly facilitated our understanding of governance and management in the hollow state, close examinations of how system designs affect agency problems has been rare. The purpose of this study is to explicitly investigate the effects of different contract configurations on agent shirking, which is a common problem in third-party service delivery arrangements. Florida's recent statewide privatization

Meeyoung Lamothe

2011-01-01

100

State-level Welfare Policies and Nonmarital Subsequent Childbearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using discrete time event history analyses of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we examine the association\\u000a between state-level welfare waiver policies implemented before the 1996 welfare reform legislation and the risk of a nonmarital\\u000a subsequent birth. Our study makes a unique contribution to the existing literature by using a national-level sample of unmarried\\u000a mothers who ever

Suzanne Ryan; Jennifer Manlove; Sandra L. Hofferth

2006-01-01

101

Sustaining State Welfare in Hard Times: Who Will Foot the Bill?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of how European welfare systems are responding to current pressures agree that welfare states display remarkable resilience. They are being reformed rather than dismantled. New policies are concerned to contain costs and to promote activation, stressing the contribution of welfare to economic competitiveness. Will people support cost constraint? This paper analyses attitude survey data from the 1980s and

Peter Taylor-Gooby

2001-01-01

102

Welfare Reform Proposals. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Domestic Marketing, Consumer Relations, and Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing seeks to examine the Family Welfare Reform Act, H.R. 1720, now pending, and determine what changes in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and the Food Stamp Program are needed to ensure that the United States has an integrated welfare system. H.R. 1720 includes benefit reforms, a new employment and training…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

103

For Better and for Worse: Welfare Reform and the Well-Being of Children and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the 1996 welfare reform bill reduced welfare rolls, falling caseloads do not necessarily mean a better standard of living for families. This book examines the evidence and evaluates whether welfare reform has met one of its chief goals--improving the well-being of the nation's poor children. The chapters of the book are as follows: (1)…

Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, Ed.

104

The effect of welfare reform on prenatal care and birth weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare reform has resulted in a dramatic decline in welfare caseloads and some have claimed that a significant number of low-income women may be without health insurance as a result. The loss of insurance may reduce low-income, pregnant women's health care utilization, and this may adversely affect infant health. Welfare reform also may affect healthcare utilization and health of pregnant

Robert Kaestner; Won Chan Lee

2005-01-01

105

The Effect of Welfare Reform on Prenatal Care and Birth Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare reform has resulted in a dramatic decline in welfare caseloads and some have claimed that a significant number of low-income women may be without health insurance as a result. The loss of insurance may reduce low-income, pregnant women's health care utilization, and this may adversely affect infant health. Welfare reform also may affect healthcare utilization and health of pregnant

Robert Kaestner; Won Chan Lee

2003-01-01

106

Welfare Reform, Returns to Experience, and Wages: Using Reservation Wages to Account for Sample Selection Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

One rationale for work-focused welfare reform was human capital theory: work today should raise experience tomorrow, which should raise future wage offers and reduce welfare dependency. Yet few studies have estimated the effect of welfare reform on wages. I approach the problem using a novel sample selection estimator based on reservation wage data. Reservation wages solve the selection problem using

Jeffrey Grogger

2009-01-01

107

Sharp Reduction in Black Child Poverty Due to Welfare Reform. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report asserts that welfare reform has been very successful in reducing child poverty. For a quarter-century prior to reform, black child poverty and poverty among single mothers remained virtually constant. Six years after reform, poverty among both groups dropped rapidly, reaching the lowest levels in U.S. history. Welfare rolls have…

Pardue, Melissa G.

108

How to Carry Out Joined-Up Government Reforms: Lessons from the 2001–2006 Norwegian Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article reports a case study of a recent and major reform in the Norwegian welfare sector, involving the employment service, the national insurance administration, and the social services. The reform involves two common joined-up government reform measures, namely partnerships and mergers. The study examines how instrumental problem solving in the reform process was conditioned by external forces, negotiations, and

Jostein Askim; Tom Christensen; Anne Lise Fimreite; Per Lægreid

2009-01-01

109

Poverty, women, and reproduction. Welfare reform and social justice.  

PubMed

As they attempt to redesign the welfare system in the US, policy-makers could learn much by referring to the social justice teachings of the Catholic Church. As early as 1891, the pope was calling for the social protection of the poor. This view was expanded by papal edicts in 1971 and 1981 as well as by US bishops in 1986 and by the new catechism in 1994. In 1992, there were more than 39 million people living in poverty in the US. While the poor are overwhelmingly White, Blacks, who make up 12% of the population, account for 34% of the poor (children account for 70%). The poverty rate increases from 7.2% when both parents are present to 18% in father-only families and 44.7% in mother-only families. The four main definitions of poverty are poverty as deprivation, poverty as inequality, poverty as culture, and poverty as exploitation. The true nature of poverty encompasses all of these aspects. The goals of welfare, then should be to provide assistance and opportunity. While Americans are divided over which proposed changes should be enacted, no one argues against assisting children (which by extension provides aid to the mothers who raise them). The welfare reform movement, however, is fueled by racist and sexist attitudes. All of the potential changes are directed at women and ignore the hundreds of thousands of men benefiting from the system. Even when women have jobs, their income remains below the poverty level. Policy-makers also seek to control the private sphere of women's reproduction through welfare reform. A just welfare system would attempt to help people who need it; integrate the poor into solving the problem of poverty; provide real job training and jobs; offer support during the transition from welfare to self-sufficiency; provide sex education, reproductive services and counseling, and child care; and offer hope to poor children. This requires respect for the poor, access to information, a lack of coercion, the inclusion of poor men, repudiating an arbitrary cap on assistance (including when a person enters employment), the provision of education and training, setting realistic goals, and understanding that the role of the private sector is limited. PMID:12178865

1996-01-01

110

THE 2010 REAUTHORIZATION OF WELFARE REFORM COULD RESULT IN IMPORTANT CHANGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare reform law of 1996 is widely regarded as one of the most important pieces of social legislation since the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid in the mid-1960s. Although the 1996 law is known primarily for its radical reforms designed to help, cajole, or force welfare mothers to seek self sufficiency through work, there were important changes in several

RON HASKINS

2010-01-01

111

Adolescent Outcomes, Poverty Status, and Welfare Reform: An Analysis based on the Survey of Program Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early stages of research on the impact of welfare reform, most research focused on caseload reduction, employment outcomes, and barriers to employment. Even in research that examined the impact of welfare reform on children, the emphases centered on infants, preschoolers, and children at the grade school level. Issues concerning the impact on children in middle childhood and early

Eileen Trzcinski; Jerry Brandell

2002-01-01

112

The Continuing Good News about Welfare Reform. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At the time of its enactment, liberal groups passionately denounced the welfare reform legislation, predicting that it would result in substantial increases in poverty, hunger, and other social ills. Contrary to these alarming forecasts, welfare reform has been effective in meeting each of its goals. Data from various sources show that overall…

Rector, Robert; Fagan, Patrick F.

113

45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates... 260.73 Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE...

2009-10-01

114

Changes in Young Peoples' Social Networks and Welfare Reform in Australia1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent proposals for social welfare reform in Australia are predicated on the assumption that passive welfare systems have eroded pro-work attitudes and values. Staying on welfare is believed to have become either a life-style choice or a form of learned helplessness that is transmitted across generations within 'work poor' families and communities. This paper draws on data obtained from interviews

Rob Strathdee; David Hughes

2002-01-01

115

Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its establishment in 1996, Connecticut's Job First Welfare Reform Program has been under rigorous evaluation. As a result, under a contract with the Connecticut Department of Social Services, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC) decided to study the effects of the Job First Program. During the study, nearly 5,000 single-parent welfare applicants and recipients in Manchester and New Haven were randomly assigned to either the Jobs First Program or to the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) group (which operated under the prior welfare rules). The effects of the Jobs First Program were estimated by comparing how the two groups fared over a four-year period, and the results are revealed in this report. Users may choose to view the Executive Summary (a short review in HTML), the Summary Report (52 pages), or the Full Report (406 pages). In addition, the Web page provides access to the report's press release (issued February 20, 2002) and a description of Connecticut's Job First Program.

Vargas, Wanda.; Walter, Johanna.; Adams-Ciardullo, Diana.; Hendra, Richard.; Morris, Pamela.; Michalopoulos, Charles.

2002-01-01

116

Reforming Welfare and Rewarding Work: A Final Report on the Minnesota Family Investment Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cited June 2000 in a printed statement on welfare reform from President Clinton, this new report offers a comprehensive assessment of Minnesota's welfare reform program. The report was produced by The Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC), a "nonprofit, nonpartisan social policy research organization." MDRC found that Minnesota's reform program brought substantial, far-ranging improvements to the lives of single parents who were long-term welfare recipients, including increases in employment, reduction in poverty, decreased levels of domestic abuse, and improvements in children's behavior and school performance. Unlike many welfare reform programs, Minnesota's is premised upon a commitment to support people while they work. This welfare-plus-work dimension was emphasized by the MDRC as crucial to the reform's successes.

Berlin, Gordon L.

2000-01-01

117

Assessing the effects of welfare reform policies on reproductive and infant health.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The welfare reform law of 1996 marked a historical moment in US policy toward the poor by ending the entitlement to cash assistance, by requiring work, and by establishing time limits. This article examines the potential impact on the health of women and children, the primary recipients of welfare benefits. METHODS: The authors outline the reproductive health outcomes most likely to be sensitive to welfare policies, identify indicators that might be used to assess these outcomes, review empirical evidence, and suggest specific methods and data sources. RESULTS: State welfare requirements could improve health outcomes or deter families from Medicaid and food stamps, as well as income support, thus worsening health outcomes. National and state data may prove useful in detecting these effects; however, new data sources may be required for specific health-related questions. CONCLUSIONS: Assessing the effects of welfare policies on reproductive and infant health is possible, although challenging. Reauthorization of the legislation is required in 2002; it is essential that the consequences for health be included in the next round of public debate.

Wise, P; Chavkin, W; Romero, D

1999-01-01

118

Reconsidering Schools and the American Welfare State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author discusses her comparative study of the history of the welfare state in the United States, England, and France, she studies some of the usual features of the welfare state, which include important entitlement programs, such as social insurance, and protective labor legislation, but she also focuses on the development of…

Cohen, Miriam

2005-01-01

119

Three worlds of educational welfare states? A comparative study of higher education systems across welfare states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although education is generally considered to be an important part of the welfare state, it is largely absent in the comparative welfare state literature. This article tries to fill this void by applying the central concepts of welfare state analysis of decommodification and stratification, as proposed by Esping-Andersen, to the field of higher education. The article tests whether there are

Nienke Willemse; Paul de Beer

2012-01-01

120

Five States' Innovative Approaches to Welfare: Promoting Economic Security among America's Poor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Family Support Act of 1988 and the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 provided the basis for a comprehensive reform of welfare programs. This document provides examples of how five states have chosen to implement new provisions in their welfare programs to aid families in achieving greater economic…

Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

121

Five States' Innovative Approaches to Welfare: Promoting Economic Security among America's Poor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Family Support Act of 1988 and the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 provided the basis for a comprehensive reform of welfare programs. This document provides examples of how five states have chosen to implement new provisions in their welfare programs to aid families in achieving greater economic…

Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

122

Welfare State: From Dream to Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is customary to defend and develop the welfare state by appealing to benevolent dreams and expectations and to exclude analysis on what really happens when popular plans are turned into action. The article shows that there are serious problems in every welfare dimension; public services, public regulation, financial transfers, and intergovernmental relations. The purpose of the article is to

Risto Harisalo; John McInerney

2008-01-01

123

Unfinished business: the restoration of immigrant health access after welfare reform.  

PubMed

One in ten Americans is a recent immigrant and, until 1996, even the poorest had access to health care through Medicaid. That changed radically with the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), the federal welfare reform law, which sharply restricted immigrant access to public benefits, including Medicaid. This issue of States of Health looks at PRWORA's impact--and what advocates and immigrants are doing to restore health care access for these newcomers, who are among the most vulnerable in our communities. PMID:11503890

Sherman, R

1999-07-01

124

Human Services Access System and Welfare Reform Project: First Year Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Human Services Access System and Welfare Reform Project (HSAS - WRP) began operation in northern San Mateo County, Calif., in July 1980. Seven agencies participate in the project, which serves Daly City, South San Francisco, San Bruno, Colma, and Paci...

M. Payton

1981-01-01

125

Corporate Welfare: The Third Stage of Welfare in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Corporate involvement in social welfare represents a third stage in the evolution of welfare institutions in the United States, following the voluntary sector and the welfare state. Examining health and welfare corporations reveals rapid growth and consolidation in nursing homes, hospital management, health maintenance organizations, child care,…

Stoesz, David

1986-01-01

126

Progressive Welfare Reform? Ending General Assistance Cash Grants for Homeless People in San Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines Care-Not-Cash, a welfare reform measure that replaced cash General Assistance payments for homeless people in San Francisco with in-kind social services. Unlike most welfare reform measures, Care-Not-Cash was framed by proponents as a progressive policy, aimed at expanding social services and government care for poor people. Drawing on primary and secondary documents, as well as extensive interviews,

Darren Noy

2009-01-01

127

Ideology, Policy, and Economy: Liberal, New Democratic and Conservative Reforms of Ontario's Welfare Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1985 to 2000, in an unprecedented development in Canadian politics, three different parties governed the province of Ontario, each for a five-year period. Each party sought to reform the province’s welfare program in keeping with its ideological position. The authors demonstrate the manner in which welfare policies interacted with prevailing economic and labour market conditions to create dramatic fluctuations

Thomas R. Klassen; Dan Buchanan

2006-01-01

128

Struggle for Self-Sufficiency: Impact of Welfare Reform on Families with Children in Kansas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, Kansas has dramatically reduced its welfare roles. Noting that achieving self-sufficiency is the real measure of success in combating poverty, this study examines welfare reform efforts in Kansas. To gather information, United Way member agencies and…

Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

129

Reforming Welfare: What Does It Mean for Rural Areas? Issues in Food Assistance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 2000, a conference on the rural dimensions of welfare reform and food assistance policy brought together researchers, welfare policy experts, and rural scholars. This issue brief summarizes some major findings of the conference and suggests future policy options to better address the differing needs of rural and urban families. Between 1994…

Whitener, Leslie A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Weber, Bruce A.

130

The “Other America” After Welfare Reform: A View from the Nonprofit Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the experiences of private, nonprofit social service agencies and their role in the “social safety net” following the 1996 welfare reforms. Among other concerns, the research suggests that declining welfare rolls are not indicative of widespread poverty reduction and increased self-sufficiency, as many nonprofits, especially those providing emergency food and shelter services, have experienced increasing demands during

David Sommerfeld; Michael Reisch

2003-01-01

131

Welfare Reform and the Need for a Two-Generational Approach: A Wisconsin Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

ne particular challenge of welfare reform, according to Corbett (1993), is the difficulty of achieving two important but oftentimes conflicting goals—reducing family dependency on welfare while enhancing the well- being of children. Reaching either goal alone would be relatively simple, but at- tempting to reach both goals at the same time has proven extraordinarily com- plex. For example, dependency on

Karen Bogenschneider

132

Reforming Welfare: What Does It Mean for Rural Areas? Issues in Food Assistance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In May 2000, a conference on the rural dimensions of welfare reform and food assistance policy brought together researchers, welfare policy experts, and rural scholars. This issue brief summarizes some major findings of the conference and suggests future policy options to better address the differing needs of rural and urban families. Between…

Whitener, Leslie A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Weber, Bruce A.

133

On justifying a minimum welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since anarchy is not viable, limited government is the best that the realistic libertarian can hope for. But limited government\\u000a will itself always be threatened by an inherent tendency to transgress its limits. In modern western societies the regulatory\\u000a and redistributive welfare state is the major threat to a constitution of liberty. However, a “minimum welfare state” which\\u000a redistributes personal

Hartmut Kliemt

1993-01-01

134

2003 Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education Professionalism, Ethics, and Welfare Reform: The Importance of Ethical Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the professional ethics of welfare reform providers to determine its role in the achievement of welfare reform goals and to suggest an alternative context, based on professional ethics, for discussing the success or failure of welfare reform. Four themes emerged from the analysis of literature. First, patriarch authority keeps welfare women at the bottom of society. Second,

Silvana Ianinska

135

Welfare state regimes and population health: integrating the East Asian welfare states.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that population health varies significantly by welfare state regime. However, these studies have focused exclusively on the welfare states of Europe, North America and Australasia. This focus ignores the existence of welfare states in other parts of the world, specifically in East Asia. This study therefore investigates whether the association between population health (Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth) and welfare state regimes is still valid when the welfare states of East Asia are added into the analysis. It also examines whether population health is worse in the East Asian welfare states. Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth as well as GDP per capita and social and health expenditures as a percentage of GDP were examined in 30 welfare states, categorised into six different regimes (Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern, Eastern European and East Asian). ANOVA analysis showed significant differences by welfare state regime in the magnitude of IMR, LE, SE, HE and GDP per capita. However, when controlling for GDP per capita in the ANCOVA analyses, only Life Expectancy (R(2)=0.58, adjusted R(2)=0.47, p<0.05) and Social Expenditure (R(2)=0.70, adjusted R(2)=0.61, p<0.05) differed significantly by welfare state regime. 47% of the variation in Life Expectancy was explained by welfare state regime type. Further, the East Asian welfare states did not have the worst health outcomes. The study concludes by highlighting the need to expand comparative health analysis both in terms of the range of countries examined and also in terms of incorporating other societal and public health factors-towards a 'public health regime' analysis. PMID:19748149

Abdul Karim, Syahirah; Eikemo, Terje A; Bambra, Clare

2009-09-11

136

Welfare Reform in Rural Missouri: The Experience of Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the impact of the 1996 federal welfare legislation on rural families in Missouri. We analyze primary data obtained from interviews with 162 single-mother families with children residing in six rural counties in Missouri who are either former or current welfare recipients. This information was substantiated by focus group interviews with current or former welfare recipients conducted between

Shanta Pandey; Shirley Porterfield; Hyeji Choi-Ko; Hong-Sik Yoon

2003-01-01

137

On Measuring Consumer Welfare Effects of Trade Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a measure of consumer welfare by approximating Hicksian compensating variation as a function of all commodity prices and compensated price elasticities. The unique feature of this approach is that all direct- and cross-commodity effects of a demand system are incorporated into the welfare measurement. This approach is useful for developing an instrumental model to evaluate the consumer welfare

Sophia Wu Huang; Kuo S. Huang

2006-01-01

138

How does the introduction of 'choice' affect the pooling of risks in European welfare states? The case of long-term care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ongoing reforms of European welfare states that aim at increasing 'choice' for patients, clients, and beneficiaries provide a unique opportunity to explore what exactly drives these reforms and how they reconstitute communities of economic risks. Traditionally, the solidaristic bargain underpinning European welfare states revolved around the twin objectives of a redistribution of resources and a pooling of risks (Baldwin, 1990).

Waltraud Schelkle; Christa van Wijnbergen

2009-01-01

139

The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Education, Tax Reform, Crime Control, Welfare Reform, Health Care Reform. Report No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The sixth annual survey conducted by the Rural Services Institute examined the opinions of Pennsylvania residents on crime control, welfare reform, smoking, and education reform proposals. Sixty percent of respondents believed that the most urgent issue facing Pennsylvania was violent crime and strongly supported measures to reduce the…

Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

140

Comparing welfare states in Australia and Canada: A party competition theory of welfare state development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a ‘most-similar-systems’ design, several major theories of welfare state development are shown to have some weaknesses in comparing the Australian and Canadian welfare states during the Golden Age. I offer instead a party competition theory, with the degree of party system polarisation as a key variable. Located in a highly polarised party system, the Australian Liberals adopted a directional

Jingjing Huo

2006-01-01

141

Images of Welfare in Law and Society: The British Welfare State in Comparative Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designed by Beveridge and built by Attlee's post?war Labour government, the welfare state was created during the 1940s. Britain has been seen – in domestic debates and internationally – as a world first: the place where both the idea and the practice of the welfare state were invented. I draw together comparative welfare state analysis with law and society scholarship

Daniel Wincott

2011-01-01

142

Distributive Justice and Attitudes Toward the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current debates concerning the viability of the welfare state evoke the question of the social bases of support of the welfare state. Past research has documented fairly consistent relationships between sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes toward welfare policies. Yet, the nature of these relationships is not well understood. In the paper we argue that the level of support for the welfare

Noah Lewin-Epstein; Amit Kaplan; Asaf Levanon

2003-01-01

143

Effects of Welfare Reform on Teenage Parents and Their Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key question in welfare policy concerns the potential that welfare-to-work programs have to develop in teenage parents the motivation and skills to provide financially for themselves and their children. The Teenage Parent Welfare Demonstration was a major experiment initiated in 1986 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and evaluated by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., to test

J. Lawrence Aber; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn; Rebecca A. Maynard

1995-01-01

144

The New Welfare Law and Vulnerable Families: Implications for Child Welfare/Child Protection Systems. Children and Welfare Reform Issue Brief 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report examines the potential impact of federal welfare legislation, Public Law 104-193, The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, on vulnerable families already in or at risk of entering the child welfare/child protection systems. The report includes an overview of the challenges states face; questions for state

Knitzer, Jane; Bernard, Stanley

145

Sustaining Indigenous futures? Welfare reform and responsibility for the other  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debates about the provision of welfare over the past decade have been founded upon an increasing concern with the responsibilities of welfare recipients. In Australia, as elsewhere, the emphasis has been on recipients’ responsibility to rise above their circumstances (no matter how constraining) in order to ‘give something back’ to society. This practice of ‘responsibilisation’ has recently been extended to

Cate Thill

2008-01-01

146

Depression and Welfare Reform: From Barriers to Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors identify ways to facilitate work among current and recent welfare recipients with mental illness. Their analysis assesses the relationship between a particular mental illness, depression, and labor force involvement in a statewide sample of welfare recipients, identifies the factors that promote work for those with depression, and…

Lewis, Dan A.; Lee, Bong Joo; Altenbernd, Lisa M.

2006-01-01

147

Depression and Welfare Reform: From Barriers to Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors identify ways to facilitate work among current and recent welfare recipients with mental illness. Their analysis assesses the relationship between a particular mental illness, depression, and labor force involvement in a statewide sample of welfare recipients, identifies the factors that promote work for those with depression, and…

Lewis, Dan A.; Lee, Bong Joo; Altenbernd, Lisa M.

2006-01-01

148

The Role of Postsecondary Education in Welfare ReformOhio’s Jobs Student Retention Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1996 federal welfare reform legislation encourages quick employment over education and training for the nation’s welfare recipients. However, some argue that a one-size-fits-all approach ignores the heterogeneity of this population. This article presents findings from a net impact evaluation of Ohio’s JOBS Student Retention Program (JSRP), a program designed to facilitate success for public assistance recipients at 2-year community

Kevin Hollenbeck; Jean Kimmel

2002-01-01

149

How Are Immigrants Faring after Welfare Reform? Preliminary Evidence from Los Angeles and New York City. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1999 and 2000, immigrants in Los Angeles, California, and New York, New York were aurveyed about their status in the context of welfare reform, examining the living conditions of 3,447 immigrant families roughly 3 years after welfare reform was implemented and several months before the federal government issued guidance about the public charge…

Capps, Randy; Ku, Leighton; Fix, Michael; Furgiuele, Chris; Passel, Jeff; Ramchand, Rajeev; McNiven, Scott; Perez-Lopez, Dan; Fielder, Eve; Greenwell, Michael; Hays, Tonya

150

Beyond contradictions of the workfare state? Denmark, welfare-through-work, and the promise of job rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reform of the British welfare state through the Labour Party's welfare-to-work initiative is beginning to generate considerable debate. Research is revealing that, amongst other things, supply-side interventions are not sufficient on their own to build skilled, dynamic, and socially inclusive economies. Although there is an emerging consensus that welfare-to-work is deeply problematic, in UK debates there has been a

David Etherington; Martin Jones

2004-01-01

151

Industrial welfare and the state: nation and city reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Industrial welfare history presents important challenges to developmental state theories in “late” industrialization. This\\u000a article expands the debate by examining how nation-states create statutory welfare by addressing institutional variety beyond\\u000a markets. It is simplistic to argue linear growth of national welfare or of states autonomously regulating markets to achieve\\u000a risk-mitigation. I contend that welfare institutions emerge from the state’s essential

Smita Srinivas

152

Industrial welfare and the state: nation and city reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial welfare history presents important challenges to developmental state theories in “late” industrialization. This\\u000a article expands the debate by examining how nation-states create statutory welfare by addressing institutional variety beyond\\u000a markets. It is simplistic to argue linear growth of national welfare or of states autonomously regulating markets to achieve\\u000a risk-mitigation. I contend that welfare institutions emerge from the state’s essential

Smita Srinivas

2010-01-01

153

THE RELEVANCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD FOR UNITED STATES DOMESTIC POLICY: Welfare Reform and Children in Immigrant Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

he United States and Somalia remain the only nations in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (the Convention, or CRC), the most universally accepted, legal- ly binding international human rights document in the world. Despite the fact that the Convention is widely viewed as the basic blueprint for describing, assessing,

Jennifer Kasper; Paul H. Wise

154

Welfare effects of public health insurance reform: The case of urban China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates Chinese public health insurance reform enforced since 1998 in terms of its welfare effects. We evaluate\\u000a China health insurance reform since 1998 using the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS) data with relevant econometric\\u000a models. The results of empirical studies show that the public health insurance status has significant impact on medical service\\u000a utilization and expenditure. The

Jihong Ding; Minglai Zhu

2007-01-01

155

Reforming Social Welfare in Germany: An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the effects of social assistance reform proposals are discussed for the case of Germany using a computable general equilibrium model that incorporates a discrete choice model of labour supply. This allows us to identify general equilibrium effects of the reforms on wages and unemployment. The simulation results show that general equilibrium wage reactions mitigate labour supply effects

Stefan Boeters; Reinhold Schnabel; Nicole Gürtzgen

2006-01-01

156

Welfare state matters: A typological multilevel analysis of wealthy countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on the social science literature, we hypothesized that population health indicators in wealthy industrialized countries are ‘clustered’ around welfare state regime types. We tested this hypothesis during a period of welfare state expansion from 1960 to 1994. We categorized data from 19 wealthy countries into 4 different types of welfare state regimes (Social Democratic, Christian Democratic, Liberal and Wage

Haejoo Chung; Carles Muntaner

2007-01-01

157

When the Bough Breaks: Federal and Washington State Indian Child Welfare Law and Its Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although removal of any child from his or her family is traumatic, too frequently Indian child removal has been performed with little prior investigation and with an absence of cultural sensitivity. The resulting inequalities in Indian child foster placement and adoption rates led to a recognition of the need for Indian child welfare reform, both on a federal and state

Kim Laree Schnuelle

1993-01-01

158

Strategies To Build and Sustain Good Child Care Quality during Welfare Reform. Issue Brief #1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report from the 1995 Child Care Action Campaign national audioconference examines approaches to building support among child care providers, legislators, and parents for investments in good quality child care in light of welfare reform. The report summarizes recent findings that children in good quality child care had a more developed…

Miller, Laurie

159

"The Single-Parent Family" and Welfare Reform: Is Marriage the Solution?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many proposals for welfare reform center on the issue of marriage-based families versus single-parent families and oversimplify the relationship between single-parenting and poverty. Research done in upstate rural New York among low-income families showed that personal and economic characteristics of married and single mothers were similar as to…

Fitchen, Janet M.

1995-01-01

160

Creating New Hope: Implementation of a Program To Reduce Poverty and Reform Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The New Hope Project in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was developed to reduce poverty and reform welfare by providing adults who are willing to work least 30 hours per week with the following: help obtaining a job, including time-limited, minimum wage community service jobs (CSJ) if full-time employment was not otherwise available; a monthly earnings…

Brock, Thomas; Doolittle, Fred; Fellerath, Veronica; Greenberg, David H.; Hollister, Robinson G., Jr.; Wiseman, Michael

161

Welfare Reforms and Child Well-Being in the US and UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effects of recent welfare reforms in the US and UK on the well-being of children in low-income families, looking specifically at the effects on poverty, family expenditures, and child health and development. The paper finds some commonalities but also some notable differences. Common to both countries is a sizable reduction in child poverty, although the reduction

Jane Waldfogel

2007-01-01

162

Race-Ing the Bootstrap Climb: Black and Latino Bureaucrats in Post-Reform Welfare Offices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substantial incorporation of people of color into government and quasi-government employment raises previously unexplored questions about the significance of race, class, and gender in street-level bureaucracies. Relying on interview data collected from black and Latino supervisors and caseworkers implementing welfare reform, I look at whether and how race and other social group memberships are deployed as tools in the

Celeste Watkins-Hayes

2009-01-01

163

Welfare bias in the party system: a neo-Downsian explanation for gridlock in economic reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing neo-Downsian theory, the article seeks a party system explanation for the difficulties experienced by political actors in seeking to reform the declining German economy. Taking the UK as a comparator, it investigates the linkages between voter preferences, party positions and government programmes in relation to the market economy and welfare. Whilst the main German parties have recently leapfrogged their

Stephen Padgett

2004-01-01

164

Problem-Based Learning and Improved Learning Outcomes in "The Politics of Welfare Reform"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the capacity of a major Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Assignment to improve students' content knowledge surrounding relevant course concepts in two sections of "The Politics of Welfare Reform," a 200-level class offered at the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth. The hypothesis was that performance on the PBL assignment, which…

Berggren, Heidi M.

2011-01-01

165

Hunger and the Reform of Welfare: A Question of Nutritional Adequacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this report is to review the history of the commitment to ensure nutritional adequacy for all American families during the last several years, and to study the relationship between proposed welfare reform measures and that commitment to nutritional adequacy. A specific proposal, H.R.1, eliminates food stamps, the Nation's primary…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

166

Welfare Reforms and Employment of Single Mothers: Are Rural Areas Keeping Pace?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 1996 welfare reforms narrowed rural-urban differences in employment for both less-educated and more-educated single mothers, and raised the employment rate of single mothers, overall and for all racial/ethnic groups except nonmetro Hispanics. These findings suggest that the aggregate effects of obstacles to employment are no greater in…

Lerman, Robert I.; McKernan, Signe-Mary; Pindus, Nancy

2001-01-01

167

The effects of tax reform on labor supply, tax revenue and welfare when tax avoidance matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how tax avoidance in the form of trade in well-functioning asset markets affects the study of labor supply. We discuss the implications for tax policy analysis, and we show that a failure to account for avoidance responses may lead to huge errors when analyzing how tax reform affects labor supply, tax revenue and the welfare cost of taxation.

Jonas Agell; Mats Persson; Hans Sacklén

2004-01-01

168

The politics of employment-friendly welfare reforms in post-industrial economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition to post-industrialism has generated a range of new tensions between welfare arrangements and labour market performance, which confront today's welfare states with new challenges for employment-friendly recalibration, such as flexicurity, activation and work-care conciliation. Hence, the question of whether, how and to what extent current welfare states are able to adapt to the conditions and needs of post-industrial

Silja Häusermann; Bruno Palier

2008-01-01

169

Revisioning comparative welfare state studies: an ‘indigenous dimension’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although welfare states have been categorised according to a wide but never conclusive range of dimensions, little attention has been paid to the specific forms of recognitive justice that influence the development of the welfare state, particularly in countries where internally colonised indigenous peoples not only constitute a disproportionate number of welfare recipients, but also hold additional rights to those

Louise Humpage

2010-01-01

170

Child Care Issues Impacting Welfare Reform in the Rural South.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Access to affordable, quality child care is a major barrier to successful employment for many families. About one-fifth of families return to welfare within a few months of leaving, with lack of accessible child care and transportation being the most frequently cited reasons. These issues are likely to be compounded in the rural South. Information…

Ghazvini, Alisa S.; Mullis, Ann K.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Park, Jennifer J.

1999-01-01

171

Welfare impacts of electricity generation sector reform in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an empirical investigation into the welfare impacts of the introduction of private sector participation into the Philippines electricity generation sector, by liberalizing the market for independent power producers (IPPs) during the power crisis of 1990–1993. This study uses a social cost and benefit analysis. The main benefits came from IPPs, who contributed to resolving the crisis, and

Natsuko Toba

2007-01-01

172

Welfare reform and high school dropout patterns for children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of parental work and continuity of welfare receipt on the drop out rates of high school students in families in poverty. The risk of dropping out from school is examined in light of potential effects on subsequent social and economic well-being. The data indicate that drop out rates have increased over the past decade for

Karen A. Randolph

1999-01-01

173

Employers' Perceptions of Welfare Reform: Implications for Cooperative Extension Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interviews with 12 employers participating in the Virginia Initiative for Employment, Not Work identified factors affecting welfare recipients' work force entry: skills, work experience, education/training, support system, childcare, transportation, and clothing. They are wiling to hire if supported by extension, social services, and government…

Wilson, Bernice B.; Stewart, Daisy L.

2000-01-01

174

Does Labor Matter? Institutions, Labor Unions and Pension Reform in France and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article challenges Paul Pierson's account on the (supposedly declining) role of labor unions in the 'new politics of the welfare state'. More specifically, the text compares labor's influence on the French and the American politics of pension reform since the 1980s. The analysis of recent reforms undertaken in both countries demonstrates the impact of institutions and managerial settings on

D ANIEL

2001-01-01

175

External habit formation and dependency in the welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

External habit formation explains why welfare states can be expected to exhibit increasing dependency over time expressed in the share of the population receiving welfare transfers. At the same time, the average number of hours worked decreases. Under plausible parameter values, the rate of taxation and the welfare expenditure share of national income monotonically increase over time and asymptotically approach

Keith Jakee; Guang-Zhen Sun

2005-01-01

176

Substate nationalism and the welfare state: Quebec and Canadian federalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the relationship between sub-state nationalism and the welfare state through the case of Quebec in Canada. It argues that social policy presents mobilisation and identity-building potential for sub-state nationalism, and that nationalist movements affect the structure of welfare states. Nationalism and the welfare state revolve around the notion of solidarity. Because they often involve transfers of money

DANIEL BELAND

2006-01-01

177

Capital tax reform, corporate finance, and economic growth and welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent empirical studies have revealed a strong impact of tax changes on corporate finance. Yet, models of economic growth usually neglect financial structure of the representative firm. In order to investigate whether the consideration of firm finance modifies the estimated outcome of capital tax reforms, a corporate sector is introduced in three popular models of economic growth. The paper explores

Holger Strulik

2003-01-01

178

Capital Tax Reform, Corporate Finance, and Economic Growth and Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent empirical studies have revealed a strong impact of tax changes on corporate finance. Yet, models of economic growth usually neglect financial structure of the representative firm. In order to investigate whether the consideration of firm finance modifies the estimated outcome of capital tax reforms, a corporate sector is introduced in three popular popular models of economic growth. The paper

Holger Strulik

1999-01-01

179

Welfare Reform and Community Colleges: A Policy and Research Context. MDRC Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on the state of welfare after the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) passed by Congress in 1996. The National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS) is a federally initiated study that explores the questions of what works best and for whom. NEWWS evaluated seven areas across the…

Brock, Thomas; Matus-Grossman, Lisa; Hamilton, Gayle

180

Welfare Behaviorism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the political movement to alter welfare behavior through changes in welfare reform and discusses the outcomes of several welfare reform initiatives. Explores welfare-to-work; Learnfare; and Learning, Earning, and Parenting. Also discusses research in social engineering efforts involving child support enforcement and time limits.…

Stoesz, David

1997-01-01

181

A case study on the impact of welfare reform on Georgia's TANF recipients labor force entry and self-sufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of welfare reform on Georgia Temporary Assistance to Needy Family (TANF) recipients’ labor force entry and self-sufficiency following passage of the Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act(PRWORA) of 1996. The study was based on the premise that the use of the cultural explanations of poverty theoretical framework was deficient in explaining the impact of welfare

Catherine Foster-Rowell

2011-01-01

182

How welfare reform affects young children: Experimental findings from Connecticut-A research note  

Microsoft Academic Search

As welfare-to-work reforms increase women's labor market attachment, the lives of their young children are likely to change. This note draws on a random-assignment experiment in Connecticut to ask whether mothers' rising employment levels and program participation are associated with changes in young children's early learning and cognitive growth. Children of mothers who entered Connecticut's Jobs First program, an initiative

Susanna Loeb; Bruce Fuller; Sharon Lynn Kagan; Bidemi Carrol

2003-01-01

183

Welfare programs and the state economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare policy has been controversial and support is often drawn along political affiliation lines, the economic return of investment in welfare programs is frequently cited as a justification for new and expanded policies. To investigate the direct and indirect effects of welfare programs on economic performance, the authors develop a multilink approach, through employment and investment. The relationship is then

Bruce D. McDonald; D. Ryan Miller

2010-01-01

184

Immigration and income redistribution in welfare states  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out a political economy model where median voters who benefit from local income redistribution are affected by the fiscal burden of welfare payments to immigrants. The median voters also have cultural preferences. Immigrants are influenced in their relocation decision by welfare benefits in host countries. Uncoordinated, coordinated and leader–follower domestic welfare policies are compared. In the last

Jørgen Drud Hansen

2003-01-01

185

Delivering Health Care and Mental Health Care Services to Children in Family Foster Care after Welfare and Health Care Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the essential features of a health care system that can meet the special needs of children in out-of-home care. Discusses some of the major recent changes brought about by welfare and health care reform. Notes that it remains to be seen whether the quality of services will improve as a result of these reforms. (Author)

Simms, Mark D.; Freundlich, Madelyn; Battistelli, Ellen S.; Kaufman, Neal D.

1999-01-01

186

Expenditure Patterns Post-Welfare Reform in the UK: Are low-income families starting to catch up?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we provide evidence on how the UK government's welfare reforms since 1998 have affected the material well-being of children in low-income families. We examine changes in expenditure patterns and ownership of durable goods for low- and higher-income families between the pre-reform period (1995-1998) and the post-reform period (2000-2003), using data from the Family Expenditure Survey. The methodological

Paul Gregg; Jane Waldfogel; Elizabeth Washbrook

2005-01-01

187

After Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past few years, the American RadioWorks has raised the bar for like-minded radio documentary programs, producing thought-provoking and insightful studies on topics such as, Congressional reform, intelligent design, and international adoption programs. In this recently released documentary, John Biewen has created this introspective look into the world of welfare reform in the United States, and how it has affected the lives of five different women and their families. The women profiled come from a host of different backgrounds, and visitors may be surprised at some of the findings that Biewen presents in the documentary. The site also includes an interactive feature that allows users to find out how their own state ranks in terms of welfare and foodstamp recipients, welfare check sizes, time limits, and unemployment rates. Visitors can also look over a list of additional external links of interest and also read the complete transcript of the program.

Biewen, John

2006-01-01

188

How welfare states care : Culture, gender and citizenship in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's employment patterns changed drastically the last decades. But they are still different across Europe. Welfare state scholars often presume that diversity and change in women's employment across Europe is based on financial (dis) incentive structures embedded in welfare states (Esping-Andersen 1990, 1999, 2002; Sainsbury 1996, 1990; O'Connor et al. 1999; Lewis 1992, 1997). In other words: if childcare is

Monique Kremer

2005-01-01

189

The Left and the welfare state: a critical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper takes to task two theses which are often canvassed on the left; firstly that the welfare state is indefensible and secondly that it is irrever sible and cannot be undone. It is argued that socialists and fentinists must defend the principle of collective provision embodied in the welfare state sible and cannot be undone. It is argued that

Ramesh Mishra; McMaster

1985-01-01

190

Sponsored Privatization of Schooling in a Welfare State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the emergence of privatization in Israel's educational system. The first part provides an overview of the provision of educational services in a welfare state. The second part describes educational privatization in a welfare state, and the third part presents examples of two forms of privatization that have emerged in the…

Chen, Michael

191

Changing Welfare: An Investment in Women and Children in Poverty. The Proposal of the National Coalition on Women, Work and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a welfare reform proposal designed to ensure a transition toward economic self-sufficiency and an end to poverty. It consists of four distinct elements that form an integrated and interdependent whole. The first element is a series of initiatives to achieve an adequate income maintenance system that guarantees that all needy…

National Coalition on Women, Work and Welfare Reform, Washington, DC.

192

Methodology and estimation of the welfare impact of energy reforms on households in Azerbaijan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation develops a new approach that enables policy-makers to analyze welfare gains from improvements in the quality of infrastructure services in developing countries where data are limited and supply is subject to interruptions. An application of the proposed model in the former Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan demonstrates how this approach can be used in welfare assessment of energy sector reforms. The planned reforms in Azerbaijan include a set of measures that will result in a significant improvement in supply reliability, accompanied by a significant increase in the prices of energy services so that they reach the cost recovery level. Currently, households in rural areas receive electricity and gas for only a few hours a day because of a severe deterioration of the energy infrastructure following the collapse of the Soviet Union. The reforms that have recently been initiated will have far-reaching poverty and distributional consequences for the country as they result in an improvement in supply reliability and an increase in energy prices. The new model of intermittent supply developed in this dissertation is based on the household production function approach and draws on previous research in the energy reliability literature. Since modern energy sources (network gas and electricity) in Azerbaijan are cleaner and cheaper than the traditional fuels (fuel wood, etc.), households choose modern fuels whenever they are available. During outages, they rely on traditional fuels. Theoretical welfare measures are derived from a system of fuel demands that takes into account the intermittent availability of energy sources. The model is estimated with the data from the Azerbaijan Household Energy Survey, implemented by the World Bank in December 2003/January 2004. This survey includes an innovative contingent behavior module in which the respondents were asked about their energy consumption patterns in specified reform scenarios. Estimation results strongly indicate that households in the areas with poor supply quality have a high willingness to pay for reliability improvements. However, a relatively small group of households may incur substantial welfare losses from an electricity price increase even when it is combined with a partial reliability improvement. Unlike an earlier assessment of the same reforms in Azerbaijan, analysis in this dissertation clearly shows that targeted investments in improving service reliability may be the best way to mitigate adverse welfare consequences of electricity price increases. Hence, policymakers should focus their attention on ensuring that quality improvements are a central component of power sector reforms. Survey evidence also shows that, although households may incur sizable welfare losses from indoor air pollution when they rely on traditional fuels, they do not recognize indoor air pollution as a factor contributing to the high incidence of respiratory illness among fuel wood users. Therefore, benefits may be greater if policy interventions that improve the reliability of modern energy sources are combined with an information campaign about the adverse health effects of fuel wood use. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Klytchnikova, Irina

193

Poverty, Welfare Reform, and Disproportionate Rates of Disability among Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analysis of data from state programs providing financial assistance for needy persons and disability prevalence data led to recommendations such as expanding access to health care and quality early childhood care for at-risk children, promoting the use of behavioral health services, lowering eligibility standards, and increasing the use of Social…

Birenbaum, Arnold

2002-01-01

194

The Beginnings of Child Welfare Research in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews the beginnings of child welfare research in the United States with an emphasis on the contributions of several outstanding individuals as well as the conflict between hereditarian and reformist values and attitudes. Both hereditarian and reformist values and attitudes had tremendous influence on the development of child welfare research as well as the helping professions.

Patrick A. Curtis

1999-01-01

195

Accessibility and Clarity of State Child Welfare Agency Mission Statements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors reviewed 40 mission statements guiding U.S. public child welfare practice for accessibility, clarity, and values. Nine of the 40 state-administered child welfare agencies had not posted their missions on the Web as of October 2002, and 30 mission statements required a 12th-grade or college reading level for easy comprehension. The…

Busch, Monique; Folaron, Gail

2005-01-01

196

Individual Attitudes towards Immigrants: Welfare-State Determinants Across Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes welfare-state determinants of individual attitudes towards im- migrants - within and across countries - and their interaction with labor-market drivers of preferences. We consider two difierent mechanisms through which a redistributive welfare system might adjust as a result of immigration. Under the flrst scenario, immi- gration has a larger impact on individuals at the top of the

Giovanni Facchini; Anna Maria Mayda

197

Welfare State Expenditures and the Distribution of Child Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the redistributive effects of welfare state expenditures on social and economic disparities in the economic well-being of citizens in ten nations. Data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and other sources for cash and non-cash social welfare benefits (health and education benefits from third parties) are used to describe differences in the size and

I. L. Rainwater Garfinkel; Lee Rainwater; Timothy M. Smeeding

2004-01-01

198

Where Personality Meets Policy: William Jefferson Clinton and the Passing of Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996 President William Jefferson Clinton passed into law the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, aiming to permanently alter the welfare state in America. The measure, created by a Republican dominated Congress, called for the end of federal responsibility for the program, instead placing that responsibility in the hands of the states. This federal responsibility was a cornerstone

JONATHAN D. KUHR

199

Redefining Compassion to Reform Welfare: How Supporters of 1990s US Federal Welfare Reform Aimed for the Moral High Ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use historical and content\\/discourse analyses to examine how the abstract, general value of compassion shaped debate over the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), ending entitlement to need-based public assistance in the United States. We find that a taken-for-granted compassionate American identity institutionalized as a social safety net helped constrain debate over ending entitlement, even as

Robin Stryker; Pamela Wald

2009-01-01

200

United States: Social Welfare Policy and Privatization in Postindustrial Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is widely acknowledged that the US welfare state evolved differently from those of other industrialized nations (Karger\\u000a & Stoesz, 2002; Chatterjee, 1996). Pragmatic, rather than ideological, in origin, it relied less on the national government\\u000a and more on the private sector than its European counterparts (Midgley, 1997). In comparison to the welfare states of Western\\u000a Europe, the US version

Michael Reisch

201

Changing The “Culture” Of Welfare OfficesFrom Vision to the Front Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines whether the 1996 welfare reform has led to the culture change in welfare offices advocated by welfare leaders and administrators. Examining a sample of state and local welfare systems, it asks whether and how welfare organizations are seeking to change their culture or, if not their culture, at least some of the structures and processes of their

Irene Lurie; Norma M. Riccucci

2003-01-01

202

Welfare reform and "ineligibles": issue of constitutionality and recent court rulings.  

PubMed

In 1996 welfare legislation made lawful immigrants, with a few exemptions, categorically ineligible for most forms of public assistance. This legislation has led affected immigrants and their advocacy groups to file lawsuits to challenge the constitutionality of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act. This article reviews recent court rulings that have upheld the act and examines court decisions in light of two constitutional principles (the Equal Protection and Supremacy clauses), which traditionally have been applied to the issue of aliens' eligibility for welfare benefits. The author finds inconsistent outcomes between federal and state legislation in the judicial review process. To resolve this inconsistency, the author suggests several policy changes in the distribution of welfare benefits concerning eligibility of lawful immigrants. The implications for social work practice are discussed. PMID:11682973

Kim, R Y

2001-10-01

203

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS),...

2009-10-01

204

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false...financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE...

2010-10-01

205

Finance and Welfare States in Globalizing Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is theoretically clear and may be verified empirically that efficient financial markets can make it less necessary for policy to try and offset the welfare effects of labour income risk and unequal consumption dynamics. The literature has also pointed out that, since international competition exposes workers to new sources of risk at the same time as it makes it

Giuseppe Bertola

2007-01-01

206

A Review of the Major Issues and Problems of Welfare Reform; A Background Paper Developed for the Community Services Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This background paper was developed for the Community Services Administration (CSA) in order to provide background information concerning welfare reform. It examines possible public assistance strategies, such as the following: (1) broad-based cash transfer (negative income tax, wage rate subsidies, demogrants, and family allowances), (2)…

Technical Assistance Research Programs, Inc., Washington, DC.

207

New Hope for People with Low Incomes: Two-Year Results of a Program To Reduce Poverty and Reform Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document details the 2-year results of the New Hope Project, which was conducted in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to reduce poverty, reform welfare, and improve the overall well-being of poor people by providing a mix of incentives and services, including supplemental income, child care subsidies, guaranteed affordable health insurance, and…

Bos, Johannes M.; Huston, Aletha C.; Granger, Robert C.; Duncan, Greg J.; Brock, Thomas W.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.; And Others

208

Children in Single-Parent Families Living in Poverty Have Fewer Supports after Welfare Reform. IWPR Research in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since the 1996 passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (welfare reform), impoverished children in single-parent families receive less aid than under the previous system, and the most disadvantaged of these children have slipped deeper into poverty. This research brief summarizes a study that explored the economic…

Lyter, Deanna M.; Sills, Melissa; Oh, Gi-Taik

209

Welfare Reform: Challenges and Opportunities for Public-Private Partnerships. Selected Proceedings from a Conference for Local Government Officials in the Mississippi Delta Region (Cleveland, Mississippi, May 29, 1997). Publication No. 98-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains selected proceedings from a conference that was convened in the Mississippi Delta region to provide interested stakeholders (citizens and local public officials) with information about recent federal and state welfare reform legislation. The document begins with an explanation of how the old Aid to Families with Dependent…

Range, Les, Ed.

210

Changing Work Ethic and Welfare Dependence Through Welfare ReformThe 100Hour Rule Waiver Experiment for AFDC-U  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assumptions about welfare dependency and work are examined in a randomized experiment that tested the impact of the 100-hour rule waiver for two-parent welfare families: Aid to Families with Dependent Children–Unemployed (AFDC-U). The 100-hour rule was waived for the experiment group, allowing the primary wage earners in these families to work more than 100 hours a month without losing welfare

Alisa C. Lewin

2001-01-01

211

The Neoliberal American Dream as DaydreamCounter-hegemonic Perspectives on Welfare Restructuring in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the efforts of its supporters to cast welfare `reform' in the United States as a successful achievement of neoliberal public policy, we argue that among low-income people who have received public assistance, counter-hegemonic interpretations and `possibilities' coexist with, texture and sometimes, challenge hegemonic assumptions about poverty, the state, motherhood and relations of power. Paying attention to these counter-hegemonic perspectives

Sandra Morgen; Lisa Gonzales

2008-01-01

212

Toward State Tax Reform: Lessons from State Tax Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reviews recent state tax-commission recommendations in selected states and identifies critical factors for the success of state tax-reform commissions. The paper focuses on factors linked to the process of forming a commission and generating the necessary consensus to enact tough reforms. It describes and compares comprehensive studies…

McGuire, Therese J.; Rio, Jessica E.

213

Women and Violence: The Effects of Dismantling the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Canada the idea that social entitlements are important components of citizenship and equality is currently being undermined by neo-liberal state values, expressed in federal and provincial policy shifts that favour self-sufficiency and economic competitiveness over a strong welfare state. Although this trend is dangerous for all populations marginalized through poverty, racism and disability, it is especially dangerous for women

Marina Morrow; Olena Hankivsky; Colleen Varcoe

2004-01-01

214

Filling holes in the safety net? Material hardship and subjective well-being among disability benefit applicants and recipients after the 1996 welfare reform.  

PubMed

Some of the rapid recent growth in disability income receipt in the United States is attributable to single mothers post-welfare reform. Yet, we know little about how disability benefit receipt affects the economic well-being of single mother families, or how unsuccessful disability applicants fare. We compare disability recipients to unsuccessful applicants and those who never applied among current and former welfare recipients, and examine how application and receipt affect material hardships and subjective measures of well-being. We then examine whether alternative ways of making ends meet mediate differences in well-being. After controlling for alternative sources of support, no significant differences in overall actual hardships or difficulty living on current income remained between the three groups. However, even after controlling for these strategies, unsuccessful applicants were significantly more likely to report that they expected hardships in the next two months. Our results suggest a pervasive level of economic insecurity among unsuccessful applicants. PMID:23017975

Schmidt, Lucie; Danziger, Sheldon

2012-06-13

215

Accessibility and clarity of state child welfare agency mission statements.  

PubMed

The authors reviewed 40 mission statements guiding U.S. public child welfare practice for accessibility, clarity, and values. Nine of the 40 state-administered child welfare agencies had not posted their missions on the Web as of October 2002, and 30 mission statements required a 12th-grade or college reading level for easy comprehension. The mission statements most often expressed the goals, values, and processes of safety, permanence, well-being, family preservation, cultural competence, self-sufficiency, and partnership. Mission statements can be an important tool for improving child welfare outcomes by providing direction; therefore, agency administrators should consider how clear and accessible their state agency mission statements are. PMID:15984171

Busch, Monique; Folaron, Gail

216

Is globalization undermining the welfare state? The evolution of the welfare state in developed capitalist countries during the 1990s.  

PubMed

The authors analyze the evolution of macro-indicators of social and economic well-being during the 1990s in the majority of developed capitalist countries, grouped according to their dominant political traditions since the end of World War II. Their analysis shows that, despite the economic globalization of commerce and finance, "politics still matters" in explaining the evolution of the welfare states and labor markets in these countries; the impact of the globalization of financial capital in forcing reductions in the financial resources available for welfare state purposes has been exaggerated. PMID:15242155

Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John; Astudillo, Javier

2004-01-01

217

Text, Lies, and the Welfare State: The Portrayal of Welfare Recipients in Welfare-to-Work Educational Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study analyzed the ideological messages about welfare recipients promoted in two welfare-to-work educational programs. Data were collected through interviews with students, teachers, and administrators at an adult literacy classroom serving unemployed women on welfare and an employment preparation program designed to increase job skills of…

Sandlin, Jennifer A.

218

Patent reform in the United States.  

PubMed

The recent financial meltdown has muted the patent reform debate in the United States. But given that President Obama, as well as many members of Congress, support patent reform, we expect the debate to resurface. In this essay, we look carefully at reports from three prestigious organizations which have been enormously influential in the debate. We examine the empirical basis contained in these reports upon which proposed legislative changes are based. We conclude that the empirical data being used to justify the need for reform either has serious methodological limitations or is non-existent.  Moreover, we review recent court decisions which have already altered the patent environment calling into further question whether the limited data that exists is still applicable. The effect of these recent decisions has not been adequately evaluated or assessed. Thus, we recommend other empirical studies are needed to inform public policy as to whether patent reform is necessary. PMID:21415890

Mills, Ann; Tereskerz, Patti

2010-01-01

219

The Challenge of Compliance: Food Security in Rural Households Affected by Welfare Reform. Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study examined welfare reform and food security issues. Interviews were conducted with 32 rural Louisiana women in 1997-98 when they were receiving welfare payments, in 1998-99 when they were in transition, and in 2000-01 when none received Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Most women were African-American; about half had not…

Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol; Tiller, Vicky V.; Smith, Jennifer

220

Thatcherism, New Labour and the Welfare State (chapter in \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the extent to which the policies towards the welfare state pursued by the Labour Government in its first fifteen months represent a break with those of its Conservative predecessor and with earlier policies put forward by Labour in opposition. Four key parts of its inheritance from the Conservatives are identified: attempts to control public spending; privatisation (more

John Hills

1998-01-01

221

Basic Income and the Two Dilemmas of the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can we avoid a social tragedy? Can we help entering the next century with our welfare states in disarray, with labour's hard-won conquests under deadly threat, and with a growing minority of citizens losing all hope of ever getting a decent job and securing a decent standard of living throughout their existence ? I believe we can, but also that

Philippe Van Parijs

1996-01-01

222

Immigration and the Survival of the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the political sustainability of the welfare state in a model where immigration policy is also endogenous. In the model, the skills of the native population are affected by immigration and skill accumulation. Moreover, immigrants affect future policies, once they gain the right to vote. The main finding is that the long-run survival of redistributive policies is linked

Francesc Ortega; Fabra December

2005-01-01

223

The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act: Implementation Issues and a Look Ahead at Additional Child Welfare Reforms. Working Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The passage of the Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act (P.L. 110-351) represents the most significant federal child welfare reform in more than a decade. While the scope and nature of the federal reforms are far reaching, the actual impact of the legislation on children will depend largely upon how it is implemented.…

Geen, Rob

2009-01-01

224

Housing - Market Commodity of the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main thesis of the paper is that housing policies are best perceived as state correctives to the housing market. The 'dominant policy theory' is that market contracts serve as the main mechanism for distributing housing, while state intervention has the form of correctives, defining the economic and institutional setting of those market contracts. In the paper, the dominance of

Bo Bengtsson

225

State-Owned Enterprise Reform in Post-Mao China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses some critical issues concerning China's State-Owned Enterprise (SOE) reform and foresees its future in a broader picture of administrative reform. The first section of the article provides a review of the reform process. The second section discusses the current situations of the SOEs and the reform's implication to such issues as: ownership (privatization), governance, marketization and management.

Kaifeng Yang

2007-01-01

226

Public policy update. Welfare reform and teen parents: are we missing the point?  

PubMed

The aim of teenage pregnancy prevention initiatives should be to provide sexuality education that is age-appropriate, medically accurate, and available at each grade level with a positive view of sexuality and information and skills that contribute to sexual health and the ability to make decisions. Abstinence should be included as long as it is not fear-based and is part of the promotion of responsible sexuality. Contraceptive information must be available to those already sexually active. Subsidized day care for children of poor adolescent mothers must be at the top of the agenda of services integrated with job programs and school-to-work initiatives. Quality child care can provide a solid foundation in personal health, negotiation, self-esteem, and individual rights and responsibilities. Quick-fix and punitive measures are out of place in programs that rely on growth in individual responsibility. An innovative approach to social welfare programming would include comprehensive sexuality education, reproductive health services, child care, health insurance, and job training. The Clinton welfare reform drafts combine elements of teen pregnancy prevention with punitive action. What is needed is greater investment in programs enhancing sexuality education, acceptance and understanding of sexuality, and access to affordable reproductive health services. The Clinton plan focuses primarily on the National Mobilization for Youth Opportunity and Responsibility, which is a national media campaign to educate youth about responsibility and the benefits of staying in school and delaying childbearing. About 1000 middle and high schools in high-poverty areas would be targeted. Opportunities would be offered to go to college or have access to job training. Controls would be placed on adolescents by requiring minor parents to live with a responsible adult, minor mothers to stay in school, and to limit disbursements for additional children while on Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Child support would be required of fathers. These key measures do not address the root causes of teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy would decline if teenagers understood information on alternative to intercourse and sources and methods of contraception. Teenagers must be able to talk with partners about sexual limits and how to say "no" or avoid risky situations. Access to condoms or contraception must be available in the community at low or no cost. PMID:12345600

Wacker, B L; Gambrell, A E

227

76 FR 9788 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Administration for Children...

2011-02-22

228

77 FR 69629 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Administration for Children...

2012-11-20

229

75 FR 71710 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Administration for Children...

2010-11-24

230

Women's Political Representation and Welfare State Spending in 12 Capitalist Democracies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the sharpest criticisms of welfare state research is insufficient attention to factors relating to gender relations and inequalities. Recent scholarship has begun to address welfare state effects on gender-related outcomes, but the evaluation of theories of welfare development with respect to gender factors is somewhat less developed,…

Bolzendahl, Catherine; Brooks, Clem

2007-01-01

231

Institutional Feedback and Support for the Welfare State: The Case of National Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers interested in the political consequences of the welfare state argue that cross-country variations in the design of social policy institutions produce distinct patterns of public support for the welfare state. This research proposes an institutional feedback effect in which welfare institutions, once created, transform political debate, generate new constituencies, and alter how individuals and interest groups interpret their preferences.

Jason Jordan

2010-01-01

232

Hybrid or Unique?: the Japanese Welfare State Between Europe and America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the contemporary welfare state literature, both Japan and Southern Europe are often held to be distinct regimes. A comparative examination of the evidence for Japan suggests that this is not true. Japan's fusion of key el ements of catholic-conservative welfare states (occupational segmentation and familialism) with a liberal, American-style dominance of private welfare plans gives the appearance of a

Gøsta Esping-Andersen

1997-01-01

233

Aggregate scale economies, market integration, and optimal welfare state policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a two-sector–two-country model with aggregate scale economies and unionisation, we show that optimal welfare state policy entails positive levels of unemployment benefits under free-trade and capital mobility. In this setting, economic integration does not reduce the revenue raising capacity of governments and thus does not lead to a race-to-the-bottom in social standards. Instead, trade and capital flows interact with

Hassan Molana; Catia Montagna

2006-01-01

234

Measuring Welfare Effects of an FMD Outbreak in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions have been raised regarding the economic costs of food-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the United States. This analysis examines how welfare changes are measured and argues that they must be decomposed by groups. Producers with animals quarantined and slaughtered because of FMD measure their welfare change using lost sales. Producers not quarantined measure their welfare change using producer surplus.

Philip L. Paarlberg; John G. Lee; Ann Hillberg Seitzinger

2003-01-01

235

Poor Children and Welfare Reform. Executive Summary of the Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This executive summary crystallizes the main themes of a study that is intended to help policymakers, advocates, community members, and welfare administrators create a welfare system to do more for children and do it better. The study was prompted by the Family Support Act of 1988. The following programs that have been successful in providing…

Golden, Olivia

236

Supervision in tribal and state child welfare agencies: professionalization, responsibilities, training needs, and satisfaction.  

PubMed

Although tribal child welfare and family services have expanded substantially since the enactment of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978, little is known about tribal child welfare services or their personnel. This exploratory study compared supervisors from 11 tribal child welfare agencies and one state child welfare agency. Tribal and state supervisors reported similar levels of supervisory professionalization and satisfaction, but they differed in their ethnicity, their supervisory tasks, and their training needs. The results were interpreted from a systems perspective of ethnic-sensitive agency practice. PMID:8149774

MacEachron, A E

237

Policy Incongruence and Public Health Professionals' Dissonance: The Case of Immigrants and Welfare Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady increase in immigrants to the United States has fueled a critical analysis of the process of allocation of health and social benefits to these newcomers. The myriad of interests and values surrounding this issue precipitated the formulation and adoption of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity (Welfare Reform) Act of 1996. This dramatic welfare reform impacts federal, state,

Beth E. Quill; Lu Ann Aday; Carl S. Hacker; Julie Kay Reagan

1999-01-01

238

The Perverse Consequences of Electoral Reform in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of electoral reforms have been enacted in the United States in the past three decades that are designed to increase turnout by easing restrictions on the casting of ballots. Both proponents and opponents of electoral reforms agree that these reforms should increase the demographic representativeness of the electorate by reducing the direct costs of voting, thereby increasing turnout

Adam J. Berinsky

2005-01-01

239

Welfare Reform: Bibliographies of Case Management and Agency/Client Contracting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report develops bibliographies on the subjects of case management and agency/client contracting for the Committee's use in considering proposed welfare legislation. The bibliographies identify 109 literature citations for case management as applied i...

1988-01-01

240

The continuing significance of race: A case study of the impact of welfare reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the experiences of African American and Caucasian welfare recipients in the Wisconsin Works (W-2) Program\\u000a that uses community-based organizations (CBOs), as opposed to public agencies for its welfare services, to determine if race\\u000a was declining in significance. It found that race is significant. African Americans’ job interviews were shorter than Caucasians.\\u000a African Americans were required to take

Michael Bonds

2006-01-01

241

The impact of welfare reform on the parenting role of women in rural communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current family policy suggests that in order to restore family values we, as a society, need to focus on reviving a child-centered household. Full-time mothering is lauded as an honorable choice that will advance this goal and ultimately strengthen traditional family values. However, current welfare policy is contrary to this notion in that mandatory welfare-to-work programs deny women receiving public

Debra A. Henderson; Ann R. Tickamyer; Barry L. Tadlock

2005-01-01

242

The effect of immigration and welfare reform legislation on immigrants' access to health care, Cuyahoga, and Lorain Counties.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 on immigrants' ability to access health care in two counties in Northeastern Ohio. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 251 individuals of varying immigration status and ethnicity. Data collected included type of recent illness, type and location of care received, type of health insurance, if any, and problems encountered. Significant associations were found between birth in a former Soviet-controlled area and use of public insurance. We did not detect an adverse effect of the welfare and immigration reform laws on ability to access care, most likely because a large proportion of respondents were permanent residents or asylees and were eligible for publicly funded medical care under the reform laws. The most common problems in obtaining medical care included lack of insurance and/or money, transportation, language, dissatisfaction with the doctor's care, and long waits. Individuals born in former Soviet-controlled areas as well as those who spoke Spanish or Slavic languages at home or work reported more difficulties in accessing care. Many undocumented individuals indicated that they would delay or refrain from seeking care due to fear of immigration consequences. PMID:16228729

Loue, S; Faust, M; Bunce, A

2000-01-01

243

President Clinton signs the welfare reform bill, turning his back on the poorest and most vulnerable populations and undermining health care for legal immigrants.  

PubMed

President Clinton signed a welfare reform responsibility bill in August, following eighteen months of contentious debate. The bill, The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, is expected to lead to cuts in food stamp programs, aid to illegal immigrants, and safety net programs for children. Specific program cuts are detailed. PMID:11367428

Maldonado, M

244

The Rural Impacts of Welfare Reform: Annotated Bibliography of Literature Concerning the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography, arranged alphabetically by personal author, contains 235 citations of works examining welfare reform and its implications for rural areas. Items include journal articles, books, reports, and discussion papers from universities, private institutes, government agencies, and private presses. Topics include labor and…

Harvey, Mark

245

Welfare Reform. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents the testimony and submissions presented at one of a series of hearings on welfare reform and reauthorization of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. The statement by Cynthia M. Fagnoni, managing director of education, workforce, and income security issues at the U.S. General Accounting Office, assesses…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

246

Young Unwed Fathers and Welfare Reform. Meeting Highlights and Background Briefing Report. Report of a Family Impact Seminar (Washington, D.C., November 18, 1988).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report contains highlights of a seminar which focused on young unwed fathers and welfare reform. Comments by these panelists are summarized: Rikki Baum, legislative assistant to Senator Patrick Moynihan; Linda Mellgren, from the Office of Income Security; and Margaret Boeckmann, Director of the Office of Employment Policy, Maryland…

Ooms, Theodora; Herendeen, Lisa

247

Mothering, equality and the individual: Feminist debates and welfare policies in the USA and Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses issues raised by ‘welfare reform’ in the USA by using the example of Sweden's women activists in constructing a ‘woman friendly’ welfare state. In the USA, feminist advocates see a tension between the argument that motherhood should be valued by the provision of care allowances, and the view that work should be reformed to meet the needs

Celia Winkler

1998-01-01

248

Impact of state tort reforms on physician malpractice payments.  

PubMed

State and federal initiatives to enact medical malpractice tort reforms lack an empirical basis for understanding how reforms might affect malpractice premiums and costs. This paper ranks each state's tort provisions, uses multivariate analysis to measure the effects of strong versus weak enactments on paid claims, and identifies tort law patterns associated with high and low claims frequency and payment levels. Our results suggest that (1) the size and number of medical malpractice payments are affected by only some tort reforms; and (2) the pattern of reforms differs between states with high versus low levels of claims or payments. PMID:17339679

Waters, Teresa M; Budetti, Peter P; Claxton, Gary; Lundy, Janet P

249

Welfare Reform: New Challenges, Key Questions. Voices for Illinois Children Special Report (Revised Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special report reviews key aspects of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 and its implications for Illinois. The report describes the major stipulations in the federal welfare bill and summarizes the impact on Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); food stamp, child care, Medicaid, and…

Nagle, Ami

250

The Juggling Act: Navigating Parent Involvement in the Welfare Reform Era  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines how parents supported their children's education while transitioning from welfare to work. Interviews with parents, elementary school educators, and staff at a community-based organization were conducted in an urban Tennessee community. Navigating work and parenting responsibilities was particularly challenging when children…

Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

2013-01-01

251

Beyond Declining Caseloads: Advocates' Tools for Monitoring Welfare Reform. Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Noting that child advocates are increasingly implementing monitoring projects to track the status of former welfare families and are using the findings to inform their agendas, policymakers, and the general public, this issue brief introduces monitoring strategies and suggests issues for consideration in designing a monitoring project.…

Freeley, Theresa J.; Brady, Sheri A.

252

How Will Welfare Reform Affect Childbearing and Family Structure Decisions? Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes changes in key elements of welfare policy and in closely related policies on child support enforcement and sex education and family planning programs. Drawing on a conceptual framework that highlights how incentives created by public policy can affect demographic behaviors, the paper concludes that, as Congress intended,…

Peters, H. Elizabeth; Plotnick, Robert D.; Jeong, Se-Ook

253

Bridging the Gap: Higher Education and Career-Centered Welfare Reform. Proceedings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This conference examined the current welfare policy and the continued use of higher education as a tool for moving low-income people into self-supporting careers. The proceedings include: welcoming remarks by Stephen Greenwald; keynote addresses by William Spriggs and Danny Simmons; a lunch address by Rae Alexander-Minter; remarks by Patricia…

Kosar, Kevin R., Ed.

254

Welfare Reform: Changes Will Further Shape the Roles of Housing Agencies and HUD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report responds to your request and a mandate in the 1998 House Report on the Departments of Veterans Affairs, Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Bill (Report 105-175) that GAO examine the implications of welfare r...

1998-01-01

255

Welfare state regime life courses: the development of western European welfare state regimes and age-related patterns of educational inequalities in self-reported health.  

PubMed

This article uses data from three waves of the European Social Survey (2002, 2004, 2006) to compare educational inequalities in self-reported health (good vs. bad) and limiting longstanding illness in six age groups based on decade of birth (1930s-1980s) in 17 countries, categorized into four welfare state regimes (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Scandinavian, Southern). The authors hypothesized that health inequalities in these age groups would vary because of their different welfare state experiences-welfare state regime life courses-both temporally, in terms of different phases of welfare state development (inequalities smaller among older people), and spatially, in terms of welfare state regime type (inequalities smaller among older Scandinavians). The findings are that inequalities in health tended to increase, not decrease, with age. Similarly, inequalities in health were not smallest in the Scandinavian regime or among the older Scandinavian cohorts. In keeping with the rest of the literature, the Bismarckian and Southern regimes had smaller educational inequalities in health. Longitudinal analysis that integrates wider public health factors or makes smaller comparisons may be a more productive way of analyzing cross-national variations in health inequalities and their relationship to welfare state life courses. PMID:20799668

Bambra, Clare; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Eikemo, Terje A

2010-01-01

256

Faces of Inequality: Gender, Class, and Patterns of Inequalities in Different Types of Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Research on welfare states and inequality has tended to be bifurcated, focusing either on class or on gender. This paper combines gender and class in an analysis of patterns of inequalities in different types of welfare states in 18 countries. Whereas a major dimension of class inequality can be described in terms of material standards of living, in the

Walter Korpi

2000-01-01

257

The Macroeconomic Effects of German Unification: Real Adjustments and the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effects of German unification in a model with capital accumulation, skill differences, and a welfare state. We argue that this event is similar to a mass migration of low-skilled agents holding no capital into a foreign country. Absent a welfare state, we observe an investment boom, depressed output, and employment conditions. Capital owners and high-skilled agents are

Fabio Canova; Morten O. Ravn

2000-01-01

258

The Welfare State as a Fiscal Commons: Problems of Incentives Versus Problems of Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mounting empirical literature clearly indicates that the core programs of the welfare state are unsustainable in their present form. The proximate cause of this growing fiscal instability is a demographic imbalance between younger contributors and older beneficiaries. The authors argue, however, that the ultimate cause is the institutional structure of the welfare state itself. Specifically, if its fiscal institutions

Keith Jakee; Stephen Turner

2002-01-01

259

Immigration and Natives' Attitudes towards the Welfare State: Evidence from the European Social Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Does immigration reduce natives' support for the welfare state? Evidence from the European Social Survey (2002/2003) suggests a more qualified relation. For Europe as a whole, there is only weak evidence of a negative association between the perceived presence of immigrants and natives' support for the welfare state. However, this weak average…

Senik, Claudia; Stichnoth, Holger; Van der Straeten, Karine

2009-01-01

260

Beyond Child ProtectionPromoting Mental Health for Children and Families in the Child Welfare System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The child welfare system is in a period of significant reform that offers both opportunities and challenges regarding more effective collaboration between the mental health and child welfare systems. In this article we examine recent federal, state, and local initiatives that have influenced child welfare policy and practice on a national scale,with particular emphasis on those policies that offer opportunities

Mary Bruce Webb; Brenda Jones Harden

2003-01-01

261

A review of the 'welfare state' and alternative ways of delivering health care.  

PubMed

There was no such thing as a public policy for quality health care in the inception of what we now address as the 'welfare state'. The main objectives of those supporting the idea, epitomized by the 'freedom from want' that Beveridge postulated in his now famous November 1942 Report on Social Insurance and Allied Services, was to extend the benefits of social insurance, that is access to services such as health care, to every individual. In the same fashion, post World War II initiatives in Latin America somewhat disregarded the intrinsic quality of health care services, provided they were distributed equally, at least among the urban people. Therefore, it is licit to ascertain that the main, albeit implicit, quality feature of health care was access, that is the ability to reach the entire population with the available services. The health care reform movement following the welfare state crisis, from the Jackson Hole group and Einthoven's managed competition in the United States to the internal markets proposals in different European countries, started when universal coverage had been achieved where it had been pursued, and disregarded elsewhere. In other words, access as a measure of health care quality was not the point. Instead, the subject of both academic research and administrative initiatives was the quality of the health services effectively provided to the population. Furthermore, the World Health Organization in its World Health Report 2000 explicitly excluded access as an item to be assessed in the process of evaluating health systems, although many countries had not achieved, nor were even near, universal coverage. Therefore, notwithstanding the relevance of the continuous quality improvement of the health services actually delivered to the people, access should always be the first quality concern to those health systems lacking universal coverage of the population they are supposed to serve. PMID:11954687

Mera, Jorge A

2002-04-01

262

The Impact of housing reform on consumption, investment, and industrial growth: a tale of three Chinese cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Housing reform has been a key component in China's economic revitalization program initiated by the late paramount leader Deng Xiaoping since 1978. By reforming the welfare housing system, the Chinese government aims at the removal of a burden (i.e., welfare housing) from state finance. At the same time, housing reform will stimulate changes in consumption, investment, and related industrial sectors,

Peng Du; Sun Sheng Han

263

A Progress Report On State Health Access Reform States are filling the void in federal reform activity, although only a minority have enacted meaningful reforms to date  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enactment of ambitious health reform laws in Massachusetts and Vermont in 2006 helped instigate a wave of state legislative activities to expand coverage to uninsured people. We identify thirty-nine states that have enacted laws in at least one access category since 2006. At least thirteen states have begun processes to enact comprehensive reforms to cover at least half of their

John E. McDonough; Michael Miller; Christine Barber

264

The Welfare State: Prospects for the 1980s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The following topics are examined: old age pensions under social security; economic policy as the primary determinant of social policy; the measurement of poverty and its implications for antipoverty policies; race and ethnic relations; the future of private welfare; and the analytic connection between sociology and social welfare. (RM)|

Gronbjerg, Kirsten A., Ed.

1983-01-01

265

Study of Administrative Profile of Two Social Welfare Programs of Six States in HEW Region IV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nature and level of administrative support for direct service providers in two social welfare programs -- benefits and social services -- are examined for six member States of the Southeast Institute for Human Resource Development. State cost allocati...

J. M. Croushorn

1976-01-01

266

Market Inefficiency, Insurance Mandate and Welfare: U.S. Health Care Reform 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a stochastic dynamic general equilibrium overlapping generations (OLG) model with endogenous health capital to study the macroeconomic effects of the Affordable Care Act of March 2010 also known as the Obama health care reform. We find that the insurance mandate enforced with fines and premium subsidies successfully reduces adverse selection in private health insurance markets

Chung Tran; Juergen Jung

2011-01-01

267

Market Inefficiency, Insurance Mandate and Welfare: U.S. Health Care Reform 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a stochastic dynamic general equilibrium overlapping generations (OLG) model with endogenous health capital to study the macroeconomic effects of the Affordable Care Act of March 2010 also known as the Obama health care reform. We find that the insurance mandate enforced with fines and premium subsidies successfully reduces adverse selection in private health insurance markets

Juergen Jung; Chung Tran

2010-01-01

268

Rethinking the Nordic welfare state through a neo-Hegelian theory of state and civil society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The premise of this paper is that ‘civil society’ is a concept that is powerful precisely because it is always normatively and ideologically loaded and never politically innocent. The paper begins by laying bare the extent to which the central notions that inform the promotion of the ‘non-profit sector’ as well as the critique of the (welfare) state are ideologically

Lars Trägårdh

2010-01-01

269

A Society without a "State"? Political Organization, Social Conflict, and Welfare Provision in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The programmatic structure and modes of implementation of U.S. social provisions must be understood in order to gain insight into social programs in the United States. National standards have not been established for public benefits and "social security" has remained firmly separated, both institutionally and symbolically, from "welfare." Many…

Skocpol, Theda

270

Beyond the Keynesian welfare state: Progressive movements and new directions in social policy in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the responses of the labour movement, social policy advocacy organizations, and feminists to the downsizing and restructuring of the welfare state in Canada. Of interest in this research is whether these constituencies are in the initial stages of ‘reconceptualizing’ social welfare, given that the increasing degree of economic globalization and the rightward shift in political thinking in

James Patrick Mulvale

1999-01-01

271

Beyond the Keynesian welfare state: Progressive movements and new directions in social policy in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the responses of the labour movement, social policy advocacy organizations, and feminists to the downsizing and restructuring of the welfare state in Canada. Of interest in this research is whether these constituencies are in the initial stages of 'reconceptualizing' social welfare, given that the increasing degree of economic globalization and the rightward shift in political thinking in

James P. Mulvale

1998-01-01

272

Still Social and Democratic? Inclusive Education Policies in the Nordic Welfare States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, education policy is analysed from a welfare state perspective. The aim is to analyse the significance attributed to social?inclusive aspects of education in contemporary education policies of the Nordic countries, and the extent to which education is regarded as an element in welfare policies. Four aspects are addressed: (1) access to education and measures to prevent social

Lisbeth Lundahl

2006-01-01

273

Tamil Refugees in Pain: Challenging Solidarity in the Norwegian Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses issues of power, stigmatisation and marginalisation associated with social structures and values promoted as part of a welfare project of individual rights and solidarity. Based on my fieldwork in northern Norway, the encounters of Tamil refugees with the Norwegian welfare state are described, focusing on the difficulties they experience in consulting health officials in the diagnosis and

Anne Sigfrid Grønseth

2011-01-01

274

An uneasy marriage: non-state actors and police reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the inclusion of non-state actors in security sector reform (SSR) programming, specifically when efforts are made to strengthen local-level security through police reform. It explores how the role of non-state actors has been conceptualised vis-à-vis the role of states as providers of security and justice in fragile state settings. It is argued that even though the

Peter Albrecht; Lars Buur

2009-01-01

275

Electoral rules, class coalitions and welfare state regimes, or how to explain Esping-Andersen with Stein Rokkan  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been recognized since the publication of Esping-Andersen's Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism that the advanced Western welfare state comes in—at least— three variants: as a Nordic social-democratic regime, a conservative regime on the European continent or as a liberal welfare state regime in the Anglo-Saxon countries. Why exactly welfare states fit into this three-regime typology remains controversial, however.

Philip Manow

2009-01-01

276

Child Care and the Welfare to Work Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the role of child care in the welfare to work transition using an unusually large and comprehensive data base. Our data are for Massachusetts, a state that began welfare reform in 1995 under a federal waiver, for the period July 1996 through August 1997. We find that both the nature of the child care market and the availability

Robert J. Lemke; Ann Dryden Witte; Magaly Queralt; Robert Witt

2000-01-01

277

Using School Change States to Analyze Comprehensive School Reform Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Comprehensive school reform (CSR) projects are being funded throughout the United States in a determined effort to improve the performance of public education. The multidimensional nature of comprehensive school reform presents unique challenges for explaining widely discrepant outcomes among schools. These challenges are addressed in a study of…

Wetherill, Karen S.; Applefield, James M.

2005-01-01

278

China's state-owned enterprises: economic reform and organizational restructuring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the Chinese economic reform process has engendered significant changes in the structure and management of work organizations. Central to this process has been the “marketization” of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). The paper reviews the attempts to reform SOEs as conducted, primarily, under the modern enterprise system (MES) and group company

John Hassard; Jonathan Morris; Jackie Sheehan; Xiao Yuxin

2010-01-01

279

Fiscal effects of reforming the UK state pension system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fiscal and distributive impacts of three reforms to the social security pension system in the UK are evaluated. All three reforms are designed to increase the retirement age by changing the incentive structure underlying the pension system. The first increases the state pension age by three years. The second introduces an actuarial adjustment to retirement both before and after

Richard Blundell; Carl Emmerson

2003-01-01

280

Analysing welfare reform in a microsimulation-AGE model: the value of disaggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a combined, consistent microsimulation-AGE model that uses the labour market model PACE-L, data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and a discrete choice labour supply estimation. The model is used to analyse a reform that cuts the social assistance minimum income and lowers the transfer withdrawal rate in order to encourage labour force participation at the lower end of

Melanie Arntz; Stefan Boeters; Nicole Gürtzgen; Stefanie Schubert

2006-01-01

281

Analysing welfare reform in a microsimulation-AGE model: The value of disaggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a consistent microsimulation-AGE model combining the labour market AGE model PACE-L, data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and a discrete choice labour supply estimation. The model is used to analyse a reform that cuts the social assistance minimum income and lowers the transfer withdrawal rate in order to encourage labour force participation at the lower end of the

Melanie Arntz; Stefan Boeters; Nicole Gürtzgen; Stefanie Schubert

2008-01-01

282

Uruguay: Population Geography of a Troubled Welfare State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is whether or not Uruguay's elaborate welfare system can be maintained by a deteriorating economy plagued by social tension and political unrest. Historical background is presented, demographic variables are discussed and modern influences are measured. (Author/DB)

Tata, Robert J.

1977-01-01

283

The Politics of Path-Breaking Change: The Transformation of the Welfare State in Britain and Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowhere is the concept of path dependence more entrenched than with regard to the welfare state and its component institutions. Esping-Andersen's influential conception of three welfare paths remains the dominant paradigm for understanding social policy regimes. Drawing on the cases of Britain and Germany, this paper argues that path-breaking change is occurring in mature welfare states. These transformations, however, are

Fiona Ross

2008-01-01

284

Shrinking welfare states? Comparing maternity leave benefits and child care programs in European Union and North American welfare states, 1985–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests whether changes in program design, coverage, and government funding of maternity and parental leave and child care and early childhood education (ECE) programs can be observed over the past fifteen years in European and North American countries. Analysis of cross-national and cross- time data reveals, first, that reports of the welfare state’s demise do not hold true

Ailsa Henderson; Linda A. White

2004-01-01

285

Colorectal cancer and socioeconomic status in Miami-Dade County: Neighborhood-level associations before and after the Welfare Reform Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed spatial patterns of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Miami-Dade County (MDC), Florida, evaluating them in relation to neighborhood characteristics and the 1996 Welfare Reform Act. Late-stage CRC cases and CRC-related mortality from the Florida Cancer Data System were mapped. Age-adjusted spatial patterns of CRC were then analyzed in relation to indices of neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES) derived from

M. N. Hernandez; R. Roy Chowdhury; L. E. Fleming; D. A. Griffith

2011-01-01

286

Health Care System Reform in China: Issues, Challenges and Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines health care reform in urban and rural China. Before health care reform, Chinese health service facilities were run entirely by the state and basically they performed a social welfare function. This health care system greatly improved the population health conditions but many problems started to emerge in 1980s when the economic reform started. Since then, the government

Rong Hu; Chunli Shen; Heng-fu Zou

2011-01-01

287

Immigrant women and the emergency department: the juncture with welfare and immigration reform.  

PubMed

This article discusses the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act and their potential impact on immigrant women's access to medical services. Current federal mandates assuring access to emergency medical services and new restrictions on financing of health care under federal programs such as Medicaid and Medicare would appear to be on a collision course. Both acts specifically reaffirm federal law on delivery of emergency services without addressing the financing of that care. Unfunded mandates in an era of diminished ability to shift costs onto insured patients are problematic for the institutions that provide uncompensated care. Specific protections for victims of domestic violence are also discussed. PMID:9595903

Ivey, S L; Kramer, E J

1998-01-01

288

Neoliberalism, "globalization," unemployment, inequalities, and the welfare state.  

PubMed

This analysis of "neoliberalism" and its economic and social consequences is presented in six sections. Section I begins by describing the impact of neoliberal public policies on economic growth and inflation, on business profits and business investments, on productivity, on business credit, on unemployment and social inequalities, on social expenditures, and on poverty and family debt. The author shows that, except in the area of business profits and control of inflation, neoliberal policies have not proved superior to those they replaced. Section II deals with unemployment and social polarization in the developed capitalist countries. The author criticizes some of the theories put forward to explain these social problems, such as the introduction of new technologies and globalization of the economy, and suggests that a primary reason for these problems is the implementation of neoliberal policies. Section III challenges the widely held neoliberal perception that the U.S. economy is highly efficient and the E.U. economies are "sclerotic" due to their "excessive" welfare states and "rigid" labor markets. The author shows that the U.S. economy is not so dynamic, nor the E.U. economies so sclerotic. Some developed countries with greater social protection and more regulated labor markets are shown to be more successful than the United States in producing jobs and lowering unemployment. The reasons for the growing polarization in developed capitalist countries, rooted in political rather than economic causes, are discussed in section IV--especially the enormous power of the financial markets and their influence on international agencies and national governments, and the weakness of the labor movements, both nationally and internationally. Section V questions the major theses of globalization. The author shows that rather than globalization of commerce and investments, we are witnessing a regionalization of economic relations stimulated by political considerations. He also analyzes the globalization of capital finance, criticizing the thesis that capital markets are determining public policies. The economic determinism that underlies the globalization position is questioned, uncovering the importance of political explanations for understanding major social problems such as unemployment. Finally, section VI shows that neoliberal public policies on the deregulation of labor markets are creating enormous instability in the labor force, worsening the living conditions of the majority of the populations. PMID:9842492

Navarro, V

1998-01-01

289

Do new labour activation policies work? A descriptive analysis of the German Hartz reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The German Hartz reforms, introduced by the Red-Green coalition government in the years 2003 to 2005, form part of a broader pattern of European activation policies which have become known as new labour policies. The idea of these reforms was to reduce welfare dependency and to boost activity rates by making work pay, and by transforming the welfare state from

Jens Alber; Jan Paul Heisig

2011-01-01

290

Social Welfare Policy and Public Assistance for Low-Income Substance Abusers: The Impact of 1996 Welfare Reform Legislation on the Economic Security of Former Supplemental Security Income Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Beneficiaries  

PubMed Central

Prior to January 1, 1997, individuals with drug- or alcohol-related disabilities could qualify for federal public assistance through the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. During the welfare reforms of the Clinton administration, this policy was changed resulting in lost income and health care benefits for many low-income substance abusers. This paper examines the historical underpinnings to the elimination of drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) as qualifying impairments for SSI disability payments. Following this, empirical evidence is presented on the effect this policy change had on the subsequent economic security of former SSI DA&A beneficiaries. Findings indicate that study participants that lost SSI benefits suffered increased economic hardship following the policy change. These findings have important implications for future social welfare policymaking decisions.

Hogan, Sean R; Unick, George J.; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C.

2009-01-01

291

Social Welfare Policy and Public Assistance for Low-Income Substance Abusers: The Impact of 1996 Welfare Reform Legislation on the Economic Security of Former Supplemental Security Income Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Beneficiaries.  

PubMed

Prior to January 1, 1997, individuals with drug- or alcohol-related disabilities could qualify for federal public assistance through the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. During the welfare reforms of the Clinton administration, this policy was changed resulting in lost income and health care benefits for many low-income substance abusers. This paper examines the historical underpinnings to the elimination of drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) as qualifying impairments for SSI disability payments. Following this, empirical evidence is presented on the effect this policy change had on the subsequent economic security of former SSI DA&A beneficiaries. Findings indicate that study participants that lost SSI benefits suffered increased economic hardship following the policy change. These findings have important implications for future social welfare policymaking decisions. PMID:20396645

Hogan, Sean R; Unick, George J; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C

2008-01-01

292

The Skill Composition of Migration and the Generosity of the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skilled migrants typically contribute to the welfare state more than they draw in benefits from it. The opposite holds for unskilled migrants. This suggests that a host country is likely to boost (respectively, curtail) its welfare system when absorbing high-skill (respectively, low-skill) migration. In this paper we first examine this hypothesis in a politico-economic setup. We then confront the prediction

Alon Cohen; Assaf Razin; Efraim Sadka

2009-01-01

293

The making of giants in a welfare state: the Norwegian experience in the 20th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of Norway has become one of the tallest in the world even overtaking Americans during the course of the second half of the 20th century—not in terms of income, but in terms of physical stature and other indicators of biological welfare, such as longevity. This is also the case in several other west-European welfare states. Both income and

Marco Sunder

2003-01-01

294

Health care reform content and process:propositions from the states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care reform and cost containment have become central campaign and policy issues in the United States. Although focus now centers on federal health care reform policy, state governments have been actively introducing health care reform legislation. Some of the health care reform initiatives on the state level have influenced deliberations on the federal level and President Clinton's health care

Allen Reese; James L. Garnett

1996-01-01

295

Alternative Approaches on Society, State, Educational Reform, and Educational Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The main goal of this chapter is to describe and examine critically five issues that have been historically approached in\\u000a a different way by critical theorists and functionalist researchers: (a) the role of education and state in modern societies;\\u000a (b) the nature and goals of educational reforms and its rhetoric; (c) the reasons that would explain why some reforms become

Oscar Espinoza

296

The Welfare State - a Manifestation of Late CapitalismA tentative Attempt for a Conceptualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt is made for a conceptualization of the functioning of the welfare-state as known in Scandinavia. A central thesis is that the state-apparatus has a certain degree of freedom to initiate actions within the constraints of a capitalistic economic system. This thesis rejects the idea of the state being neutral and independent as well as the idea of the

Joachim Israel

1974-01-01

297

Housing Policy as a Lever for Change? The Politics of Welfare, Assets and Tenure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The housing tenure structure has long been associated with different forms of welfare state capitalism in Western Europe. However, with the rise of owner-occupancy, this association has not been so straightforward. An alternative view is to view housing policies that promote owner-occupancy for households to acquire assets, as an attempt by the state to reform social welfare systems. The politics

Wouter P. C. van Gent

2010-01-01

298

Mending holes in the Medicaid safety net: a strategy for state healthcare reform.  

PubMed

To respond to the challenges posed by potential healthcare reform: maintain ongoing awareness of your state's reform initiatives; evaluate each reform initiative in terms of how it will affect your organization; conduct a state healthcare reform rapid readiness assessment in your organization; engage your physicians, board, and community leaders in understanding Medicaid; get ready and stay ready! PMID:18186204

Keckley, Paul; Kalkhof, Christopher

2007-12-01

299

Ohio: A Microcosm of Tort Reform versus State Constitutional Mandates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tort reform emanates, for our purposes, from two primary bodies: state judicial and legislative branches. The vast panoply of congressional and regulatory federal action that bears on the protections afforded and rights to recover for persons within their ambit is a subject for another day. Similarly, the rare areas in which the Supreme Court of the United States establishes federal

Stephen J. Werber

2001-01-01

300

The welfare state, pensions, privatization: the case of Social Security in the United States.  

PubMed

In all high-income nations, the welfare state is under challenge, with particular concern voiced about the burden of retirement pensions on the public fisc and on younger workers. The strongest drive against social insurance is taking place in the United States, which has less of it than other nations and appears to be in the best position to meet future entitlement claims. In this article, the author examines the liabilities that the U.S. Social Security system is likely to incur over the next 35 years and finds that there is little danger that the system will fall into insolvency. Privatizing Social Security is not necessary to assure the integrity of future pension benefits. Furthermore, the cost-benefit ratio of privatization appears to be unfavorable, as borne out by the mandatory private pension plan in effect in Chile. Some wealthy nations will face greater demographic strains than the United States, but all need to retain the welfare state as a foundation for future changes in the world of work. PMID:9031009

Du Boff, R B

1997-01-01

301

East Joins West: Child welfare and market reforms in the 'special case' of the former GDR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collapse of communism in East Germany took place alongside unification with its democratic neighbour, West Germany. This made the East German experience of the ‘transition’ - from the planned to the free-market economy - unique among that of the post-socialist states. On the one hand, unification allowed East Germans to benefit from the resource and human capital of one

Magdalena Joos

1995-01-01

302

Welfare Reform and American Indian Tribes: Critical Decisions for the Future of Indian Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRETORIA) gives American Indian tribes the option to run their own Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program or leave these services under state administration. Eight case studies were conducted in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Arizona with the Klamath Tribes,…

Kauffman, Jo Ann

303

Welfare's End.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|During the 1920s, progressive women activists invented welfare to help mothers and their children survive when breadwinning fathers either died or abandoned their families. During the 1930s, the local mothers' pension programs of the Progressive Era became part of the emerging national welfare state, which was conceived to relieve poor single…

Mink, Gwendolyn

304

Immigration and Social Solidarity in a Time of Crisis: The Welfare State and Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very suddenly a cloud has settled over the immigration regimes of the European welfare states as well as the United States. Confidence in the ability to integrate and the value of integrating newcomers into a system of legal and social solidarity has waned. The weakening of both liberal civic nationalism and secular constitutional patriotism has unsettled national identities and undermined

David Abraham

2011-01-01

305

Country Road Bureaucracy: The Challenges of Social Service Delivery in an Economically Disadvantaged Rural State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devolution of state authority embedded in the 1996 federal welfare reform law (since reaffirmed in the 2006 reauthorization of this law) has enormous implications for economically disadvantaged adults and their families as well as those responsible for the local management and delivery of these welfare services. Although over a decade of welfare reform “impact” research currently exists, the majority

Melissa Latimer; Corey Colyer

2010-01-01

306

Restrictions on undocumented immigrants' access to health services: the public health implications of welfare reform.  

PubMed

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 greatly restricts the provision of many federal, state, and local public services to undocumented immigrants. These restrictions have prompted intense debates about the provision of free and discounted primary and preventive health care-services and have placed significant burdens on institutions that serve large undocumented immigrant populations. Intended to serve as a tool for reducing illegal immigration and protecting public resources, federal restrictions on undocumented immigrants' access to publicly financed health services unduly burden health care providers and threaten the public's health. These deleterious effects warrant the public health community's support of strategies designed to sustain provision of health services irrespective of immigration status. PMID:14534212

Kullgren, Jeffrey T

2003-10-01

307

Feminist Perspectives on TANF Reauthorization: An Introduction to Key Issues for the Future of Welfare Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1996, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) replaced the federal cash public assistance program Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) with the state-level block grant Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program. By September 30, 2002, the TANF program has to receive congressional reauthorization, and it is expected that Congress will consider making changes to this program during the reauthorization debates. As a result, some feminist scholars and advocates are adamant that the realities of poor women's lives are not ignored during the upcoming TANF discussions. Written by Janice Peterson, this paper identifies "some of the key issues and goals that are emerging in TANF reauthorization discussions," and considers a feminist agenda for a TANF reauthorization program. The report, which is in HTML format, includes a brief introduction, a summary of key elements and impacts of the TANF program, a discussion of critical TANF reauthorization issues, and a feminist agenda for TANF reauthorization.

2002-01-01

308

CASAWORKS for Families: A Promising Approach to Welfare Reform and Substance-Abusing Women. A CASA White Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|CASAWORKS for Families is the first national demonstration program to provide simultaneously drug and alcohol treatment; literacy, job, parenting, and social skills training; family violence prevention; and health care to help substance-abusing welfare parents recover. Its mission is to help women on welfare with substance abuse problems achieve…

Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

309

Welfare Reform: Progress in Meeting Work-Focused TANF Goals. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined progress in meeting work-focused goals of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. The following issues were considered: (1) states' progress in implementing TANF; (2) the status of families who have left welfare; (3) the characteristics of adults currently receiving TANF; (4) states'…

Fagnoni, Cynthia M.

310

Generational equity and the politics of the welfare state.  

PubMed

The concept of generational equity--that the nation is squandering its wealth on entitlements to the elderly while children remain impoverished--has received considerable media attention. The author traces the source of that message to an organization, Americans for Generational Equity, which is dedicated to restructuring the Social Security system along the lines of a social assistance program: reduced benefits available at later ages only to those who qualify through means tests. The impact of this agenda would be to increase the labor force participation of older people, particularly women and minorities, those presently without private pension coverage and already heavily represented in that sector of the economy where labor shortage is developing. Defining national spending priorities in terms of intergenerational conflict obscures the fact that Social Security is the only U.S. welfare program that has been successful in reducing poverty levels. PMID:2265880

Quadagno, J

1990-01-01

311

The state, devolution and educational reform in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a theoretical analysis of the policies of devolution which have provided the corner?stone of recent educational reforms in New Zealand. Devolution is conceived of as a state strategy which had contradictory beginnings; these have been reflected in the policy implementation process. Two conceptions of the purpose of devolution are examined: the ‘market’ and the ‘community’. The case

Liz Gordon

1992-01-01

312

At State's Urging, Mississippi Schools Use Reform Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses Mississippi's use of a reform model that helped dozens of schools that had failed to induce academic progress under the No Child Left Behind Act. In a forgotten corner of Mississippi's state capital, test scores are going up at a middle school for struggling students. The progress of students at risk of dropping out at the…

Richard, Alan

2004-01-01

313

Stamp Duties In Indian States: A Case for Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alm, Annez, and Modi review the options for reform of stamp duties on immovable property transfers collected by Indian state governments. After briefly reviewing some of the many administrative difficulties experienced with the tax, they turn to an examination of its economic impacts. A review of stamp duties internationally indicates that Indian rates are exceptionally high, at rates often above

Arbind Modi; Patricia Annez; James Alm

2004-01-01

314

Labour Market Aspects of State Enterprise Reform in Viet Nam  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-owned enterprise (SOE) restructuring has proceeded more rapidly in Viet Nam than, for example, in China and India. The government tightened the budget constraints facing SOEs virtually simultaneously with price liberalisation. While a large number of mostly small SOEs were liquidated soon after reform began, others were able to adjust through various cost-cutting measures, including sizeable labour force reductions. The

David O’Connor; Maria Rosa Lunati

1996-01-01

315

Homelessness and the Tertiary Welfare System in Sweden - The Role of the Welfare State and Non-profit Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses homelessness in Sweden in relation to the organisation of the 'universalistic' welfare system, with a special focus upon the boundaries inherent in the system and the role of the non-profit sector within the field of welfare services to homeless people. The empirical material consists of comparative case studies conducted in four Swedish municipali- ties : Stockholm, Malmö,

Lars-Erik Olsson; Marie Nordfeldt

316

Older People's “Voices”—On Paper: Obstacles to Influence in Welfare States—A Case Study of Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The official rhetoric of welfare states unconditionally pays tribute to older people's right to express dissatisfaction. In practice, users of older services in welfare states may be deprived of their “exit” options and face considerable constraints when it comes to raising their “voices.” For example, when older people in nursing homes would like to lodge a complaint, they may well

Tove Persson; Stig Berg

2008-01-01

317

Tradeoffs between equality and difference: immigrant integration, multiculturalism, and the welfare state in cross-national perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how integration policies and welfare state regimes have affected the socio-economic integration of immigrants, focusing on eight European countries: Germany, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, and Belgium. It presents comparative data on integration policies and welfare states regimes. The expectations derived from this comparative policy analysis are tested with cross-national data on integration

Ruud Koopmans

2008-01-01

318

Growth and Employment in Nordic Welfare States in the 1990s: a Tale of Crisis and Revival  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the macroeconomic performance of the so called Nordic welfare states, especially in terms of growth and employment. In the post-war years the Nordic economies enjoyed rapid growth and full employment. At the same time, under the rule of Social Democratic governments they also built their extensive welfare states. However, starting from the 1980s, the Nordics ? together

Jaakko Kiander

2004-01-01

319

The Choice Before Congress on Welfare Reauthorization: Real Jobs or Make Work? Position Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Work requirements in welfare reform proposed by the George W. Bush administration would impose much tougher work requirements on welfare recipients. Seventy percent of all adults would be required to work 40 hours per week, versus the 50 percent who are required to work 30 hours per week currently. In addition, states would be given little leeway…

Campbell, David; Rankin, Nancy; Levitan, Mark; Waller, Margy

320

The Welfare State and the Skill Mix of Migration: Dynamic Policy Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The native-born young, whether skilled or unskilled, benefit from letting in migrants of all skill types, because their high birth rates can help increase the tax base in the next period. In this respect, skilled migrants help the welfare state more than unskilled migrants, to the extent that the offspring resemble their parents with respect to skill. On the other

Efraim Sadka; Ben Suwankiri; Assaf Razin

2010-01-01

321

THE WELFARE STATE AND THE SKILL MIX OF MIGRATION: DYNAMIC POLICY FORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Tthe native-born young, whether skilled or unskilled, benefit from letting in migrants of all skill types, because their high birth rates can help increase the tax base in the next period. In this re- spect, skilled migrants help the welfare state more than unskilled migrants, to the extent that the offspring resemble their parents with respect to skill. On

Assaf Razin; Efraim Sadka; Benjarong Suwankiri

2009-01-01

322

The Indian Child Welfare Act in the State Courts of Last Resort  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will examine litigation involving the Indian Child Welfare Act in the state courts of last resort. The ICWA is a federal statute that provides Native Americans and Native Nations and reservations greater power in preventing the adoption of Native children by non-Natives. The statute raises very interesting federalism issues, especially when the litigation it creates is conducted in

John Kilwein

323

Not My Taxes! Explaining tax resistance and its implications for Australia's welfare state1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In discussing Australia's need to increase taxes to pay for future social security, Michael Keating worries that voters see taxes as a 'burden' and that 'the link between taxation and citizenship has been broken.' This paper deals with the problem of tax resistance (preferring lower taxes even when tax cuts risk public services) for Australia's welfare state. First, I describe

Shaun Wilson

2006-01-01

324

A review of the 'welfare state' and alternative ways of delivering health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

There was no such thing as a public policy for quality health care in the inception of what we now address as the 'welfare state'. The main objectives of those supporting the idea, epitomized by the 'freedom from want' that Beveridge postulated in his now famous November 1942 Report on Social Insurance and Allied Services, was to extend the benefits

JORGE A. MERA

325

Universalism without the Targeting: Privatizing the Old-Age Welfare State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Decades of conservative attempts to scale back Social Security and Medicare, by limiting the program's universality through means testing and drastic benefit cuts, have failed. Thus, after numerous unsuccessful attempts at dismantling the U.S.'s universal old-age welfare state, or even meaningfully restraining its growth, conservative critics…

Herd, Pamela

2005-01-01

326

When Opportunity Knocks: Economic Liberalisation and Stealth Welfare in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an era of welfare retrenchment in the United States, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and Lifeline Universal Telephone Service evolved from residual means-tested programs to significant social policies. The cases demonstrate the opportunity points for social policy innovation that exist in the political climate of economic liberalisation. The essay describes patterns that do not simply prevent retrenchment but

ABRAHAM L. NEWMAN

2003-01-01

327

Welfare States, Solidarity and Justice Principles: Does the Type Really Matter&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we investigate whether and, if so, to what extent, people's notions of solidarity and their choices of justice principles are related to the type of welfare state regime they live under, as well as to individual socio-demographic and ideological factors. We analyse data from the International Social Survey Program 1996 and the European Values Study 1999, which

Wil Arts; J. P. T. M. Gelissen

2001-01-01

328

Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

Odebode, Stella O.

2009-01-01

329

How Welfare States Shape the Gender Pay Gap: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We assess the impact of the welfare state on cross-national variation in the gender wage gap. Earnings inequality between men and women is conceptualized as resulting from their different locations in the class hierarchy, combined with the severity of wage differentials between and within classes. This decomposition contributes to identifying…

Mandel, Hadas; Shalev, Michael

2009-01-01

330

Disagreement over the immigration of low-income earners in a welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies natives’ economically motivated preferences over different levels of immigration of low-income earners. Immigration affects natives through both intra- and intergenerational redistribution programmes and in the labour market. Our analysis suggests, in a welfare state that looks after the poor and the aged, economic motivation does not necessarily lead a native to have an extreme opinion on the

Yuji Tamura

2006-01-01

331

The impact of welfare reform on methadone treatment: policy lessons from service providers in New York city.  

PubMed

This article explores the impact of recent changes in welfare policy on public assistance recipients who are in methadone maintenance treatment, from the perspective of methadone service providers. Data were collected between late 2000 and early 2002, and included in-depth interviews with 11 providers from three methadone treatment programs in New York city, contextual interviews with three welfare agency personnel and three patient advocates, and participant-observation in trainings and clinical meetings related to vocational services and public assistance for methadone patients. Because service providers are front-line implementers of new welfare regulations, their experiences, and insights should be consulted by policymakers as welfare policy continues to evolve. PMID:15603008

Benoit, Ellen; Young, Rebecca; Magura, Stephen; Staines, Graham L

2004-01-01

332

Welfare and property crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996 the U.S. federal government enacted a welfare reform bill aimed at reducing public assistance to the poor. This legislation may have implications for future levels of property crime. In this study we examine whether differences in levels of AFDC assistance and rates of welfare participation among 406 large metropolitan counties affected variation in burglary, larceny, and motor vehicle

Lance Hannon; James Defronzo

1998-01-01

333

Child Well-Being in an Era of Welfare Reform: The Sensitivity of Transitions in Development to Policy Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the age-specific pattern of effects of welfare policies on child achievement. Drawing from 7 random-assignment welfare and antipoverty evaluations that provided more than 30,000 observations of children's achievement, this study found that times of developmental transition are the only periods sensitive to the changes in families brought about by these policies. More specifically, small positive effects of

Pamela Morris; Greg J. Duncan; Elizabeth Clark-Kauffman

2005-01-01

334

View from the State Offices. Administrators and Staff Development Directors Look at In-Service Training for Child Welfare. Profile 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report profiles the views of two groups: state administrators of child welfare services, and state directors of staff development. These two groups occupy important leadership positions in the national child welfare scene, and their assessment of the ...

A. Hartman G. M. Jackson P. Tomlin

1981-01-01

335

Faces of Children around the World: A Comparison of Child Welfare in Rural United States, Russia, and South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares child welfare in rural areas in the United States, Russia, and South Africa. While these countries differ in geographical area, population, social and economic development, and the presence of professional services, they also share similarities. In each of the countries, child welfare services are guided by national policy. Specific strategies are based on developmental, institutional, and rehabilitative

Emmerentie Oliphant; Sharon B. Templeman; Zubarzyat Yakhinovna Baranov

2008-01-01

336

The Skill Composition of Migration and the Generosity of the Welfare State. NBER Working Paper No. 14738  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Skilled migrants typically contribute to the welfare state more than they draw in benefits from it. The opposite holds for unskilled migrants. This suggests that a host country is likely to boost (respectively, curtail) its welfare system when absorbing high-skill (respectively, low-skill) migration. In this paper we first examine this hypothesis…

Cohen, Alon; Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim

2009-01-01

337

Urban Poverty and the Welfare State: Comparative Reflections on Scandinavia and the U.S. Working Paper No. 481.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scandinavian welfare states are developing a growing new middle class and a growing marginalized, poverty-threatened underclass, reproducing the societal duality caused by labor market structuring. Tightening labor markets, increased dependency on welfare benefits, and substantial decreases in public transfers have combined to create a growing…

Abrahamson, Peter

338

Urban Poverty and the Welfare State: Comparative Reflections on Scandinavia and the U.S. Working Paper No. 481.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scandinavian welfare states are developing a growing new middle class and a growing marginalized, poverty-threatened underclass, reproducing the societal duality caused by labor market structuring. Tightening labor markets, increased dependency on welfare benefits, and substantial decreases in public transfers have combined to create a growing…

Abrahamson, Peter

339

Welfare States and the Economy Forthcoming in Neil J. Smelser and Richard Swedberg (eds.), The Handbook of Economic Sociology (second edition)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on welfare states or, more modestly, systems of social protection, has expanded rapidly over the past few decades. Since the publication of the first edition of this Handbook, major progress has been made in three research areas: the relationship between welfare states and production regimes, gendered determinants and outcomes of welfare state regimes, and the distributive outcomes of

Evelyne Huber; John D. Stephens

340

Welfare state type, labour markets and refugees: a comparison of Jews from the former Soviet Union in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The massive exodus of Jews from the former Soviet Union [FSU] has been accompanied by welfare state retrenchment and labour market restructuration in the two preferred destination countries of refugee resettlement: the United States and Germany. This study compares the resettlement policies and outcomes of FSU Jews and shows how the context of resettlement, viz. differences in welfare state type,

Madeleine Tress

1998-01-01

341

Health Care Reform in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of improvements, on various measures of health outcomes the United States appears to rank relatively poorly among OECD countries. Health expenditures, in contrast, are significantly higher than in any other OECD country. While there are factors beyond the health-care system itself that contribute to this gap in performance, there is also likely to be scope to improve the

David Carey; Bradley Herring; Patrick Lenain

2009-01-01

342

A Multitask Theory of State Enterprise Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

During transition, maintaining employment and providing a social safety net to the unemployed are important to social stability, which in turn is crucial for the productivity of the whole economy. Because independent institutions for social safety are lacking and firms with strong profit incentives have little incentive to promote social stability due to its public good nature, state-owned enterprises (SOEs)

Chong-En Bai; David D. Li; Zhigang Tao; Yijiang Wang

2000-01-01

343

A Multitask Theory of State Enterprise Reform1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theory to explain why in almost all transition economies,reforms of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) have been slow and SOEs continue tohave poor financial performance. The theory starts with the observation that, duringtransition, a social safety net has to be established in order to achieve social stability.Otherwise, social instability caused by mass unemployment would create an undesirablegeneral environment

Chong-En Bai; David D. Li; Zhigang Tao; Yijiang Wang

2000-01-01

344

Discriminating Citizens: Meeting the State at the Welfare Office  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citizens? relationships to the state are shaped through a number of institutions: education, voting, interest groups, criminal justice systems and social service systems, among others. Scholars have focused on voting and interest groups as the primary vehicles of state-citizen interaction. Less attention has been devoted to the ways in which individuals? notions of citizenship (broadly defined) are shaped through interactions

Rose Ernst; Linda Nguyen; Kamilah Taylor

345

Welfare generosity and location choices among new United States immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the limited research that investigates the determinants of location choices among new United States immigrants. Unlike previous work, this study employs data that includes country of birth, major categories of admission, and state of intended residence for each new immigrant. Additionally, due to censoring concerns in immigration data this study uses a Tobit estimation technique. The results

Marvin E. Dodson

2001-01-01

346

Does Medical Malpractice Reform Help States Retain Physicians and Does it Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

1:30 pm – 3:00 pm, RAbstract:Many states havepassed medical malpractice law reforms in an effort to retain and attract physicians. However,it is unclear what thene t publiche althe ffect of such reforms is. While reforms arelikely to help states retain doctors, they also diminish incentives to provide a high level of health care. We provide empirical evidencethat some malpractice reforms

Jonathan Klick; Thomas Stratmann

2003-01-01

347

Welfare Reform Reauthorization in 2002: What Are the Issues for Tribal Communities and Indian Families? Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children with Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), which establishes work-focused, time-limited welfare benefits. TANF permits tribes to receive funds directly from the federal government to administer their own…

Maloy, Kathleen A.

348

A Need For Correction: Reforming New York's Juvenile Justice System. Child Welfare Watch. Vol. 18, Fall 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the wake of a U.S. Justice Department investigation that found widespread use of excessive force by staff at upstate psychiatric care facilities for mentally ill children, this new edition of Child Welfare Watch identifies shortcomings in mental health services and explores possible solutions, including the expansion of alternatives to…

White, Andrew; Hemphill, Clara; Hurley, Kendra

2009-01-01

349

Politics, Policy, Practice and Personal Responsibility: Adult Education in an Era of Welfare Reform. NCSALL Reports #10A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of literacy to work should be considered in terms of the political and economic conditions that structure the experiences of the working and non-working poor with respect to education and work. Research shows welfare-to-work programs constitute behavioral solutions to what are structural economic problems; literacy alone cannot…

D'Amico, Deobrah

350

Health Care Reform Tracking Project: Tracking State Health Care Reforms as They Affect Children and Adolescents with Emotional Disorders and Their Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Health Care Reform Tracking Project is a 5-year national project to track and analyze state health care reform initiatives as they affect children and adolescents with emotional/behavioral disorders and their families. The study's first phase was a baseline survey of all 50 states to describe current state reforms as of 1995. Among findings of…

Pires, Sheila A.; Stroul, Beth A.

351

ELECTRONIC DATA EXCHANGE TO SAVE THE WELFARE STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid rise of information technologies is one eye-catching innovation of recent decades, which will have consequences that can as yet not fully be gauged. Of course, of old the gathering and processing of military, police and related information has been an essential activity of the State, if only to improve its own chances of survival. But in western Europe,

C. A. DE KAM

352

State-Tribal Cooperation and the Indian Child Welfare Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mid- to late-1800's the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) began sending Indian children to boarding schools in an attempt to force assimilation with the non-Indian population in the United States. Over the years, this had the effect of separating children from their families and weakening ties to their communities. One hundred years later, the Indian Adoption Project was

Andrea Wilkins

353

State Welfare ADP Application. System Number 120010 Medicaid Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Medicaid reports system utilizes the final billing tape from the payment sub-system and the latest updated encumbrance file as its inputs. Actions performed by this program include sorting and extracting summary data to produce all federal, state and ...

J. Swerczek

1972-01-01

354

Longitudinal Effects of Domestic Violence on Employment and Welfare Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study uses longitudinal data spanning 13 years from a study of 234 adolescent mothers to evaluate the effects of cumulative domestic violence on employment and welfare use before and after welfare reform. Domestic violence increased the odds of unemployment after welfare reform, but not before; domestic violence had no effect on welfare use…

Lindhorst, Taryn; Oxford, Monica; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

2007-01-01

355

Is there a need for a new cultural policy strategy in the Nordic welfare state?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural policies have existed as a structural element of the Nordic welfare states from the very beginning. Today these policies are being re?evaluated, and there are some indications that they may be gradually dismantled. Local cultural politicians in municipalities (cultural boards) and professionals (e.g. cultural secretaries) have become uncertain and anxious about their future role and legitimacy.This new situation is

Anita Kangas

1996-01-01

356

Abortion Needs or Abortion Rights? Claiming State Accountability for Women’s Reproductive Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Family Planning Association Northern Ireland (F.P.A.N.I.) has recently been successful in holding the state accountable for its duty to safeguard women’s reproductive health and welfare, and clarify the circumstances in which abortion is lawful. By demanding that the Minister for Health investigate abortion provision and produce abortion guidance, F.P.A.N.I. hope to improve the quality of abortion services and alleviate

Ruth Fletcher

2005-01-01

357

Delivering employability in a vanguard ‘active’ welfare state: the case of Greater Copenhagen in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denmark has been regularly cited as a leading example of the ‘active’ welfare state. Regional and local governance and delivery structures have been crucial to the implementation of Denmark’s strategies to improve the employability of unemployed people. In this paper we trace the development, implementation, and effectiveness of regional and local labour-market structures in Denmark, particularly focusing on the country’s

Colin Lindsay; Mikkel Mailand

2009-01-01

358

The Impact of Welfare Waivers on Female Headship Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much of the focus of recent welfare reforms has been on moving recipients from welfare to work, many reforms were also directed at affecting decisions about living arrangements, pregnancy, marriage and cohabitation. This paper focuses on women?s decisions to become or remain unmarried mothers, that is, female heads of families. We assess the impact of welfare reform waivers on

John M. Fitzgerald; David Ribar

2001-01-01

359

The Impact of Welfare Waivers on Female Headship Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much of the focus of recent welfare reforms has been on moving recipients from welfare to work, many reforms were also directed at affecting decisions about living arrangements, pregnancy, marriage and cohabitation. This paper focuses on women’s decisions to become or remain unmarried mothers, that is, female heads of families. We assess the impact of welfare reform waivers on

David C Ribar; John M Fitgerald

2003-01-01

360

Real Effective Corporate Tax Rates in Canada and the United States. After Tax Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Canada and the United States have recently undertaken comprehensive reforms of their tax systems. In the case of the corporate tax, the main thrust of the reforms has been to lower tax rates,broaden the tax base, and curtail or eliminate incentives such as investment tax credits. This article examines the significance for Canada of the corporate tax reforms in

Patrick Grady

1989-01-01

361

Teachers' Response to Standards-Based Reform: Probing Reform Assumptions in Washington State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because teachers' efforts are central to the success of standards-based reform, it behooves the policy community to look carefully at the beliefs about instruction that are rooted in this reform theory. Building on teacher-centric research on standards-based reform and ideas about teaching practice from research on multicultural education, this…

Loeb, Hilary; Knapp, Michael S.; Elfers, Ana M.

2008-01-01

362

Trade-offs between equality and difference: immigrant integration, multiculturalism and the welfare state in cross-national perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how integration policies and welfare-state regimes have affected the socio-economic integration of immigrants, focusing on eight European countries: Germany, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria and Belgium. It presents comparative data on integration policies and welfare-state regimes. The expectations derived from this comparative policy analysis are tested with cross-national data on integration outcomes regarding

Ruud Koopmans

2010-01-01

363

Are there differences in birth weight between neighbourhoods in a Nordic welfare state?  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this cohort study was to examine the effect on birth weight of living in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in a Nordic welfare state. Birth weight is a health indicator known to be sensitive to political and welfare state conditions. No former studies on urban neighbourhood differences regarding mean birth weight have been carried out in a Nordic country. Methods A register based on individual data on children's birth weight and maternal risk factors was used. A neighbourhood characteristic, i.e. an aggregated measure on income was also included. Connections between individual- and neighbourhood-level determinants and the outcome were analysed using multi-level regression technique. The study covered six hundred and ninety-six neighbourhoods in the three major cities of Sweden, Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö, during 1992–2001. The majority of neighbourhoods had a population of 4 000–10 000 inhabitants. An average of 500 births per neighbourhood were analysed in this study. Results Differences in mean birth weight in Swedish urban neighbourhoods were minor. However, gestational length, parity and maternal smoking acted as modifiers of the neighbourhood effects. Most of the observed variation in mean birth weight was explained by individual risk factors. Conclusion Welfare institutions and benefits in Sweden might buffer against negative infant outcomes due to adverse structural organisation of urban neighbourhoods.

Sellstrom, Eva; Arnoldsson, Goran; Bremberg, Sven; Hjern, Anders

2007-01-01

364

Effects of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on premarital childbearing among white adolescents.  

PubMed

This study develops an empirical model that measures the influence of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on decisions concerning premarital pregnancy, abortion and single parenthood. Data are based on the fertility and marital experiences of white females from the three youngest cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, for 1979-1986. The results show that laws restricting contraceptive availability are associated with a higher risk of pregnancy. Restrictive policies on public funding of abortions reduce the likelihood of abortion, while greater availability of abortion services is associated with a higher likelihood that adolescents will obtain abortions. Finally, the estimates indicate that higher welfare benefits reduce the probability that pregnant adolescents will marry before bearing their children. PMID:2289541

Lundberg, S; Plotnick, R D

365

Understanding State School Funding: The First Step toward Quality Reforms. The Progress of Education Reform. Volume 13, Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quote, taken from a piece written by the Education Commission of the States (ECS) nearly 30 years ago, demonstrates that researchers have long recognized the relationship between quality education reform and the structure of a state's school funding system. However, many policymakers continue to view their state's school funding formula not…

Griffith, Michael

2012-01-01

366

Understanding State School Funding: The First Step toward Quality Reforms. The Progress of Education Reform. Volume 13, Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This quote, taken from a piece written by the Education Commission of the States (ECS) nearly 30 years ago, demonstrates that researchers have long recognized the relationship between quality education reform and the structure of a state's school funding system. However, many policymakers continue to view their state's school funding formula not…

Griffith, Michael

2012-01-01

367

Revenue Generation in the Wake of Welfare Reform: Summary of the Pilot Learning Cluster on Early Childhood Finance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Creating more comprehensive, community-based support systems and reforming early childhood financing systems are critical to advancing the goal of having all children enter school ready to learn. The Finance Project is a national initiative to improve effectiveness, efficiency, and equity of financing for education, children's services, and…

Finance Project, Washington, DC.

368

Measuring Performance in Child Welfare: Secondary Effects of Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Draws on findings from evaluations of recent reform initiatives in Alabama, North Carolina, and Ohio to suggest that performance-measurement systems for state child-welfare programs must adapt to changing circumstances, especially when improvements in one area can influence standards and expectations in others. (Author/KB)|

Usher, Charles L.; Gibbs, Deborah A.; Wildfire, Judith B.

1999-01-01

369

Educational Reform: The Need To Redefine State-Local Governance of Schools. Policy Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document examines recent state school reform efforts from two perspectives: the strategies states adopt to improve educational excellence and the influence those strategies have on the functional dimensions of education policy. The paper reports the research findings of a study that examined state reform strategies nationally. The study…

Timar, Thomas B.

370

Medicaid Issues in Family Welfare and Nursing Home Reform. Including H.R. 2270, a Bill To Amend Title XIX of the Social Security Act To Change the Medicaid Requirements for Nursing Facilities Based on Recommendations of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (April 24 and May 12, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two hearings held a month apart examine major issues concerning Medicaid benefits in family welfare and nursing home reform. The first set of hearings discusses the proposed Family Welfare Reform Act of 1987 (H.R. 1720), which is intended to replace the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program of the Social Security Act Title IV.…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

371

The Original State of Adam: Tensions Within Reformed Theology  

Microsoft Academic Search

up much of what being Reformed is all about.'1 Over against the Lutheran and Radical reformational movements of the sixteenth century the Reformed tradition developed its theological system and methodology in accordance with the biblical doctrine of the covenant. Throughout the course of history, redemptive and pre-redemptive, God sovereignly administered his kingdom by means of the covenants. This study of

Mark W. Karlberg

372

Reforming state-level chemicals management policies in the United States: status, challenges, and opportunities.  

PubMed

During the last several years there has been increasing public concern about chemicals in everyday products. Scientific studies are increasingly revealing the build-up of some substances in ecosystems and in our bodies and new findings are linking exposures to hazardous chemicals to a range of adverse human health effects. Despite these trends, there has been little federal initiative in the United States on reforming chemicals management policies for well over two decades, even though a variety of analyses have identified significant gaps in the regulatory structure. As has historically been the case, states are beginning to fill the holes in federal leadership. This article explores this emerging state leadership and establishes a vision for and elements of policies to reduce hazardous chemicals in the products we buy and the places we go. It examines international efforts to reform chemicals management policies, such as the European REACH legislation and corporate leadership in advancing safer products. Finally, it outlines specific challenges states face in developing integrated, comprehensive chemicals management policies. We conclude that while there are plenty of challenges to implementation of chemicals policy reforms, it is a propitious time for states to become leaders in policy innovation that can help achieve safer production systems and products for future generations. This article is part of a Lowell Center for Sustainable Production report entitled "Options for State Chemicals Policy Reform" that provides in-depth analysis of the pros and cons of policy options to address a range of aspects of state-level chemicals policy reform. The article has been edited slightly for use in New Solutions. The report has been widely distributed to policy-makers, advocates, and others across the United States. PMID:19447756

Geiser, Ken; Tickner, Joel; Torrie, Yve

2009-01-01

373

Welfare and immigration reform and use of prenatal care among women of Mexican ethnicity in San Diego, California.  

PubMed

Foreign-born women and, in particular, Hispanic foreign-born women, are less likely to have insurance, are less likely to have insurance that covers prenatal care, and are less likely to utilize prenatal care compared with US-born Hispanic women. Significant concern has been raised regarding the ability of immigrant women to access prenatal care services because of severe restrictions imposed on immigrants' eligibility for Medicaid-funded services following the passage in 1996 of the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reform Act (PRWORA) and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRAIRA). We conducted an interview-based study of prenatal care utilization with women of Mexican ethnicity and diverse immigration statuses in San Diego County, California. Our findings indicate that, despite increased levels of fear associated with recent immigration and with undocumented status, there were no statistically significant differences across immigration statuses in length of time to receipt of medical care for gynecological events and for prenatal care. PMID:15744476

Loue, Sana; Cooper, Marlene; Lloyd, Linda S

2005-01-01

374

Happy Marriage or Uneasy Alliance? The Relationship between Comprehensive School Reform and State Accountability Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to examine how the relationship between comprehensive school reform (CSR) and state accountability systems helps or hinders school improvement efforts. This article draws on case study data collected in schools in 3 states that received funding to implement reforms through the federal CSR program. Findings show that…

Datnow, Amanda

2005-01-01

375

The Sustainability of Comprehensive School Reform Models in Changing District and State Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the sustainability of comprehensive school reform(CSR) models in the face of turbulent district and state contexts. It draws on qualitative data gathered in a longitudinal case study of six CSR models implemented in 13 schools in one urban district. Why do reforms sustain in some schools and not in others? How do changing state and district contexts

Amanda Datnow

2005-01-01

376

Civil Justice and Its Reform in West Germany and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern with growing caseloads of courts in West Germany and the United States has been accompanied in both countries by proposals to encourage pretrial or out-of-court settlements. Proposed reforms address both the role of the judge and procedures for obtaining evidence before trial. Reformers in both countries look across the Atlantic: those in the United States often advocate more of

Konstanze Plett

1988-01-01

377

Welfare-induced migration at state borders: New evidence from micro-data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends and synthesizes the various approaches used in the recent welfare migration literature to both offer the most comprehensive set of tests to date for welfare migration and to also determine the relative importance of short-distance moves in welfare migration flows. The current study follows on the finding of McKinnish [McKinnish T. Importing the poor: welfare magnetism and

Terra McKinnish

2007-01-01

378

Commentary: recent reforms in the British National Health Service--lessons for the United States.  

PubMed Central

President Clinton recently announced his reform plan for health care in the United States. The United Kingdom, along with other countries, has already enacted reforms in an effort to overcome the basic problem of having insufficient funds to provide a health service to meet modern demands. This paper briefly describes the recent health reforms in the United Kingdom and highlights some lessons for the United States, which include the need to choose procedures that should be universally provided. Health reforms that involve some fundamental restructuring need to be evaluated everywhere and agreed to by the staff in advance.

Holland, W W; Graham, C

1994-01-01

379

Welfare economics analysis of Chinese civil affairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare Economics method can be used in the comparative analysis of the civil affairs before and after economic reforms. China is entering the new start point of economic reform. In the viewpoint of welfare economics, Chinese civil affairs have the following properties: accomplish the basic target of \\

Zhiying Liu

2011-01-01

380

Health as an irreversible part of the welfare state: Canadian government policy under the Tories.  

PubMed

This article provides an assessment of the health policy of the Canadian Conservative government under Brian Mulroney, 1984-1993. Underlying this assessment is the need to test the theory of the irreversibility of the welfare state in the light of its health component. The author argues that despite a political rhetoric that might have presaged a sharp rollback of Canada's Medicare, either through residualization or progressive commodification, Canada emerged from this period of New Right federal government with its state-funded health care system still in place. This argument is substantiated through a consideration of the social policy model inherited by the Mulroney government and how it was affected by the government's fiscal policies between 1984 and 1993. PMID:8840202

O'Neill, M A

1996-01-01

381

Fallacies of Welfare-to-Work Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

One main effort of welfare reform is to replace public assistance with earnings. To date, politicians and welfare reform advocates have applauded the efforts and claimed success. However, lurking at the surface of welfare-to-work policies are serious problems and structural impediments. Lack of jobs, low pay, job-readiness, and difficulties in securing ancillary supports like transportation and child care are obvious

Randy Albelda

2001-01-01

382

Reform of state owned enterprises and challenges in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to provide a review of the challenges facing the reform of SOEs, and to address the impacts of SOE reform on business executives, on the base of literature review and empirical data collected in Guangzhou, China. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A qualitative research on the base of literature review, supported by empirical data collected from surveys, interviews,

Sharon Moore; Julie Jie Wen

2006-01-01

383

The New Zealand State and Educational Reforms: 'Competing' Interests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ways in which the shape of New Zealand's educational system crucially affected the implementation process of market oriented educational reforms are examined in this paper. The first part discusses educational reform in New Zealand as political management. The Labour government's program from 1987 to 1990 was designed to reduce the size and scope…

Gordon, Liz

384

Assessment of the Economic Reform in Poland's State-Owned Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Note provides an empirical assessment of the economic reforms introduced in Poland's state-owned industry since 1982. Much of the current literature on the Polish reform is of a theoretical nature; this study is intended to contribute to the empirica...

K. Crane

1988-01-01

385

City and State Takeover as a School Reform Strategy. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest addresses city and state takeover as a school reform strategy, outlining the emergence of takeover in the past decade, discussing promises and limitations that takeover offers, and synthesizing the research to date on takeover's effectiveness. A notable trend over the past decade is greater implementation of takeover reforms,…

Wong, Kenneth K.; Shen, Francis X.

386

The Sustainability of Comprehensive School Reform Models in Changing District and State Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article addresses the sustainability of comprehensive school reform (CSR) models in the face of turbulent district and state contexts. It draws on qualitative data gathered in a longitudinal case study of six CSR models implemented in 13 schools in one urban district. Why do reforms sustain in some schools and not in others? How do changing…

Datnow, Amanda

2005-01-01

387

Reform in the General Education Movement: The Case of Michigan State College, 1938-1952  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article uses the case of Michigan State College (MSC) to reconsider understanding of reform in the general education movement. Using the lens of MSC, the author argues that reform in the general education movement operated in a matrix of influence that involved educational research, philanthropy, and (both inter- and intra-) institutional…

Zayed, Kevin S.

2012-01-01

388

Bureaucrats in business: The roles of privatization versus corporatization in state-owned enterprise reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides evidence from a sample of 12 developing countries that countries which improved state-owned enterprise performance the most followed a comprehensive strategy of reforms, including a combination of privatization and corporatization. Further evidence that corporatization works better in combination with ownership and other reforms is provided through an analysis of government contracts with public managers, private managers and

Mary M. Shirley

1999-01-01

389

The Sustainability of Comprehensive School Reform Models in Changing District and State Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the sustainability of comprehensive school reform (CSR) models in the face of turbulent district and state contexts. It draws on qualitative data gathered in a longitudinal case study of six CSR models implemented in 13 schools in one urban district. Why do reforms sustain in some schools and not in others? How do changing…

Datnow, Amanda

2005-01-01

390

Reform in the General Education Movement: The Case of Michigan State College, 1938-1952  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses the case of Michigan State College (MSC) to reconsider understanding of reform in the general education movement. Using the lens of MSC, the author argues that reform in the general education movement operated in a matrix of influence that involved educational research, philanthropy, and (both inter- and intra-) institutional…

Zayed, Kevin S.

2012-01-01

391

Neo-liberal poverty governance: race, place and the punitive turn in US welfare policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides empirical evidence on the operation and effects of the neo-liberal system of poverty governance emerging in the United States. Relying on data collected on Florida, a state recognized for innovation in implementing welfare reform, we present findings that demonstrate systematic inequities in the way sanctions are applied to clients who fail to comply with participation requirements in

Sanford F. Schram; Richard C. Fording; Joe Soss

2008-01-01

392

Neo-liberal poverty governance: race, place and the punitive turn in US welfare policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides empirical evidence on the operation and effects of the neo-liberal system of poverty governance emerging in the United States. Relying on data collected on Florida, a state recognized for innovation in implementing welfare reform, we present findings that demonstrate systematic inequities in the way sanctions are applied to clients who fail to comply with participation requirements in

Sanford F. Schram; Richard C. Fording; Joe Soss

2007-01-01

393

Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans: An Evaluation of Specific Measures Taken by States To Comply with the Indian Child Welfare Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study responds to the lack of research on Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) compliance by examining a nationwide sample of the ICWA section within state Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans (CFSP) and Annual Progress and Services Reports (APSR). These plans and reports address the administration of state child welfare systems. The…

Brown, Eddie F.; Limb, Gordon E.; Munoz, Ric; Clifford, Chey A.

394

Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans: An Evaluation of Specific Measures Taken by States To Comply with the Indian Child Welfare Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study responds to the lack of research on Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) compliance by examining a nationwide sample of the ICWA section within state Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans (CFSP) and Annual Progress and Services Reports (APSR). These plans and reports address the administration of state child welfare systems.…

Brown, Eddie F.; Limb, Gordon E.; Munoz, Ric; Clifford, Chey A.

395

Federal constraints and state innovation: Lessons from Florida's family transition program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevailing wisdom holds that limiting the federal role in welfare will free the states to be more innovative in welfare-to-work programs. Findings from Florida's Family Transition Program (FTP), a pilot welfare reform initiative, however, suggest that the relationship between federal “strings” and state innovation is more complex. A central feature of the welfare-to-work program in the FTP was the direct

Robin H. Rogers-Dillon; Janet A. Weiss

1999-01-01

396

The Impact of State Behavioral Health Reform on Native American Individuals, Families, and Communities  

PubMed Central

In 2005, the State of New Mexico undertook a sweeping transformation of all publicly funded behavioral health services. The reform was intended to enhance the cultural responsiveness and appropriateness of these services. To examine achievement of this objective, we conducted a qualitative study of the involvement of Native Americans in reform efforts and the subsequent impacts of reform on services for Native Americans. We found that the reform was relatively unsuccessful at creating mechanisms for genuine community input or improving behavioral health care for this population. These shortcomings were related to limited understandings of administrators concerning how tribal governments and health care systems operate, and the structural limitations of a managed care system that does not allow flexibility for culturally appropriate utilization review, screening, or treatment. However, interaction between the State and tribes increased, and we conclude that aspects of the reform could be strengthened to achieve more meaningful involvement and service improvements.

Willging, Cathleen E.; Goodkind, Jessica; Lamphere, Louise; Saul, Gwendolyn; Fluder, Shannon; Seanez, Paula

2012-01-01

397

West Virginia. The Demonstration of State Work/Welfare Initiatives. Final Report on the Community Work Experience Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents findings of a three-year evaluation of West Virginia's Community Work Experience Program (CWEP), which requires public service in exchange for welfare payments by able-bodied recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Overall findings indicate that the state has succeeded in its principal objective:…

Friedlander, Daniel; And Others

398

The Aftermath of the Welfare State. Comments on Organizational Implications of Cuts in Public-Sector Expenditure in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Netherlands, as in many other western countries, the growth of the welfare state has led to a considerable expansion of the public sector. The present economic crisis, however, puts public sector organizations in a problematic situation. The crisis, though, is not only a financial one. Public sector organizations also constantly demonstrate signs of uncontrollability. The public sector seems

Gaston Sporre

1984-01-01

399

A Framework for Rebuilding Initial Certification and Preparation Programs in Educational Leadership: Lessons from Whole-State Reform Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: This study examines the extent of reform in preparation programs in school leadership in six states employing a comprehensive, whole-state intervention design. Although no studies of these or other comprehensive reform designs are available, there is a rich context surrounding preparation reform work that informed our…

Murphy, Joseph; Moorman, Hunter N.; McCarthy, Martha

2008-01-01

400

The State, Its Reform and the Question of Legitimacy in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses several missed opportunities at state-making in Kenya using four main instances. The first entailed failure to reform the colonial state at independence. I argue that independence in Kenya was crafted on state as opposed to popular nationalism. In turn, the Kenyatta state was constructed on state nationalism that came full with trappings of personal rule built on

Godwin R. Murunga

401

Restructuring the welfare state: reforms in long-term care in Western European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faced with the problems associated with an ageing society, many European countries have adopted innovative policies to achieve a better balance between the need to expand social care and the imperative to curb public spending. Although embedded within peculiar national traditions, these new policies share some characteristics: (a) a tendency to combine monetary transfers to families with the provision of

Emmanuele Pavolini; Costanzo Ranci

2008-01-01

402

The University in the Making of the Welfare State: The 1970s Degree Reform in Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In just a couple of decades, Finland evolved from one of Europe's lowest educated countries to the top performer of the international PISA ranking. Behind this "success story", there was a conscious strategy to use educational policies for creating a more equal society. Tracing the development of Finnish higher education system after WWII, this…

Jalava, Marja

2012-01-01

403

The Assessment Of Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter adopts the perspective that welfare is based upon subjective states experienced by the animal, i.e. those equated with emotions and feelings. While current methods do not allow us to access any animal's mental state directly, indirect approaches can be used. One approach attempts to assess the welfare of a cat using behavioural and physiological measures of stress, while

Rachel A. Casey; John W. S. Bradshaw

404

Health care reform requires law reform.  

PubMed

Health care financing and delivery reform seems to be under way. Reform will in all likelihood originate with Congress but may also come from the states or even the private sector. Federal law, however, limits states' options for reform, while state law constrains federal reform, and both state and federal law impede private innovation. Congressional action could facilitate state reform. Alternatively, federal preemption of state law may be necessary for federal reform. If neither Congress nor the states act, action by federal agencies could support private innovation. In any event, law reform is a necessary condition for health reform. PMID:19608564

Jost, Timothy S

2009-07-16

405

The Historical Impact of Welfare Programs on Poverty: Evidence from the American States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the years, there has been a spirited debate over the impact of the welfare expansion associated with the War on Poverty. Many analysts have maintained that public assistance expansion during this period decreased poverty by raising the incomes of the poor (an income enhancement effect), while others have contended that welfare expansion increased poverty by discouraging the poor from

Richard C. Fording; William D. Berry

2007-01-01

406

Supporting Families in Transition. A Guide to Expanding Health Coverage in the Post-Welfare Reform World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program with a new state-run Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program and ended the automatic link between eligibility for cash assistance and eligibility for Medicaid for poor families. Since then, a number of new policies and programs seeking to extend free or affordable health coverage to low-income families have developed. This new publication from the Health Care Financing Administration and the Administration for Children and Families of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) guides readers through some of the options states have in their efforts to broaden Medicaid coverage. Organized in four chapters, the guide addresses reaching families inside and outside the TANF system, maintaining coverage for families who leave the system, and related funding opportunities.

1999-01-01

407

An Examination of State Takeover as a School Reform Strategy in a Small Rural School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore state takeover as a school reform strategy in a small rural school district. Since 1988, more than 50 U.S. school districts in 20 states have been subject to some form of state takeover. A number of factors generally contribute to a state takeover, some of which include: poor student…

Brookover, Chester Wayne

2010-01-01

408

Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States  

PubMed Central

Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage.

Hoffman, Beatrix

2008-01-01

409

Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States  

PubMed Central

Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage.

Hoffman, Beatrix

2003-01-01

410

Why the United States has no national health insurance: stakeholder mobilization against the welfare state, 1945--1996.  

PubMed

The United States is the only western industrialized nation that fails to provide universal coverage and the only nation where health care for the majority of the population is financed by for-profit, minimally regulated private insurance companies. These arrangements leave one-sixth of the population uninsured at any given time, and they leave others at risk of losing insurance as a result of normal life course events. Political theorists of the welfare state usually attribute the failure of national health insurance in the United States to broader forces of American political development, but they ignore the distinctive character of the health care financing arrangements that do exist. Medical sociologists emphasize the way that physicians parlayed their professional expertise into legal, institutional, and economic power but not the way this power was asserted in the political arena. This paper proposes a theory of stakeholder mobilization as the primary obstacle to national health insurance. The evidence supports the argument that powerful stakeholder groups, first the American Medical Association, then organizations of insurance companies and employer groups, have been able to defeat every effort to enact national health insurance across an entire century because they had superior resources and an organizational structure that closely mirrored the federated arrangements of the American state. The exception occurred when the AFL-CIO, with its national leadership, state federations and union locals, mobilized on behalf of Medicare. PMID:15779464

Quadagno, Jill

2004-01-01

411

Current State and Problems of Higher Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Higher education in Russia is experiencing changes in curriculum and in the specialization and function of institutions in the search for a better model for a post-Soviet society. The early 1990s saw the start of the reform of the system of education in Russia. However, problems of quality and of continuity with secondary education have still not…

Salnikov, N.; Burukhin, S.

2009-01-01

412

Corporate Education Reform and the Rise of State Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The election of Barack Obama appeared to signal a shift in U.S. policy toward the Left, particularly since Obama has been framed as a "socialist," but the education discourse and policy pursued under Obama and voiced by Secretary of Education Arne Duncan has shown that education reform remains in the midst of a powerful corporate model. This…

Thomas, P. L.

2013-01-01

413

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...under emergency conditions for care and services for public assistance recipients...attaining operational readiness; (5) Preparing and...requirements necessary to care for public assistance cases...title IV-A for providing training in emergency welfare...

2012-10-01

414

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...under emergency conditions for care and services for public assistance recipients...attaining operational readiness; (5) Preparing and...requirements necessary to care for public assistance cases...title IV-A for providing training in emergency welfare...

2011-10-01

415

P-16: The Last Education Reform. Book Two: Emerging Local, Regional, and State Efforts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second book in a series entitled "P-16: The Last Education Reform." It was the purpose of the authors to chronicle the growth of existing state and local P-16 councils and compacts across the United States and to look at what might constitute successful efforts and an ideal relationship between state and local efforts. The methodology…

Rochford, Joseph A.

2007-01-01

416

A Comprehensive Snapshot of States' Small Group Market Reforms on Insurer Pricing and Rating Practices, 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a qualitative analysis of states' small group health insurance reforms that impact small group premiums, mostly enacted by the states during 1996-99, following the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act in 1996. It draws from an intensive review of statutes of 48 states and the District of Columbia as of 1999. It analyses regulations related to

Sudha Xirasagar; Carleen H. Stoskopf; William R. Shrader; Saundra H. Glover

2005-01-01

417

Leave No City Behind: England/United States Dialogue on Urban Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Both the United States and England initiated ambitious standards-based education reform to eliminate large gaps between their highest and lowest achievers. England appears to be ahead, having started in 1988 with a national curriculum, tests, and performance tables. The United States' No Child Left Behind Act began rewriting state rules in 2002…

Hannaway, Jane; Murphy, Marilyn; Reed, Jodie

2004-01-01

418

Leave No City Behind: England/United States Dialogue on Urban Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the United States and England initiated ambitious standards-based education reform to eliminate large gaps between their highest and lowest achievers. England appears to be ahead, having started in 1988 with a national curriculum, tests, and performance tables. The United States' No Child Left Behind Act began rewriting state rules in 2002…

Hannaway, Jane; Murphy, Marilyn; Reed, Jodie

2004-01-01

419

Screening for Domestic Violence in Public Welfare Offices  

PubMed Central

Despite a high prevalence of domestic violence among welfare clients, most studies of the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform find that women rarely receive domestic violence services in welfare offices. This study reviews findings from current research on the factors that improve the likelihood that women will reveal their domestic violence experiences to service personnel, and uses the guidelines drawn from this review to evaluate domestic violence screening practices in welfare offices using 782 transcribed interviews between welfare workers and clients from 11 sites in four states. The analysis found that only 9.3% of case encounters involved screening for domestic violence. Screening rates differed by state, interview type, and length of worker employment. Qualitative analysis of the interviews showed that the majority of screening by workers was routinized or consisted of informing clients of the domestic violence policy without asking about abuse. Only 1.2% of the interviews incorporated at least two of the procedures that increase the likelihood of disclosure among domestic violence survivors, suggesting deeply inadequate approaches to screening for abuse within the context of welfare offices, and a need for improved training, protocol, and monitoring of FVO implementation.

Lindhorst, Taryn; Meyers, Marcia; Casey, Erin

2008-01-01

420

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United... Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the...

2010-07-01

421

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United... Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the...

2009-07-01

422

Welfare programs that target workforce participation may negatively affect mortality.  

PubMed

During the 1990s reforms to the US welfare system introduced new time limits on people's eligibility to receive public assistance. These limits were developed to encourage welfare recipients to seek employment. Little is known about how such social policy programs may have affected participants' health. We explored whether the Florida Family Transition Program randomized trial, a welfare reform experiment, led to long-term changes in mortality among participants. The Florida program included a 24-36-month time limit for welfare participation, intensive job training, and placement assistance. We linked 3,224 participants from the experiment to 17-18 years of prospective mortality follow-up data and found that participants in the program experienced a 16 percent higher mortality rate than recipients of traditional welfare. If our results are generalizable to national welfare reform efforts, they raise questions about whether the cost savings associated with welfare reform justify the additional loss of life. PMID:23733981

Muennig, Peter; Rosen, Zohn; Wilde, Elizabeth Ty

2013-06-01

423

Public Assistance Receipt among Native-Born Children of Immigrants. Policy Brief. Welfare, Children & Families: A Three-City Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1996 welfare reform law restricted immigrants' eligibility for public assistance, although many states have at least partially restored their eligibility. However, about three-fourths of the children of non-citizen immigrants were born in the United States and are therefore eligible for all government benefits. This brief examines whether…

Cherlin, Andrew; Fomby, Paula; Angel, Ronald; Henrici, Jane

424

Is the Swedish welfare state in retreat? Current trends in Swedish health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore, 14 years since the introduction of market reforms, the extent to which changes have altered the nature of Sweden's health care financing, examine how these changes have affected the views of Sweden's physicians, and to judge the impact of these reforms on the delivery and quality of care. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

Randolph K. Quaye

2007-01-01

425

Primary care and the maelstrom of health care reform in the United States of America.  

PubMed Central

Recent reform in the National Health Service has moved general practice towards a more intense market and competition structure. Meanwhile in the United States of America there has been an attempt to modify the free enterprise approach to medical care towards a more socially responsive system. This discussion paper provides a family doctor's perspective of primary care and the maelstrom of health care reform in the USA. The cultural, economic and organizational issues underlying the need for reform are considered in turn, and the current situation with regard to health care provision, medical research, medical education and primary care are outlined. General practitioners in the United Kingdom would do well to pay attention to the effects of market reform occurring in general practice among their American counterparts.

Curtis, P

1995-01-01

426

Enhancing the redistributive capacity of the Chinese state? Impact of fiscal reforms on county finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many observers contend that fiscal deprivation of the centre in reform China is detrimental to the overall capacity of the Chinese state, and thus the danger of national disintegration cannot be discarded. One relevant concern here is the obligation of the state to redress socio-economic dislocations, of which growing regional inequality is a major issue. The Tax Sharing Scheme introduced

Ray Yep

2008-01-01

427

Splintered Accountability: State Governance and Education Reform. SUNY Series in Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The No Child Left Behind Act declared that improving education in every school in the United States was a top national priority. However, this act did not acknowledge how state departments of education have successfully constructed reforms for the past few decades, despite the power struggle between governors, legislators, school districts, and…

Shober, Arnold F.

2010-01-01

428

Promoting educational reforms in weak states: the case of radical policy discontinuity in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article explores the making of education policies in weak states, particularly in the context of developing nations and in view of the increasing influence of international organisations, such as the World Bank, in definition of education reform agendas. The discussion seeks to contribute to the theory of weak states by highlighting the importance of political processes of interest

Maria Balarin

2008-01-01

429

Promoting Educational Reforms in Weak States: The Case of Radical Policy Discontinuity in Peru  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present article explores the making of education policies in weak states, particularly in the context of developing nations and in view of the increasing influence of international organisations, such as the World Bank, in definition of education reform agendas. The discussion seeks to contribute to the theory of weak states by highlighting…

Balarin, Maria

2008-01-01

430

Splintered Accountability: State Governance and Education Reform. SUNY Series in Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The No Child Left Behind Act declared that improving education in every school in the United States was a top national priority. However, this act did not acknowledge how state departments of education have successfully constructed reforms for the past few decades, despite the power struggle between governors, legislators, school districts, and…

Shober, Arnold F.

2010-01-01

431

The Washington State Juvenile Justice System Reform: A Review of Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many states have altered their juvenile justice systems during the past decade, none has undertaken a reform as far-reaching or complex as that implemented by the state of Washington in 1978. The intent of the Washington system is to hold juveniles accountable for their crimes and, simultaneously, to hold the system accountable for what it does to juveniles. Rehabilitation

Anne Larason Schneider; Donna D. Schram

1986-01-01

432

State-Sponsored Education Reform in the 1980's: Schools as Policy Junkyards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Views recent educational reforms as "galloping centralization" resulting from states' excessive rationalism in legislating school improvement policy. A Vermont study shows that policymakers did not act in accord with a user perspective concerning local schools' policy environments and that Public School Approval, as a state policy, lacked…

Johnston, A. P.; Niedermeier, H. G.

1987-01-01

433

Higher rates of adolescent substance use in child welfare versus community populations in the United States.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT. Objective: Youth substance use exacts costly consequences for a variety of important health outcomes. We examined and compared prevalence rates and a common set of psychosocial factors of lifetime and current substance use among child welfare-involved youths and community youths from two nationally representative data sets. Method: Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we compared prevalence rates and conducted logistic regression models for eight binary outcome measures of substance use: lifetime and current use of alcohol, inhalant, marijuana, and other illicit drugs to examine predictors of substance involvement in the two samples. Results: Substance use prevalence was higher among child welfare-involved youths than community youths for lifetime marijuana use, lifetime and current inhalant use, and lifetime and current other illicit drug use. Among both child welfare-involved and community youths, delinquency was the factor most strongly associated with all lifetime substance use outcomes. Notably, family structure and parental closeness were important protective factors against current substance use among child welfare-involved youths. For community youths, poorer emotional health was the strongest indicator of current substance use. Conclusions: Substance use among all adolescents is a critical public health concern. Given the heightened vulnerability of child welfare-involved youths, it is particularly important to focus prevention and early intervention efforts on this population. Further research should explore additional factors associated with substance use among these youths so that child welfare and behavioral health systems may jointly target prevention and intervention efforts. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 74, 825-834, 2013). PMID:24172108

Fettes, Danielle L; Aarons, Gregory A; Green, Amy E

2013-11-01

434

Climb On! From Welfare to a Degree.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In operation since 1990, the Gateway Program is a collaborative welfare reform effort developed by Colorado Mountain College (CMC), the county department of social services, and the local Job Training Partnership Act provider. One component of the program is the Link Program, developed to prepare welfare recipients for enrollment in vocational…

Christensen, Patti; Kime, Bruce

435

Children's Agency and the Welfare State: Policy Priorities and Contradictions in Australia and the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since the early 1990s, liberal welfare regimes have begun to treat lone parents as workers rather than as carers. This has happened in conjunction with an ongoing "moral panic" about the need to develop policies to invest in children, and to protect them from adult worlds. The purpose of this article is to analyse contradictions within and…

Redmond, Gerry

2010-01-01

436

The Coming of East and South-East Asian Welfare States  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been assumed among Western commentators that rapid economic growth in East and South-east Asia has been achieved without the development of social policies. It has often been inferred that growth without social welfare is not only possible, but beneficial to further strong economic growth. The article questions these perceptions and beliefs. First, to what extent did East

Sven E. O. Hort; Stein Kuhnle

2000-01-01

437

Urban Poverty and Social Welfare Policy in the United States: An Undergraduate Research/Training Programme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the structure and organization of a research and training program focusing on urban poverty and social welfare policy. Explains that the program trains undergraduates in the theory and empirical analysis of issues in poverty research. Notes that students must develop and present a plan of service to a local social service agency in an…

Johnson, James H.; Oliver, Melvin L.

1991-01-01

438

The End of Welfare as We Know It&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

When white Americans think about welfare, they are likely to think about black Americans. The most prominent explanation for this phenomenon offered has been media coverage—newsmakers have presented welfare as an overwhelmingly black and overwhelmingly bad social program. Most of the data used in studies that reach these conclusions, however, predate welfare reform. Since passage of the Personal Responsibility and

Joshua J. Dyck; Laura S. Hussey

2008-01-01

439

Substance Abuse and Child Welfare: Clear Linkages and Promising Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the prevalence of substance abuse among families involved with the child welfare system and the impact of substance abuse on child welfare practice. Discusses how both the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 and welfare reform legislation intensify the need to address parental substance abuse effectively. Considers strategies for…

Semidei, Joseph; Radel, Laura Feig; Nolan, Catherine

2001-01-01

440

Will Welfare Reform Hurt Low-Skilled Workers? Discussion Papers. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The entry of working welfare mothers into the labor market will have an impact on the wages and employment of low-skilled workers. This impact was examined through a labor market analysis of available statistical data about the U.S. population and employment patterns. The characteristics of workers likely to enter the labor market because of…

Enchautegui, Maria E.

441

Welfare Reform. Bibliographies of Case Management and Agency/Client Contracting. Fact Sheet for the Chairman, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, prepared for the use of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs in considering proposed welfare legislation, comprises annotated bibliographies, most with abstracts, the following subjects: (1) case management; and (2) agency/client contracting. The cited literature includes books, journal articles, research reports, and…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

442

Social Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is commonly agreed that social welfare ideas and philosophies emanate from many faith traditions, the complex\\u000a link between religion and social welfare merits careful examination. Prowelfare values only set the overall social expectations;\\u000a they do not create formal social welfare programs. Helping the needy can range from a one-time help for a known neighbor to\\u000a the establishment of

Ram A. Cnaan; Charlene C. McGrew

443

Aspects of Welfare and Poverty in Rural America: Two Issue Briefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two papers in this document were prepared in response to requests by the Department of Agriculture and the White House staff for briefs on welfare and poverty issues. The first paper, "The Administration's Welfare Reform Proposal: Impact on Rural Areas" by Robert Hoppe, discusses major provisions of (1) the proposed Welfare Reform Amendment…

Carlin, Thomas A.; And Others

444

The Decline of Cash Welfare and Implications for Social Policy and Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights the scope of cash welfare as a poverty program and the policy context that led to the legislative distinctions between pre- and post-1996. Trends in welfare, employment, and poverty for single-mother families are presented, as are hypotheses that guide studies of the effects of welfare reform. Social science and policy research on how the reforms have affected

Sandra K. Danziger

2010-01-01

445

Aspects of Welfare and Poverty in Rural America: Two Issue Briefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The two papers in this document were prepared in response to requests by the Department of Agriculture and the White House staff for briefs on welfare and poverty issues. The first paper, "The Administration's Welfare Reform Proposal: Impact on Rural Areas" by Robert Hoppe, discusses major provisions of (1) the proposed Welfare Reform Amendment…

Carlin, Thomas A.; And Others

446

A comparison snapshot of states' small group market reform on access and enhancing valued plan features, 1999.  

PubMed

Small group health insurance statutes of 48 states and the District of Columbia, as of 1999, were reviewed. Reform provisions judged to have some relevance for the market are catalogued and total 74 distinct regulations. Judgment of market relevance was based on actuarial experience at a leading health insurance company. The regulations are categorized under: (1) Access improvement; (2) Pricing and Rating Reforms; (3) Improving stability of coverage; and (4) Improving valued features of plans. The nuances and variety of these regulations, adopted in various combinations by the states, are discussed. The complexity of the reform scenario suggests the need for impact studies that take into account the totality of reform. Past studies have evaluated the impact of selected major reforms in isolation, and, thus, have been inadequate to provide definitive conclusions on the reforms' impact. PMID:15829454

Xirasagar, Sudha; Stoskopf, Carleen H; Shrader, William R; Glover, Saundra H

2004-01-01

447

NAEP State Reports in Mathematics: Valuable Information for Monitoring Education Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), a congressionally mandated national assessment program, can provide valuable data to educational policy makers in Massachusetts and other New England states concerning the status of their educational reform initiatives and performance standards. The three purposes of this paper are: (1) to…

Hambleton, Ronald K.; Cadman, Sharon F.

448

Segmentation Within the State: The Reconfiguration of Tibetan Tribes In China's Reform Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the upheavals of collectivisation and reform, the nomadic pastoralists of Amdo, in the north eastern part of the Tibetan plateau, maintain that they substantially retain historic forms of tribal organisation. The governmental structures of the modern Chinese state have replaced the hereditary rulers, kings and monastic leaders, who formerly exercised leadership over the nomads' tribes. However, ideologies of revenge

Fernanda Pirie

2005-01-01

449

The Impact of Economic Reform on the Performance of Chinese State Enterprises, 1980-1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of China's incremental industrial reform between 1980 and 1989 is investigated using a panel data set of 272 state enterprises. This paper applies a method that measures marginal products of factors and changes in total factor productivity (TFP) by comparing actual changes in output to actual changes in inputs and in the institutional environment. This paper finds that

Wei Li

1997-01-01

450

Some economic implications of the 1986 tax reform for the United States economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1986 tax reform represented a major revamping of the United States tax code. It reflected years of ideological and technical debate; and was considered to offer the most efficient tax structure feasible, given the political constraints facing the legislature at that time. However, even before its implementation (which is still under way), it became clear that the changes introduced

Oded Izraeli; Mitchell Kellman

1990-01-01

451

State-Level Support for Comprehensive School Reform: Implications for Policy and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the current context of standards-based reform and heightened accountability for school performance, state education agencies (SEAs) have an important, but not yet well-articulated, role to play in local school improvement efforts. This article starts to articulate such a role by examining the variety of approaches and strategies used by 7 SEAs…

Lane, Brett; Gracia, Susan

2005-01-01

452

Deconstructing the Rhetoric of Decentralization: The State in Education Reform 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To deconstruct, then, is to reinscribe and resituate meanings, events and objects within broader movements and structures; it is, so to speak, to reverse the tapestry in order to expose in all its unglamorously disheveled tangle the threads constituting the well heeled image it presents to the world (Eagleton, 1986, p.80). Education Reform: Restructuring State-Civil Society Relations A remarkable new

Sangeeta Kamat

453

The Effect of a State Education Reform Act on Environmental Education and Interpretative Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental education and interpretive facilities in Texas were surveyed to determine the effects on their attendance, management, and programming of a state education reform bill. The bill potentially restricted the ability of public school teachers to take classes on field trips to off-campus educational centers. Findings indicated that facility attendance did decline during the twelve months following passage of the

Kathleen L. Andereck; James H. Gramann

1989-01-01

454

Applications of Montclair State's Teacher Education Program to John Goodlad's Reform Agenda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Montclair State College (MSC) and its clinical schools network have been selected as a pilot site working toward implementation of Goodlad's teacher education reform agenda. This article discusses the manner and degree to which the MSC program currently reflects some of the critical thinking-related issues which Goodlad raises. (IAH)

Pines, Robert

1991-01-01

455

The Henry Tax Review, Cartel Parties and the Reform Capacity of the Australian State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Henry Tax Review is a work in progress, but it has already advanced sufficiently to constitute an important case study of state capacity in Australia. Using the Henry Tax Review as a case study, this paper sheds light on the question of whether the national political system is capable of devising and implementing long-term reforms. Whilst specific policy failures

Richard Eccleston; Ian Marsh

2011-01-01

456

A Legal Guide to State Pension Reform. Education Sector Policy Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Just 18 minutes before the midnight signing deadline on May 15, 2010, Minnesota state legislators breathed a sigh of relief. Their bipartisan pension reform legislation, which passed both chambers by large margins and aimed to help shore up a potentially failing pension system, had just escaped a veto threat. Under pressure from his Republican…

Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

2012-01-01

457

Substance abuse and employment among welfare mothers: from welfare to work and back again?  

PubMed

We have very little research on how substance use impacts employment among welfare mothers. But welfare reform's emphasis on moving aid recipients into the workforce has brought this issue to the fore. Using Cox proportional hazard and logistic regression in a longitudinal study of California welfare mothers in 2001-2003, we examine how substance use impacts the ability to move from welfare to work and to remain economically independent after welfare. While education, work history, and family size consistently predict transitions from welfare to work and back again, substance use-related problems consistently do not. However, the jobs obtained by welfare mothers are short-term and poorly paid regardless of whether they misuse alcohol or use drugs. We argue that, if all that is open to welfare mothers are short-lived work assignments, substance use may have little time to impact job retention. Limitations of the study are noted. PMID:17668326

Schmidt, Laura; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, Jim

2007-01-01

458

The legal rights of LGBT youth in state custody: what child welfare and juvenile justice professionals need to know.  

PubMed

Youth in state custody, regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity, have federal and state constitutional and statutory rights. These rights guarantee a young person safety in their placement as well as freedom from deprivation of their liberty interest. Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth have these rights violated on a regular basis. Many cases in both the child welfare and juvenile justice contexts have resulted in extensive and time-consuming consent decrees as well as sizable damages awards. Knowledge of a youth's legal rights can help providers avoid legal liability while creating a safer and healthier environment for LGBT youth. This article provides a general overview of the successful federal legal claims that youth in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems have made, discussion of the rights generated as a result, particle application of these rights to the experiences of LGBT youth with hypothetical scenarios, a focus on specific rights that emanate from certain state laws, and a focus on specific concerns of transgender youth. PMID:16846111

Estrada, Rudy; Marksamer, Jody

459

FOR RICHER OR FOR POORER: THE IMPACT OF STATE-LEVEL LEGISLATION ON MARRIAGE, DIVORCE, AND OTHER OUTCOMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of welfare reform, states throughout the country have enacted legislation to promote marriage. Lawmakers believe that by promoting marriage, the states will achieve lower divorce rates and lower rates of cohabitation by converting cohabitating couples into more stable married households, which in turn will lead to fewer women and children utilizing welfare programs. To determine the impact

Amy M. Donley; James D. Wright

2008-01-01

460

The European influence on workers' compensation reform in the United States  

PubMed Central

Workers' compensation law in the United States is derived from European models of social insurance introduced in Germany and in England. These two concepts of workers' compensation are found today in the federal and state workers' compensation programs in the United States. All reform proposals in the United States are influenced by the European experience with workers' compensation. In 2006, a reform proposal termed the Public Health Model was made that would abolish the workers' compensation system, and in its place adopt a national disability insurance system for all injuries and illnesses. In the public health model, health and safety professionals would work primarily in public health agencies. The public health model eliminates the physician from any role other than that of privately consulting with the patient and offering advice solely to the patient. The Public Health Model is strongly influenced by the European success with physician consultation with industry and labor.

2011-01-01

461

The European influence on workers' compensation reform in the United States.  

PubMed

Workers' compensation law in the United States is derived from European models of social insurance introduced in Germany and in England. These two concepts of workers' compensation are found today in the federal and state workers' compensation programs in the United States. All reform proposals in the United States are influenced by the European experience with workers' compensation. In 2006, a reform proposal termed the Public Health Model was made that would abolish the workers' compensation system, and in its place adopt a national disability insurance system for all injuries and illnesses. In the public health model, health and safety professionals would work primarily in public health agencies. The public health model eliminates the physician from any role other than that of privately consulting with the patient and offering advice solely to the patient. The Public Health Model is strongly influenced by the European success with physician consultation with industry and labor. PMID:22151643

Ladou, Joseph

2011-12-07

462

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United...COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS...substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United...the threat to public health or welfare of the United...and consultation with senior lead agency...

2013-07-01

463

Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

Thomas, Harold G.

2012-01-01

464

The Role of District Leadership in Radical Reform: Philadelphia's Experience under the State Takeover, 2001-2006. An Occasional Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Leadership is key in the success of any reform, especially one as ambitious and complex as that in Philadelphia. "The case of Philadelphia is noteworthy as an exemplar of the implementation of paradigm-breaking new reforms in the governance and delivery of urban education." This report follows the first five years of the state takeover and the…

Useem, Elizabeth; Christman, Jolley Bruce; Boyd, William Lowe

2006-01-01

465

The context of higher education reform in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education in the United States has received much scrutiny in the recent past from the federal and state governments, the press and the general public. In response to this scrutiny, a number of blue ribbon panels have been formed to examine how effectively higher education is serving American society. In this article, I analyse the proceedings and impact of

Donald E. Heller

2009-01-01

466

Ownership reform among state firms in China and its implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To test the effects of ownership structure on the strategy and performance of former state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in China. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on a sample of the former state-owned manufacturing firms listed on the Chinese Stock Exchanges before 1995, we study the ownership effects on firms' diversification strategies and their performances. Findings – Diversifiers actually have a lower

Ji Li; Kevin Lam; Jane W. Moy

2005-01-01

467

An examination of the persistence of the residual child welfare system in the United States: Addressing charges of radical theoretical myopia with implications for social work practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States follows what has been termed a residual approach to its public child welfare system. This article describes the residual model and contrasts it with the policies of other industrialized nations. It also explores the causes and persistence of the residual model in the United States through the lens of structural-functionalist theory. By doing so, this article attempts

Peter M. Cabrera Jr

2009-01-01

468

A Re-Examination of Welfare States and Inequality in Rich Nations: How In-Kind Transfers and Indirect Taxes Change the Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous studies find large cross-national differences in inequality amongst rich Western nations, due in large part to differences in the generosity of welfare state transfers. The United States is the least generous nation and the one having the most after-tax and transfer inequality. But these analyses are limited to the effects of cash and…

Garfinkel, Irwin; Rainwater, Lee; Smeeding, Timothy M.

2006-01-01

469

The challenges of global capitalism: unemployment and state workers' reactions and responses in post-reform China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As China enters the twenty-first year of reform, the success of its economic policies has been widely recognized. But what is also true is that economic reforms initiated in the past decades, particularly the restructuring of state-owned enterprises, have inevitably marginalized state workers - the 'masters of socialist China'. Workers in private and non-state sectors might have benefited from the

Ka-Ho Mok; Linda Wong; Grace O. M. Lee

2002-01-01

470

Child Care and Development Block Grant: Report of State Plans for the Period 10/01/97 to 9/30/99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Child Care and Development Block Grant sought to unify what was a fragmented child care system. As part of welfare reform, welfare-connected child care programs were repealed and new child care funding was placed under the aegis of the lead state agency for the Block Grant. This report provides an overview of the strategies that each state,…

National Child Care Information Center, Vienna, VA.

471

Child Care and Development Block Grant: Report of State Plans for the Period 10/01/97 to 9/30/99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Child Care and Development Block Grant sought to unify what was a fragmented child care system. As part of welfare reform, welfare-connected child care programs were repealed and new child care funding was placed under the aegis of the lead state agency for the Block Grant. This report provides an overview of the strategies that each state,…

National Child Care Information Center, Vienna, VA.

472

Reform in the United States: its impact on medicine and education for family practice.  

PubMed

The historical concept of reform is useful as an aid to understand the modern rise of family practice education. Beginning about 1890, historians have identified several themes of reform in the United States which have been expressed culturally, politically, and socially. Each of these themes, agrarianism, bureaucratization of the professions, and utopianism, has influenced medicine and medical education--first at the turn of the century in the activities of the AMA in promoting public health and in establishing the natural sciences as a basis for medical education and practice. Since the end of World War II, additional reform themes have become visible which are also influencing medicine. Among these are humanism, consumerism, and the women's movement. It is the author's thesis that the present vitality and future development of family practice as a discipline is more dependent on its capacity and willingness to be identified with these expressions of reform than on its negotiations and compromises within the medical education establishment. PMID:978147

Stephens, G G

1976-10-01

473

The Impact of Federal and State Laws on Children Exposed to Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, few federal and state laws specifically addressed the needs of children in families in which there is domestic violence. Yet, many laws, particularly in the areas of domestic violence, family law, child welfare, welfare reform, and immigration, can have profound effects on the well-being of these children. The growing understand- ing by legislators and policymakers of the potential

Martha A. Matthews

474

Massachusetts Education Reform: The State We're in  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future of public education changed forever in the United States when "A Nation at Risk" was published in 1983. This report warned educators from coast to coast that America was on the brink of losing its top-ranked position internationally because "others" were "matching and surpassing their educational attainments." That got people's…

Driscoll, David P.

2004-01-01

475

Surprising Momentum: Spurring Education Reforms in States and Localities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This chapter first examines how the Obama administration was able to promote its K-12 agenda using the vehicle of economic stimulus policy, and how that agenda compares with prior federal and state education policy. As a basis for explaining President Obama's policy choices, a second section discusses the ideas and political dynamics shaping his…

McDonnell, Lorraine M.

2010-01-01

476

States, Markets and Higher Education Reform: The Netherlands and England  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In many countries pressures of globalisation have led to major changes in relationships between the State, the market and\\u000a higher education. These changes have conse­quences for the roles and organisation of higher education, and of universities\\u000a in particular (Butera, 2000; Cowen, 2000; Fulton, 2002, 2003; Zajda, 2005, 2006; Henry et al., 2001; Schugurensky, 1999). This chapter explores aspects of higher

Rosamunde F. J. Becker

477

Multicultural Welfare Directive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each day, millions of poor men, women and children struggle to make ends meet in the United States. The public assistance system in the United States is designed as a temporary safety net to help the poor survive their bout with poverty as they make the transition back to solvency. Millions of welfare recipients are treated as an entity receiving

Cassie Mannix

1995-01-01

478

The Application of the Tanzimat Reforms in Bulgaria: State Building in the Ottoman Empire (1839-1878)  

Microsoft Academic Search

relations in the 19th century Ottoman Empire) and previous administrative practices, both of which defined the state-society interactions in Bulgaria. The state and society linkages that were shaped by this conjunction explain the failure of reforms in Bulgaria. Although the Ottomans succeeded in creating the basic structures of a central state and modern bureaucracy, they also created local state structures

Yonca Koksal

479

Growing Up in the PostModern Age: On the Child's Situation in the Modern Family, and on the Position of the Family in the Modern Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referring to an ongoing comparative study of Childhood, Society, and Devel opment in the Nordic countries (the BASUN project), led by Lars Dencik at Roskilde University in Denmark, the paper presents a perspective on the transformations of the everyday life of parents and children in the Nordic welfare states In the analysis particular attention is paid to the implications of

Lars Dencik

1989-01-01

480

When Child Welfare Agencies Rely on Voluntary Kinship Placements: New Federalism Issues and Options for States. An Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizing findings from a forthcoming book, this policy brief examines when and how child welfare agencies rely on kin to care for children who are taken into state custody. The discussion is based on intensive case studies of local kinship care policies and practices; the case studies were conducted in 13 counties in Alabama, California,…

Malm, Karin; Geen, Rob

481

State innovation models: early experiences and challenges of an initiative to advance broad health system reform.  

PubMed

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and states are partnering to transform health care systems by creating and testing new models of care delivery and payment. Interviews with officials from states participating in the State Innovation Models (SIM) Initiative reveal that the readiness of providers and payers to adopt innovations var­ies, requiring different starting points, goals, and strategies. So far, effective strategies appear to include: building on past reform efforts; redesigning health information technol­ogy to provide reliable, targeted data on care costs and quality; and using standard perfor­mance measures and financial incentives to spur alignment of providers' and payers' goals. State governments also have policy levers to encourage efficient deployment of a diverse health care workforce. As federal officials review states' innovation plans, set timetables, and provide technical assistance, they can also take steps to accommodate the budgetary, political, and time constraints that states are facing. PMID:24133696

Silow-Carroll, Sharon; Lamphere, JoAnn

2013-09-01

482

State-Level Impact of Mandated Referrals from Child Welfare to Part C Early Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New federal legislation requires states to develop policies to refer children younger than age 3 with substantiated cases of abuse or neglect to state Early Intervention (EI) systems. This article presents state-by-state estimates of potential referral and enrollment increases for EI. Many states could experience a significant increase in…

Derrington, Taletha Mae; Lippitt, John A.

2008-01-01

483

Child Welfare Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights the problem of children being at risk for placement by public child welfare systems into substitute care. It focuses on one state, Illinois, which has had considerable success in reducing its caseload. Risk factors are hypothesized. It presents research involving regression analysis of data for the city of Chicago. A cross-sectional design is utilized for a division

Arthur Horton

2002-01-01

484

Child Welfare in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting the current state of theory and practice in child welfare in Canada, these eight papers suggest a contemporary view of Canadian children and the contexts in which they develop as defined by legal rights and society. First, Henry S. Maas argues that attention to normal social development and its contexts, and to related ongoing theory…

McBroom, Elizabeth, Ed.

1983-01-01

485

Why China's economic reforms differ: the M-form hierarchy and entry\\/expansion of the non-state sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's thirteen years of reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical structure based on the functional or specialization

Yingyi Qian; Chenggang Xu

1993-01-01

486

Creating State-based Alliances to Support Earth and Space Science Education Reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven years after the publication of the National Science Education Standards and adoption of new state science education standards, Earth and space science remains outside the mainstream K-12 curriculum. Currently, less than ten percent of high school students in the United States of America take an Earth or space science course before graduation. This state of affairs is simply unacceptable. "All of us who live on this planet have the right and the obligation to understand Earth's unique history, its dynamic processes, its abundant resources, and its intriguing mysteries. As citizens of Earth, with the power to modify our climate and ecosystems, we also have a personal and collective responsibility to understand Earth so that we can make wise decisions about its and our future". As one step toward addressing this situation, we support the establishment of state-based alliances to promote Earth and space science education reform. "In many ways, states are the most vital locus of change in our nation's schools. State departments of education define curriculum frameworks, establish testing policies, support professional development and, in some cases, approve textbooks and materials for adoption". State alliance partners should include a broad spectrum of K-16 educators, scientists, policy makers, parents, and community leaders from academic institutions, businesses, museums, technology centers, and not-for profit organizations. The focus of these alliances should be on systemic and sustainable reform of K-16 Earth and space science education. Each state-based alliance should focus on specific educational needs within their state, but work together to share ideas, resources, and models for success. As we build these alliances we need to take a truly collaborative approach working with the other sciences, geography, and mathematics so that collectively we can improve the caliber and scope of science and mathematics education for all students.

Geary, E. E.; Manduca, C. A.; Barstow, D.

2002-05-01

487

Revalidating External Prison Classifications Systems: The Experience of Ten States and Model for Classification Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) funded projects to assist ten states with the revalidation of their external objective classification systems that determine which facility an inmate should be housed. The ten participating states included Delaware, Montana, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. Written by Patricia L. Hardyman, James Austin, and Owan C. Tulloch, this 146-page report reveals the work undertaken by the participating states, provides an overall outline of the essential tasks required for revalidation, and summarizes external classification trends along with the lessons learned from these reforms. The report also includes copies of classification instruments and statistical tables to describe options for other states faced with similar problems.

Austin, James, 1948-; Tulloch, Owan C.; Hardyman, Patricia L.

2002-01-01

488

A Process Map For State-Wide Engineering Technology/Manufacturing Technology Curriculum Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the period of three years, FLATE, the National Science Foundation-funded Florida Advanced Technological Education Center for Manufacturing, has undertaken reform of Florida's Associate in Science (A.S.) and Associate of Applied Science (A.A.S.) degrees associated with manufacturing and related technologies. This reform has resulted in a statewide degree in Engineering Technology with a common technology core, based on a national certification, and five specialization tracks to meet local needs. There are a number of benefits to this change or consolidation of Engineering Technology 2-year programs in Florida. These include: 1) A degree program that meets manufacturers skills and knowledge competencies related to foundational skills in engineering technology. 2) All Community Colleges in the State can market jointly to students and industry employers with a common degree program and certification; 3) Completion of the common technology core creates a portable completion point that allows students to transfer within the community college system to an institution with their desired specialization; 4) The national certification utilized, MSSC's Certified Production Technician (CPT), assesses a student/workers foundational skill and knowledge in four broad areas common to all manufacturing sectors: Manufacturing Processes and Production; Quality Assurance; Maintenance Awareness; and Safety. This certification is portable across manufacturing sectors and has been defined by industry; 5) Selecting the MSSC competencies to inform and anchor the curricular frameworks of the degree core allows currency, precision, relevance and abundant competencies; and, 6) The utilization of a national certification to inform the as a curricular framework common technology core has enabled the creation of a statewide articulation pathway from the secondary system, technical schools and incumbent worker training programs into the new degree. The multi-year process through which FLATE worked to outline, analyze, evaluate, and change the statewide system based on national standards and assessments, as well as students abilities and needs required engagement of essential stakeholders through out the state, including but not limited to: Florida's Community Colleges, Florida Department of Education, Manufacturers, Workforce Florida, State and Regional Manufacturers Associations, and Economic Developers. Presented herein is the process map for facilitating this reform via review of existing frameworks, coordinating the statewide curriculum team, hosting workshops, soliciting industry input, selection of national certification, developing the new frameworks for the engineering technology core courses, and institutionalization within the Department of Education. The process for conducting this reform could be applied to any technical career cluster to facilitate relevant degree programs and articulation pathways.

Barger, Marilyn; Gilbert, Richard A.; Roe, Eric; Jenkins, Bradley

2011-04-13

489

Should Income Taxes Replace State General Sales Taxes? A Welfare Analysis of a Taxing Dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

State sales taxes are levied primarily on tangible goods. Substitution of untaxed services for taxed goods has eroded the sales tax base. States have responded by increasing sales tax rates; however, higher rates encourage base erosion and increase tax distortions. A possible solution to the problem would replace sales taxes with income taxes. Since the income tax distorts saving and

Benjamin Russo; Eric Taylor

490

Parental Leave in Romania and Hungary and European Accession: Welfare State Untransformed  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the nature of the relationship between the political and economic structures of the EU and those of nation states seems a conflict-ridden one - featuring integrative tendencies of the former against the occasional self-preserving and self-reinforcing ambitions of the latter -, arguably leading to the slow surrender of state sovereignty as the prerogative of the final (political) decision 2,

Borbála Kovács

491

Recent developments in European and international welfare regulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Protocol on Animal Welfare annexed to the EC Treaty in 1999 obliges the European Institutions to fully consider animal welfare in the drafting and implementation of Community legislation. The reform of the common agricultural policies (CAP) foreseen by Agenda 2000 follows the trend of more market oriented measures decoupling subsidies from production. Farming is seen as fundamental to other

H. J. Blokhuis

2004-01-01

492

State Welfare ADP Application. System Number 120015 Prior Notification and Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Prior Notification and Review System was developed by the Florida Model State Project to achieve the timely reporting of all prior notifications for Federal Grants orginating within their departments, in compliance with the Office of Management and Bu...

D. A. Bangert

1972-01-01

493

Social Welfare, Human Dignity, and the Puzzle of What We Owe Each Other  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proponents of work-based welfare reform claim that moving the poor from welfare to work will advance the goals of economic self-reliance and independence. Reform opponents attack these objectives as ideologically motivated and conceptually incoherent. Drawing on perspectives developed by luck egalitarians and feminist theorists, these critics disparage conventional notions of economic desert, find fault with market measures of value, debunk

Amy L. Wax

2003-01-01

494

Caregiving women and the US welfare state: the case of elder kin care by low-income women.  

PubMed

Long-term care in the unique US welfare state is largely a private responsibility, and current long-term care policy rests on the assumption that care--of the elderly, in our example--will be provided by women. Because alternatives to personal care of dependent kin are available based on ability to pay, lower-income women bear a disproportionate burden. A study was undertaken to examine the experience of caregiving in a convenience sample of 10 low-income women providing informal care to a frail elder. Half the study sample were women of color. Responses to the core question, "What is taking care of ... like for you?" were analyzed using phenomenologic analysis techniques. A pattern of four interrelated key themes, which describe a transitional process beginning with inevitability of the caregiving role and ending with acquiescence to it, were identified. These data are placed in the political context that surrounds caregiving; such analyses are important both to generate theory and to identify possible points of intervention. PMID:8027196

Ward, D H; Carney, P A

1994-07-01

495

Welfare Reform: Tribes Are Using TANF Flexibility To Establish Their Own Programs. Testimony before the Committee on Indian Affairs, U.S. Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study requested by the U.S. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs examined tribal implementation of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Questionnaires were returned by TANF program directors in 34 states and by 148 American Indian tribes. Meetings were conducted with tribal leaders, program officials, and TANF officials in five states,…

Fagnoni, Cynthia M.

496

The Colonization of (M)Others in Welfare-to-Work Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that welfare reform policies colonize poor mothers. Using ethnographic data of a welfare-to-work educational program, the article analyzes how colonizing public and governmental discourses about welfare mothers infiltrate the program's educational policy and everyday practices. Using postcolonial theory that establishes an epistemological foundation of colonization, it is demonstrated that poor mothers are defined in public discourse and

Leslie Rebecca Bloom; Deborah Kilgore

2003-01-01

497

The End of Welfare as We Know It?: Durable Attitudes in a Changing Information Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

When white Americans think about welfare, they are likely to think about black Americans. The most prominent explanation for this phenomenon offered has been media coverage—newsmakers have pre- sented welfare as an overwhelmingly black and overwhelmingly bad so- cial program. Most of the data used in studies that reach these conclusions, however, predate welfare reform. Since passage of the Personal

JOSHUA J. DYCK; LAURA S. HUSSEY

2008-01-01

498

Welfare Policy as Social ControlA Specific Test of the Piven and Cloward Thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most macrolevel analyses of governmental aid to the poor focus on the relationship between indicators of social threat and the expansion of welfare programs. In this article, the authors' investigation extends that research by exploring the consequences of welfare contraction. Taking advantage of Wisconsin's ongoing natural experiment with welfare reform, the authors examine the extent to which the codification of

Mitchell B. Chamlin; Melissa W. Burek; John K. Cochran

2007-01-01

499

Transitions Off Welfare: An Examination of Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Motivational Predictors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-wave longitudinal study of 1071 female Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP) recipients was conducted to examine predictors of welfare outcomes in the context of the 1996 federal welfare reform act. In addition to the demographic and socioeconomic variables that typically have been examined in the welfare literature, motivational variables (i.e., achievement motivation and goal commitment) that have been touted

Amy L. Stellmack; Connie R. Wanberg; John Kammeyer-mueller

2003-01-01

500

State reform and local capacity: encouraging ambitious instruction for all and local decision?making  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at practitioners’ capacities to learn from policy. Although policy researchers have for some time asserted that local capacity is critical in enacting policy reforms, few have defined this capacity. We examine and define some of the capacities that are key to local educators’ efforts to enact ambitious reform proposals in South Carolina. These reforms propose giving local

Nancy E. Jennings; James P. Spillane

1996-01-01