Science.gov

Sample records for state welfare reform

  1. Children and Welfare Reform: A Guide to Evaluating the Effects of State Welfare Policies on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Although targeted explicitly at changing adult behaviors and outcomes, welfare reform has direct implications for children. This guidebook details the results of the Project on State-Level Child Outcomes, designed to assist states in measuring child outcomes in the context of welfare reform programs. The guidebook is presented in three sections.…

  2. State Flexibility: The Minimum Wage and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Policies Inst., Washington, DC.

    In 1999, Congress for the first time, is debating a federal minimum wage hike that will affect low-skilled people who have dramatically fewer options if they cannot find work. This public policy debate has been occasioned by the new state focus on welfare reform that, to some, suggests that a state flexibility approach be applied to the minimum…

  3. Production and the welfare state: the political context of reforms.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1991-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the political context of reforms in the production process and in the welfare state. The theories of legitimation and Fordism are criticized for considering the capitalist class the main force behind the reforms. The working class and the process of class struggle are primarily responsible for changes in production and for the establishment of the welfare state. The author then shows that the changes in production and in the state that occurred after World War II were a response to political events triggered by labor's rebellions and capital's need to respond to those rebellions. Post-Fordism and the political practice that derives from it are criticized for their hasty dismissal of class and class practices by the dominated forces in society. The article ends by offering an alternative strategy for change. PMID:1769749

  4. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect State Penalties? § 261.80 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect...

  5. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect State Penalties? § 261.80 How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect...

  6. Welfare Reform at 15 and the State of Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpare, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and

  7. Welfare Reform at 15 and the State of Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpare, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and…

  8. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with

  9. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  10. Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Bruce A., Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Whitener, Leslie A., Ed.

    The 16 chapters in this five-part book, each by different authors, trace the effects of welfare reform (mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), upon poor people in rural areas of the United States. The book begins with an introduction called "As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural…

  11. Managing Welfare Reform in Five States: The Challenge of Devolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebschutz, Sarah F., Ed.

    This book analyzes the responses of five states (Florida, Mississippi, New York, Washington, and Wisconsin) to challenges posed by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 to alter state welfare programs and management systems. Using case studies, the book highlights similarities and differences in the states'…

  12. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK What Are the Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation...

  13. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK What Are the Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation...

  14. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  15. Work First. How To Implement an Employment-Focused Approach to Welfare Reform. A How-to Guide. ReWORKing Welfare. Technical Assistance for States and Localities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Amy

    This guide, which is intended for planners, administrators, and staff involved in state and local welfare reform efforts, summarizes information about the "work first" approach to welfare reform that was gained from comprehensive evaluations of work first programs and discussions with program managers, practitioners, and participants. The…

  16. Children and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

  17. Child Welfare Reform in the United States: Findings from a Local Agency Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Lorelei B.; Barth, Richard P.; Green, Rebecca; Wall, Ariana; Biemer, Paul; Berrick, Jill Duerr; Webb, Mary Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Efforts to improve the public welfare and child welfare system sparked an unprecedented amount of federal legislation in the 1990s, including the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 (ASFA), the Multiethnic Placement Act of 1994 and Interethnic Adoption Provisions of 1996 (MEPA-IEP), and welfare reform. Such reforms allow an unprecedented degree…

  18. Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    2000-01-01

    Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

  19. Welfare reform: from illusion to reality.

    PubMed

    Stoesz, D; Karger, H J

    1990-03-01

    Welfare reform is a concept that has a relatively narrow meaning in the United States, because it is associated with the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Since the 1960s, several attempts have been made to reform AFDC, but it was not until 1988 that the program was changed substantially. The alterations in the AFDC program reflect an ideological shift in American culture that is increasingly conservative. Social welfare policy as a whole has begun to reflect conservative values by emphasizing reciprocity, productivity, and familial responsibility. A myriad of important social welfare issues remain unresolved despite the new welfare reform bill of 1988. PMID:2191449

  20. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

  1. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in

  2. Welfare Reform. At Issue, An Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    Efforts to reform the welfare system in the United States have been gaining momentum since the late 1980s. Critics have been arguing that states should receive federal waivers to create their own programs to encourage welfare recipients to find work. The thrust of the 1996 welfare reform act transfers control over welfare spending to the states.…

  3. Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Steven J.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Bao, Yuhua; Danielson, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The welfare reform bill adopted in the United States in 1996 limited the eligibility of immigrants for several government assistance programs, and early projections estimated that nearly half of the savings associated with the reforms would come from these immigrant restrictions. Several studies have found that subsequent program participation

  4. Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Steven J.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Bao, Yuhua; Danielson, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The welfare reform bill adopted in the United States in 1996 limited the eligibility of immigrants for several government assistance programs, and early projections estimated that nearly half of the savings associated with the reforms would come from these immigrant restrictions. Several studies have found that subsequent program participation…

  5. Poor Children and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Olivia

    This book analyzes how welfare reform can improve the lives of children, based on a study of successful programs that provide services to needy children and their families. The study looked at programs that operated in conjunction with the welfare department before the enactment of the Family Support Act and that operated successfully. Chapter 1…

  6. Learning from Leaders: Welfare Reform Politics and Policy in Five Midwestern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissert, Carol S., Ed.

    This book examines welfare reform, occasioned by the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which abolished Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and replaced it with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). It is based on research in Ohio, Kansas, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan that…

  7. Considering Today's Trilemma: Welfare Reform, the Full Cost of Quality, and State Child Care Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David

    1997-01-01

    Federal welfare reform legislation will impact the entire child care system through policy ripples affecting how close market rates come to paying full cost of quality child care; funding services for all child care, including consumer education and resource and referral services; and funding the future through initiatives to build leadership and…

  8. Welfare Reform and Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Metsch, Lisa R; Pollack, Harold A

    2005-01-01

    The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) changed the nature, purpose, and financing of public aid. Researchers, administrators, and policymakers expressed special concern about the act's impact on low-income mothers with substance use disorders. Before PRWORA's passage, however, little was known about the true prevalence of these disorders among welfare recipients or about the likely effectiveness of substance abuse treatment interventions for welfare recipients. Subsequent research documented that substance abuse disorders are less widespread among welfare recipients than was originally thought and are less common than other serious barriers to self-sufficiency. This research also showed significant administrative barriers to the screening, assessment, and referral of drug-dependent welfare recipients. This article summarizes current research findings and examines implications for welfare reform reauthorization. PMID:15787954

  9. The Role of the Community College in Welfare Reform since Passage of the Welfare Reform Act of 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delmonico, Matt

    The paper addresses the impact of welfare reform on the community college and discusses how community colleges are responding to this important social and economic issue. One of the main tenants of the 1996 Welfare Reform Bill is to shift the responsibility for welfare to the states, requiring that half of all able-bodied recipients find work by…

  10. Market reforms in health care and sustainability of the welfare state: lessons from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Diderichsen, F

    1995-01-01

    Reforming health care systems which are predominantly publicly provided and financed has usually been motivated as a way of increasing efficiency even if it seldom is explicit whether it is in the official sense related to individual utility or in the unofficial sense related to health outcomes. In the case of Sweden the welfare state has been made politically sustainable through a construction where cash benefits and service provision are tailored to satisfy not only the basic needs but even the more discriminating needs of the middle classes. Their loyalty with the taxes is politically crucial and therefore their evaluation of the services in the welfarist sense equally important. That loyalty was however threatened in a situation where cost-containment policies were applied while equity principles were still a strong priority. Health care utilization was increasing among the very old and chronically ill while it was decreasing for other groups. The reforms introduced in some counties during the 1990s have been focussing on a purchaser-provider split and fee-for-service payment of providers. They have increased productivity sharply, increased utilization even among the groups that previously were 'pressed out' and reduced waiting lists. Increased efficiency however, threatens equity in some specific aspects. Fee-for-service payment means increased production and so far even increased costs. If they are to be met with increased private financing, rather than with present tax financing, it will bring the risk of inequities. Payment of hospitals through DRG systems means payment to providers for medical interventions with no incentives to deal with social consequences of illness. Inequities in health care can be related to the way health care deals with inequalities in health due to inequalities in living conditions or inequalities in living conditions due to ill health. In the short perspective the reforms may threaten equity in the second aspect, in the longer perspective the problems of cost control and the pressure it raises for alternative financial sources may be a more serious risk even for the former. PMID:10156635

  11. The Role of Education and Training in Welfare Reform. Welfare Reform and Beyond. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueron, Judith M.; Hamilton, Gayle

    States have used variants of these three approaches to structure the welfare to-work component of welfare reform for single mothers: (1) put education or training first; (2) place job searching first; and (3) create a flexible program that allows staff and participants choice in the initial and subsequent activities. Research on these program…

  12. Welfare Reform in Missouri. A Report of the Welfare Reform Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Peter, Ed.; Kunz, Julia, Ed.

    This report outlines findings and recommendations of a committee study of whether the State of Missouri is in need of welfare reform. The major finding is that Missouri's current welfare system is substantially deficient and requires correction of laws, policies, practices, and resource allocation. Three major themes are the following: (1) welfare…

  13. Lifelong Learning and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Colin

    1999-01-01

    An alternative perspective on lifelong learning locates it in culture, civil society, and leisure/consumption lifestyles. Distinctions between education and learning and markets and quasi-markets are used to explore policy models. The relationship to welfare reform policies is discussed. (Author/SK)

  14. Welfare reform and parenting: reasonable expectations.

    PubMed

    Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay; Pittman, Laura D

    2002-01-01

    Although the primary goals of federal welfare reform legislation were to move welfare mothers into the workforce and reduce births outside of marriage, promotion of responsible parenting was also an important underlying theme. Parenting is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon, however, encompassing a wide range of functions related to nurturing, discipline, stimulation, values, activities, and routines. This article provides a framework for assessing the impact of welfare reform on various dimensions of parenting, with the following key findings: Many aspects of life affect parenting and child development, such as parent characteristics, child characteristics, family economic resources, family structure, parental mental health, marital or partner relationships, and the quality of parents' kin and social networks. About two-thirds of states are using federal welfare funds to promote better parenting through programs such as home visits to new parents and parenting classes, but virtually no state parenting programs have been evaluated. Welfare reform appears to have limited effects on parenting. The only dimension of parenting significantly affected by some welfare demonstration programs was parents' choice of child care settings and extracurricular activities for their children. The programs with the greatest positive impact on parenting were those with more generous work supports and more flexible work requirements. Not only did these programs lead to different choices concerning child care and activities for preschool and school-age children, but they also resulted in more stable marriages and less violence between partners, which also could lead to improved parenting. The authors conclude that many important aspects of the connection between welfare reform and parenting have yet to be examined, and that further research is needed to identify the ways states' welfare programs can promote better parenting. PMID:11980035

  15. Economic Conditions and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sheldon H., Ed.

    This book contains 10 papers on three key questions regarding the effects of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which ended the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program: why welfare caseloads are falling; how welfare recipients are faring; and how the states are responding to changing…

  16. Welfare Reform and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    This paper examines conflicting evidence regarding the impacts of welfare reform on children's wellbeing. Research shows that poverty rates, teen crime and fertility, and child maltreatment are down. Lack of appropriate state-level data on indicators of child wellbeing precludes serious analysis of the role of welfare reform for most indicators.…

  17. Implementing the Abstinence Education Provision of the Welfare Reform Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Ron; Bevan, Carol Statuto

    As part of its 1996 welfare reform bill, the U.S. Congress enacted a $50 million per year program to fund abstinence education. The welfare reform law addresses the problem of births to single adolescents by enforcing child support payments, giving states financial incentives to reduce nonmarital births, and creating the abstinence education…

  18. Welfare Recipients' Involvement with Child Protective Services after Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Yunju; Meezan, William; Danziger, Sandra K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study identifies factors associated with child protective services (CPS) involvement among current and former welfare recipients after welfare reform legislation was passed in the US in 1996. Method: Data come from the Women's Employment Study, a longitudinal study of randomly selected welfare recipients living in a Michigan city…

  19. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training. NBER Working Paper No. 16659

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results indicate that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

  20. Ten Things Everyone Should Know about Welfare Reform. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A, No. A-52. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Alan

    This brief presents 10 key findings about welfare reform, using research from the Urban Institute's Assessing the New Federalism project. Welfare reform has taken hold, and, in the immediate aftermath of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), states have made major changes to their welfare systems that…

  1. Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

  2. Did Welfare Reform Influence the Fertility of Young Teens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopoo, Leonard M.; DeLeire, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    During the 1990s, states made several reforms to their welfare programs designed to reduce teenage fertility among minors. Among the most prominent of these changes, states started requiring teenage mothers younger than 18 to live with a parent or legal guardian and enroll in high school in order to receive welfare benefits. Using natality data…

  3. Nobody Asked Us: The WV Welfare Reform Listening Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rick

    West Virginia's state welfare reform plan was in effect by the end of 1997. In 1999, over 175 interviews were conducted with past and present welfare recipients to bring their experiences and concerns to the attention of the public and policymakers. Nearly all interviewees were women and were taking part in work activities. In general, welfare…

  4. Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

  5. Family Poverty, Welfare Reform, and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2000-01-01

    Examines consequences of family poverty for child development, noting evidence that deep or persistent poverty early in childhood adversely affects children's ability and achievement. Argues that although the 1996 welfare reforms spurred many welfare-to-work transitions, their time limits and sanctions are likely to deepen poverty among some…

  6. Paternalistic welfare reform: current perceptions and behavioral models.

    PubMed

    Stoker, R P; Wilson-Gentry, L; Thomas, L W; Clark, G

    1997-01-01

    Most of the current welfare reform incentives make assumptions about the behavior of AFDC clients. Among these assumptions are that clients will seek to maximize their financial resources; that they understand the requirements of the welfare reform; and that they can control the behaviors targeted by the welfare reform effort. Using survey data gathered from AFDC clients involved in Maryland's welfare reform initiative, the authors suggest that the assumptions underlying these welfare reform initiatives may be too simplistic. For welfare reform to be effective, the authors argue that these initiatives must reflect the complexity of the problems and concerns faced by the AFDC client. PMID:10177353

  7. Welfare reform--are our children cared for?

    PubMed

    Bourne, L C

    1997-12-01

    Welfare reform is the talk of the nation. Since the inception of our country, we have struggled with how to care for the poor and have engaged in various reform methods; however, the poor are still with us. The latest attempt at providing jobs for the millions on AFDC was signed into law in August 1996 by President Clinton. This attempt to end "welfare as we know it" provides many challenges and risks to states and local governments. The groups most affected by this latest attempt to change the system are children and immigrants. How these groups will fare remains to be seen as states now have a fixed amount of money to address the issues of moving families from welfare to work by the year 2002. The attempt to transfer families from welfare to work is multifaceted and will require that state lawmakers be innovative and resourceful. PMID:9469078

  8. Family poverty, welfare reform, and child development.

    PubMed

    Duncan, G J; Brooks-Gunn, J

    2000-01-01

    Our review of research suggests that family poverty has selective effects on child development. Most important for policy are indications that deep or persistent poverty early in childhood affects adversely the ability and achievement of children. Although the 1996 welfare reforms have spurred many welfare-to-work transitions, their time limits and, especially, sanctions are likely to deepen poverty among some families. We suggest ways policies might be aimed at preventing either economic deprivation itself or its effects. PMID:10836573

  9. A Primer on Welfare Reform, Young Children, and Early Childhood Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young Children, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses commonly asked questions about welfare, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), welfare reform, and its possible effects on child care. Asserts that welfare reform must maintain consistent standards; lower the state-match requirement for AFDC child care; set minimum public payment levels; inform parents of their rights; increase…

  10. Interagency Collaboration and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Tara

    2000-01-01

    This issue of WIN (Welfare Information Network) Issue Notes raises some major issues that agencies may want to address as they consider expanding collaborative efforts. It describes collaborative efforts and identifies resources that could prove useful in designing successful collaborations. Section 1 offers background. Section 2 answers these…

  11. The Ideology of Welfare Reform: Deconstructing Stigma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Frederick B.

    1996-01-01

    Critiques recent welfare reform proposals and recommends social work practices that humanize Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). The critique deconstructs the labels "dependent,""addict," and "illegitimate" as they are applied to AFDC mothers and explores the reproduction of stigma through social work practice. (Author)

  12. Welfare Reform: Federal Oversight of State and Local Contracting Can Be Strengthened. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Sigurd R.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed existing procedures to manage Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) contracting and also identified problems with regard to management of TANF contracting. The major data collection activities were as follows: (1) a national survey of all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the 10 counties…

  13. Beyond welfare reform: reframing undocumented immigrants' entitlement to health care in the United States, a critical review.

    PubMed

    Viladrich, Anahí

    2012-03-01

    This article addresses the main scholarly frames that supported the deservingness of unauthorized immigrants to health benefits in the United States (U.S.) following the passage of the Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), known as the Welfare Reform bill, in 1996. Based on a critical literature review, conducted between January 1997 and March 2011, this article begins with an analysis of the public health rhetorics that endorsed immigrants' inclusion into the U.S. health safety net. In this vein, the "cost-saving" and "the effortful immigrant" frames underscore immigrants' contributions to society vis-à-vis their low utilization of health services. These are complemented by a "surveillance" account that claims to protect the American public from communicable diseases. A "maternalistic" frame is also discussed as a tool to safeguard families, and particularly immigrant mothers, in their roles as bearers and caretakers of their American-born children. The analyses of the "chilling" and the "injustice" frames are then introduced to underscore major anthropological contributions to the formulation of counter-mainstream discourses on immigrants' selective inclusion into the U.S. health care system. First, the "chilling effect," defined as the voluntary withdrawal from health benefits, is examined in light of unauthorized immigrants' internalized feelings of undeservingness. Second, an "injustice" narrative highlights both the contributions and the limitations of a social justice paradigm, which advocated for the restoration of government benefits to elderly immigrants and refugees after the passage of PRWORA. By analyzing the contradictions among all these diverse frames, this paper finally reflects on the conceptual challenges faced by medical anthropology, and the social sciences at large, in advancing health equity and human rights paradigms. PMID:21745706

  14. Welfare reform: advocacy and intervention in the health care setting.

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, E; Leiter, K; Todd, J; Smith, L

    1999-01-01

    Welfare reform has drastically altered the lives of poor families in the US. In its wake, many former recipients are not receiving whatever transitional benefits and other safeguards to which they remain entitled under federal and state laws. Families are losing access to Medicaid and are not receiving the child care assistance or Food Stamps for which they continue to be eligible. Ill-served by stringent time limits and work requirements, lack of child care assistance, and lack of training and educational opportunities for the development of skills that will lead to better jobs, families need help to navigate the complexities of the new welfare system. Boston Medical Center's Department of Pediatrics has instituted a welfare screening project to educate families about their rights under welfare reform and assist them in advocating for themselves and their children. PMID:10670622

  15. Welfare Reform. Hearing before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (April 9, 1987). Part 1 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

    This hearing, the first of three on welfare reform, focuses on "how we can reform welfare programs to conserve the best of the past and give us new latitude to deal with the emerging problems of the future," according to Senator Lloyd Bentsen, the Chairman of the Committee. The following individuals were witnesses: (1) Richard E. Lyng, Department…

  16. Welfare Reform and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Baltagi, Badi H; Yen, Yin-Fang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) program on children's health outcomes using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation over the period 1994 to 2005. The TANF policies have been credited with increased employment for single mothers and a dramatic drop in welfare caseload. Our results show that these policies also had a significant effect on various measures of children's medical utilization among low-income families. These health measures include a rating of the child's health status reported by the parents, the number of times that parents consulted a doctor, and the number of nights that the child stayed in a hospital. We compare the overall changes of health status and medical utilization for children with working and nonworking mothers. We find that the child's health status as reported by the parents is affected by the maternal employment status. PMID:25533889

  17. Experimental studies of welfare reform and children.

    PubMed

    Zaslow, Martha J; Moore, Kristin A; Brooks, Jennifer L; Morris, Pamela A; Tout, Kathryn; Redd, Zakia A; Emig, Carol A

    2002-01-01

    Even prior to passage of federal welfare reform, many demonstration programs anticipated key features of the 1996 law, such as "work-first" strategies, time limits on welfare receipt, and financial incentives to work. Over the past decade, 10 experimental evaluations of these programs have extended their studies to examine the impacts on children. This article provides a synthesis of findings from the first seven of these studies to release results concerning child impacts. Key observations include the following: Across the different types of welfare-to-work programs examined, researchers found neither widespread harm nor widespread benefit to young children, but some significant impacts did occur. Favorable impacts tended to occur in programs that improved family economic status or maternal education, but these programs still did not bring children to the level of national norms for positive child development. Unfavorable impacts tended to occur when families did not show economic progress or when their economic situation worsened, when the children were adolescents, and--unexpectedly--when the families were believed to be at lower risk for long-term welfare receipt. Thus, although impacts were not widespread, these programs did have the potential to affect children for both better and worse across a range of developmental outcomes. The authors conclude that these findings underscore the importance of strengthening program approaches to enhance developmental outcomes for children in families being served by the welfare system. PMID:11980040

  18. Welfare reform, substance use, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Jayakody, R; Danziger, S; Pollack, H

    2000-08-01

    Reform has transformed traditional entitlement to cash welfare under Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) into a transitional program known as Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF). Because of the new work requirements and the time-limited nature of assistance, policy makers are increasingly confronted with what to do when welfare recipients do not effectively make the transition from welfare to work. Increasingly, the language of public health is being used to determine who is "employable" and who is not. Thus renewed attention is being focused on the individual characteristics of participants themselves, particularly specific diagnoses that might reduce employability. This article focuses on substance abuse and mental health problems among single mothers and examines their relationship to welfare receipt. We analyze data from the 1994 and 1995 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse (NHSDA) and find that 19 percent of welfare recipients meet the criteria for a DSM-III-R (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition revised) psychiatric diagnosis. About the same percentage have used illicit drugs during the previous year. Logistic regression results indicate that mental and behavioral health problems that are significant barriers to self-sufficiency are increasingly important in this era of time-limited benefits. PMID:10979515

  19. More Promises To Keep: Sustaining Arizona's Capacity for Welfare and Health Reform (December 1, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe. Morrison Inst. for Public Policy.

    This publication presents the views expressed by the major speakers at "More Promises to Keep: Sustaining Arizona's Capacity for Welfare and Health Reform," concluding a 3-year study of welfare and health reform in the state. The publication also summarizes the discussions of three special interest sessions. The speakers' op-ed-style pieces and…

  20. The Economic Impact of Welfare Reform on Arkansas Families. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, Little Rock.

    In 1997, the Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA) program was established in Arkansas as the state's version of welfare reform. Although there has been a 44 percent decrease in TEA cash assistance since the program's inception, questions continue regarding the impact of welfare reform on families with children. This report highlights some of…

  1. Keeping battered women safe during welfare reform: new challenges.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Jody

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the growing body of research literature on the relationship of domestic violence to welfare. Not only do women on welfare suffer from domestic violence in far greater numbers than women in the general population, but their abusers, threatened by the women's efforts at education, training, or work, also use violence and threats of violence to sabotage these efforts at economic self-sufficiency. For this reason, welfare reform exacerbates domestic violence in the lives of many low-income women. As a result of the federal Family Violence Option, most state welfare plans allow battered women on welfare more time and specialized services before mandating work in order to keep them and their children safe. Recent research and monitoring have shown, however, that the majority of battered women on welfare do not tell their welfare workers about the violence. Ending the isolation of these battered women and helping them with domestic violence services pose difficult challenges. Women's health providers may be in a better position to accomplish this task than welfare department personnel. PMID:11905488

  2. Levers for Change: Educational Opportunity Center's and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann-Messier, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    Asserts the importance of changing welfare policies to allow postsecondary education as a work activity. Discusses the history of welfare reform and the benefits of postsecondary education for welfare recipients; describes services provided to welfare recipients by several TRIO-sponsored Educational Opportunity Centers (EOCs); and offers…

  3. Welfare: Issues to Consider in Assessing Proposals for Reform. Briefing Report to the Honorable William V. Roth, Jr., United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This report provides an overview of research findings on major Federal welfare system design issues. The report is based on: a review of 100 major welfare studies completed since 1975; interviews with Federal, State, and local welfare officials; the results of the General Accounting Office's (GAO) welfare work; and an analysis of the Census…

  4. Welfare Reform: Implications for the Black Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Megan E.

    The centerpiece of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA) is the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) Act, which directs states to provide a broad range of educational, training, and employment services. FSA offers states an opportunity to design humane and effective programs to assist welfare recipients to move out of poverty. FSA also has…

  5. Welfare Reform and the Long-Term Care Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filinson, Rachel; Cone, Donna; Ray, Eileen

    2005-01-01

    The research reported in this paper examined the role of welfare reform in increasing the availability of entry-level workers to meet the rising demand for long-term care employees. Findings from national and statewide evaluations of welfare programs show mixed results in the extent to which beneficiaries could be shifted from welfare caseloads to…

  6. Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data

  7. Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

  8. The Unfinished Business of Welfare Reform: Improving Prospects for Poor Children and Youth. Perspectives from Research. A Special Child Trends Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.

    As federal and state officials consider the reauthorization of the block grants at the center of the 1996 federal welfare reform law, it is critical that they use findings from research regarding the impact of welfare reform to guide their decisions. This special report examines the impact of welfare reform on children and youth, drawing on…

  9. Financing Services for Young Children and Their Families: Meeting the Challenges of Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Cheryl D.

    This paper examines strategies for state and local leaders to finance supports and services for young children and their families in the wake of welfare reform. It focuses on strategies for revenue reform and for creating public/private partnerships to provide decision makers with current and relevant information on a variety of effective tools…

  10. Welfare reform, time limits, and infant health.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Jonathan; Mas, Alexandre

    2008-12-01

    This paper offers evidence that welfare time limits contributed to a deterioration of infant health. We use the fact that the dates at which TANF recipients were first subject to timing out varied by state. We show that by 2000 there was a marked difference in TANF duration spells depending on whether the state employed the 60-month Federally imposed time limit, or a shorter limit, differences that were not present under AFDC. There were significant increases in infant mortality when time limits became binding in a state. These increases occurred primarily among mothers who could have plausibly timed-out of TANF: poorly educated and unmarried women with at least one previous live-birth. There is some evidence that the population of mothers affected by time limits were less likely to seek prenatal care in the first trimester, suggesting a possible role for reduced medical care in explaining the deterioration in infant health. PMID:18947892

  11. Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; Scrivener, Susan; Michalopoulos, Charles; Morris, Pamela; Hendra, Richard; Adams-Ciardullo, Diana; Walter, Johanna

    An evaluation of Jobs First (JF) compared the experiences of JF participants who were subject to welfare reform policies with those of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) participants who were subject to prior welfare rules. It collected information for four years about JF's impacts on participants' children and analyzed its financial…

  12. Welfare dynamics, support services, mothers' earnings, and child cognitive development: implications for contemporary welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, H

    1999-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY; N = 614), addresses the gap in the research literature regarding the effects of welfare reform on children. Key questions addressed include whether welfare dynamics and support services relevant to welfare reform, both measured across the first 5 years of life, are associated with mothers' earnings in the 6th year and three child cognitive outcomes in the 7th and 8th years: Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) math and reading scores, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Welfare dynamics are represented by total time on welfare, degree of cycling on and off welfare, and degree to which welfare and work are combined. Support services measured include three forms of child care (relative, babysitter, and center-based), as well as three forms of human capital supports (child support, job training, and education). Controlling for a range of background factors and for different patterns of welfare use across the first 5 years, small positive associations with mother's earnings were found for child support, education, and job training. Small positive associations also were found between child support and both math and reading scores. Finally positive associations of medium effect size were found between center care and both mothers' earnings and child PPVT scores. Although effect sizes are generally small, the results suggest the potential value of welfare reform approaches that emphasize long-term human capital development. Interactions between welfare dynamics and support services suggest subgroup differences. Specifically, positive effects of support services on earnings are strongest among mothers with higher levels of human capital (higher levels of work while on welfare, lower total time on welfare). Babysitter care appears to have negative effects on both reading and math scores of children whose mothers report low levels of work while on welfare. Implications for welfare reform policy are discussed. PMID:10368922

  13. The politics of ideas in welfare state transformation: Christian Democracy and the reform of family policy in Germany.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, Timo

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of employment-centered family policies of the Grand Coalition in Germany came with some surprise, as Christian Democrats have traditionally been strongly committed to the male breadwinner model and corresponding family policies. This article investigates why Christian Democrats (though with some inconsistencies) promoted “social-democratic” family policies guided by the adult worker rather than by the male breadwinner model. Illuminating the politics of recent family policy reforms, the electoral rationale for this modernization of family policy, the role of political entrepreneurship, and intraparty political conflicts over the new policy paradigm are discussed. PMID:22292173

  14. Welfare reform and health of immigrant women and their children.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Neeraj; Kaestner, Robert

    2007-04-01

    We investigate the association between the 1996 welfare reform and health insurance, medical care use and health of low-educated, foreign-born, single mothers and their children. We find that welfare reform was associated with an eight to 11.5 percentage points increase in proportion uninsured among low-educated foreign-born, single mothers. We also find that the decline in welfare caseload since 1996 was associated with a 6.5 to 10 percentage points increase in the proportion of low-educated foreign-born, single mothers reporting delays in receiving medical care or receiving no care due to cost and a nine percentage points decline in visits to a health professional in the past 12 months. We do not find any consistent evidence that welfare reform affected the health insurance, medical care utilization and health of children living with single mothers. PMID:17136611

  15. The moral economy of austerity: analysing UK welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Morris, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    This paper notes the contemporary emergence of 'morality' in both sociological argument and political rhetoric, and analyses its significance in relation to ongoing UK welfare reforms. It revisits the idea of 'moral economy' and identifies two strands in its contemporary application; that all economies depend on an internal moral schema, and that some external moral evaluation is desirable. UK welfare reform is analysed as an example of the former, with reference to three distinct orientations advanced in the work of Freeden (), Laclau (), and Lockwood (). In this light, the paper then considers challenges to the reform agenda, drawn from third sector and other public sources. It outlines the forms of argument present in these challenges, based respectively on rationality, legality, and morality, which together provide a basis for evaluation of the welfare reforms and for an alternative 'moral economy'. PMID:26948066

  16. Welfare's Retreat from Education: Exploring the Impact of Massachusetts Welfare Reform on Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuys, Steve

    Conversations with seven Boston-area adult basic education (ABE) program coordinators revealed the severe adverse effects of Massachusetts' new restrictive welfare reform law on literacy education programs for the poor. The new law limits cash assistance to 2 years for most welfare recipients and requires most recipients whose youngest child is…

  17. Social Service Organizations and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Barbara; Widom, Rebecca

    The Project on Devolution and Urban Change conducted a study to learn how new welfare policies and funding mechanisms, especially devolution and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grants, affect human service agencies in neighborhoods with high concentrations of welfare recipients and people living in poverty. Key personnel at 106…

  18. Children's Medicaid enrollment: the impacts of mandates, welfare reform, and policy delinking.

    PubMed

    Kronebusch, K

    2001-12-01

    From 1984 to 1990. Congress enacted a series of mandates that expanded Medicaid eligibility for low-income children by gradually delinking Medicaid eligibility from welfare eligibility. The 1996 national welfare reform law nominally completed the delinking process when the statutory phase-in of children's Medicaid coverage was preserved even as the states were given increased flexibility for administering welfare programs. This article provides estimates of the impact of these fedcral policy changes on children's Medicaid enrollment rates and analyzes the degree of success in uncoupling children's Medicaid enrollment from welfare. Data from the Current Population Survey for 1979 to 1998 are used to provide standardized enrollment probabilities for the United States and individual states. The results show important enrollment increases associated with the period of the mandated expansions, followed by enrollment declines associated with welfare reform. The largest increases in enrollment during this period were in states with historically restrictive welfare eligibility, but rates also rose in states that previously had relatively expansive welfare eligibility. The net effect was a reduction in the extent of state-to-state variation in enrollment. The Medicaid expansion peaked in 1995, prior to the advent of national welfare reform. Since then, children's Medicaid enrollment has fallen, with the largest declines falling on families with the very lowest incomes. Consistent with the desire to delink children's Medicaid coverage from welfare, the association between Medicaid and AFDC/TANF enrollment weakened during the expansionary period, but there still was a relatively strong relationship between policy outcomes for these two programs. Despite the policy changes, Medicaid coverage of children is still influenced by state-level welfare policy. PMID:11831579

  19. A "Third Way" in Welfare Reform? Evidence from the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, John; Waldfogel, Jane

    2004-01-01

    U.S. welfare reforms, whether promoting work first or human capital development, have had in common an emphasis on employment as the key to improving the life chances of children living in single-mother families. We describe in this article a different type of reform--a "third way" in welfare reform. The welfare reforms carried out in the United…

  20. What Works in Welfare Reform: Evidence and Lessons To Guide TANF Reauthorization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Gordon L.

    To inform policymakers as they deliberate over the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) reauthorization, this guide reviews what states have done with the flexibility afforded them by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act. The first section examines how states have shaped their welfare reform strategies…

  1. Health, welfare reform, and narratives of uncertainty among Cambodian refugees.

    PubMed

    Becker, G; Beyene, Y; Ken, P

    2000-06-01

    Massive disruptions to a way of life, such as those brought on by widespread violence, terror, and genocide, disorder the body as well as the social order. When they flee their homelands, refugees bring their experiences of violence and terror with them. Drawing on an ethnographic study of 40 Cambodian refugees between the ages of 50 and 79 who suffered from one or more chronic illnesses, we explore how refugees who live with chronic illnesses and are dependent on government support were affected by the threat of welfare reform. When welfare reform threatened to cut Cambodian refugees' income, it posed a new crisis for those who were chronically in limbo and placed further constraints on their lives. Through their narratives, Cambodian refugees enacted their bodily distress and resisted the threat of welfare reform. The story of threatened welfare reform in the U.S. and its possible consequences for refugees is a story of quixotic U.S. politics, policies and antidotes for refugeeism gone awry. PMID:10885785

  2. Welfare Reform in Rural America: A Review of Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findeis, Jill L.; Henry, Mark; Hirschl, Thomas A.; Lewis, Willis; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael; Peine, Emelie; Zimmerman, Julie N.

    This research review suggests that welfare reform policy should recognize the differences between rural and urban poor families. The rural poor are more likely to be employed, married, and non-Hispanic white. Rural-urban labor market differences are also likely to influence the effects of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity…

  3. Welfare Reform: Can Higher Education Reduce the Feminization of Poverty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiamiyu, Mojisoa; Mitchell, Shelley

    2001-01-01

    Describes the feminization of poverty, highlighting poor women, their children, and their need for financial assistance; identifying obstacles to self-sufficiency and their attempts to overcome those obstacles while relying on government aid (including attending college); showing how welfare reform has become an obstacle; and discussing how…

  4. Community Development Corporations and Welfare Reform: Linkages, Roles, and Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, David J.; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Schill, Michael H.

    This study examined the impact of welfare reform on housing owned by community development corporations (CDCs), investigating how early implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) affected the financial status of CDCs' affordable housing developments. Five types of financial impacts were…

  5. Welfare Reform on Rosebud Reservation: Challenges for Tribal Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biolsi, Thomas; Cordier, Rose; Two Eagle, Marvine Douville; Weil, Melinda

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with low-income, American Indian, single parents on the Rosebud Reservation in Todd County, South Dakota, included families who were on and who had left Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Welfare reform issues discussed included transportation problems; access to affordable, quality child care; food insecurity; and the scarcity of…

  6. Families Hardest Hit: Effects of Welfare Reform on Homeless Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Julie

    This report presents data from 1999 surveys of people living in Chicago shelters and warming centers for families with children. The surveys asked about the impacts of welfare reform on respondents' lives. Researchers also surveyed housing and food assistance agencies, shelters, and other social service agencies. Of 481 families surveyed, 44…

  7. Welfare Reform's Impact on Adolescents: Early Warning Signs. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Jennifer L.; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Zaslow, Martha J.

    With the passage of the 1996 welfare reform law, numerous commentators expressed concern about the impact of welfare reform on young children of welfare recipients, while few expressed concern about adolescents. However, recent evidence suggests that adolescents are affected negatively when their parents participate in welfare-to-work programs.…

  8. Transitions from AFDC to SSI before welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, D C; Wittenburg, D C; Fishman, M E; Livermore, G A

    The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) programs serve populations with similar characteristics. SSI serves adults and children with disabilities who are in low-income families, and AFDC serves low-income families with children. Because of that overlap, policy changes in one program can affect the other. In 1996, Congress enacted the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, which transformed AFDC into the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. Many people have expected that implementing that welfare reform legislation would eventually increase SSI participation, for two reasons. First, TANF includes new work requirements and time limits that induce more AFDC/TANF recipients with disabilities to obtain SSI benefits. Second, the change in the funding mechanism--from open-ended funding on a matching basis for AFDC to cash assistance block grants for TANF--gives states a stronger incentive to shift welfare recipients to SSI. This article examines the interaction between the SSI and AFDC programs in the prereform period (1990 to 1996) and discusses the potential implications of welfare reform on that interaction. Using matched data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation and Social Security Administration (SSA) records, our analysis focuses on how the interaction of those programs affects young women (aged 18 to 40) and children (aged 0 to 17). We find a very strong link between AFDC and SSI for young women and children. Significant portions of young female and child SSI beneficiaries in the 1990-1993 period were in AFDC families or had received AFDC in the past. In addition, a substantial share of young women and children who received AFDC during that period eventually entered SSI. Because the SSI program is now serving a much larger population of families with young women and children than in the past, SSA might need to develop policies to better serve that group. The findings also suggest that the prereform period is a poor baseline against which to measure the impact of TANF, primarily because of the instability in programs and policies. PMID:12428519

  9. Recent Changes in Wisconsin Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 8. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrle, Jennifer; Seefeldt, Kristin; Snyder, Kathleen; McMahon, Pat

    Wisconsin's new welfare program was a dramatic departure from the old income maintenance system of welfare and moved beyond other states' work-based welfare reform programs. This report describes Wisconsin's approach to welfare reform, using data collected in 1999 and 2000 from state and local administrators, direct service providers, and, in some…

  10. How Welfare Reform Can Help or Hurt Children. Children and Welfare Reform Issue Brief 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Ann; Aber, J. Lawrence

    The issue brief describes the research base for the National Center for Children in Poverty's (NCCP's) framework to assess welfare changes from a children's perspective and points to lessons from current and past welfare-to-work evaluations. Many changes are now implemented in welfare policies due to new legislation titled the Personal…

  11. Welfare Reform and Information Management: Rewiring the Human Service System. Rockefeller Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Terrence A.

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 places vast new information burdens on state and local governments and the nonprofit and private sectors. Three classes of problems confront program and information managers implementing welfare reform: developing information infrastructure, redesigning applications to…

  12. The Structure of the TANF Block Grant. Welfare Reform and Beyond. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Kent

    The 1996 welfare reform legislation replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program with a new Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant. This new program has a fixed funding level that is not altered by inflation or economic cycles or caseload size. Individual states' shares are based on the amount they…

  13. Welfare reform and child care options for low-income families.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon L; Caspary, Gretchen L; Gauthier, Christiane A

    2002-01-01

    For the changes under welfare reform to positively affect children, the gains that mothers make from employment must lead to improvements in children's daily settings at home, in child care, at school, or in the community. This article focuses on the role child care can play in promoting the development of, and life opportunities for, low-income children. Key observations include: Total federal and state funding for child care for welfare and working poor families has increased dramatically since welfare reform, from $2.8 billion in 1995 to $8.0 billion in 2000. The majority of welfare mothers tend to rely on informal child care arrangements when first participating in welfare-to-work programs, but as they move off welfare and into more stable jobs, they are more likely to choose a center or a family child care home. Although children from poor households stand to benefit the most from high-quality care, they are less likely to be enrolled in high-quality programs than are children from affluent families, partly due to uneven access to high-quality options in their neighborhoods. Less than one-quarter of all eligible families use child care subsidies, and usage varies widely across states and local areas reflecting various barriers to access and scarcity of quality center-based care. The authors conclude that to achieve welfare reform's ultimate goal of breaking the cycle of intergenerational poverty and dependence on government benefits, welfare-to-work programs should promote learning and development among children in welfare and working poor families by increasing access to high-quality child care in low-income neighborhoods. PMID:11980041

  14. Adolescents' Formal Employment and School Enrollment: Effects of State Welfare Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Lingxin; Astone, Nan M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in state welfare policies in the reform era may affect adolescents through two mechanisms: A competing labor market hypothesis posits that stringent state welfare policies may reduce adolescent employment; and a signaling hypothesis posits that stringent welfare policies may promote enrollment. To test these hypotheses, we use a dynamic…

  15. Welfare reform and insurance coverage during the pregnancy period: implications for preconception and interconception care.

    PubMed

    Simon, Kosali Ilayperuma; Handler, Arden

    2008-01-01

    Welfare reform has had far-reaching consequences for unmarried women and their children, including effects on their health insurance status. Those who would be receiving cash assistance absent welfare reform may have lower rates of health insurance if they failed to enroll separately for Medicaid (whose rules did not tighten over this time period), or if the new employment they entered did not provide health insurance. Administrative difficulties involved in accessing Medicaid separately from cash welfare may also have been a factor in the short run. Our research uses data from a large and nationally representative household survey that tracks the same individuals over time, the Survey of Income and Program Participation, to examine the effect of welfare reform (AFDC waivers and TANF implementation) on the health insurance status of unmarried mothers with High School completion or less (the population whose health insurance we expect would be affected by the welfare reform, or the "treatment group") in the time period surrounding a particularly important life event, pregnancy. We look at the effects of these policies over the time period 1990--1999, as well as over the time period 1990--2003, to explore the short run vs. long run impact. Our "control group", those who should not be affected by welfare reform itself but are expected to be affected by other national or state events that are happening contemporaneously, consists of married mothers with High School completion or less; the insurance experience of these women is used to control for the other forces that might otherwise lead us to attribute too little or too large an effect to welfare reform. Given the importance of access to health care at all points in the period surrounding and during pregnancy, we look at how welfare reform has affected insurance status before conception, during pregnancy, and after the birth of the child. We find that the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) waivers of the 1990s as well as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families implementation have decreased access to Medicaid health insurance, increased access to employer health insurance, and led to a decrease in overall insurance, depending on the point in pregnancy considered and the time period of the study, with the largest effects found in coverage after the birth of a child. These findings have particular implications for the increasing emphasis on preconception and interconception care as a strategy to improve women's and infant's health. PMID:19059554

  16. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860

  17. Welfare Reform and Labor Force Exit by Young, Low-Skilled Single Males.

    PubMed

    Groves, Lincoln H

    2016-04-01

    While the labor market woes of low-skilled male workers in the United States over the past several decades have been well documented, the academic literature identifying causal factors leading to declines in labor force participation (LFP) by young, low-skilled males remains scant. To address this gap, I use the timing and characteristics of welfare-reform policies implemented during the 1990s and fixed-effects, instrumental variable regression modeling to show that policies seeking to increase LFP rates for low-skilled single mothers inadvertently led to labor force exit by young, low-skilled single males. Using data from the Current Population Survey and a bundle of work inducements enacted by states throughout the 1990s as exogenous variation in a quasi-experimental design, I find that the roughly 10 percentage point increase in LFP for low-skilled single mothers facilitated by welfare reform resulted in a statistically significant 2.8 percentage point decline in LFP for young, low-skilled single males. After conducting a series of robustness checks, I conclude that this result is driven entirely by white males, who responded to welfare-reform policies with a 3.7 percentage point decline in labor supply. Young black males, as well as other groups of potentially affected workers, appear to be uninfluenced by the labor supply response of less-educated single mothers to welfare reform. Impacts on young, single white males are large and economically significant, suggesting that nearly 150,000 males departed the formal labor market in response to directed welfare-reform policies. PMID:26912351

  18. For Better and for Worse: Welfare Reform and the Well-Being of Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, Ed.

    Although the 1996 welfare reform bill reduced welfare rolls, falling caseloads do not necessarily mean a better standard of living for families. This book examines the evidence and evaluates whether welfare reform has met one of its chief goals--improving the well-being of the nation's poor children. The chapters of the book are as follows: (1)…

  19. Welfare Reform and Black Women's Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, the United States Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, placing emphasis on individuals to take responsibility for separating themselves from governmental dependence by becoming economically self-sufficient through employment. Using a qualitative approach, this study explored the experiences

  20. Welfare Reform and Black Women's Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, the United States Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, placing emphasis on individuals to take responsibility for separating themselves from governmental dependence by becoming economically self-sufficient through employment. Using a qualitative approach, this study explored the experiences…

  1. Sharp Reduction in Black Child Poverty Due to Welfare Reform. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardue, Melissa G.

    This report asserts that welfare reform has been very successful in reducing child poverty. For a quarter-century prior to reform, black child poverty and poverty among single mothers remained virtually constant. Six years after reform, poverty among both groups dropped rapidly, reaching the lowest levels in U.S. history. Welfare rolls have…

  2. Impact of the 1996 Welfare Reform on Child and Family Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyunghee

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the impact of the 1996 Welfare Reform, based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using a sample of 1,681 single mothers living in poverty, this study compared the effects of economic well-being and home environment scores on their children during pre- and post-Welfare Reform years. Following the 1996…

  3. "Responding to Welfare Reform" Conference (Syracuse, NY, February 26, 1998). Conference Presentation Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Two Year Coll. Development Center.

    This document contains presentation summaries from a conference on "Responding to Welfare Reform." The first presentation, from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), deals with the impact of welfare reform on two-year colleges. It discusses the national impact of TANF, the results from a July 1997 AACC survey concerning community…

  4. The Largely Untold Story of Welfare Reform and the Human Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovitz, Mimi

    2005-01-01

    Welfare reform has placed the lives of clients, the jobs of social workers, and the mission of agencies in jeopardy. Based on interviews with senior staff at 107 nonprofit human services agencies, this article documents the largely untold story of how nonprofit agencies' workers responded to the impact of welfare reform on their clients, their…

  5. The Welfare Reform Debate: Implications for Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Helen

    Shifts in child care policies are on the horizon. Congress has passed landmark changes in federal welfare programs that will have a major impact on the demand for child care and require states to re-examine many of their current child care policies. This paper by the Children's Defense Fund is intended to help child care advocates understand the

  6. Reconsidering Schools and the American Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses her comparative study of the history of the welfare state in the United States, England, and France, she studies some of the usual features of the welfare state, which include important entitlement programs, such as social insurance, and protective labor legislation, but she also focuses on the development of

  7. Welfare Reform. Hearings on S. 869, S. 1001, S. 1511, before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (October 14 and 28, 1987). Part 2 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

    This series of hearings, the second of three on welfare reform, focuses on the following legislation: (1) the Family Security Act (S. 1511); (2) child support enforcement bills (S. 1001 and S. 869); and (3) the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Employment and Training Reorganization Act. Among the speakers and witnesses were the following:…

  8. Integration into the Social Demographic Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjerm, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the assumption that the social democratic welfare state is better than others in integrating immigrants into society, or at least that the comprehensive welfare state should compensate for the problems of labour market entry. A number of key indicators from The Living Conditions Survey are used to show that this assumption is…

  9. Child Welfare in 25 States: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Child Advocacy (DHEW/OHD), Washington, DC.

    This overview presents a summary of the major findings of a 25-state survey of child welfare service delivery systems, as studied by Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. in association with the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) during the period of November 1975 through February 1976. The initial products of the survey were 25 state profiles; these…

  10. Influencing Welfare and Child Care Reform: Strategies from Colorado and Washington. Child Care Action Campaign Issue Brief #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronkers, Lance

    State strategies used to build constituencies and expand the resource base of the child care systems they are developing will be an important contribution to the success of welfare reform. This report, from a 1996 Child Care Action Campaign national audioconference, describes the innovative strategies used to strengthen leadership, expand…

  11. Instrumental Variable Estimates of the Labor Market Spillover Effects of Welfare Reform. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    The labor market spillover effects of welfare reform were estimated by using models that pool time-series and cross-section data from the Current Population Survey on the state-year cell means of wages, employment, and other labor market outcomes for various demographic groups. The labor market outcomes in question are dependent variables that are…

  12. State Welfare Rules, TANF Exits, and Geographic Context: Does Place Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Shelley K.

    2008-01-01

    This research compares the likelihood of exiting TANF with and without employment and the effects of important state TANF rules on welfare exits in more disadvantaged (large Rustbelt cities and poor southern nonmetro) and less disadvantaged (other metro and other nonmetro) areas during the 1996-2003 post-welfare reform period. Hierarchical…

  13. State Welfare Rules, TANF Exits, and Geographic Context: Does Place Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Shelley K.

    2008-01-01

    This research compares the likelihood of exiting TANF with and without employment and the effects of important state TANF rules on welfare exits in more disadvantaged (large Rustbelt cities and poor southern nonmetro) and less disadvantaged (other metro and other nonmetro) areas during the 1996-2003 post-welfare reform period. Hierarchical

  14. Progressing beyond the Welfare State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Lee; Harkavy, Ira

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines a neo-Deweyan strategy to transform American public schools into genuine community schools that function as central agencies for the development of a democratic welfare society. John Dewey's thesis was that a well-functioning school system constitutes the necessary, though not sufficient, condition for a well-functioning…

  15. Doing Effective Evaluations: A Case Study of Family Empowerment Due to Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnagan, Tim; Duncan, Stephen F.; Paul, Lynn

    2000-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive evaluation framework and applies it to a family empowerment program in Montana that was developed as an aspect of welfare reform. The framework encompasses seven areas from developing objectives to developing a sound conceptual framework. (SLD)

  16. Constructing deservingness: federal welfare reform, supplemental security income, and elderly immigrants.

    PubMed

    Yoo, G J

    2001-01-01

    On August 22, 1996, President Clinton signed the welfare reform law that ended eligibility for all immigrants to federal means tested entitlements. Poor elderly immigrants on Supplemental Security Income were specifically targeted. This article documents how the print media responded to these policy changes. The following are the major research questions: (1) How were older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income portrayed in the print media before and after federal welfare reform? (2) Who was involved in the print media coverage of older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income before and after federal welfare reform? (3) What types of statements were made by those involved in the print media coverage of older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income, before and after federal welfare reform? The approach used was an in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles from major U.S. newspapers. The findings demonstrate that older immigrants were constructed as "undeserving" in news articles prior to the passage of the federal welfare reform bill. However, after the passage of the federal welfare reform bill the coverage of older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income started to change, and older immigrants were portrayed as "deserving." In advancing aging policy for poor, vulnerable elderly, such as elderly immigrants, advocates, health and social service providers can play an influential role in bringing their voices to the print media. PMID:12418380

  17. The Lived Experience of Welfare Reform in Drug-Using Welfare-Needy Households in Inner-City New York

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Welfare reform has transformed a needs-based family income support into temporary assistance for persons entering the workforce. This paper uses observations from an ethnographic study covering the period from 1995–2001 to examine the impact on drug-using welfare-needy households in inner-city New York. The analysis suggests that studies may underestimate the extent to which substance use is associated with welfare problems. Nearly all of these already distressed households lost their AFDC/TANF benefits, had difficulty with work programs, and were having more difficulty covering expenses. The conclusion highlights ways to better study this population and policy initiatives that could help them reform their impoverished lives for themselves and their children. PMID:25382890

  18. The Lived Experience of Welfare Reform in Drug-Using Welfare-Needy Households in Inner-City New York.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D

    2003-09-01

    Welfare reform has transformed a needs-based family income support into temporary assistance for persons entering the workforce. This paper uses observations from an ethnographic study covering the period from 1995-2001 to examine the impact on drug-using welfare-needy households in inner-city New York. The analysis suggests that studies may underestimate the extent to which substance use is associated with welfare problems. Nearly all of these already distressed households lost their AFDC/TANF benefits, had difficulty with work programs, and were having more difficulty covering expenses. The conclusion highlights ways to better study this population and policy initiatives that could help them reform their impoverished lives for themselves and their children. PMID:25382890

  19. Reforming Welfare: What Does It Mean for Rural Areas? Issues in Food Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitener, Leslie A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Weber, Bruce A.

    In May 2000, a conference on the rural dimensions of welfare reform and food assistance policy brought together researchers, welfare policy experts, and rural scholars. This issue brief summarizes some major findings of the conference and suggests future policy options to better address the differing needs of rural and urban families. Between 1994…

  20. Whose Job Is It? Employers' Views on Welfare Reform. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Greg; Shelton, Ellen; Stevens, Amy Bush; Nelson-Christinedaughter, Justine; Roy, Corinna; Heineman, June

    A total of 130 Minnesota employers who had participated in local welfare-to-work partnerships with social service agencies and other community members were interviewed by telephone for their views on welfare reform. (This nonrandom sample was selected by partnership staff.) Differences among rural and urban/suburban employers were examined, and

  1. Three-Year Impacts of Connecticut's Jobs First Welfare Reform Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendra, Richard; Michalopoulos, Charles; Bloom, Dan

    The Connecticut Jobs First welfare reform initiative, implemented statewide in 1996, includes a 21-month time limit on cash assistance, generous financial work incentives, and other features. Its primary goal is to reduce welfare use and increase self-sufficiency through work. To facilitate evaluation of the program, between January 1996 and…

  2. The Lazy Revolutionary's Guide to the Prospects for Reforming Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David

    1991-01-01

    Efforts to revolutionize the child welfare system must consider social trends and forces. Encouraging trends that child welfare reformers might be able to harness include biotechnology, availability of medical care, gender equality, awareness of parenting skills, and service sector growth. Discouraging trends include increasing rate of divorce and…

  3. Corporate Welfare: The Third Stage of Welfare in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    1986-01-01

    Corporate involvement in social welfare represents a third stage in the evolution of welfare institutions in the United States, following the voluntary sector and the welfare state. Examining health and welfare corporations reveals rapid growth and consolidation in nursing homes, hospital management, health maintenance organizations, child care,…

  4. The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Education, Tax Reform, Crime Control, Welfare Reform, Health Care Reform. Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

    The sixth annual survey conducted by the Rural Services Institute examined the opinions of Pennsylvania residents on crime control, welfare reform, smoking, and education reform proposals. Sixty percent of respondents believed that the most urgent issue facing Pennsylvania was violent crime and strongly supported measures to reduce the…

  5. Welfare state regimes and population health: integrating the East Asian welfare states.

    PubMed

    Abdul Karim, Syahirah; Eikemo, Terje A; Bambra, Clare

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that population health varies significantly by welfare state regime. However, these studies have focused exclusively on the welfare states of Europe, North America and Australasia. This focus ignores the existence of welfare states in other parts of the world, specifically in East Asia. This study therefore investigates whether the association between population health (Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth) and welfare state regimes is still valid when the welfare states of East Asia are added into the analysis. It also examines whether population health is worse in the East Asian welfare states. Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth as well as GDP per capita and social and health expenditures as a percentage of GDP were examined in 30 welfare states, categorised into six different regimes (Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern, Eastern European and East Asian). ANOVA analysis showed significant differences by welfare state regime in the magnitude of IMR, LE, SE, HE and GDP per capita. However, when controlling for GDP per capita in the ANCOVA analyses, only Life Expectancy (R(2)=0.58, adjusted R(2)=0.47, p<0.05) and Social Expenditure (R(2)=0.70, adjusted R(2)=0.61, p<0.05) differed significantly by welfare state regime. 47% of the variation in Life Expectancy was explained by welfare state regime type. Further, the East Asian welfare states did not have the worst health outcomes. The study concludes by highlighting the need to expand comparative health analysis both in terms of the range of countries examined and also in terms of incorporating other societal and public health factors-towards a 'public health regime' analysis. PMID:19748149

  6. Deterioration of Child Welfare Families under Conditions of Welfare Reform. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Kathleen; Guo, Shenyang; Shafran, Robert D.; Pearlmutter, Susan

    At the time the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (P. L. 104-193) was being debated, some child welfare advocates raised the concern that its effect on families at high risk of involvement in the child welfare system or on families already involved in the child welfare system would be negative. As the debate…

  7. Learnfare! How To Implement a Mandatory Stay-in-School Program for Teenage Parents on Welfare. ReWORKing Welfare. Technical Assistance for States and Localities: A How-to Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, David A.; Bos, Johannes M.

    This how-to guide, which is designed to assist state and local welfare reform efforts, explains how to design, implement, and manage mandatory stay-in-school (learnfare) programs for teenage parents on welfare. The following topics are discussed in the guide's five chapters: the importance of focusing on teen parents on welfare, Ohio's Learning,…

  8. Welfare Reform when Recipients Are Forward-Looking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    By studying recipients of aid under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) welfare scheme, the effect of time limits of welfare schemes on forward looking recipients is assessed using a discrete-choice dynamic programming framework model. The policy simulations for the preferred specification of utility reveal that two year time limits

  9. Nonmetro Labor Markets in the Era of Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Rural job growth remains behind that of metro areas, hindering efforts to move welfare recipients into successful employment. Those most in need of public assistance have less education, lower earnings, and higher unemployment than average. Welfare recipients are concentrated in rural areas marked by chronic economic distress and low-skilled,…

  10. Depression and Welfare Reform: From Barriers to Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Dan A.; Lee, Bong Joo; Altenbernd, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors identify ways to facilitate work among current and recent welfare recipients with mental illness. Their analysis assesses the relationship between a particular mental illness, depression, and labor force involvement in a statewide sample of welfare recipients, identifies the factors that promote work for those with depression, and

  11. In welfare reform's wake, lawmakers take multifaceted approach to teen pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaeser, L

    1997-09-01

    In response to the 1996 US federal welfare reform law, states have prioritized legislative initiatives to reduce the incidence of adolescent pregnancy. By 1994, 31 states and the District of Columbia already had adolescent pregnancy prevention initiative in place, with most granting financial support to community-based efforts, conducting media or outreach campaigns, sponsoring education-related activities, and providing contraceptive services. Additional federal funding to reduce out-of-wedlock births to women on welfare has been almost exclusively channeled by states into programs for adolescents. The five states that achieve the largest decreases in numbers of illegitimate births without increasing numbers of abortions will receive a bonus of $20-25 million from the federal government. Louisiana and Arizona enacted measures that appear to respond to this incentive. In Louisiana, the initiative bonus would be passed on to the ten parishes with the most success, and Arizona allocated its entire federal portion of the new welfare block grant to the Department of Health for programs to decrease pregnancy without increasing abortion rates. While the federal government's program emphasizes proscriptive measures, such as abstinence-only education, a number of states have begun, continued, or expanded comprehensive programs to prevent adolescent pregnancy. These include Arkansas, Rhode Island, Iowa, Mississippi, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Efforts were made to improve public awareness about adolescent pregnancy in Florida, Louisiana, and Pennsylvania. Broad-based bills fell to gubernatorial vetos in California and South Carolina, and a measure to create an independent commission to develop a state plan to reduce adolescent pregnancy rates is pending in Massachusetts. PMID:12292777

  12. The welfare state, class, and gender.

    PubMed

    Berlinguer, G

    1992-01-01

    If we compare the welfare state countries with others, from the point of view of both health and health services, the crisis concerns primarily the second group of countries. Nevertheless, difficulties arise also for welfare state policies. The problem is how to respond to neoconservative attacks on social and health rights, and how to change the bureaucratic and medicalized bias of the welfare state. The "golden era" of social insurance and health services, conceived as free access to funds to cope with all the growing needs of the population, is over. Limitations, controls, and priorities have to be established. In Italy and similar countries, the tendency is toward restricting health care for those who have greater needs, cutting funds for prevention, and creating greater inequalities. It is clear that the state must intervene to reduce social inequalities, but at the same time some existing differences (sexual, cultural, ethnic) have an intrinsic value that must be recognized. A policy of free-choice welfare is useful, and has nothing to do with the selective measures that are being introduced. Moreover, a key point has become the relationship between class and gender. The working class continues to be exploited, but new phenomena arise, connected with production and social reproduction and not limited to this sphere. It is true that gender includes social classes, but no social class may represent both sexes, or different ethnic groups, or gender itself. PMID:1735627

  13. Welfare policymaking and intersections of race, ethnicity, and gender in U.S. state legislatures.

    PubMed

    Reingold, Beth; Smith, Adrienne R

    2012-01-01

    Welfare policy in the American states has been shaped profoundly by race, ethnicity, and representation. Does gender matter as well? Focusing on state welfare reform in the mid-1990s, we test hypotheses derived from two alternative approaches to incorporating gender into the study of representation and welfare policymaking. An additive approach, which assumes gender and race/ethnicity are distinct and independent, suggests that female state legislatorsregardless of race/ethnicitywill mitigate the more restrictive and punitive aspects of welfare reform, much like their African American and Latino counterparts do. In contrast, an intersectional approach, which highlights the overlapping and interdependent nature of gender and race/ethnicity, suggests that legislative women of color will have the strongest countervailing effect on state welfare reformstronger than that of other women or men of color. Our empirical analyses suggest an intersectional approach yields a more accurate understanding of gender, race/ethnicity, and welfare politics in the states. PMID:22400145

  14. Effects of welfare reform on teenage parents and their children.

    PubMed

    Aber, J L; Brooks-Gunn, J; Maynard, R A

    1995-01-01

    A key question in welfare policy concerns the potential that welfare-to-work programs have to develop in teenage parents the motivation and skills to provide financially for themselves and their children. The Teenage Parent Welfare Demonstration was a major experiment initiated in 1986 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and evaluated by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., to test the impact of a welfare-to-work program for teenage parents which anticipated many features of the federal Job Opportunities and Basic Skills training program later established in the Family Support Act of 1988. Teenage mothers entering the welfare system were randomly assigned to a regular services group or to an enhanced services group. Teen mothers in the enhanced services group faced mandatory school and work requirements enforced by financial sanctions and received support services such as case management, parenting workshops, child care assistance, and education and training opportunities. This article reviews the policy context in which the Teenage Parent Welfare Demonstration was designed and implemented, and describes how participation in the enhanced services group affected the teen mothers as adults and as parents. Results showed that, for the reasonable aggregate annual cost of $2,400 per participant, the program increased the 'teenagers' attendance at school and job training programs, and modestly increased the proportion who were employed to 48%, compared with 43% among those receiving regular welfare services. As the participants' earnings from employment increased, their welfare grants shrank. Because these changes offset each other, the program did not improve the economic well-being of the families, although fewer tax dollars were needed to support them. The program did not discourage further childbearing, however, or affect either the parenting behavior of the young women or the development of their children, although the mothers who were most engaged in self-sufficiency activities were more positive and supportive when playing with their children. The Teenage Parent Welfare Demonstration experience revealed that the problems faced by teenage parents vary widely, making tailored services necessary. The evaluation results suggest that supportive, mandatory welfare-to-work interventions need not harm parents or their children in the short term, and that their modest positive effects on the financial independence of the teenage mothers may yield long-term rewards. PMID:8528688

  15. The New Welfare Law and Vulnerable Families: Implications for Child Welfare/Child Protection Systems. Children and Welfare Reform Issue Brief 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knitzer, Jane; Bernard, Stanley

    This report examines the potential impact of federal welfare legislation, Public Law 104-193, The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, on vulnerable families already in or at risk of entering the child welfare/child protection systems. The report includes an overview of the challenges states face; questions for state…

  16. Welfare-Reform Agreement Creates a New Role, and Problems, for Colleges and Trade Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaschik, Scott

    1988-01-01

    An overhaul of the welfare system, under which welfare recipients may enroll in job-training programs at community colleges and for-profit trade schools, is discussed. The new bill would provide money to the states for education and job training. The program is designed to make welfare a temporary support system. (MLW)

  17. Employment and Welfare Reform in the National Survey of America's Families. Discussion Papers. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprest, Pamela; Wissoker, Douglas

    Data from the National Survey of America's Families (NSAF) in 13 states for 1997 and 1999 was used to study how welfare reform policies, mandated by the 1996 passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, affected employment of single mothers with children. The states were Alabama, California, Colorado, Florida,…

  18. Welfare Reform and Older Immigrants: Food Stamp Program Participation and Food Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Yunju; Jung, Hyo Jin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The welfare reform bill of 1996 severely constrained noncitizens' eligibility for the Food Stamp Program (FSP). This study examined the effects of eligibility restrictions on older immigrants' FSP participation and food insecurity. We paid special attention to household composition and household eligibility as well as older immigrants'

  19. Do Social Policy Reforms Have Different Impacts on Employment and Welfare Use as Economic Conditions Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses March Current Population Survey data from 1985 to 2004 to explore whether social policy reforms implemented throughout the 1990s have different impacts on employment and welfare use depending on economic conditions, a topic with important policy implications but which has received little attention from researchers. I find evidence…

  20. Hunger and the Reform of Welfare: A Question of Nutritional Adequacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    The purpose of this report is to review the history of the commitment to ensure nutritional adequacy for all American families during the last several years, and to study the relationship between proposed welfare reform measures and that commitment to nutritional adequacy. A specific proposal, H.R.1, eliminates food stamps, the Nation's primary…

  1. Welfare Reform and Older Immigrants: Food Stamp Program Participation and Food Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Yunju; Jung, Hyo Jin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The welfare reform bill of 1996 severely constrained noncitizens' eligibility for the Food Stamp Program (FSP). This study examined the effects of eligibility restrictions on older immigrants' FSP participation and food insecurity. We paid special attention to household composition and household eligibility as well as older immigrants'…

  2. THREE CITIES STUDY OF WELFARE REFORM AND THE WELL-BEING OF CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies the effects of the 1996 Welfare Reform Bill on children in three Northeastern, Southwestern and Midwestern cities, Boston, San Antonio, and Chicago, over a four-year period. The project also addresses the broader issue of the effects of parental time and money resources o...

  3. Is Welfare Reform Responsible for Low Skilled Women's Declining Health Insurance Coverage in the 1990s?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeire, Thomas; Levine, Judith A.; Levy, Helen

    2006-01-01

    We use data from the 1989-2001 March Supplements to the Current Population Survey to determine whether welfare reform contributed to declines in health insurance coverage experienced by low-skilled women. Between 1988 and 2000, women with less than a high school education experienced an 8.0 percentage point decline in the probability of having…

  4. Vocational Education Practices That Support Welfare Reform: A Compendium of Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC.

    This report focuses on key findings, recommendations, and cross-site analysis of a study of vocational education practices that support welfare reform by preparing individuals for workforce entry. An introduction describes study methodology. Chapter 2 provides an overview of differences between vocational education under the Carl D. Perkins…

  5. Do Social Policy Reforms Have Different Impacts on Employment and Welfare Use as Economic Conditions Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses March Current Population Survey data from 1985 to 2004 to explore whether social policy reforms implemented throughout the 1990s have different impacts on employment and welfare use depending on economic conditions, a topic with important policy implications but which has received little attention from researchers. I find evidence

  6. FYI: Reforming Social Welfare Policy...Indiana's Children...Lead Poisoning Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes results of reports and resources concerning the reform of social welfare policy. Focuses on a profile of Indiana children, hospital policies and programs designed to meet the psychosocial needs of hospitalized children and their families, a senior center/latchkey program, and lead poisoning prevention. (BB)

  7. Creating New Hope: Implementation of a Program To Reduce Poverty and Reform Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Thomas; Doolittle, Fred; Fellerath, Veronica; Greenberg, David H.; Hollister, Robinson G., Jr.; Wiseman, Michael

    The New Hope Project in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was developed to reduce poverty and reform welfare by providing adults who are willing to work least 30 hours per week with the following: help obtaining a job, including time-limited, minimum wage community service jobs (CSJ) if full-time employment was not otherwise available; a monthly earnings…

  8. Changing work ethic and welfare dependence through welfare reform. The 100-hour rule waiver experiment for AFDC-U.

    PubMed

    Lewin, A C

    2001-06-01

    Assumptions about welfare dependency and work are examined in a randomized experiment that tested the impact of the 100-hour rule waiver for two-parent welfare families: Aid to Families with Dependent Children-Unemployed (AFDC-U). The 100-hour rule was waived for the experiment group, allowing the primary wage earners in these families to work more than 100 hours a month without losing welfare eligibility. The analysis uses county administrative data, unemployment insurance records, and Medicaid data, and compares regression adjusted least squares means for the control and experiment group. The results from the impact analysis indicate that waiving the 100-hour rule has no effect on primary wage earners' work activity and earnings. The 100-hour rule waiver also has little effect on time on aid and AFDC-U payments, and does not have an effect in reducing marital dissolution. The results cast doubts about the validity of the assumptions underlying some of the recent welfare reform initiatives. PMID:11393872

  9. The largely untold story of welfare reform and the human services.

    PubMed

    Abramovitz, Mimi

    2005-04-01

    Welfare reform has placed the lives of clients, the jobs of social workers, and the mission of agencies in jeopardy. Based on interviews with senior staff at 107 nonprofit human services agencies, this article documents the largely untold story of how nonprofit agencies' workers responded to the impact of welfare reform on their clients, their jobs, and the delivery of services. Workers reported less time for social services because of welfare-related regulations, penalties, work mandates, crises, and paper work. They also reported more service dilemmas including less control of the job, more ethical conflicts, less efficacy, and increased burn-out. Even so, workers felt that they were making a difference, and agencies indicated increased advocacy. Relying heavily on the voice of social workers, the article illuminates the experiences and feelings of agency staff as they try to do their best for clients in difficult times. PMID:15853194

  10. 45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms. 148.128 Section 148.128 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Requirements Relating to Access and...

  11. Improving Child Welfare Agency Performance through Fiscal Reforms: An Assessment of Recent Proposals. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geen, Rob

    In state fiscal year (SFY) 2000, states expended at least $20 billion on child welfare services, 20 percent more than in SFY 1998. This increase occurred despite the fact that the number of children reported as abused and neglected and the number of children in foster care declined. This suggests that not only are child welfare agencies spending…

  12. Long-Term Implications of Welfare Reform for the Development of Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Cherlin, Andrew J.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Fomby, Paula; Ribar, David C.; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2011-01-01

    We draw upon the 3-wave longitudinal dataset called Welfare Children and Families: A Three-City Study to examine the long-term implications for adolescents and young adults (N=783) of mothers’ welfare receipt and labor force participation from 1999 to 2005. In general, changes in mothers’ work and welfare patterns were not associated with deterioration or improvement in youth development (ages 16 to 20 years at wave 3). The few significant associations suggested that youth whose mothers increased employment (net of welfare participation) were more likely to show declines in serious behavior problems and delinquency compared to youth whose mothers were unemployed or employed part-time during the study period. Welfare roll exits (controlling for employment experiences) were unrelated to adolescent and young adult outcomes. Mothers’ employment transitions were linked to improvements in household income and mothers’ self esteem in addition to reductions in financial strain and their own illegal activities. However, these associations did not explain the relation between maternal employment and youths’ improved behavior. These results do not support the predictions of either the supporters or the opponents of welfare reform, an outcome we discuss. PMID:21966077

  13. Impediments to employment under welfare reform: the importance of physical health and psychosocial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, S M; Kerker, B D

    2001-01-01

    The impact of Connecticut's welfare reform program (Jobs First), physical and mental health status, personal resources and household violence on employment was examined 18 months after women were randomized to either the welfare reform or the older AFDC program. Multivariate analyses showed that although the Jobs First program was statistically significantly associated with women having worked sometime since assignment to the welfare reform program, the Jobs First program was not associated with women currently working or having worked at some point but no longer working. Rather, women were more likely to be working at the 18 month interview if they reported frequent help from their social networks (OR = 1.52; p = .009), they had at least a high school degree (OR = 1.65; p =.002) and they were in good physical health (OR = 3.41; p = .009). Women who had worked sometime since random assignment but were no longer working at the 18 month interview reported few social contacts (OR = 1.33; p = .042), did not pay rent or own their own homes (OR = 6.94; p = .025), reported receiving AFDC for 2 years or more prior to randomization (OR = 1.83; p = .035) and reported high levels of household violence (OR = 1.52; p = .035). The need for attention to be focused on the importance of health problems, household violence and personal resources for the successful transitioning from public income support to employment is discussed. PMID:11459365

  14. Welfare Reform and Community Colleges: A Policy and Research Context. MDRC Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Thomas; Matus-Grossman, Lisa; Hamilton, Gayle

    This paper reports on the state of welfare after the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) passed by Congress in 1996. The National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS) is a federally initiated study that explores the questions of what works best and for whom. NEWWS evaluated seven areas across the…

  15. Gaining Ground, Moving Up: The Change in the Economic Status of Single Mothers under Welfare Reform. Civic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, June; Hill, M. Anne

    This study is a follow-up of a 2001 study that examined changes in the welfare and work participation of single mothers. This study addresses whether single mothers earn enough to compensate for loss of benefits under welfare reform and the extent to which these women have access to income from sources other than their own earnings. Data come from…

  16. Delivering Health Care and Mental Health Care Services to Children in Family Foster Care after Welfare and Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Mark D.; Freundlich, Madelyn; Battistelli, Ellen S.; Kaufman, Neal D.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the essential features of a health care system that can meet the special needs of children in out-of-home care. Discusses some of the major recent changes brought about by welfare and health care reform. Notes that it remains to be seen whether the quality of services will improve as a result of these reforms. (Author)

  17. Experimental evidence of welfare reform impact on clinical anxiety and depression levels among poor women.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, Radha; Camasso, Michael J; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we employ a classical experiment to determine if welfare reform causes poor women to experience increased levels of clinical anxiety and depression. We organize our analyses around the insights provided by lifestyle change and ecosocial theories of illness. Our data come from the New Jersey Family Development Program (FDP), one of the most highly publicized welfare experiments in the U.S. A sample of 8393 women was randomly assigned into two groups, one which stressed welfare-to-work and the other which offered traditional welfare benefits. These women were followed from 1992 through 1996 and information on clinical diagnoses was collected quarterly from physician treatment claims to the government Medicaid program. Our intention-to-treat estimates show that for short-term welfare recipients FDP decreased the prevalence of anxiety by 40% and increased depression by 8%. For black women both anxiety and depression diagnoses declined while Hispanic women experienced a 68% increase in depression. We discuss several public policy implications which arise from our work. PMID:20434251

  18. Relationship of Paternity Status, Welfare Reform Period, and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Infant Mortality.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Emmanuel M; Cortright, Alicia L; Michalski, Karen

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of paternity status, welfare reform period, and racial/ethnic disparities in infant mortality. The study used retrospective analysis of birth outcomes data from singleton birth/infant death data in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, from 1993 to 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between paternity status, welfare reform period, and infant mortality, adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics. Data consisted of almost 185,000 singleton live births and 1,739 infant deaths. Although unmarried women with no father on record made up about 32% of the live births, they accounted for over two thirds of the infant deaths compared with married women with established paternity who made up 39% of live births but had about a quarter of infant deaths. After adjustments, any form of paternity establishment was protective against infant mortality across all racial/ethnic groups. Unmarried women with no father on record had twice to triple the odds of infant mortality among all racial/ethnic groups. The likelihood of infant mortality was only significantly greater for African American women in the postwelfare (1999-2004; odds ratio = 1.27; 95% confidence interval = 1.10-1.46) period compared with the 1993 to 1998 period. Study findings suggest that any form of paternity establishment may have protective effect against infant mortality. Welfare reform changes may have reduced some of the protection against infant mortality among unmarried African American women that was present before the welfare legislation. Policies and programs that promote or support increased paternal involvement and establishment of paternity may improve birth outcomes and help reduce infant mortality. PMID:25061086

  19. Elderly immigrants and the saga of welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Binstock, R H; Jean-Baptiste, R

    1999-01-01

    In 1996 Congress enacted legislation which, among other things, substantially cut off Supplemental Security Income payments and food stamps for present and future legal alien residents of the United States, and made it much harder for them to qualify for Medicaid. For low-income elderly immigrants, who constituted more than two-thirds of aliens on SSI, the adverse and potential impacts were substantial in terms of economic hardship and access to health care. In the months that followed, their plight received significant attention from the media and state and local politicians who now had greater economic and social responsibilities thrust upon them. One year later, Congress restored SSI benefits only for aliens who been receiving them before August 22, 1996 and made it easier for them to qualify for Medicaid. Food stamp benefits, however, were not restored. The limited scope of this restoration of benefits means that many of today's older immigrants, as well as those in the future, will be faced with serious problems in meeting their basic income and health care needs. PMID:16228713

  20. Health Behaviors, Mental Health, and Health Care Utilization Among Single Mothers After Welfare Reforms in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Rehkopf, David H; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Glymour, M Maria; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-03-15

    We studied the health of low-income US women affected by the largest social policy change in recent US history: the 1996 welfare reforms. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1993-2012), we performed 2 types of analysis. First, we used difference-in-difference-in-differences analyses to estimate associations between welfare reforms and health outcomes among the most affected women (single mothers aged 18-64 years in 1997; n = 219,469) compared with less affected women (married mothers, single nonmothers, and married nonmothers of the same age range in 1997; n = 2,422,265). We also used a synthetic control approach in which we constructed a more ideal control group for single mothers by weighting outcomes among the less affected groups to match pre-reform outcomes among single mothers. In both specifications, the group most affected by welfare reforms (single mothers) experienced worse health outcomes than comparison groups less affected by the reforms. For example, the reforms were associated with at least a 4.0-percentage-point increase in binge drinking (95% confidence interval: 0.9, 7.0) and a 2.4-percentage-point decrease in the probability of being able to afford medical care (95% confidence interval: 0.1, 4.8) after controlling for age, educational level, and health care insurance status. Although the reforms were applauded for reducing welfare dependency, they may have adversely affected health. PMID:26946395

  1. Sponsored Privatization of Schooling in a Welfare State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Michael

    This paper examines the emergence of privatization in Israel's educational system. The first part provides an overview of the provision of educational services in a welfare state. The second part describes educational privatization in a welfare state, and the third part presents examples of two forms of privatization that have emerged in the…

  2. Methodology and estimation of the welfare impact of energy reforms on households in Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klytchnikova, Irina

    This dissertation develops a new approach that enables policy-makers to analyze welfare gains from improvements in the quality of infrastructure services in developing countries where data are limited and supply is subject to interruptions. An application of the proposed model in the former Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan demonstrates how this approach can be used in welfare assessment of energy sector reforms. The planned reforms in Azerbaijan include a set of measures that will result in a significant improvement in supply reliability, accompanied by a significant increase in the prices of energy services so that they reach the cost recovery level. Currently, households in rural areas receive electricity and gas for only a few hours a day because of a severe deterioration of the energy infrastructure following the collapse of the Soviet Union. The reforms that have recently been initiated will have far-reaching poverty and distributional consequences for the country as they result in an improvement in supply reliability and an increase in energy prices. The new model of intermittent supply developed in this dissertation is based on the household production function approach and draws on previous research in the energy reliability literature. Since modern energy sources (network gas and electricity) in Azerbaijan are cleaner and cheaper than the traditional fuels (fuel wood, etc.), households choose modern fuels whenever they are available. During outages, they rely on traditional fuels. Theoretical welfare measures are derived from a system of fuel demands that takes into account the intermittent availability of energy sources. The model is estimated with the data from the Azerbaijan Household Energy Survey, implemented by the World Bank in December 2003/January 2004. This survey includes an innovative contingent behavior module in which the respondents were asked about their energy consumption patterns in specified reform scenarios. Estimation results strongly indicate that households in the areas with poor supply quality have a high willingness to pay for reliability improvements. However, a relatively small group of households may incur substantial welfare losses from an electricity price increase even when it is combined with a partial reliability improvement. Unlike an earlier assessment of the same reforms in Azerbaijan, analysis in this dissertation clearly shows that targeted investments in improving service reliability may be the best way to mitigate adverse welfare consequences of electricity price increases. Hence, policymakers should focus their attention on ensuring that quality improvements are a central component of power sector reforms. Survey evidence also shows that, although households may incur sizable welfare losses from indoor air pollution when they rely on traditional fuels, they do not recognize indoor air pollution as a factor contributing to the high incidence of respiratory illness among fuel wood users. Therefore, benefits may be greater if policy interventions that improve the reliability of modern energy sources are combined with an information campaign about the adverse health effects of fuel wood use. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  3. Rethinking the western construction of the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Walker, A; Wong, C K

    1996-01-01

    This article employs case studies of China and Hong Kong to question the western ethnocentric construction of the welfare state that predominates in comparative social policy research. The authors argue that welfare regimes, and particularly the "welfare state," have been constructed as capitalist-democratic projects and that this has the damaging effect of excluding from analyses not only several advanced capitalist societies in the Asian-Pacific area but also the world's most populous country. If welfare state regimes can only coexist with western political democracies, then China and Hong Kong are excluded automatically. A similar result occurs if the traditional social administration approach is adopted whereby a "welfare state" is defined in terms only of direct state provision. The authors argue that such assumptions are untenable if state welfare is to be analyzed as a universal phenomenon. Instead of being trapped within an ethnocentric welfare statism, what social policy requires is a global political economy perspective that facilitates comparisons of the meaning of welfare and the state's role in producing it north, south, east and west. PMID:8932602

  4. State tort reforms and hospital malpractice costs.

    PubMed

    Ellington, Charles R; Dodoo, Martey; Phillips, Robert; Szabat, Ronald; Green, Larry; Bullock, Kim

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relation between state medical liability reform measures, hospital malpractice costs, and hospital solvency. It suggests that state malpractice caps are desirable but not essential for improved hospital financial solvency or viability. PMID:20446990

  5. State Reforms Threaten Remote Community Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Angela M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an ethnographic study of administrators, faculty, parents and community members in one remote Michigan school district. The purpose of the study is to describe and explain how Michigan's educational reform perspective--arguably similar to the education reform perspectives of many states--encountered the educational…

  6. Accessibility and Clarity of State Child Welfare Agency Mission Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Monique; Folaron, Gail

    2005-01-01

    The authors reviewed 40 mission statements guiding U.S. public child welfare practice for accessibility, clarity, and values. Nine of the 40 state-administered child welfare agencies had not posted their missions on the Web as of October 2002, and 30 mission statements required a 12th-grade or college reading level for easy comprehension. The…

  7. The Role of European Welfare States in Explaining Resources Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muffels, Ruud; Fouarge, Didier

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper in this journal (Headey et al., 2000) a comparison was made between three so-called 'best cases' of welfare regime types, the 'Liberal' US, 'the 'Corporatist' Germany and the 'Social-Democratic' Netherlands. The main conclusion was that the Social-Democratic welfare state performed best on nearly all social and economic…

  8. Measuring Is Believing! Improving Conventional Indicators of Welfare State Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon; Alaez-Aller, Ricardo; Diaz-de-Basurto, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Welfare effort (social spending as a percentage of GDP) has conventionally been the preferred measure for comparisons in space and time of the level of development of welfare states. However, a wide variety of other measuring systems are potentially available in this field, because there are different sources and different methods for calculating…

  9. 77 FR 69629 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families... of allotment percentages for States under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State... IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program. Under section 423(a), the...

  10. 76 FR 9788 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families... Biennial publication of allotment percentages for States under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare... the Title IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program. Under section 423(a),...

  11. The preferred role and perceived performance of the welfare state: European welfare attitudes from a multidimensional perspective.

    PubMed

    Roosma, Femke; van Oorschot, Wim; Gelissen, John

    2014-03-01

    Welfare state support has two core dimensions: attitudes about what the welfare state should do and beliefs about its actual performance. People can combine any position on one dimension with any position on the other, yielding four opinion clusters: people can combine preferences for a relatively strong role of the welfare state with a perception of a relatively low or high welfare state performance; likewise, people preferring a small role of the welfare state can perceive a high or low performing welfare state. We apply Latent Class Factor Analysis to data of 22 European countries from the 2008/9 European Social Survey. We find that each of the four clusters contains a substantial proportion of respondents that differs between welfare regimes. In addition, cluster membership is also related to covariates that measure people's structural positions and ideological preferences. PMID:24468444

  12. Toward State Tax Reform: Lessons from State Tax Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Therese J.; Rio, Jessica E.

    This paper reviews recent state tax-commission recommendations in selected states and identifies critical factors for the success of state tax-reform commissions. The paper focuses on factors linked to the process of forming a commission and generating the necessary consensus to enact tough reforms. It describes and compares comprehensive studies…

  13. Welfare Reform in a Hard Place: The West Virginia Experience. Rockefeller Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plein, L. Christopher

    Structured work and training activities for welfare recipients in West Virginia began in 1962 when the state's entire caseload of two-parent families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children was enrolled in mandatory work and training activities. In 1980s-1990s, the Community Work Experience Program became an important tool in…

  14. Welfare Reform in a Hard Place: The West Virginia Experience. Rockefeller Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plein, L. Christopher

    Structured work and training activities for welfare recipients in West Virginia began in 1962 when the state's entire caseload of two-parent families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children was enrolled in mandatory work and training activities. In 1980s-1990s, the Community Work Experience Program became an important tool in

  15. Impact of Welfare Reform on Mortality: An Evaluation of the Connecticut Jobs First Program, A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Elizabeth T.; Rosen, Zohn; Couch, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether Jobs First, a multicenter randomized trial of a welfare reform program conducted in Connecticut, demonstrated increases in employment, income, and health insurance relative to traditional welfare (Aid to Families with Dependent Children). We also investigated if higher earnings and employment improved mortality of the participants. Methods. We revisited the Jobs First randomized trial, successfully linking 4612 participant identifiers to 15 years of prospective mortality follow-up data through 2010, producing 240 deaths. The analysis was powered to detect a 20% change in mortality hazards. Results. Significant employment and income benefits were realized among Jobs First recipients relative to traditional welfare recipients, particularly for the most disadvantaged groups. However, although none of these reached statistical significance, all participants in Jobs First (overall, across centers, and all subgroups) experienced higher mortality hazards than traditional welfare recipients. Conclusions. Increases in income and employment produced by Jobs First relative to traditional welfare improved socioeconomic status but did not improve survival. PMID:23678929

  16. Welfare reform and "ineligibles": issue of constitutionality and recent court rulings.

    PubMed

    Kim, R Y

    2001-10-01

    In 1996 welfare legislation made lawful immigrants, with a few exemptions, categorically ineligible for most forms of public assistance. This legislation has led affected immigrants and their advocacy groups to file lawsuits to challenge the constitutionality of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act. This article reviews recent court rulings that have upheld the act and examines court decisions in light of two constitutional principles (the Equal Protection and Supremacy clauses), which traditionally have been applied to the issue of aliens' eligibility for welfare benefits. The author finds inconsistent outcomes between federal and state legislation in the judicial review process. To resolve this inconsistency, the author suggests several policy changes in the distribution of welfare benefits concerning eligibility of lawful immigrants. The implications for social work practice are discussed. PMID:11682973

  17. Adolescent Outcomes, Poverty Status, and Welfare Reform: An Analysis Based on the Survey of Program Dynamics. Final Report. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzcinski, Eileen; Brandell, Jerry

    This study investigated the potential effects of welfare reform on children in late childhood through adolescence, examining how poverty status and family welfare receipt interacted with current poverty status and welfare receipt during adolescence to influence various outcomes. The study examined how 1998 outcomes varied for adolescents based on…

  18. State Boards in an Era of Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Michael

    1987-01-01

    State boards of education are changing as state policy agendas are dominated by concerns about quality of education. Presents overview of recent trends in state involvement during the period the federal role in education has been shrinking. The impetus for education reform in the 1980s has come largely from outside educational community, resulting…

  19. Children in Single-Parent Families Living in Poverty Have Fewer Supports after Welfare Reform. IWPR Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyter, Deanna M.; Sills, Melissa; Oh, Gi-Taik

    Since the 1996 passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (welfare reform), impoverished children in single-parent families receive less aid than under the previous system, and the most disadvantaged of these children have slipped deeper into poverty. This research brief summarizes a study that explored the economic well-being…

  20. New Hope for People with Low Incomes: Two-Year Results of a Program To Reduce Poverty and Reform Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Johannes M.; Huston, Aletha C.; Granger, Robert C.; Duncan, Greg J.; Brock, Thomas W.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.; And Others

    This document details the 2-year results of the New Hope Project, which was conducted in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to reduce poverty, reform welfare, and improve the overall well-being of poor people by providing a mix of incentives and services, including supplemental income, child care subsidies, guaranteed affordable health insurance, and…

  1. Welfare Reform: Challenges and Opportunities for Public-Private Partnerships. Selected Proceedings from a Conference for Local Government Officials in the Mississippi Delta Region (Cleveland, Mississippi, May 29, 1997). Publication No. 98-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Range, Les, Ed.

    This document contains selected proceedings from a conference that was convened in the Mississippi Delta region to provide interested stakeholders (citizens and local public officials) with information about recent federal and state welfare reform legislation. The document begins with an explanation of how the old Aid to Families with Dependent…

  2. Child Welfare: Most States Are Developing Statewide Information Systems, but Reliability of Child Welfare Data Could Be Improved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrowiak, Diana; Schibanoff, Sara L.

    To better monitor children and families served by state child welfare agencies, Congress authorized matching funds for the development of statewide automatic child welfare information systems (SACWIS) and required that U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) compile information on children served by state agencies. This report to…

  3. Text, Lies, and the Welfare State: The Portrayal of Welfare Recipients in Welfare-to-Work Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    A study analyzed the ideological messages about welfare recipients promoted in two welfare-to-work educational programs. Data were collected through interviews with students, teachers, and administrators at an adult literacy classroom serving unemployed women on welfare and an employment preparation program designed to increase job skills of women…

  4. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and State Child Welfare Systems.

    PubMed

    Bounds, Dawn; Julion, Wrenetha A; Delaney, Kathleen R

    2015-01-01

    In several states, commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is now a reportable child abuse offense. Illinois has taken the lead in tackling the issue and the Illinois experience illuminates valuable lessons. This article delineates the protection, practice, and policy implications that evolve when CSEC falls under a state child welfare system. The specific aims are to (a) discuss CSEC, its victims, risks, harms, and challenges inherent in providing effective care; (b) use Illinois as an exemplar to explicate the consequences and implementation challenges of establishing a state reporting system that frames CSEC as a child welfare issue; (c) recommend strategies for developing effective state reporting models, and (d) demonstrate how nurses are well poised to advocate for victims of human trafficking on both state and national levels. Recommendations for improving the identification of CSEC victims and overcoming challenges to state implementation are offered. PMID:25908664

  5. State Capacity: The Missing Piece in Child Welfare Privatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barillas, Katherine Howard

    2011-01-01

    Privatization has been used to address the limited capacity of government to achieve positive results in child welfare systems. Privatized systems have not realized better outcomes than their public counterparts, however, and many states continue to struggle with implementation. In order to demonstrate that privatization is in fact an investment…

  6. Welfare Reform: With TANF Flexibility, States Vary in How They Implement Work Requirements and Time Limits. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    In this report, the General Accounting Office (GAO) examined how different states are implementing the work requirements and time limits called for by the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. Data were collected from site visits in 4 states, telephone interviews with TANF officials in 8 additional states, and a survey…

  7. The project organization as a policy tool in implementing welfare reforms in the public sector.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian; Johansson, Staffan; Löfström, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Organizational design is considered in policy literature as a forceful policy tool to put policy to action. However, previous research has not analyzed the project organization as a specific form of organizational design and, hence, has not given much attention to such organizations as a strategic choice when selecting policy tools. The purpose of the article is to investigate the project as a policy tool; how do such temporary organizations function as a specific form of organization when public policy is implemented? The article is based on a framework of policy implementation and is illustrated with two welfare reforms in the Swedish public sector, which were organized and implemented as project organizations. The case studies and the analysis show that it is crucial that a project organization fits into the overall governance structure when used as a policy tool. If not, the project will remain encapsulated and will not have sufficient impact on the permanent organizational structure. The concept of encapsulation indicates a need to protect the project from a potential hostile environment. The implication of this is that organizational design as a policy tool is a matter that deserves more attention in the strategic discussion on implementing public policies and on the suitability of using certain policy tools. PMID:22733712

  8. Lessons for Welfare Reform: An Analysis of the AFDC Caseload and Past Welfare-to-Work Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Dave M.; O'Neill, June Ellenoff

    This book presents research results relating to historical trends in the AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) caseload, the personal characteristics and patterns of welfare participation in a nationally representative sample of young women followed over a 13-year period, and an evaluative survey of the effectiveness of past education,…

  9. Health system reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, John E

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider. PMID:24596894

  10. Seven Years of Welfare Reform--Weighing the Results: A Summary of Research Findings on the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lynda

    2004-01-01

    In the seven years since Minnesota's version of federal welfare reform took effect statewide, more than 50 research studies have considered one central question: How well has Minnesota's welfare-to-work system succeeded? This report reviews the research conducted on the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), and finds that the research…

  11. The Challenge of Compliance: Food Security in Rural Households Affected by Welfare Reform. Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol; Tiller, Vicky V.; Smith, Jennifer

    A study examined welfare reform and food security issues. Interviews were conducted with 32 rural Louisiana women in 1997-98 when they were receiving welfare payments, in 1998-99 when they were in transition, and in 2000-01 when none received Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Most women were African-American; about half had not…

  12. Welfare Reform. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Public Assistance and Unemployment Compensation of the Committee on Ways and Means. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (January 28, February 19, March 4, 6, 10, 11, and 13, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

    The hearings reported in this document focused on the need to reform the welfare system and the effects those reforms could have on welfare recipients. Issues addressed by the subcommittee members and the witnesses were the following: (1) why do one-fifth of the nation's children live in poverty in spite of welfare programs; (2) can the…

  13. Achieving Self-Esteem and the GED [General Educational Development]--A Progressive Outcome in a Functionalist World: A Case Study of the Role of Adult Basic Education in Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Craig H.

    A study was conducted to investigate the impact of basic education on the lives of adult welfare recipients who were required to return to school as part of their participation in a Family Support Act (FSA) comprehensive welfare reform program and to describe the tensions that developed in a welfare reform program that mandated collaboration…

  14. The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Education, Welfare Reform, Reducing Smoking, Workman's Compensation, Children's Health & Safety, Unintended Pregnancies/Births. Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

    A telephone survey of a random sample of over 1,650 Pennsylvania citizens solicited opinions on proposals for improvements in the areas of: (1) welfare reform; (2) smoking reduction; (3) unintended pregnancies and unwanted births; (4) education reform; (5) children's health and safety; and (6) workmen's compensation. Each section of this report…

  15. What influences a state's approach to Medicaid reform?

    PubMed

    Bachman, S S; Altman, S H; Beatrice, D F

    1988-01-01

    Four states--Arizona, California, New York, and Pennsylvania--undertook major Medicare reforms in the early 1980s based on competition, price negotiation, regulation, and diagnosis related groups. To increase our understanding of what led to these reforms, we analyzed data from interviews with representatives of state executive and legislative branches and from providers and others involved in the reforms, and examined published and unpublished information on the reforms. We identified seven factors influencing choice of Medicaid reform: the crisis that triggered reform, the purposes of reform, the locus of the innovation (legislative versus executive), the power and views of key provider groups, state officials' perception of providers and recipients, the scope of the change implemented, and reform as a reflection of past state practices. We discuss these factors extensively. PMID:2968314

  16. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare. PMID:26403650

  17. State infrastructure support for science education reform

    SciTech Connect

    Buccino, A.

    1994-12-31

    Discussing state infrastructure support for science education reform is a little daunting. At the state level, there is simply nothing comparable to the federal establishment. There are state science academies, but they generally do not have the stature and influence of the National Academy of Sciences. In large states like California, governors may have formally designated science advisors, but there are no agencies comparable to NSF of NASA or the Defense Department, owing to the national character of the mission of these agencies. Although science and mathematics education has been pronounced a major national concern, some states do not agree. For example, some states did not bother to apply for a Statewide Systematic Initiative project, and at least one state declined to do so because its governor did not think his state needed it. We need to come to grips with standard-based education and support commitment to it and to its implementation. The central issue here is state and local implementation of the leadership coming from the federal government and expressed in Goals 2000 and Pathways to Excellence.

  18. Across the Great Divide. From a Welfare State to a New Market State: The Case of VET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This paper revisits the crucial period following the Arab oil boycott of 1973, when the welfare state in the UK finally collapsed along with the heavy industrial base upon which it rested. Unlike the post-war welfare-state "settlement", the new post-welfare market state was imposed by Margaret Thatcher's governments. It was marked for vocational…

  19. From welfare states to welfare sectors: Explaining sectoral differences in occupational pensions with economic and political power of employees

    PubMed Central

    Wiß, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Studies analysing welfare have previously focused on countries as units. In the course of pension cuts and the increasing importance of occupational welfare, our traditional understanding of a homogeneous welfare state is being challenged. In this article, I distinguish between both economic individual power (employee skills) and political collective power (trade unions), and their relation with different occupational pensions. A combined analysis by both factors is not common, where employee skills and power resources are traditionally treated as separate, rival explanations of public welfare. Combining the ‘method of difference’ with the ‘method of agreement’, the article first presents the within-country variety of occupational pensions in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and Denmark. Occupational pensions in the same economic sectors across countries are then used as the units of analysis in order to illustrate the plausible determinants of economic individual power and political collective power. PMID:26663983

  20. State regulation of managed care: fragments of reform.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jack

    1997-12-01

    State legislatures consider numerous bills to regulate managed care organizations. After identifying the legal, political, and economic barriers to state reform efforts, the paper assesses recent types of state regulation, particularly mandated benefits and disclosure requirements. Two prerequisites to future reform, coalition building and the diffusion of information about managed care, are analyzed. PMID:11655366

  1. Kerala State, India: radical reform as development.

    PubMed

    Franke, R W; Chasin, B H

    1992-01-01

    Kerala State in southwestern India has achieved some of the third world's best rates of life expectancy, literacy, and infant mortality, despite one of the lowest per capita incomes. Especially notable is the nearly equal distribution of development benefits to urban, rural, male, female, high-caste, and low-caste sections of the populations. An even population distribution, a cosmopolitan trading history, and the development of militant worker and small farmer organizations led by dedicated activists provide the main explanations for Kerala's achievements. Land reform has redistributed wealth and political power from a rich elite to small holders and landless laborers. Public food distribution at controlled prices, large-scale public health actions, accessible medical facilities, and widespread literacy combine with and reinforce each other to maintain and expand Kerala's achievements. Serious unemployment threatens the Kerala experiment, but Kerala nonetheless offers important lessons to development planners, policymakers, and third world activists. PMID:1735622

  2. Supervision in tribal and state child welfare agencies: professionalization, responsibilities, training needs, and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    MacEachron, A E

    1994-01-01

    Although tribal child welfare and family services have expanded substantially since the enactment of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978, little is known about tribal child welfare services or their personnel. This exploratory study compared supervisors from 11 tribal child welfare agencies and one state child welfare agency. Tribal and state supervisors reported similar levels of supervisory professionalization and satisfaction, but they differed in their ethnicity, their supervisory tasks, and their training needs. The results were interpreted from a systems perspective of ethnic-sensitive agency practice. PMID:8149774

  3. Reclaiming the Disengaged: Reform of New Zealand's Vocational Education and Training and Social Welfare Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strathdee, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Habermas' theory of the state and his idea of legitimation crisis to critically evaluate recent reforms in New Zealand designed to engage young people (16-24 years of age) in paid employment and/or education and training. The paper identifies three broad strategies adopted by the state to reclaim the disengaged and hence,…

  4. Reclaiming the Disengaged: Reform of New Zealand's Vocational Education and Training and Social Welfare Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strathdee, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Habermas' theory of the state and his idea of legitimation crisis to critically evaluate recent reforms in New Zealand designed to engage young people (16-24 years of age) in paid employment and/or education and training. The paper identifies three broad strategies adopted by the state to reclaim the disengaged and hence,

  5. States and health care reform: the importance of program implementation.

    PubMed

    Beatrice, D F

    1996-01-01

    The recent debate on national health care reform marked another case of policy being considered without reference to how--or even if--it could be implemented. The debate revolved around broad issues, such as universal versus partial coverage, mandatory versus voluntary alliances, and the respective roles of government and the market in health care. The ease or even the possibility of successful implementation was not an ingredient in evaluating proposals. The burden of making health care reform work falls to the states. Whether in response to national reform or in implementing their own programs, they must move from a general reform blueprint to an actual program that delivers services. The hands-on role of the states in designing and operating programs makes their implementation duties both unavoidable and critical. This chapter explores implementation issues that should be considered an integral part of planning for health care reform, at both the federal and the state level. The chapter has two goals. First, it makes a case for altering the usual approach to designing reform and recommends paying attention to implementation early in the policy process, rather than treating it as an afterthough. Second, it is intended to help policymakers design implementable programs and anticipate pitfalls. To achieve these goals, it examines the state role in health care reform; state capacity to carry out this role; examples of state health care reform initiatives and lessons for implementation drawn from these efforts; and barriers to successful implementation. The chapter concludes with recommendations for policymakers. PMID:11066260

  6. Pedagogy of the Consumer: The Politics of Neo-Liberal Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Situated against the backdrop of a widespread and growing interest in the linkages between neo-liberalism and welfare, this paper introduces the lens of neo-liberalism as a conceptual strategy for thinking about contemporary issues in education policy. Through charting the historic rise of unfettered market institutions and practices in the…

  7. Marriage and Welfare Reform: The Overwhelming Evidence That Marriage Education Works. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Patrick F.; Patterson, Robert W.; Rector, Robert E.

    The erosion of marriage has caused enormous difficulties for children, parents, and society. Compared to children born within marriage, those born outside of marriage are overwhelmingly more likely to live in poverty, depend on welfare, and have behavior problems. They also may suffer depression and physical abuse, fail in school, abuse drugs, and…

  8. Welfare Reform and Children: A Comparison of Leavers and Stayers in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickman, Dana K.; Foster, E. Michael

    2001-01-01

    Examined the status of children living in families leaving welfare, including closed child-only cases. Describes the child and the adult outcomes that predict long-term child outcomes. Data for about 2,210 single-parent leaver families and about 660 child-only cases provide details about how these families joined the working poor. (SLD)

  9. Welfare Reform: New Challenges, Key Questions. Voices for Illinois Children Special Report (Revised Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Ami

    This special report reviews key aspects of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 and its implications for Illinois. The report describes the major stipulations in the federal welfare bill and summarizes the impact on Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); food stamp, child care, Medicaid, and…

  10. The Juggling Act: Navigating Parent Involvement in the Welfare Reform Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how parents supported their children's education while transitioning from welfare to work. Interviews with parents, elementary school educators, and staff at a community-based organization were conducted in an urban Tennessee community. Navigating work and parenting responsibilities was particularly challenging when children…

  11. Bridging the Gap: Higher Education and Career-Centered Welfare Reform. Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosar, Kevin R., Ed.

    This conference examined the current welfare policy and the continued use of higher education as a tool for moving low-income people into self-supporting careers. The proceedings include: welcoming remarks by Stephen Greenwald; keynote addresses by William Spriggs and Danny Simmons; a lunch address by Rae Alexander-Minter; remarks by Patricia…

  12. The Juggling Act: Navigating Parent Involvement in the Welfare Reform Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how parents supported their children's education while transitioning from welfare to work. Interviews with parents, elementary school educators, and staff at a community-based organization were conducted in an urban Tennessee community. Navigating work and parenting responsibilities was particularly challenging when children

  13. Beyond Job Search or Basic Education: Rethinking the Role of Skills in Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Julie

    Most welfare-to-work programs may be classified as quick employment programs emphasizing individual or group job searches or skill-building programs emphasizing basic education. Although both types of programs offer benefits, they also suffer from significant limitations. To be more effective than their predecessors, current-generation…

  14. Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; Scrivener, Susan; Michalopoulos, Charles; Morris, Pamela; Hendra, Richard; Adams-Ciardullo, Diana; Walter, Johanna

    Connecticut's Jobs First program was subjected to a rigorous, large-scale evaluation. During the evaluation, nearly 5,000 single-parent welfare applicants and recipients in 2 cities were randomly assigned to Jobs First or to the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) group. Each group's progress was compared over a 4-year period. The…

  15. The Rural Impacts of Welfare Reform: Annotated Bibliography of Literature Concerning the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Mark

    This annotated bibliography, arranged alphabetically by personal author, contains 235 citations of works examining welfare reform and its implications for rural areas. Items include journal articles, books, reports, and discussion papers from universities, private institutes, government agencies, and private presses. Topics include labor and…

  16. Family Welfare Reform Act of 1987. House of Representatives, 100th Congress, 1st Session Report Together with Additional and Dissenting Views to Accompany H.R. 1720.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This report recommends that the Social Security Act Title XIX be amended to include a 24-month extension of Medicaid to families who become ineligible for cash assistance under the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. This amendment accompanies the Family Welfare Reform Act of 1987 (H.R. 1720), which is proposed to replace the…

  17. Child Welfare Workplace: The State of the Workforce and Strategies to Improve Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scannapieco, Maria; Connell-Carrick, Kelli

    2007-01-01

    Child welfare systems throughout the United States are being closely scrutinized as sensational cases appear in the media in nearly every state. At the federal level, with the Child and Family Service Review process, the government is documenting that states across the country are not conforming to federal child welfare requirements (DHHS, 2007)…

  18. AFDC, SSI, and Welfare Reform Aggressiveness: Caseload Reductions versus Caseload Shifting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Lucie; Sevak, Purvi

    2004-01-01

    The effect of reforms of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) on caseloads of another program that is Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is examined. The results reveal that a decrease in caseloads in one program cannot be interpreted as an equal-sized decrease in the number of families receiving public assistance.

  19. Using School Change States to Analyze Comprehensive School Reform Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetherill, Karen S.; Applefield, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive school reform (CSR) projects are being funded throughout the United States in a determined effort to improve the performance of public education. The multidimensional nature of comprehensive school reform presents unique challenges for explaining widely discrepant outcomes among schools. These challenges are addressed in a study of 8…

  20. Trends in mental health inequalities in England during a period of recession, austerity and welfare reform 2004 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ben; Kinderman, Peter; Whitehead, Margaret

    2015-12-01

    Several indicators of population mental health in the UK have deteriorated since the financial crisis, during a period when a number of welfare reforms and austerity measures have been implemented. We do not know which groups have been most affected by these trends or the extent to which recent economic trends or recent policies have contributed to them. We use data from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey to investigate trends in self reported mental health problems by socioeconomic group and employment status in England between 2004 and 2013. We then use panel regression models to investigate the association between local trends in mental health problems and local trends in unemployment and wages to investigate the extent to which these explain increases in mental health problems during this time. We found that the trend in the prevalence of people reporting mental health problems increased significantly more between 2009 and 2013 compared to the previous trends. This increase was greatest amongst people with low levels of education and inequalities widened. The gap in prevalence between low and high educated groups widened by 1.29 percentage points for women (95% CI: 0.50 to 2.08) and 1.36 percentage points for men (95% CI: 0.31 to 2.42) between 2009 and 2013. Trends in unemployment and wages only partly explained these recent increases in mental health problems. The trend in reported mental health problems across England broadly mirrored the pattern of increases in suicides and antidepressant prescribing. Welfare policies and austerity measures implemented since 2010 may have contributed to recent increases in mental health problems and widening inequalities. This has led to rising numbers of people with low levels of education out of work with mental health problems. These trends are likely to increase social exclusion as well as demand for and reliance on social welfare systems. PMID:26623942

  1. The Multidimensionality of Welfare State Attitudes: A European Cross-National Study.

    PubMed

    Roosma, Femke; Gelissen, John; van Oorschot, Wim

    2013-08-01

    When evaluating the various aspects of the welfare state, people assess some aspects more positively than others. Following a multidimensional approach, this study systematically argues for a framework composed of seven dimensions of the welfare state, which are subject to the opinions of the public. Using confirmatory factor analyses, this conceptual framework of multidimensional welfare attitudes was tested on cross-national data from 22 countries participating in the 2008 European Social Survey. According to our empirical analysis, attitudes towards the welfare state are multidimensional; in general, people are very positive about the welfare state's goals and range, while simultaneously being critical of its efficiency, effectiveness and policy outcomes. We found that these dimensions relate to each other differently in different countries. Eastern/Southern Europeans combine a positive attitude towards the goals and role of government with a more critical attitude towards the welfare state's efficiency and policy outcomes. In contrast, Western/Northern Europeans' attitudes towards the various welfare state dimensions are based partly on a fundamentally positive or negative stance towards the welfare state. PMID:23874057

  2. States Will Lead the Way toward Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Arne

    2009-01-01

    This document contains remarks delivered by the Secretary of Education who spoke at the 2009 Governors Education Symposium. Secretary Duncan spoke about uses of Recovery Act funding to drive reform in four core areas of education: (1) Robust data systems that track student achievement and teacher effectiveness; (2) Teacher and principal quality;…

  3. 75 FR 71710 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...As required by section 423(c) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 623(c)), the Department is publishing the allotment percentage for each State under the Title IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program. Under section 423(a), the allotment percentages are one of the factors used in the computation of the Federal grants awarded under the...

  4. Social inequalities in 'sickness': European welfare states and non-employment among the chronically ill.

    PubMed

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked 'sickness'-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more favourable general rates of non-employment. Hence, regarding sickness, welfare resources appear to trump welfare disincentives. PMID:22014419

  5. Still Social and Democratic? Inclusive Education Policies in the Nordic Welfare States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnesen, Anne-Lise; Lundahl, Lisbeth

    2006-01-01

    In this article, education policy is analyzed from a welfare state perspective. The aim is to Analise the significance attributed to social-inclusive aspects of education in contemporary education policies of the Nordic countries, and the extent to which education is regarded as an element in welfare policies. Four aspects are addressed: (1)…

  6. Child Welfare Financing: Looking beyond the New York State Family and Children's Services Block Grant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.

    Since the Family and Children's Services Block Grant and the per diem rate methodology have not been effective, especially in the wake of the increasing number of children entering foster care, this policy brief explores ways in which New York State's child welfare system should allocate child welfare dollars to counties and providers to produce

  7. Pathologizing poverty: new forms of diagnosis, disability, and structural stigma under welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Helena; Bourgois, Philippe; Drucker, Ernest

    2014-02-01

    In 1996 the U.S. severely restricted public support for low income people, ending "welfare as we know it." This led to dramatic increases in medicalized forms of support for indigent people, who increasingly rely on disability benefits justified by psychiatric diagnoses of chronic mental illness. We present case studies drawn from ethnographic data involving daily participant-observation between 2005 and 2012 in public clinics and impoverished neighborhoods in New York City, to describe the subjective experience of structural stigma imposed by the increasing medicalization of public support for the poor through a diagnosis of permanent mental disability. In some cases, disability benefits enable recipients to fulfill important social roles (sustaining a vulnerable household and promoting stable parenting). The status of family members who receive a monthly disability check improves within their kin and neighborhood-based networks, counterbalancing the felt stigma of being identified by doctors as "crazy". When a diagnosis of mental pathology becomes a valuable survival strategy constituting the basis for fulfillment of household responsibilities, stigmatizing processes are structurally altered. Through the decades, the stigmatized labels applied to the poor have shifted: from being a symptom of racial weakness, to the culture of poverty, and now to permanent medical pathology. The neoliberal bureaucratic requirement that the poor must repeatedly prove their "disabled" status through therapy and psychotropic medication appears to be generating a national and policy-maker discourse condemning SSI malingerers, resurrecting the 16th century specter of the "unworthy poor". PMID:24507913

  8. Neoliberalism, "globalization," unemployment, inequalities, and the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1998-01-01

    This analysis of "neoliberalism" and its economic and social consequences is presented in six sections. Section I begins by describing the impact of neoliberal public policies on economic growth and inflation, on business profits and business investments, on productivity, on business credit, on unemployment and social inequalities, on social expenditures, and on poverty and family debt. The author shows that, except in the area of business profits and control of inflation, neoliberal policies have not proved superior to those they replaced. Section II deals with unemployment and social polarization in the developed capitalist countries. The author criticizes some of the theories put forward to explain these social problems, such as the introduction of new technologies and globalization of the economy, and suggests that a primary reason for these problems is the implementation of neoliberal policies. Section III challenges the widely held neoliberal perception that the U.S. economy is highly efficient and the E.U. economies are "sclerotic" due to their "excessive" welfare states and "rigid" labor markets. The author shows that the U.S. economy is not so dynamic, nor the E.U. economies so sclerotic. Some developed countries with greater social protection and more regulated labor markets are shown to be more successful than the United States in producing jobs and lowering unemployment. The reasons for the growing polarization in developed capitalist countries, rooted in political rather than economic causes, are discussed in section IV--especially the enormous power of the financial markets and their influence on international agencies and national governments, and the weakness of the labor movements, both nationally and internationally. Section V questions the major theses of globalization. The author shows that rather than globalization of commerce and investments, we are witnessing a regionalization of economic relations stimulated by political considerations. He also analyzes the globalization of capital finance, criticizing the thesis that capital markets are determining public policies. The economic determinism that underlies the globalization position is questioned, uncovering the importance of political explanations for understanding major social problems such as unemployment. Finally, section VI shows that neoliberal public policies on the deregulation of labor markets are creating enormous instability in the labor force, worsening the living conditions of the majority of the populations. PMID:9842492

  9. Pathologizing Poverty: New Forms of Diagnosis, Disability, and Structural Stigma under Welfare Reform

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Helena; Bourgois, Philippe; Drucker, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    In 1996 the U.S. severely restricted public support for low income people, ending “welfare as we know it.” This led to dramatic increases in medicalized forms of support for indigent people, who increasingly rely on disability benefits justified by psychiatric diagnoses of chronic mental illness. We present case studies drawn from ethnographic data involving daily participant-observation between 2005-2012 in public clinics and impoverished neighborhoods in New York City, to describe the subjective experience of structural stigma imposed by the increasing medicalization of public support for the poor through a diagnosis of permanent mental disability. In some cases, disability benefits enable recipients to fulfill important social roles (sustaining a vulnerable household and promoting stable parenting). The status of family members who receive a monthly disability check improves within their kin and neighborhood-based networks, counterbalancing the felt stigma of being identified by doctors as “crazy”. A structural disjunction in stigmatizing processes emerges when a diagnosis of permanent medical cognitive pathology becomes a valuable survival strategy constituting the basis for fulfillment of household responsibilities. Through the decades, the stigmatized labels applied to the poor have shifted: from being a symptom of racial weakness, to the culture of poverty, and now to permanent medical pathology. The neoliberal bureaucratic requirement that the poor must repeatedly prove their “disabled” status through therapy and psychotropic medication appears to be generating a national and policy-maker discourse condemning SSI malingerers, resurrecting the 16th century specter of the “unworthy poor”. PMID:24507913

  10. Prioritization and the elusive effect on welfare - a Norwegian health care reform revisited.

    PubMed

    Aakvik, Arild; Holmås, Tor Helge; Kjerstad, Egil

    2015-03-01

    The Faster Return to Work (FRW) scheme that Norwegian authorities implemented in 2007 is an example of a policy that builds on the human capital approach. The main idea behind the scheme is that long waiting times for hospital treatment lead to unnecessarily long periods of absence from work. To achieve a reduction in average sickness absence duration, the allocation of FRW funds and new treatment capacity is exclusively aimed at people on sick leave. Many countries have allocated funds to reduce waiting times for hospital treatment and research shows that more resources allocated to the hospital sector can reduce waiting times. Our results support this as the FRW scheme significantly reduces waiting times. However, on average the reduction in waiting times is not transformed into an equally large reduction in the sickness absence period. We find significant difference in the effects of FRW on length of sick leave between surgical and non-surgical patients though. The duration of sick leave for FRW patients undergoing surgical treatment is approximately 14 days shorter than for surgical patients on the regular waiting list. We find no significant effect of the scheme on length of sick leave for non-surgical patients. In sum, our welfare analysis indicates that prioritization of the kind that the FRW scheme represents is not as straightforward as one would expect. The FRW scheme costs more than it contributes in reduced productivity loss. We base our analyses on several different econometric methods using register data on approximately 13,500 individuals over the period 2007-2008. PMID:25637910

  11. American medical policy and the "crisis" of the welfare state: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Marmor, T R

    1986-01-01

    Health policy debates rarely include broad review of cross-national experiences with related social policies. This article addresses the connection between medical policy concerns and the development of welfare states in the advanced industrial democracies following the oil crisis of 1973-74. After examining the evidence about what actually occurred during the "crisis" years of the welfare state, the article relates the debates about the welfare state's crisis to American concerns about medical care in the 1980s. The distinctive American response to the fiscal strains of stagflation-more severe cuts in social spending than necessary based on the country's economic strength, threats of bankruptcy to produce small adjustments to large programs, and inability to address the problems of medical care as anything other than budgetary strain--is linked to American dissensus about the purposes of the welfare state. PMID:3571882

  12. The State Data Analysis Gap: A Threat to Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeky, Art

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the 2001 passage of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), states have faced a federal mandate to improve their ability to collect and analyze education data for the purpose of tracking and reporting the progress of their education reform efforts. With the assistance of federal funds, virtually all of the states are developing

  13. State Policy-Making and School Reform: Influences and Influentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzoni, Tim L.

    1994-01-01

    Due to massive reform initiatives, American states have become major policy makers for public schools. Examines, from a state and a political-influence perspective, the causes, processes, and consequences of the decade-long "education excellence" movement. Places events in historical context, draws upon research findings, and applies an…

  14. Steps to Success: Helping Women with Alcohol and Drug Problems Move from Welfare to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Gwen

    This report helps state and local decision makers understand the range of services ordinarily needed and provided in alcohol and drug treatment programs serving women and families receiving welfare and how those services support the goals of welfare reform. The model programs profiled here tend to the needs of women on welfare and their families…

  15. Welfare Reform and American Indian Tribes: Critical Decisions for the Future of Indian Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jo Ann

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRETORIA) gives American Indian tribes the option to run their own Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program or leave these services under state administration. Eight case studies were conducted in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Arizona with the Klamath Tribes,…

  16. Social Welfare Policy and Public Assistance for Low-Income Substance Abusers: The Impact of 1996 Welfare Reform Legislation on the Economic Security of Former Supplemental Security Income Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Sean R; Unick, George J.; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C.

    2009-01-01

    Prior to January 1, 1997, individuals with drug- or alcohol-related disabilities could qualify for federal public assistance through the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. During the welfare reforms of the Clinton administration, this policy was changed resulting in lost income and health care benefits for many low-income substance abusers. This paper examines the historical underpinnings to the elimination of drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) as qualifying impairments for SSI disability payments. Following this, empirical evidence is presented on the effect this policy change had on the subsequent economic security of former SSI DA&A beneficiaries. Findings indicate that study participants that lost SSI benefits suffered increased economic hardship following the policy change. These findings have important implications for future social welfare policymaking decisions. PMID:20396645

  17. Oral health and welfare state regimes: a cross-national analysis of European countries

    PubMed Central

    Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol C; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the potential relationship between welfare state regimes and oral health. This study assessed the oral health of adults in a range of European countries clustered by welfare regimes according to Ferrera's typology and the complementary Eastern type. We analysed data from Eurobarometer wave 72.3, a cross-sectional survey of 31 European countries carried out in 2009. We evaluated three self-reported oral health outcomes: edentulousness, no functional dentition (<20 natural teeth), and oral impacts on daily living. Age-standardized prevalence rates were estimated for each country and for each welfare state regime. The Scandinavian regime showed lower prevalence rates for all outcomes. For edentulousness and no functional dentition, there were higher prevalence rates in the Eastern regime but no significant differences between Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, and Southern regimes. The Southern regime presented a higher prevalence of oral impacts on daily living. Results by country indicated that Sweden had the lowest prevalences for edentulousness and no functional dentition, and Denmark had the lowest prevalence for oral impacts. The results suggest that Scandinavian welfare states, with more redistributive and universal welfare policies, had better population oral health. Future research should provide further insights about the potential mechanisms through which welfare-state regimes would influence oral health. PMID:23659239

  18. Effects of demographic factors and information sources on United States consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    McKendree, M G S; Croney, C C; Widmar, N J O

    2014-07-01

    As consumers have become more interested in understanding how their food is produced, scrutiny and criticism have increased regarding intensified food animal production methods. Resolution of public concerns about animal agricultural practices depends on understanding the myriad factors that provide the basis for concerns. An online survey of 798 U.S. households was conducted to investigate relationships between household characteristics (demographics, geographic location, and experiences) and level of concern for animal welfare as well as sources used to obtain information on the subject. Because recent media attention has focused on animal care practices used in the U.S. swine industry, respondents were also asked specific questions pertaining to their perceptions of pig management practices and welfare issues and their corresponding pork purchasing behavior. Respondents reporting higher levels of concern about animal welfare were more frequently female, younger, and self-reported members of the Democratic Party. Fourteen percent of respondents reported reduction in pork consumption because of animal welfare concerns with an average reduction of 56%. Over half of the respondents (56%) did not have a primary source for animal welfare information; those who identified a primary information source most commonly used information provided by animal protection organizations, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Midwest participants were significantly, at the 5% significance level, less concerned about domestic livestock animal welfare and more frequently reported not having a source for animal welfare information than those from other regions of the United States. Overall, the U.S. livestock and poultry industries and other organizations affiliated with animal agriculture appear to be less used public sources of information on animal welfare than popular animal protection organizations. Improved understanding of the factors that contribute to consumers' evolving perceptions of the care and welfare of farm animals is an essential step toward enhanced sustainability and social responsibility in contemporary food production systems. PMID:24962533

  19. The state of animal welfare in the context of refinement.

    PubMed

    Zurlo, Joanne; Hutchinson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the Three Rs is the full replacement of animals used in biomedical research and testing. However, replacement is unlikely to occur in the near future; therefore the scientific community as a whole must continue to devote considerable effort to ensure optimal animal welfare for the benefit of the science and the animals, i.e., the R of refinement. Laws governing the care and use of laboratory animals have recently been revised in Europe and the US and these place greater emphasis on promoting the well-being of the animals in addition to minimizing pain and distress. Social housing for social species is now the default condition, which can present a challenge in certain experimental settings and for certain species. The practice of positive reinforcement training of laboratory animals, particularly non-human primates, is gathering momentum but is not yet universally employed. Enhanced consideration of refinement extends to rodents, particularly mice, whose use is still increasing as more genetically modified models are generated. The wastage of extraneous mice and the method of their euthanasia are refinement issues that still need to be addressed. An international, concerted effort into defining the needs of laboratory animals is still necessary to improve the quality of the animal models used as well as their welfare. PMID:24448759

  20. "Le Droit de L'Enfant:" Ideologies of the Child in 19th Century French Literature and Child Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Suzanne

    This paper examines ideological themes present in movements for child labor reform and in literature in 19th century France. Separate sections cover early industrialization and child labor reform, the image of the romantic child in French literature, and ideology and reforms. By the mid-19th century, England, America, and France all had their…

  1. The Common Core "State" Standards: The Arts and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Alice

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, Alice Wexler notes that as the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) become reality, teachers have reason for concern. She contends that this reform to public education has consequently marginalized the arts and exacerbated the inequities of people in poverty and those with disabilities. Teachers, principals and, ultimately,…

  2. Transforming State Education Agencies To Support Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Jane L.

    To answer the question of how to build the capacity of state and local educational systems to implement systemic reform, the National Governors' Association (NGA) convened two meetings of educators and policymakers and commissioned three supporting papers from knowledgeable educators. This volume contains an overview report of the conferences and…

  3. Superintendent Retirement in a Reform State: Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyland, Lori; Ellis, John

    2015-01-01

    Indiana recently gained status as a national leader in educational reform. At the same time, a record number of superintendents retired, with 62 retirements in 2012 and 2013, representing 21% of superintendents in the state. The purpose of this study was to explore factors influencing superintendents' decisions to retire during this time.…

  4. The effect of welfare reform on SSA's disability programs: design of policy evaluation and early evidence.

    PubMed

    Davies, P; Iams, H; Rupp, K

    2000-01-01

    During the past several years, the U.S. social safety net has gone through substantial changes involving an emphasis on personal responsibility and incentives, the shift of certain responsibilities to the states, and new limits on entitlements for benefits. Two pieces of recent legislation affected the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) disability programs. Section 105 of Public Law 104-121, enacted on March 29, 1996, mandated the removal of persons from the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) rolls for whom drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) were material to the determination of disability. It eliminated allowances on the basis of DA&A immediately and required the termination of benefits to all persons receiving benefits at the time of enactment. The other major piece of legislation was the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996, which was later amended by the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997. PRWORA converted the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program from an open-ended entitlement program into a block grant, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), incorporating time limits on the receipt of benefits as well as strict work requirements. PRWORA also tightened child eligibility for SSI, narrowed eligibility for noncitizens, and reduced funding for food stamps. The BBA restored SSI eligibility for noncitizens receiving SSI prior to August 1996 and for legal noncitizens residing in the United States prior to August 1996 who become disabled in the future. SSA designed three studies to assess the effects of this legislation. Two of the studies focused on direct effects on SSA's disabled beneficiary population, targeting drug addicts and alcoholics and SSI children. The third study focused on the indirect effects of PRWORA, particularly the replacement of AFDC with TANF, on SSA's programs. The three studies were tied together by a concern of the overall effects--direct or indirect--of the legislative changes on SSA's beneficiary populations and a host of interrelated evaluation issues. The key methodological challenge of these evaluations is the nonexperimental nature of the evidence. The legislative pieces mandating the changes designed to affect SSA's target populations were implemented nationally, without prior demonstration projects. Nonexperimental strategies, such as comparison group designs, must therefore be used to measure the effects of interest. Other challenges relate to the time frames. Since implementing the changes requires a certain amount of time, and outcomes are realized over a period of time after that, the information that can be made available to interested policymakers in the short run is inherently limited to descriptive data on the populations affected and to impressionistic evidence from case studies and process study analyses. The timing problem is particularly acute with respect to measuring the indirect effects of replacing AFDC with TANF, because the most important likely effects will occur over a period of several years, and this time frame may substantially vary across states as a result of the decentralized nature of TANF programs. Finally, the analyses that can be conducted are constrained by the lack of relevant data from existing surveys. Administrative record data alleviate the need for survey information for some purposes, but the lack of survey data still seriously constrains the analyses that can be done in the short term. Because of these methodological challenges, SSA designed an evaluation strategy that uses several methods and data sources, including quantitative analyses of data from surveys and administrative records (particularly data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, or SIPP, matched to data from administrative records) and qualitative analyses through case studies. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:10951686

  5. Health care reform in the American states: administrative capacity building.

    PubMed

    Dodson, A L; Mueller, K J

    1996-01-01

    As the nation moves to reform Medicare and the health care industry becomes more competitive which will dramatically change the means by which health care is organized and financed, state governments ought to be establishing administrative capacity to administer new systems. This article describes past experiences of states in similar efforts and uses the legislation written in 13 states to analyze in greater detail current state health reform activities. Policies that create new central authorities have the greatest likelihood of building the appropriate administrative infrastructures. Provisions related to establishing data bases, creating regional authorities or advisory committees, establishing uniform claims, and facilitating integrated systems of care are common to several proposals. Previous state experiences with health planning and citizen involvement are evident in the schemes being proposed and enacted. PMID:10166069

  6. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  7. Welfare Reform's Effect on Child Welfare Caseloads. Discussion Papers 01-04. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geen, Rob; Fender, Lynn; Leos-Urbel, Jacob; Markowitz, Teresa

    Advocates, policymakers, and researchers have predicted that changes in the welfare system brought about by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 would increase the number of children who are abused and neglected, referred to child protective services, and placed in foster care. This study examined how welfare…

  8. The persistence of health inequalities in modern welfare states: the explanation of a paradox.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Johan P

    2012-08-01

    The persistence of socioeconomic inequalities in health, even in the highly developed 'welfare states' of Western Europe, is one of the great disappointments of public health. Health inequalities have not only persisted while welfare states were being built up, but on some measures have even widened, and are not smaller in European countries with more generous welfare arrangements. This paper attempts to identify potential explanations for this paradox, by reviewing nine modern 'theories' of the explanation of health inequalities. The theories reviewed are: mathematical artifact, fundamental causes, life course perspective, social selection, personal characteristics, neo-materialism, psychosocial factors, diffusion of innovations, and cultural capital. Based on these theories it is hypothesized that three circumstances may help to explain the persistence of health inequalities despite attenuation of inequalities in material conditions by the welfare state: (1) inequalities in access to material and immaterial resources have not been eliminated by the welfare state, and are still substantial; (2) due to greater intergenerational mobility, the composition of lower socioeconomic groups has become more homogeneous with regard to personal characteristics associated with ill-health; and (3) due to a change in epidemiological regime, in which consumption behavior became the most important determinant of ill-health, the marginal benefits of the immaterial resources to which a higher social position gives access have increased. Further research is necessary to test these hypotheses. If they are correct, the persistence of health inequalities in modern European welfare states can partly be seen as a failure of these welfare states to implement more radical redistribution measures, and partly as a form of 'bad luck' related to concurrent developments that have changed the composition of socioeconomic groups and made health inequalities more sensitive to immaterial factors. It is argued that normative evaluations of health inequalities should take these explanations into account, and that a direct attack on the personal, psychosocial and cultural determinants of health inequalities may be necessary to achieve a substantial reduction of health inequalities. PMID:22475407

  9. Generational equity and the politics of the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Quadagno, J

    1990-01-01

    The concept of generational equity--that the nation is squandering its wealth on entitlements to the elderly while children remain impoverished--has received considerable media attention. The author traces the source of that message to an organization, Americans for Generational Equity, which is dedicated to restructuring the Social Security system along the lines of a social assistance program: reduced benefits available at later ages only to those who qualify through means tests. The impact of this agenda would be to increase the labor force participation of older people, particularly women and minorities, those presently without private pension coverage and already heavily represented in that sector of the economy where labor shortage is developing. Defining national spending priorities in terms of intergenerational conflict obscures the fact that Social Security is the only U.S. welfare program that has been successful in reducing poverty levels. PMID:2265880

  10. School Finance Reform in the States: 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan; And Others

    Emphasizing the diminished resources of the 1980's, this report offers an overview of the varied experiences of the states in dealing with school finance issues. Although basic inequities in educational services remain, the states' generally poor fiscal condition has resulted in less attention for equity issues. However, public school financing…

  11. States and College Reform: New Jersey's Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, T. Edward

    1991-01-01

    New Jersey abandoned formula funding of higher education in favor of incentive funding combined with base budgeting. State institutions receive basic operating funds and compete for extra monies by planning initiatives for problems on which state leaders want more action. Incentive funding has cost little and improved quality noticeably. (MSE)

  12. CASAWORKS for Families: A Promising Approach to Welfare Reform and Substance-Abusing Women. A CASA White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    CASAWORKS for Families is the first national demonstration program to provide simultaneously drug and alcohol treatment; literacy, job, parenting, and social skills training; family violence prevention; and health care to help substance-abusing welfare parents recover. Its mission is to help women on welfare with substance abuse problems achieve…

  13. Is Christian Religious Conservatism Compatible with the Liberal Social Welfare State?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, John R.; Fandetti, Donald; Cole, Danny

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the rise of Christian religious conservatism and explores whether the theological views of the conservative Christian movement are compatible with the liberal social welfare state. The authors conclude that the driving force behind social change should remain with the state, even though faith-based initiatives can provide…

  14. The Public Understanding of Assessment in Educational Reform in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States education system depends on legislation and funding at the federal, state and local levels. Public understanding of assessment therefore is important to educational reform in the USA. Educational reformers often invoke assessment information as a reason for reform, typically by citing unacceptable achievement on some measure or…

  15. The Public Understanding of Assessment in Educational Reform in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States education system depends on legislation and funding at the federal, state and local levels. Public understanding of assessment therefore is important to educational reform in the USA. Educational reformers often invoke assessment information as a reason for reform, typically by citing unacceptable achievement on some measure or

  16. Understanding Educational Reform in Global Context: Economy, Ideology, and the State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Mark B., Ed.

    This book presents a set of national case studies on educational reform of higher education that views reform as processes of ideological and social struggles. The titles and authors are as follows: "Educational Reform: Social Struggles, the State and the World Economic System" (Mark B. Ginsburg, et al.); "Restructuring Education and the State in…

  17. Truth, healing, and systems change: the Maine Wabanaki-state child welfare truth and reconciliation commission process.

    PubMed

    Attean, Esther Altvater; Burns, Penthea; Proulx, Martha; Bissonette-Lewey, Jamie; Williams, Jill; Deserly, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Maine state child welfare staff understand the Indian Child Welfare Act requirements, yet their knowledge of Wabanaki history is limited because it has excluded the voices of the Wabanaki people. A group of Native people and state representatives are creating a truth and reconciliation commission process in Maine, designed to reckon with this history as a way of improving the child welfare system and promoting healing for Wabanaki children and families. PMID:23444787

  18. Universalism without the Targeting: Privatizing the Old-Age Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herd, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Decades of conservative attempts to scale back Social Security and Medicare, by limiting the program's universality through means testing and drastic benefit cuts, have failed. Thus, after numerous unsuccessful attempts at dismantling the U.S.'s universal old-age welfare state, or even meaningfully restraining its growth, conservative critics have…

  19. How Welfare States Shape the Gender Pay Gap: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Hadas; Shalev, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We assess the impact of the welfare state on cross-national variation in the gender wage gap. Earnings inequality between men and women is conceptualized as resulting from their different locations in the class hierarchy, combined with the severity of wage differentials between and within classes. This decomposition contributes to identifying…

  20. How Welfare States Shape the Gender Pay Gap: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Hadas; Shalev, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We assess the impact of the welfare state on cross-national variation in the gender wage gap. Earnings inequality between men and women is conceptualized as resulting from their different locations in the class hierarchy, combined with the severity of wage differentials between and within classes. This decomposition contributes to identifying

  1. Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebode, Stella O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

  2. Stretching the Limits: How States Are Using Welfare Flexibility To Support Children. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Theresa J.; Stein, Deborah L.

    While the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 included many provision of concern to child advocates, the Act also gave states increased flexibility to design welfare programs in ways that support children, or that ameliorate some of the harshest provisions of the Act. This issue brief describes innovative…

  3. The Welfare to Work Transition in the United States: Implications for Work-Related Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, James C.; Martin, Larry G.

    2000-11-01

    This paper summarizes the legislation upon which the current welfare-to-work transition in the United States is based and describes characteristics of the former welfare population from which various tiers of employment options have emerged: unsubsidized-employed workers, subsidized-employed workers, subsidized-unemployed recipients, and unsubsidized-unemployed individuals. It also discusses current program emphases, and presents a format for directions for future program development which includes academic programs, situated cognition programs, integrated literacy/occupational skills programs, and integrated literacy/soft skills training.

  4. ASAS centennial paper: Farm animal welfare science in the United States.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A K

    2009-06-01

    Compared with the more traditional sciences of nutrition, physiology, and reproduction, the acceptance of animal welfare science in its own right is still relatively new. Seven colleagues, who had an average of 10 yr experience with beef (n = 5), swine (n = 5), dairy (n = 2), poultry (n = 1), and sheep (n = 1) were asked several questions on the opportunities and challenges facing the field. The information collected was pooled for anonymity. General challenges identified by the group were (1) are we making progress and how can this be defined, (2) demand for information has outpaced the science, and (3) pressures from stakeholders. Solutions were (1) to continue providing sound science that has been validated, measured objectively, and is reliable; and (2) to continue to have animal science and veterinary medicine departments employ faculty trained in farm animal welfare. Highlights for the future were willingness for animal welfare scientists to work across disciplines and across departments, within the same institution, and enthusiastically across state lines, and expansion of new teaching models. In conclusion, new and innovative tools, personalities, and dedication to the field of animal welfare will continue to provide scientific information and direction for farm animal welfare science. PMID:19251918

  5. Health Care Reform Tracking Project: Tracking State Health Care Reforms as They Affect Children and Adolescents with Emotional Disorders and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Sheila A.; Stroul, Beth A.

    The Health Care Reform Tracking Project is a 5-year national project to track and analyze state health care reform initiatives as they affect children and adolescents with emotional/behavioral disorders and their families. The study's first phase was a baseline survey of all 50 states to describe current state reforms as of 1995. Among findings of…

  6. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States. 300.322 Section 300.322 Protection of Environment... Removal § 300.322 Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... public health or welfare of the United States. 300.322 Section 300.322 Protection of Environment... NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.322 Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... public health or welfare of the United States. 300.322 Section 300.322 Protection of Environment... NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.322 Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... public health or welfare of the United States. 300.322 Section 300.322 Protection of Environment... NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.322 Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States. (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... public health or welfare of the United States. 300.322 Section 300.322 Protection of Environment... NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.322 Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States. (a)...

  11. The context of child welfare performance measures.

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Samples, Mark; Lawson, Jennifer; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States seeks to improve the outcomes achieved by public agencies through performance measurement strategies. In child welfare policy, a federally mandated performance measurement system has evolved since the 1980s, establishing the federal Child and Family Services Review which uses a series of performance indicators for evaluating the child welfare system. This article reviews the literature on performance measurement and performance management in the public sector in order to develop a conceptual framework for examining the federal child welfare performance measurement system. It briefly summarizes the evolution of federal policy related to performance measurement in child welfare. The framework is then used to guide an analysis of the debate surrounding the establishment of the current child welfare performance measurement system, concluding with recommendations for consideration in future reform efforts. PMID:23705647

  12. Understanding State School Funding: The First Step toward Quality Reforms. The Progress of Education Reform. Volume 13, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This quote, taken from a piece written by the Education Commission of the States (ECS) nearly 30 years ago, demonstrates that researchers have long recognized the relationship between quality education reform and the structure of a state's school funding system. However, many policymakers continue to view their state's school funding formula not…

  13. Research-Infused STEM Reform at South Carolina State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Daniel M., Jr.; Anderson, J. A.; Adzievski, K.

    2006-12-01

    South Carolina State University (SCSU) has embarked upon a mission to transform its science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines by offering more scholarships to students talented in the sciences, by introducing advanced topics in the introductory STEM courses, and by expanding research opportunities for STEM students. Specific examples will be provided from physics and astronomy. Program accomplishments after one year of operation will be highlighted, along with the difficulties of instituting such a broad-based reform. NSF HBCU-UP Award #0506062

  14. The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Abortion, Education, Term Limits, Welfare Reform, Health Insurance, Riverboat Gambling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

    This report presents the annual survey of public opinion in Pennsylvania. Telephone surveys were conducted with 1,744 people whose telephone numbers were randomly selected from all listed telephone numbers. Results of the survey indicate that: (1) Pennsylvanians strongly favor mandatory birth control counseling for welfare mothers, but opinion is…

  15. San Francisco Works: Toward an Employer-Led Approach to Welfare Reform and Workforce Development. Connections to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Steven

    San Francisco Works (SFWorks) is a collaborative welfare-to-work project conducted by a coalition of large San Francisco-area employers, the city's Chamber of Commerce, and the United Way of the Bay Area. The project was piloted beginning in March 1998 by contracting with five community-based organizations (CBOs) to provide a comprehensive range…

  16. A Need For Correction: Reforming New York's Juvenile Justice System. Child Welfare Watch. Vol. 18, Fall 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Andrew; Hemphill, Clara; Hurley, Kendra

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of a U.S. Justice Department investigation that found widespread use of excessive force by staff at upstate psychiatric care facilities for mentally ill children, this new edition of Child Welfare Watch identifies shortcomings in mental health services and explores possible solutions, including the expansion of alternatives to…

  17. "Newstart" or "Stop-Start"? the Implications of Recent Welfare Reforms on Undergraduate Students Who Are Sole Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenette, Caroline; McDonald, Donna; Fowler, Jane L.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of recent income support payment changes for sole-parented families in Australia, and in particular, their capacity to access tertiary education. The government's program to reduce welfare benefit payments to sole-parented families already at high risk of economic disadvantage and social marginalization…

  18. Welfare Reform: An Examination of Effects. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (September 20, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This Congressional report contains the testimony and documents presented for the record of the first of two hearings to gather testimony on the effects of welfare reform and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant. The oral and written testimony focuses on TANF legislation's outcomes and impact on work and families in…

  19. Welfare Reform: Success in Moving toward Work. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (October 16, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This Congressional report contains the testimony and documents presented for the record at the second of two hearings on the effects of welfare reform and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant. Other areas receiving particular attention from witnesses included the impacts of education and training on employment patterns…

  20. Revenue Generation in the Wake of Welfare Reform: Summary of the Pilot Learning Cluster on Early Childhood Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finance Project, Washington, DC.

    Creating more comprehensive, community-based support systems and reforming early childhood financing systems are critical to advancing the goal of having all children enter school ready to learn. The Finance Project is a national initiative to improve effectiveness, efficiency, and equity of financing for education, children's services, and…

  1. Urban Poverty and the Welfare State: Comparative Reflections on Scandinavia and the U.S. Working Paper No. 481.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Peter

    Scandinavian welfare states are developing a growing new middle class and a growing marginalized, poverty-threatened underclass, reproducing the societal duality caused by labor market structuring. Tightening labor markets, increased dependency on welfare benefits, and substantial decreases in public transfers have combined to create a growing…

  2. Norwegian public health policy: revitalization of the social democratic welfare state?

    PubMed

    Fosse, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Norway is part of the so-called social democratic welfare state model, which is characterized by its emphasis on solidarity and redistribution among social groups. The concepts of upstream and downstream policy measures may be useful to characterize different approaches to public health policies: upstream measures would be structural measures, in line with the social democratic welfare state model, while downstream measures would be more targeted at individuals or groups at some sort of risk. The aim of this article is to analyze national policies in Norway and how these may be characterized in terms of upstream and downstream factors. Health promotion and public health policies have been high on the Norwegian political agenda for two decades. However, the national policy emphasis has shifted between strategies aimed at individuals and structural strategies--that is, between downstream and upstream measures. Until 2003, policies included mainly downstream measures, but since then a policy shift has taken place and current policy includes an emphasis on upstream measures. This policy was strengthened after a left-wing coalition came into government in 2005. It may be argued that the present policy represents a revitalization of universal and structural measures, in line with the social democratic welfare state model. PMID:19492626

  3. The New Zealand State and Educational Reforms: "Competing" Interests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Liz

    1992-01-01

    Describes market reforms in New Zealand education from 1984 when the Labour government had control, to the present system under the National government. Prior to reforms, New Zealand had an equitable homogeneous system. Reforms have led to inequality, particularly to the disadvantage of Maori people, and may have lowered educational standards. (KS)

  4. The impact of states' small group health insurance reforms on uninsurance rates.

    PubMed

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Stoskopf, Carleen H; Hussey, James R; Samuels, Michael E; Shrader, William R; Saunders, Ruth P

    2005-01-01

    The impact of states' small group market reforms on uninsurance rates was examined. Reform status was quantified on five reform dimensions: Access Improvement, Premium Reduction, Premium Differential Reduction, Continuity of Coverage, and Enhancing Valued Plan Features. These reform indices were calculated based on actuarial judgment of the market impact potential of each regulation. Regression analysis showed no association between uninsurance rates and the depth of reforms on any dimension, while controlling for income, foreign-born population, black population, and employment in the smallest businesses. Possible reasons for the lack of impact are discussed. PMID:16236677

  5. "They Get You out of Courage:" Persistent Deep Poverty among Former Welfare-Reliant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blalock, Lydia L.; Tiller, Vicky R.; Monroe, Pamel A.

    2004-01-01

    We looked closely at families who remain in persistent deep poverty in the remote rural areas of one state, using welfare reform as the contextual backdrop. We examined the lives of 10 women who have participated in this qualitative research for over 6 years. The woman heading each family was a welfare program participant; she engaged (more or…

  6. Serving Welfare Recipients with Learning Disabilities in a "Work First" Environment. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rebecca; Ganzglass, Evelyn

    This issue brief examines strategies that states can use to help welfare recipients with learning disabilities move toward self-sufficiency within the context of welfare reform. It defines a learning disability, explains approaches to identifying and assessing undiagnosed learning disabilities, and suggests ways to secure accommodations for

  7. Privatizing the welfarist state: health care reforms in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khoon, Chan Chee

    2003-01-01

    In Malaysia, the shifting balance between market and state has many nuances. Never a significant welfare state in the usual mold, the Malaysian state nonetheless has been a dominant social and economic presence dictated by its affirmative action-type policies, which eventually metamorphosed into state-led indigenous capitalism. Privatisation is also intimately linked with emergence of an indigenous bourgeoisie with favored access to the vast accumulation of state assets and prerogatives. Internationally, it is conditioned by the fluid relationships of converging alliances and contested compromise with international capital, including transnational health services industries. As part of its vision of a maturing, diversified economy, the Malaysian government is fostering a private-sector advanced health care industry to cater to local demand and also aimed at regional and international patrons. The assumption is that, as disposable incomes increase, a market for such services is emerging and citizens can increasingly shoulder their own health care costs. The government would remain the provider for the indigent. But the key assumption remains: the growth trajectory will see the emergence of markets for an increasingly affluent middle class. Importantly, the health care and social services market would be dramatically expanded as the downsizing of public-sector health care proceeds amid a general retreat of government from its provider and financing roles. PMID:17208722

  8. Reforming state-level chemicals management policies in the United States: status, challenges, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Ken; Tickner, Joel; Torrie, Yve

    2009-01-01

    During the last several years there has been increasing public concern about chemicals in everyday products. Scientific studies are increasingly revealing the build-up of some substances in ecosystems and in our bodies and new findings are linking exposures to hazardous chemicals to a range of adverse human health effects. Despite these trends, there has been little federal initiative in the United States on reforming chemicals management policies for well over two decades, even though a variety of analyses have identified significant gaps in the regulatory structure. As has historically been the case, states are beginning to fill the holes in federal leadership. This article explores this emerging state leadership and establishes a vision for and elements of policies to reduce hazardous chemicals in the products we buy and the places we go. It examines international efforts to reform chemicals management policies, such as the European REACH legislation and corporate leadership in advancing safer products. Finally, it outlines specific challenges states face in developing integrated, comprehensive chemicals management policies. We conclude that while there are plenty of challenges to implementation of chemicals policy reforms, it is a propitious time for states to become leaders in policy innovation that can help achieve safer production systems and products for future generations. This article is part of a Lowell Center for Sustainable Production report entitled "Options for State Chemicals Policy Reform" that provides in-depth analysis of the pros and cons of policy options to address a range of aspects of state-level chemicals policy reform. The article has been edited slightly for use in New Solutions. The report has been widely distributed to policy-makers, advocates, and others across the United States. PMID:19447756

  9. Welfare System Reform: Coordinating Federal, State, and Local Public Assistance Programs. Studies in Social Welfare Policies and Programs, Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Edward T., Jr., Ed.; Zank, Neal S., Ed.

    The 16 chapters in this book are intended to stimulate thinking about approaches to dealing with the substance of public assistance policy as it bears on coordination issues, organizational arrangements for policy development and delivery, and processes for building linkages between disparate but related programs. Part I, an introduction, contains…

  10. Child Care Quality: States' Difficulties Enforcing Standards Confront Welfare Reform Plans. Statement of Joseph F. Delfico, Director, Income Security Issues, Health, Education, and Human Services. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Regulation, Business Opportunities, and Technology, Committee on Small Business, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This statement: (1) discusses the growth in demand and supply of child care in the United States during the last 20 years; (2) defines quality child care and its importance; (3) examines what states do to protect children in care and why this has become increasingly difficult; and (4) notes further complications for states under proposed reforms…

  11. Happy Marriage or Uneasy Alliance? The Relationship between Comprehensive School Reform and State Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datnow, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how the relationship between comprehensive school reform (CSR) and state accountability systems helps or hinders school improvement efforts. This article draws on case study data collected in schools in 3 states that received funding to implement reforms through the federal CSR program. Findings show that…

  12. Commentary: recent reforms in the British National Health Service--lessons for the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, W W; Graham, C

    1994-01-01

    President Clinton recently announced his reform plan for health care in the United States. The United Kingdom, along with other countries, has already enacted reforms in an effort to overcome the basic problem of having insufficient funds to provide a health service to meet modern demands. This paper briefly describes the recent health reforms in the United Kingdom and highlights some lessons for the United States, which include the need to choose procedures that should be universally provided. Health reforms that involve some fundamental restructuring need to be evaluated everywhere and agreed to by the staff in advance. PMID:8296937

  13. Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Haejoo; Ng, Edwin; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Karlsson, Björn; Benach, Joan; Espelt, Albert; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05–0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22–0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08–0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10–0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26–0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14–3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86–3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health. PMID:23538729

  14. School Reform in the United States: Frames and Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This essay reviews six competing positions on U.S. school reform: a speech from Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan; Diane Ravitch's "The Death and Life of the Great American School System"; Frederick Hess's "The Same Thing Over and Over"; Charles Payne's "So Much Reform, So Little Change"; Anthony Byrk and others' "Organizing School for…

  15. Welfare state retrenchment and increasing mental health inequality by educational credentials in Finland: a multicohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinen, Lauri; Muntaner, Carles; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Varje, Pekka; Väänänen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological studies have shown an association between educational credentials and mental disorders, but have not offered any explanation for the varying strength of this association in different historical contexts. In this study, we investigate the education-specific trends in hospitalisation due to psychiatric disorders in Finnish working-age men and women between 1976 and 2010, and offer a welfare state explanation for the secular trends found. Setting Population-based setting with a 25% random sample of the population aged 30–65 years in 7 independent consecutive cohorts (1976–1980, 1981–1985, 1986–1990, 1991–1995, 1996–2000, 2001–2005, 2006–2010). Participants Participants were randomly selected from the Statistics Finland population database (n=2 865 746). These data were linked to diagnosis-specific records on hospitalisations, drawn from the National Hospital Discharge Registry using personal identification numbers. Employment rates by educational credentials were drawn from the Statistics Finland employment database. Primary and secondary outcome measures Hospitalisation and employment. Results We found an increasing trend in psychiatric hospitalisation rates among the population with only an elementary school education, and a decreasing trend in those with higher educational credentials. The employment rate of the population with only an elementary school education decreased more than that of those with higher educational credentials. Conclusions We propose that restricted employment opportunities are the main mechanism behind the increased educational inequality in hospitalisation for psychiatric disorders, while several secondary mechanisms (lack of outpatient healthcare services, welfare cuts, decreased alcohol duty) further accelerated the diverging long-term trends. All of these inequality-increasing mechanisms were activated by welfare state retrenchment, which included the liberalisation of financial markets and labour markets, severe austerity measures and narrowing down of public sector employment commitment. PMID:26041491

  16. Family economic resources in the post-reform era.

    PubMed

    Zedlewski, Sheila Rafferty

    2002-01-01

    Aided by the longest economic expansion in U.S. history and other policy changes designed to make work pay, federal welfare reform legislation has spurred mothers to leave welfare at an unprecedented rate. The majority of mothers who left welfare are working, but most have jobs with low pay and limited benefits. This article discusses the relationship between economic resources and child well-being, and how family economic resources have changed under welfare reform. A survey of the research conducted since reform indicates the following: Families' economic resources clearly matter to child well-being, but the connections are complex and vary by the age of the child. Without the benefit of supports designed to "make work pay," many families working full time at the minimum wage have resources beneath the poverty line, and the poverty line itself falls substantially short of the needs of most working families. Although poverty overall has declined under welfare reform, a significant segment of families are worse off--in part because after leaving welfare, many families do not receive other government supports designed to help them. Most states are still struggling to design more effective systems for delivering supports to help low-income working families move out of poverty. The author cautions that the evolving story of welfare reform will need to be monitored carefully to achieve long-term positive impacts on family economic resources and child well-being. PMID:11980033

  17. Longitudinal Effects of Domestic Violence on Employment and Welfare Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Oxford, Monica; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

    2007-01-01

    This study uses longitudinal data spanning 13 years from a study of 234 adolescent mothers to evaluate the effects of cumulative domestic violence on employment and welfare use before and after welfare reform. Domestic violence increased the odds of unemployment after welfare reform, but not before; domestic violence had no effect on welfare use…

  18. Longitudinal Effects of Domestic Violence on Employment and Welfare Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Oxford, Monica; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

    2007-01-01

    This study uses longitudinal data spanning 13 years from a study of 234 adolescent mothers to evaluate the effects of cumulative domestic violence on employment and welfare use before and after welfare reform. Domestic violence increased the odds of unemployment after welfare reform, but not before; domestic violence had no effect on welfare use

  19. The Sustainability of a National Reading Reform Initiative in Two States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Rita M.; Dole, Janice A.; Nelson, Kristin L.; Belcastro, Elizabeth G.; Zigmond, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Although there have been any number of national reading reform efforts over the years, there is little evidence that such efforts have been sustained in schools over time. This study focused on addressing 2 questions: To what extent have Reading First schools in 2 states sustained the key elements of this reform over time? To what extent has…

  20. Reform in the General Education Movement: The Case of Michigan State College, 1938-1952

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayed, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the case of Michigan State College (MSC) to reconsider understanding of reform in the general education movement. Using the lens of MSC, the author argues that reform in the general education movement operated in a matrix of influence that involved educational research, philanthropy, and (both inter- and intra-) institutional…

  1. A Call for Reformation of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Ashley Ireland

    2014-01-01

    Although current research, educational theorists, and international comparison prove a need for reform, the United States' teacher preparation programs are failing. The following paper will call for the reform of teacher preparation programs in three distinct areas. Examination of current data, application of educational theorists'…

  2. Analysis of State School Finance Reform Legislation Proposal in Oregon, and Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert G.

    This paper describes the development of school finance reform in Oregon from 1968 through legislative enactments in 1973 and proposals for the voters in 1974. The first section describes the 1973 school finance reform proposal, rejected by voters, as it was originally submitted (whereby the State would have assumed 95 percent of the operating…

  3. The Sustainability of Comprehensive School Reform Models in Changing District and State Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datnow, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the sustainability of comprehensive school reform (CSR) models in the face of turbulent district and state contexts. It draws on qualitative data gathered in a longitudinal case study of six CSR models implemented in 13 schools in one urban district. Why do reforms sustain in some schools and not in others? How do changing…

  4. Effects of a Data-Driven District Reform Model on State Assessment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Cheung, Alan; Holmes, GwenCarol; Madden, Nancy A.; Chamberlain, Anne

    2013-01-01

    A district-level reform model created by the Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE) provided consultation with district leaders on strategic use of data and selection of proven programs. Fifty-nine districts in seven states were randomly assigned to CDDRE or control conditions. A total of 397 elementary and 225 middle schools were…

  5. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND... development and planning activities for emergency welfare preparedness. Such activities must relate to...) Safekeeping essential documents and records; (2) Planning and developing emergency operating capability...

  6. Business Participation in Welfare-to-Work: Lessons from the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jack; Kazis, Richard

    Case studies of 19 U.S. companies involved in welfare-to-work programs found that political and economic factors have accelerated the rate at which employers are hiring welfare recipients. Although participation in welfare-to-work programs is dominated by larger firms in a few industries (such as service and retail sectors), there is potential for…

  7. The Impact of State Behavioral Health Reform on Native American Individuals, Families, and Communities

    PubMed Central

    Willging, Cathleen E.; Goodkind, Jessica; Lamphere, Louise; Saul, Gwendolyn; Fluder, Shannon; Seanez, Paula

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the State of New Mexico undertook a sweeping transformation of all publicly funded behavioral health services. The reform was intended to enhance the cultural responsiveness and appropriateness of these services. To examine achievement of this objective, we conducted a qualitative study of the involvement of Native Americans in reform efforts and the subsequent impacts of reform on services for Native Americans. We found that the reform was relatively unsuccessful at creating mechanisms for genuine community input or improving behavioral health care for this population. These shortcomings were related to limited understandings of administrators concerning how tribal governments and health care systems operate, and the structural limitations of a managed care system that does not allow flexibility for culturally appropriate utilization review, screening, or treatment. However, interaction between the State and tribes increased, and we conclude that aspects of the reform could be strengthened to achieve more meaningful involvement and service improvements. PMID:22427455

  8. A Framework for Rebuilding Initial Certification and Preparation Programs in Educational Leadership: Lessons from Whole-State Reform Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph; Moorman, Hunter N.; McCarthy, Martha

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: This study examines the extent of reform in preparation programs in school leadership in six states employing a comprehensive, whole-state intervention design. Although no studies of these or other comprehensive reform designs are available, there is a rich context surrounding preparation reform work that informed our…

  9. The University in the Making of the Welfare State: The 1970s Degree Reform in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalava, Marja

    2012-01-01

    In just a couple of decades, Finland evolved from one of Europe's lowest educated countries to the top performer of the international PISA ranking. Behind this "success story", there was a conscious strategy to use educational policies for creating a more equal society. Tracing the development of Finnish higher education system after WWII, this…

  10. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... as defined in the demonstration component in determining the numerator; and (iii) Including cases... component policy, in determining the numerator. (2) We will determine whether a State is taking...

  11. The British welfare state and mental health problems: the continuing relevance of the work of Claus Offe.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, David

    2012-09-01

    It is now over thirty years since Claus Offe theorised the crisis tendencies of the welfare state in late capitalism. As part of that work he explored ongoing and irresolvable forms of crisis management in parliamentary democracies: capitalism cannot live with the welfare state but also cannot live without it. This article examines the continued relevance of this analysis by Offe, by applying its basic assumptions to the response of the British welfare state to mental health problems, at the turn of the twenty first century. His general theoretical abstractions are tested against the empirical picture of mental health service priorities, evident since the 1980s, in sections dealing with: re-commodification tendencies; the ambiguity of wage labour in the mental health workforce; the emergence of new social movements; and the limits of legalism. PMID:22530616

  12. Reforming Welfare and Rewarding Work: Final Report on the Minnesota Family Investment Program. Volume 1: Effects on Adults [and] Volume 2: Effects on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia; Knox, Virginia; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Dodoo, Martey; Hunter, Jo Anna; Redcross, Cindy

    The Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP) began in 1994 as a major welfare initiative that differed from the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) by featuring the following elements: financial incentives to work; participation requirements for long-term welfare recipients; and simplification of welfare rules and procedures. In…

  13. Understanding the role of welfare state characteristics for health and inequalities – an analytical review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The past decade has witnessed a growing body of research on welfare state characteristics and health inequalities but the picture is, despite this, inconsistent. We aim to review this research by focusing on theoretical and methodological differences between studies that at least in part may lead to these mixed findings. Methods Three reviews and relevant bibliographies were manually explored in order to find studies for the review. Related articles were searched for in PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Database searches were done in PubMed and Web of Science. The search period was restricted to 2005-01-01 to 2013-02-28. Fifty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Results Three main approaches to comparative welfare state research are identified; the Regime approach, the Institutional approach, and the Expenditure approach. The Regime approach is the most common and regardless of the empirical regime theory employed and the amendments made to these, results are diverse and contradictory. When stratifying studies according to other features, not much added clarity is achieved. The Institutional approach shows more consistent results; generous policies and benefits seem to be associated with health in a positive way for all people in a population, not only those who are directly affected or targeted. The Expenditure approach finds that social and health spending is associated with increased levels of health and smaller health inequalities in one way or another but the studies are few in numbers making it somewhat difficult to get coherent results. Conclusions Based on earlier reviews and our results we suggest that future research should focus less on welfare regimes and health inequalities and more on a multitude of different types of studies, including larger analyses of social spending and social rights in various policy areas and how these are linked to health in different social strata. But, we also need more detailed evaluation of specific programmes or interventions, as well as more qualitative analyses of the experiences of different types of policies among the people and families that need to draw on the collective resources. PMID:24369852

  14. State Perspectives on Health Care Reform: Oregon, Hawaii, Tennessee, and Rhode Island

    PubMed Central

    Thome, Jean I.; Bianchi, Barbara; Bonnyman, Gordon; Greene, Clark; Leddy, Tricia

    1995-01-01

    The general consensus among States which have had their section 1115 demonstration projects approved is that there is no one best way to implement State health care reform. The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), however, wished to discern how States were accomplishing the task of implementing the demonstrations, and solicited responses from State representatives whose section 1115 demonstration waivers had been approved. The resulting article gives an overview of this implementation process from four State perspectives. Written by representatives from Oregon, Hawaii, Tennessee, and Rhode Island, the ideas presented here are indicative of the complex undertaking of State health care reform. PMID:10142573

  15. The A B Cs of Welfare Reform: A Guide to the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Candace J.; Sugarman, Jule M.

    The passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 means that, for the first time, the federal government has shifted substantial responsibility for maintaining a social safety net for the most vulnerable populations to the state governments. This guide summarizes the contents of the new law, identifies…

  16. The Aftermath of Welfare Reform: Health, Health Insurance, and Access to Care among Families Leaving TANF in Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seccombe, Karen; Hartley, Heather; Newsom, Jason; Hoffman, Kim; Marchand, Gwen C.; Albo, Christina; Gordon, Cathy; Zaback, Tosha; Lockwood, Richard; Pope, Clyde

    2007-01-01

    This research reports the initial findings of a statewide study that looks at health, insurance, and access to health care among families leaving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) for work. Most national and state-level evaluation projects focus primarily on the employment characteristics of TANF leavers and pay little or no attention…

  17. A comprehensive snapshot of States' small group market reforms on insurer pricing & rating practices, 1999.

    PubMed

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Stoskopf, Carleen H; Shrader, William R; Glover, Saundra H

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative analysis of states' small group health insurance reforms that impact small group premiums, mostly enacted by the states during 1996-99, following the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act in 1996. It draws from an intensive review of statutes of 48 states and the District of Columbia as of 1999. It analyses regulations related to insurer pricing and rating practices concerning rating criteria and rating bands, pricing incentives, premium stability from year to year, minimum loss rations, reinsurance and carve-out coverage for the medically uninsurable. It also covers regulations targeting employer purchasing and coverage practices such as pooled purchasing and adverse selection. This is the second of a two-part series analyzing states' small group market reforms, the first being devoted to state reforms to promote access and improving the value of health plans offered in this market (Xirasagar et al. 2004). The variety in pricing and rating reforms illustrate the differences in the depth of reforms across states, and represent a far wider range of potential actuarial combinations than the sample of reforms documented in past literature. PMID:15855080

  18. Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2008-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:18687625

  19. Health care reform and social movements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2008-09-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or "change from below," in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:18687625

  20. Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2003-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:12511390

  1. An Examination of State Takeover as a School Reform Strategy in a Small Rural School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookover, Chester Wayne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore state takeover as a school reform strategy in a small rural school district. Since 1988, more than 50 U.S. school districts in 20 states have been subject to some form of state takeover. A number of factors generally contribute to a state takeover, some of which include: poor student…

  2. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS 205... emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused...

  3. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS 205... emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused...

  4. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS 205... emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused...

  5. Current State and Problems of Higher Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salnikov, N.; Burukhin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Russia is experiencing changes in curriculum and in the specialization and function of institutions in the search for a better model for a post-Soviet society. The early 1990s saw the start of the reform of the system of education in Russia. However, problems of quality and of continuity with secondary education have still not…

  6. Corporate Education Reform and the Rise of State Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, P. L.

    2013-01-01

    The election of Barack Obama appeared to signal a shift in U.S. policy toward the Left, particularly since Obama has been framed as a "socialist," but the education discourse and policy pursued under Obama and voiced by Secretary of Education Arne Duncan has shown that education reform remains in the midst of a powerful corporate model. This essay…

  7. Corporate Education Reform and the Rise of State Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, P. L.

    2013-01-01

    The election of Barack Obama appeared to signal a shift in U.S. policy toward the Left, particularly since Obama has been framed as a "socialist," but the education discourse and policy pursued under Obama and voiced by Secretary of Education Arne Duncan has shown that education reform remains in the midst of a powerful corporate model. This essay

  8. Literacy and Dependency: The Literacy Skills of Welfare Recipients in the United States. Policy Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Paul E.; Jenkins, Lynn

    Data from the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey were analyzed in a study of the relationship between literacy skill levels and dependency on welfare. The study focused on the following: literacy levels in the welfare population and in different demographic groups, the relationship between educational attainment and literacy and labor force…

  9. U.S. Immigration in the 1980s: Reappraisal and Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simcox, David E., Ed.

    The introductory chapter of this volume on immigration into the United States is entitled "Overview: A Time of Reform and Reappraisal" (D. Simcox), and it introduces the topics of reform, legal and illegal immigration, the effect of immigration on the labor market and social welfare, and immigration enforcement methods that are discussed in the

  10. Leave No City Behind: England/United States Dialogue on Urban Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannaway, Jane; Murphy, Marilyn; Reed, Jodie

    2004-01-01

    Both the United States and England initiated ambitious standards-based education reform to eliminate large gaps between their highest and lowest achievers. England appears to be ahead, having started in 1988 with a national curriculum, tests, and performance tables. The United States' No Child Left Behind Act began rewriting state rules in 2002…

  11. Promoting Supervisory Practice Change in Public Child Welfare: Lessons from University/Agency Collaborative Research in Four States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Millar, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This article describes qualitative findings regarding lessons learned from research and demonstration projects in four states focused on the implementation of clinical supervision within their public child welfare agencies. This was part of a larger mixed methods study of the effectiveness of these new clinical supervision models on practice,…

  12. Perspectives on animal welfare legislation and study considerations for field-oriented studies of raptors in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Strobel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Concern for the welfare of animals used in research and teaching has increased over the last 50 yr. Animal welfare legislation has resulted in guidelines for the use of animals in research, but the guidelines can be problematic because they focus on animals used in laboratory and agriculture research. Raptor biologists can be constrained by guidelines, restrictions, and oversight that were not intended for field research methods or wild animals in the wild or captivity. Field researchers can be further hampered by not understanding animal welfare legislation, who is subject to oversight, or that oversight is often provided by a committee consisting primarily of scientists who work with laboratory animals. Raptor researchers in particular may experience difficulty obtaining approval due to use of various species-specific trapping and handling methods. We provide a brief review of animal welfare legislation and describe the basic components and responsibilities of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in the United States. We identify topics in raptor research that are especially problematic to obtaining IACUC approval, and we provide insight on how to address these issues. Finally, we suggest that all raptor researchers, regardless of legal requirements, abide by the spirit of the animal welfare principles. Failure to do so may bring about further regulatory and permitting restrictions. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  13. Statutory Reform is Associated with Improved Court Practice: Results of a Tri-State Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Moye, Jennifer; Wood, Erica; Edelstein, Barry; Wood, Stacey; Bower, Emily H.; Harrison, Julie A.; Armesto, Jorge C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates the impact of statutory reform in adult guardianship on court practice. Methods Case files for 298 cases of adult guardianship were reviewed in three states with varying degrees of statutory reform: MA (no reform), PA (major amendments in 1992), and CO (full re-enactment of statute per UGPPA in 2000). Five court practices associated with progressive statutory reform were studied: (1) diversion to less restrictive alternatives; (2) minimal and appropriate use of emergency procedures; (3) presence of the alleged incapacitated person at the hearing; (4) use of functional evaluation; (5) use of limited orders. Results CO more frequently utilized all five practices, whereas PA used diversion to less restrictive alternatives and less frequent emergency procedures, but not other practices. MA files rarely showed evidence for use of any of these reforms. Implications Statutory reform may improve court practice. More study of the effects of reform on court practices, and the vulnerable adults served by these courts, is needed. PMID:17506075

  14. Globalization and the Nation-State: Sovereignty and State Welfare in Jeopardy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jotia, Agreement Lathi

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the fact that although globalization cannot be resisted by the nation-state, it is often confronted by mixed reactions from both the GN (Global North) and the GS (Global South). The essay charges that globalization has political, economic and cultural impact on the nation-state, which ultimately impacts the issue of identity…

  15. Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans: An Evaluation of Specific Measures Taken by States To Comply with the Indian Child Welfare Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eddie F.; Limb, Gordon E.; Munoz, Ric; Clifford, Chey A.

    This study responds to the lack of research on Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) compliance by examining a nationwide sample of the ICWA section within state Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans (CFSP) and Annual Progress and Services Reports (APSR). These plans and reports address the administration of state child welfare systems. The…

  16. Why the United States has no national health insurance: stakeholder mobilization against the welfare state, 1945--1996.

    PubMed

    Quadagno, Jill

    2004-01-01

    The United States is the only western industrialized nation that fails to provide universal coverage and the only nation where health care for the majority of the population is financed by for-profit, minimally regulated private insurance companies. These arrangements leave one-sixth of the population uninsured at any given time, and they leave others at risk of losing insurance as a result of normal life course events. Political theorists of the welfare state usually attribute the failure of national health insurance in the United States to broader forces of American political development, but they ignore the distinctive character of the health care financing arrangements that do exist. Medical sociologists emphasize the way that physicians parlayed their professional expertise into legal, institutional, and economic power but not the way this power was asserted in the political arena. This paper proposes a theory of stakeholder mobilization as the primary obstacle to national health insurance. The evidence supports the argument that powerful stakeholder groups, first the American Medical Association, then organizations of insurance companies and employer groups, have been able to defeat every effort to enact national health insurance across an entire century because they had superior resources and an organizational structure that closely mirrored the federated arrangements of the American state. The exception occurred when the AFL-CIO, with its national leadership, state federations and union locals, mobilized on behalf of Medicare. PMID:15779464

  17. Transitions in State Public Health Law: Comparative Analysis of State Public Health Law Reform Following the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Gebbie, Kristine M.

    2009-01-01

    Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health. PMID:19150900

  18. Preparing Welfare and Other Low-Income Adults for Work and Better Jobs: A Report on Low-Income Students Enrolled in Colleges and the Start-Up of WorkFirst Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia. Education Div.

    This is a report on Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges' assistance of low-income adults under the state's welfare reform initiative, WorkFirst. Current and former welfare students attending community and technical colleges comprise 9% of all college student enrollments. Combining work and training leads to higher wages.…

  19. Family, welfare state generosity and the vulnerability of older adults: A cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Moor, Nienke; de Graaf, Paul M; Komter, Aafke

    2013-12-01

    The availability of family can be considered a protective factor for aging well. In this article, we examine to what extent the family situation of older people creates vulnerability with respect to their quality of life. Because not everyone is vulnerable to the same degree, we try to identify the conditions under which older people benefit more from having family resources. Based on the resources perspective, we argue that the impact of family resources on life satisfaction is stronger for older people with fewer resources at both the individual level (material, physical and non-familial social resources) and the country level (welfare state services targeted at older adults). To test our hypotheses we make use of the fourth wave of the European Values Study, and the MULTILINKS Social Policy Indicators database. In general our data offer support for the idea that the presence of intimate family ties (with partner and children) can be considered an important resource for achieving psychological well-being, whereas their absence or loss may act as a constraint. Our vulnerability argument is partly supported by the findings. Partner resources are more important for the life satisfaction of older people with a low education and health problems. Similarly, having children only improves the life-satisfaction of lower educated older adults. However, family resources are not more important for older people with fewer material resources or for older people living in countries with low services levels targeted at older adults. PMID:24300055

  20. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Social and Rehabilitation Service, DHHS publication No. (SRS) 72-23004. These activities include: (1... emergency welfare preparedness under titles I, X, XIV, XVI (AABD) of the Social Security Act. (d) The...

  1. Splintered Accountability: State Governance and Education Reform. SUNY Series in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shober, Arnold F.

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act declared that improving education in every school in the United States was a top national priority. However, this act did not acknowledge how state departments of education have successfully constructed reforms for the past few decades, despite the power struggle between governors, legislators, school districts, and…

  2. Using Pre-K to Advance Education Reform: Opportunities for State Advisory Councils. Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffin, Stacie G.; Regenstein, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    By strengthening linkages between pre-k programs and education reform agendas, Early Childhood Councils are well positioned to influence their states' school improvement activities. This brief identifies specific steps councils can take to maximize their states' investments in early education including aligning policy prior to and following Pre-K.

  3. Promoting Educational Reforms in Weak States: The Case of Radical Policy Discontinuity in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarin, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The present article explores the making of education policies in weak states, particularly in the context of developing nations and in view of the increasing influence of international organisations, such as the World Bank, in definition of education reform agendas. The discussion seeks to contribute to the theory of weak states by highlighting…

  4. Using Pre-K to Advance Education Reform: Opportunities for State Advisory Councils. Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffin, Stacie G.; Regenstein, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    By strengthening linkages between pre-k programs and education reform agendas, Early Childhood Councils are well positioned to influence their states' school improvement activities. This brief identifies specific steps councils can take to maximize their states' investments in early education including aligning policy prior to and following Pre-K.…

  5. Political and Social Roots of Education Reform: A Look at the States in the Mid-1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feir, Robert E.

    Between 1983 and 1987, every state in the United States adopted some sort of education reform. This paper presents findings of an analysis of reform activity in the 50 states during the mid-1980s, with a focus on several education and socioeconomic indicators. The conceptual framework was grounded in general-systems theory, which attributes some…

  6. The Impacts of State Health Reform Initiatives on Adults in New York and Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Long, Sharon K; Stockley, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effects of health reform efforts in two large states—New York and Massachusetts. Data Sources/Study Setting National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data from 1999 to 2008. Study Design We take advantage of the “natural experiments” that occurred in New York and Massachusetts to compare health insurance coverage and health care access and use for adults before and after the implementation of the health policy changes. To control for underlying trends not related to the reform initiatives, we subtract changes in the outcomes over the same time period for comparison groups of adults who were not affected by the policy changes using a differences-in-differences framework. The analyses are conducted using multiple comparison groups and different time periods as a check on the robustness of the findings. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Nonelderly adults ages 19–64 in the NHIS. Principal Findings We find evidence of the success of the initiatives in New York and Massachusetts at expanding insurance coverage, with the greatest gains reported by the initiative that was broadest in scope—the Massachusetts push toward universal coverage. There is no evidence of improvements in access to care in New York, reflecting the small gains in coverage under that state's reform effort and the narrow focus of the initiative. In contrast, there were significant gains in access to care in Massachusetts, where the impact on insurance coverage was greater and a more comprehensive set of reforms were implemented to improve access to a full array of health care services. The estimated gains in coverage and access to care reported here for Massachusetts were achieved in the early period under health reform, before the state's reform initiative was fully implemented. Conclusions Comprehensive reform initiatives are more successful at addressing gaps in coverage and access to care than are narrower efforts, highlighting the potential gains under national health reform. Tracking the implications of national health reform will be challenging, as sample sizes and content in existing national surveys are not currently sufficient for in-depth evaluations of the impacts of reform within many states. PMID:21091471

  7. Welfare States, Labor Markets, Political Dynamics, and Population Health: A Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis Among East and Southeast Asian Nations.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edwin; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-04-01

    Recent scholarship offers different theories on how macrosocial determinants affect the population health of East and Southeast Asian nations. Dominant theories emphasize the effects of welfare regimes, welfare generosity, and labor market institutions. In this article, we conduct exploratory time-series cross-sectional analyses to generate new evidence on these theories while advancing a political explanation. Using unbalanced data of 7 East Asian countries and 11 Southeast Asian nations from 1960 to 2012, primary findings are 3-fold. First, welfare generosity measured as education and health spending has a positive impact on life expectancy, net of GDP. Second, life expectancy varies significantly by labor markets; however, these differences are explained by differences in welfare generosity. Third, as East and Southeast Asian countries become more democratic, welfare generosity increases, and population health improves. This study provides new evidence on the value of considering politics, welfare states, and labor markets within the same conceptual framework. PMID:26842398

  8. Indian Child Welfare Act: Existing Information on Implementation Issues Could Be Used to Target Guidance and Assistance to States. GAO-05-290

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA ) created important protections to prevent state child welfare agencies and courts from inappropriately separating American Indian children from their families. This report describes (1) the factors that influence placement decisions for children subject to ICWA; (2) the extent to which, if any, placements for…

  9. Education Reform for the Knowledge Economy in the State of Sangon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the issues associated with the implementation of education reform policies relating to "future schools" in a small state in the Middle East and North Africa region. The study points to the consistency with which global corporations and the supranational organisations, such as UNESCO and the World Bank,

  10. Reconsidering Genre Theory in K-12 Schools: A Response to School Reforms in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebhard, Meg; Harman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Education reforms in the United States have placed new demands on English language learners (ELLs) and their teachers in K-12 public schools. In response, many teachers, teacher educators, and literacy scholars are reexamining genre theory and genre-based pedagogy as a way of supporting the academic literacy development of the growing number of…

  11. Evaluating ARRA Programs and Other Educational Reforms: A Guide for States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Johnson, Irma; Walters, Kirk; Puma, Michael; Herman, Rebecca; Garet, Michael; Heppen, Jessica; Lemke, Mariann; Aladjem, Daniel; Amin, Samia; Burghardt, John

    2011-01-01

    The American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) developed this guide to help you consider evaluation issues likely to arise as you launch ARRA-funded initiatives and other educational reform activities. Many states are already involved in evaluation, so many of the ideas presented here may be familiar. The authors…

  12. Education Reform for the Knowledge Economy in the State of Sangon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the issues associated with the implementation of education reform policies relating to "future schools" in a small state in the Middle East and North Africa region. The study points to the consistency with which global corporations and the supranational organisations, such as UNESCO and the World Bank,…

  13. Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Lessons from PISA for the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This volume draws lessons from the education systems of a selection of top-scoring and rapidly improving countries as measured by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). While this volume relates these lessons to the education reform agenda in the United States, they…

  14. Finding Common Ground in Pension Reform: Lessons from the Washington State Pension System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    As states and localities across the nation consider the tradeoffs between defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) pension systems, it is important to gain insight into what implications pension reforms might have on workforce composition and teachers' retirement savings behavior. Moreover, it is also important to consider that…

  15. State-Level Support for Comprehensive School Reform: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Brett; Gracia, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In the current context of standards-based reform and heightened accountability for school performance, state education agencies (SEAs) have an important, but not yet well-articulated, role to play in local school improvement efforts. This article starts to articulate such a role by examining the variety of approaches and strategies used by 7 SEAs…

  16. Implementation Issues in Federal Reform Efforts in Education: The United States and Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Paige

    Multiple data sources are used in this study of educational change in the United States and Australia. The author considers political issues that may affect the implementation of educational reform efforts at the federal level, such as homogeneity versus heterogeneity, centralization versus decentralization, constitutional responsibility for…

  17. The Superintendent and Educational Reform in the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björk, Lars G.; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Kowalski, Theodore J.

    2014-01-01

    During the last two decades the intensity and complexity of educational reform in the United States of America have heightened interest among policymakers, practitioners, and professors in large-scale, systemic change. As a consequence, superintendents are being viewed as pivotal actors in the complex algorithm for managing districts and leading…

  18. A Legal Guide to State Pension Reform. Education Sector Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Just 18 minutes before the midnight signing deadline on May 15, 2010, Minnesota state legislators breathed a sigh of relief. Their bipartisan pension reform legislation, which passed both chambers by large margins and aimed to help shore up a potentially failing pension system, had just escaped a veto threat. Under pressure from his Republican…

  19. A comparison snapshot of states' small group market reform on access and enhancing valued plan features, 1999.

    PubMed

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Stoskopf, Carleen H; Shrader, William R; Glover, Saundra H

    2004-01-01

    Small group health insurance statutes of 48 states and the District of Columbia, as of 1999, were reviewed. Reform provisions judged to have some relevance for the market are catalogued and total 74 distinct regulations. Judgment of market relevance was based on actuarial experience at a leading health insurance company. The regulations are categorized under: (1) Access improvement; (2) Pricing and Rating Reforms; (3) Improving stability of coverage; and (4) Improving valued features of plans. The nuances and variety of these regulations, adopted in various combinations by the states, are discussed. The complexity of the reform scenario suggests the need for impact studies that take into account the totality of reform. Past studies have evaluated the impact of selected major reforms in isolation, and, thus, have been inadequate to provide definitive conclusions on the reforms' impact. PMID:15829454

  20. Children's Agency and the Welfare State: Policy Priorities and Contradictions in Australia and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, liberal welfare regimes have begun to treat lone parents as workers rather than as carers. This has happened in conjunction with an ongoing "moral panic" about the need to develop policies to invest in children, and to protect them from adult worlds. The purpose of this article is to analyse contradictions within and between

  1. A Multilevel Analysis of Factors Related to Poverty in Welfare States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyo-seong; Lee, Yongwoo; Lee, Yu-jeong

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate factors contributing to poverty, one of the most significant social problems in Western societies. To this end, 13 countries that have made a variety of efforts to reduce poverty, and therefore experienced similar development processes related to welfare, were selected. To overcome the methodological limitations of…

  2. EXPLAINING THE DISTINCTIVENESS OF MEXICAN-IMMIGRANT WELFARE BEHAVIORS: THE IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYMENT-RELATED CULTURAL REPERTOIRES

    PubMed Central

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Bean, Frank D.

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists generally seek to explain welfare-related behaviors in terms of economic choice, social structural, or culture of poverty theories. Because such explanations incompletely account for nativity differences in public assistance receipt among those of Mexican origin, this paper draws upon the sociology of migration and culture literatures to develop alternative materialist-based cultural repertoire hypotheses to explain the welfare behaviors of Mexican immigrants. We argue that immigrants from Mexico arrive and work in the United States under circumstances fostering employment-based cultural repertoires that, compared with natives and other immigrant groups, encourage less welfare participation (in part because such repertoires lead to faster welfare exits) and more post-welfare employment, especially in states with relatively more generous welfare-policies. Using individual-level data predating Welfare Reform from multiple panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), merged with state-level information on welfare-benefit levels, we assess these ideas by examining immigrant-group differences in welfare receipt, retention, and transition to employment across locales with varying levels of welfare benefits. Overall, the results are consistent with the notion that cultural repertoires incline Mexican immigrants to utilize welfare not primarily to avoid work, cope with disadvantage, or perpetuate a culture of dependency, but rather mostly to minimize employment discontinuities. This result carries important theoretical and policy implications. PMID:24489383

  3. Teachers and the State: Forming and Re-Forming "Partnership"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard; Carter, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Teachers in the English and Welsh State education system have experienced a changing and turbulent relationship with the State in recent decades. This article adopts a historical analysis and argues that the concept of "partnership" is key to understanding the relationship between teachers and the State in the period since the Second World War.

  4. Teachers and the State: Forming and Re-Forming "Partnership"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard; Carter, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Teachers in the English and Welsh State education system have experienced a changing and turbulent relationship with the State in recent decades. This article adopts a historical analysis and argues that the concept of "partnership" is key to understanding the relationship between teachers and the State in the period since the Second World War.…

  5. The State, Markets and Higher Education Reform in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabulawa, Richard; Polelo, Mino; Silas, Onalenna

    2013-01-01

    Market forces are being introduced in public spheres such as higher education and public health, which hitherto were closed to such forces. Ironically, it is the state that is responsible for this process of marketisation. Some see this state action as leading to a growing influence of the state in public policy while others see an attenuation of…

  6. God and the Welfare State - Substitutes or Complements? An Experimental Test of the Effect of Belief in God's Control

    PubMed Central

    Be’ery, Gilad; Ben-Nun Bloom, Pazit

    2015-01-01

    Belief in God’s control of the world is common to many of the world’s religions, but there are conflicting predictions regarding its role in shaping attitudes toward the welfare state. While the devout are expected to support pro-social values like helping others, and thus might be supportive of the welfare state, the possibility of taking action is undermined by the belief in God’s absolute control over world affairs and in a morally perfect providence, who is responsible for the fates of individuals. As the literature provides mixed results on this question, this study examines the role of belief in God’s control on welfare attitudes using three priming experiments and two priming tasks, carried out with a design that is both cross-cultural (US vs. Israel) and cross-religious tradition (Judaism vs. Catholicism). We find evidence that, largely, belief in God’s control increases support for income redistribution among Israeli Jews (study 1), American Jews (study 2), and American Catholics (study 3). The findings suggest that the traditional and common political gap between the economic left and the religious, based on the evaluation that religious beliefs lead to conservative economic preferences, may be overstated. PMID:26061050

  7. The Effect of Substance Abuse Treatment on Medicaid Expenditures among General Assistance Welfare Clients in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Wickizer, Thomas M; Krupski, Antoinette; Stark, Kenneth D; Mancuso, David; Campbell, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Little is currently known about the effect of substance abuse treatment on Medicaid expenses and other health care costs for welfare clients. This study examined the association between substance abuse treatment and reductions in medical care expenditures (primarily Medicaid expenses) for General Assistance (GA) welfare clients in Washington State. The treatment group included 3,235 GA clients who received treatment during 2000 or 2001. The comparison group included 4,863 GA clients who needed substance abuse treatment but did not receive it. Substance abuse treatment was associated with a reduction (p < .01) in medical expenses of approximately $2,500 annually. This estimated savings equaled the cost of treatment and represented approximately 35 percent of the annual Medicaid expenses incurred by GA clients with substance abuse problems. PMID:16953810

  8. The European influence on workers' compensation reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Workers' compensation law in the United States is derived from European models of social insurance introduced in Germany and in England. These two concepts of workers' compensation are found today in the federal and state workers' compensation programs in the United States. All reform proposals in the United States are influenced by the European experience with workers' compensation. In 2006, a reform proposal termed the Public Health Model was made that would abolish the workers' compensation system, and in its place adopt a national disability insurance system for all injuries and illnesses. In the public health model, health and safety professionals would work primarily in public health agencies. The public health model eliminates the physician from any role other than that of privately consulting with the patient and offering advice solely to the patient. The Public Health Model is strongly influenced by the European success with physician consultation with industry and labor. PMID:22151643

  9. Reforming Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert, Ed.; Merryfield, Merry M., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue highlights the diversity of reform initiatives in order to provide a deep understanding of the complexities associated with educational reform in general and the reform of science education in particular. Systemic reform initiatives at the national and state levels along with locally-inspired efforts at reform are outlined.…

  10. The Medicaid managed care policy consensus for welfare recipients: a reflection of traditional welfare concerns.

    PubMed

    Grogan, C M

    1997-06-01

    An Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)-Medicaid managed care policy consensus has emerged in the American states. Although there are two main organizational forms--primary care case management and risk-based capitation models--states are converging on the risk-based approach for their AFDC recipients. Risk-based Medicaid managed care for AFDC recipients assumes a distinct purpose and meaning. The reform is not just about cost control and improving access but about enduring welfare concerns: deservingness, need, and empowerment. Despite recent federal policies that have essentially severed the eligibility link between AFDC and Medicaid, state policy elites still conceive of poor families on Medicaid as a "welfare" group. Assumptions about the need for behavior modification and the need to integrate this group into "mainstream" America shape perceptions about why Medicaid managed care is appropriate for AFDC-Medicaid recipients. PMID:9185019

  11. Improving Poor People. The Welfare State, the "Underclass," and Urban Schools as History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Michael B.

    Many nineteenth-century reformers tried to improve the lot of the poor by improving the poor themselves, attributing many of the problems of the poor to bad behavior or bad character, and this approach did not end in the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries. As a strategy, improving poor people has consistently given education a starring role.…

  12. The Context of Higher Education Reform in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in the United States has received much scrutiny in the recent past from the federal and state governments, the press and the general public. In response to this scrutiny, a number of blue ribbon panels have been formed to examine how effectively higher education is serving American society. In this article, I analyse the…

  13. Equity and Comparative State Responses to Education Finance Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundt, Julie L.

    This study examines the importance of state spending on education to equally distribute finances to each district. Current legislation is in the courts because some local districts claim unfair distribution of state funds. This study's focus is on the impact of judicial and legislative branch discussions that attempt to equalize education finance.

  14. Focus on Teacher Reform Legislation in SREB States: Evaluation Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Asenith

    2011-01-01

    The recent wave of new legislation affecting public school teachers has its roots, in part, in the budget shortfalls that have challenged states for the past several years. The first signs of fiscal troubles for many states became evident in 2008, and most instituted midyear budget reductions in 2009. In response, the U.S. Congress passed the…

  15. Consolidated State Planning: School Reform at Risk. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Linda

    Federal law now allows billions of education dollars, for a variety of programs, to go to states under a single, consolidated state plan. The goal is to develop integrated, coordinated plans for meeting the requirements of the various programs in a way that best serves children's educational needs. Achievement of that goal depends a great deal on…

  16. Marijuana and cocaine use among female African-American welfare recipients.

    PubMed

    Williams, Chyvette T; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2004-08-16

    A key issue that came to the forefront during the welfare reform debate in the United States during the 1990s concerned the relationship between welfare receipt and drug use and abuse. This paper examines the relationship between persistent welfare assistance, welfare background, and marijuana and cocaine use among African-American women. We hypothesize that women who have received welfare assistance for a period of 5 years or more will be more likely to use drugs compared to those who have never received welfare assistance or who have received it for a shorter duration. Data for this analysis comes from a longitudinal study of African-Americans living in a Chicago community followed from first grade (N = 1242) to age 32. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between years of welfare receipt and three categories of marijuana and cocaine use (never, past, and current) among female respondents (N = 496). Results indicate an increased risk of past-year cocaine and marijuana use for women who reported receiving welfare benefits for 5 years or more. Growing up in a family that received welfare did not significantly predict adult drug use, but did significantly predict an adult welfare experience. Implications of results are discussed. PMID:15276224

  17. Washington State Health Services Act: Implementing Comprehensive Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Peter D.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993, Washington State enacted the Health Services Act of 1993 (HSA) to guarantee universal access to health care through an employer mandate, with caps on premiums as the primary cost-control mechanism. The HSA represents the Nation's first formal experiment with managed competition. This article reports the results of a case study of the HSA's implementation. The study concludes that the Washington State initiative can be replicated in other States, but that implementation is complex, requires sustained public education, and requires cooperation from the Federal Government through program waivers. A major implementation challenge is to facilitate competition and minimize regulation. PMID:10142576

  18. Welfare Reform. Bibliographies of Case Management and Agency/Client Contracting. Fact Sheet for the Chairman, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This document, prepared for the use of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs in considering proposed welfare legislation, comprises annotated bibliographies, most with abstracts, the following subjects: (1) case management; and (2) agency/client contracting. The cited literature includes books, journal articles, research reports, and…

  19. Will Welfare Reform Hurt Low-Skilled Workers? Discussion Papers. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enchautegui, Maria E.

    The entry of working welfare mothers into the labor market will have an impact on the wages and employment of low-skilled workers. This impact was examined through a labor market analysis of available statistical data about the U.S. population and employment patterns. The characteristics of workers likely to enter the labor market because of…

  20. Who's Hiring Whom for What? A Report on Employer Practices and Perceptions in Wisconsin and Their Implications for the Future of Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Robert; Green, Gary

    The practices and perceptions of Wisconsin employers regarding welfare recipients were examined. First, 500 employers outside the Milwaukee metropolitan area were interviewed by telephone. Those data were merged with data from a survey of Milwaukee-area employers, resulting in a statewide sample of about 1,250 Wisconsin employers (25%, 35%, and…

  1. Child Care by Kith and Kin: Supporting Family, Friends, and Neighbors Caring for Children. Children and Welfare Reform Issue Brief 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Ann; Carlson, Barbara

    Changes being implemented in welfare policies and programs as a result of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 have the potential to help or hurt children by changing family income, by changing the level of parental stress or parenting styles, and by changing children's access to comprehensive family support…

  2. The Role of District Leadership in Radical Reform: Philadelphia's Experience under the State Takeover, 2001-2006. An Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useem, Elizabeth; Christman, Jolley Bruce; Boyd, William Lowe

    2006-01-01

    Leadership is key in the success of any reform, especially one as ambitious and complex as that in Philadelphia. "The case of Philadelphia is noteworthy as an exemplar of the implementation of paradigm-breaking new reforms in the governance and delivery of urban education." This report follows the first five years of the state takeover and the…

  3. Who Systematizes the Systematizers? Policy and Practice Interactions in a Case of State-Level Systemic Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Reba

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of the relationship between secondary science curriculum and policy examines paradoxes in science curriculum, reporting a study of California's progressive state level systemic reform. Results highlighted inadequacies in prevailing curriculum theory, including California's reform effort. An alternative that places policy and practice on…

  4. A perfect storm? Welfare, care, gender and generations in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Filgueira, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Magdalena; Papadópulos, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article claims that welfare states modelled on a contributory basis and with a system of entitlements that assumes stable two-parent families, a traditional breadwinner model, full formal employment and a relatively young age structure are profoundly flawed in the context of present-day challenges. While this is true for affluent countries modelled on the Bismarckian type of welfare system, the costs of the status quo are even more devastating in middle-income economies with high levels of inequality. A gendered approach to welfare reform that introduces the political economy and the economy of care and unpaid work is becoming critical to confront what may very well become a perfect storm for the welfare of these nations and their peoples. Through an in-depth study of the Uruguayan case, the authors show how the decoupling of risk and protection has torn asunder the efficacy of welfare devices in the country. An ageing society that has seen a radical transformation of its family and labour market landscapes, Uruguay maintained during the 1980s and 1990s a welfare state that was essentially contributory, elderly and male-oriented, and centred on cash entitlements. This contributed to the infantilization of poverty, increased the vulnerability of women and exacerbated fiscal stress for the system as a whole. Furthermore, because of high levels of income and asset inequality, the redistribution of risk between upper- and lower-income groups presented a deeply regressive pattern. The political economy of care and welfare has begun to change in the last decade or so, bringing about mild reforms in the right direction; but these might prove to be too little and too late. PMID:22165158

  5. Analysis of State School Finance Reform Legislation in Florida, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Steven

    On June 26, 1973, the system for financing elementary and secondary education in Florida was radically altered when the Florida legislature passed the Florida Education Finance Program Act of 1973. Significant features of this act include (1) substantially increased fiscal equalization; (2) a systematic plan and substantial State commitment to…

  6. Surprising Momentum: Spurring Education Reforms in States and Localities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first examines how the Obama administration was able to promote its K-12 agenda using the vehicle of economic stimulus policy, and how that agenda compares with prior federal and state education policy. As a basis for explaining President Obama's policy choices, a second section discusses the ideas and political dynamics shaping his

  7. Surprising Momentum: Spurring Education Reforms in States and Localities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first examines how the Obama administration was able to promote its K-12 agenda using the vehicle of economic stimulus policy, and how that agenda compares with prior federal and state education policy. As a basis for explaining President Obama's policy choices, a second section discusses the ideas and political dynamics shaping his…

  8. Welfare Reform: Reauthorization of Work and Child Care. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (March 15, 2005). Serial Number 109-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US House of Representatives, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this hearing was to hear testimony on the effects of welfare reform and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grant, and to examine one of the most important work supports available to low-income families, Federal child care assistance. The opening statements were delivered by the Honorable Howard P. "Buck" McKeon,…

  9. A Guide for State Government Agencies: Establishing Cost Allocation Plans and Indirect Cost Rates for Grants and Contracts with the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

    This brochure provides guidelines for State governments seeking to recover the costs of services provided by central service-type activities to grantee State departments and the indirect cost of grantee State departments. As a prerequisite to such recovery, States must develop and submit to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare a formal…

  10. Governing Health Care through Free Choice: Neoliberal Reforms in Denmark and the United States.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Lars Thorup; Stone, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    We compare free choice reforms in Denmark and the United States to understand what ideas and political forces could generate such similar policy reforms in radically different political contexts. We analyze the two cases using our own interpretation of neoliberalism as having "two faces." The first face seeks to expand private markets and shrink the public sector; the second face seeks to strengthen the public sector's capacity to govern through incentives and competition. First, we show why these two most-different cases offer a useful comparison to understand similar policy tools. Second, we develop our theoretical framework of the two faces of neoliberalism. Third, we examine Denmark's introduction of a free choice of hospitals in 2002, a policy that for the first time allowed some patients to receive care either in a public hospital outside their local area or in a private hospital. Fourth, we examine the introduction of free choice among private managed care plans into the US Medicare program in 1997. We show how policy makers in both countries used neoliberal reform as a mechanism to make their public health care sectors governable. Fifth, on the basis of our analysis, we draw five lessons about neoliberal policy reforms. PMID:26195602

  11. Recent medical malpractice reform measures in eight key states.

    PubMed

    Nolin, C E; Witt, M D

    1988-01-01

    Over the course of the past quarter century, technological developments in medical science have made it possible for physicians to save the lives and preserve the health of countless patients. Unfortunately, it must be remembered that medicine is still as much an art as it is a science. As such, due to this human element, there is always the risk of occasional errors or failures in treatment. When these problems occur in bunches, the stage is set for a medical malpractice crisis. In an attempt to minimize the rising tort litigation and settlement costs associated with this crisis, eight states have responded with a variety of measures designed to limit the doctrine of joint and several liability, noneconomic damages, punitive damages, the collateral source rule, attorney's fees, and the number of complaints. Since the measures in these subject states apply to different areas of law, it is not the purpose of the authors to catalogue and explain in detail all of these changes, much less their impact on litigation and settlement costs. Rather, the intent of this article is to provide a general description and comparison of legislation in these eight states, a discussion of the specific changes that appear most important, and a description of the effect these changes are expected to have upon the costs of defending medical malpractice claims. PMID:10287858

  12. An Examination Of Medicaid Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment Initiatives Under Way In Six States.

    PubMed

    Gusmano, Michael K; Thompson, Frank J

    2015-07-01

    Medicaid waivers for Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment (DSRIP) seek to hold hospitals and other providers accountable for measureable improvements in health care delivery. We explore the policy context giving rise to these waivers in six states, with particular attention to the interplay among the financial needs of hospitals; the rise of managed care; and federal interest in replacing an "unconditional" Medicaid funding stream, the upper payment limit, with one rooted in pay-for-performance. Key characteristics of these main DSRIP waivers are compared with a particular focus on the establishment of project menus, performance metrics, and pay-for-performance processes. Concluding sections discuss the potential and limits of the waivers as vehicles for health care reform. The long-term durability and impact of DSRIP remains unclear. But federal and state officials have made considerable headway in planning and otherwise laying the groundwork for it. PMID:26153311

  13. Mortality of White Americans, African Americans, and Canadians: The Causes and Consequences for Health of Welfare State Institutions and Policies

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, Stephen J; Pesis-Katz, Irena

    2005-01-01

    The life expectancy of African Americans has been substantially lower than that of white Americans for as long as records are available. The life expectancy of all Americans has been lower than that of all Canadians since the beginning of the 20th century. Until the 1970s this disparity was the result of the low life expectancy of African Americans. Since then, the life expectancy of white Americans has not improved as much as that of all Canadians. This article discusses two issues: racial disparities in the United States, and the difference in life expectancy between all Canadians and white Americans. Each country's political culture and institutions have shaped these differences, especially national health insurance in Canada and its absence in the United States. The American welfare state has contributed to and explains these differences. PMID:15787952

  14. Can Work Alter Welfare Recipients' Beliefs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottschalk, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A common argument in support of work-based welfare reform is that exposure to work will lead welfare recipients to revise their beliefs about how they will be treated in the labor market. This paper explores the analytical and empirical basis for this argument. The difficulty in testing the assumption that work leads to a change in beliefs is that

  15. Innovation waivers: an opportunity for states to pursue their own brand of health reform.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Deborah; Ario, Joel; Davis, Hailey

    2015-04-01

    States have long been the testing ground for new models of health care and coverage. Section 1332 of the Affordable Care Act, which takes effect in less than two years, throws open the door to innovation by authorizing states to rethink the law's coverage designs. Under State Innovation Waivers, states can modify the rules regarding covered benefits, subsidies, insurance marketplaces, and individual and employer mandates. States may propose broad alternatives or targeted fixes, but all waivers must demonstrate that coverage will remain as accessible, comprehensive, and affordable as before the waiver and that the changes will not add to the federal deficit. This issue brief describes how states may use State Innovation Waivers to reallocate subsidies, expand or streamline their marketplaces, replace or modify the mandates, and otherwise pursue their own brand of reform tailored to local market conditions and political preferences. PMID:25915973

  16. The fox and the grapes: is real reform beyond reach in the United States?

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence D

    2012-08-01

    As the challenges of maintaining (or, in the US case, attaining) affordable universal coverage multiply, the debate about what constitutes "real" reform intensifies in Western health care systems. The reality of reform, however, lies in the eyes of myriad beholders who variously enshrine consumer responsibility, changes in payment systems, reorganization, and other strategies -- or some encompassing combination of all of the above -- as the essential ingredient(s). This debate, increasingly informed by the agendas of health services researchers and health policy analysts, arguably serves as much or more to becloud as to clarify the practical options policy makers face and remains severely imbalanced with respect to the institutional sectors on which it concentrates, the fields of knowledge on which it draws, and the roles it envisions for markets and the state. PMID:22466045

  17. Different welfare states--different policies? An analysis of the substance of national health promotion policies in three European countries.

    PubMed

    Fosse, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This study examines healthy public policy development in three European countries representing different welfare regimes: England representing the liberal model; Norway, the social democratic model; and the Netherlands, the corporatist model. National policy documents were used for the analysis. In England and Norway, health promotion has a prominent place and there is a political focus on the broader determinants of health. However, while the Norwegian policies have an explicit focus on the social gradient, the English policies have a much clearer focus on disadvantaged groups and geographic areas. In the Netherlands, the main focus is on disease prevention and risk behaviors. In the Netherlands and England there is a strong focus on the free will of the population in changing unhealthy lifestyles. By analyzing the different policies in the light of Esping-Andersen's typology of welfare state regimes, it is possible to better understand the differences among the countries. While all types of regimes seem willing to develop targeted measures, the social democratic regime seems the most willing to also develop structural measures addressing the wider social determinants of health. PMID:21563624

  18. Credentials Count: How California's Community Colleges Help Parents Move from Welfare to Self-Sufficiency. Executive Summary and Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Anita

    In August, 1997, the California State Legislature created CalWORKs as California's version of federal welfare reform, known nationally as the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant. Cal WORKs provides that each eligible adult recipient may receive up to 60 months of assistance during their lifetime. All adult recipients must…

  19. Symposium Review of Books. The Welfare of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Peter H.; Sarri, Rosemary

    1995-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the issues presented in two books pertaining to child poverty, policy, and welfare reform: "The Welfare of Children" (Duncan Lindsey) and "Rethinking Child Welfare in Canada" (Brian Wharf, Editor). Both provide excellent analysis and recommendations but lack attention to tracking systems that place children in different…

  20. [Dietetics and the health and fitness cult. The risks of dietetics in the Welfare State].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez de Pablo, A

    1993-01-01

    We shall analyse the reasons why various matters related to diet have become a type of a purification ritual in the welfare society. In order to explain this circumstance three historic moments in the use of diet shall be studied: a) Diet as an explicit means in the care of the soul. Besides its function in the care of the body, diet was used in ancient times as a specific remedy to improve both the psychic and moral aspects of the mental faculties. b) Diet as an implicit remedy in moral well-being. From the Renaissance onwards diet no longer had this explicit function in curing the soul, however it tacitly retained a certain effect on the moral factors. c) Diet as an instrument of the health and fitness cult. Despite the scientific configuration of dietetics in the second half of the nineteenth century, old function of diet remained mutatis mutandis with regards to the moral sphere of the subject. Factors such as the development of how thinness or fatness was viewed at this time and the resulting explosion of interest in controlling body-weight, which acquired characteristics of pseudo-religious activity, may explain this fact. In this way the old idea of "you are what you eat" coexists with the more modern one of "you eat what you are". PMID:11625026

  1. A Re-Examination of Welfare States and Inequality in Rich Nations: How In-Kind Transfers and Indirect Taxes Change the Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Irwin; Rainwater, Lee; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies find large cross-national differences in inequality amongst rich Western nations, due in large part to differences in the generosity of welfare state transfers. The United States is the least generous nation and the one having the most after-tax and transfer inequality. But these analyses are limited to the effects of cash and…

  2. A Re-Examination of Welfare States and Inequality in Rich Nations: How In-Kind Transfers and Indirect Taxes Change the Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Irwin; Rainwater, Lee; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies find large cross-national differences in inequality amongst rich Western nations, due in large part to differences in the generosity of welfare state transfers. The United States is the least generous nation and the one having the most after-tax and transfer inequality. But these analyses are limited to the effects of cash and

  3. Mandate-based health reform and the labor market: Evidence from the Massachusetts reform.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, Jonathan T; Kowalski, Amanda E

    2016-05-01

    We model the labor market impact of the key provisions of the national and Massachusetts "mandate-based" health reforms: individual mandates, employer mandates, and subsidies. We characterize the compensating differential for employer-sponsored health insurance (ESHI) and the welfare impact of reform in terms of "sufficient statistics." We compare welfare under mandate-based reform to welfare in a counterfactual world where individuals do not value ESHI. Relying on the Massachusetts reform, we find that jobs with ESHI pay $2812 less annually, somewhat less than the cost of ESHI to employers. Accordingly, the deadweight loss of mandate-based health reform was approximately 8 percent of its potential size. PMID:27037897

  4. Creating State-based Alliances to Support Earth and Space Science Education Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, E. E.; Manduca, C. A.; Barstow, D.

    2002-05-01

    Seven years after the publication of the National Science Education Standards and adoption of new state science education standards, Earth and space science remains outside the mainstream K-12 curriculum. Currently, less than ten percent of high school students in the United States of America take an Earth or space science course before graduation. This state of affairs is simply unacceptable. "All of us who live on this planet have the right and the obligation to understand Earth's unique history, its dynamic processes, its abundant resources, and its intriguing mysteries. As citizens of Earth, with the power to modify our climate and ecosystems, we also have a personal and collective responsibility to understand Earth so that we can make wise decisions about its and our future". As one step toward addressing this situation, we support the establishment of state-based alliances to promote Earth and space science education reform. "In many ways, states are the most vital locus of change in our nation's schools. State departments of education define curriculum frameworks, establish testing policies, support professional development and, in some cases, approve textbooks and materials for adoption". State alliance partners should include a broad spectrum of K-16 educators, scientists, policy makers, parents, and community leaders from academic institutions, businesses, museums, technology centers, and not-for profit organizations. The focus of these alliances should be on systemic and sustainable reform of K-16 Earth and space science education. Each state-based alliance should focus on specific educational needs within their state, but work together to share ideas, resources, and models for success. As we build these alliances we need to take a truly collaborative approach working with the other sciences, geography, and mathematics so that collectively we can improve the caliber and scope of science and mathematics education for all students.

  5. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  6. The Role of State Departments of Education in Comprehensive School Reform. Benchmark. Volume 5, Issue 2, Spring 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Edmund T.; Lane, Brett

    2004-01-01

    States have the legal responsibility and authority to provide public education for their citizens. How each state fulfills its responsibility varies. Whether state education agencies (SEAs) are supporting school reform efforts, providing technical assistance, defining and controlling educational content, or assessing the outcomes of education, it…

  7. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if

  8. Overview of the Common Core State Standard initiative and educational reform movement from the vantage of speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Staskowski, Maureen

    2012-05-01

    Educational reform is sweeping the country. The adoption and the implementation of the Common Core State Standards in almost every state are meant to transform education. It is intended to update the way schools educate, the way students learn, and to ultimately prepare the nation's next generation for the global workplace. This article will describe the Common Core State Standard initiative and the underlying concerns about the quality of education in the United States as well as the opportunities this reform initiative affords speech-language pathologists. PMID:22538706

  9. Are health inequalities really not the smallest in the Nordic welfare states? A comparison of mortality inequality in 37 countries

    PubMed Central

    Popham, Frank; Dibben, Chris; Bambra, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Background Research comparing mortality by socioeconomic status has found that inequalities are not the smallest in the Nordic countries. This is in contrast to expectations given these countries’ policy focus on equity. An alternative way of studying inequality has been little used to compare inequalities across welfare states and may yield a different conclusion. Methods We used average life expectancy lost per death as a measure of total inequality in mortality derived from death rates from the Human Mortality Database for 37 countries in 2006 that we grouped by welfare state type. We constructed a theoretical ‘lowest mortality comparator country’ to study, by age, why countries were not achieving the smallest inequality and the highest life expectancy. We also studied life expectancy as there is an important correlation between it and inequality. Results On average, Nordic countries had the highest life expectancy and smallest inequalities for men but not women. For both men and women, Nordic countries had particularly low younger age mortality contributing to smaller inequality and higher life expectancy. Although older age mortality in the Nordic countries is not the smallest. There was variation within Nordic countries with Sweden, Iceland and Norway having higher life expectancy and smaller inequalities than Denmark and Finland (for men). Conclusions Our analysis suggests that the Nordic countries do have the smallest inequalities in mortality for men and for younger age groups. However, this is not the case for women. Reducing premature mortality among older age groups would increase life expectancy and reduce inequality further in Nordic countries. PMID:23386671

  10. Reforming pharmaceutical industry-physician financial relationships: lessons from the United States, France, and Japan.

    PubMed

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    This article compares the means that the United States, France, and Japan use to oversee pharmaceutical industry-physician financial relationships. These countries rely on professional and/or industry ethical codes, anti-kickback laws, and fair trade practice laws. They restrict kickbacks the most strictly, allow wide latitude on gifts, and generally permit drug firms to fund professional activities and associations. Consequently, to avoid legal liability, drug firms often replace kickbacks with gifts and grants. The paper concludes by proposing reforms that address problems that persist when firms replace kickbacks with gifts and grants based on the experience of the three countries. PMID:22084852

  11. State Workforce Policy Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public/Private Ventures, Philadelphia, PA.

    Surging demand for workers, growing income inequality, and passage of welfare reforms have made work force development one of the United States' key national concerns. Public/Private Ventures has been working with various states to design work force development strategies that seek to address the concerns of many work force development specialists…

  12. Welfare's Children. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Michael

    States with family cap public assistance policies deny or reduce additional welfare benefits to mothers who conceive and give birth to additional children while they are receiving aid. By 1999, 22 states had family cap policies in place. This paper reports estimates of the number and cost implications of infants conceived by mothers receiving…

  13. State Efforts to Reform Schools: Treading between a Regulatory Swamp and an English Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Thomas B.; Kirp, David L.

    1988-01-01

    The educational reform strategies of Texas, California, and South Carolina are examined as they relate to reform outcomes. The current effort toward educational excellence must shift its focus from regulation and compliance monitoring to mobilization of institutional capacity. (SLD)

  14. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR 92.43 and 92.44 will apply. (e) Matching or cost-sharing. Federal financial participation is... with the grants administration requirements of 45 CFR part 92 with the following conditions— (1) The..., child welfare services). 1357.30 Section 1357.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  15. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR 92.43 and 92.44 will apply. (e) Matching or cost-sharing. Federal financial participation is... with the grants administration requirements of 45 CFR part 92 with the following conditions— (1) The..., child welfare services). 1357.30 Section 1357.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  16. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR 92.43 and 92.44 will apply. (e) Matching or cost-sharing. Federal financial participation is... with the grants administration requirements of 45 CFR part 92 with the following conditions— (1) The..., child welfare services). 1357.30 Section 1357.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  17. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 92.43 and 92.44 will apply. (e) Matching or cost-sharing. Federal financial participation is... with the grants administration requirements of 45 CFR part 92 with the following conditions— (1) The..., child welfare services). 1357.30 Section 1357.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  18. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR 92.43 and 92.44 will apply. (e) Matching or cost-sharing. Federal financial participation is... with the grants administration requirements of 45 CFR part 92 with the following conditions— (1) The..., child welfare services). 1357.30 Section 1357.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  19. Designing Inter-Organizational Networks to Implement Education Reform: An Analysis of State Race to the Top Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jennifer Lin; Meredith, Julie; Childs, Joshua; Stein, Mary Kay; Prine, Deanna Weber

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with the implementation of state designed Race to the Top (RttT) funded reform networks. Drawing on a conceptual framework developed from the networked governance literature, we analyzed the 12 state RttT grantees' applications. Our analysis revealed that states…

  20. Local Board Chair Perspectives on Reform in North Carolina: State Decentralization as a Challenge for District Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keedy, John L.; Freeman, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Interviews 16 school board chairs in North Carolina to determine their attitudes toward state education reform legislation. Discusses two themes emerging from the interviews: Downsizing the state bureaucracy translates into autonomy and accountability at the local level, but paradoxically boards now lack the organizational buffering previously…

  1. The Effects of the Washington State Education Reform on Schools and Classrooms: Initial Findings. RAND Documented Briefing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stecher, Brian M.; Chun, Tammi; Barron, Sheila; Ross, Karen

    A growing number of states are implementing standards-based accountability systems in their efforts to improve student achievement. Policymakers in these states believe that standards-based reforms that include high-stakes testing can be powerful tools to change what is happening in schools and classrooms. This study is part of ongoing research…

  2. When Child Welfare Agencies Rely on Voluntary Kinship Placements: New Federalism Issues and Options for States. An Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malm, Karin; Geen, Rob

    Summarizing findings from a forthcoming book, this policy brief examines when and how child welfare agencies rely on kin to care for children who are taken into state custody. The discussion is based on intensive case studies of local kinship care policies and practices; the case studies were conducted in 13 counties in Alabama, California,…

  3. Welfare Eligibility: Deficit Reduction Act Income Verification Issues. Fact Sheet for the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This income and eligibility verification system (IEVS) database was created to aid the implementation of data exchanges among federal and state agencies. These exchanges are important for income and eligibility verification of persons who receive benefits from welfare and unemployment programs. Attempts are being made to match the computer…

  4. Can We Improve the Measurement of Attitudes towards the Welfare State? A Constructive Critique of Survey Instruments with Evidence from Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goerres, Achim; Prinzen, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    There is a large and growing literature on welfare state attitudes, most of which is built on random-sample population surveys with standardised closed-question items. This article criticises the existing survey instruments, especially those that are used within the International Social Survey Programme, in a novel approach with focus group data

  5. [Philanthropy, privatization, and reform: psychiatric assistance scenarios in the state of Paraná].

    PubMed

    Wadi, Yonissa Marmitt; Olinto, Beatriz Anselmo; Casagrande, Attiliana De Bona

    2015-12-01

    The article discusses different psychiatric assistance arrangements in Paraná from the earliest years through today, taking into account the state's unique features and relations with national policies. This assistance was first provided in 1903, when the Hospício Nossa Senhora da Luz philanthropic asylum was founded. It was only in 1954 that Hospital Colônia Adauto Botelho, the state's first public hospital, began operations. In the 1960s, the Paraná government signed agreements with private hospitals for more beds in the interior, accelerating the provision of psychiatric assistance and fostering a privatization approach. This strategy led to the current situation in Paraná, where specialized hospitals are the rule, despite the existence of other facilities foreseen under the psychiatric reform legislation. PMID:26625920

  6. Longitudinal Effects of Domestic Violence on Employment and Welfare Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Oxford, Monica; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

    2007-01-01

    This study uses longitudinal data spanning 13 years from a study of 234 adolescent mothers to evaluate the effects of cumulative domestic violence on employment and welfare use before and after welfare reform. Domestic violence increased the odds of unemployment after welfare reform, but not before; domestic violence had no effect on welfare use during any time period. Psychological distress after welfare reform was associated with unemployment, but not with welfare outcomes. Thus, the authors found that the direct effect of domestic violence on unemployment is not mediated by concurrent level of psychological distress. The relationship of psychological distress to unemployment exists only for those with a history of domestic violence. Cumulative domestic violence can have negative effects on economic capacity many years after the violence occurs, suggesting that policymakers recognize the long-term nature of the impact of domestic violence on women’s capacity to be economically self-reliant. PMID:17575064

  7. Economic Hardship and Depression across the Life Course: The Impact of Welfare State Regimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan; De Boyser, Katrien; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2011-01-01

    Previous research in the United States suggests that depression related to economic hardship decreases with age. We test whether this pattern can be generalized to other developed nations. Based on data from 23 countries in the European Social Survey (2006-2007), multilevel analyses show that the moderating role of age depends on the

  8. The association between life course socioeconomic position and life satisfaction in different welfare states: European comparative study of individuals in early old age

    PubMed Central

    Niedzwiedz, Claire L.; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Pell, Jill P.; Mitchell, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background: whether socioeconomic position over the life course influences the wellbeing of older people similarly in different societies is not known. Objective: to investigate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction among individuals in early old age and the influence of the welfare state regime on the associations. Design: comparative study using data from Wave 2 and SHARELIFE, the retrospective Wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected during 2006–07 and 2008–09, respectively. Setting: thirteen European countries representing four welfare regimes (Southern, Scandinavian, Post-communist and Bismarckian). Subjects: a total of 17,697 individuals aged 50–75 years. Methods: slope indices of inequality (SIIs) were calculated for the association between life course socioeconomic position (measured by the number of books in childhood, education level and current wealth) and life satisfaction. Single level linear regression models stratified by welfare regime and multilevel regression models, containing interaction terms between socioeconomic position and welfare regime type, were calculated. Results: socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction were present in all welfare regimes. Educational inequalities in life satisfaction were narrowest in Scandinavian and Bismarckian regimes among both genders. Post-communist and Southern countries experienced both lower life satisfaction and larger socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction, using most measures of socioeconomic position. Current wealth was associated with large inequalities in life satisfaction across all regimes. Conclusions: Scandinavian and Bismarckian countries exhibited narrower socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction. This suggests that more generous welfare states help to produce a more equitable distribution of wellbeing among older people. PMID:24476800

  9. The Colonization of (M)Others in Welfare-to-Work Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Leslie Rebecca; Kilgore, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Argues that welfare reform policies colonize poor mothers. Using ethnographic data of a welfare-to-work educational program, analyzes how colonizing public and governmental discourses about welfare mothers infiltrate the program's educational policy and everyday practices. Asserts that welfare-to-work neither fully colonizes nor fully educates,…

  10. 45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... determining if the State's demonstration has a time-limit component, the waiver list for the demonstration... assistance to adults; and (ii) If applicable, experimental and control group cases not otherwise...

  11. 45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... determining if the State's demonstration has a time-limit component, the waiver list for the demonstration... assistance to adults; and (ii) If applicable, experimental and control group cases not otherwise...

  12. 45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... determining if the State's demonstration has a time-limit component, the waiver list for the demonstration... assistance to adults; and (ii) If applicable, experimental and control group cases not otherwise...

  13. 45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determining if the State's demonstration has a time-limit component, the waiver list for the demonstration... assistance to adults; and (ii) If applicable, experimental and control group cases not otherwise...

  14. 45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... determining if the State's demonstration has a time-limit component, the waiver list for the demonstration... assistance to adults; and (ii) If applicable, experimental and control group cases not otherwise...

  15. The globalization of capital, the welfare state, and old age policy.

    PubMed

    Estes, Carroll L; Phillipson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    A new political economy is shaping the lives of present and future generations of older people. The key change has been the move from the mass institutions that defined growing old in the period from 1945 through the late 1970s to the more individualized structures--privatized pensions, privatized health and social care--that increasingly inform the current period. The authors examine the role of international governmental organizations in promoting this trend, with examples drawn from the work of the World Bank, World Trade Organization, and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the relationship between international governmental organizations and the state. The article concludes with an assessment of the changes to citizenship that accompany globalization and the implications for political organization among older people themselves. PMID:12067032

  16. Did reform of the non-group health insurance market affect the decision to be self-employed? Evidence from state reforms in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Heim, Bradley T; Lurie, Ithai Z

    2014-07-01

    This paper estimates whether state-level implementation of community rating and guaranteed issue regulations in the non-group health insurance market during the 1990s affected the decision of taxpayers to be self-employed. Using a panel of tax returns that span 1987-2000, we find no statistically significant effect of the reforms on the propensity to be self-employed overall, although we find evidence of an increase in self-employment among older taxpayers and weaker evidence of decreases among younger cohorts. PMID:23775775

  17. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this is likely to be a major focus for animal welfare science activity in the early twenty-first century. PMID:25263963

  18. Social security reform in the twenty-first century: the United States.

    PubMed

    Gramlich, Edward M

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of the Social Security system in the United States in the twentieth century and discusses options for the twenty-first. Because of the steady aging of the U.S. population and the impending retirement of the large baby boom cohort, the Social Security program now is in long-term actuarial deficit. The standard twentieth century approach to this actuarial deficit would be to raise payroll taxes enough to pay for anticipated future benefit increases, but for several reasons that approach may not be so popular this time around. The author's preferred approach is a gradual trimming of long-term benefit growth, plus "add on" individual accounts to provide new saving, for the economy and for the retirement system. The paper also criticizes proposals for Social Security reform made by President Clinton and a committee appointed by President Bush, generally because these proposals do not provide enough new saving. PMID:12503330

  19. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: state approaches to premium rate reforms in the individual health insurance market.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Justin; Lucia, Kevin W; Corlette, Sabrina

    2014-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act protects people from being charged more for insurance based on factors like medical history or gender and establishes new limits on how insurers can adjust premiums for age, tobacco use, and geography. This brief examines how states have implemented these federal reforms in their individual health insurance markets. We identify state rating standards for the first year of full implementation of reform and explore critical considerations weighed by policymakers as they determined how to adopt the law's requirements. Most states took the opportunity to customize at least some aspect of their rating standards. Interviews with state regulators reveal that many states pursued implementation strategies intended primarily to minimize market disruption and premium shock and therefore established standards as consistent as possible with existing rules or market practice. Meanwhile, some states used the transition period to strengthen consumer protections, particularly with respect to tobacco rating. PMID:25588235

  20. The science of animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and values; thus they may view an animal’s welfare status as good or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of these human differences in perception the actual state of welfare for the animal does exist in a range from good ...

  1. Phases of capitalism, welfare states, medical dominance, and health care in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Coburn, D

    1999-01-01

    There has been a lacuna in previous studies of medicine and health care of concepts or structures relating changes in health care with their contextualizing social structures. That is, there is a need to more adequately account for health care and social structure in terms of dynamic rather than static concepts. This article reports the application of a general schema outlining the transformation of capitalism through the phases of entrepreneurial, monopoly, and global capitalism, first presented by Ross and Trachte, to help understand both the changing role of medicine in Canada and the historical trajectory of the development of health insurance. These related events are shown to be partly reflective of the transformed class dynamic involved in a changing capitalist mode of production. The recent history of challenges to medicare in Canada as well as evidence of the declining power of medicine are both related directly and indirectly to the increased power of business and the decline in the relative autonomy of the state accompanying globalization. The application of the phases of capitalism sequence does roughly fit the Canadian instance although some modifications will be required to account for the specifics of the Canadian case. The schema also helps resolve two previously competing class arguments about the rise of health insurance in Canada. PMID:10615577

  2. From a conservative to a liberal welfare state: decomposing changes in income-related health inequalities in Germany, 1994-2011.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Martin; Vogt, Verena; Sundmacher, Leonie

    2014-05-01

    Individual socio-economic status and the respective socio-economic and political contexts are both important determinants of health. Welfare regimes may be linked with health and health inequalities through two potential pathways: first, they may influence the associations between socio-economic status and health. Second, they may influence the income-related distributions of socio-economic determinants of health within a society. Using the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for the years 1994-2011, we analyze how income-related health inequalities evolved in the context of the transformation from a conservative to a liberal welfare system in Germany. We use the concentration index to measure health inequalities, and the annual concentration indices are decomposed to reveal how the contributions of the explanatory variables age, sex, income, education, and occupation changed over time. The changes in the contributions are further decomposed to distinguish whether changes in health inequalities stem from redistributions of the explanatory variables, from changes in their associations with health, or from changes in their means. Income-related health inequalities to the disadvantage of the economically deprived roughly doubled over time, which can largely be explained by changes in the contributions of individual characteristics representing weaker labor market positions, particularly income and unemployment. The social and labor market reforms coincide with the observed changes in the distributions of these characteristics and, to a lesser extent, with changes of their associations with health. PMID:24607705

  3. Challenging the neoliberal trend: the Venezuelan health care reform alternative.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Salazar, René M Guerra; Rueda, Sergio; Armada, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, all Latin American countries but Cuba implemented to varying degrees health care sector reforms underpinned by a neoliberal paradigm that redefined health care as less of a social right and more of a market commodity. These health care sector reforms were couched in the broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states prescribed consistently by international financial institutions since the mid-1980s. However, since 2003, Venezuela has been developing an alternative to this neoliberal trend through its health care reform program called Misión Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighbourhood). In this article, we introduce Misión Barrio Adentro in its historical, political, and economic contexts. We begin by analyzing Latin American neoliberal health sector reforms in their political economic context, with a focus on Venezuela. The analysis reveals that the major beneficiaries of both broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states and neoliberal health reforms have been transnational capital interests and domestic Latin American elites. We then provide a detailed description of Misión Barrio Adentro as a challenge to neoliberalism in health care in its political economic context, noting the role played in its development by popular resistance to neoliberalism and the unique international cooperation model upon which it is based. Finally, we suggest that the Venezuelan experience may offer valuable lessons not only to other low- to middle-income countries, but also to countries such as Canada. PMID:17203729

  4. Child Welfare Policy Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document conveys mandatory policies that have their basis in Federal Law and/or program regulations. It also provides interpretations of Federal Statutes and program regulations initiated by inquiries from State Child Welfare agencies or Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Regional Offices. The manual replaces the Children's…

  5. Welfare Reform: Tribal TANF Allows Flexibility To Tailor Programs, but Conditions on Reservations Make It Difficult To Move Recipients into Jobs. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act gave American Indian and Alaska Native tribes the option to administer Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) programs either alone or in a tribal consortium. The law also granted tribal TANF programs more flexibility in program design than it gave to state programs.…

  6. The Scope and Impact of Welfare Reform's Immigrant Provisions. Discussion Papers. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fix, Michael; Passel, Jeffrey

    This paper discusses the background and character of changes introduced by the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), examining post enactment responses by Congress, the states, and the courts. It explores the impact of the law on benefit use among immigrants, highlighting changes in usage among different…

  7. Financing the New Adequacy: Towards New Models of State Education Finance Systems That Support Standards Based Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses need for reinventing state education finance systems to provide adequacy and equity aligned to standards-based reform. Provides initial specifications for "The New Finance." Examines in depth approaches for determining a base spending level considered adequate for the average child to reach high educational standards. (Contains 87…

  8. Education Reform and Decentralization in Mexico and the Creation of "Educacion Civica" in the State of Jalisco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Gloria; Rice, Marion J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate Mexican education reform and decentralization and how the state of Jalisco focused in the early twenty-first century on developing a sequential curriculum for teaching civics in grades 1-6. The authors use the term "educacion civica" because in Mexico the curriculum emphasizes the acquisition of values and…

  9. The Trojan Horse of Educational Reform: A Look at One State's Experience and the Perceptions of Selected School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Edward W.

    1993-01-01

    A survey addressed the financial impact of state-mandated reforms on 40 rural Oklahoma school districts. A majority of school administrators surveyed reported that they did not receive adequate dollars to meet curriculum standard mandates and the minimum teacher salary schedule. Long-term results may include consolidation. (LP)

  10. The Politics of Aborted Reform: Education and the Legitimacy of the State in France and West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Hans N.

    As this paper demonstrates, studying abortive educational reforms reveals a great deal about the complex political dynamics involved in making (and unmaking) key policy decisions. Using case studies of France and West Germany, the paper argues that the state in advanced industrial countries tends to maximize the political gains derived from…

  11. The Early Childhood and Elementary Education Continuum: Constructing an Understanding of P-3 as State-Level Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauerz, Kristie Anne

    2009-01-01

    State-level policy attention to young children's early learning opportunities burgeons; a sense of urgency exists to identify reform agendas that are both effective and sustainable. "P-3" often is used as the term for the first level of a seamless P-20 system that stretches from early childhood through post-secondary education. While it is…

  12. The School-to-College Transition in the Context of Educational Reform: Student Retention and the State Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, John F.; Petrosko, Joseph; Taylor, Hal

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of state-level educational reform in Kentucky on college student retention. By tracking the educational progress of students who graduated from high school in a large school district and who subsequently enrolled in a research university in the same metropolitan area, the study reveals that the accountability…

  13. The long shadow of the past: risk pooling and the political development of health care reform in the States.

    PubMed

    Chen, Anthony S; Weir, Margaret

    2009-10-01

    Why do the states seem to be pursuing different types of policy innovation in their health reform? Why so some seem to follow a "solidarity principle," while others seem guided by a commitment to "actuarial fairness"? Our analysis highlights the reciprocal influence of stakeholder mobilization and public policy over time. We find that early policy choices about how to achieve cost containment led the states down different paths of reform. In the 1970s and 1980s, states that featured oligopolistic or near-monopolistic markets for private insurance (usually dominated by Blue Cross) and strong urban-academic hospitals tended to adopt regulatory strategies for cost containment that led to broader forms of pooling and financing the costs of health risks--which subsequently positioned them to pursue major, solidaristic reform on favorable terms. On the other hand, states with competitive markets for private insurance and weak, decentralized hospitals tended to adopt market-based strategies for cost containment that led to the hypersegmentation of risk and the uneven financing of costs--thereby encouraging the proliferation of incremental policies that reinforce the principle of actuarial fairness. We illustrate our analysis with a brief comparison of Massachusetts and California, and we conclude with some thoughts on what our findings imply for the federal role in catalyzing health reform. PMID:19778929

  14. The School-to-College Transition in the Context of Educational Reform: Student Retention and the State Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, John F.; Petrosko, Joseph; Taylor, Hal

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of state-level educational reform in Kentucky on college student retention. By tracking the educational progress of students who graduated from high school in a large school district and who subsequently enrolled in a research university in the same metropolitan area, the study reveals that the accountability

  15. The Early Childhood and Elementary Education Continuum: Constructing an Understanding of P-3 as State-Level Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauerz, Kristie Anne

    2009-01-01

    State-level policy attention to young children's early learning opportunities burgeons; a sense of urgency exists to identify reform agendas that are both effective and sustainable. "P-3" often is used as the term for the first level of a seamless P-20 system that stretches from early childhood through post-secondary education. While it is

  16. Timing Is Everything: Building State Policy on Teacher Credentialing in an Era of Multiple, Competing, and Rapid Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Mary Vixie

    2006-01-01

    Senate Bill (SB) 2042, authored by Senator Marion Bergeson, was passed to establish a new system for providing teacher preparation within the state of California. The credentialing reforms introduced in SB 2042 follow a tradition described by Irving Hendrik and stake their own claims regarding the locus of control over teacher quality, the role of

  17. Evidence of the Impact of School Reform on Systems Governance and Educational Bureaucracies in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderman, Gail L.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter is organized as follows. The first section examines the evolving state and federal role in education and the implications of an expanded federal role on the structure of the educational system. It pays particular attention to how the debate on the causes and solutions to school reform has shifted and the impact this has had on school

  18. 76 FR 38040 - Lifeline and Link Up Reform and Modernization, Federal-State Joint Board on Universal Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... adopted the first three tiers of Lifeline support in the Universal Service First Report and Order, 62 FR... Link Up NPRM, 76 FR 16482, March 23, 2011, the Commission underscored its commitment to eliminating...] Lifeline and Link Up Reform and Modernization, Federal-State Joint Board on Universal Service, Lifeline...

  19. More to Do, But Less Capacity to Do It: States' Progress in Implementing the Recovery Act Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; Rentner, Diane Stark

    2011-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), also known as the economic stimulus bill, channeled an unprecedented $100 billion into the nation's public education system. These funds were intended not only to avert teacher layoffs and stabilize state and local education budgets in the short term, but also to encourage reforms that…

  20. Education Reform and Decentralization in Mexico and the Creation of "Educacion Civica" in the State of Jalisco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Gloria; Rice, Marion J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate Mexican education reform and decentralization and how the state of Jalisco focused in the early twenty-first century on developing a sequential curriculum for teaching civics in grades 1-6. The authors use the term "educacion civica" because in Mexico the curriculum emphasizes the acquisition of values and

  1. Continuing Medical Education in the United States: Why It Needs Reform and How We Propose to Accomplish It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivey, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    As the continuing medical education (CME) enterprise evolved over the last half century, a variety of rules, national and state regulations, and reporting requirements developed, with a resultant substantial variation in what is required of a physician. That CME needs fundamental reform is not news to those who read the literature. Yet many of the…

  2. Social Welfare and Vocational Education--in Progressive Era Cincinnati.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    Two social welfare reformers in Cincinnati, Edith Campbell and Helen Woolley, used research on sex-typed jobs to influence the establishment of industrial training programs for girls early in the twentieth century. (SK)

  3. National Standards and School Reform in Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCoker, Gary, Ed.

    This book is a collection of works that explore the implications of a national U.S. curriculum through the study of Japanese education. It consists of 10 chapters: (1) "The Development of the Course of Study and the Structure of Educational Reform in Japan" (Hiroshi Azuma); (2) "Setting National Standards: Educational Reform, Social Change, and…

  4. The Role of the State in Higher Education Reform: Mainland China and Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Wing-Wah

    1995-01-01

    During the 1980s, the higher education systems of China and Taiwan were reformed as part of selective social transformations driven by different domestic forces: economic in China and political in Taiwan. Common to both reforms was devolution of institutional powers to colleges and universities, but within institutional and curricular limits…

  5. Comprehensive School Reform: A Longitudinal Study of School Improvement in One State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Thomas L.; Burross, Heidi Legg; McCaslin, Mary M.

    2005-01-01

    We report on comprehensive school reform (CSR) reform in 48 schools over 6 consecutive years. In 1998, a total of 24 schools received CSR awards to improve student achievement. Control schools were carefully matched on 26 demographic variables to form a comparison group. Students' average performance, as represented in publicly available school…

  6. Screening for domestic violence in public welfare offices: an analysis of case manager and client interactions.

    PubMed

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Meyers, Marcia; Casey, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of domestic violence among welfare clients, most studies of the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform find that women rarely receive domestic violence services in welfare offices. This study reviews findings from current research on the factors that improve the likelihood that women will reveal their domestic violence experiences to service personnel, and uses the guidelines drawn from this review to evaluate domestic violence screening practices in welfare offices using 782 transcribed interviews between welfare workers and clients from 11 sites in four states. The analysis found that only 9.3% of case encounters involved screening for domestic violence. Screening rates differed by state, interview type, and length of worker employment. Qualitative analysis of the interviews showed that the majority of screening by workers was routine or consisted of informing clients of the domestic violence policy without asking about abuse. Only 1.2% of the interviews incorporated at least two of the procedures that increase the likelihood of disclosure among domestic violence survivors, suggesting deeply inadequate approaches to screening for abuse within the context of welfare offices, and a need for improved training, protocol, and monitoring of FVO implementation. PMID:18096857

  7. Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

  8. Child Support and Welfare Caseloads. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Garfinkel, Irwin; Waldfogel, Jane

    This report tests the hypothesis that strong child support collection is associated with lower welfare caseloads. It uses annual state panel data from 1980-96 to replicate previous models and incorporate the effects of child support. The primary analysis technique is fixed effects regression of welfare caseloads with welfare caseloads as the…

  9. An Assessment of State-Led Reform of Long-Term Services and Supports.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Mary D; Kurtzman, Ellen T; Miller, Edward Alan; Nadash, Pamela; Fitzgerald, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Health care in the United States is fragmented, inefficient, and rife with quality concerns. These shortcomings have particularly serious implications for adults with disabilities and functionally impaired older adults in need of long-term services and supports (LTSS). Three strategies have been commonly pursued by state governments to improve LTSS: expanding noninstitutional care, integrating payment and care delivery, and realigning incentives through market-based reforms. These strategies were analyzed using an evaluation framework consisting of the following dimensions: ease of access; choice of setting/provider; quality of care/life; support for family caregivers; effective transitions among multiple providers and across settings; reductions in racial/ethnic disparities; cost-effectiveness; political feasibility; and implementability. Although the analysis highlights potential benefits and drawbacks associated with each strategy, the limited breadth of the evidentiary base precludes an assessment of impact across all nine dimensions. More importantly, the analysis exposes the interdependent, complex system of care within which LTSS is situated, suggesting that policy makers will require a holistic and long-term perspective to achieve needed changes. Addressing the nation's LTSS needs will require a multipronged strategy incorporating a range of health and social services to meet the complex care needs of a diverse population in a variety of settings. PMID:25700376

  10. An Evaluation of the Implementation of the Educational Reform in Kwara State: A Case Study of the Primary School Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulrasaq Oladimeji, Akanbi; Ibrahim, I. A.; Adebayo, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the educational reform going on in Kwara State, Nigeria. One thousand six hundred 1600 teachers were selected from the 3 senatorial districts of Kwara State using simple random sampling technique. A researcher- designed questionnaire andchecklist were developed to collect relevant data on the educational reform going on in the state. Frequency count and the percentage were employed in analyzing the data collected. The results of the study revealed that the organizational set up, textbooks, procedure for the selection of the curriculum and teachers were quite appropriate. Instructional materials and utilization of human and material resources were moderately appropriate.Space and furniture for teaching was adjudged inadequate. It was recommended that more classroom, furniture and textbooks should be provided in the areas they are lacking and a learner-centred teaching method should be embraced in all schools.

  11. The Transition of Youth with Disabilities from the Child Welfare System: An Analysis of State Administrative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Katharine Miller

    2010-01-01

    Youth with disabilities are disproportionately represented in the child welfare system (Crosse, Kaye, & Ratnofsky, 1992; Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Although research on this topic is limited, youth with disabilities who are emancipating from foster care are at risk for particularly poor outcomes, experiencing even lower rates of employment,…

  12. The Food Marketing Institute and the National Council of Chain Restaurants: animal welfare and the retail food industry in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Brown, K H; Hollingsworth, J

    2005-08-01

    In order to achieve real change, there must be a motivating force and all the stakeholders need to be involved. This is the premise of the animal welfare programme developed for the food retail, wholesale and chain restaurant industries in the United States of America (USA) by the Food Marketing Institute (FMI) and the National Council of Chain Restaurants (NCCR). This paper outlines a collaborative process that retailers and producers in the USA are using to enhance the care and welfare of animals in commercial food production. Although the efforts of the FMI and the NCCR are still underway, the process provides one example of how different parts of the food production system can work together to achieve positive change. PMID:16358516

  13. Epilogue. Child Poverty and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Duncan

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes problems and concerns expressed in this special issue devoted to child poverty. Examines child poverty under the broader context of wealth and power, presenting it in a historical perspective. Suggests that children raised in poverty experience more than the simple stress and strains of living on the margins. Discusses current problems…

  14. Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Wood, R.A.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-08-15

    A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: (1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; (2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and (3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

  15. Welfare Payments to the Disabled. Making America Sick?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Carolyn L.

    1995-01-01

    Welfare reform must include reform of the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, which is more costly and faster growing than Aid to Families with Dependent Children. SSI allows growing numbers of disabled citizens to depend on the government in spite of new employment opportunities for the disabled and protective legislation. (SLD)

  16. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: A United States national study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nathaniel J.; Glisson, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths’ psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers’ responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers’ (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate. PMID:24094999

  17. The Small State, Markets and Tertiary Education Reform in a Globalised Knowledge Economy: Decoding Policy Texts in Botswana's Tertiary Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polelo, Mompati Mino

    2009-01-01

    A number of global discourses have gained currency in national education policies. The need to reform education systems is coated in economic terms, the rationale of which is efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. Education is assigned the task of producing a competitive workforce in the global market. In these reforms, education is

  18. The Small State, Markets and Tertiary Education Reform in a Globalised Knowledge Economy: Decoding Policy Texts in Botswana's Tertiary Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polelo, Mompati Mino

    2009-01-01

    A number of global discourses have gained currency in national education policies. The need to reform education systems is coated in economic terms, the rationale of which is efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. Education is assigned the task of producing a competitive workforce in the global market. In these reforms, education is…

  19. Adapting Systems of Care for Child Welfare Practice with Immigrant Latino Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettlaff, Alan J.; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reform efforts in the child welfare system have called for child welfare agencies to provide community-based services and to increase the involvement of external stakeholders in identifying and developing services within the community. At the same time, child welfare agencies are faced with the challenge of providing services to an…

  20. Collage of Welfare-to-Work Perspectives: Views Inside and Outside the System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Barbara

    The political interests and educational orientations that adult education advocates who work on behalf of welfare recipients have about welfare-to-work programs influence the strategies they use to advance poor women's education. Adult Basic Education (ABE) providers face many conflicts as they engage in implementing programs under welfare reform,…

  1. Teaching Note-CASA Volunteerism: Preparing MSW Students for Public Child Welfare Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrick, Jill Duerr; Durst, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reform public child welfare systems across the nation, Title IV-E child welfare training programs were established over 2 decades ago. Participating students typically engage in a customized educational experience as part of their MSW program that prepares them to work in the field of child welfare upon graduation. This article

  2. Teaching Note-CASA Volunteerism: Preparing MSW Students for Public Child Welfare Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrick, Jill Duerr; Durst, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reform public child welfare systems across the nation, Title IV-E child welfare training programs were established over 2 decades ago. Participating students typically engage in a customized educational experience as part of their MSW program that prepares them to work in the field of child welfare upon graduation. This article…

  3. Linking Welfare Recipients to Jobs: The Role of Temporary Help Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugarin, Alicia

    Successful welfare reform requires quickly moving welfare recipients into jobs. Components to this challenge include the following: a poor fit between where jobs are located and where many welfare recipients live; recipients who lack experience and skills and do not know how to seek, find, or qualify for jobs; childcare and transportation needs;…

  4. The current state of health care in the former Soviet Union: implications for health care policy and reform.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A; Field, M G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Given the many profound health care problems facing Russia and the other former Soviet republics, there are a number of fundamental policy questions that deserve close attention as part of the reform process. METHODS. Summary data regarding Soviet health care issues were drawn from government agency reports, scholarly books and journals, recent press reports, and the authors' personal research. RESULTS. Smoking, alcohol, accidents, poor sanitation, inadequate nutrition, and extensive environmental pollution contribute to illness and premature mortality in Russia and the other newly independent states. Hospitals and clinics are poorly maintained and equipped; most physicians are poorly trained and inadequately paid; and there is essentially no system of quality management. While efforts at reform, which emphasize shifting to a system of "insurance medicine," have been largely unsuccessful, they have raised several important policy issues that warrant extensive research and discussion. CONCLUSIONS. Without considering the implications and consequences of alternative policy directions, Russia and the other states face the very real possibility of developing health care systems that improve the overall level of care but also incorporate limited access and escalating costs. Russian health care reform leaders can learn from the health care successes in the West and avoid repeating our mistakes. PMID:8604753

  5. A qualitative analysis of the impact of the reform of the College of Science undergraduate core curriculum at State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballotti, Dean

    The Dean of the College of Science at State University, a large public Midwestern research university, in a memo to the faculty and staff initiated what he called a "review" of the undergraduate science core curriculum. He formed a task force that was to investigate on three issues; a reassessment of the undergraduate core curriculum, the recruitment and retention of qualified undergraduate students with an emphasis on diversity, and strategies that would address these issues. The age of the curriculum, 40 years since the last significant change, was an important factor in the review of the curriculum. This qualitative study seeks to understand how a group of four administrators and five faculty, all from the College of Science, participated in the task force, perceived the old curriculum, and perceived the changes made and the resulting new curriculum. They were also asked to rank both the prior and new curricula. As part of an ongoing theme in higher education they were also asked if they thought the changes made to the curriculum qualified as reform and why or why not. This resulted in a discussion of what a reform might look like at State University and ultimately a definition of reform.

  6. 'Rule of Law' initiatives and the liberal peace: the impact of politicised reform in post-conflict states.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jenny H

    2010-01-01

    Strengthening the 'Rule of Law' (RoL) has emerged as a key requirement in the reconstruction of conflict-affected states. No longer simply a philosophical ideal, RoL now exists as a tangible set of policies created and implemented by international actors, to which conflict-affected states are expected to conform. Masked in the neutral, apolitical rhetoric of blind and objective justice, RoL programming is in fact a political tool within the larger liberal peacebuilding project. Its employment as such mutes its potential contribution to constructing a positive peace as it often creates new socio-political tensions and distorts accountability structures. An analysis of reforms in Kosovo under the United Nations administration illustrates the potential for liberal RoL reforms to increase insecurity in the short term and threaten the sustainability of peacebuilding reforms in the long term. Instrumental use of RoL programming thus provides further evidence of weaknesses and contradictions within the politicised liberal peacebuilding project, necessitating reconsideration of its role in post-conflict transformations. PMID:19341431

  7. Importing the Poor: Welfare Magnetism and Cross-Border Welfare Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Human Resources, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A study of the welfare programs in two counties bordering different states along with comparative welfare expenditure in interior counties tests the theory that Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients migrate to counties which have a higher per capita welfare budget. Research shows that border counties with a $100 differential…

  8. A cross-national comparison of income gradients in oral health quality of life in four welfare states: application of the Korpi and Palme typology

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, A E; Slade, G D; John, M T; Steele, J G; Suominen-Taipale, A L; Lahti, S; Nuttall, N M; Allen, P Finbarr

    2013-01-01

    Background The extent to which welfare states may influence health outcomes has not been explored. It was hypothesised that policies which target the poor are associated with greater income inequality in oral health quality of life than those that provide earnings-related benefits to all citizens. Methods Data were from nationally representative surveys in the UK (n=4064), Finland (n=5078), Germany (n=1454) and Australia (n=2292) conducted from 1998 to 2002. The typology of Korpi and Palme classifies these countries into four different welfare states. In each survey, subjects completed the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire, which evaluates the adverse consequence of dental conditions on quality of life. For each country, survey estimation commands were used to create linear regression models that estimated the slope of the gradient between four quartiles of income and OHIP-14 severity scores. Parameter estimates for income gradients were contrasted across countries using Wald χ2 tests specifying a critical p value of 0.008, equivalent to a Bonferroni correction of p<0.05 for the six pairwise tests. Results Statistically significant income gradients in OHIP-14 severity scores were found in all countries except Germany. A global test confirmed significant cross-national differences in the magnitude of income gradients. In Australia, where a flat rate of benefits targeted the poor, the mean OHIP-14 severity score reduced by 1.7 units (95% CI −2.15 to −1.34) with each increasing quartile of household income, a significantly steeper gradient than in other countries. Conclusion The coverage and generosity of welfare state benefits appear to influence levels of inequality in population oral health quality of life. PMID:19351621

  9. Constraints on the retreat from a welfare-orientated approach to public health care in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, S

    1999-04-01

    Both in its articulation of values and through incremental changes, the Malaysian government has signalled a change in attitude towards the welfare approach which had hitherto characterized public health care policy. This change envisions an end to reliance upon the state for the provision and financing of health services and the fostering of a system of family-based welfare. In the future citizens should finance their own health care through savings, insurance or as part of their terms of employment. While the state will still accept a degree of responsibility for those unable to pay for their health care, it wishes to share this burden with the corporate sector and non-government organizations as part of a national policy of the 'Caring Society'. In this article the retreat from a commitment to a welfare model of public health care is documented and some of the serious obstacles to such a policy are discussed. It is concluded that the government's aspirations for reforming the welfare model will need to be tempered by both practical and political considerations. Moreover, the socio-economic consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997 are likely to increase the need for government welfare action. PMID:10387810

  10. Welfare recipients' job skills and employment prospects.

    PubMed

    Burtless, G T

    1997-01-01

    The welfare reform goal of moving mothers who rely on welfare into private-sector employment cannot be achieved only by changes in public policy. Employment rates reflect the job qualifications of individuals, obstacles to work outside the home, the attractiveness of available jobs, and the capacity of the labor market to absorb new workers at particular skill levels. This article examines how each of these factors is likely to influence current welfare recipients' success in finding employment and the wages they are likely to earn. The author concludes that the skill deficiencies of recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children do not represent an insurmountable barrier to employment, although these deficiencies do restrict the wages recipients can earn. Without continued public assistance in the form of wage subsidies, child care payments, or help securing health insurance, most families that move from welfare to work will remain below the poverty level. PMID:9170731

  11. Health Care Reform: Out Greatest Opportunity...Ever!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keigher, Sharon M.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses inevitability of health care reform in United States, considers the reform process itself, and explains the plan of the President's Task Force on National Health Care Reform. Also considers the prospects for Congressional response to reform proposals. (NB)

  12. Reforming Long-Term Care in the United States: Findings from a National Survey of Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward Alan; Mor, Vincent; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Theories of the policy process recognize that policy proposals are typically generated, debated, redrafted, and accepted for consideration through the gradual accumulation of knowledge within communities of specialists. Thus, to inform long-term care (LTC) reform efforts, we conducted a Web-based survey of 1,147 LTC specialists

  13. Elite Power and Educational Reform: An Historiographical Analysis of Canada and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I reopen some of the seminal theoretical debates among critical scholars on the nature of educational reform, arguing that there has been a consistent tendency in the literature to dismiss or downplay the significance of "instrumentalist" analyses in favour of cultural/hegemonic and structuralist explanations. As a result,

  14. Impact of the Kentucky Education Reform Act on Special Education Costs and Funding. State Analysis Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay G.; Duenas, Ixtlac E.

    This paper explores the impact of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA) of 1990 on the funding and allocation of resources to special education. Overall, the results indicate that the revenues generated for the special education system by KERA are approximately equal to marginal costs of special education services statewide. However, there is…

  15. Drivers of health reform in the United States: 2012 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Lexa, Frank J

    2012-10-01

    American medicine has seen radical changes in the past decade. In particular, radiology has been affected, notably first with the passage of the Deficit Reduction Act in 2005 and then with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2010. Health care reforms are not only driven by political agendas. This process is also a response to underlying social, economic, and technological realities. It is unlikely that reform efforts will just evaporate because of a single change in government or with a decision by the US Supreme Court. Regardless of who sits in the Oval Office and which party controls Congress, there are forces that will need to be addressed through policy changes in the coming years. The underlying drivers of health care reform are legion, but health care inflation, fiscal mismanagement by government, poor planning for demographic changes that affect entitlement programs, questions about the quality of health outcomes, and a desire for universal health care were all central factors in the reforms put forth since 2009. Radiologists should be preparing now for continued change in both the public and private sectors in health care for the foreseeable future. These changes are likely to have profound impacts on our profession. Radiologists and their groups should plan to pay greater attention to these events and should seek to have a much greater level of involvement in the political and social processes that lead to policy changes in health care. PMID:23025861

  16. Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Yuan, Kun

    2008-01-01

    Although becoming widespread, especially in view of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and without a universally-accepted definition, most discussions of standards-based reforms (SBR) include certain commonalities, including: (1) Academic expectations for students; (2) Alignment of key elements of the educational system to promote attainment of these…

  17. Minorities, the Poor and School Finance Reform. Vol. 1: An Impact Study of Six States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brischetto, Robert; Vaughan, David

    To study the impact of school finance reform on minorities and the poor, researchers gathered data on educational revenues and spending, tax effort, district wealth and income, ethnicity, and urban location in California, Colorado, Florida, Michigan, New Mexico, and Texas. Their data analysis used various measures of educational equity and fiscal…

  18. Elite Power and Educational Reform: An Historiographical Analysis of Canada and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I reopen some of the seminal theoretical debates among critical scholars on the nature of educational reform, arguing that there has been a consistent tendency in the literature to dismiss or downplay the significance of "instrumentalist" analyses in favour of cultural/hegemonic and structuralist explanations. As a result,…

  19. Analysis of a State School Finance Reform Legislative Proposal in Kansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhehey, M. A.

    This paper traces the development of school reform pressures in Kansas from the implementation of the foundation program in 1965 to the passage of substitute Senate Bill 92 during the 1973 legislative session. Bill 92 is designed to produce equalization of school district expenditures and tax levies by a formula based on the concept of funding the…

  20. Reforming Long-Term Care in the United States: Findings from a National Survey of Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward Alan; Mor, Vincent; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Theories of the policy process recognize that policy proposals are typically generated, debated, redrafted, and accepted for consideration through the gradual accumulation of knowledge within communities of specialists. Thus, to inform long-term care (LTC) reform efforts, we conducted a Web-based survey of 1,147 LTC specialists…