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1

Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States  

E-print Network

1 Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States Rebecca M. Blank University of Michigan and NBER the United States fundamentally changed the structure of its public assistance programs to low, labor force changes, poverty and income changes, and family formation changes. A growing body

Shyy, Wei

2

Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the economics literature on welfare reform over the 1990s. A brief summary of the policy changes over this period is followed by a discussion of the methodological techniques utilized to analyze the effects of these changes on outcomes. The paper then critically reviews the econometric and experimental literature on caseload changes, labor force changes, poverty and income

Rebecca M. Blank

2002-01-01

3

Workfare With Welfare: Recent Reforms of the Danish Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denmark has recently seen a significant drop in unemployment that has not been matched by any corresponding increase in inflation. This article assumes that this remarkable achievement is rooted in the ongoing transition from the Keynesian welfare state (KWS) to a Schumpeterian workfare regime (SWR). The article compares the main features of the KWS with those of the SWR. It

Jacob Torfing

1999-01-01

4

Welfare Reform and Head Start.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the status of social welfare programs in the United States and recent efforts to reform such programs. It proposes key issues that need to be addressed in any attempt to overhaul the federal welfare system. Welfare reform should ensure that: (1) those families on public assistance are able to meet their basic needs in order to…

National Head Start Association, Alexandria, VA.

5

Children and Welfare Reform: High States, Low Coverage. Content Analysis on Welfare Reform Reporting. A Report by Children Now.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of the way welfare reform is presented in the national news media can provide insight into which aspects of the reform news consumers consider important. This study used a content analysis to examine all stories about welfare reform in the national press from: (1) June through August 1996, during which time the federal legislation…

Heintz-Knowles, Katharine

6

Welfare Reform at 15 and the State of Policy Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and…

Pimpare, Stephen

2013-01-01

7

Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 16 chapters in this five-part book, each by different authors, trace the effects of welfare reform (mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), upon poor people in rural areas of the United States. The book begins with an introduction called "As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural…

Weber, Bruce A., Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Whitener, Leslie A., Ed.

8

Welfare Reform: Few States Are Likely to Use the Simplified Food Stamp Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, released by the US General Accounting Office (GAO), examines some of the consequences of the federal Welfare Reform Act of 1996. The report studies the Simplified Food Stamp Program provision of the Welfare Reform Act to identify the seven states that have adopted the program, describe the concerns of the non-participant states regarding increased casework and restricted options, and examines the program's limited effects on households's eligibility and benefits.

1999-01-01

9

Welfare Reform Briefing Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents information on the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program in light of efforts at welfare reform. Following a listing of whom to call at the Children's Defense Fund (CDF) regarding various welfare issues, the report's first section, "Basic Facts on Welfare," presents information on the AFDC in a…

Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

10

Managing Welfare Reform in Five States: The Challenge of Devolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book analyzes the responses of five states (Florida, Mississippi, New York, Washington, and Wisconsin) to challenges posed by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 to alter state welfare programs and management systems. Using case studies, the book highlights similarities and differences in the states'…

Liebschutz, Sarah F., Ed.

11

Children and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

2002-01-01

12

Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

Sawhill, Isabel V.

2000-01-01

13

Reforming a Breadwinner Welfare State: Gender, Race, Class, and Social Security Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key challenge facing western welfare states is that they offset income risks faced by those in breadwinner families. Social Security is an excellent example. It best protects individuals with lengthy work histories or individuals who get married, stay married, and are never employed. Most women fit neither model. Thus, I analyze "women-friendly"…

Herd, Pamela

2005-01-01

14

The Effect of Welfare Reform on Childbirth, Marriage, and Divorce  

E-print Network

This dissertation contains two essays on the effect of welfare reform on child- birth, marriage, and divorce. In the first essay, I exploit the cross state variation in welfare reform implementation to identify its effect on birth rates. The results...

Pakdeethai, Pimrak

2010-10-12

15

Beyond welfare reform: Reframing undocumented immigrants’ entitlement to health care in the United States, a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the main scholarly frames that supported the deservingness of unauthorized immigrants to health benefits in the United States (U.S.) following the passage of the Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), known as the Welfare Reform bill, in 1996. Based on a critical literature review, conducted between January 1997 and March 2011, this article begins with an

Anahí Viladrich

16

Lifelong Learning and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An alternative perspective on lifelong learning locates it in culture, civil society, and leisure/consumption lifestyles. Distinctions between education and learning and markets and quasi-markets are used to explore policy models. The relationship to welfare reform policies is discussed. (Author/SK)

Griffin, Colin

1999-01-01

17

Economic Conditions and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 10 papers on three key questions regarding the effects of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which ended the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program: why welfare caseloads are falling; how welfare recipients are faring; and how the states are responding to changing…

Danziger, Sheldon H., Ed.

18

Welfare Reform and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines conflicting evidence regarding the impacts of welfare reform on children's wellbeing. Research shows that poverty rates, teen crime and fertility, and child maltreatment are down. Lack of appropriate state-level data on indicators of child wellbeing precludes serious analysis of the role of welfare reform for most indicators.…

Duncan, Greg J.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

19

What has Welfare Reform Accomplished? Impacts on Welfare Participation, Employment, Income, Poverty, and Family Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of recent welfare reforms, investigating the effects of both state-specific waivers in the early 1990s and the 1996 federal reform legislation. Unlike earlier work, we analyze a wide array of indicators, including welfare participation, labor market involvement, earnings, income and poverty, and family formation. While no single methodology is entirely satisfying, the results in this

Robert F. Schoeni; Rebecca M. Blank

2000-01-01

20

Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

21

Implementing Welfare Reform in Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is part of a broader study considering effects of welfare reform on households in rural areas. This report describes the findings of qualitative research, which examined welfare reform implementation and availability of services in 12 rural communities in Alabama, Arkansas, California, and Maine. The study sites were diverse in terms of…

Pindus, Nancy M.

22

Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

23

Family Poverty, Welfare Reform, and Child Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines consequences of family poverty for child development, noting evidence that deep or persistent poverty early in childhood adversely affects children's ability and achievement. Argues that although the 1996 welfare reforms spurred many welfare-to-work transitions, their time limits and sanctions are likely to deepen poverty among some…

Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2000-01-01

24

Welfare reform: advocacy and intervention in the health care setting.  

PubMed Central

Welfare reform has drastically altered the lives of poor families in the US. In its wake, many former recipients are not receiving whatever transitional benefits and other safeguards to which they remain entitled under federal and state laws. Families are losing access to Medicaid and are not receiving the child care assistance or Food Stamps for which they continue to be eligible. Ill-served by stringent time limits and work requirements, lack of child care assistance, and lack of training and educational opportunities for the development of skills that will lead to better jobs, families need help to navigate the complexities of the new welfare system. Boston Medical Center's Department of Pediatrics has instituted a welfare screening project to educate families about their rights under welfare reform and assist them in advocating for themselves and their children. PMID:10670622

Lawton, E; Leiter, K; Todd, J; Smith, L

1999-01-01

25

APPROACHING THE LIMIT: EARLY NATIONAL LESSONS FROM WELFARE REFORM  

E-print Network

controversial social policies of recent times. A Democratic president abandoned welfare reform legislationAPPROACHING THE LIMIT: EARLY NATIONAL LESSONS FROM WELFARE REFORM Sheldon Danziger University of Welfare Reform. Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2001. Sheldon Danziger is Henry J

Shyy, Wei

26

After welfare reform and an economic boom: why is child  

E-print Network

, Sweden, June 2001. Economic conditions in the United States in 1999 (the latest year for which data1 After welfare reform and an economic boom: why is child poverty still so much higher in the U on poverty are currently available) were excellent. Inflation and unemployment were low (2.2 percent and 4

Shyy, Wei

27

Running Head: Mental Health and Welfare Reform MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE MOTHERS  

E-print Network

Running Head: Mental Health and Welfare Reform MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE MOTHERS Pennsylvania State University #12;Mental Health and Welfare Reform/2 MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE that having a psychiatric disorder is associated with a 25 percent lower likelihood of working. Mental health

Shyy, Wei

28

The Economic Impact of Welfare Reform on Arkansas Families. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1997, the Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA) program was established in Arkansas as the state's version of welfare reform. Although there has been a 44 percent decrease in TEA cash assistance since the program's inception, questions continue regarding the impact of welfare reform on families with children. This report highlights some of…

Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, Little Rock.

29

Welfare Reform: States' Efforts To Expand Child Care Programs. United States General Accounting Office Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Children and Families, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sweeping changes of welfare reform embodied in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, and which created the Child Care and Development Block Grant, raise many questions about how states will implement subsidy programs to help an increasing number of low-income families meet their child care needs. At the…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

30

Welfare Reform. Hearing before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (February 4, 1988). Part 3 of 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing, the third of three on welfare reform, focuses on the problem of child support and ways to improve the current system. One child in four now lives with a single parent; these children must receive the support that they are due. The hearings also focused on the problems of unemployed parents, and how the welfare system can help prepare…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

31

Welfare: Issues to Consider in Assessing Proposals for Reform. Briefing Report to the Honorable William V. Roth, Jr., United States Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides an overview of research findings on major Federal welfare system design issues. The report is based on: a review of 100 major welfare studies completed since 1975; interviews with Federal, State, and local welfare officials; the results of the General Accounting Office's (GAO) welfare work; and an analysis of the Census…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

32

Welfare Reform: Implications for the Black Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The centerpiece of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA) is the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) Act, which directs states to provide a broad range of educational, training, and employment services. FSA offers states an opportunity to design humane and effective programs to assist welfare recipients to move out of poverty. FSA also has…

McLaughlin, Megan E.

33

Welfare dynamics, support services, mothers' earnings, and child cognitive development: implications for contemporary welfare reform.  

PubMed

This prospective longitudinal study, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY; N = 614), addresses the gap in the research literature regarding the effects of welfare reform on children. Key questions addressed include whether welfare dynamics and support services relevant to welfare reform, both measured across the first 5 years of life, are associated with mothers' earnings in the 6th year and three child cognitive outcomes in the 7th and 8th years: Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) math and reading scores, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Welfare dynamics are represented by total time on welfare, degree of cycling on and off welfare, and degree to which welfare and work are combined. Support services measured include three forms of child care (relative, babysitter, and center-based), as well as three forms of human capital supports (child support, job training, and education). Controlling for a range of background factors and for different patterns of welfare use across the first 5 years, small positive associations with mother's earnings were found for child support, education, and job training. Small positive associations also were found between child support and both math and reading scores. Finally positive associations of medium effect size were found between center care and both mothers' earnings and child PPVT scores. Although effect sizes are generally small, the results suggest the potential value of welfare reform approaches that emphasize long-term human capital development. Interactions between welfare dynamics and support services suggest subgroup differences. Specifically, positive effects of support services on earnings are strongest among mothers with higher levels of human capital (higher levels of work while on welfare, lower total time on welfare). Babysitter care appears to have negative effects on both reading and math scores of children whose mothers report low levels of work while on welfare. Implications for welfare reform policy are discussed. PMID:10368922

Yoshikawa, H

1999-01-01

34

Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation of Jobs First (JF) compared the experiences of JF participants who were subject to welfare reform policies with those of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) participants who were subject to prior welfare rules. It collected information for four years about JF's impacts on participants' children and analyzed its financial…

Bloom, Dan; Scrivener, Susan; Michalopoulos, Charles; Morris, Pamela; Hendra, Richard; Adams-Ciardullo, Diana; Walter, Johanna

35

The impact of welfare reform on local labor markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a local labor market information system to assess the labor market effects of recently adopted welfare reform laws. Using the Cleveland-Akron metropolitan area as a prototype, we develop an occupationally and geographically specific inventory of projected job openings and measure the skill mismatch between projected job openings and the welfare population likely to enter the labor market. We

Laura Leete; Neil Bania

1999-01-01

36

A Dual Transformation of the German Welfare State?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the notion of a political blockade making comprehensive reform impossible, this article argues that we have, in fact, witnessed a dual transformation of the German welfare state during the past 25 years. Increasingly, the state reduces its commitment to securing the living standard of former wage earners, which had been the key normative principle of the German welfare

M. Seeleib-Kaiser

2002-01-01

37

A "Third Way" in Welfare Reform? Evidence from the United Kingdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

U.S. welfare reforms, whether promoting work first or human capital development, have had in common an emphasis on employment as the key to improving the life chances of children living in single-mother families. We describe in this article a different type of reform--a "third way" in welfare reform. The welfare reforms carried out in the United…

Hills, John; Waldfogel, Jane

2004-01-01

38

The politics of ideas in welfare state transformation: Christian Democracy and the reform of family policy in Germany.  

PubMed

The expansion of employment-centered family policies of the Grand Coalition in Germany came with some surprise, as Christian Democrats have traditionally been strongly committed to the male breadwinner model and corresponding family policies. This article investigates why Christian Democrats (though with some inconsistencies) promoted “social-democratic” family policies guided by the adult worker rather than by the male breadwinner model. Illuminating the politics of recent family policy reforms, the electoral rationale for this modernization of family policy, the role of political entrepreneurship, and intraparty political conflicts over the new policy paradigm are discussed. PMID:22292173

Fleckenstein, Timo

2011-01-01

39

Recent Changes in Wisconsin Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 8. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wisconsin's new welfare program was a dramatic departure from the old income maintenance system of welfare and moved beyond other states' work-based welfare reform programs. This report describes Wisconsin's approach to welfare reform, using data collected in 1999 and 2000 from state and local administrators, direct service providers, and, in some…

Ehrle, Jennifer; Seefeldt, Kristin; Snyder, Kathleen; McMahon, Pat

40

Community Development Corporations and Welfare Reform: Linkages, Roles, and Impacts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of welfare reform on housing owned by community development corporations (CDCs), investigating how early implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) affected the financial status of CDCs' affordable housing developments. Five types of financial impacts were…

Wright, David J.; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Schill, Michael H.

41

Welfare Reform and New York City's Low-Income Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract To evaluate the initial effects of welfare reform and changes in New York City policies and administrative procedures, we use the Current Population Survey (CPS) to compare receipt of public benefit programs, earnings, and income among vulnerable households, defined as those households with low education or single mothers in 1994–95 and 1997–99. Over this period, the CPS shows a

Howard Chernick; Cordelia Reimers

2002-01-01

42

Mothers' Work: Single Mothers' Employment, Earnings, and Poverty in the Age of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employment, earnings, and poverty among single mothers in New York City and across the United States in the age of welfare reform were examined to identify goals and recommendations for reauthorization of legislation regulating Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). The study indicated that although job holding by single mothers has risen…

Levitan, Mark; Gluck, Robin

43

The Impact of Welfare Reform on Head Start Disability and Family Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1997 study assessed the impact of welfare reform as reported by Head Start staff served by the Great Lakes Resource Access Project (GLRAP), a federally funded program providing training and technical assistance to Head Start staff in the area of disability services. The states served by the project are Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota,…

Bennett, Tess; Bhagwanji, Yash; Thomas, Dawn; Allison, Anita

44

WELFARE REFORM, SUBSTANCE USE, AND MENTAL HEALTH1 Rukmalie Jayakody2  

E-print Network

-III-R psychiatric diagnosis. About the same percentage have used illicit drugs during the previous year. Logistic1 WELFARE REFORM, SUBSTANCE USE, AND MENTAL HEALTH1 Rukmalie Jayakody2 Pennsylvania State for Poverty, Risk and Mental Health, University of Michigan, 504 E. Liberty, Suite 202, Ann Arbor, MI 48104

Shyy, Wei

45

The Volunteer Citizen After Welfare Reform in the United States: An Ethnographic Study of Volunteerism in Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, neoliberal strategies for social, economic, and state organization have been accompanied by frequent calls for volunteers to solve serious social problems. A case study of a community mobilization of middle-class volunteers to provide one-on-one support to families in poverty shows both possibilities and limitations. Volunteers provide social support to families in poverty, thus alleviating social isolation.

Leslie Rebecca Bloom; Deborah Kilgore

2003-01-01

46

Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860

Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

2014-01-01

47

Welfare Reform Proposals. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Domestic Marketing, Consumer Relations, and Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing seeks to examine the Family Welfare Reform Act, H.R. 1720, now pending, and determine what changes in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and the Food Stamp Program are needed to ensure that the United States has an integrated welfare system. H.R. 1720 includes benefit reforms, a new employment and training…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

48

Sharp Reduction in Black Child Poverty Due to Welfare Reform. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report asserts that welfare reform has been very successful in reducing child poverty. For a quarter-century prior to reform, black child poverty and poverty among single mothers remained virtually constant. Six years after reform, poverty among both groups dropped rapidly, reaching the lowest levels in U.S. history. Welfare rolls have…

Pardue, Melissa G.

49

The Forgotten Children: African American Children and Child Welfare Reform in St. Louis, 1890-1930  

E-print Network

Abstract Forgotten Children examines the influence of racial ideology on the trajectory of child welfare reform in late nineteenth century and early twentieth century St. Louis. The modern American child welfare system ...

Thirlkel, Thomas E.

2010-05-07

50

Children and welfare reform: a view from an experimental welfare program in Minnesota.  

PubMed

Little is known about the effects of the most recent welfare reform initiatives--which include work mandates, time limits, and enhanced earnings disregards--on children's outcomes. This is partly because the ways in which maternal employment and income affect children more generally are not well understood. This article describes the effects on child development of the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), a welfare program that began prior to 1996 federal welfare reform legislation. The present study utilized MFIP's unique, three-group research design to untangle the effects of different components of the program, and, in turn, discover how each component's effects on parents' income or employment affected children's development. This study's findings showed that MFIP increased employment rates and decreased poverty and, according to reports from mothers, children were less likely to exhibit problem behaviors and more likely to perform better and be more highly engaged in school. These findings, based on a total of 879 participants, bolster the long-standing literature that has associated poverty with worse outcomes for children by confirming, in a rigorous experiment, that incremental increases in income for working poor parents bring benefits to children. PMID:11949911

Gennetian, Lisa A; Miller, Cynthia

2002-01-01

51

Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its establishment in 1996, Connecticut's Job First Welfare Reform Program has been under rigorous evaluation. As a result, under a contract with the Connecticut Department of Social Services, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC) decided to study the effects of the Job First Program. During the study, nearly 5,000 single-parent welfare applicants and recipients in Manchester and New Haven were randomly assigned to either the Jobs First Program or to the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) group (which operated under the prior welfare rules). The effects of the Jobs First Program were estimated by comparing how the two groups fared over a four-year period, and the results are revealed in this report. Users may choose to view the Executive Summary (a short review in HTML), the Summary Report (52 pages), or the Full Report (406 pages). In addition, the Web page provides access to the report's press release (issued February 20, 2002) and a description of Connecticut's Job First Program.

Adams-Ciardullo, Diana.; Bloom, Dan.; Hendra, Richard.; Michalopoulos, Charles.; Morris, Pamela.; Scrivener, Susan.

2002-01-01

52

Welfare Reform Policy From Nixon to Clinton: What Role for Social Science?  

E-print Network

1 Welfare Reform Policy From Nixon to Clinton: What Role for Social Science? Sheldon Danziger on the conference draft. #12;2 Welfare Reform Policy From Nixon to Clinton: What Role for Social Science? Social* University of Michigan Revised December 1999 Paper prepared for Conference, "The Social Sciences and Policy

Shyy, Wei

53

Welfare Reform, Work, and Literacy: Issues of Gender, Class, and Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study focused on the effect of welfare reform legislation on literacy or social service providers and families participating in the programs. Program staff and participants in Wisconsin and California were surveyed and interviewed to determine how welfare reform impacted what they do programmatically or personally. Findings indicated receipt of…

Sheared, Vanessa

54

Impact of the 1996 Welfare Reform on Child and Family Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examined the impact of the 1996 Welfare Reform, based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using a sample of 1,681 single mothers living in poverty, this study compared the effects of economic well-being and home environment scores on their children during pre- and post-Welfare Reform years. Following the 1996…

Lee, Kyunghee

2009-01-01

55

The Continuing Good News about Welfare Reform. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the time of its enactment, liberal groups passionately denounced the welfare reform legislation, predicting that it would result in substantial increases in poverty, hunger, and other social ills. Contrary to these alarming forecasts, welfare reform has been effective in meeting each of its goals. Data from various sources show that overall…

Rector, Robert; Fagan, Patrick F.

56

Reforming Welfare and Rewarding Work: A Final Report on the Minnesota Family Investment Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cited June 2000 in a printed statement on welfare reform from President Clinton, this new report offers a comprehensive assessment of Minnesota's welfare reform program. The report was produced by The Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC), a "nonprofit, nonpartisan social policy research organization." MDRC found that Minnesota's reform program brought substantial, far-ranging improvements to the lives of single parents who were long-term welfare recipients, including increases in employment, reduction in poverty, decreased levels of domestic abuse, and improvements in children's behavior and school performance. Unlike many welfare reform programs, Minnesota's is premised upon a commitment to support people while they work. This welfare-plus-work dimension was emphasized by the MDRC as crucial to the reform's successes.

Berlin, Gordon L.

2000-01-01

57

Fashioning a work-based strategy for welfare reform based on international human rights doctrine.  

PubMed

The role of work in debates over welfare reform in the United States is analyzed. Five issues are identified and discussed under this heading, with special emphasis on the question of whether enough jobs exist to make it possible for all able-bodied welfare recipients to find paid employment in the regular labor market. It is argued that there are not enough jobs available--not even low-wage jobs--to make this a reasonable goal, and that neither conservatives nor liberals have faced up to the dilemma posed by this job shortage. International human rights doctrine concerning the availability of work at decent wages is cited in support of the proposition that the government should be held accountable for filling this job gap, not only for welfare recipients but for all other job-seekers as well. The costs of a hypothetical jobs program capable of achieving this goal are assessed, with the surprising result that it might actually save the public money. It is suggested that such a program could constitute an effective alternative to current welfare reform proposals. PMID:7499511

Harvey, P

1995-01-01

58

The Europeanization of welfare Paradigm shifts and social policy reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of Eur opeanization implies a confluence of resources and outputs by the EU member states. This is mainly due to both structural economic harmonisation and institutional system-building. This paper deals with welfare developments in the European social model in c ontemporary times. After identifying major changes affecting European countries both functionally and territorially, EU initiatives in social policy-making

Luis Moreno; Bruno Palier

2005-01-01

59

Policy experts, politicians, and others debate successes and failures of welfare reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On and off the rolls, women work to get aheadhttp://www.kansascity.com/mld/kansascity/news/local/15329233.htmNPR: Legislator Offers First-Person View of Welfare [Real Player]http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5689095In Focus: Ten Years of Welfare Reform [pdf]http://www.brookings.edu/comm/infocus/welfare.htmNPR: Where the Welfare Law Failed Fathershttp://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5671231Fact Sheet: The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/ofa/prwora96.htmSome sixty years after its introduction during the New Deal era, the essence of social welfare in the United States was dramatically transformed with the passage of The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. Despite its cumbersome name, the Act effectively placed a five-year time limit on welfare assistance, and also required a significant commitment on the part of recipients to find work. As various groups and individuals reflected on the past ten years, some were quick to note that the number of people on welfare has dropped 60 percent. Others have been more sanguine, noting that these reforms continue to inadequately address deeper problems, particularly those of single mothers with few job qualifications or education. Some critics continue to suggest that these problems are related to structural changes in the economy, and others continue to blame the so-called âÂÂculture of povertyâÂÂ. The debates over what to do in order to solve the problems of working families continues to be intense, with some groups pushing to encourage marriage as a solution, and others seeking to provide more money for child care and higher minimum wages. The first link will take users to a piece from the Pittsburgh Post-GazetteâÂÂs own Steve Levin that takes a closer look at the effects of welfare reform on several local residents. The second link leads to a similar piece which looks at womenâÂÂs experience with the welfare system in and around Kansas City. The third link leads to a provocative piece from National Public Radio which features Montana legislator Mary Caferro talking about her own first-hand experience as a welfare recipient. Moving right along, visitors will find a diverse set of scholarly writings on welfare reform at the fourth site, offered courtesy of The Brookings Institution. The fifth link offers commentary by two scholars (Ron Haskins and Ronald Mincy) about how public policy should be adjusted over the next decade to meet the needs of poor families. Finally, the last link leads to a basic fact sheet on The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.

Grinnell, Max

2006-01-01

60

Feminist Perspectives on TANF Reauthorization: An Introduction to Key Issues for the Future of Welfare Reform. Briefing Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current debates about welfare reform center on the upcoming reauthorization of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) legislation. The provisions of TANF include the elimination of the entitlement to cash assistance, block grant funding to the states, mandatory work requirements, sanctions, a 5-year limit on cash assistance, and…

Peterson, Janice

61

Positive animal welfare states and reference standards for welfare assessment.  

PubMed

Abstract Developments in affective neuroscience and behavioural science during the last 10-15 years have together made it increasingly apparent that sentient animals are potentially much more sensitive to their environmental and social circumstances than was previously thought to be the case. It therefore seems likely that both the range and magnitude of welfare trade-offs that occur when animals are managed for human purposes have been underestimated even when minimalistic but arguably well-intentioned attempts have been made to maintain high levels of welfare. In light of these neuroscience-supported behaviour-based insights, the present review considers the extent to which the use of currently available reference standards might draw attention to these previously neglected areas of concern. It is concluded that the natural living orientation cannot provide an all-embracing or definitive welfare benchmark because of its primary focus on behavioural freedom. However assessments of this type, supported by neuroscience insights into behavioural motivation, may now carry greater weight when used to identify management practices that should be avoided, discontinued or substantially modified. Using currently accepted baseline standards as welfare reference points may result in small changes being accorded greater significance than would be the case if they were compared with higher standards, and this could slow the progress towards better levels of welfare. On the other hand, using "what animals want" as a reference standard has the appeal of focusing on the specific resources or conditions the animals would choose themselves and can potentially improve their welfare more quickly than the approach of making small increments above baseline standards. It is concluded that the cautious use of these approaches in different combinations could lead to recommendations that would more effectively promote positive welfare states in hitherto neglected areas of concern. PMID:24875152

Mellor, Dj

2015-01-01

62

Welfare Reform. Helping the Least Fortunate Become Less Dependent. Children of Poverty: Studies on the Effects of Single Parenthood, the Feminization of Poverty, and Homelessness. A Garland Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides background for evaluating public policy choices in the area of welfare reform. Although it focuses on Missouri's Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) program, it incorporates and compares national data and it raises the same fundamental questions about the fate of welfare in the United States. The eight chapters of the book…

Koon, Richard L.

63

Welfare Reform. Hearings on S. 869, S. 1001, S. 1511, before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (October 14 and 28, 1987). Part 2 of 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of hearings, the second of three on welfare reform, focuses on the following legislation: (1) the Family Security Act (S. 1511); (2) child support enforcement bills (S. 1001 and S. 869); and (3) the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Employment and Training Reorganization Act. Among the speakers and witnesses were the following:…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

64

Reconsidering Schools and the American Welfare State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses her comparative study of the history of the welfare state in the United States, England, and France, she studies some of the usual features of the welfare state, which include important entitlement programs, such as social insurance, and protective labor legislation, but she also focuses on the development of…

Cohen, Miriam

2005-01-01

65

State Welfare Rules, TANF Exits, and Geographic Context: Does Place Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research compares the likelihood of exiting TANF with and without employment and the effects of important state TANF rules on welfare exits in more disadvantaged (large Rustbelt cities and poor southern nonmetro) and less disadvantaged (other metro and other nonmetro) areas during the 1996-2003 post-welfare reform period. Hierarchical…

Irving, Shelley K.

2008-01-01

66

Five States' Innovative Approaches to Welfare: Promoting Economic Security among America's Poor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Family Support Act of 1988 and the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 provided the basis for a comprehensive reform of welfare programs. This document provides examples of how five states have chosen to implement new provisions in their welfare programs to aid families in achieving greater economic…

Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

67

Welfare Reform Impacts on the Public Housing Program: A Preliminary Forecast: HUD USER  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users may download this report and accompanying charts from the HUD USER site. The report "examines the implications of welfare reform for public housing authorities (PHAs), whose residents traditionally contribute a portion of their incomes for rent." The report focuses on a small number of diverse housing authorities and finds that the effects of welfare reform on tenant incomes and PHA rent revenues will most probably vary considerably.

68

Reforming Welfare: What Does It Mean for Rural Areas? Issues in Food Assistance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 2000, a conference on the rural dimensions of welfare reform and food assistance policy brought together researchers, welfare policy experts, and rural scholars. This issue brief summarizes some major findings of the conference and suggests future policy options to better address the differing needs of rural and urban families. Between 1994…

Whitener, Leslie A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Weber, Bruce A.

69

Welfare state regimes and population health: integrating the East Asian welfare states.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that population health varies significantly by welfare state regime. However, these studies have focused exclusively on the welfare states of Europe, North America and Australasia. This focus ignores the existence of welfare states in other parts of the world, specifically in East Asia. This study therefore investigates whether the association between population health (Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth) and welfare state regimes is still valid when the welfare states of East Asia are added into the analysis. It also examines whether population health is worse in the East Asian welfare states. Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth as well as GDP per capita and social and health expenditures as a percentage of GDP were examined in 30 welfare states, categorised into six different regimes (Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern, Eastern European and East Asian). ANOVA analysis showed significant differences by welfare state regime in the magnitude of IMR, LE, SE, HE and GDP per capita. However, when controlling for GDP per capita in the ANCOVA analyses, only Life Expectancy (R(2)=0.58, adjusted R(2)=0.47, p<0.05) and Social Expenditure (R(2)=0.70, adjusted R(2)=0.61, p<0.05) differed significantly by welfare state regime. 47% of the variation in Life Expectancy was explained by welfare state regime type. Further, the East Asian welfare states did not have the worst health outcomes. The study concludes by highlighting the need to expand comparative health analysis both in terms of the range of countries examined and also in terms of incorporating other societal and public health factors-towards a 'public health regime' analysis. PMID:19748149

Abdul Karim, Syahirah; Eikemo, Terje A; Bambra, Clare

2010-01-01

70

Nonmetro Labor Markets in the Era of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural job growth remains behind that of metro areas, hindering efforts to move welfare recipients into successful employment. Those most in need of public assistance have less education, lower earnings, and higher unemployment than average. Welfare recipients are concentrated in rural areas marked by chronic economic distress and low-skilled,…

Gibbs, Robert

2001-01-01

71

Depression and Welfare Reform: From Barriers to Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors identify ways to facilitate work among current and recent welfare recipients with mental illness. Their analysis assesses the relationship between a particular mental illness, depression, and labor force involvement in a statewide sample of welfare recipients, identifies the factors that promote work for those with depression, and…

Lewis, Dan A.; Lee, Bong Joo; Altenbernd, Lisa M.

2006-01-01

72

The Impact of Welfare Reform on Adult Literacy Education: Conference Papers and Themes from Small Group Sessions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three commissioned papers and other materials from a 2-day conference. "Politics, Policy, Practice and Personal Responsibility: Adult Education in an Era of Welfare Reform" (Deborah D'Amico) examines the relationship between literacy, poverty, and welfare reform and the implications of those relationships for literacy…

National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy, Boston, MA.

73

How Are Immigrants Faring after Welfare Reform? Preliminary Evidence from Los Angeles and New York City. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999 and 2000, immigrants in Los Angeles, California, and New York, New York were aurveyed about their status in the context of welfare reform, examining the living conditions of 3,447 immigrant families roughly 3 years after welfare reform was implemented and several months before the federal government issued guidance about the public charge…

Capps, Randy; Ku, Leighton; Fix, Michael; Furgiuele, Chris; Passel, Jeff; Ramchand, Rajeev; McNiven, Scott; Perez-Lopez, Dan; Fielder, Eve; Greenwell, Michael; Hays, Tonya

74

School Inequality and the Welfare State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book begins with an examination of school inequality in the United States. The discussion focuses successively on the issues of: the paradox of unequal schools in a welfare state, the distribution of educational resources in American cities: some new empirical evidence, inequalities in the allocation of educational resources among cities and…

Owen, John D.

75

Complaint Resolution in the Context of Welfare Reform: How W-2 Settles Disputes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtually rewriting how government assistance would be administered to those in need, Wisconsin's Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 has had a dramatic impact on all people previously eligible for federally administered Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). In particular, PRWORA and the subsequent Wisconsin Works, or W-2, program has mandated that no one receive benefits for no more than twenty four months and that, over the course of that period, vocational training is actively sought and put to use. Highly controversial and replacing a system more than sixty years old, both PRWORA and W-2 have met with a great deal of criticism and a number of legal challenges, many of which have been filed on behalf of those failing to meet the demands of a more stringent system of needs and compliance analyses. Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation's Report "Complaint Resolution in the Context of Welfare Reform: How W-2 Settles Disputes" thoroughly details the selection and appeals provisions of Wisconsin's radically revamped, welfare statutes. While challenging reading at times, the report does a magnificent job of outlining the steps put in place by the Wisconsin State Legislature to ensure that all potential recipients enjoy due process in their requests for government assistance. Additionally, for those attempting to assess the scope and efficacy of the W-2 program, the report also offers valuable historical perspective.

Lynn, Suzanne.

2001-01-01

76

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series Welfare Reform, Saving, and Vehicle Ownership  

E-print Network

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #05-07 May 2005 Welfare Reform, Saving, and Vehicle at the National Poverty Center Working Paper Series index at: http of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the National Poverty Center or any sponsoring agency

Shyy, Wei

77

Marriage, Family Structure and Economic Well-Being: The Second Round of Welfare Reform. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that many from across the ideological spectrum suggest that welfare reform address policies that promote marriage and two-parent families. Discusses marriage, family structure and economic well-being, the benefits of marriage for adults and children, and low-income unwed mothers and marriage. Suggests that marriage and two-parent families…

Lindjord, Denise

2002-01-01

78

Welfare Reform and New York City's Low-Income Population. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses Current Population Survey data to evaluate the initial effects of welfare reform on the economic well-being of low-income and vulnerable families (defined as those with low levels of education or with single mothers). To do so, it examines the changes in New York City policies and administrative procedures, comparing receipt of…

Chernick, Howard; Reimers, Cordelia

79

Welfare Reforms and Employment of Single Mothers: Are Rural Areas Keeping Pace?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1996 welfare reforms narrowed rural-urban differences in employment for both less-educated and more-educated single mothers, and raised the employment rate of single mothers, overall and for all racial/ethnic groups except nonmetro Hispanics. These findings suggest that the aggregate effects of obstacles to employment are no greater in…

Lerman, Robert I.; McKernan, Signe-Mary; Pindus, Nancy

2001-01-01

80

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series Did Welfare Reform Differentially Influence the Fertility of Young Teens?  

E-print Network

Influence the Fertility of Young Teens? Assessing the Success of the "Living Arrangement Rule" and the "Stay Differentially Influence the Fertility of Young Teens? Assessing the Success of the "Living Arrangement Rule of the Congressional Budget Office. #12;2 Did Welfare Reform Differentially Influence the Fertility of Young Teens

Shyy, Wei

81

Welfare reform and access to family-supportive benefits in the workplace.  

PubMed

Welfare reform has focused on the deficits of poor mothers, while ignoring inadequacies in the jobs and workplaces they will enter. This study of 2,375 pregnant women in the labor force examines the impact of job and workplace characteristics on access to workplace benefits that are important to families, while controlling statistically for women's education, marital status, and ethnicity. PMID:8911620

Piotrkowski, C S; Kessler-Sklar, S

1996-10-01

82

Hunger and the Reform of Welfare: A Question of Nutritional Adequacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report is to review the history of the commitment to ensure nutritional adequacy for all American families during the last several years, and to study the relationship between proposed welfare reform measures and that commitment to nutritional adequacy. A specific proposal, H.R.1, eliminates food stamps, the Nation's primary…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

83

Immigrants' Access to Public Assistance: Missed Opportunities following Welfare Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Personal Responsibility and Work Reconciliation Act of 1996 reformed public assistance programs and reduced the safety net of supports for low-income families. Children living in low-income immigrant families face particular challenges in the current policy environment. In this article, the authors consider what these changes have meant for…

Crosby, Danielle A.; Hatfield, Bridget E.

2008-01-01

84

Welfare Reform and Community Colleges: A Policy and Research Context. MDRC Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the state of welfare after the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) passed by Congress in 1996. The National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS) is a federally initiated study that explores the questions of what works best and for whom. NEWWS evaluated seven areas across the…

Brock, Thomas; Matus-Grossman, Lisa; Hamilton, Gayle

85

Los Angeles in an Era of Welfare Reform: Implications for Poor People and Community Well-being.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, framed by the region's foremost experts on poverty, is the first comprehensive and scientifically rigorous analysis of the implications of welfare reform for the people and communities of Los Angeles (California). Direct and indirect impacts are considered. It is concluded that the number of welfare recipients in Los Angeles likely to…

Wolch, Jennifer; Sommer, Heidi

86

Gaining Ground, Moving Up: The Change in the Economic Status of Single Mothers under Welfare Reform. Civic Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a follow-up of a 2001 study that examined changes in the welfare and work participation of single mothers. This study addresses whether single mothers earn enough to compensate for loss of benefits under welfare reform and the extent to which these women have access to income from sources other than their own earnings. Data come from…

O'Neil, June; Hill, M. Anne

87

The Impact of Welfare Reform on Academic Outcomes: Does Parental Work Boost Grades? Institute for Policy Research Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1996 welfare reform act forced many poor parents into the labor market, with little understanding of how the parents' workforce participation would affect family life in general and their children in particular. In this paper, researchers examine the relationship between parental workforce participation, welfare receipt, and children's…

Pareja, Amber Stitziel, Lewis, Dan A.

88

School Reform in 10 States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third in a series, this report provides a brief look at the recent history of the education reform movements in 10 states. The report begins with an essay by William Chance, former executive director of the Washington State Temporary Committee on Educational Policies, Structure and Management. In an article entitled "Changing the Terms of…

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

89

Delivering Health Care and Mental Health Care Services to Children in Family Foster Care after Welfare and Health Care Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the essential features of a health care system that can meet the special needs of children in out-of-home care. Discusses some of the major recent changes brought about by welfare and health care reform. Notes that it remains to be seen whether the quality of services will improve as a result of these reforms. (Author)

Simms, Mark D.; Freundlich, Madelyn; Battistelli, Ellen S.; Kaufman, Neal D.

1999-01-01

90

After Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past few years, the American RadioWorks has raised the bar for like-minded radio documentary programs, producing thought-provoking and insightful studies on topics such as, Congressional reform, intelligent design, and international adoption programs. In this recently released documentary, John Biewen has created this introspective look into the world of welfare reform in the United States, and how it has affected the lives of five different women and their families. The women profiled come from a host of different backgrounds, and visitors may be surprised at some of the findings that Biewen presents in the documentary. The site also includes an interactive feature that allows users to find out how their own state ranks in terms of welfare and foodstamp recipients, welfare check sizes, time limits, and unemployment rates. Visitors can also look over a list of additional external links of interest and also read the complete transcript of the program.

Biewen, John

2006-01-01

91

Rethinking the western construction of the welfare state.  

PubMed

This article employs case studies of China and Hong Kong to question the western ethnocentric construction of the welfare state that predominates in comparative social policy research. The authors argue that welfare regimes, and particularly the "welfare state," have been constructed as capitalist-democratic projects and that this has the damaging effect of excluding from analyses not only several advanced capitalist societies in the Asian-Pacific area but also the world's most populous country. If welfare state regimes can only coexist with western political democracies, then China and Hong Kong are excluded automatically. A similar result occurs if the traditional social administration approach is adopted whereby a "welfare state" is defined in terms only of direct state provision. The authors argue that such assumptions are untenable if state welfare is to be analyzed as a universal phenomenon. Instead of being trapped within an ethnocentric welfare statism, what social policy requires is a global political economy perspective that facilitates comparisons of the meaning of welfare and the state's role in producing it north, south, east and west. PMID:8932602

Walker, A; Wong, C K

1996-01-01

92

The Neighborhood Contexts in Which Low-Income Families Navigate Welfare Reform: Evidence from the Three-City Study  

PubMed Central

We investigate the neighborhood contexts in which low-income families negotiate the new environment created by welfare reform. Using data from the Three-City Study and U.S. Census, we follow 1,059 low-income women from 1999 to 2005tracking their neighborhood quality, employment, and welfare use. Despite living in similar neighborhoods in 1999, women who left welfare experienced larger reductions in neighborhood disadvantage than women who remained on welfare. Likewise, women who left welfare with employment achieved larger increases in neighborhood quality than those who left welfare without work; the latter experiencing neighborhood change no different than those who stayed on welfare. Results indicate that neighborhood conditions are, at minimum, associated with welfare outcomes. We evaluate whether improvements in residential contexts facilitate transitions to economic self-sufficiency, but also test the reverse possibility. Findings suggest that neighborhood quality increases after women leave welfare, though we cannot reject the possibility that better neighborhoods lead to better outcomes.

Bennett, Pamela R.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

93

Individual Attitudes towards Immigrants: Welfare-State Determinants Across Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes welfare-state determinants of individual attitudes towards im- migrants - within and across countries - and their interaction with labor-market drivers of preferences. We consider two difierent mechanisms through which a redistributive welfare system might adjust as a result of immigration. Under the flrst scenario, immi- gration has a larger impact on individuals at the top of the

Giovanni Facchini; Anna Maria Mayda

94

The Role of European Welfare States in Explaining Resources Deprivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous paper in this journal (Headey et al., 2000) a comparison was made between three so-called 'best cases' of welfare regime types, the 'Liberal' US, 'the 'Corporatist' Germany and the 'Social-Democratic' Netherlands. The main conclusion was that the Social-Democratic welfare state performed best on nearly all social and economic…

Muffels, Ruud; Fouarge, Didier

2004-01-01

95

Welfare Reform in a Hard Place: The West Virginia Experience. Rockefeller Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structured work and training activities for welfare recipients in West Virginia began in 1962 when the state's entire caseload of two-parent families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children was enrolled in mandatory work and training activities. In 1980s-1990s, the Community Work Experience Program became an important tool in…

Plein, L. Christopher

96

New Hope for People with Low Incomes: Two-Year Results of a Program To Reduce Poverty and Reform Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document details the 2-year results of the New Hope Project, which was conducted in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to reduce poverty, reform welfare, and improve the overall well-being of poor people by providing a mix of incentives and services, including supplemental income, child care subsidies, guaranteed affordable health insurance, and…

Bos, Johannes M.; Huston, Aletha C.; Granger, Robert C.; Duncan, Greg J.; Brock, Thomas W.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.; And Others

97

A Review of the Major Issues and Problems of Welfare Reform; A Background Paper Developed for the Community Services Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This background paper was developed for the Community Services Administration (CSA) in order to provide background information concerning welfare reform. It examines possible public assistance strategies, such as the following: (1) broad-based cash transfer (negative income tax, wage rate subsidies, demogrants, and family allowances), (2)…

Technical Assistance Research Programs, Inc., Washington, DC.

98

Marijuana and cocaine use among female African-American welfare recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key issue that came to the forefront during the welfare reform debate in the United States during the 1990s concerned the relationship between welfare receipt and drug use and abuse. This paper examines the relationship between persistent welfare assistance, welfare background, and marijuana and cocaine use among African-American women. We hypothesize that women who have received welfare assistance for

Chyvette T Williams; Hee-Soon Juon; Margaret E Ensminger

2004-01-01

99

Perspectives on Women and Welfare Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is designed to alert local and state advocates to the presence of the National Coalition on Women, Work, and Welfare Reform. It shares the Coalition's perspective on the welfare employment issue and proposes several initial strategies local advocates or policymakers might use in considering proposed or ongoing welfare employment…

National Coalition on Women, Work and Welfare Reform, Washington, DC.

100

Maternal Work Behavior under Welfare Reform: How Does the Transition from Welfare to Work Affect Child Development? JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a longitudinal sample of former and current welfare recipients in Michigan spanning 1997 through 1999, the Womens Employment Study, this analysis examined how transitions from welfare to work affect parenting behavior and child behavior problems. Researchers used a fixed-effects regression design to control for all time-invariant…

Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Danziger, Sandra K.

101

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS...relation to State emergency welfare preparedness...IV-A for providing training in emergency...

2010-10-01

102

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...emergency welfare preparedness. Such activities must relate to emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused disasters, as prescribed in “Guidelines for the Preparation of State Emergency Welfare...

2012-10-01

103

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...emergency welfare preparedness. Such activities must relate to emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused disasters, as prescribed in “Guidelines for the Preparation of State Emergency Welfare...

2013-10-01

104

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...emergency welfare preparedness. Such activities must relate to emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused disasters, as prescribed in “Guidelines for the Preparation of State Emergency Welfare...

2014-10-01

105

Recent Changes in Michigan Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 4. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Michigan is a leader in state efforts to gain more autonomy over social service programs. Many changes, including those made to the child care and child welfare systems, were part of the governor's blueprint for reform, To Strengthen Michigan Families. This report begins with a profile of Michigan's demographic, economic, and political conditions,…

Seefeldt, Kristin S.; Leos-Urbel, Jacob; McMahon, Patricia; Snyder, Kathleen

106

Political order and the ambivalence of expertise: Count Rumford and welfare reform in late eighteenth-century Munich.  

PubMed

From 1784 to 1798, the military expert and natural philosopher Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, worked in Munich for Elector Karl Theodor of Bavaria on a series of reforms that demanded a careful articulation of the reformer's expertise. This case study of Rumford's welfare reforms posits that the ambivalent nature of expertise, which relies simultaneously on generally accessible and on exclusive knowledge, was already present in the conceptual framework of Rumford's mechanical experimental philosophy and that this ambivalence was visible in the performative practice of the experimenter. Gestures of revelation and concealment and of displaying and obscuring were crucial to Rumford's (temporary) success in establishing his authority in Bavaria. Challenged by local advisers, the reformer called on a newly emergent form of public. Rumford's conceptual and practical articulation of expertise thus contributed to an increasing polarization of the political order in the Bavarian capital. PMID:20973458

Maerker, Anna

2010-01-01

107

State Reforms Threaten Remote Community Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an ethnographic study of administrators, faculty, parents and community members in one remote Michigan school district. The purpose of the study is to describe and explain how Michigan's educational reform perspective--arguably similar to the education reform perspectives of many states--encountered the educational…

Kirby, Angela M.

2011-01-01

108

Filling holes in the safety net? Material hardship and subjective well-being among disability benefit applicants and recipients after the 1996 welfare reform.  

PubMed

Some of the rapid recent growth in disability income receipt in the United States is attributable to single mothers post-welfare reform. Yet, we know little about how disability benefit receipt affects the economic well-being of single mother families, or how unsuccessful disability applicants fare. We compare disability recipients to unsuccessful applicants and those who never applied among current and former welfare recipients, and examine how application and receipt affect material hardships and subjective measures of well-being. We then examine whether alternative ways of making ends meet mediate differences in well-being. After controlling for alternative sources of support, no significant differences in overall actual hardships or difficulty living on current income remained between the three groups. However, even after controlling for these strategies, unsuccessful applicants were significantly more likely to report that they expected hardships in the next two months. Our results suggest a pervasive level of economic insecurity among unsuccessful applicants. PMID:23017975

Schmidt, Lucie; Danziger, Sheldon

2012-11-01

109

The Challenge of Compliance: Food Security in Rural Households Affected by Welfare Reform. Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined welfare reform and food security issues. Interviews were conducted with 32 rural Louisiana women in 1997-98 when they were receiving welfare payments, in 1998-99 when they were in transition, and in 2000-01 when none received Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Most women were African-American; about half had not…

Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol; Tiller, Vicky V.; Smith, Jennifer

110

Remember the Children: Mothers Balance Work and Child Care under Welfare Reform. Growing Up in Poverty Project 2000; Wave 1 Findings--California, Connecticut, Florida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details a study that sought to answer whether welfare reform was meeting its goals of reducing mothers' dependency and boosting children's futures, and whether these reforms were having discernable effects on young children. During the second half of 1998, the study randomly selected 948 single mothers with young children from 5…

Policy Analysis for California Education, Berkeley, CA.

111

‘Marx’ or the Market? Intra-party Power and Social Democratic Welfare State Retrenchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in the intra-party balance of power explain variation in social democratic responses to the economic crisis of the late 1970s. This article evidences this claim by analysing the case of welfare state retrenchment by social democratic parties. Welfare state retrenchment is electorally risky for social democrats and often contrary to their principles. Therefore cases of welfare state retrenchment by

Gijs Schumacher

2012-01-01

112

Hybrid or Unique?: the Japanese Welfare State Between Europe and America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the contemporary welfare state literature, both Japan and Southern Europe are often held to be distinct regimes. A comparative examination of the evidence for Japan suggests that this is not true. Japan's fusion of key el ements of catholic-conservative welfare states (occupational segmentation and familialism) with a liberal, American-style dominance of private welfare plans gives the appearance of a

Gøsta Esping-Andersen

1997-01-01

113

Women's Political Representation and Welfare State Spending in 12 Capitalist Democracies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the sharpest criticisms of welfare state research is insufficient attention to factors relating to gender relations and inequalities. Recent scholarship has begun to address welfare state effects on gender-related outcomes, but the evaluation of theories of welfare development with respect to gender factors is somewhat less developed,…

Bolzendahl, Catherine; Brooks, Clem

2007-01-01

114

77 FR 69629 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Administration for Children...

2012-11-20

115

76 FR 9788 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Administration for Children...

2011-02-22

116

75 FR 71710 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Administration for Children...

2010-11-24

117

Welfare Reform. States' Implementation and Effects on the Workforce Development System. Statement of Cynthia M. Fagnoni, Director, Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues, Health, Education, and Human Services Division. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Training, and Life-Long Learning, Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on effectiveness of welfare-to-work approaches shows programs that combine approaches--job search assistance and education and training--have better employment and earnings outcomes than either approach alone. Consistent with findings and the work focus of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, states have…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

118

The impact of welfare reform on parents' ability to care for their children's health.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Most of the national policy debate regarding welfare assumed that if middle-income mothers could balance work while caring for their children's health and development, mothers leaving welfare for work should be able to do so as well. Yet, previous research has not examined the conditions faced by mothers leaving welfare for work. METHODS: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study examined the availability of benefits that working parents commonly use to meet the health and developmental needs of their children; paid sick leave, vacation leave, and flexible hours. RESULTS: In comparison with mothers who had never received welfare, mothers who had been on Aid to Families with Dependent Children were more likely to be caring for at least 1 child with a chronic condition (37% vs 21%, respectively). Yet, they were more likely to lack sick leave for the entire time they worked (36% vs 20%) and less likely to receive other paid leave or flexibility. CONCLUSIONS: If current welfare recipients face similar conditions when they return to work, many will face working conditions that make it difficult or impossible to succeed in the labor force at the same time as meeting their children's health and developmental needs. PMID:10191791

Heymann, S J; Earle, A

1999-01-01

119

Health system reform in the United States  

PubMed Central

In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider. PMID:24596894

McDonough, John E

2014-01-01

120

Welfare-to-Work Policy: Employer Hiring and Retention of Former Welfare Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of the new U.S. welfare reform legislation is to move welfare recipients into jobs. There is widespread agreement that at least three components of this transition should be reflected in the measurement of a state's performance with respect to this objective: The percent of eligible TANF recipients who begin work; The percent of those beginning work who retain

David Stevens

2000-01-01

121

Welfare Reform. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the testimony and submissions presented at one of a series of hearings on welfare reform and reauthorization of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. The statement by Cynthia M. Fagnoni, managing director of education, workforce, and income security issues at the U.S. General Accounting Office, assesses…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

122

Social welfare reform in the context of economic-political liberalization: Latin American cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1980s most of Latin America suffered a fiscal crisis resulting from the heavy debt burden and the halting of external credit, and a deep recession induced by the implementation of structural adjustment policies. Both phenomena provoked social costs with divergent degrees of severity. The existing social welfare system (in particular social security) was incapable of coping with the

Carmelo Mesa-Lago

1997-01-01

123

The Juggling Act: Navigating Parent Involvement in the Welfare Reform Era  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how parents supported their children's education while transitioning from welfare to work. Interviews with parents, elementary school educators, and staff at a community-based organization were conducted in an urban Tennessee community. Navigating work and parenting responsibilities was particularly challenging when children…

Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

2013-01-01

124

Marriage and Welfare Reform: The Overwhelming Evidence That Marriage Education Works. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The erosion of marriage has caused enormous difficulties for children, parents, and society. Compared to children born within marriage, those born outside of marriage are overwhelmingly more likely to live in poverty, depend on welfare, and have behavior problems. They also may suffer depression and physical abuse, fail in school, abuse drugs, and…

Fagan, Patrick F.; Patterson, Robert W.; Rector, Robert E.

125

Bridging the Gap: Higher Education and Career-Centered Welfare Reform. Proceedings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference examined the current welfare policy and the continued use of higher education as a tool for moving low-income people into self-supporting careers. The proceedings include: welcoming remarks by Stephen Greenwald; keynote addresses by William Spriggs and Danny Simmons; a lunch address by Rae Alexander-Minter; remarks by Patricia…

Kosar, Kevin R., Ed.

126

Beyond Job Search or Basic Education: Rethinking the Role of Skills in Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most welfare-to-work programs may be classified as quick employment programs emphasizing individual or group job searches or skill-building programs emphasizing basic education. Although both types of programs offer benefits, they also suffer from significant limitations. To be more effective than their predecessors, current-generation…

Strawn, Julie

127

Fifty Years of British Housing Policy: Leaving or Leading the Welfare State?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to develop a new perspective on the housing–welfare state relationship in Britain. Housing is conventionally seen as part of the post-war welfare state, but as different from other core services because of the persistence of a large market sector. Housing is also seen as having been targeted for change in the post-1975 restructuring of the welfare state,

Peter Malpass

2004-01-01

128

Fifty Years of British Housing Policy: Leaving or Leading the Welfare State?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to develop a new perspective on the housing-welfare state relationship in Britain. Housing is conventionally seen as part of the post-war welfare state, but as different from other core services because of the persistence of a large market sector. Housing is also seen as having been targeted for change in the post-1975 restructuring of the welfare state,

Peter Malpass

2001-01-01

129

Reclaiming the Disengaged: Reform of New Zealand's Vocational Education and Training and Social Welfare Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses Habermas' theory of the state and his idea of legitimation crisis to critically evaluate recent reforms in New Zealand designed to engage young people (16-24 years of age) in paid employment and/or education and training. The paper identifies three broad strategies adopted by the state to reclaim the disengaged and hence,…

Strathdee, Rob

2013-01-01

130

The Role of State Departments of Education in Complex School Reform. The Series on School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State departments of education (SDEs) play a pivotal role in the implementation of state-level school reform. This role is examined using two models of statewide school reform in Kentucky and Vermont. How the departments implemented their plans and how such implementation affected the internal dynamics of the departments, as well as the external…

Lusi, Susan Follett

131

AFDC, SSI, and Welfare Reform Aggressiveness: Caseload Reductions versus Caseload Shifting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of reforms of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) on caseloads of another program that is Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is examined. The results reveal that a decrease in caseloads in one program cannot be interpreted as an equal-sized decrease in the number of families receiving public assistance.

Schmidt, Lucie; Sevak, Purvi

2004-01-01

132

The Impact of Education Reform: A Survey of State Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a State-by-State listing of the impact of foreign language teaching reform in the United States. Information for each State includes enrollments; foreign language assistance program (FLAP); systemic reform; standards, testing and assessment; agency or department restructuring and reorganization; and effect on foreign languages,…

Inman, Julie E., Comp.; LaBouve, Robert, Comp.

133

Steps to Success: Helping Women with Alcohol and Drug Problems Move from Welfare to Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report helps state and local decision makers understand the range of services ordinarily needed and provided in alcohol and drug treatment programs serving women and families receiving welfare and how those services support the goals of welfare reform. The model programs profiled here tend to the needs of women on welfare and their families…

Rubinstein, Gwen

134

For Mommy and Me: Toward a Child Development Policy for Welfare Recipients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report defines policy and practices for child care assistance for welfare recipients in New York, and explores ways in which the state could use the newly enacted federal welfare reform legislation to create opportunities for children of welfare recipients. The six sections of the report are based on a survey of child care policies and…

Brooks, Eve E.; Hurley, Brigit

135

The Macroeconomic Effects of German Unification: Real Adjustments and the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effects of German unification in a model with capital accumulation, skill differences, and a welfare state. We argue that this event is similar to a mass migration of low-skilled agents holding no capital into a foreign country. Absent a welfare state, we observe an investment boom, depressed output, and employment conditions. Capital owners and high-skilled agents are

Fabio Canova; Morten O. Ravn

2000-01-01

136

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...participation in relation to State emergency...Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations...ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS...participation in relation to State emergency...determining the role of public assistance programs in relation to the...

2011-10-01

137

Child Welfare Financing: Looking beyond the New York State Family and Children's Services Block Grant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the Family and Children's Services Block Grant and the per diem rate methodology have not been effective, especially in the wake of the increasing number of children entering foster care, this policy brief explores ways in which New York State's child welfare system should allocate child welfare dollars to counties and providers to produce…

Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.

138

Adolescents' School Enrollment and Employment: Effect of State Welfare Policies. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study hypothesizes that stringent welfare policies may promote school enrollment and reduce employment among adolescents from low-income, single parent, and welfare families. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort, combined with state-level data sources, this analysis uses a dynamic model to study school and…

Hao, Lingxin; Astone, Nan M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

139

Kerala State, India: radical reform as development.  

PubMed

Kerala State in southwestern India has achieved some of the third world's best rates of life expectancy, literacy, and infant mortality, despite one of the lowest per capita incomes. Especially notable is the nearly equal distribution of development benefits to urban, rural, male, female, high-caste, and low-caste sections of the populations. An even population distribution, a cosmopolitan trading history, and the development of militant worker and small farmer organizations led by dedicated activists provide the main explanations for Kerala's achievements. Land reform has redistributed wealth and political power from a rich elite to small holders and landless laborers. Public food distribution at controlled prices, large-scale public health actions, accessible medical facilities, and widespread literacy combine with and reinforce each other to maintain and expand Kerala's achievements. Serious unemployment threatens the Kerala experiment, but Kerala nonetheless offers important lessons to development planners, policymakers, and third world activists. PMID:1735622

Franke, R W; Chasin, B H

1992-01-01

140

Pathologizing Poverty: New Forms of Diagnosis, Disability, and Structural Stigma under Welfare Reform  

PubMed Central

In 1996 the U.S. severely restricted public support for low income people, ending “welfare as we know it.” This led to dramatic increases in medicalized forms of support for indigent people, who increasingly rely on disability benefits justified by psychiatric diagnoses of chronic mental illness. We present case studies drawn from ethnographic data involving daily participant-observation between 2005-2012 in public clinics and impoverished neighborhoods in New York City, to describe the subjective experience of structural stigma imposed by the increasing medicalization of public support for the poor through a diagnosis of permanent mental disability. In some cases, disability benefits enable recipients to fulfill important social roles (sustaining a vulnerable household and promoting stable parenting). The status of family members who receive a monthly disability check improves within their kin and neighborhood-based networks, counterbalancing the felt stigma of being identified by doctors as “crazy”. A structural disjunction in stigmatizing processes emerges when a diagnosis of permanent medical cognitive pathology becomes a valuable survival strategy constituting the basis for fulfillment of household responsibilities. Through the decades, the stigmatized labels applied to the poor have shifted: from being a symptom of racial weakness, to the culture of poverty, and now to permanent medical pathology. The neoliberal bureaucratic requirement that the poor must repeatedly prove their “disabled” status through therapy and psychotropic medication appears to be generating a national and policy-maker discourse condemning SSI malingerers, resurrecting the 16th century specter of the “unworthy poor”. PMID:24507913

Hansen, Helena; Bourgois, Philippe; Drucker, Ernest

2013-01-01

141

Pathologizing poverty: new forms of diagnosis, disability, and structural stigma under welfare reform.  

PubMed

In 1996 the U.S. severely restricted public support for low income people, ending "welfare as we know it." This led to dramatic increases in medicalized forms of support for indigent people, who increasingly rely on disability benefits justified by psychiatric diagnoses of chronic mental illness. We present case studies drawn from ethnographic data involving daily participant-observation between 2005 and 2012 in public clinics and impoverished neighborhoods in New York City, to describe the subjective experience of structural stigma imposed by the increasing medicalization of public support for the poor through a diagnosis of permanent mental disability. In some cases, disability benefits enable recipients to fulfill important social roles (sustaining a vulnerable household and promoting stable parenting). The status of family members who receive a monthly disability check improves within their kin and neighborhood-based networks, counterbalancing the felt stigma of being identified by doctors as "crazy". When a diagnosis of mental pathology becomes a valuable survival strategy constituting the basis for fulfillment of household responsibilities, stigmatizing processes are structurally altered. Through the decades, the stigmatized labels applied to the poor have shifted: from being a symptom of racial weakness, to the culture of poverty, and now to permanent medical pathology. The neoliberal bureaucratic requirement that the poor must repeatedly prove their "disabled" status through therapy and psychotropic medication appears to be generating a national and policy-maker discourse condemning SSI malingerers, resurrecting the 16th century specter of the "unworthy poor". PMID:24507913

Hansen, Helena; Bourgois, Philippe; Drucker, Ernest

2014-02-01

142

Prioritization and the elusive effect on welfare - A Norwegian health care reform revisited.  

PubMed

The Faster Return to Work (FRW) scheme that Norwegian authorities implemented in 2007 is an example of a policy that builds on the human capital approach. The main idea behind the scheme is that long waiting times for hospital treatment lead to unnecessarily long periods of absence from work. To achieve a reduction in average sickness absence duration, the allocation of FRW funds and new treatment capacity is exclusively aimed at people on sick leave. Many countries have allocated funds to reduce waiting times for hospital treatment and research shows that more resources allocated to the hospital sector can reduce waiting times. Our results support this as the FRW scheme significantly reduces waiting times. However, on average the reduction in waiting times is not transformed into an equally large reduction in the sickness absence period. We find significant difference in the effects of FRW on length of sick leave between surgical and non-surgical patients though. The duration of sick leave for FRW patients undergoing surgical treatment is approximately 14 days shorter than for surgical patients on the regular waiting list. We find no significant effect of the scheme on length of sick leave for non-surgical patients. In sum, our welfare analysis indicates that prioritization of the kind that the FRW scheme represents is not as straightforward as one would expect. The FRW scheme costs more than it contributes in reduced productivity loss. We base our analyses on several different econometric methods using register data on approximately 13 500 individuals over the period 2007-2008. PMID:25637910

Aakvik, Arild; Holmås, Tor Helge; Kjerstad, Egil

2015-03-01

143

Poor Mothers' Rights to Education: Access and Support for Post-secondary Education in Aotearoa\\/New Zealand and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), commonly known as welfare reform, women in the United States who were previously eligible to attend college while receiving welfare benefits now need to meet mandatory work requirements. Public discourse on social welfare and welfare reform holds up an ideal of equal respect and reciprocity that is consistent with

Jill McLean Taylor

144

European Integration and the Welfare State(s) in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art on European social policy integration. It summarises the controversy over the 'social dimension of European integration', which has been ongoing ever since the founding fathers of European integration in 1957 agreed that the economies should be integrated basically without social regulation to counterbalance liberalisation effects. It presents the historical development of EU social policy as

Gerda Falkner

2009-01-01

145

Social Welfare Policy and Public Assistance for Low-Income Substance Abusers: The Impact of 1996 Welfare Reform Legislation on the Economic Security of Former Supplemental Security Income Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Beneficiaries  

PubMed Central

Prior to January 1, 1997, individuals with drug- or alcohol-related disabilities could qualify for federal public assistance through the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. During the welfare reforms of the Clinton administration, this policy was changed resulting in lost income and health care benefits for many low-income substance abusers. This paper examines the historical underpinnings to the elimination of drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) as qualifying impairments for SSI disability payments. Following this, empirical evidence is presented on the effect this policy change had on the subsequent economic security of former SSI DA&A beneficiaries. Findings indicate that study participants that lost SSI benefits suffered increased economic hardship following the policy change. These findings have important implications for future social welfare policymaking decisions. PMID:20396645

Hogan, Sean R; Unick, George J.; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C.

2009-01-01

146

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United...

2011-07-01

147

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United...

2010-07-01

148

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United...

2014-07-01

149

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United...

2013-07-01

150

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United...

2012-07-01

151

Oral health and welfare state regimes: a cross-national analysis of European countries.  

PubMed

Very little is known about the potential relationship between welfare state regimes and oral health. This study assessed the oral health of adults in a range of European countries clustered by welfare regimes according to Ferrera's typology and the complementary Eastern type. We analysed data from Eurobarometer wave 72.3, a cross-sectional survey of 31 European countries carried out in 2009. We evaluated three self-reported oral health outcomes: edentulousness, no functional dentition (<20 natural teeth), and oral impacts on daily living. Age-standardized prevalence rates were estimated for each country and for each welfare state regime. The Scandinavian regime showed lower prevalence rates for all outcomes. For edentulousness and no functional dentition, there were higher prevalence rates in the Eastern regime but no significant differences between Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, and Southern regimes. The Southern regime presented a higher prevalence of oral impacts on daily living. Results by country indicated that Sweden had the lowest prevalences for edentulousness and no functional dentition, and Denmark had the lowest prevalence for oral impacts. The results suggest that Scandinavian welfare states, with more redistributive and universal welfare policies, had better population oral health. Future research should provide further insights about the potential mechanisms through which welfare-state regimes would influence oral health. PMID:23659239

Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol C; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

2013-06-01

152

Feminist Perspectives on TANF Reauthorization: An Introduction to Key Issues for the Future of Welfare Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1996, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) replaced the federal cash public assistance program Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) with the state-level block grant Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program. By September 30, 2002, the TANF program has to receive congressional reauthorization, and it is expected that Congress will consider making changes to this program during the reauthorization debates. As a result, some feminist scholars and advocates are adamant that the realities of poor women's lives are not ignored during the upcoming TANF discussions. Written by Janice Peterson, this paper identifies "some of the key issues and goals that are emerging in TANF reauthorization discussions," and considers a feminist agenda for a TANF reauthorization program. The report, which is in HTML format, includes a brief introduction, a summary of key elements and impacts of the TANF program, a discussion of critical TANF reauthorization issues, and a feminist agenda for TANF reauthorization.

2002-01-01

153

Restrictions on Undocumented Immigrants’ Access to Health Services: The Public Health Implications of Welfare Reform  

PubMed Central

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 greatly restricts the provision of many federal, state, and local public services to undocumented immigrants. These restrictions have prompted intense debates about the provision of free and discounted primary and preventive health careservices and have placed significant burdens on institutions that serve large undocumented immigrant populations. Intended to serve as a tool for reducing illegal immigration and protecting public resources, federal restrictions on undocumented immigrants’ access to publicly financed health services unduly burden health care providers and threaten the public’s health. These deleterious effects warrant the public health community’s support of strategies designed to sustain provision of health services irrespective of immigration status. PMID:14534212

Kullgren, Jeffrey T.

2003-01-01

154

CASAWORKS for Families: A Promising Approach to Welfare Reform and Substance-Abusing Women. A CASA White Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CASAWORKS for Families is the first national demonstration program to provide simultaneously drug and alcohol treatment; literacy, job, parenting, and social skills training; family violence prevention; and health care to help substance-abusing welfare parents recover. Its mission is to help women on welfare with substance abuse problems achieve…

Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

155

Tulsa's IndEx Program. A Business-Led Initiative for Welfare Reform and Economic Development. Connections To Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1992, the Metropolitan Tulsa Chamber of Commerce in Oklahoma established a welfare-to-work program called Industrial Exchange, Inc. (IndEx). IndEx provides welfare recipients with a combination of education activities and work experience. By contracting with local companies to perform light manufacturing and packaging work at a central site,…

Buck, Maria L.

156

Poverty Estimates and the Welfare State: the case of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is an attempt to critique the positivist neo-liberal orthodoxy in the measurement of poverty. I have argued that this orthodox approach systematically underestimates the extent of poverty and undermines welfare-oriented developmental policies. Taking Nepal as an illustration, this article demonstrates that the emergence of multiple poverty estimates has provided a choice to the development policy-makers and practitioners in

Lok Nath Bhusal

2012-01-01

157

Child Well-Being in an Era of Welfare Reform: The Sensitivity of Transitions in Development to Policy Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the age-specific pattern of effects of welfare policies on child achievement. Drawing from 7 random-assignment welfare and antipoverty evaluations that provided more than 30,000 observations of children's achievement, this study found that times of developmental transition are the only periods sensitive to the changes in families brought about by these policies. More specifically, small positive effects of

Pamela Morris; Greg J. Duncan; Elizabeth Clark-Kauffman

2005-01-01

158

Exploring the Extended Family of Mediterranean Welfare States, or: Did Beveridge and Bismarck Take a Mediterranean Cruise Together?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The study of welfare states and social policy has enjoyed growing popularity in the last four decades. Emerging from primarily\\u000a descriptive studies of state-provided welfare, social security, and health institutions and from relatively crude quantitative\\u000a and qualitative comparative studies, this field has been characterized by a growing level of theorization, richer case study\\u000a analyses, inclusion of additional sources of welfare

John Gal

159

The relation of family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict. Methods Logistic regression models were used to analyze panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4,780 married or cohabiting persons reinterviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments. Results Unemployed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence than employed respondents, after alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors are controlled for; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after other factors are controlled for, increases the risk of family violence, and satisfaction with social support from family and friends is associated with its decrease. Conclusions Alcohol misuse has an important effect on domestic violence, and the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence needs to be monitored. PMID:11342506

Rodriguez, Eunice; Lasch, Kathryn E; Chandra, Pinky; Lee, Jennifer

2001-01-01

160

After Welfare Reform and an Economic Boom: Why Is Child Poverty Still So Much Higher in the U.S. Than in Europe?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that the U.S.'s experience during the economic boom of the 1990s, together with its choices concerning social welfare policies, imply that child poverty in the United States will be much higher than that in most European countries. It hypothesizes that Americans reveal their preferences about the extent of poverty they are…

Danziger, Sheldon

161

Welfare Policies and Adolescents: Exploring the Roles of Sibling Care, Maternal Work Schedules, and Economic Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses data from three longitudinal experimental evaluations of US state welfare reform programs to examine whether\\u000a program-induced changes in families’ reliance on sibling care are linked with the effects of welfare programs on selected\\u000a schooling outcomes of high risk, low-income adolescents. The findings from two of the welfare programs indicate that increased\\u000a reliance on sibling care was concomitant

JoAnn Hsueh; Lisa A. Gennetian

162

Welfare Reform: An Examination of Effects. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (September 20, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Congressional report contains the testimony and documents presented for the record of the first of two hearings to gather testimony on the effects of welfare reform and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant. The oral and written testimony focuses on TANF legislation's outcomes and impact on work and families in…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

163

The Welfare to Work Transition in the United States: Implications for Work-Related Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes the legislation upon which the current welfare-to-work transition in the United States is based and describes characteristics of the former welfare population from which various tiers of employment options have emerged: unsubsidized-employed workers, subsidized-employed workers, subsidized-unemployed recipients, and unsubsidized-unemployed individuals. It also discusses current program emphases, and presents a format for directions for future program development which includes academic programs, situated cognition programs, integrated literacy/occupational skills programs, and integrated literacy/soft skills training.

Fisher, James C.; Martin, Larry G.

2000-11-01

164

Universalism without the Targeting: Privatizing the Old-Age Welfare State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decades of conservative attempts to scale back Social Security and Medicare, by limiting the program's universality through means testing and drastic benefit cuts, have failed. Thus, after numerous unsuccessful attempts at dismantling the U.S.'s universal old-age welfare state, or even meaningfully restraining its growth, conservative critics have…

Herd, Pamela

2005-01-01

165

How Welfare States Shape the Gender Pay Gap: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assess the impact of the welfare state on cross-national variation in the gender wage gap. Earnings inequality between men and women is conceptualized as resulting from their different locations in the class hierarchy, combined with the severity of wage differentials between and within classes. This decomposition contributes to identifying…

Mandel, Hadas; Shalev, Michael

2009-01-01

166

The Common Core "State" Standards: The Arts and Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this commentary, Alice Wexler notes that as the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) become reality, teachers have reason for concern. She contends that this reform to public education has consequently marginalized the arts and exacerbated the inequities of people in poverty and those with disabilities. Teachers, principals and, ultimately,…

Wexler, Alice

2014-01-01

167

Towards an Archaeology of the Welfare State in Britain, 1945–2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I develop an argument for the specific contribution which archaeology might make to the study of the ‘classic’\\u000a welfare state in Britain (c. 1945–1975) and its aftermath (c. 1976 to present). This period saw massive state investment in\\u000a infrastructure which transformed both the material and social worlds of its citizens, through new state policies, new networks\\u000a of

Rodney Harrison

2009-01-01

168

The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Abortion, Education, Term Limits, Welfare Reform, Health Insurance, Riverboat Gambling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the annual survey of public opinion in Pennsylvania. Telephone surveys were conducted with 1,744 people whose telephone numbers were randomly selected from all listed telephone numbers. Results of the survey indicate that: (1) Pennsylvanians strongly favor mandatory birth control counseling for welfare mothers, but opinion is…

Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

169

"Newstart" or "Stop-Start"? the Implications of Recent Welfare Reforms on Undergraduate Students Who Are Sole Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the implications of recent income support payment changes for sole-parented families in Australia, and in particular, their capacity to access tertiary education. The government's program to reduce welfare benefit payments to sole-parented families already at high risk of economic disadvantage and social marginalization…

Lenette, Caroline; McDonald, Donna; Fowler, Jane L.

2014-01-01

170

Welfare Reform on American Indian Reservations: Initial Experience of Service Providers and Recipients on Reservations in Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with service providers and welfare recipients on 15 Arizona American Indian reservations indicated that low levels of education and work experience were barriers to employment, and employment was scarce. In remote areas, the lack of support services, paved roads, transportation, and communication made it impossible for many residents to…

Pandey, Shanta; Brown, Eddie F.; Scheuler-Whitaker, Leslie; Collier-Tenison, Shannon

2002-01-01

171

Urban Poverty and the Welfare State: Comparative Reflections on Scandinavia and the U.S. Working Paper No. 481.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scandinavian welfare states are developing a growing new middle class and a growing marginalized, poverty-threatened underclass, reproducing the societal duality caused by labor market structuring. Tightening labor markets, increased dependency on welfare benefits, and substantial decreases in public transfers have combined to create a growing…

Abrahamson, Peter

172

The Skill Composition of Migration and the Generosity of the Welfare State. NBER Working Paper No. 14738  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skilled migrants typically contribute to the welfare state more than they draw in benefits from it. The opposite holds for unskilled migrants. This suggests that a host country is likely to boost (respectively, curtail) its welfare system when absorbing high-skill (respectively, low-skill) migration. In this paper we first examine this hypothesis…

Cohen, Alon; Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim

2009-01-01

173

Karl Marx ReturningThe Welfare State and Neo-Marxist, Corporatist and Statist Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades the prevailing postwar political theory paradigm of pluralism has been strongly challenged by other approaches, such as neo-Marxism, Corporatist theory, and a state-centered approach. After the exhaustion of the first wave of neo- Marxism, the 1980s have seen the development of an empirical neo-Marxism Mark II, largely focusing on comparative welfare state research. A critical

Göran Therborn

1986-01-01

174

Longitudinal Effects of Domestic Violence on Employment and Welfare Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses longitudinal data spanning 13 years from a study of 234 adolescent mothers to evaluate the effects of cumulative domestic violence on employment and welfare use before and after welfare reform. Domestic violence increased the odds of unemployment after welfare reform, but not before; domestic violence had no effect on welfare use…

Lindhorst, Taryn; Oxford, Monica; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

2007-01-01

175

State Level Fiscal Reforms in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a steep deterioration in State finances during the last decade as evidenced by sharp increases in revenue, fiscal and primary deficits, increases in their indebtedness and contingent liabilities, and decline in capital and maintenance expenditures. Low buoyancy of central transfers and spillover of central pay revisions have had the most adverse impact on State finances. However, the

M. Govinda Rao

176

Economic hardship and depression across the life course: the impact of welfare state regimes.  

PubMed

Previous research in the United States suggests that depression related to economic hardship decreases with age. We test whether this pattern can be generalized to other developed nations. Based on data from 23 countries in the European Social Survey (2006--2007), multilevel analyses show that the moderating role of age depends on the socio-political context. While the hardship--depression link is not significantly different across the life course in Nordic and Bismarckian regimes, the hardship--depression link increases with age in Southern and Eastern European countries and decreases with age in strength in Anglo-Saxon welfare states. Our findings suggest that welfare state regimes play a significant role in attenuating, boosting, or even reversing the health effects of social experiences such as economic hardship on aging. Health knowledge gained through research that ignores the socio-political context may be limited in terms of generalization. PMID:21498774

Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan; De Boyser, Katrien; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

2011-06-01

177

Understanding Educational Reform in Global Context: Economy, Ideology, and the State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a set of national case studies on educational reform of higher education that views reform as processes of ideological and social struggles. The titles and authors are as follows: "Educational Reform: Social Struggles, the State and the World Economic System" (Mark B. Ginsburg, et al.); "Restructuring Education and the State in…

Ginsburg, Mark B., Ed.

178

State-Level Reforms That Support College-Level Program Changes in North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter describes the concurrent reforms occurring in North Carolina--both campus-level changes focused on such issues as developing structured programs of study and state-level reforms aimed at supporting the campus efforts.

Bowling, R. Edward; Morrissey, Sharon; Fouts, George M.

2014-01-01

179

Health Care Reform Tracking Project: Tracking State Health Care Reforms as They Affect Children and Adolescents with Emotional Disorders and Their Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Health Care Reform Tracking Project is a 5-year national project to track and analyze state health care reform initiatives as they affect children and adolescents with emotional/behavioral disorders and their families. The study's first phase was a baseline survey of all 50 states to describe current state reforms as of 1995. Among findings of…

Pires, Sheila A.; Stroul, Beth A.

180

Measuring Performance in Child Welfare: Secondary Effects of Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draws on findings from evaluations of recent reform initiatives in Alabama, North Carolina, and Ohio to suggest that performance-measurement systems for state child-welfare programs must adapt to changing circumstances, especially when improvements in one area can influence standards and expectations in others. (Author/KB)

Usher, Charles L.; Gibbs, Deborah A.; Wildfire, Judith B.

1999-01-01

181

Family Economic Well-Being Following the 1996 Welfare Reform: Trend Data from Five Non-Experimental Panel Studies  

PubMed Central

This analysis summarizes trends in family economic well-being from five non-experimental, longitudinal welfare-to-work studies launched following the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). The studies include a sizable group of parents and other caregivers who received TANF at the point of sample selection or shortly thereafter, and share a wide range of similar measures of economic well-being. This analysis provides descriptive information on how these families are faring over time. Our results confirm what has been found by previous studies. Many families remain dependent on public benefits, and are either poor or near-poor, despite gains in some indicators of economic well-being. We caution that these aggregate statistics may mask important heterogeneity among families. PMID:25505808

Slack, Kristen Shook; Magnuson, Katherine; Berger, Lawrence; Yoo, Joan; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Dunifon, Rachel; Dworsky, Amy; Kalil, Ariel; Knab, Jean; Lohman, Brenda J.; Osborne, Cynthia

2009-01-01

182

DEVELOPING PARTICIPATORY WELFARE STATE. CAN SERVICE USERS PRODUCE SOME ESSENTIAL LOCAL KNOWLEDGE ON  

E-print Network

social welfare is too much centralized on local authorities. The development of social welfare services OF DEVELOPMENT The following analysis is meant to help clarify the direction of the development of social welfare of development. Development of either the activities or the structure of social welfare can be considered another

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

183

Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries  

PubMed Central

Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05–0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22–0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08–0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10–0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26–0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14–3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86–3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health. PMID:23538729

Chung, Haejoo; Ng, Edwin; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Karlsson, Björn; Benach, Joan; Espelt, Albert; Muntaner, Carles

2013-01-01

184

Research-Infused STEM Reform at South Carolina State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South Carolina State University (SCSU) has embarked upon a mission to transform its science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines by offering more scholarships to students talented in the sciences, by introducing advanced topics in the introductory STEM courses, and by expanding research opportunities for STEM students. Specific examples will be provided from physics and astronomy. Program accomplishments after one year of operation will be highlighted, along with the difficulties of instituting such a broad-based reform. NSF HBCU-UP Award #0506062

Smith, Daniel M., Jr.; Anderson, J. A.; Adzievski, K.

2006-12-01

185

Family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States: what is the relation?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—This study examined the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual, and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict.?METHODS—Logistic regression models were used to analyse panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4780 married or cohabiting persons re-interviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments.?RESULTS—It was found that non-employed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence in comparison with employed respondents, after controlling for alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after controlling for other factors, increases the risk of family violence while satisfaction with social support from family and friends decreases it.?CONCLUSION—These results underscore the important effect of alcohol misuse on domestic violence, and the need to monitor the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence.???Keywords: family violence; alcohol misuse; employment status; welfare benefits PMID:11160171

Rodriguez, E; Lasch, K; Chandra, P; Lee, J

2001-01-01

186

A Legitimate Paradox: Neo-liberal Reform and the Return of the State in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the neo-liberal reforms that the Kim government implemented in post-crisis Korea. It argues that by embracing the reforms, the state, paradoxically, re-legitimised itself in the national political economy. The process of enacting the reforms completed the power shift from a collusive state-chaebol alliance towards a new alliance based on a more populist social contract - but one

David Hundt

2005-01-01

187

The good, the bad, and the ugly: Esping-Andersen's regime typology and the religious roots of the Western welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esping-Andersen's 'Three World of Welfare Capitalism' has been the most influential contribution of recent years to the comparative welfare state research literature. According to Esping-Andersen, the welfare state basically comes in three variants: as a social-democratic, a conservative, or as a liberal regime. Yet, at a closer look particularly the conservative regime type proves to be a highly problematic category.

Philip Manow

2004-01-01

188

A Welfare Reform--Homelessness--Foster Care Connection? The Story of "Lag Families" and "Limbo Children" in San Diego.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of data from a survey of more than 100 parents residing in emergency shelter in San Diego, California, reveals a portrait of poverty that is prevalent among women and children in the United States today. Homeless families in San Diego, as in the rest of the country, are most often headed by women in their early thirties whose prospects…

Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

189

Changing Policies, Changing Impacts: Employment and Earnings of Child Care Subsidy Recipients in the Era of Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the impact on the employment and earnings of low-income families of federal and state increases in funding for child care and of the changing policies and administrative procedures within the Child-Care Subsidy system that accompanied these funding increases.

M. Queralt; A. D. Witte; H. Griesinger

1999-01-01

190

Implementing Welfare-to-Work Services: A Study of Staff Decision-Making  

E-print Network

In the post-welfare reform era, increased discretion has been given to frontline staff for day-today welfare policy implementation. To determine how frontline staff address the complex needs of welfare program participants ...

Johnson, Michelle A.; Chow, Julian Chun-Chung; Ketch, Virginia; Austin, M. J.

2006-01-01

191

Supporting Families in Transition. A Guide to Expanding Health Coverage in the Post-Welfare Reform World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program with a new state-run Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program and ended the automatic link between eligibility for cash assistance and eligibility for Medicaid for poor families. Since then, a number of new policies and programs seeking to extend free or affordable health coverage to low-income families have developed. This new publication from the Health Care Financing Administration and the Administration for Children and Families of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) guides readers through some of the options states have in their efforts to broaden Medicaid coverage. Organized in four chapters, the guide addresses reaching families inside and outside the TANF system, maintaining coverage for families who leave the system, and related funding opportunities.

1999-01-01

192

Understanding the role of welfare state characteristics for health and inequalities – an analytical review  

PubMed Central

Background The past decade has witnessed a growing body of research on welfare state characteristics and health inequalities but the picture is, despite this, inconsistent. We aim to review this research by focusing on theoretical and methodological differences between studies that at least in part may lead to these mixed findings. Methods Three reviews and relevant bibliographies were manually explored in order to find studies for the review. Related articles were searched for in PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Database searches were done in PubMed and Web of Science. The search period was restricted to 2005-01-01 to 2013-02-28. Fifty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Results Three main approaches to comparative welfare state research are identified; the Regime approach, the Institutional approach, and the Expenditure approach. The Regime approach is the most common and regardless of the empirical regime theory employed and the amendments made to these, results are diverse and contradictory. When stratifying studies according to other features, not much added clarity is achieved. The Institutional approach shows more consistent results; generous policies and benefits seem to be associated with health in a positive way for all people in a population, not only those who are directly affected or targeted. The Expenditure approach finds that social and health spending is associated with increased levels of health and smaller health inequalities in one way or another but the studies are few in numbers making it somewhat difficult to get coherent results. Conclusions Based on earlier reviews and our results we suggest that future research should focus less on welfare regimes and health inequalities and more on a multitude of different types of studies, including larger analyses of social spending and social rights in various policy areas and how these are linked to health in different social strata. But, we also need more detailed evaluation of specific programmes or interventions, as well as more qualitative analyses of the experiences of different types of policies among the people and families that need to draw on the collective resources. PMID:24369852

2013-01-01

193

Assessing the Impact of Welfare Reform on Urban Communities: The Urban Change Project and Methodological Considerations. The Project on Devolution and Urban Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the design of a study intended to examine the devolution of welfare in four cities. The study will measure the economic effects of new policies on individual and potential welfare recipients; describe the new programs and policies as they are put in place; examine the experiences of a small number of families; look at how the…

Michalopoulos, Charles; Bos, Johannes M.; Lalonde, Robert; Verma, Nandita

194

Marijuana and cocaine use among female African-American welfare recipients.  

PubMed

A key issue that came to the forefront during the welfare reform debate in the United States during the 1990s concerned the relationship between welfare receipt and drug use and abuse. This paper examines the relationship between persistent welfare assistance, welfare background, and marijuana and cocaine use among African-American women. We hypothesize that women who have received welfare assistance for a period of 5 years or more will be more likely to use drugs compared to those who have never received welfare assistance or who have received it for a shorter duration. Data for this analysis comes from a longitudinal study of African-Americans living in a Chicago community followed from first grade (N = 1242) to age 32. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between years of welfare receipt and three categories of marijuana and cocaine use (never, past, and current) among female respondents (N = 496). Results indicate an increased risk of past-year cocaine and marijuana use for women who reported receiving welfare benefits for 5 years or more. Growing up in a family that received welfare did not significantly predict adult drug use, but did significantly predict an adult welfare experience. Implications of results are discussed. PMID:15276224

Williams, Chyvette T; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E

2004-08-16

195

More money, fewer lives: the cost effectiveness of welfare reform in the United States.  

PubMed

Objectives. We evaluated the economic benefits of Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) relative to the previous program, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Methods. We used pooled mortality hazard ratios from 2 randomized controlled trials-Connecticut Jobs First and the Florida Transition Program, which had follow-up from the early and mid-1990s through December 2011-and previous estimates of health and economic benefits of TANF and AFDC. We entered them into a Markov model to evaluate TANF's economic benefits relative to AFDC and weigh them against the potential health threats of TANF. Results. Over the working life of the average cash assistance recipient, AFDC would cost approximately $28?000 more than TANF from the societal perspective. However, it would also bring 0.44 additional years of life. The incremental cost effectiveness of AFDC would be approximately $64?000 per life-year saved relative to TANF. Conclusions. AFDC may provide more value as a health investment than TANF. Additional attention given to the neediest US families denied cash assistance could improve the value of TANF. PMID:25521891

Muennig, Peter; Caleyachetty, Rishi; Rosen, Zohn; Korotzer, Andrew

2015-02-01

196

Reform of state owned enterprises and challenges in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to provide a review of the challenges facing the reform of SOEs, and to address the impacts of SOE reform on business executives, on the base of literature review and empirical data collected in Guangzhou, China. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A qualitative research on the base of literature review, supported by empirical data collected from surveys, interviews,

Sharon Moore; Julie Jie Wen

2006-01-01

197

Bureaucrats in business: The roles of privatization versus corporatization in state-owned enterprise reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides evidence from a sample of 12 developing countries that countries which improved state-owned enterprise performance the most followed a comprehensive strategy of reforms, including a combination of privatization and corporatization. Further evidence that corporatization works better in combination with ownership and other reforms is provided through an analysis of government contracts with public managers, private managers and

Mary M. Shirley

1999-01-01

198

Bureaucratic Reform and E-Government in the United States: An Institutional Perspective  

E-print Network

perspective on e-government can provide important insights into bureaucratic reform, political developmentBureaucratic Reform and E-Government in the United States: An Institutional Perspective Jane E. Fountain Center for Public Policy and Administration Department of Political Science University

Schweik, Charles M.

199

Experiences of Schooling in the Welfare State: A Longitudinal Study of Life Trajectories and Legitimation of Education in Sweden.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Life trajectories and education in a welfare state were examined from two points of departure. The ways in which education as a system is related to social origin, gender, and career were analyzed in a longitudinal study following a cohort of 671 students (329 males and 342 females) in a Swedish community through the educational system and into…

Lindblad, Sverker; Prieto, Hector Perez

200

Careers and Perspectives on Schooling in the Welfare State: A Longitudinal Study on Students' Origins, Destiny, and Experiences of Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The working of the educational system in a welfare state was examined in a longitudinal study of a cohort (initially 1,029) of students followed from age 7 to age 23 years. An initial sample included 329 males and 342 females, of whom 352 had working class careers and 319 had middle class careers. Relationships among social origin, gender, and…

Lindblad, Sverker; Prieto, Hector Perez

201

On the Distributional Effects of Social Security Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

How will the distribution of welfare, consumption, and leisure across households be affected by social security reform? This paper addresses this question for social security reforms with a two-tier structure by comparing steady states under a realistic version of the current U.S. system and under the two-tier system. The first tier is a mandatory, defined-contribution pension offering a retirement annuity

Mark Huggett; Gustavo Ventura

1999-01-01

202

Deinstitutionalization and Welfare Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before America began creating a federally based welfare state in the 1930s, most publicly funded responses to social problems had an institutional bias. The ways in which the welfare programs initiated 50 years ago have helped to influence institutional trends, and are likely to continue doing so in the future, constitute the major focus of this analysis. Four special problem

Paul Lerman

1985-01-01

203

Family, welfare, and delinquency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a five-wave panel probability sample of families in the State of Washington were analyzed to test the hypothesis that female headship and welfare experience increased participation in and frequency of juvenile delinquency. Appropriate statistical models of random effect probit and negative binomial were employed. Results indicated that there were no direct effects of female headship and welfare experience

Liqun Cao; Jian Cao; Jihong Zhao

2004-01-01

204

A perfect storm? Welfare, care, gender and generations in Uruguay.  

PubMed

This article claims that welfare states modelled on a contributory basis and with a system of entitlements that assumes stable two-parent families, a traditional breadwinner model, full formal employment and a relatively young age structure are profoundly flawed in the context of present-day challenges. While this is true for affluent countries modelled on the Bismarckian type of welfare system, the costs of the status quo are even more devastating in middle-income economies with high levels of inequality. A gendered approach to welfare reform that introduces the political economy and the economy of care and unpaid work is becoming critical to confront what may very well become a perfect storm for the welfare of these nations and their peoples. Through an in-depth study of the Uruguayan case, the authors show how the decoupling of risk and protection has torn asunder the efficacy of welfare devices in the country. An ageing society that has seen a radical transformation of its family and labour market landscapes, Uruguay maintained during the 1980s and 1990s a welfare state that was essentially contributory, elderly and male-oriented, and centred on cash entitlements. This contributed to the infantilization of poverty, increased the vulnerability of women and exacerbated fiscal stress for the system as a whole. Furthermore, because of high levels of income and asset inequality, the redistribution of risk between upper- and lower-income groups presented a deeply regressive pattern. The political economy of care and welfare has begun to change in the last decade or so, bringing about mild reforms in the right direction; but these might prove to be too little and too late. PMID:22165158

Filgueira, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Magdalena; Papadópulos, Jorge

2011-01-01

205

WORK, INCOME AND MATERIAL HARDSHIP AFTER WELFARE Sandra Danziger, Mary Corcoran, Sheldon Danziger & Colleen M. Heflin  

E-print Network

of the Center on Poverty, Risk and Mental Health; Colleen Heflin is Senior Research Associate at the Poverty: State Welfare Reform and the Well-being of Low Income Families and Children,". This research T. MacArthur Foundation, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the University of Michigan

Shyy, Wei

206

Welfare work requirements and child well-being: Evidence from the effects on breast-feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central theme of welfare reform is that recipients are required to engage in work activities. In many states, these work requirements apply to mothers whose children are a few months old, which may increase the costs and decrease the prevalence of breast-feeding. Given the substantial benefits of breast-feeding, any reduction represents an important negative consequence of these require- ments.

Steven J. Haider; Alison Jacknowitz; Robert F. Schoeni

2003-01-01

207

Healthcare reform in the United States and China: pharmaceutical market implications  

E-print Network

trajectories of health system reform and insurance coverage were studied for the United States and China. Next, data were collected from government, industry, and analyst reports on total healthcare spending and prescription drug expenditure by insurance status...

Daemmrich, Arthur; Mohanty, Ansuman

2014-07-14

208

Screening for Domestic Violence in Public Welfare Offices  

PubMed Central

Despite a high prevalence of domestic violence among welfare clients, most studies of the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform find that women rarely receive domestic violence services in welfare offices. This study reviews findings from current research on the factors that improve the likelihood that women will reveal their domestic violence experiences to service personnel, and uses the guidelines drawn from this review to evaluate domestic violence screening practices in welfare offices using 782 transcribed interviews between welfare workers and clients from 11 sites in four states. The analysis found that only 9.3% of case encounters involved screening for domestic violence. Screening rates differed by state, interview type, and length of worker employment. Qualitative analysis of the interviews showed that the majority of screening by workers was routinized or consisted of informing clients of the domestic violence policy without asking about abuse. Only 1.2% of the interviews incorporated at least two of the procedures that increase the likelihood of disclosure among domestic violence survivors, suggesting deeply inadequate approaches to screening for abuse within the context of welfare offices, and a need for improved training, protocol, and monitoring of FVO implementation. PMID:18096857

Lindhorst, Taryn; Meyers, Marcia; Casey, Erin

2008-01-01

209

An Examination of State Takeover as a School Reform Strategy in a Small Rural School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore state takeover as a school reform strategy in a small rural school district. Since 1988, more than 50 U.S. school districts in 20 states have been subject to some form of state takeover. A number of factors generally contribute to a state takeover, some of which include: poor student…

Brookover, Chester Wayne

2010-01-01

210

Public Assistance Receipt among Native-Born Children of Immigrants. Policy Brief. Welfare, Children & Families: A Three-City Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1996 welfare reform law restricted immigrants' eligibility for public assistance, although many states have at least partially restored their eligibility. However, about three-fourths of the children of non-citizen immigrants were born in the United States and are therefore eligible for all government benefits. This brief examines whether…

Cherlin, Andrew; Fomby, Paula; Angel, Ronald; Henrici, Jane

211

Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States  

PubMed Central

Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:12511390

Hoffman, Beatrix

2003-01-01

212

Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States  

PubMed Central

Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:18687625

Hoffman, Beatrix

2008-01-01

213

The Politics Of Health Reform: Why Do Bad Things Happen To Good Plans? In the United States, the more desirable health care reform is on substantive grounds, the less politically feasible it is  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines political feasibility and its implications for health reform. I discuss the political obstacles to health reform in the United States, disentangling peren- nial barriers from contemporary constraints. I then explore major reform options and their political prospects. I argue that while incremental reform now appears to be the most feasi- ble option, the political climate may change

Jonathan Oberlander

2003-01-01

214

Leave No City Behind: England/United States Dialogue on Urban Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the United States and England initiated ambitious standards-based education reform to eliminate large gaps between their highest and lowest achievers. England appears to be ahead, having started in 1988 with a national curriculum, tests, and performance tables. The United States' No Child Left Behind Act began rewriting state rules in 2002…

Hannaway, Jane; Murphy, Marilyn; Reed, Jodie

2004-01-01

215

The effect of scale on the response to reform by Chinese state-owned construction units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using firm-level data on large and medium state-owned construction units, a production function approach evaluates the effect of scale on the response of Chinese state enterprises to reform. Large state units have greater economies of scale, but are less productive and less input price efficient as investment increases in nonproductive fixed assets. Large unit profits are declining fastest, and a

Elliott Parker

1997-01-01

216

Higher Rates of Adolescent Substance Use in Child Welfare Versus Community Populations in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objective: Youth substance use exacts costly consequences for a variety of important health outcomes. We examined and compared prevalence rates and a common set of psychosocial factors of lifetime and current substance use among child welfare–involved youths and community youths from two nationally representative data sets. Method: Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we compared prevalence rates and conducted logistic regression models for eight binary outcome measures of substance use: lifetime and current use of alcohol, inhalant, marijuana, and other illicit drugs to examine predictors of substance involvement in the two samples. Results: Substance use prevalence was higher among child welfare–involved youths than community youths for lifetime marijuana use, lifetime and current inhalant use, and lifetime and current other illicit drug use. Among both child welfare–involved and community youths, delinquency was the factor most strongly associated with all lifetime substance use outcomes. Notably, family structure and parental closeness were important protective factors against current substance use among child welfare–involved youths. For community youths, poorer emotional health was the strongest indicator of current substance use. Conclusions: Substance use among all adolescents is a critical public health concern. Given the heightened vulnerability of child welfare–involved youths, it is particularly important to focus prevention and early intervention efforts on this population. Further research should explore additional factors associated with substance use among these youths so that child welfare and behavioral health systems may jointly target prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:24172108

Fettes, Danielle L.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Green, Amy E.

2013-01-01

217

Primary care and the maelstrom of health care reform in the United States of America.  

PubMed Central

Recent reform in the National Health Service has moved general practice towards a more intense market and competition structure. Meanwhile in the United States of America there has been an attempt to modify the free enterprise approach to medical care towards a more socially responsive system. This discussion paper provides a family doctor's perspective of primary care and the maelstrom of health care reform in the USA. The cultural, economic and organizational issues underlying the need for reform are considered in turn, and the current situation with regard to health care provision, medical research, medical education and primary care are outlined. General practitioners in the United Kingdom would do well to pay attention to the effects of market reform occurring in general practice among their American counterparts. PMID:7576850

Curtis, P

1995-01-01

218

Implementing the Affordable Care Act: state action to reform the individual health insurance market.  

PubMed

The Affordable Care Act contains numerous consumer protections designed to remedy shortcomings in the availability, affordability, adequacy, and transparency of individual market insurance. However, because states remain the primary regulators of health insurance and have considerable flexibility over implementation of the law, consumers are likely to experience some of the new protections differently, depending on where they live. This brief explores how federal reforms are shaping standards for individual insurance and exam­ines specific areas in which states have flexibility when implementing the new protections. We find that consumers nationwide will enjoy improved protections in each area targeted by the reforms. Further, some states already have embraced the opportunity to customize their markets by implementing consumer protec­tions that exceed minimum federal requirements. States likely will continue to adjust their market rules as policymakers gain a greater understanding of how reform is working for consumers. PMID:25065020

Giovannelli, Justin; Lucia, Kevin W; Corlette, Sabrina

2014-07-01

219

Children's Agency and the Welfare State: Policy Priorities and Contradictions in Australia and the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the early 1990s, liberal welfare regimes have begun to treat lone parents as workers rather than as carers. This has happened in conjunction with an ongoing "moral panic" about the need to develop policies to invest in children, and to protect them from adult worlds. The purpose of this article is to analyse contradictions within and between…

Redmond, Gerry

2010-01-01

220

Healthy, Educated and Wealthy: Is the Welfare State Really Harmful for Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study how public and private expenditures in health and education affect economic growth by their influence on peoples health, abilities, skills and knowledge. We consider a growth accounting framework in order to test whether welfare expenditures more than offset the efficiency losses caused by distortionary taxation, and whether the effects of public expenditure on economic growth

Sergio Beraldo; Daniel Montolio Estivill; Gilberto Turati

2005-01-01

221

A Multilevel Analysis of Factors Related to Poverty in Welfare States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to investigate factors contributing to poverty, one of the most significant social problems in Western societies. To this end, 13 countries that have made a variety of efforts to reduce poverty, and therefore experienced similar development processes related to welfare, were selected. To overcome the methodological limitations of…

Kim, Kyo-seong; Lee, Yongwoo; Lee, Yu-jeong

2010-01-01

222

Urban poverty and social welfare policy in the united states: an undergraduate research\\/training programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, interdisciplinary, research and training programme focusing on urban poverty and social welfare policy in the USA has been established recently at UCLA. This paper describes the structure and organisation of the programme, assesses student reactions and experiences and discusses the importance of major research universities encouraging faculty to develop training of this type.

James H. Johnson Jr; Melvin L. Oliver

1991-01-01

223

Using Pre-K to Advance Education Reform: Opportunities for State Advisory Councils. Research Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By strengthening linkages between pre-k programs and education reform agendas, Early Childhood Councils are well positioned to influence their states' school improvement activities. This brief identifies specific steps councils can take to maximize their states' investments in early education including aligning policy prior to and following Pre-K.…

Goffin, Stacie G.; Regenstein, Elliot

2011-01-01

224

Experience of the Veterans Health Administration in Massachusetts after state health care reform.  

PubMed

Starting in 2006, Massachusetts enacted a series of health insurance reforms that successfully led to 96.6% of its population being covered by 2011. As the rest of the nation undertakes similar reforms, it is unknown how the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), one of many important Federal health care programs, will be affected. Our state-level study approach assessed the effects of health reform on utilization of VHA services in Massachusetts from 2005 to 2011. Models were adjusted for state-level demographic and economic characteristics, including health insurance rates, unemployment rates, median household income, poverty rates, and percent of population 65 years and older. No statistically significant associative change was observed in Massachusetts relative to other states over this time period. The findings raise important questions about the continuing role of VHA in American health care as health insurance coverage is one of many factors that influence decisions on where to seek health care. PMID:25373056

Chan, Stephanie H; Burgess, James F; Clark, Jack A; Mayo-Smith, Michael F

2014-11-01

225

The State Tax Commission and Tax Reform In Kansas  

E-print Network

named in the deed, and the book and page in which the deed was recorded. That portion of the schedule filled out by the county clerks showed the assessed valuation, the per cent of levy, the amount of taxes levied, the township or city in which.... CHAPTER IV. REC0KMEI1DATI0US HADE BY THE COuMISSIOU FOR THE REFORM OF THE TAX SYSTEM. The Graded Property Tax,p.94—The taxation of mortgages, p.98—Recommendation in regard to county and deputy assessors, p. 99—The inheritance Tax,p.104. CHAPTER I. A...

Burke, Martin

1913-06-01

226

EXIT ROUTES FROM WELFARE: EXAMINING PSYCHO-SOCIAL, DEMOGRAPHIC AND HUMAN CAPITAL FACTORS  

E-print Network

EXIT ROUTES FROM WELFARE: EXAMINING PSYCHO-SOCIAL, DEMOGRAPHIC AND HUMAN CAPITAL FACTORS Colleen on an earlier draft. #12;1 EXIT ROUTES FROM WELFARE: EXAMINING PSYCHO-SOCIAL, DEMOGRAPHIC AND HUMAN CAPITAL FACTORS Concern over welfare dependency fueled the push for welfare reform in the form of the Personal

Shyy, Wei

227

Implementing the Affordable Care Act: state action on the 2014 market reforms.  

PubMed

The Affordable Care Act includes numerous consumer protections designed to improve the accessibility, adequacy, and affordability of private health insurance. Because states are the primary regulators of health insurance, this issue brief examines new state action on a subset of protections--such as guaranteed access to coverage and a ban on pre­existing condition exclusions--that go into effect in 2014. The analysis finds that, to date, only one state passed new legislation on all of these protections, and an additional 10 states and the District of Columbia passed new legislation or issued a new regulation on at least one protection. The analysis also finds that--without new legislation--some states face limitations in fully enforcing these reforms. These findings suggest an acute need for states to take action in 2013 to help ensure that consumers are fully protected by and benefit from the Affordable Care Act's most significant reforms. PMID:23484229

Keith, Katie; Lucia, Kevin W; Corlette, Sabrina

2013-02-01

228

Food Price Subsidies and Nutrition: Evidence from State Reforms to India's Public Distribution System1  

E-print Network

Food Price Subsidies and Nutrition: Evidence from State Reforms to India's Public Distribution food price subsidies affect household nutrition using a dramatic expansion of the availability. These results differ from recent studies suggesting that food subsidies have little effect on nutrition

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

229

Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities

T. T. Nichols; D. D. Taylor; R. A. Wood; C. M. Barnes

2002-01-01

230

Evaluating ARRA Programs and Other Educational Reforms: A Guide for States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) developed this guide to help you consider evaluation issues likely to arise as you launch ARRA-funded initiatives and other educational reform activities. Many states are already involved in evaluation, so many of the ideas presented here may be familiar. The authors…

Perez-Johnson, Irma; Walters, Kirk; Puma, Michael; Herman, Rebecca; Garet, Michael; Heppen, Jessica; Lemke, Mariann; Aladjem, Daniel; Amin, Samia; Burghardt, John

2011-01-01

231

SOCIALLY IMPROVING TAX REFORMS &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes graphical methods to determine whether commodity tax changes are “socially improving,” in the sense of improving social welfare or decreasing poverty for large classes of social welfare and poverty indices. It also shows how estimators of critical poverty lines and economic efficiency ratios can be used to characterize socially improving tax reforms. The methodology is illustrated using

Jean-Yves Duclos; Paul Makdissi; Quentin Wodon

2008-01-01

232

25 CFR 20.200 - What contact will the Bureau maintain with State, tribal, county, local, and other Federal agency...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Welfare Reform § 20.200 What contact...all financial assistance and social services programs with state...the financial assistance and social services program avoids...

2011-04-01

233

25 CFR 20.200 - What contact will the Bureau maintain with State, tribal, county, local, and other Federal agency...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Welfare Reform § 20.200 What contact...all financial assistance and social services programs with state...the financial assistance and social services program avoids...

2012-04-01

234

25 CFR 20.200 - What contact will the Bureau maintain with State, tribal, county, local, and other Federal agency...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Welfare Reform § 20.200 What contact...all financial assistance and social services programs with state...the financial assistance and social services program avoids...

2010-04-01

235

25 CFR 20.200 - What contact will the Bureau maintain with State, tribal, county, local, and other Federal agency...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Welfare Reform § 20.200 What contact...all financial assistance and social services programs with state...the financial assistance and social services program avoids...

2013-04-01

236

25 CFR 20.200 - What contact will the Bureau maintain with State, tribal, county, local, and other Federal agency...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Welfare Reform § 20.200 What contact...all financial assistance and social services programs with state...the financial assistance and social services program avoids...

2014-04-01

237

The State, Markets and Higher Education Reform in Botswana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Market forces are being introduced in public spheres such as higher education and public health, which hitherto were closed to such forces. Ironically, it is the state that is responsible for this process of marketisation. Some see this state action as leading to a growing influence of the state in public policy while others see an attenuation of…

Tabulawa, Richard; Polelo, Mino; Silas, Onalenna

2013-01-01

238

A Re-Examination of Welfare States and Inequality in Rich Nations: How In-Kind Transfers and Indirect Taxes Change the Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies find large cross-national differences in inequality amongst rich Western nations, due in large part to differences in the generosity of welfare state transfers. The United States is the least generous nation and the one having the most after-tax and transfer inequality. But these analyses are limited to the effects of cash and…

Garfinkel, Irwin; Rainwater, Lee; Smeeding, Timothy M.

2006-01-01

239

Scientific assessment of animal welfare.  

PubMed

Abstract Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this is likely to be a major focus for animal welfare science activity in the early twenty-first century. PMID:25263963

Hemsworth, Ph; Mellor, Dj; Cronin, Gm; Tilbrook, Aj

2015-01-01

240

The State of Teacher Evaluation Reform: State Education Agency Capacity and the Implementation of New Teacher-Evaluation Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Obama administration's Race to the Top competitive grant program initiated an unprecedented wave of state teacher-evaluation reform across the country. To date, most of the scholarly analysis of this activity has focused on the design of the evaluation instruments or the implementation of the new evaluations by districts and schools. But…

McGuinn, Patrick

2012-01-01

241

Child Welfare Policy Manual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document conveys mandatory policies that have their basis in Federal Law and/or program regulations. It also provides interpretations of Federal Statutes and program regulations initiated by inquiries from State Child Welfare agencies or Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Regional Offices. The manual replaces the Children's…

Administration for Children & Families, 2008

2008-01-01

242

Child Support and Welfare Caseloads. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report tests the hypothesis that strong child support collection is associated with lower welfare caseloads. It uses annual state panel data from 1980-96 to replicate previous models and incorporate the effects of child support. The primary analysis technique is fixed effects regression of welfare caseloads with welfare caseloads as the…

Huang, Chien-Chung; Garfinkel, Irwin; Waldfogel, Jane

243

Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

Horne, Thomas A.

1990-01-01

244

Massachusetts Education Reform: The State We're in  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future of public education changed forever in the United States when "A Nation at Risk" was published in 1983. This report warned educators from coast to coast that America was on the brink of losing its top-ranked position internationally because "others" were "matching and surpassing their educational attainments." That got people's…

Driscoll, David P.

2004-01-01

245

Positive animal welfare states and encouraging environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours.  

PubMed

Abstract Affective neuroscience, incorporating neurophysiology and neuropsychology, is providing increasing evidence that certain behaviours of animals may be interpreted in terms of what they are intending to achieve, i.e. their goals. It is also providing evidence that allows inferences to be made about the affective contents of some goal-directed behaviours. These neuroscience-supported inferences are aligned with recommendations based on prior behaviour-based investigations of animals' preferences, aversions and priorities, and these observations together support the cautious use of particular behaviours to infer what the accompanying affects may be. In this review, therefore, some attention is given to negative affects and their relationships to poor animal welfare, but the primary focus is the positive affects animals may experience when they successfully engage in rewarding goal-directed behaviours, encapsulated in the concept of positive affective engagement. The review draws together reports of environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours observed in a range of species and under diverse circumstances in order to illustrate the likely widespread occurrence of the positive affects that may accompany them. Particular consideration is given to affects that are potentially associated with some aspects of exploration and food acquisition in stimulus rich or impoverished environments, and to those that may be associated with aspects of the affiliative interactions of bonding or bond affirmation, maternal care, play and sexual activity. It is concluded that animals given the opportunity to engage in such activities may experience some positive affects. However, the intensity of an animal's experience of particular positive affects is likely to range from zero to very high because the associated behaviours occur intermittently, variation may occur during different phases of a goal-directed behaviour, and other positive or negative affects experienced at the same time may have greater impact. As good welfare is achieved both by minimising negative affects and promoting positive ones and as conscious sentient animals may be expected to have an interest in experiencing as little pain and as much pleasure as possible, it is argued that there is an ethical obligation to take practical steps to help them to achieve these outcomes. Such steps would include providing them with opportunities to express more behaviours that are associated with rewarding or satisfying experiences understood in terms of positive affective engagement. PMID:24875367

Mellor, Dj

2015-01-01

246

States, Markets and Higher Education Reform: The Netherlands and England  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In many countries pressures of globalisation have led to major changes in relationships between the State, the market and\\u000a higher education. These changes have conse­quences for the roles and organisation of higher education, and of universities\\u000a in particular (Butera, 2000; Cowen, 2000; Fulton, 2002, 2003; Zajda, 2005, 2006; Henry et al., 2001; Schugurensky, 1999). This chapter explores aspects of higher

Rosamunde F. J. Becker

247

Can We Improve the Measurement of Attitudes towards the Welfare State? A Constructive Critique of Survey Instruments with Evidence from Focus Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a large and growing literature on welfare state attitudes, most of which is built on random-sample population surveys with standardised closed-question items. This article criticises the existing survey instruments, especially those that are used within the International Social Survey Programme, in a novel approach with focus group data…

Goerres, Achim; Prinzen, Katrin

2012-01-01

248

Welfare Eligibility: Deficit Reduction Act Income Verification Issues. Fact Sheet for the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This income and eligibility verification system (IEVS) database was created to aid the implementation of data exchanges among federal and state agencies. These exchanges are important for income and eligibility verification of persons who receive benefits from welfare and unemployment programs. Attempts are being made to match the computer…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

249

The association between life course socioeconomic position and life satisfaction in different welfare states: European comparative study of individuals in early old age  

PubMed Central

Background: whether socioeconomic position over the life course influences the wellbeing of older people similarly in different societies is not known. Objective: to investigate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction among individuals in early old age and the influence of the welfare state regime on the associations. Design: comparative study using data from Wave 2 and SHARELIFE, the retrospective Wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected during 2006–07 and 2008–09, respectively. Setting: thirteen European countries representing four welfare regimes (Southern, Scandinavian, Post-communist and Bismarckian). Subjects: a total of 17,697 individuals aged 50–75 years. Methods: slope indices of inequality (SIIs) were calculated for the association between life course socioeconomic position (measured by the number of books in childhood, education level and current wealth) and life satisfaction. Single level linear regression models stratified by welfare regime and multilevel regression models, containing interaction terms between socioeconomic position and welfare regime type, were calculated. Results: socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction were present in all welfare regimes. Educational inequalities in life satisfaction were narrowest in Scandinavian and Bismarckian regimes among both genders. Post-communist and Southern countries experienced both lower life satisfaction and larger socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction, using most measures of socioeconomic position. Current wealth was associated with large inequalities in life satisfaction across all regimes. Conclusions: Scandinavian and Bismarckian countries exhibited narrower socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction. This suggests that more generous welfare states help to produce a more equitable distribution of wellbeing among older people. PMID:24476800

Niedzwiedz, Claire L.; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Pell, Jill P.; Mitchell, Richard

2014-01-01

250

Welfare Policies and Adolescents: Exploring the Roles of Sibling Care, Maternal Work Schedules, and Economic Resources  

PubMed Central

This study uses data from three longitudinal experimental evaluations of US state welfare reform programs to examine whether program-induced changes in families’ reliance on sibling care are linked with the effects of welfare programs on selected schooling outcomes of high risk, low-income adolescents. The findings from two of the welfare programs indicate that increased reliance on sibling care was concomitant with unfavorable effects of the programs on adolescent schooling outcomes. In the third welfare program examined, the program did not yield any increases in the use of sibling care or unfavorable effects on adolescent schooling outcomes, suggesting that sibling care is one likely contributor to the negative effects of welfare programs on adolescent schooling outcomes. These findings are discussed in terms of the pattern of the programs’ effects on families’ income, as well as maternal work on nonstandard schedules, aside from the programs’ effects on maternal employment, which play contributory roles in shaping the extent to which welfare programs led to less favorable effects on the schooling outcomes of adolescents with younger siblings. PMID:21347556

Hsueh, JoAnn; Gennetian, Lisa A.

2011-01-01

251

A Study of the Fifty States To Determine the Effect of Educational Reform on Seven Educational Improvement Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The status and effects of state-initiated educational reform were studied for local school districts in seven areas of educational improvement (EI): (1) state-mandated testing of students; (2) state curricular outcomes; (3) summer remediation; (4) state evaluation of local districts; (5) more stringent teacher requirements; (6) mentoring; and (7)…

Cooley, Van E.; Thompson, Jay C., Jr.

252

State innovation models: early experiences and challenges of an initiative to advance broad health system reform.  

PubMed

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and states are partnering to transform health care systems by creating and testing new models of care delivery and payment. Interviews with officials from states participating in the State Innovation Models (SIM) Initiative reveal that the readiness of providers and payers to adopt innovations var­ies, requiring different starting points, goals, and strategies. So far, effective strategies appear to include: building on past reform efforts; redesigning health information technol­ogy to provide reliable, targeted data on care costs and quality; and using standard perfor­mance measures and financial incentives to spur alignment of providers' and payers' goals. State governments also have policy levers to encourage efficient deployment of a diverse health care workforce. As federal officials review states' innovation plans, set timetables, and provide technical assistance, they can also take steps to accommodate the budgetary, political, and time constraints that states are facing. PMID:24133696

Silow-Carroll, Sharon; Lamphere, JoAnn

2013-09-01

253

Why China's economic reforms differ: the M-form hierarchy and entry\\/expansion of the non-state sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's thirteen years of reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical structure based on the functional or specialization

Yingyi Qian; Chenggang Xu

1993-01-01

254

Teaching Note-CASA Volunteerism: Preparing MSW Students for Public Child Welfare Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to reform public child welfare systems across the nation, Title IV-E child welfare training programs were established over 2 decades ago. Participating students typically engage in a customized educational experience as part of their MSW program that prepares them to work in the field of child welfare upon graduation. This article…

Berrick, Jill Duerr; Durst, Wendy

2014-01-01

255

Uninsured Rate of Poor Children Declines, but Remains above Pre-Welfare Reform Levels: Nearly One in Two Working Poor Adults Remain Uninsured.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of Americans without health insurance fell in 1999. This was partly driven by improvements in the extent to which children have health care coverage. Many children who gained coverage were poor children, suggesting that efforts to enroll more Medicaid-eligible children into coverage and to implement the State Children's Health Insurance…

Guyer, Jocelyn

256

Educational Opportunities in Washington's High Schools under State Education Reform: High School Responses to Expectations for Change. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes educational programs and opportunities available to Washington state's high school students, emphasizing changes brought about by the state's education reform. Information came from surveys and interviews with teachers, students, and parents and state and national data. The study examined whether high schools were increasing…

McLain, Barbara; Thompson, Madeleine

257

Does School District Takeover Work? Assessing the Effectiveness of City and State Takeover as a School Reform Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the potential for city and state takeovers to turn around low performing schools, utilizing diverse empirical measures to gauge the initial impact of city/state school district takeover reform in four districts. Data come from the U.S. Department of Education, Bureau of Labor Statistics, state departments of education, local…

Wong, Kenneth K.; Shen, Francis X.

258

From a conservative to a liberal welfare state: decomposing changes in income-related health inequalities in Germany, 1994-2011.  

PubMed

Individual socio-economic status and the respective socio-economic and political contexts are both important determinants of health. Welfare regimes may be linked with health and health inequalities through two potential pathways: first, they may influence the associations between socio-economic status and health. Second, they may influence the income-related distributions of socio-economic determinants of health within a society. Using the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for the years 1994-2011, we analyze how income-related health inequalities evolved in the context of the transformation from a conservative to a liberal welfare system in Germany. We use the concentration index to measure health inequalities, and the annual concentration indices are decomposed to reveal how the contributions of the explanatory variables age, sex, income, education, and occupation changed over time. The changes in the contributions are further decomposed to distinguish whether changes in health inequalities stem from redistributions of the explanatory variables, from changes in their associations with health, or from changes in their means. Income-related health inequalities to the disadvantage of the economically deprived roughly doubled over time, which can largely be explained by changes in the contributions of individual characteristics representing weaker labor market positions, particularly income and unemployment. The social and labor market reforms coincide with the observed changes in the distributions of these characteristics and, to a lesser extent, with changes of their associations with health. PMID:24607705

Siegel, Martin; Vogt, Verena; Sundmacher, Leonie

2014-05-01

259

Revalidating External Prison Classifications Systems: The Experience of Ten States and Model for Classification Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) funded projects to assist ten states with the revalidation of their external objective classification systems that determine which facility an inmate should be housed. The ten participating states included Delaware, Montana, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. Written by Patricia L. Hardyman, James Austin, and Owan C. Tulloch, this 146-page report reveals the work undertaken by the participating states, provides an overall outline of the essential tasks required for revalidation, and summarizes external classification trends along with the lessons learned from these reforms. The report also includes copies of classification instruments and statistical tables to describe options for other states faced with similar problems.

Austin, James, 1948-; Hardyman, Patricia L.; Tulloch, Owan C.

2002-01-01

260

45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

2010-10-01

261

45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

2014-10-01

262

How would patent reform legislation in the United States impact the pharmaceutical industry?  

PubMed

The United States Congress is attempting to tackle a perceived problem with so-called 'patent trolls' by introducing legislation directed at the particular traits attributable to these patent holders. Two of these proposed provisions involve fee-shifting and heightened pleading standards. The problem is that these legislative proposals are not narrowly tailored, but rather are blunt instruments that will likely impact all patent holders. This threat is particularly problematic for the pharmaceutical industry, where the proposed patent reform is likely to disrupt the delicate balance established for Hatch-Waxman-type litigation. PMID:25387953

Williams, Andrew W

2015-02-01

263

Immigration, Welfare Magnets and the Geography of Child Poverty in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a detailed look at the immigration and internal migration dynamics of child poverty for US States based on the 1990 US census. It assesses the impact of two policy-relevant factors on the migration of poor children across States: (1) the role of high immigration levels as a potential “push” for native-born and longer-term resident poor children whose

William H. Frey

1997-01-01

264

Poverty and housing in Chile: the development of a neo-liberal welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers poverty alleviation measures in Chile under the military regimes of General Pinochet (1973–1989). It explores the political and economic context within which decisions were made and the impact of economic restructuring upon urban poverty in the country. It argues that the state responded to rising poverty through the use of increased targeting of subsidies. While this was

Ben Richards

1995-01-01

265

45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms. 148.128 Section 148.128 ...individual market reforms—alternative mechanisms. (a) Waiver of requirements...implements an acceptable alternative mechanism in accordance with the following...

2010-10-01

266

Impact of financial reforms on efficiency of state-owned, private and foreign banks in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses a unique bank level data from 1991 to 2000 and evaluates how financial reforms affect banking efficiency of domestic and foreign banks in Pakistan. The results suggest that banking efficiency falls during initial reform period when banks adjust to enhanced competition but increases in more advanced stages of reform. While in general foreign and private banks show

Abid A. Burki; G. S. K. Niazi

2010-01-01

267

Impact of Financial Reforms on Efficiency of State-owned, Private and Foreign Banks in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a unique bank level data from 1991 to 2000 and evaluates how financial reforms affect banking efficiency of domestic and foreign banks in Pakistan. The results suggest that banking efficiency falls during initial reform period when banks adjust to enhanced competition, but increases in more advanced stages of reform. While in general foreign and private banks show

Abid A. Burki; G. S. K. Niazi

2006-01-01

268

ALBANIA'S RADICAL AGRARIAN REFORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agrarian reform in Albania included free distribution of land to rural households and the complete break up of the former collective and state farms. These key features of the Albanian reform are in sharp contrast with other Central and Eastern European countries. Our paper explains the choice of the Albanian agricultural privatization and land reform process and the radical

Azeta Cungu; Johan F. M. Swinnen

1998-01-01

269

Eugenics and the Welfare State in Sweden: The Politics of Social Margins and the Idea of a Productive Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the ideological and political role of Social Democracy in the enactment of eugenic policies in Sweden during the 1930s and 1940s. At first sight, these policies, which could be defined as ‘welfare eugenics’, are in contrast to the ‘racist’ romantic and mythically-based eugenic policies often promoted by conservatives and national socialists. This article analyses this claim

Alberto Spektorowski; Elisabet Mizrachi

2004-01-01

270

The Transition of Youth with Disabilities from the Child Welfare System: An Analysis of State Administrative Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth with disabilities are disproportionately represented in the child welfare system (Crosse, Kaye, & Ratnofsky, 1992; Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Although research on this topic is limited, youth with disabilities who are emancipating from foster care are at risk for particularly poor outcomes, experiencing even lower rates of employment,…

Hill, Katharine Miller

2010-01-01

271

Why do rich countries prefer free trade over free migration? The role of the modern welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to traditional trade theory (Heckscher—Ohlin), free trade and free migration are equivalent measures of economic integration leading both to an equalization of factor prices. This prediction is in sharp opposition to the observed preference of rich countries for free trade over free migration. We provide an explanation for this inconsistency: the redistribution policies in the countries. Social welfare in

Dietmar Wellisch; Uwe Walz

1997-01-01

272

Why do rich countries prefer free trade over free migration? The role of the modern welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to traditional trade theory (Heckscher–Ohlin), free trade and free migration are equivalent measures of economic integration leading both to an equalization of factor prices. This prediction is in sharp opposition to the observed preference of rich countries for free trade over free migration. We provide an explanation for this inconsistency: the redistribution policies in the countries. Social welfare in

Dietmar Wellisch; Uwe Walz

1998-01-01

273

Reinventing the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

De Nederlandse verzorgingsstaat staat onder druk. Toekomstige trends als vergrijzing en globalisering dreigen de overheidsfinanciën onhoudbaar te maken en verslechteren de positie van laaggeschoolden. Tegelijkertijd lijkt de verzorgingsstaat onvoldoende aangepast aan veranderde sociale verhoudingen. Bovendien lokt ze langdurige inactiviteit uit bij onder meer uitkeringsgerechtigden, ouderen en vrouwen. Om in te spelen op toekomstige ontwikkelingen staat het vergroten van de arbeidsdeelname

Mooij de R. A

2006-01-01

274

1 April 20, 1998 From State-led to Grassroots-led Land Reform in Latin America1  

E-print Network

1 April 20, 1998 From State-led to Grassroots-led Land Reform in Latin America1 by Alain de Janvry arable land in Latin America is in large farms accounting for 26% of the total number of farms only control 2% of the land, are subsistence farms where land is generally overused. Poverty, which

Walter, M.Todd

275

Economic Reform in the Newly Independent States of the Former USSR: Effects on Agricultural Production and Trade to 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1980s, the Soviet Union was the world's top importer of grain, with annual imports averaging 36 million tons. Since the economic reforms that began in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former USSR in 1992 have intended to transform the economies from centrally planned to market-oriented systems, they could substantially change the countries' production, consumption, and trade

David J. Sedik; William M. Liefert; Peter S. Liapis

1997-01-01

276

Timing Is Everything: Building State Policy on Teacher Credentialing in an Era of Multiple, Competing, and Rapid Education Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Senate Bill (SB) 2042, authored by Senator Marion Bergeson, was passed to establish a new system for providing teacher preparation within the state of California. The credentialing reforms introduced in SB 2042 follow a tradition described by Irving Hendrik and stake their own claims regarding the locus of control over teacher quality, the role of…

Sandy, Mary Vixie

2006-01-01

277

The School-to-College Transition in the Context of Educational Reform: Student Retention and the State Policy Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the impact of state-level educational reform in Kentucky on college student retention. By tracking the educational progress of students who graduated from high school in a large school district and who subsequently enrolled in a research university in the same metropolitan area, the study reveals that the accountability…

Welsh, John F.; Petrosko, Joseph; Taylor, Hal

2007-01-01

278

Continuing Medical Education in the United States: Why It Needs Reform and How We Propose to Accomplish It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the continuing medical education (CME) enterprise evolved over the last half century, a variety of rules, national and state regulations, and reporting requirements developed, with a resultant substantial variation in what is required of a physician. That CME needs fundamental reform is not news to those who read the literature. Yet many of the…

Spivey, Bruce E.

2005-01-01

279

Social security reforms and early retirement  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Many reform proposals of the social security systems in various OECD economies suggest to scale down the non-actuarial parts\\u000a of the pension systems. These reforms have a flavor of increased efficiency at the costs of welfare losses for low-income\\u000a individuals. Assessing the economic effects, we investigate five different reform proposals by means of a numerical overlapping\\u000a generations model for

Hans Fehr; Wenche Irén Sterkeby; Øystein Thøgersen

2003-01-01

280

How the Child Welfare System Works  

MedlinePLUS

... Lists Adoption Assistance by State More Tools & Resources Logic Model Builders Related Organizations Learning Center Resources From ... State Child Welfare Workload Compendium More Tools & Resources Logic Model Builders Related Organizations Learning Center Children's Bureau ...

281

Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.  

PubMed

Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate. PMID:24094999

Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

2014-04-01

282

Half Full, Half Empty? Educator Responses over Time to State-Level Systemic Reforms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes survey data from randomly selected schools to investigate Oregon educators' attitudes toward mandated reforms, forces shaping these attitudes, and resultant changes in educational practices. Teachers' attitudes toward systemic reform over a 5-year period may be characterized as ambivalent and their behaviors as compliant. Workload was a…

Conley, David T.; Goldman, Paul

2000-01-01

283

Immigration Policy in the United States: Future Prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Program for Resarch on Immigration Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immigration to the United States has fluctuated considerably over the course of the nation's history and has elicited various policy responses at different times. In recent years, concern about undocumented, illegal immigration has given rise to efforts to reform immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 was intended…

Espenshade, Thomas J.; And Others

284

Do Family Caps on Welfare Affect Births among Welfare Recipients? Reconciling Efficacy and Effectiveness Estimates of Impact through a Blended Design Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a blended experimental and quasi-experimental research strategy which we believe will help improve the external validity of evaluations of welfare reform and other social policies. We draw upon data from New Jersey's imposition of a family cap, where welfare benefits instead of increasing remained the same for women who…

Jagannathan, Radha; Camasso, Michael J.; Killingsworth, Mark R.

2004-01-01

285

Assessment of welfare in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the definition given by Appleby (1996), animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry tech - niques and disease control (in which man is directly involved) may satisfy an animal's

Rosanna Scipioni; Giovanna Martelli; Luisa Antonella Volpelli

2009-01-01

286

Moral codes of mothering and the introduction of welfare-to-work in Ontario.  

PubMed

In this paper, I trace how the reform of social assistance in Ontario, especially the post-1990s enforcement of lone mothers' employability via welfare-to-work programs, parallels shifts in dominant moral codes of mothering, from "mother-carer" to "mother-worker." Additionally, I use this case as an entry point to consider the implications of public and policy allegiance to these moral codes for all mothers. The central argument I make is that the introduction of welfare-to-work programs in Ontario did not occur in a neoliberal state-sanctioned vacuum but also involved the circulation of ideas about moral mothering outside of policy into policy. PMID:22586836

Gazso, Amber

2012-02-01

287

Health Care Reform: Out Greatest Opportunity...Ever!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses inevitability of health care reform in United States, considers the reform process itself, and explains the plan of the President's Task Force on National Health Care Reform. Also considers the prospects for Congressional response to reform proposals. (NB)

Keigher, Sharon M.

1993-01-01

288

The State of America's Children Yearbook: 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Children's Defense Fund 1997 report on the state of America's children highlights the critical need for renewed commitment to children by all sectors of society. The introduction discusses Americans' values and presents 25 tips for effective child advocacy. The report then details the following: (1) the impact of welfare reform on children…

Weill, James D., Ed.; Jablonski, Donna M., Ed.

289

Race and the local politics of punishment in the new world of welfare.  

PubMed

To illuminate how race affects the usage of punitive tools in policy implementation settings, we analyze sanctions imposed for noncompliant client behavior under welfare reform. Drawing on a model of racial classification and policy choice, we test four hypotheses regarding client race, local context, and sanctioning. Based on longitudinal and cross-sectional multilevel analyses of individual-level administrative data, we find that race plays a significant role in shaping sanction implementation. Its effects, however, are highly contingent on client characteristics, local political contexts, and the degree to which state governments devolve policy control to local officials. PMID:21675307

Fording, Richard C; Soss, Joe; Schram, Sanford F

2011-03-01

290

An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.  

PubMed

Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented. PMID:24079487

Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

2013-01-01

291

Losing the Safety Net: How a Time-Limited Welfare Policy Affects Families at Risk of Reaching Time Limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the effects of Florida's Family Transition Program (FTP), one of the first welfare reform initiatives to include a time limit on the receipt of federal cash assistance with other welfare requirements, on single-mother welfare-receiving families. Using a regression-based subgroup approach, they identified a group of families who were at risk of reaching the welfare time limit and

Pamela A. Morris; Richard Hendra

2009-01-01

292

Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste  

SciTech Connect

A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: 1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; 2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and 3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Wood, Richard Arthur; Barnes, Charles Marshall

2002-08-01

293

Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste  

SciTech Connect

A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: (1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; (2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and (3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Wood, R.A.; Barnes, C.M.

2002-08-15

294

RELATIVE EFFICIENCY IN CHINESE URBAN CONSTRUCTION: A COMPARISON OF STATE-OWNED AND COLLECTIVE ENTERPRISES ARER REFORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the relative efficiency of locally-controlled urban collective and pro- vincially-controlled state-owned enterprises in the Chinese construction industry between 1985 and 1988, a period following significant economic reforms. A generalized restricted translog cost function approach is used which allows for both fixed and variable factor choices to deviate from profit-maximizing out- comes. Results indicate that collectives were less

Elliott Parker

295

California | Connecticut | Illinois | Maine | Maryland | Massachusetts | Michigan | New Hampshire | New Jersey | New York | Oregon | Vermont | Washington STATES' PRINCIPLES ON REFORM OF THE  

E-print Network

| New Jersey | New York | Oregon | Vermont | Washington STATES' PRINCIPLES ON REFORM OF THE TOXIC | Michigan | New Hampshire | New Jersey | New York | Oregon | Vermont | Washington Linda S. Adams, Secretary Department of Environmental Services Mark N. Mauriello, Acting Commissioner New Jersey Department

296

Do Generous Welfare States Generate Efficiency Gains Which Counterbalance Short Run Losses? Testing Downside Risk Theory with Economic Panel Data for the U.S., Germany and the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the paper is to assess the theory that the downside risk insurance provided by more generous welfare states generates long run efficiency gains, which counterbalance the short run efficiency losses caused by work disincentives in these states (Feldstein 1974, 1976; Sinn 1995, 1996). Testing downside risk theory requires long term…

Headey, Bruce; Muffels, Ruud

2008-01-01

297

Child Support Enforcement and Welfare Caseloads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Annual state panel data from 1980 to 1999 was examined to understand the effects of child support enforcement (CSE). However, in recent years, it has been found that the CSE among current and former welfare families are dramatically improved.

Chein-Chung Huang; Garfinkel, Irwin; Waldfogel, Jane

2004-01-01

298

The Small State, Markets and Tertiary Education Reform in a Globalised Knowledge Economy: Decoding Policy Texts in Botswana's Tertiary Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of global discourses have gained currency in national education policies. The need to reform education systems is coated in economic terms, the rationale of which is efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. Education is assigned the task of producing a competitive workforce in the global market. In these reforms, education is…

Polelo, Mompati Mino

2009-01-01

299

Maternal Working Conditions and Child Well-Being in Welfare-Leaving Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the wake of welfare reform, thousands of low-income single mothers have transitioned into the labor market. In this article, the authors examine how the work conditions of mothers leaving welfare for employment are associated with the emotional well-being of 372 children ages 5 to 15 years. The authors examine the cumulative incidence, over a…

Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Bajracharya, Ashish

2005-01-01

300

Eighteenth International Conference on Social Welfare, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1976. Swedish National Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report discusses achievements in Sweden's economic and social reforms which have led to an increase in equality. Intended as Sweden's contribution to the exchange of information regarding social welfare action in developed and developing nations, the report is presented in eight chapters. Chapter I enumerates Sweden's policies of welfare,…

1976

301

Toward Self Sufficiency: Social Issues in the Nineties. Proceedings of the National Association for Welfare Research and Statistics (33rd, Scottsdale, Arizona, August 7-11, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The presentations compiled in these proceedings on welfare and self-sufficiency reflect much of the current research in areas of housing, health, employment and training, welfare and reform, nutrition, child support, child care, and youth. The first section provides information on the conference and on the National Association for Welfare Research…

National Association for Welfare Research and Statistics, Olympia, WA.

302

State Implementation of Reforms Promoted under the Recovery Act. A Report from Charting the Progress of Education Reform: An Evaluation of the Recovery Act's Role. NCEE 2014-4011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA or the Recovery Act) of 2009 provided an unprecedented level of funding for K-12 education. The program created a "historic opportunity to save hundreds of thousands of jobs, support states and school districts, and advance reforms and improvements that will create long-lasting results for our…

Webber, Ann; Troppe, Patricia; Milanowski, Anthony; Gutmann, Babette; Reisner, Elizabeth; Goertz, Margaret

2014-01-01

303

Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index.  

PubMed

Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and food. Body condition and faeces consistence were worse in summer. Many daily grazing hours (range average above 3 to 9 h) turned out to be more beneficial than few daily grazing hours (range average above 9 to 21 h) for the welfare of the dairy herds. In conclusion, this study reports a positive within-herd effect of summer grazing on dairy cow welfare, where many daily grazing hours were more beneficial than few daily grazing hours. PMID:23244468

Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T

2013-05-01

304

Jobs, Welfare and Homelessness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides objective information about the relationship of poverty, welfare, and homelessness to California's regional economy and about the design of programs that help people in poverty build working lives. California does not have enough jobs for its workforce, and welfare caseloads are consequently determined by the economy. The…

Einbinder, Susan; And Others

305

Drivers of health reform in the United States: 2012 and beyond.  

PubMed

American medicine has seen radical changes in the past decade. In particular, radiology has been affected, notably first with the passage of the Deficit Reduction Act in 2005 and then with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2010. Health care reforms are not only driven by political agendas. This process is also a response to underlying social, economic, and technological realities. It is unlikely that reform efforts will just evaporate because of a single change in government or with a decision by the US Supreme Court. Regardless of who sits in the Oval Office and which party controls Congress, there are forces that will need to be addressed through policy changes in the coming years. The underlying drivers of health care reform are legion, but health care inflation, fiscal mismanagement by government, poor planning for demographic changes that affect entitlement programs, questions about the quality of health outcomes, and a desire for universal health care were all central factors in the reforms put forth since 2009. Radiologists should be preparing now for continued change in both the public and private sectors in health care for the foreseeable future. These changes are likely to have profound impacts on our profession. Radiologists and their groups should plan to pay greater attention to these events and should seek to have a much greater level of involvement in the political and social processes that lead to policy changes in health care. PMID:23025861

Lexa, Frank J

2012-10-01

306

Analysis of a State School Finance Reform Legislative Proposal in Kansas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper traces the development of school reform pressures in Kansas from the implementation of the foundation program in 1965 to the passage of substitute Senate Bill 92 during the 1973 legislative session. Bill 92 is designed to produce equalization of school district expenditures and tax levies by a formula based on the concept of funding the…

McGhehey, M. A.

307

Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although becoming widespread, especially in view of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and without a universally-accepted definition, most discussions of standards-based reforms (SBR) include certain commonalities, including: (1) Academic expectations for students; (2) Alignment of key elements of the educational system to promote attainment of these…

Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Yuan, Kun

2008-01-01

308

For the Welfare of Children: Lessons Learned from Class Action Litigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of papers brings together distinguished experts writing on the use of class action litigation to reform public child welfare systems. It is an effort to tease out of four decades of experience in this work, the factors that increase the likelihood that litigation will result in successful system reform. This publication is an outgrowth…

Meltzer, Judith, Ed.; Joseph, Rachel Molly, Ed.; Shookhoff, Andy, Ed.

2012-01-01

309

Child Welfare Outcomes 1998: Annual Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report is the first in a series of annual reports from the Department of Health and Human Services required by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 (ASFA). The report "presents data on State performance in meeting the needs of children and families who come into contact with the child welfare system, focusing specifically on the "outcomes, or results, for these children." It also examines the condition of child welfare programs nationwide, presents data measuring outcomes, and offers findings and conclusions.

2000-01-01

310

The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.  

PubMed

This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change. PMID:21057098

Sitek, Micha?

2010-08-01

311

The state of Zirconia Suported Platinum Catalysts for CO2\\/CH4 Reforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Pt\\/ZrO2 catalysts used for CO2\\/CH4 reforming to syngas, not all accessible Pt contributes equally to the activity of the catalyst. The cataalytic activity is determined by the accessibility of Pt on the Pt-ZrO2 perimeter. Thes is explained in terms of the CO2 activation via carbonate species on the support which must be in the proximity of the Pt particles

J. H. Bitter; K. Seshan; J. A. Lercher

1997-01-01

312

A History of Social Welfare Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cornell University Library's Social Welfare Digital Collection brings together manuscripts, early journals, narratives, reports, letters, photographs, prints, and much more that document the history of social welfare in the United States. The two foci here include the historical development of social welfare services in New York and the history of social welfare provisions by and for African Americans. On the homepage, visitors can look over the Featured Item and then Browse around at their leisure through more than 25 titles, such as "Dangerous Classes of New York, and twenty years' work among them" and "North of Slavery." Visitors can also look over two timelines documenting the parallel foci mentioned above. The siteâÂÂs Search feature allows for a basic search across all items in the collection.

313

Evaluating Interdependent Watershed Conservation and Ground Water Management Reforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conserving the watershed can help to preserve ground water recharge. Preventing overuse of available water through pricing reforms can also substantially increase the value of an aquifer. Inasmuch as users are accustomed to low prices, efficiency pricing may be politically infeasible, and watershed conservation may be considered as an alternative. We estimate and compare welfare gains from pricing reform and watershed conservation for a water management district in Oahu that obtains its water supply from the Pearl Harbor aquifer. We find that pricing reform is welfare superior to watershed conservation unless the latter is able to prevent very large recharge losses. Watershed conservation that yields net gains in combination with pricing reform may cause net losses without the pricing reform. If adoption of watershed conservation delays the implementation of pricing reform, the benefits of the latter are significantly reduced.

Pitafi, Basharat A.; Roumasset, James A.

2006-12-01

314

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

315

Transforming Education through the Arts. Proceedings of a Special Hearing on Arts and Education Reform in the States (Washington, D.C., January 12-14, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an edited version of testimony presented to a special hearing on the role of arts education in education reform. A special committee of eight state legislators assembled to hear testimony from 12 organizations, including the National Endowment for the Arts and the U.S. Department of Education, the Council for Chief State School…

Loyacono, Laura, Ed.

316

Child Health 2000: Report Card for New York State, Regions and Counties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details the impact of the changing health environment on children's health and access to health care in New York state. The report links key measures of child health with recent policy changes, such as expansions in health insurance coverage, Medicaid managed care, and welfare reform. Data from 1997 are used as a baseline measure for…

New York Academy of Medicine, NY.

317

Reform versus Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cites demographic figures showing that U.S. children are an endangered species. Educators alone cannot "fix" the problems of education, because dealing with poverty's root causes must involve health care, housing, transportation, job training, and social welfare bureaucracies. The United States has the resources, if not the will, to reduce the…

Hodgkinson, Harold

1991-01-01

318

How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 5-year impacts of mandatory welfare-to-work programs on welfare recipients and their children were examined by using a rigorous research design called a social experiment to examine 11 welfare-to-work programs in 6 states (California, Georgia, Michigan, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Oregon). Four employment-focused and seven education-focused programs…

Hamilton, Gayle; Freedman, Stephen; et al.

319

"HEALTH REFORM: MOVING FORWARD, FOCUS ON THE STATES" Join us Monday, March 28, 2011 from 6:00pm -7:30pm for an interactive video conference. Health policy  

E-print Network

"HEALTH REFORM: MOVING FORWARD, FOCUS ON THE STATES" Join us Monday, March 28, 2011 from 6:00pm - 7:30pm for an interactive video conference. Health policy experts at both the Harvard Kennedy School and Georgetown University will explore health care reform initiatives and state responses to the federal law

Schrag, Daniel

320

Reforming Science and Mathematics Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural

J. J. Lagowski

1995-01-01

321

Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization  

PubMed Central

Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

2010-01-01

322

Welfare Systems and African-Americans: Historical Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An historical discussion of the relationship of American welfare systems to African-Americans, stating that Europeans, primarily from England, reluctantly established meagre, inhumane welfare systems based on seventeenth century English philosophy and tradition for members of their own nationality group after more than two centuries of poverty in…

Nicholson, Rosetta

1975-01-01

323

Farmers, Scientists, and Officers of Industry: The Formation and Reformation of Land-Grant Colleges in the Northeastern United States, 1862-1906  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the formation, reformation, and standardization of land-grant colleges in the Northeastern United States during the last four decades of the nineteenth century. It is a history that explores the turbulent origins of land-grant colleges in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont,…

Sorber, Nathan M.

2011-01-01

324

The Role of Curriculum Resources in Three Countries: The Impact of National Curriculum Reforms in the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project examines the impact of standards-based and curriculum reforms on the role of materials in educational systems in the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Australia. The project focused on identifying activities undertaken by publishing companies and in educational systems to develop, select and use materials in the…

Watt, Michael G.

2004-01-01

325

The Politics of Teacher Reform in Florida: Analyzing Causal Narratives Surrounding State Adoption of Performance-Based Evaluations, Performance Pay, and Tenure Elimination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a multiyear debate, Florida lawmakers passed the "Student Success Act" in March 2011, introducing some of the most sweeping educational reforms in the state's history--the introduction of teacher evaluation systems based on value-added modeling, mandatory "performance pay" for teachers, and the elimination of long-term professional…

Harrison, Christopher; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

2012-01-01

326

Feasibility Study on the Development of Teachers Resource Centres: Consultants Report. Organization of Eastern Caribbean States Education Reform Strategy Project 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is based on the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Educational Reform Strategy Project No. 5 which found that a Teachers Resource Center (TRC) can be a vehicle to provide essential equipment and materials to schools organized in clusters and to serve as meeting places for officials, principles, and teachers. Approximately…

Brown, Gerald R.; Halliday, Joseph J.

327

Blueprints for Reform: Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Blueprints for Reform is a summation of reports offering teachers, parents, policymakers, business leaders, and others a starting point for their exploration of the education system and its response to reform. This chapter looks at how student assessment in American schools might be redesigned to match the goals of science education reform put forth in that are exemplified in efforts such as Project 2061's Benchmarks for Science Literacy. It is divided into three sections that describe current assessment practice in the United States, suggest changes that are needed in order for science reform goals to be implemented, and explore possibilities and recommendations for closing the gap between current practice and a more ideal vision of science assessment.

328

Losing the Safety Net: How a Time-Limited Welfare Policy Affects Families at Risk of Reaching Time Limits  

PubMed Central

The authors examined the effects of Florida’s Family Transition Program (FTP), one of the first welfare reform initiatives to include a time limit on the receipt of federal cash assistance with other welfare requirements, on single-mother welfare-receiving families. Using a regression-based subgroup approach, they identified a group of families who were at risk of reaching the welfare time limit and subsequently assessed the experimental effects of the time-limited welfare policy on this group as compared to an otherwise comparable group of single-mother welfare-recipient families. For the families who were at risk of reaching the welfare time limit, FTP had few effects. FTP decreased mothers’ depressive symptoms, and mothers in the FTP group reported higher levels of children’s school achievement. There were no effects on parenting behavior or mothers’ reports of children’s social-emotional outcomes. PMID:19271826

Morris, Pamela A.; Hendra, Richard

2011-01-01

329

[Current aspects of the state and improvement of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of workers and passengers of Russian railways].  

PubMed

The data on the sanitary-epidemiological state of Railways objects of Russia are presented. Bacteriological examination of drinking water taken from the water systems of passenger cars showed that 3.9-5.0% of the samples did not meet the health standards (p < 0.01). Samples of workplace air in industrial enterprises did not meet hygienic standards: on vapors and gases--4.6%, dust and aerosols--13.6%. In 52.9 +/- 2.6% of examined drivers cabs there was revealed noncompliance to hygienic standards on physical factors: on the noise--45.1 +/- 2.7%, vibration--35.6 +/- 2.7%, etc. Out of the total number of occupational diseases locomotive drivers account for about 40% of cases, including sensorineural hearing loss up to 80%. Morbidity with temporary disability among drivers of locomotives are 20-25% higher (p < 0.05), than in the whole railway transport. The suggestions on the improvement of sanitary-hygienic monitoring in rail transport are given. PMID:24340904

Kas'kov, Iu N; Farkhatdinov, G A; Podkorytov, Iu I; Khusnutdinova, N Sh

2013-01-01

330

Educational Governance Reforms: The Uncertain Role of Local School Boards in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S., local school boards have long played a prominent role in governing public education. States have authority for\\u000a public education via the Tenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which reserves powers to the states that the Constitution\\u000a does not delegate to the federal government or prohibit states from assuming. In the mid-1800s, states began establishing\\u000a state-wide public school

Deborah Land; Sam Stringfield

331

Welfare, Tax Burden and Fiscal Balance in Artificial Societies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan's social security system is facing a crisis by short-sighted policies to balance of the accounts in a financial crisis. However, such a balance of accounts does not necessarily bring remedy of financial difficulties. If it is possible to reduce the social security payments because the weak become independent, it is considered that short-sighted reforms cause a further financial crisis. This study explores how welfare and tax burden influence fiscal balance using multi-agent simulations. The results of simulation show that fiscal balance is improved by high-welfare than a cut in fiscal expenditures, and that welfare reducing is impossible unless the three relations of social configuration (market, obligatory, and communal relations) function in balance with each other.

Kikuchi, Toshiko

332

Nutrition And Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition has a crucial role in determining the health and welfare of an animal. Owners have a responsibility to ensure that their cats receive a nutritionally complete and safe diet. The food should be offered in accordance with their natural feeding behaviour and physiology. Cats are obligate carnivores, with significantly different nutritional requirements from dogs and humans. As a result

Kit Sturgess; Karyl J. Hurley

333

Housing And Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way a cat is housed will have a significant impact on its welfare. The range of housing conditions in which cats may be kept include boarding, breeding and quarantine catteries, shelters, research facilities, veterinary practices and the home. Drawing on ethological principles, the evolutionary history of the cat and studies of cats kept in different conditions, the housing requirements

Irene Rochlitz

334

Off Welfare, into Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned with the increasing feminization of poverty, the Rockefeller Foundation launched in 1982 a $12 million welfare-to-work research and demonstration project, presently midway into a 5-year evaluation. The Minority Female Single Parent Demonstration project involved four community-based organizations: Atlanta Urban League (Georgia);…

BCEL Newsletter for the Business and Literacy Communities, 1991

1991-01-01

335

Foreign Influence and Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do foreign interests influence the policy determination process? What are the welfare implications of such foreign influence? In this paper we develop a model of foreign influence and apply it to the study of optimal tariffs. We develop a two-country voting model of electoral competition, where we allow the incumbent party in each country to take costly actions that

Pol Antràs; Gerard Padró i Miquel

2008-01-01

336

Foreign influence and welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do foreign interests influence policy? How are trade policies and the viability of trade agreements affected? What are the welfare implications of such foreign influence? In this paper we develop a model of foreign influence and apply it to the study of optimal tariffs. In a two-country voting model of electoral competition, we allow the incumbent party in each

Pol Antràs; Gerard Padró i Miquel

2011-01-01

337

Inflation and Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research on the welfare cost of inflation. New estimates are provided, based on U.S. time series for 1900-94, interpreted in a variety of ways. It is estimated that the gain from reducing the annual inflation rate from 10 percent to zero is equivalent to an increase in real income of slightly less than one percent. Using aggregate

2000-01-01

338

Welfare Implications of Heterogeneous Labor Markets in a Currency Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the role of labor markets heterogeneity in a monetary union and especially what are the welfare gains\\/costs of labor market reforms for each member of the area. To this end, we develop a medium-scale two-country model representing a currency union characterized by price and wage stickiness, real rigidities and labor market frictions. We make various scenarios of

C. Poilly; J. G. Sahuc

2008-01-01

339

Reform on the Move  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aurora (Colorado) Public Schools responded to the Colorado State Model Content Standards for Reading and Writing and the accountability measures attached to the state assessments by implementing the Aurora Achievement Initiative in 2001. Originating from literature on best practices and large-scale school reform, the goal of the districtwide…

Clark, Janet; Otte, Michelle; Fair, Lynn

2006-01-01

340

DUNCAN PRITCHARD Reforming Reformed Epistemology*  

E-print Network

DUNCAN PRITCHARD Reforming Reformed Epistemology* 0. Introduction There has been a renaissance of interest in the epistemology of religious belief over the last twenty years which has been largely inspired of religious epistemology is a rejection of the supposedly evidentialist assumptions which drive standard

Edinburgh, University of

341

STATEWIDE AUTOMATED CHILD WELFARE INFORMATION SYSTEM (SACWIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

SACWIS stands for Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System(s). It was authorized by Congress in 1993 to help states meet data collection and reporting requirements of the Social Security Act. The regulations at 45 CFR 1355.50 through 1355.57 provide the basis for Stat...

342

Summary: Ecosystem Services and Human Welfare  

EPA Science Inventory

The ecosystem services paradigm is a framework conceived to engage support among people, especially policy- and decision-makers, for the recognition that human welfare, prosperity, security, and well-being are intrinsically linked to the health of the environment. Simply stated, ...

343

Shaping Child Welfare Policy via Performance Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance measurement is generally depicted as a neutral, technical exercise providing objective data for decision-making. But it also has a normative role in framing policy problems and solutions. This article explores the role of indicators in shaping child welfare, comparing stated policy with performance indicator regimes in England. It…

Tilbury, Clare

2007-01-01

344

SWINE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS: ANIMAL WELFARE CONSIDERATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A general public perception is that it is easy to visualize when an animals welfare is adequate. Scientifically, this determination is quite difficult. The difficulty resides in our ability to objectively assess the animals physical and psychological state; as well as to determine the difference b...

345

Welfare and Child Support: Complements, Not Substitutes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In most states, child support paid on behalf of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) participants is used to offset TANF and child support administrative expenditures; this policy primarily benefits taxpayers. In contrast, Wisconsin allowed most custodial parents to keep all support paid on their behalf. This policy, which treats welfare

Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.; Caspar, Emma

2008-01-01

346

The re-forming state: Actions and repercussions in preparing for future biological events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article analyzes the heterogeneous forms of action within the state’s preparedness assemblage for biological threats in Israel. By examining preparedness practices in two biological preparedness events — the smallpox vaccination project (a possible event) and the ongoing preparations for pandemic influenza (a virtual event) — the analysis maintains that there are a number of simultaneous state practices that emerge

Limor Samimian-Darash

2011-01-01

347

Explaining Whole System Reform in Small States: The Case of Trinidad and Tobago Secondary Education Modernization Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes drivers and impediments to secondary school reform in Trinidad and Tobago during the period from 1999 to 2009. International assessment data suggested limited progress on improving system quality and equity. Several policy levers and barriers have been defined in current system reform theory. However, explanations for the…

De Lisle, Jerome

2012-01-01

348

European Education Reform and Its Impact on Curriculum and Admissions: Implications of the Bologna Process on United States Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the European-wide educational reform known as the Bologna Process in order to provide an understanding of the methodology that will be used by European countries to assess course credit hours as well as degree programs. The Bologna Process is culmination of years of educational reform within the European Union (EU) and more…

Roper, Steven D.

2007-01-01

349

Professional development: a key to Kentucky's educational reform effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its essential role in educational reform, professional development typically does not receive adequate support in systemic reform efforts. This article presents an exception—a state that incorporated professional development as a central priority in its reform effort and four schools that used state resources to build their capacity for enacting the reform agenda. We describe central features of Kentucky's approach

Hilda Borko; Rebekah Elliott; Kay Uchiyama

2002-01-01

350

Security Sector Reform in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the experience of the United Nations interventions to reform Haiti's security sector as part of a larger effort to rebuild the Haitian state. Despite multilateral attempts in the 1990s to demobilize the army, create a police force and implement reforms, the lack of elite support, insufficient judicial sector capacity and persistence of corruption led to the current

JOHANNA M ENDELSON-FORMAN

2006-01-01

351

Organizational Factors and the Implementation of Family to Family: Contextual Elements of Systems Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In efforts to reform the child welfare system, agency leaders must involve staff at all levels; yet, little research has been done to determine which organizational factors encourage or inhibit staff engagement. Employees from an urban child welfare agency were invited to complete a survey regarding organizational effectiveness and its influence…

Crea, Thomas M.; Crampton, David S.; Knight, Nelson; Paine-Wells, Lisa

2011-01-01

352

Monitoring health reform efforts: which state-level data to use?  

PubMed

This study compares estimates of health insurance coverage from the American Community Survey (ACS) to those in twelve state-specific surveys. Uninsurance estimates for the nonelderly are consistently higher in the ACS than in state surveys, as are direct purchase insurance estimates. Estimates for employer-sponsored insurance are similar, but public coverage rates are lower in the ACS. The ACS meets some but not all of the states' data needs; its large sample size and inclusion of all U.S. counties in the sample allow for comparison of insurance coverage within and across states. State-specific surveys provide the flexibility to add policy-relevant questions, including questions needed to examine how health insurance translates into access, use, and affordability of health services. PMID:24574128

Call, Kathleen Thiede; Blewett, Lynn A; Boudreaux, Michel H; Turner, Joanna

2013-05-01

353

Ethology and animal welfare.  

PubMed

Much scientific information concerning animal behaviour has become available only recently and it continues to increase rapidly. There is evidence indicating that the behavioural needs of animals have sometimes been neglected when natural life-style are replaced by artificially contrived ones. More attention to and study of animals' social and other behavioural requirements would be mutually beneficial to both man and beast. If those needs can be met more adequately, animals will be easier to handle, stress will be reduced and productivity improved. Animal welfare legislation in different countries is mentioned and ethological research as basis for new legislation discussed. The development in this critical field of Ethology and Animal Welfare is advancing fast and the South African Veterinarian must be aware of the new movement from Animal Science to Animal Rights. PMID:7341784

Osterhoff, D R

1981-12-01

354

Dairy animal welfare. Introduction.  

PubMed

Organizations devoted to proper animal care have focused the attention of society on humane animal treatment. In recent years, some groups have raised questions as to what constitutes proper animal care on the farm and in the research laboratory. Philosophical questions about animal rights have been raised. Several groups are active in the animal welfare, animal rights arena and they vary widely in their objectives and methods of operation. Many of these groups are well-funded. Some resort to civil disobedience to achieve their ends. Farm animal commodity groups, animal-oriented research agencies, and animal-related industry groups have become increasingly aware of the public interest in animal welfare and are organizing programs and groups to better understand and educate the public on the issues. PMID:3448117

Blosser, T H

1987-12-01

355

45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET... (c) Establishing an acceptable alternative mechanism—transition rules. CMS presumes a State to be implementing an...

2011-10-01

356

45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET... (c) Establishing an acceptable alternative mechanism—transition rules. CMS presumes a State to be implementing an...

2012-10-01

357

45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET... (c) Establishing an acceptable alternative mechanism—transition rules. CMS presumes a State to be implementing an...

2013-10-01

358

Fiscal Sustainability and Retirement Security: A Reform Proposal for the Illinois State Universities  

E-print Network

situation: health care and retirement. First, Medicaid expenditures, already a substantial share of state (which will increase expenditures on long-term care), and the fact that per capita medical costs

Illinois at Chicago, University of

359

A "Uniform" Education: Reform of Local Property Tax School Finance Systems through State Constitutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines Wisconsin's school finance system in light of recent legislation and the education clause in the state constitution. Argues for judicial involvement to correct the finance system. Available from Marquette Law Review, 1103 West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53233. (IRT)

Kaster, James H.

1979-01-01

360

Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen  

DOEpatents

The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

1990-01-01

361

The effects of a time-limited welfare program on children: the moderating role of parents' risk of welfare dependency.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of a time-limited welfare program on school-age children using data on almost 3,000 children (ages 5-17 at the four year follow up-point) from the random assignment evaluation of Florida's Family Transition Program (FTP). FTP was one of the first welfare reform initiatives to impose a time limit on the receipt of cash assistance, and it combined the time limit with a rich array of mandatory services. The effects of FTP on children were moderated by families' risk of long-term welfare dependency. Contrary to predictions laid out at the outset, there were few effects of FTP on middle childhood and adolescent children for children of parents most likely to be long-term welfare dependent (those most likely to hit the time limit). However, consistent negative effects on this same age group of children were found for children of parents least likely to be long-term welfare dependent--parents who had the largest employment gains--and effects of FTP were most strongly negative for the oldest adolescent children. The findings suggest a different theoretical model for movements into employment than the one suggested in the previous literature for job loss. The findings are discussed in terms of their contribution to research and policy. PMID:12795394

Morris, Pamela; Bloom, Dan; Kemple, James; Hendra, Richard

2003-01-01

362

Reforming Cardiovascular Care in the United States towards High-Quality Care at Lower Cost with Examples from Model Programs in the State of Michigan.  

PubMed

Despite its status as a world leader in treatment innovation and medical education, a quality chasm exists in American health care. Care fragmentation and poor coordination contribute to expensive care with highly variable quality in the United States. The rising costs of health care since 1990 have had a huge impact on individuals, families, businesses, the federal and state governments, and the national budget deficit. The passage of the Affordable Care Act represents a large shift in how health care is financed and delivered in the United States. The objective of this review is to describe some of the economic and social forces driving health care reform, provide an overview of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), and review model cardiovascular quality improvement programs underway in the state of Michigan. As health care reorganization occurs at the federal level, local and regional efforts can serve as models to accelerate improvement toward achieving better population health and better care at lower cost. Model programs in Michigan have achieved this goal in cardiovascular care through the systematic application of evidence-based care, the utilization of regional quality improvement collaboratives, community-based childhood wellness promotion, and medical device-based competitive bidding strategies. These efforts are examples of the direction cardiovascular care delivery will need to move in this era of the Affordable Care Act. PMID:25120917

Alyeshmerni, Daniel; Froehlich, James B; Lewin, Jack; Eagle, Kim A

2014-07-01

363

Professionalism and the reform of teachers and teacher education in the republic of korea & the United States of America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares how educational reform documents in Korea and the U.S.A. conceptualize teachers and teacher education\\u000a and examines how, if at all, the discourses of one country appear to influence those of the other. Special attention is paid\\u000a to the ways in which reform documents incorporate different conceptions of professionalism in framing and in proposing remedies\\u000a for the problems

Minho Yeom; Mark Ginsburg

2007-01-01

364

State-Mandated Principal Preparation Program Redesign: Impetus for Reform or Invitation to Chaos?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing criticism of practicing educational leaders has led to additional critiques of the university programs in which they are prepared. In response, many states have mandated statewide university preparation program redesign. The articles in this special issue describe five unique cases of principal preparation program redesign--including…

Phillips, Joy C.

2013-01-01

365

After the Stimulus Money Ends: The Status of State K-12 Education Funding and Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic downturn of the past few years has taken a toll on state budgets for elementary and secondary education. The $100 billion for education provided by the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA), better known as the economic stimulus package, helped to blunt some of the harshest effects, but these funds have been nearly depleted.…

Rentner, Diane Stark; Kober, Nancy

2012-01-01

366

Educational Reform: Who Benefits?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses Blau and Scott concept of "cui bono" to describe who has benefited from 1990 Kentucky Education Reform Act. In eyes of legislators, everyone would benefit, and the economically depressed state would prosper. As implementation of KERA progresses, it is becoming increasingly clear that mandated changes may be structural and may benefit system…

Steffy, Betty E.

1994-01-01

367

Thoroughfares, crossroads and cul-de-sacs: drug testing of welfare recipients.  

PubMed

Over the past five years, proposals to introduce drug testing for welfare recipients have proliferated across the globe. In England, it was included in the Welfare Reform Act 2009 (yet never implemented) and in 2013, the New Zealand government introduced legislation which requires claimants to take pre-employment drug tests when requested by a prospective employer or training provider. Similarly, in over 20 US states there have been attempts to initiate drug testing of welfare recipients as a condition of eligibility for welfare, although frequently these controversial plans have either stalled or once introduced they have been halted through legal challenge. This article examines the process of introducing drug testing of welfare claimants in the UK as part of a broader strategy to address worklessness among problem drug users. Using Hudson and Lowe's (2004) multi-level analytic framework, which disputes 'top down' rational models of policy-making, it explores the mechanisms used for challenging drug testing policies. In so doing, it identifies the key policy actors involved, noting the alliances forged and strategies adopted to persuade the government to pursue alternative policies. Whilst the primary focus of the article is on the UK, consideration of the US and New Zealand facilitates comparison of the types of policy networks which emerge to oppose similar policies proposed in different socio-political contexts, and the forms of argument and/or evidence they inject into policy discussions. It is argued that a heavy reliance on rights-based arguments was a feature of opposing drug testing in the UK, US and New Zealand, and these featured more heavily than attempts to refute evidence underpinning these policies. However, there were important differences between jurisdictions in relation to the mechanisms used to challenge drug testing policies. These do not simply reflect the nature of the policies proposed but instead are reflective of different modes of governance, which influence the character of the policy networks formed and their judgements about the most effective ways of opposing what they regard as essentially flawed policies. PMID:24709412

Wincup, Emma

2014-09-01

368

To Review Federal and State Oversight of Child Welfare Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Second Session (January 28, 2004). Serial Number 108-30  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this hearing is to review Federal and State oversight of child welfare programs and systems designed to prevent abuse and neglect of children, including those under State protection. The purpose being to provide subcommittee representatives the opportunity to learn what Federal, State, and local officials should be doing to ensure…

US House of Representatives, 2004

2004-01-01

369

Science-based management of livestock welfare in intensive systems: looking to the future.  

PubMed

As welfare is a multidimensional concept, its assessment should be a multidisciplinary process, providing a comprehensive assessment of animal welfare in any given system. The different measurable aspects of welfare may be turned into welfare indicators and assessed in a scientific manner. Assessment of welfare may combine different approaches that include the assessment of the production system and measurement of animal-based welfare indicators. With both approaches, however, risk managers face difficulties related to the availability of resources for implementing regulations and training staff. Most animal-based welfare indicators have the advantage that they can be measured whatever the production system; they relate to the animal's experience of its own state. It is essential to confirm the reliability of the measures and their robustness to ensure valid welfare assessment, especially for a science-based management approach. Many welfare indicators, even those measured at the individual level, are expressed at group level, as a proportion of the animals. This allows benchmarking and following of trends over time. The decision on what is or is not acceptable from a welfare point of view is an ethical or managerial one. The advantage of a graded welfare indicator is that it allows different thresholds to be set by different people, countries or organisations, depending on the purpose of the assessment. The development of a set of harmonised international welfare indicators for global trade is also discussed. PMID:25000787

Vannier, P; Michel, V; Keeling, L J

2014-04-01

370

Slab reformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

Spurrier, Francis R. (Inventor); DeZubay, Egon A. (Inventor); Murray, Alexander P. (Inventor); Vidt, Edward J. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

371

Slab reformer  

DOEpatents

Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA); DeZubay, Egon A. (Mt. Lebanon, PA); Murray, Alexander P. (Murrysville, PA); Vidt, Edward J. (Churchill, PA)

1985-03-12

372

Slab reformer  

DOEpatents

Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

1984-02-07

373

Slab reformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

Spurrier, Francis R. (Inventor); DeZubay, Egon A. (Inventor); Murray, Alexander P. (Inventor); Vidt, Edward J. (Inventor)

1984-01-01

374

Poverty and Welfare among Rural Female-Headed Families before and after PRWORA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural poverty among female-headed families with children has declined since 1996 welfare reforms. Moreover, the income of female-headed families has increased, while income from earnings has more than offset declines in public assistance income. Rural single mothers nevertheless continue to experience higher poverty rates than their urban…

Lichter, Daniel T.; Jensen, Leif

2001-01-01

375

For My Children: Mexican American Women, Work, and Welfare. Focus Study Report #2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the final report of the National Council of La Raza's (NCLR) Focus Study examining the opinions, attitudes, and needs of Mexican American single women, relating to implementation of national welfare reform legislation. Over a 2-year period NCLR staff held focus groups with Mexican American women in four communities: Phoenix, Arizona; Mora,…

Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina

376

Urban Adolescent Mothers Exposed to Community, Family, and Partner Violence: Prevalence, Outcomes, and Welfare Policy Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The federal welfare reforms of 1996 mandated that all minor adolescent mothers receiving cash assistance must attend school and live at home to receive their cash grant. Though this law has been in place for over 8 years, little research has been done that explores the barriers facing adolescent mothers who try to attend school and live at home. Anecdotal

Angie C. Kennedy

2006-01-01

377

House Prices and Consumer Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a new approach to measuring changes in consumer welfare due to changes in the price of owner-occupied housing. In our approach, an agent's welfare adjustment is defined as the transfer required to keep expected discounted utility constant given a change in current home prices. We demonstrate that, up to a first-order approximation, there is no aggregate change in

Patrick Bajari; C. Lanier Benkard; John Krainer

2003-01-01

378

Indian Child Welfare in Montana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

379

The welfare of dairy buffalo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behav - ioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animal- related indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening

Giuseppe De Rosa; Fernando Grasso; Corrado Pacelli; Fabio Napolitano; Christoph Winckler

2009-01-01

380

Nash equilibrium and welfare optimality  

Microsoft Academic Search

If is a set of social alternatives, a social choice rule (SCR) assigns a subset of A to each potential profile of individuals' preferences over A, where the subset is interpreted as the set of 'welfare optima.' A game form (or 'mechanism') implements the social choice rule if, for any potential profile of preferences, (1) any welfare optimum can arise

Eric Maskin

1999-01-01

381

Challenges of welfare-to-work programs.  

PubMed

Governmental expectations of placement outcomes were often high given the severity of work barriers that were present in disabled welfare recipients in the United States [11]. The purpose of this article is to identify challenges that were inherent in welfare-to-work programs and solutions to these challenges. Although rich with opportunity, welfare-to-work programs presented the challenge of employing large numbers of difficult-to-employ individuals before their public assistance benefits expired\\cite{5}. Many clients also had symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) secondary to childhood physical or sexual abuse (59%) or severe domestic violence (55%) [8]. Few funds were available for work training and education. Instead, the employment-first model was expected even though most consumers did not have a high school diploma, had not worked in years, and were fearful and resistant about returning to work [3]. Performance based payment systems presented a challenge because the program's future depended on the compliance of its consumers. There was an impetus for substance abusers to return to work even if they were still using drugs, which contradicted the teachings of many recovery models. This paper presents possible solutions to each of these problems and reports outcomes of one particular welfare-to-work program. By examining the challenges of welfare-to-work programs, by identifying solutions, and by realizing that these solutions are inherent in the basic principles of rehabilitation, this article provides therapists with tools and motivation to make unique contributions to this area of practice. PMID:21248419

Precin, Patricia

2011-01-01

382

Children and Child Care: The Forgotten Component in Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the goals and objectives of the childcare component as outlined by the Family Support Act. Following a brief discussion of the legislation's childcare provisions, the authors outline Project Independence, Louisiana's response to the federal mandate, and explore the Toyota Families in Learning Program developed through this project.…

Miranne, Kristine B.; Young, Alma H.

1995-01-01

383

Welfare Reform and New York City's Low-Income Population  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this recent paper from the Institute for Poverty Research's Working Papers series, Howard Chernick and Cordelia Reimers examine the Current Population Survey in 1994-1995 and 1997-1999 to see if there was a discernible drop in households receiving public assistance in New York City. While they found that the proportion of households receiving at least one public assistance benefit remained the same over the period, the decline in the number of Hispanic households receiving public assistance was greater than among African-Americans. Importantly, the paper also addresses the differing family structures and educational attainment levels that may account for some of this change.

Chemick, Howard.

2002-01-01

384

The Myth of "Broken Britain": Welfare Reform and the Production  

E-print Network

and young people", achieved through "offering activities that improve people's aspirations, enhance people a vote of no confidence in his leadership, he concluded his speech to their annual conference to and communicate with people crushed by social deprivat

385

The Myth of "Broken Britain": Welfare Reform and the Production  

E-print Network

and young people", achieved through "offering activities that improve people's aspirations, enhance people a vote of no confidence in his leadership, he concluded his speech to their annual conference to and communicate with people crushed by social deprivation. Du

386

Fragile Families and Welfare Reform: An Introduction. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes a collection of papers in a special issue that examines what resources and capabilities parents likely to be affected by Temporary Assistance for Needy Families have; whether these parents are likely to be good parents; the nature of parents' relationships and whether they will be able to cooperate in raising their children;…

Garfinkel, Irwin; McLanahan, Sara S.; Tienda, Marta; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

387

Labor of love: foster mothers, caregiving, and welfare reform.  

PubMed

Using a telephone survey, this study examined the experiences of 100 foster mothers who receive aid through Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Foster mothers reported numerous difficulties with TANF, including frequent sanctions and case closings, limited work and training opportunities, and pervasive material hardships. Foster children exhibited high levels of emotional and behavior problems. The data suggest that lack of access to child care and pressure to become self-sufficient may contribute to a decreased pool of foster mothers. PMID:19391465

Critelli, Filomena M

2008-01-01

388

National Health Care Reform, Medicaid, and Children in Foster Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines access to health care for children in out-of-home care under current law, reviews how health care access for these children would be affected by President Clinton's health care reform initiative, and proposes additional measures that could be considered to improve access and service coordination for children in the child welfare system.…

Halfon, Neal; And Others

1994-01-01

389

Earner-carer model at the crossroads: reforms and outcomes of Sweden's family policy in comparative perspective.  

PubMed

Following the 2006 election, the Swedish earner-carer model of family policy seems to have come to an important crossroads, and questions have been raised about the future course of policies. Will the prototypical earner-carer model in Sweden persist? The separate reforms in cash transfers, services, and tax systems in several respects seem to point in contradictory directions, simultaneously introducing new principles of social care. In this article, past and present reforms and potential outcomes of policies are discussed from an institutional and comparative perspective. Reviewing research on outcomes of earner-carer policies for gendered patterns of productive and reproductive work, class-based stratification, child well-being, fertility, and work-family conflict, the article also contributes to the discussion about future challenges for family policy institutions in Sweden and other advanced welfare states. PMID:20799667

Ferrarini, Tommy; Duvander, Ann-Zofie

2010-01-01

390

Incentive Structures for Professors in Germany and the United States: Implications for Cross-National Borrowing in Higher Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The international competitiveness of national higher education systems is an important political issue in many countries. These politics drive some governments to reform their systems by borrowing elements from societies with systems thought to be superior. These authors argue that a simple transfer of isolated elements from one higher education…

Franck, Egon; Opitz, Christian

2006-01-01

391

Did American welfare capitalists breach their implicit contracts during the Great Depression? Preliminary findings from company-level data  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been claimed that American employers' experiments in private welfare capitalism collapsed during the Great Depression, giving place to the welfare state and industrial unionism. Recent studies, however, reveal considerable differences in experience across firms. The author of this study, who characterizes private welfare capitalism as a set of human resource management practices constituting an implicit contract equilibrium, tests

Chiaki Moriguchi

2005-01-01

392

Dynamics of the Welfare Mix in the Republic of Korea: An Expenditure Study Between 1990 and 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although non-State sectors have played an important role in people's welfare, their expenditures have usually been excluded from social policy studies when measuring the welfare efforts of a nation. This article experiments with a new approach synthesizing welfare mix research using an expenditure study as a tool and applies the model to the Korean case. It presents the following major

Jin Wook Kim

2005-01-01

393

Adoption Assistance by State  

MedlinePLUS

... and Service Effectiveness Funding Information Systems & Data Supervising Child Welfare Services System Reform Training Workforce Systemwide Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Diverse Populations and Communities Domestic Violence Laws & Policies Mental Health Service Array Statistics Substance Abuse ...

394

Welfare Reform and Postsecondary Education: Research and Policy Update. TANF Requirements Limit Welfare Recipients' Educational Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program work requirements, part of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) drastically limit women's opportunities to participate in postsecondary education programs while receiving TANF funds. Unlike previous laws governing Aid to Families with Dependent…

Finney, Johanna

1998-01-01

395

Mountain Promise page 1 The welfare train has been racing  

E-print Network

eliminated. These programs have been replaced by block grants to the states, to be used at each state will be penalized. · Welfare recipients who are convicted of felony drug charges will be denied benefits and food counties with high unemployment and poverty rates. Proponents of TANF note that states now have greater

Baltisberger, Jay H.

396

40 CFR Table 15 to Subpart Uuu of... - Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units 15 Table 15 to Subpart...Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery...Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units As stated in §...

2010-07-01

397

40 CFR Table 22 to Subpart Uuu of... - Inorganic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Inorganic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units 22 Table 22 to Subpart...Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery...Inorganic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units As stated in §...

2010-07-01

398

Evaluating Alternative Welfare-to-Work Approaches: Two-Year Impacts for Eleven Programs. National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2-year impacts of 11 welfare-to-work programs across the United States were evaluated to determine the relative effectiveness of different approaches to moving individuals from welfare to work. All 11 programs operated under the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Program. Four programs were employment focused (three low-enforcement and one…

Freedman, Stephen; Friedlander, Daniel; Hamilton, Gayle; Rock, JoAnn; Mitchell, Marisa; Nudelman, Jodi; Schweder, Amanda; Storto, Laura

399

The Future of Poultry Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In contemplating the future of poultry welfare, one must be aware of the current situation in the context of how this issue\\u000a has evolved. From this perspective, one may project forward to identify opportunities for continued advancements and barriers\\u000a that must be negotiated. In this chapter, we will explore the development of poultry welfare as a topic of public concern

Suzanne T. Millman; Joy A. Mench; Anne E. Malleau

400

Education Reform: Ten Years after the Massachusetts Education Reform Act of 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 1993, Governor William Weld signed into law the Massachusetts Education Reform Act (MERA). MERA greatly increased the state role both in funding public education and in guiding the local educational process. The state’s role changed to incorporate setting curriculum frameworks and holding schools accountable for student performance. Because MERA was designed to be a systemic reform of education,

2005-01-01

401

The potential impact of the World Trade Organization's general agreement on trade in services on health system reform and regulation in the United States.  

PubMed

The collapse of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Round of talks without achieving new health services liberalization presents an important opportunity to evaluate the wisdom of granting further concessions to international investors in the health sector. The continuing deterioration of the U.S. health system and the primacy of reform as an issue in the 2008 presidential campaign make clear the need for a full range of policy options for addressing the national health crisis. Yet few commentators or policymakers realize that existing WTO health care commitments may already significantly constrain domestic policy options. This article illustrates these constraints through an evaluation of the potential effects of current WTO law and jurisprudence on the implementation of a single-payer national health insurance system in the United States, proposed incremental national and state health system reforms, the privatization of Medicare, and other prominent health system issues. The author concludes with some recommendations to the U.S. Trade Representative to suspend existing liberalization commitments in the health sector and to interpret current and future international trade treaties in a manner consistent with civilized notions of health care as a universal human right. PMID:19492630

Skala, Nicholas

2009-01-01

402

Obtaining sensitive information from a wary population: a comparison of telephone and face-to-face surveys of welfare recipients in the United States.  

PubMed

Recent studies reveal the benefits of technological developments such as audio computer assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) in interview methodology, especially for surveys of sensitive behavior and information. However, we believe that the selection of mode of administration depends not only on the technology available and the behavior of interest, but also on the specific population under study. We therefore assess survey mode effects on reported rates of alcohol and drug use among welfare recipients, an especially important group for scholars and public health agencies. The sample consisted of adult recipients of Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) in Oklahoma, January 2001. Adjusting for demographic characteristics, employment, and education, we employ odds ratios to compare 30-day, 1 year, and lifetime prevalence estimates from telephone and face-to-face surveys. Telephone methodology yields similar or higher estimates for lifetime prevalence of alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use and abuse, though lower estimates of recent use. We discuss our findings in relation to underfunded public health agencies that must efficiently assess and respond to local levels of drug abuse and we conclude that mode selection may depend upon the population under study. PMID:15955399

Pridemore, William Alex; Damphousse, Kelly R; Moore, Rebecca K

2005-09-01

403

State Efforts to Comply with Federal Child Welfare Reviews. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Second Session (May 13, 2004). Serial Number 108-54  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this hearing is on State efforts to comply with Federal child welfare review requirements related to safety, permanency, and child and family well-being. This document commences with the Advisory of May 6, 2004, announcing the hearing. This is followed by witness testimonies from: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,…

US House of Representatives, 2005

2005-01-01

404

Do Welfare States Raise Welfare(d) Kids? Day-Care Institutions and Inequality in the Danish Welfare State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an increasing focus on early-childhood education quality globally, reflecting a growing political awareness that education starts earlier than primary school, and that high quality in day-care influence children's learning and development. In Denmark, almost all children attend day-care, and day-care institutions are considered part…

Ringsmose, Charlotte; Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra; Allerup, Peter

2014-01-01

405

From the Front Lines: Milwaukee's Child Welfare Community Speaks Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1998, the State of Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services assumed responsibility for the Milwaukee County child welfare system. The Wisconsin Council on Children and Families has undertaken a multi-year, qualitative research project to monitor the state takeover. The three questions that this project seeks to answer are: (1) What…

Wisconsin Council on Children and Families Inc., Madison.

406

Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue.  

PubMed

While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted. PMID:23535125

Horvath, Kelsey; Angeletti, Dario; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Carere, Claudio

2013-01-01

407

Jezebel at the welfare office: How racialized stereotypes of poor women's reproductive decisions and relationships shape policy implementation  

PubMed Central

Current welfare scholarship lacks an analysis of how caseworkers discuss sexuality-related issues with clients. Seventy-two of 232 transcribed welfare interviews in three states included discussion of reproductive decisions and relationships. Overall, caseworkers’ language reflected negative myths regarding African American women's sexuality and motherhood. By virtue of their status as welfare recipients, regardless of their individual races, clients were placed into racialized myths through workers’ talk. This analysis demonstrates that though not present in every welfare interview and often veiled in bureaucratic language, negative ideas about poor women's sexuality persist in welfare policy and are deeply embedded in its day-to-day implementation. PMID:24791134

Masters, N. Tatiana; Lindhorst, Taryn P.; Meyers, Marcia K.

2013-01-01

408

High temperature ceramic-tubed reformer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objective of the HiPHES project is to develop an advanced high-pressure heat exchanger for a convective steam/methane reformer. The HiPHES steam/methane reformer is a convective, shell and tube type, catalytic reactor. The use of ceramic tubes will allow reaction temperature higher than the current state-of-the-art outlet temperatures of about 1600 F using metal tubes. Higher reaction temperatures increase feedstock conversion to synthesis gas and reduce energy requirements compared to currently available radiant-box type reformers using metal tubes. Reforming of natural gas is the principal method used to produce synthesis gas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide, H2 and CO) which is used to produce hydrogen (for refinery upgrading), methanol, as well as several other important materials. The HiPHES reformer development is an extension of Stone and Webster's efforts to develop a metal-tubed convective reformer integrated with a gas turbine cycle.

Williams, Joseph J.; Rosenberg, Robert A.; McDonough, Lane J.

1990-03-01

409

Reforming Again: Now Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Educational reform responds to local and national pressures to improve educational outcomes, and reform efforts cycle as similar pressures recur. Currently, reform efforts focus on teachers, even though confidence in a host of American social institutions is dropping. One of the most widespread reforms regarding teachers is the…

Marx, Ronald W.

2014-01-01

410

Social Welfare in East and West A Tranquilizer for Dialogue Johannes Dragsbaek Schmidt and Bonn Juego1  

E-print Network

regarding social reform initiatives which might prove important in the near future. The main purposeSocial Welfare in East and West ­ A Tranquilizer for Dialogue Johannes Dragsbaek Schmidt and Bonn Juego1 Executive summary According to the discourse of elites in East and Southeast Asia public social

Hansen, René Rydhof

411

The Urban Institute: Issues in Focus: Child Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Urban Institute has been actively involved in research on urban-themed policy issues and related matters for over four decades. One of their thematic research programs covers child welfare. On this site, visitors can learn about this program, look over recent research reports, and sign up to receive their electronic newsletter. The "About the Program" is a fine place to start, and here visitors will learn that their work includes research on the finances of child welfare programs, adoption, and kinship care. Further on down the homepage, users will find recent reports like "Who Will Adopt the Foster Care Children Left Behind?" and "Trends in U.S. Foster Care Adoption Legislation: A State by State Analysis". The site is rounded out by information on the program team and an area where visitors can sign up to receive the Child Welfare Research Program's quarterly electronic newsletter.

2008-01-01

412

School Finance Reform: Assessing General Equilibrium Effects. NBER Working Paper No. 13524  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1994 the state of Michigan implemented one of the most comprehensive school finance reforms undertaken to date in any of the states. Understanding the effects of the reform is thus of value in informing other potential reform initiatives. In addition, the reform and associated changes in the economic environment provide an opportunity to assess…

Epple, Dennis N.; Ferreyra, Maria Marta

2007-01-01

413

Comprehensive School Reform: Criteria and Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is designed to offer state and district policymakers a thoughtful set of questions to ask about school reform models and the organizations that develop them. The questions follow the criteria for schoolwide reform as spelled out in the federal legislation. Policymakers are encouraged to consider these questions as they work with…

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

414

The Rise & Stall of Teacher Education Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report characterizes the decade 1985-1995 as a series of false starts in reform of teacher education in the United States. The main purpose of the report is to raise the question of whether the next decade of reform will be any different. Chapter 1 presents the problem: the need to do something about teacher education is reaching crisis…

Fullan, Michael; Galluzzo, Gary; Morris, Patricia; Watson, Nancy

415

Rural Reforms and Agricultural Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper employs province-level panel data to assess the contributions of decollectivization, price adjustments, and other reforms to China's agricultural growth in the reform period. Decollectivization is found to improve total factor productivity and to account for about half of the output growth during 1978-84. The adjustment in state procurement prices also contributed positively to output growth. Its impact came

Justin Yifu Lin

1992-01-01

416

Utah's Educational Reform Programs, 1991-93.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In November 1983, the Utah Education Reform Steering Committee issued the report "Education in Utah: A Call to Action." To meet Utah's double challenge of rapid growth and quality enhancement, the report stated that Utah needed to: (1) increase the allocation of financial resources to education; (2) demand reforms in many aspects of education; and…

Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

417

Immigration Reform: An Analysis of Employer Sanctions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent immigration legislation has potential impacts on migrant education and Mexican American education. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 was passed after nine years of intense debate. The heart of so-called immigration reform is employer sanctions, which seek to restrict migration to the United States by prohibiting employers from…

Flores, Estevan T.; And Others

418

Collaboration II: The Supervisor. Defining Competencies for Supervisors in Public Child Welfare Practice Serving Indian Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum model defines competencies for child welfare supervisors to provide effective services to Indian children and families in Indian communities, on and off federal reservations. The results of a survey of 100 state and tribal child welfare supervisors were used to design the curriculum. The preface (Ann E. MacEachron) contains a…

Hughes, Michael D.; And Others

419

Welfare, Child Support, and Strategic Behavior: Do High Orders and Low Disregards Discourage Child Support Awards?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research has documented strategic behavior in response to child support policy. Parents of children on welfare have an incentive to avoid formal child support, since most states limit the amount of formal child support that women on welfare can receive (the "disregard") and have relatively high child support orders for low-income…

Roff, Jennifer

2010-01-01

420

The Effect of Child Support on Welfare Exits and Re-Entries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the literature on welfare dynamics has focused on the effects of recipient characteristics and state-level characteristics such as welfare benefits and economic conditions; there has been very little analysis on the effects of child support. This paper, using the 1979-1996 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, examines whether child…

Huang, Chien-Chung; Kunz, James; Garfinkel, Irwin

2002-01-01

421

Finding the Return on Investment: A Framework for Monitoring Local Child Welfare Agencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From year to year, child welfare directors allocate resources in the hope that their efforts will improve children's outcomes. Recently, with the help of the federal government, states have invested significant resources in the sort of information technology needed to run a smarter, more accountable child welfare system. In addition, science has…

Wulczyn, Fred H.; Orlebeke, Britany; Haight, Jennifer

2009-01-01

422

Effectiveness and limitations of the Earned Income Tax Credit for reducing child poverty in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on international comparisons, the United States has a high child poverty rate. The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), which provides a tax benefit to low-income working households and was expanded after the 1990s welfare reform, is currently this country's largest cash transfer program for low-income families with children. This article examines the historical components of the EITC. We then

Mary Keegan Eamon; Chi-Fang Wu; Saijun Zhang

2009-01-01

423

Health and welfare in animals and humans.  

PubMed

This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences. PMID:21298322

Nordenfelt, Lennart

2011-06-01

424

PRIVATIZATION AND PUBLIC ENTERPRISE REFORM: A SUGGESTIVE ACTION PLAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducing reforms for the State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) has been an integral part of the reform process initiated in India since 1990s. While reforming, the concerns about ownership, competition and regulation, which have a direct bearing on the issue of the relative performance of publicly owned and privately owned firms have been adequately looked into. This paper focuses on the

Simrit Kaur

2004-01-01

425

Comparing Drug Use between Welfare-Receiving Arrestees and Non-Welfare-Receiving Arrestees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares drug-positive rates between welfare-receiving arrestees, non-welfare receiving arrestees living below the poverty level, and non-welfare arrestees living above the poverty level. Welfare-receiving arrestees were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and to test positive for opiates and benzodiazepines than the other subgroups.…

Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Urbach, Blake J.; Johnson, Regina J.

2002-01-01

426

Higher Education for Welfare Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What impact might higher education have on the economic situation and personal growth of welfare mothers? The results of a study confirm that the large majority of these mothers are able to succeed academically and that this education provided them with improved possibilities for employment and increased personal satisfaction. (Author)

Young, Barbara H.

1977-01-01

427

Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

428

MEDICAL CENTRE Welfare W tch  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTRE Welfare W tch Medical Centre Health Check Patient Participation THE RESPONSE. #12;INTRODUCTION The University Medical Centre is a GP Practice on the campus of the University Medical Centre and our practice population is made up of approximately 75% 16-24 year olds. The Medical

Banaji,. Murad

429

Case Advocacy in Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides definitions of social advocacy and case advocacy for child advocates, child welfare workers, and social workers so as to clarify the concepts and the roles in the protection of children. Presents a historical account of advocacy efforts, along with an analysis of current advocacy efforts. (RJM)

Litzelfelner, Pat; Petr, Christopher G.

1997-01-01

430

40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart Uuu of... - Initial Compliance With Inorganic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Inorganic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units 26 Table 26 to Subpart...Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery...Inorganic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units As stated in §...

2010-07-01

431

40 CFR Table 20 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units 20 Table 20 to Subpart...Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery...Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units As stated in §...

2010-07-01

432

The Animal Welfare Act: From Enactment to Enforcement  

PubMed Central

Originally enacted in 1966, the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act has been amended several times and renamed the Animal Welfare Act. Responsibility for administering the Animal Welfare Act was delegated within the United States Department of Agriculture to the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and regulations and standards have been developed to implement the intent of Congress conveyed in the language of the Act. In our opinion, the key to compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations and standards is to have in place a proactive, progressive Animal Care and Use Program that uses the semiannual inspection and programmatic review process to improve the day-to-day management of the program. Successfully managing the inspection process has taken on new meaning in what has recently become known as the ‘Age of Enforcement.’ As part of this approach, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service made changes to the inspection process and issued an Enhanced Animal Welfare Enforcement Plan, which included the development of an Inspection Requirements Handbook. The Inspection Requirements Handbook provides inspectors with information on conducting inspections and includes as an attachment a flow chart for Enforcement Action Guidance. The chart describes 4 types of actions that may occur as part of the enforcement process and the steps that will be followed if noncompliant items are documented during an inspection. PMID:22776186

Cardon, Andrew D; Bailey, Matthew R; Bennett, B Taylor

2012-01-01

433

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Policy and Strategy for Social Work Action in Child Welfare in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States and Somalia are the only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Opposition in the United States stems from the CRC's demand for a cultural change in how a society cares for children and a political hesitancy to become involved in binding international…

Scherrer, James L.

2012-01-01

434

Taking Action on Racial Disproportionality in the Child Welfare System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mirroring national trends, children of color in Washington state's King County are overrepresented at every point in the child welfare system and fare worse by most measures than are Caucasian children. The King County Coalition on Racial Disproportionality was formed to reduce and ultimately eliminate racial disproportionality in the county's…

Clark, Patricia; Buchanan, Jackie; Legters, Lyman

2008-01-01

435

THE HISTORY OF SOCIAL WORK AND SOCIAL WELFARE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social work as a profession grew chiefly out of the development of social welfare policies and programs in the United States, Europe, and Muslim countries. Judeo-Christian and Muslim practices and beliefs underlie many of the early attempts to provide help to the poor, the sick, widows, orphans, the \\

Leslie Leighninger

2007-01-01

436

Part-Time Social Workers in Public Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A demonstration project in Boston, Massachusetts, designed to meet critical needs in public service by providing part-time jobs for able women with families, chose 50 mature women college graduates from over 1,500 who were interested and 173 who were interviewed. Working half-time for 2 years in the State Department of Public Welfare, they…

Catalyst, New York, NY.

437

Assessment of positive emotions in animals to improve their welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now widely accepted that good welfare is not simply the absence of negative experiences, but rather is primarily the presence of positive experiences such as pleasure. However scientific investigation of positive emotions has long been neglected. This paper addresses two main issues: first, it reviews the current state of scientific knowledge that supports the existence of positive affective

Alain Boissy; Gerhard Manteuffel; Margit Bak Jensen; Randi Oppermann Moe; Berry Spruijt; Linda J. Keeling; Christoph Winckler; Björn Forkman; Ivan Dimitrov; Jan Langbein; Morten Bakken; Isabelle Veissier; Arnaud Aubert

2007-01-01

438

Enterprise reform in Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprise reform is emerging as the core economic problem in Eastern Europe. As privatization has been delayed, a new problem has emerged, largely unanticipated by outside advisers: It is probably possible to run a clear-cut state enterprise efficiently, and it is certainly possible to get efficient performance from a private enterprise. But it is utterly impossible to get anything like

Sweder van Wijnbergen

1993-01-01

439

Cognitive Coherence and Tort Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

We experimentally study the effects of the split-award tort reform, where the state takes a share of the plaintiff's punitive damage award, on litigants' beliefs and bargaining outcomes. In addition, we study the formation of litigants' beliefs in a strategic environment. Our results provide support for coherence-based reasoning theories: coherence shifts in litigants' background beliefs (elicited before a role is

Claudia M. Landeo

2009-01-01

440

Medical reforms and technology today  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering today is the backbone for support and advancement of the environment to keep the United States a world leader in the realm of health care. Over the past year, the expense for health care has astoundingly risen by over $100 billion. Hence, many politicians have proposed several ideas for a reform policy that will cut spending on health care,

S. Hyatt; M. Pallister; C. S. Lessard

1995-01-01

441

Health related social exclusion in Europe: a multilevel study of the role of welfare generosity  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between health, social position, social participation and the welfare state. Extending recent research on the social consequences of poor health, we asked whether and how welfare generosity is related to the risk of social exclusion associated with combinations of poor health, low education and economic inactivity. Methods Our analyses are based on data from the European Social Survey, round 3 (2006/7), comprising between 21,205 and 21,397 individuals, aged 25–59 years, within 21 European welfare states. The analyses were conducted by means of multilevel logistic regression analysis in STATA 12. Results The results demonstrated that the risk of non-participation in social networks decreased as welfare generosity increased. The risk of social exclusion, i.e. non-participation in social networks among disadvantaged groups, seldom differed from the overall association, and in absolute terms it was invariably smaller in more generous welfare state contexts. Conclusions The results showed that there were no indications of higher levels of non-participation among disadvantaged groups in more generous welfare states. On the contrary, resources made available by the welfare state seemed to matter to all individuals in terms of overall lower levels of non-participation. As such, these results demonstrate the importance of linking health related social exclusion to the social policy context. PMID:24073744

2013-01-01

442

Learning What Matters: Exploring the Factors Affecting Learning Transfers in Child Welfare Competencies and Career Interest in Child Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The understanding of the factors impacting MSW students' interests and motivation to learn child welfare competencies, and how they affect learning transfer of the subject is important for the development of a knowledgeable, competent, and committed workforce that serves children and families in the United States. Practitioners need to attain…

Liao, Aries Meng-Wei

2012-01-01

443

Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish.  

PubMed

Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and reward-related operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of scientific agreement about the existence of sentience in fish, the possibility that they are capable of both positive and negative emotions may contribute to the development of new strategies (e.g. environmental enrichment) to promote good welfare. Numerous studies that use behavioural indicators of welfare show that behavioural changes can be interpreted as either good or poor welfare depending on the fish species. It is therefore essential to understand the species-specific biology before drawing any conclusions in relation to welfare. In addition, different individuals within the same species may exhibit divergent coping strategies towards stressors, and what is tolerated by some individuals may be detrimental to others. Therefore, the assessment of welfare in a few individuals may not represent the average welfare of a group and vice versa. This underlines the need to develop on-farm, operational behavioural welfare indicators that can be easily used to assess not only the individual welfare but also the welfare of the whole group (e.g. spatial distribution). With the ongoing development of video technology and image processing, the on-farm surveillance of behaviour may in the near future represent a low-cost, noninvasive tool to assess the welfare of farmed fish. PMID:21796377

Martins, Catarina I M; Galhardo, Leonor; Noble, Chris; Damsgård, Børge; Spedicato, Maria T; Zupa, Walter; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Carter, Toby; Planellas, Sònia Rey; Kristiansen, Tore

2012-02-01

444

Accountability and Abdication: School Reform and Urban School Districts in the Era of Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current school reform era has moved through a series of phases, coupling state centralization with a focus on school-level change at each step. Yet this era of reform also has a deeper history. Its deeper history reveals the dynamics that would plague the school reform era until the present day. While the school reform era seemed to focus on…

Jennings, Michael E.; Noblit, George W.; Brayboy, Bryan; Cozart, Sheryl

2007-01-01

445

Pulling Apart: State Income Trends Part 1, 12/16/97  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Budget and Policy Priorities, a research think-tank, has released "Pulling Apart: A State-by-State Analysis of Income Trends" which analyzes the income trends in each of the 50 states. The analysis was conducted using data from the Census Bureau, and the report concludes that income disparities has risen over the last two decades and are "significantly greater than they were at the comparable point in the business cycle during the mid-1980s." The report advocates using polices such as "raising the minimum wage, strengthening unemployment insurance, implementing welfare-to-work initiatives, and reforming regressive state tax systems, to help mitigate the growing income divide."

Larin, Kathryn.

1997-01-01

446

Reform before NCLB  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author compared NCLB-prompted standards-based reforms with earlier reforms and found that earlier manifestations of standards-based reforms may have been more productive and constructive. NCLB, with its emphasis on accountability through high-stakes testing, has produced many perverse results alongside documented achievement gains, the author…

Desimone, Laura M.

2013-01-01

447

Comparative assessment of environmental welfare issues associated with the satellite power system (SPS) and alternative technologies  

SciTech Connect

Environmental deterioration can affect an individual's health, safety, and welfare (examples of welfare effects include reduced crop yield, loss of property, and interference with other activities). This study identifies sources of environmental deterioration and associated welfare effects from two mature electric power generation systems (combustion of coal and light water nuclear reactors) and compares these with those expected from a conceptual satellite power system. Each activity within the energy pathway for each power system is examined to determine the potential welfare effects it imposes on a community. The severities of these effects are compared. On the basis of this comparison and the state of knowledge concerning specific environmental impacts and welfare effects, key environmental issues are identified for subsequent, in-depth analyses.

Levine, E.P.; Senew, M.J.; Cirillo, R.R.

1980-04-01

448

Production costs and animal welfare for four stylized hog production systems.  

PubMed

Nonhuman animal welfare is arguably the most contentious issue facing the hog industry. Animal advocacy groups influence the regulation of hog farms and induce some consumers to demand more humane pork products. Hog producers are understandably reluctant to improve animal well being unless the premium they extract exceeds the corresponding increase in cost. To better understand the relationship between animal welfare and production costs under different farm systems, this study investigates 4 stylized hog production systems. The results show that increasing animal welfare for all hogs in the United States will increase retail pork prices by a maximum of 2% for a small welfare increase and 5% for a large welfare increase. The cost of banning gestation crates measured by this study is lower than the consumer willingness-to-pay from other studies. PMID:21191844

Seibert, Lacey; Norwood, F Bailey

2011-01-01

449

USDA: Animal Welfare Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA's Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) was mandated by the Animal Welfare Act, and the website contains everything from current animal issues to workshops for those in industries that utilize animals to licensing forms. Specifically, the AWIC is designed "to regulate and improve care of animals in research, testing, teaching, and exhibition." The site includes the proposed government rules about animal welfare that are in their public comment period, and how and where to submit your comment. Visitors can click on "In The News" to see all the animal-related rules that are in their public comment period. If visitors want to learn about the origins of veterinary medicine, they can click on "Companion Animals" on the left side of the homepage to find a link to "Veterinary History Resources at the National Agricultural Library". Finally, AWIC provides very important information and resources on alternatives to animal testing, under "Alternatives," on the left side of the homepage. Here visitors will find links to websites that explain the principles of alternatives to animal testing, as well as several papers from conferences that address the issue.

2008-01-01

450

Does the Accountable Care Act aim to promote quality, health, and control costs or has it missed the mark? Comment on "Health system reform in the United States".  

PubMed

McDonough's perspective on healthcare reform in the US provides a clear, coherent analysis of the mix of access and delivery reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) aka Obamacare. As noted by McDonough, this major reform bill is designed to expand access for health coverage that includes both prevention and treatment benefits among uninsured Americans. Additionally, this legislation includes several financial strategies (e.g. incentives and penalties) to improve care coordination and quality in the hospital and outpatient settings while also reducing healthcare spending and costs. This commentary is intended to discuss this mix of access and delivery reform in terms of its potential to achieve the Triple Aim: population health, quality, and costs. Final remarks will include the role of the US federal government to reform the American private health industry together with that of an informed consume. PMID:24639986

Molinari, Carol

2014-02-01

451

An evaluation of a child welfare training program on the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC).  

PubMed

With the growing awareness of the nature and scope of the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) in the United States, a few state child welfare agencies have started to develop and implement training on CSEC for their social service staff. Since other state child welfare agencies may adopt a similar training model, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of these CSEC trainings. Therefore, in the present study, we used a randomized, control group design to evaluate the effectiveness of a CSEC webinar training program for child protective service (CPS) employees. We discuss our findings and make recommendations for child welfare agencies interested in providing CSEC training to their staff. Given the lack of sophisticated research evaluating the effectiveness of child welfare training programs, in general, and CSEC training programs, more specifically, this study fills a gap in the literature and offers a training model that could be replicated with child protection systems in other states. PMID:23689077

McMahon-Howard, Jennifer; Reimers, Birthe

2013-10-01

452

Reforming Adult Literacy Education: Transforming Local Programs into National Systems in Canada, the United Kingdom, & the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National activities are underway in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States to extend the right to free elementary and fundamental education to adults, and to transform the many local, independently acting programs into systems of state-supported, free education for adults across the life span. This paper summarizes these activities in…

Sticht, Thomas G.

453

Foster Care: Incomplete Implementation of the Reforms and Unknown Effectiveness. Report to Congressional Requesters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The General Accounting Office conducted a comprehensive assessment of the degree to which the section 427 reforms of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 had been carried out, whether they were working, and whether they were still needed. A Senate Subcommittee and House Select Committee requested the assessment in response to…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Program Evaluation and Methodology Div.

454

The Impact of Total Liberalization of Domestic Air Transport on the Social Welfare and on the Dynamic of Competition: Comparison Between the United States and the European Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the lst of April 1997 date of the implementation of the third package of the liberalization, air transport, within the european Union has become totally liberalized. In the United States the deregulation of domestic air traffic was earlier and faster since it took place in October 1978 after the adoption of the only act of deregulation. This paper, in its first part, deals with the liberalization of the industry of air traffic in the european union. After a comparison with US system based on market demand, fare policy and network restrictions, we present our descriptive results coming from treatments on the OAG data. These results present several aspects such as the evolution of the competitive structure of the intra-european routes, the level of airport dominance and the growth of hub structure. The second part of the paper presents models of entry in the airline industry. As profitability" of route flown explains correctly decisions taken by airlines to serve or not a route, the paper focuses on the specification and the estimation of the determinants of city, pair profitability in the european union. Treatments done on the OAG data show a rapid development of leasing space agreement (partial and total) and code sharing practices between 1995 and 2000 in Europe that's why we differentiate first between the two type of competitive strategy of entry(direct entry and leasing space agreement) and second between the competitive strategy of entry and the alliance strategy of code sharing. So the estimation of model will be able to answer the question if the european air transport market is contestable and in case not to see if the decision of entry is more directed by the level of airport dominance (as in the domestic United States market)or essentially by the competitive structure of the routes. We try to explain the nature of entry(directleasing or code sharing) by the different levels of these two determinants.

Zbidi, Karim

2003-01-01

455

Musings on genome medicine: the slow but inexorable process of medical care reform in the United States  

PubMed Central

The current healthcare system in the United States is unsustainable, but any attempts at improvement must be carefully managed to avoid weakening the country's contribution to biomedical science research and the future of genome medicine. PMID:19822025

2009-01-01

456

Saying yes to taxes: the politics of tax reform campaigns in three northwestern states, 1965-1973.  

PubMed

This article analyzes factors shaping popular support for new taxes by examining variation in the outcomes of votes in nine American states during the 1960s and early 1970s. New taxes were endorsed in five states but rejected in four. Using comparative and historical methods focused on the cases of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, the author argues that the sequence of policy making shapes popular vetoes through three mechanisms: the mobilization of interest groups, the information available to voters about a policy, and how the costs and benefits of a policy appear to voters. The findings demonstrate that voter perceptions of the potential gains and losses of a new policy are sociologically mobilized through the policy process. Controlling when popular veto points appear in a policy process is an understudied strategy that is employed by American state builders to overcome ambivalence toward the fiscal imperatives of the activist state. PMID:25097929

Pearson, Elizabeth

2014-03-01

457

The Nordic Path of Spain's Mediterranean Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Despite the fact that the Nordic welfare model has become less exceptional in recent times, it con- tinues to offer numerous examples for “best practices” in social policy provision, together with a high degree,of welfare political legitimacy. This paper,explores Nordic “benchmarking”,as refer- ence to the ,case of welfare ,development ,in Spain. In the general process ,of convergence ,of the

Luis Moreno

458

Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.  

PubMed

The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region. PMID:25000776

Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

2014-04-01

459

Race to the Top and the Exclusion of Welfare Recipients from Educational Policy Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2009, President Obama and his administration sought to overhaul the existing educational reform program and launched their initiative titled Race to the Top (RTTT). RTTT, a competitive grant program, comprised six priorities designed to help states reform their current educational systems. Priority five calls for states to evaluate their…

Johnson, Michelle A.; Stephens, Mattyna L.

2012-01-01

460

Politics, welfare regimes, and population health: controversies and evidence.  

PubMed

In recent years, a research area has emerged within social determinants of health that examines the role of politics, expressed as political traditions/parties and welfare state characteristics, on population health. To better understand and synthesise this growing body of evidence, the present literature review, informed by a political economy of health and welfare regimes framework, located 73 empirical and comparative studies on politics and health, meeting our inclusion criteria in three databases: PubMed (1948-), Sociological Abstracts (1953-), and ISI Web of Science (1900-). We identified two major research programmes, welfare regimes and democracy, and two emerging programmes, political tradition and globalisation. Primary findings include: (1) left and egalitarian political traditions on population health are the most salutary, consistent, and substantial; (2) the health impacts of advanced and liberal democracies are also positive and large; (3) welfare regime studies, primarily conducted among wealthy countries, find that social democratic regimes tend to fare best with absolute health outcomes yet consistently in terms of relative health inequalities; and (4) globalisation defined as dependency indicators such as trade, foreign investment, and national debt is negatively associated with population health. We end by discussing epistemological, theoretical, and methodological issues for consideration for future research. PMID:21899562

Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo; Espelt, Albert; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Benach, Joan; O'Campo, Patricia

2011-09-01

461

Immigrant Assimilation And Welfare Participation: Do Immigrants Assimilate Into Or Out Of Welfare?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses differences in welfare utilization between immigrants and natives in Sweden using a large panel data set, LINDA, for the years 1990 to 1996. Both welfare expenditures and immigration increased substantially in Sweden in the 1990's. We find that immigrants use welfare to a greater extent than natives and that non-refugee immigrants utilize social assistance less than refugee

Jörgen Hansen; Magnus Löfström

2000-01-01

462

The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Indiana. School Choice Issues in the State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Indiana, and examines how school choice would provide large public benefits by increasing the graduation rate in Indiana public schools. It calculates the annual cost of high school dropouts in Indiana due to lower state income tax payments, increased reliance on Medicaid, and…

Gottlob, Brian J.

2006-01-01

463

Principal Distinctives in the United States: The Intersection of Principal Preparation and Traditional Roles between Education Reform and Accountability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses the urban setting as a case study of some of the persistent challenges facing school principals. It uses data from Washington State and the University Council for Educational Administration's "Thousand Voices from the Firing Line" project to examine the perceived challenges of leading urban schools from the perspective of those who…

Portin, Bradley S.

464

Educational Reform, Values, and Gifted Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six major educational reforms are currently being proposed or are currently being implemented in the United States. These reforms-search for excellence, cooperative learning, middle schools, master teacher certification, site-based management and accountability-rest upon cultural values as much as on educational research, and each carries potential for positive or negative impact on education of gifted students. The positive and negative elements

James J. Gallagher

1991-01-01

465

Impacts of Eligibility Expansions and Provider Reimbursement Rate Increases on Child Care Subsidy Take-Up Rates, Welfare Use and Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find that reforms in the Rhode Island subsidized child care program, including income and age eligibility expansions and increases in the reimbursement rates paid to formal providers, significantly increased the likelihood that current and former welfare families: a) would use child care subsidies and b) would work 20 or more hours per week. In addition, these policy changes significantly

Ann Dryden Witte; Magaly Queralt

2003-01-01

466

Domestic Violence and Welfare Policy: Research Findings That Can Inform Policies on Marriage and Child Well-Being. Research Forum on Children, Families, and the New Federalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserting that the welfare reform proposals of the mid-1990s drew attention to the problem of domestic violence among individuals receiving public assistance who are among the poorest of the poor, this report examines what is known from past research on domestic violence that may inform policies related to marriage and child well-being. In…

Lawrence, Sharmila

467

A history of animal welfare science.  

PubMed

Human attitudes to animals have changed as non-humans have become more widely incorporated in the category of moral agents who deserve some respect. Parallels between the functioning of humans and non-humans have been made for thousands of years but the idea that the animals that we keep can suffer has spread recently. An improved understanding of motivation, cognition and the complexity of social behaviour in animals has led in the last 30 years to the rapid development of animal welfare science. Early attempts to define welfare referred to individuals being in harmony with nature but the first usable definition incorporated feelings and health as part of attempts to cope with the environment. Others considered that welfare is only about feelings but it is argued that as feelings are mechanisms that have evolved they are a part of welfare rather than all of it. Most reviews of welfare now start with listing the needs of the animal, including needs to show certain behaviours. This approach has used sophisticated studies of what is important to animals and has replaced the earlier general guidelines described as freedoms. Many measures of welfare are now used and indicate how good or how poor the welfare is. Naturalness is not a part of the definition of welfare but explains why some needs exist. In recent years, welfare has become established as one of various criteria used to decide on whether a system is sustainable because members of the public will not accept systems that cause poor welfare. The study of welfare has become part of the scientific basis upon which important political decisions are made. PMID:21347723

Broom, Donald M

2011-06-01

468

Ethical Study on the Reform and Development of Medical and Health Services in China.  

PubMed

At an early stage of its foundation, new China became clear about the nature of public welfare and quickly developed medical and health services, which was well received by the World Health Organization. The marketization and the reduction of input into medical and health services from the 1980s created severe adverse consequences. After the SARS' outbreak in 2003, China started to give serious consideration to its medical and health system, and to work at developing medical and health services. The new healthcare reform launched in 2009 re-emphasizes fairness and public welfare, and China's achievements have been remarkable. Of course, there are still many problems to be solved in the reform, which also paves the way for increasing the reform in future. PMID:25395061

Yang, Tong-Wei; Li, En-Chang

2014-11-14

469

State of Ni in catalysts for glycerol hydrogenation and methane steam reforming as studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray absorption spectroscopy is used to study 1% Ni/Al2O3, 5% Ni/Al2O3, and 5% Ni/TiO2 catalysts for glycerol and methane conversion. The effect of treatment in H2 under microwave irradiation on the reduction of part of the nickel to the metallic state in the titanium oxide-supported catalyst is demonstrated.

Tkachenko, O. P.; Kustov, L. M.

2013-06-01

470

Cognitive coherence and tort reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

We experimentally study the effects of the split-award tort reform, where the state takes a share of the plaintiff’s punitive damage award, on litigants’ beliefs and bargaining outcomes. In addition, we study the formation of litigants’ beliefs in a strategic environment. Our results provide support for coherence-based reasoning theories: coherence shifts in litigants’ background beliefs (elicited before a role is

Claudia M. Landeo

2009-01-01

471

43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17.250 Section 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other social service programs or activities...

2010-10-01

472

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2013-10-01

473

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2012-10-01

474

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2014-10-01

475

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2011-10-01

476

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award...Administration Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2 The...

2013-10-01

477

Effects of Welfare Participation on Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the widely held premise that welfare participation causes women to refrain from marriage. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,219), we employed an event history approach to study transitions to marriage among mothers who have had a nonmarital birth. We found that welfare participation reduces the…

Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

2009-01-01

478

Welfare Effects of Global Patent Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a simple model of invention and patent protection to examine the welfare effects of extending patent protection from the country where invention takes place to another country that is only a consumer of invented products. It is shown that, while the welfare of the inventing country certainly rises with the extension of patent protection, that of the

Alan V Deardorff

1992-01-01

479

Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

March, B. E.

1984-01-01

480

The globalisation of farm animal welfare.  

PubMed

Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter. PMID:25000775

Fraser, D

2014-04-01

481

Youth At-Risk of Welfare Dependency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of WIN (Welfare Information Network) Issue Notes focuses on the tendency of children from low-income families to drop out of high school, become teen parents, become involved in drug-related activities, and become involved in other activities that place them at high risk of long-term welfare dependency. Section 1 offers the background.…

Kaplan, April

1999-01-01

482

AID and the Single Welfare Mother.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Debates the issue of voluntary artificial insemination among single women who depend on public assistance. Ooms argues that eligibility for welfare should be based on court defined criteria rather than on moral judgments, while Steinfels suggests that the welfare of the child is most important in any consideration. (Author/AOS)

Ooms, Theodora; Steinfels, Margaret O'Brien

1983-01-01

483

Pharmaceutical Price Discrimination and Social Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Price discrimination is an extremely common type of pricing strategy engaged in by virtually every business with some discretionary pricing power. The issue of whether price discrimination reduces or increases social welfare has been considered by economists since at least 1920. At that time, it was demonstrated that, under certain (restrictive) conditions, price discrimination will reduce social welfare. Subsequent research

Frank R. Lichtenberg

2010-01-01

484

Neoliberalism, Social Darwinism, and Consumerism Masquerading as School Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education reform policies harvested from neoliberalism, social Darwinism, consumerism, and free-market ideologies have begun to replace the pragmatic progressivism of the pre-World War II era. In this article, I use three federal and state education reform policies and programs--No Child Left Behind Act, Common Core State Standards Initiative, and…

Tienken, Christopher H.

2013-01-01

485

Gender, Family and Children at the Crossroads of Social Policy Reform in Turkey: Alternating Between Familialism and Individualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the last decade Turkey has undergone a process of reform in the field of social policy. This reform reached its most decisive\\u000a and controversial phase with recent legislation regarding the Turkish social insurance and healthcare system. Until recently\\u000a Turkey’s welfare policies have relied largely on the model of the male-breadwinner family both as a source and a normative\\u000a framework

Azer K?l?ç

486

The dynamics of immigrant welfare and labor market behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes transitions into and out of social assistance, unemployment, and employment. We estimate a dynamic multinomial\\u000a logit model, controlling for endogenous initial condition and unobserved heterogeneity, using a large representative Swedish\\u000a panel data set. The empirical results suggest that particularly refugee immigrants display a greater degree of “structural”\\u000a state dependence than natives. The high welfare participation rates among

Jorgen Hansen; Magnus Lofstrom

2009-01-01

487

Electricity reform abroad and US investment  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) to illustrate how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries in these countries, which have become the largest targets of U.S. foreign investment in electricity. Two calculations of foreign investment are used. One is the foreign direct investment series produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The other is based on transactions in electric utilities of the three countries. The electricity reform and privatization experiences reviewed may offer some insight as to how the U.S. electricity industry might develop as a result of recent domestic reform efforts and deregulation at the state and national levels. 126 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-10-01

488

Split-Award Tort Reform, Firm's Level of Care and Litigation Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to reduce the liability insurance costs of firms, several US states have implemented many different kinds of tort reform. Some reforms take the form of caps or limits on punitive damage awards while others have mandated that a proportion of the award be allocated to the plaintiff with the remainder going to the state. These latter reforms,

Maxim Nikitin; Claudia M. Landeo

2004-01-01

489

Land reform and agricultural productivity in India: a review of the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we review as well as contribute to the empirical literature on the impact of land reform on agricultural productivity in India. We find that, overall for all states, land-reform legislation had a negative and significant effect on agricultural productivity. However, this hides considerable variation across types of land reform, as well as variation across states. Decomposing by

Maitreesh Ghatak; Sanchari Roy

2007-01-01

490

Bargaining in the Chinese Leviathan: An Examination on the Steel Industry after China's SOE Reform  

E-print Network

This thesis centers on the competitions between enterprises in the steel industry in China after the SOE (state-owned enterprises) reform, which can be viewed as a case for mass economic reforms within Chinese Leviathan. To examine the effect...

Li, Zichao

2010-06-28

491

The establishment of a primary spine care practitioner and its benefits to health care reform in the United States  

PubMed Central

It is widely recognized that the dramatic increase in health care costs in the United States has not led to a corresponding improvement in the health care experience of patients or the clinical outcomes of medical care. In no area of medicine is this more true than in the area of spine related disorders (SRDs). Costs of medical care for SRDs have skyrocketed in recent years. Despite this, there is no evidence of improvement in the quality of this care. In fact, disability related to SRDs is on the rise. We argue that one of the key solutions to this is for the health care system to have a group of practitioners who are trained to function as primary care practitioners for the spine. We explain the reasons we think a primary spine care practitioner would be beneficial to patients, the health care system and society, some of the obstacles that will need to be overcome in establishing a primary spine care specialty and the ways in which these obstacles can be overcome. PMID:21777444

2011-01-01

492

Reforms as experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contends that programs of social reform are not effectively assessed. This article is a preliminary effort in examining the sources of this condition and designing ways of overcoming the difficulties. The political setting of program evaluation is also considered. It is concluded that trapped and experimental administrators are not threatened by a hard-headed analysis of the reform. For such, proper

Donald T. Campbell

1969-01-01

493

Educational Reform in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are a number of reform initiatives underway in Turkey but some of these, which are concerned with curricular and structural changes, have encountered serious difficulties. This paper begins with a brief summary of school effectiveness and school improvement research guiding many educational reforms. It then gives some information about…

Aksit, Necmi

2007-01-01

494

Thinking about Tax Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing pre-college teachers with an analysis of tax reform is the primary goal of this publication. The present tax system is both inefficient and inequitable. Three goals of tax reform proposals are detailed: (1) fairness--the dimensions of horizontal equity, or equal treatment of equals however defined, and vertical equity, reflecting the…

Boskin, Michael J.

1985-01-01

495

Learning from School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper asserts that creating successful school reform can be difficult. The first part discusses the concept of school culture to explain challenges to school reform, examining why existing school culture is necessary for a smoothly functioning and stable school but an obstacle to educational change and noting that attempts to transform school…

Levin, Henry M.

496

Reforming Science: Methodological and Cultural Reforms  

PubMed Central

Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture. PMID:22184414

Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C.

2012-01-01

497

Competing conceptions of animal welfare and their ethical implications for the treatment of non-human animals.  

PubMed

Animal welfare has been conceptualized in such a way that the use of animals in science and for food seems justified. I argue that those who have done this have appropriated the concept of animal welfare, claiming to give a scientific account that is more objective than the "sentimental" account given by animal liberationists. This strategy seems to play a major role in supporting merely limited reform in the use of animals and seems to support the assumption that there are conditions under which animals may be raised and slaughtered for food that are ethically acceptable. Reformists do not need to make this assumption, but they tend to conceptualize animal welfare is such a way that death does not count as harmful to the interests of animals, nor prolonged life a benefit. In addition to this prudential value assumption, some members of this community have developed strategies for defending suitably reformed farming practices as ethical even granting that death and some other forms of constraints are harms. One such strategy is the fiction of a domestic contract. However, if one accepts the conceptualization of human welfare give by L. W. Sumner, and applies it to animals in the way that I think is justified, an accurate conceptualization of animal welfare has different implications for which uses of animals should be regarded as ethically acceptable. In this paper I give an historical and philosophical account of animal welfare conceptulization and use this account to argue that animal breeders, as custodians of the animals they breed, have the ethical responsibility to help their animal wards achieve as much autonomy as possible in choosing the form of life made available to them and to provide that life. Attempts to avoid these implications by alluding to a contract model of the relationship between custodians and their wards fail to relieve custodians of their ethical responsibilities of care. PMID:21305338

Haynes, Richard P

2011-06-01

498

Shifting subjects of health-care: placing "medical tourism" in the context of Malaysian domestic health-care reform.  

PubMed

"Medical tourism" has frequently been held to unsettle naturalised relationships between the state and its citizenry. Yet in casting "medical tourism" as either an outside "innovation" or "invasion," scholars have often ignored the role that the neoliberal retrenchment of social welfare structures has played in shaping the domestic health-care systems of the "developing" countries recognised as international medical travel destinations. While there is little doubt that "medical tourism" impacts destinations' health-care systems, it remains essential to contextualise them. This paper offers a reading of the emergence of "medical tourism" from within the context of ongoing health-care privatisation reform in one of today's most prominent destinations: Malaysia. It argues that "medical tourism" to Malaysia has been mobilised politically both to advance domestic health-care reform and to cast off the country's "underdeveloped" image not only among foreign patient-consumers but also among its own nationals, who are themselves increasingly envisioned by the Malaysian state as prospective health-care consumers. PMID:22216474

Ormond, Meghann

2011-01-01

499

Post?welfarism and the reconstruction of teachers’ work in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key rationale for the UK education reforms of the 1980s and 1990s was a desire on the part of agents within the state to control more directly the work of teachers. In a variety of ways, the reforms were designed to contribute to a reconstruction of the work of teaching. The first part of this paper considers the roots

Sharon Gewirtz

1997-01-01

500

PROFIT VERSUS SOCIAL WELFARE, CONTINUITY VERSUS CHANGE. THE VISION OF SOCIAL GOVERNANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bankers didn’t want the change; they wanted the money of contributors without a reform of the financial sector. Although the idea of a reform and of a new regulation method was brought in the discussion in January 2007, it remained at idea level state. The idea of excessive regulation would have stopped evolution and this concept wouldn’t be sufficient to

Bodislav Dumitru-Alexandru; Belingher Daniel; Marinescu Cristian

2011-01-01