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1

Children and Welfare Reform: A Guide to Evaluating the Effects of State Welfare Policies on Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although targeted explicitly at changing adult behaviors and outcomes, welfare reform has direct implications for children. This guidebook details the results of the Project on State-Level Child Outcomes, designed to assist states in measuring child outcomes in the context of welfare reform programs. The guidebook is presented in three sections.…

Child Trends, Inc., Washington, DC.

2

The 'New Politics' of the Bismarckian Welfare State: Pension Reforms in Continental Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do veto-heavy European welfare systems engage in reform? In this paper we analyse the pensions policy reform process in four Bismarckian welfare states against the background of recent theorizing about the scope and nature of welfare reform. We develop the notion of a 'double trade off' - involving both politics and policy - to illustrate how governments manage to

David Natali; Martin Rhodes

3

Production and the welfare state: the political context of reforms.  

PubMed

This article is an analysis of the political context of reforms in the production process and in the welfare state. The theories of legitimation and Fordism are criticized for considering the capitalist class the main force behind the reforms. The working class and the process of class struggle are primarily responsible for changes in production and for the establishment of the welfare state. The author then shows that the changes in production and in the state that occurred after World War II were a response to political events triggered by labor's rebellions and capital's need to respond to those rebellions. Post-Fordism and the political practice that derives from it are criticized for their hasty dismissal of class and class practices by the dominated forces in society. The article ends by offering an alternative strategy for change. PMID:1769749

Navarro, V

1991-01-01

4

Child Welfare Privatization: Reform Efforts in the States. Briefing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of children in foster care has nearly doubled in recent years. Despite reform efforts, the U.S. child welfare system is not increasing the number of children who get adopted. The federal government spends over $12 billion annually on child welfare programs, but the growing government bureaucracy has allowed the problems to worsen. The…

Sells, Julia K.

5

Welfare Reform and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

2005-01-01

6

Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 16 chapters in this five-part book, each by different authors, trace the effects of welfare reform (mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), upon poor people in rural areas of the United States. The book begins with an introduction called "As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural…

Weber, Bruce A., Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Whitener, Leslie A., Ed.

7

The importance of socio-economic and political losses and gains in welfare state reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

When do governments pursue unpopular reform, such as cutting benefits? And when do they engage in not-unpopular reform, such as activation? Current approaches in welfare state research cannot systematically explain the cross-government variation in the two types of reform. Based on insights from prospect theory, a psychological theory of choice under risk, this article complements existing theories by arguing that

Barbara Vis

2009-01-01

8

Race and Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of welfare reform on African American and Caucasian welfare recipients in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to determine if there were differences in their experience with employers and private welfare agencies. The study found that despite having higher education levels and higher job training completion rates, African American welfare recipients did not fare any better than Caucasians in

Michael Bonds

2006-01-01

9

Welfare Reform: Few States Are Likely to Use the Simplified Food Stamp Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, released by the US General Accounting Office (GAO), examines some of the consequences of the federal Welfare Reform Act of 1996. The report studies the Simplified Food Stamp Program provision of the Welfare Reform Act to identify the seven states that have adopted the program, describe the concerns of the non-participant states regarding increased casework and restricted options, and examines the program's limited effects on households's eligibility and benefits.

1999-01-01

10

Managing Welfare Reform in Five States: The Challenge of Devolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book analyzes the responses of five states (Florida, Mississippi, New York, Washington, and Wisconsin) to challenges posed by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 to alter state welfare programs and management systems. Using case studies, the book highlights similarities and differences in the states'…

Liebschutz, Sarah F., Ed.

11

Welfare reform and female headship.  

PubMed

While much of the focus of recent welfare reforms has been on moving recipients from welfare to work, many reforms were also directed at decisions regarding living arrangements, pregnancy, marriage, and cohabitation. This article assesses the impact of welfare reform waivers and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) programs on women's decisions to become unmarried heads of families, controlling for confounding influences from local economic and social conditions. We pooled data from the 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1996 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, which span the period when many states began to adopt welfare waivers and to implement TANF, and estimated logit models of the incidence of female headship and state-stratified, Cox proportional hazard models of the rates of entry into and exit from headship. We found little consistent evidence that waivers affected female headship of families. PMID:15209037

Fitzgerald, John M; Ribar, David C

2004-05-01

12

Lessons of United States welfare reforms for Australian social policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in policies towards lone parents in Australia have emphasised the role of employment in increasing income and self- sufficiency. The emphasis on employment is also the case in other OECD countries with a general trend towards benefits for lone parents being made dependent on participation in the labour market. The United States of America has undertaken substantial reforms

Matthew Gray; David Stanton

2004-01-01

13

Striking deals: Concertation in the reform of continental European welfare states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reform of the welfare state entails changes in interdependent policy fields stretching from social policies to employment and wage policies. These linked policy fields are often governed by varying sets of corporate actors and involve different decision making procedures. Adaptation in one policy field is often uncoordinated with other policies, and can work at cross-purposes, produce negative externalities, or

Bernhard Ebbinghaus; Anke Hassel

1999-01-01

14

Children and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

2002-01-01

15

Welfare Reform: States' Experiences in Providing Employment Assistance to TANF Clients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, recently released by the US General Accounting Office (GAO), examines some of the consequences of the federal Welfare Reform Act of 1996. The report studies how five states -- Arizona, Massachusetts, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin -- have been implementing the new Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, which supplies time-limited assistance to recipients while helping them to find and maintain work. The report concludes that, although states are making changes to the structure of their welfare and workforce development systems, only one state, Wisconsin, has fully integrated both systems.

16

Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

Sawhill, Isabel V.

2000-01-01

17

Implementing Welfare Reform: Solutions to the Substance Abuse Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implementing welfare reform will require difficult decisions from states about how to treat welfare clients who have problems with alcohol or other drugs (AOD). The processes by which states may respond to welfare reform are detailed in this guidebook. It is suggested that states begin with values clarification regarding welfare clients who abuse…

Young, Nancy K.; Gardner, Sidney L.

18

Welfare Reform. At Issue, An Opposing Viewpoints Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts to reform the welfare system in the United States have been gaining momentum since the late 1980s. Critics have been arguing that states should receive federal waivers to create their own programs to encourage welfare recipients to find work. The thrust of the 1996 welfare reform act transfers control over welfare spending to the states.…

Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

19

The Effect of Welfare Reform on Childbirth, Marriage, and Divorce  

E-print Network

This dissertation contains two essays on the effect of welfare reform on child- birth, marriage, and divorce. In the first essay, I exploit the cross state variation in welfare reform implementation to identify its effect on birth rates. The results...

Pakdeethai, Pimrak

2010-10-12

20

State welfare reform policies and declines in health insurance.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether there is a relationship between state policies on Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), declines in both TANF and Medicaid caseloads, and the rise in the number of uninsured. METHODS: Extant data sources of state TANF policies, TANF and Medicaid participation, and uninsurance rates were analyzed, with the state as the unit of analysis. The independent variables included state TANF policies that directly address receipt of benefits or relate to health; dependent variables included changes in state TANF enrollment, Medicaid enrollment, and health insurance status since the enactment of the law. RESULTS: In the bivariate analysis, declines in Medicaid were associated with sanction for work noncompliance, lack of a child care guarantee, and strategies to deter TANF enrollment; this last factor was also associated with increased uninsurance. In the multivariate analysis, lack of a child care guarantee and deterrent strategies predicted TANF declines; deterrent strategies predicted Medicaid decline and uninsurance increases. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that policies deterring TANF enrollment may contribute to declines in Medicaid and increased uninsurance. To maintain health insurance for the poor, policymakers should consider revising policies that deter TANF enrollment. PMID:10846507

Chavkin, W; Romero, D; Wise, P H

2000-01-01

21

Welfare Reform in Missouri. A Report of the Welfare Reform Committee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report outlines findings and recommendations of a committee study of whether the State of Missouri is in need of welfare reform. The major finding is that Missouri's current welfare system is substantially deficient and requires correction of laws, policies, practices, and resource allocation. Three major themes are the following: (1) welfare

De Simone, Peter, Ed.; Kunz, Julia, Ed.

22

45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect...

2012-10-01

23

45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect...

2013-10-01

24

45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect...

2014-10-01

25

45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect...

2012-10-01

26

45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect...

2010-10-01

27

45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect...

2014-10-01

28

45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect...

2011-10-01

29

45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect...

2010-10-01

30

45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect...

2013-10-01

31

45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect...

2011-10-01

32

Lifelong Learning and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An alternative perspective on lifelong learning locates it in culture, civil society, and leisure/consumption lifestyles. Distinctions between education and learning and markets and quasi-markets are used to explore policy models. The relationship to welfare reform policies is discussed. (Author/SK)

Griffin, Colin

1999-01-01

33

Market reforms in health care and sustainability of the welfare state: lessons from Sweden.  

PubMed

Reforming health care systems which are predominantly publicly provided and financed has usually been motivated as a way of increasing efficiency even if it seldom is explicit whether it is in the official sense related to individual utility or in the unofficial sense related to health outcomes. In the case of Sweden the welfare state has been made politically sustainable through a construction where cash benefits and service provision are tailored to satisfy not only the basic needs but even the more discriminating needs of the middle classes. Their loyalty with the taxes is politically crucial and therefore their evaluation of the services in the welfarist sense equally important. That loyalty was however threatened in a situation where cost-containment policies were applied while equity principles were still a strong priority. Health care utilization was increasing among the very old and chronically ill while it was decreasing for other groups. The reforms introduced in some counties during the 1990s have been focussing on a purchaser-provider split and fee-for-service payment of providers. They have increased productivity sharply, increased utilization even among the groups that previously were 'pressed out' and reduced waiting lists. Increased efficiency however, threatens equity in some specific aspects. Fee-for-service payment means increased production and so far even increased costs. If they are to be met with increased private financing, rather than with present tax financing, it will bring the risk of inequities. Payment of hospitals through DRG systems means payment to providers for medical interventions with no incentives to deal with social consequences of illness. Inequities in health care can be related to the way health care deals with inequalities in health due to inequalities in living conditions or inequalities in living conditions due to ill health. In the short perspective the reforms may threaten equity in the second aspect, in the longer perspective the problems of cost control and the pressure it raises for alternative financial sources may be a more serious risk even for the former. PMID:10156635

Diderichsen, F

1995-01-01

34

Economic Conditions and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 10 papers on three key questions regarding the effects of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which ended the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program: why welfare caseloads are falling; how welfare recipients are faring; and how the states are responding to changing…

Danziger, Sheldon H., Ed.

35

Nobody Asked Us: The WV Welfare Reform Listening Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

West Virginia's state welfare reform plan was in effect by the end of 1997. In 1999, over 175 interviews were conducted with past and present welfare recipients to bring their experiences and concerns to the attention of the public and policymakers. Nearly all interviewees were women and were taking part in work activities. In general, welfare

Wilson, Rick

36

What has Welfare Reform Accomplished? Impacts on Welfare Participation, Employment, Income, Poverty, and Family Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of recent welfare reforms, investigating the effects of both state-specific waivers in the early 1990s and the 1996 federal reform legislation. Unlike earlier work, we analyze a wide array of indicators, including welfare participation, labor market involvement, earnings, income and poverty, and family formation. While no single methodology is entirely satisfying, the results in this

Robert F. Schoeni; Rebecca M. Blank

2000-01-01

37

Class, care, and welfare reform: reading meanings, talking feelings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a way of looking at welfare as a realm of affective well-being, which challenges dominant liberal and rationalist views of welfare as unemployment compensation or support on the route back to 'work'. With reference to welfare-to-work reform in Britain and, the United States, I examine liberal feminist and neoliberal policy discourses on women, work, and welfare. The

Chris Haylett

2003-01-01

38

Ten Things Everyone Should Know about Welfare Reform. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A, No. A-52. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief presents 10 key findings about welfare reform, using research from the Urban Institute's Assessing the New Federalism project. Welfare reform has taken hold, and, in the immediate aftermath of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), states have made major changes to their welfare systems that…

Weil, Alan

39

Beyond Work: Strategies To Promote the Well-Being of Young Children and Families in the Context of Welfare Reform. Children and Welfare Reform, Issue Brief 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief is one in a series on children and welfare reform that explores how states and communities can achieve the adult-focused goals of welfare reform and enhance the well-being of young children. Arguing that deliberate policy, program, fiscal, and collaborative strategies are needed to strengthen basic supports, promote young children's…

Cauthen, Nancy K.; Knitzer, Jane

40

Welfare Reform, Family Hardship, and Women of Color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare reform has increased the hardships faced by many women leaving welfare for work. Their movement into low-wage jobs, or to no work, exposes them to higher levels of housing insecurity, homelessness, food insecurity, and hunger. Women of color, overrepresented on the welfare rolls, are especially vulnerable to the negative impacts of welfare reform.

Linda Burnham

2001-01-01

41

Child Poverty, Public Policies and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the articles in this special issue on child poverty, policy, and welfare reform. Introduces and discusses the four major themes addressed by these articles: (1) poverty and economic policies affecting children; (2) consequences of poverty for child well-being; (3) qualitative research on family life and child poverty; and (4) programs…

Danziger, Sandra K.; Danziger, Sheldon

1995-01-01

42

Interagency Collaboration and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of WIN (Welfare Information Network) Issue Notes raises some major issues that agencies may want to address as they consider expanding collaborative efforts. It describes collaborative efforts and identifies resources that could prove useful in designing successful collaborations. Section 1 offers background. Section 2 answers these…

Sussman, Tara

2000-01-01

43

Of Child Welfare and Welfare Reform: the Implications for Children When Contradictory Policies Collide  

Microsoft Academic Search

On August 22, 1996, President Bill Clinton signed into law the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (hereinafter, “PRWORA” or the “welfare reform law”), which replaced the Aid to Families and Dependent Children Program (“AFDC”), the nation’s primary cash-assistance program, with the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families Program (“TANF”), funded by block grants to states. PRWORA represented

Kay P. Kindred

2003-01-01

44

The Economic Impact of Welfare Reform on Arkansas Families. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1997, the Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA) program was established in Arkansas as the state's version of welfare reform. Although there has been a 44 percent decrease in TEA cash assistance since the program's inception, questions continue regarding the impact of welfare reform on families with children. This report highlights some of…

Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, Little Rock.

45

Running Head: Mental Health and Welfare Reform MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE MOTHERS  

E-print Network

Running Head: Mental Health and Welfare Reform MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE MOTHERS Pennsylvania State University #12;Mental Health and Welfare Reform/2 MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE that having a psychiatric disorder is associated with a 25 percent lower likelihood of working. Mental health

Shyy, Wei

46

More Promises To Keep: Sustaining Arizona's Capacity for Welfare and Health Reform (December 1, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents the views expressed by the major speakers at "More Promises to Keep: Sustaining Arizona's Capacity for Welfare and Health Reform," concluding a 3-year study of welfare and health reform in the state. The publication also summarizes the discussions of three special interest sessions. The speakers' op-ed-style pieces and…

Arizona State Univ., Tempe. Morrison Inst. for Public Policy.

47

The Impact of Welfare Reform on Men's Violence against Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare reform is likely to have a profound effect on the lives of poor women who are being abused. This article proposes exchange theory and the feminist “backlash hypothesis” as frameworks with which to assess the impact of welfare reform on violence levels in abusive relationships. Exchange theory suggests that if a woman leaves welfare and obtains employment that increases

Stephanie Riger; Maryann Krieglstein

2000-01-01

48

After welfare reform and an economic boom: why is child  

E-print Network

, the radical welfare reform of 1996 had transformed the social safety net, requiring work as a condition social welfare policies, implies that child poverty in the U.S., in the foreseeable future, will be much1 After welfare reform and an economic boom: why is child poverty still so much higher in the U

Shyy, Wei

49

Welfare Reform: Federal Oversight of State and Local Contracting Can Be Strengthened. Report to Congressional Requesters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed existing procedures to manage Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) contracting and also identified problems with regard to management of TANF contracting. The major data collection activities were as follows: (1) a national survey of all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the 10 counties…

Nilsen, Sigurd R.

50

Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use of Adult Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996, often referred to as welfare reform, ended entitlement to welfare benefits under Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and replaced AFDC with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grants to states. The broad goal of PRWORA was to reduce dependence on government benefits. The legislation represented a

Dhaval Dave; Nancy Reichman; Hope Corman

2010-01-01

51

The Effect of the 1981 Welfare Reforms on AFDC Participation and Labor Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1992 to 1995, forty states applied for federal waivers in order to test new welfare reforms. About 80 percent of these waiver applications included expansions of earnings disregards and asset limits for welfare recipients. These changes would effectively reverse the changes imposed by the 1981 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA81), which significantly restricted eligibility and reduced earnings disregards for

Paul A. Smith

52

Losing Health Insurance: Unintended Consequences of Welfare Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conducted by Families USA, a health consumer group, this first national study of the connection between welfare reform and the loss of health insurance estimates that up to 675,000 people were uninsured in 1997 as a direct result of welfare reform. As 1997 was the first year of welfare reform implementation, the group expects the number of uninsured to increase dramatically in the next several years. Available in .pdf format, the report features a list of key findings and numerous graphs, tables, and sidebars.

Klein, Rachel.

1999-01-01

53

Psychiatry, homeless patients and welfare reforms: historical links and chains.  

PubMed

The birthplace of the specialty of psychiatry was in the asylum, which was created to divert patients from workhouses where the most disadvantaged and destitute people with mental illness were to be found. The current welfare reforms are endangering the welfare and livelihood of the most disadvantaged of our patients. These reforms in the authors' opinion are related more to the historical cycle of societal attitude to homeless people than to seeing them as the undeserving poor. This is particularly true since the current economic crisis was not caused by the poor, so it is very unfair that our poorest patients should suffer most as a result of the welfare reforms. PMID:23564721

Abdul-Hamid, Walid Khalid; Bhui, Kamaldeep

2014-02-01

54

Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

2014-01-01

55

Financing Services for Young Children and Their Families: Meeting the Challenges of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines strategies for state and local leaders to finance supports and services for young children and their families in the wake of welfare reform. It focuses on strategies for revenue reform and for creating public/private partnerships to provide decision makers with current and relevant information on a variety of effective tools…

Hayes, Cheryl D.

56

Cambodian Refugee Families in the Shadows of Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provisions in the 1996 Federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, commonly known as welfare reform, sought to limit refugees and other legal immigrants’ access to government services and assistance. Although the 1997 Balanced Budget Act restored some benefits to those who arrived before the law was passed, little is known about how refugee families navigated the new welfare

Karen Quintiliani

2009-01-01

57

Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation of Jobs First (JF) compared the experiences of JF participants who were subject to welfare reform policies with those of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) participants who were subject to prior welfare rules. It collected information for four years about JF's impacts on participants' children and analyzed its financial…

Bloom, Dan; Scrivener, Susan; Michalopoulos, Charles; Morris, Pamela; Hendra, Richard; Adams-Ciardullo, Diana; Walter, Johanna

58

Does Welfare Reform Affect Fertility? Evidence from the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents evidence on the fertility effect of welfare from a set of reforms that took place in the UK in 1999 and that substantially increased support for poorer families with children. The reforms, including the introduction of the Working Families Tax Credit and an increase in means-tested income support, raised benefits by up to 10 per cent of

Mike Brewer; Anita Ratcliffe; Sarah Smith

2007-01-01

59

Education and Training under Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some welfare experts and policymakers advocate providing education and training to prepare welfare recipients for jobs that will eventually help them leave poverty (the "work first" approach), whereas others advocate placing welfare recipients in jobs immediately whenever possible. Although the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity…

Cohen, Marie

1998-01-01

60

Welfare Reform and Lone Parents in the UK &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of reforms to help low income families with children were introduced in the UK in 1999, including in-work tax credits and welfare-to-work programmes. Lone parents were a key target for these reforms – they comprised 22% of all families by 1998 but 55% of families with children in poverty. Previous studies have shown that the reforms raised employment

Paul Gregg; Susan Harkness; Sarah Smith

2009-01-01

61

Do Welfare Asset Limits Affect Household Saving? Evidence from Welfare Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to estimate the effect of new saving incentives implemented as part of the 1996 welfare reform on household saving. Economic theory predicts that loosening asset limits will increase total savings for households with a large ex-ante probability of welfare receipt such as female-headed households…

Hurst, Erik; Ziliak, James P.

2006-01-01

62

The politics of ideas in welfare state transformation: Christian Democracy and the reform of family policy in Germany.  

PubMed

The expansion of employment-centered family policies of the Grand Coalition in Germany came with some surprise, as Christian Democrats have traditionally been strongly committed to the male breadwinner model and corresponding family policies. This article investigates why Christian Democrats (though with some inconsistencies) promoted “social-democratic” family policies guided by the adult worker rather than by the male breadwinner model. Illuminating the politics of recent family policy reforms, the electoral rationale for this modernization of family policy, the role of political entrepreneurship, and intraparty political conflicts over the new policy paradigm are discussed. PMID:22292173

Fleckenstein, Timo

2011-01-01

63

Welfare Reform on Rosebud Reservation: Challenges for Tribal Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with low-income, American Indian, single parents on the Rosebud Reservation in Todd County, South Dakota, included families who were on and who had left Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Welfare reform issues discussed included transportation problems; access to affordable, quality child care; food insecurity; and the scarcity of…

Biolsi, Thomas; Cordier, Rose; Two Eagle, Marvine Douville; Weil, Melinda

2002-01-01

64

Community Development Corporations and Welfare Reform: Linkages, Roles, and Impacts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of welfare reform on housing owned by community development corporations (CDCs), investigating how early implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) affected the financial status of CDCs' affordable housing developments. Five types of financial impacts were…

Wright, David J.; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Schill, Michael H.

65

Families Hardest Hit: Effects of Welfare Reform on Homeless Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data from 1999 surveys of people living in Chicago shelters and warming centers for families with children. The surveys asked about the impacts of welfare reform on respondents' lives. Researchers also surveyed housing and food assistance agencies, shelters, and other social service agencies. Of 481 families surveyed, 44…

Dworkin, Julie

66

Welfare Reform: Can Higher Education Reduce the Feminization of Poverty?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the feminization of poverty, highlighting poor women, their children, and their need for financial assistance; identifying obstacles to self-sufficiency and their attempts to overcome those obstacles while relying on government aid (including attending college); showing how welfare reform has become an obstacle; and discussing how…

Tiamiyu, Mojisoa; Mitchell, Shelley

2001-01-01

67

Workforce Development and Welfare Reform: Potential Impact upon Persons with Disabilities and Community Rehabilitation Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details the outcomes of a study conducted in response to concerns about the impact of workforce development and welfare reform upon persons with disabilities being served by community rehabilitation programs. Twenty-three focus groups involving over 200 individuals were held in 13 different cities across eight states. Participants came…

Coker, Charles C.; Flynn, Mary; Menz, Fredrick E.; McAlees, Daniel C.

68

WELFARE REFORM, SUBSTANCE USE, AND MENTAL HEALTH1 Rukmalie Jayakody2  

E-print Network

1 WELFARE REFORM, SUBSTANCE USE, AND MENTAL HEALTH1 Rukmalie Jayakody2 Pennsylvania State the National Institute of Mental Health (R24-MH51363, R03-MH57898) and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation for Poverty, Risk and Mental Health, University of Michigan, 504 E. Liberty, Suite 202, Ann Arbor, MI 48104

Shyy, Wei

69

The Impact of Welfare Reform on Head Start Disability and Family Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1997 study assessed the impact of welfare reform as reported by Head Start staff served by the Great Lakes Resource Access Project (GLRAP), a federally funded program providing training and technical assistance to Head Start staff in the area of disability services. The states served by the project are Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota,…

Bennett, Tess; Bhagwanji, Yash; Thomas, Dawn; Allison, Anita

70

Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860

Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

2014-01-01

71

Families' Experience with Welfare Reform on Reservations in Arizona  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article documents the impact of the 1996 federal welfare legislation on American Indian families in the state of Arizona over a period of four years. The authors analyzed primary data obtained from interviews with 445 former or current welfare families with children from three Indian reservations: Navajo, San Carlos, and Salt River. Compared…

Pandey, Shanta; Zhan, Min; Collier-Tenison, Shannon

2004-01-01

72

For Better and for Worse: Welfare Reform and the Well-Being of Children and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the 1996 welfare reform bill reduced welfare rolls, falling caseloads do not necessarily mean a better standard of living for families. This book examines the evidence and evaluates whether welfare reform has met one of its chief goals--improving the well-being of the nation's poor children. The chapters of the book are as follows: (1)…

Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, Ed.

73

Casper W. Weinberger to be Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare: Hearings Before the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress. Part 2: Appendix--Comprehensive HEW Simplification and Reform "MEGA Proposal".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A proposal up for consideration before the United States Senate is discussed. The program suggested is a redesign of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare in keeping with the principles of the New Federalism. The proposal touches every major area of HEW policy: it simplifies the Department's program structure; it narrows and focuses the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

74

APPROACHING THE LIMIT: EARLY NATIONAL LESSONS FROM WELFARE REFORM  

E-print Network

(PRWORA) of 1996, crafted by a Republican Congress. The PRWORA ended the entitlement to cash assistance conditions, federal government policy changes, and state welfare policy changes in the last few years have

Shyy, Wei

75

The Forgotten Children: African American Children and Child Welfare Reform in St. Louis, 1890-1930  

E-print Network

Abstract Forgotten Children examines the influence of racial ideology on the trajectory of child welfare reform in late nineteenth century and early twentieth century St. Louis. The modern American child welfare system ...

Thirlkel, Thomas E.

2010-05-07

76

Welfare Reform and Black Women's Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1996, the United States Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, placing emphasis on individuals to take responsibility for separating themselves from governmental dependence by becoming economically self-sufficient through employment. Using a qualitative approach, this study explored the experiences…

Alfred, Mary V.

2007-01-01

77

The Continuing Good News about Welfare Reform. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the time of its enactment, liberal groups passionately denounced the welfare reform legislation, predicting that it would result in substantial increases in poverty, hunger, and other social ills. Contrary to these alarming forecasts, welfare reform has been effective in meeting each of its goals. Data from various sources show that overall…

Rector, Robert; Fagan, Patrick F.

78

Impact of the 1996 Welfare Reform on Child and Family Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examined the impact of the 1996 Welfare Reform, based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using a sample of 1,681 single mothers living in poverty, this study compared the effects of economic well-being and home environment scores on their children during pre- and post-Welfare Reform years. Following the 1996…

Lee, Kyunghee

2009-01-01

79

THE 2010 REAUTHORIZATION OF WELFARE REFORM COULD RESULT IN IMPORTANT CHANGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare reform law of 1996 is widely regarded as one of the most important pieces of social legislation since the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid in the mid-1960s. Although the 1996 law is known primarily for its radical reforms designed to help, cajole, or force welfare mothers to seek self sufficiency through work, there were important changes in several

RON HASKINS

2010-01-01

80

Impact of U.S. Federal Welfare Reform Law on Children with Mental Disorders Receiving SSI  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of statistical reports from the Social Security Administration's Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics suggests that the Federal welfare reform law had a negative impact on the number of children under age 18 with mental disorders receiving SSI benefits. This was evident about a year after the enactment of welfare reform. Over a three-year time frame, 65 percent

Maria Roberts-Degennaro

2000-01-01

81

Wage and Job Dynamics After Welfare Reform: The Importance of Job Skills  

E-print Network

Wage and Job Dynamics After Welfare Reform: The Importance of Job Skills Rucker C. Johnson), and the Office of the Vice-President for Research at the University of Michigan. #12;Wage and Job Dynamics After Welfare Reform: The Importance of Job Skills Abstract I use data from employers and longitudinal data from

Shyy, Wei

82

Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its establishment in 1996, Connecticut's Job First Welfare Reform Program has been under rigorous evaluation. As a result, under a contract with the Connecticut Department of Social Services, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC) decided to study the effects of the Job First Program. During the study, nearly 5,000 single-parent welfare applicants and recipients in Manchester and New Haven were randomly assigned to either the Jobs First Program or to the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) group (which operated under the prior welfare rules). The effects of the Jobs First Program were estimated by comparing how the two groups fared over a four-year period, and the results are revealed in this report. Users may choose to view the Executive Summary (a short review in HTML), the Summary Report (52 pages), or the Full Report (406 pages). In addition, the Web page provides access to the report's press release (issued February 20, 2002) and a description of Connecticut's Job First Program.

Adams-Ciardullo, Diana.

2002-01-01

83

Reforming Welfare and Rewarding Work: A Final Report on the Minnesota Family Investment Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cited June 2000 in a printed statement on welfare reform from President Clinton, this new report offers a comprehensive assessment of Minnesota's welfare reform program. The report was produced by The Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC), a "nonprofit, nonpartisan social policy research organization." MDRC found that Minnesota's reform program brought substantial, far-ranging improvements to the lives of single parents who were long-term welfare recipients, including increases in employment, reduction in poverty, decreased levels of domestic abuse, and improvements in children's behavior and school performance. Unlike many welfare reform programs, Minnesota's is premised upon a commitment to support people while they work. This welfare-plus-work dimension was emphasized by the MDRC as crucial to the reform's successes.

Berlin, Gordon L.

2000-01-01

84

Welfare Reform: How Do We Measure Success? Daniel T. Lichter1  

E-print Network

women and children face an uncertain economic and social future as welfare eligibility is exhausted and the economy wanes. With the welfare debate shifting to family and child well-being, sociology has an important;3 Welfare Reform: How Do We Measure Success? INTRODUCTION The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity

Shyy, Wei

85

Welfare reform and changes in the economic well-being of children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the implementation of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program in late-1996, welfare rolls have declined by more than half. This paper explores whether improvements in the economic well-being of children have accompanied this dramatic reduction in welfare participation. Further, we examine the degree to which the success or failure of welfare reform has been shared equally among

Neil G. Bennett; Hsien-Hen Lu; Younghwan Song

2005-01-01

86

45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...

2012-10-01

87

45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-10-01 true How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...

2013-10-01

88

45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...

2010-10-01

89

45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2012-10-01 true How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...

2014-10-01

90

45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...

2011-10-01

91

From social security to individual responsibility (Part Two): Writing off poor women's work in the Welfare Reform Act 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second paper of a 2-part article which draws on interdisciplinary feminist perspectives to critique New Labour's welfare reform agenda. Through examining the Welfare Reform Bill and the subsequent Welfare Reform Act 2009, the paper argues that the increased use of conditionality and sanctions in relation to female benefit claimants – particularly lone mothers – “writes-off” their caring

Emily Grabham; Jenny Smith

2010-01-01

92

Assessing the effects of welfare reform policies on reproductive and infant health.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The welfare reform law of 1996 marked a historical moment in US policy toward the poor by ending the entitlement to cash assistance, by requiring work, and by establishing time limits. This article examines the potential impact on the health of women and children, the primary recipients of welfare benefits. METHODS: The authors outline the reproductive health outcomes most likely to be sensitive to welfare policies, identify indicators that might be used to assess these outcomes, review empirical evidence, and suggest specific methods and data sources. RESULTS: State welfare requirements could improve health outcomes or deter families from Medicaid and food stamps, as well as income support, thus worsening health outcomes. National and state data may prove useful in detecting these effects; however, new data sources may be required for specific health-related questions. CONCLUSIONS: Assessing the effects of welfare policies on reproductive and infant health is possible, although challenging. Reauthorization of the legislation is required in 2002; it is essential that the consequences for health be included in the next round of public debate. PMID:10511833

Wise, P; Chavkin, W; Romero, D

1999-01-01

93

Feminist Perspectives on TANF Reauthorization: An Introduction to Key Issues for the Future of Welfare Reform. Briefing Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current debates about welfare reform center on the upcoming reauthorization of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) legislation. The provisions of TANF include the elimination of the entitlement to cash assistance, block grant funding to the states, mandatory work requirements, sanctions, a 5-year limit on cash assistance, and…

Peterson, Janice

94

Policy experts, politicians, and others debate successes and failures of welfare reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On and off the rolls, women work to get aheadhttp://www.kansascity.com/mld/kansascity/news/local/15329233.htmNPR: Legislator Offers First-Person View of Welfare [Real Player]http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5689095In Focus: Ten Years of Welfare Reform [pdf]http://www.brookings.edu/comm/infocus/welfare.htmNPR: Where the Welfare Law Failed Fathershttp://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5671231Fact Sheet: The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/ofa/prwora96.htmSome sixty years after its introduction during the New Deal era, the essence of social welfare in the United States was dramatically transformed with the passage of The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. Despite its cumbersome name, the Act effectively placed a five-year time limit on welfare assistance, and also required a significant commitment on the part of recipients to find work. As various groups and individuals reflected on the past ten years, some were quick to note that the number of people on welfare has dropped 60 percent. Others have been more sanguine, noting that these reforms continue to inadequately address deeper problems, particularly those of single mothers with few job qualifications or education. Some critics continue to suggest that these problems are related to structural changes in the economy, and others continue to blame the so-called â??culture of povertyâ?ť. The debates over what to do in order to solve the problems of working families continues to be intense, with some groups pushing to encourage marriage as a solution, and others seeking to provide more money for child care and higher minimum wages. The first link will take users to a piece from the Pittsburgh Post-Gazetteâ??s own Steve Levin that takes a closer look at the effects of welfare reform on several local residents. The second link leads to a similar piece which looks at womenâ??s experience with the welfare system in and around Kansas City. The third link leads to a provocative piece from National Public Radio which features Montana legislator Mary Caferro talking about her own first-hand experience as a welfare recipient. Moving right along, visitors will find a diverse set of scholarly writings on welfare reform at the fourth site, offered courtesy of The Brookings Institution. The fifth link offers commentary by two scholars (Ron Haskins and Ronald Mincy) about how public policy should be adjusted over the next decade to meet the needs of poor families. Finally, the last link leads to a basic fact sheet on The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.

Grinnell, Max

2006-01-01

95

Welfare: Reform or Replacement? (Child Support Enforcement---II). Hearing before the Subcommittee on Social Security and Family Policy of the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This transcript is from the third in a series of hearings before the Senate Subcommittee on Social Security and Family Policy focusing on whether the present welfare system should be reformed or replaced. A series of public officials, child and family advocates, and other interested parties testified on the issue of enforcement of child support…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

96

Welfare Reform. Hearings on S. 869, S. 1001, S. 1511, before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (October 14 and 28, 1987). Part 2 of 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of hearings, the second of three on welfare reform, focuses on the following legislation: (1) the Family Security Act (S. 1511); (2) child support enforcement bills (S. 1001 and S. 869); and (3) the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Employment and Training Reorganization Act. Among the speakers and witnesses were the following:…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

97

State Welfare Rules, TANF Exits, and Geographic Context: Does Place Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research compares the likelihood of exiting TANF with and without employment and the effects of important state TANF rules on welfare exits in more disadvantaged (large Rustbelt cities and poor southern nonmetro) and less disadvantaged (other metro and other nonmetro) areas during the 1996-2003 post-welfare reform period. Hierarchical…

Irving, Shelley K.

2008-01-01

98

Positive animal welfare states and reference standards for welfare assessment.  

PubMed

Developments in affective neuroscience and behavioural science during the last 10-15 years have together made it increasingly apparent that sentient animals are potentially much more sensitive to their environmental and social circumstances than was previously thought to be the case. It therefore seems likely that both the range and magnitude of welfare trade-offs that occur when animals are managed for human purposes have been underestimated even when minimalistic but arguably well-intentioned attempts have been made to maintain high levels of welfare. In light of these neuroscience-supported behaviour-based insights, the present review considers the extent to which the use of currently available reference standards might draw attention to these previously neglected areas of concern. It is concluded that the natural living orientation cannot provide an all-embracing or definitive welfare benchmark because of its primary focus on behavioural freedom. However assessments of this type, supported by neuroscience insights into behavioural motivation, may now carry greater weight when used to identify management practices that should be avoided, discontinued or substantially modified. Using currently accepted baseline standards as welfare reference points may result in small changes being accorded greater significance than would be the case if they were compared with higher standards, and this could slow the progress towards better levels of welfare. On the other hand, using "what animals want" as a reference standard has the appeal of focusing on the specific resources or conditions the animals would choose themselves and can potentially improve their welfare more quickly than the approach of making small increments above baseline standards. It is concluded that the cautious use of these approaches in different combinations could lead to recommendations that would more effectively promote positive welfare states in hitherto neglected areas of concern. PMID:24875152

Mellor, D J

2015-01-01

99

Summary of State Welfare Waiver Requests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the passage of the Family Support Act in 1988, states have been pursuing a variety of experiments in welfare policy innovation. This document summarizes state welfare waiver requests reviewed and approved by the Department of Health and Human Services as of September 1995. Included in the document is a list of definitions of waiver provision…

Brown, J. Larry

100

Child Welfare in 25 States: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview presents a summary of the major findings of a 25-state survey of child welfare service delivery systems, as studied by Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. in association with the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) during the period of November 1975 through February 1976. The initial products of the survey were 25 state profiles; these…

National Center for Child Advocacy (DHEW/OHD), Washington, DC.

101

Welfare Reform Impacts on the Public Housing Program: A Preliminary Forecast: HUD USER  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users may download this report and accompanying charts from the HUD USER site. The report "examines the implications of welfare reform for public housing authorities (PHAs), whose residents traditionally contribute a portion of their incomes for rent." The report focuses on a small number of diverse housing authorities and finds that the effects of welfare reform on tenant incomes and PHA rent revenues will most probably vary considerably.

102

The effect of welfare reform on prenatal care and birth weight.  

PubMed

Welfare reform has resulted in a dramatic decline in welfare caseloads and some have claimed that a significant number of low-income women may be without health insurance as a result. The loss of insurance may reduce low-income, pregnant women's health care utilization, and this may adversely affect infant health. Welfare reform also may affect healthcare utilization and health of pregnant women and infants because of welfare-induced changes in family disposable income, time available for health investments, and levels of stress. In this paper we examine the effect of welfare reform on prenatal care utilization and birth weight of low-educated women and their infants. We find that a 50% reduction in the caseload, which is similar to that which occurred in the 1990s, is associated with a zero to seven percent decrease in first trimester prenatal care; a zero to five percent decrease in the number of prenatal care visits; and a zero to 10% increase in low birth weight. Since welfare reform was responsible for only part of the decline in the caseload, welfare reform per se had even smaller effects. PMID:15386659

Kaestner, Robert; Lee, Won Chan

2005-05-01

103

Intimate Partner Violence, Social Support, and Employment in the Post-Welfare Reform Era  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This prospective study used 3 years of longitudinal data to explore relationships among intimate partner violence (IPV), perceived emotional and material social support, employment stability, and job turnover among current and former female welfare recipients in the immediate post-welfare reform era. Higher levels of current IPV and lower levels…

Staggs, Susan L.; Long, Susan M.; Mason, Gillian E.; Krishnan, Sandhya; Riger, Stephanie

2007-01-01

104

The Lived Experience of Welfare Reform in Drug-Using Welfare-Needy Households in Inner-City New York  

PubMed Central

Welfare reform has transformed a needs-based family income support into temporary assistance for persons entering the workforce. This paper uses observations from an ethnographic study covering the period from 1995–2001 to examine the impact on drug-using welfare-needy households in inner-city New York. The analysis suggests that studies may underestimate the extent to which substance use is associated with welfare problems. Nearly all of these already distressed households lost their AFDC/TANF benefits, had difficulty with work programs, and were having more difficulty covering expenses. The conclusion highlights ways to better study this population and policy initiatives that could help them reform their impoverished lives for themselves and their children. PMID:25382890

Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

2014-01-01

105

Effects of Welfare Reform on Teenage Parents and Their Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key question in welfare policy concerns the potential that welfare-to-work programs have to develop in teenage parents the motivation and skills to provide financially for themselves and their children. The Teenage Parent Welfare Demonstration was a major experiment initiated in 1986 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and evaluated by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., to test

J. Lawrence Aber; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn; Rebecca A. Maynard

1995-01-01

106

Welfare Reform when Recipients Are Forward-Looking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By studying recipients of aid under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) welfare scheme, the effect of time limits of welfare schemes on forward looking recipients is assessed using a discrete-choice dynamic programming framework model. The policy simulations for the preferred specification of utility reveal that two year time limits…

Swann, Christopher A.

2005-01-01

107

Welfare effects of public health insurance reform: The case of urban China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates Chinese public health insurance reform enforced since 1998 in terms of its welfare effects. We evaluate\\u000a China health insurance reform since 1998 using the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS) data with relevant econometric\\u000a models. The results of empirical studies show that the public health insurance status has significant impact on medical service\\u000a utilization and expenditure. The

Jihong Ding; Minglai Zhu

2007-01-01

108

45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 260.74 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...

2010-10-01

109

45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 260.74 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...

2012-10-01

110

45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-10-01 true How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 260.74 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...

2013-10-01

111

45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 260.74 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...

2011-10-01

112

45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2012-10-01 true How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 260.74 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...

2014-10-01

113

Complaint Resolution in the Context of Welfare Reform: How W-2 Settles Disputes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtually rewriting how government assistance would be administered to those in need, Wisconsin's Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 has had a dramatic impact on all people previously eligible for federally administered Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). In particular, PRWORA and the subsequent Wisconsin Works, or W-2, program has mandated that no one receive benefits for no more than twenty four months and that, over the course of that period, vocational training is actively sought and put to use. Highly controversial and replacing a system more than sixty years old, both PRWORA and W-2 have met with a great deal of criticism and a number of legal challenges, many of which have been filed on behalf of those failing to meet the demands of a more stringent system of needs and compliance analyses. Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation's Report "Complaint Resolution in the Context of Welfare Reform: How W-2 Settles Disputes" thoroughly details the selection and appeals provisions of Wisconsin's radically revamped, welfare statutes. While challenging reading at times, the report does a magnificent job of outlining the steps put in place by the Wisconsin State Legislature to ensure that all potential recipients enjoy due process in their requests for government assistance. Additionally, for those attempting to assess the scope and efficacy of the W-2 program, the report also offers valuable historical perspective.

Lynn, Suzanne.

2001-01-01

114

Problem-Based Learning and Improved Learning Outcomes in "The Politics of Welfare Reform"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the capacity of a major Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Assignment to improve students' content knowledge surrounding relevant course concepts in two sections of "The Politics of Welfare Reform," a 200-level class offered at the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth. The hypothesis was that performance on the PBL assignment, which…

Berggren, Heidi M.

2011-01-01

115

Do Social Policy Reforms Have Different Impacts on Employment and Welfare Use as Economic Conditions Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses March Current Population Survey data from 1985 to 2004 to explore whether social policy reforms implemented throughout the 1990s have different impacts on employment and welfare use depending on economic conditions, a topic with important policy implications but which has received little attention from researchers. I find evidence…

Herbst, Chris M.

2008-01-01

116

Welfare Reform and Older Immigrants: Food Stamp Program Participation and Food Insecurity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The welfare reform bill of 1996 severely constrained noncitizens' eligibility for the Food Stamp Program (FSP). This study examined the effects of eligibility restrictions on older immigrants' FSP participation and food insecurity. We paid special attention to household composition and household eligibility as well as older immigrants'…

Nam, Yunju; Jung, Hyo Jin

2008-01-01

117

Is Welfare Reform Responsible for Low Skilled Women's Declining Health Insurance Coverage in the 1990s?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use data from the 1989-2001 March Supplements to the Current Population Survey to determine whether welfare reform contributed to declines in health insurance coverage experienced by low-skilled women. Between 1988 and 2000, women with less than a high school education experienced an 8.0 percentage point decline in the probability of having…

DeLeire, Thomas; Levine, Judith A.; Levy, Helen

2006-01-01

118

"The Single-Parent Family" and Welfare Reform: Is Marriage the Solution?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many proposals for welfare reform center on the issue of marriage-based families versus single-parent families and oversimplify the relationship between single-parenting and poverty. Research done in upstate rural New York among low-income families showed that personal and economic characteristics of married and single mothers were similar as to…

Fitchen, Janet M.

1995-01-01

119

The Impact of Child Welfare Reform on Intake Practice: Social Work by Numbers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study explores the impact of recent changes to child protection in Ontario. The impact of Child Welfare Reform on intake practice was studied via all approach influenced by Grounded Theory. Utilizing interviews of six key informants, this study revealed concern for the implications of the narrow focus on child protection. There seems little faith that these drastic measures

Crystal Anne Sitzer

2004-01-01

120

The Road to Economic Self-Sufficiency: Job Quality & Job Transition Patterns After Welfare Reform*  

E-print Network

covering the period 1997-early 2002. We broaden the analysis of job quality beyond employment ratesThe Road to Economic Self-Sufficiency: Job Quality & Job Transition Patterns After Welfare Reform-mail to ruckerj@umich.edu. #12;The Road to Economic Self-Sufficiency: Job Quality & Job Transition Patterns After

Shyy, Wei

121

THREE CITIES STUDY OF WELFARE REFORM AND THE WELL-BEING OF CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies the effects of the 1996 Welfare Reform Bill on children in three Northeastern, Southwestern and Midwestern cities, Boston, San Antonio, and Chicago, over a four-year period. The project also addresses the broader issue of the effects of parental time and money resources o...

122

Family Literacy Guide to Welfare Reform. Family Independence Initiative Publication #3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides the information family literacy programs, practitioners, and friends need to understand the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) and its ramifications. It also addresses how to advocate on behalf of family literacy and to adapt programs to meet welfare reform requirements, while…

National Center for Family Literacy, Louisville, KY.

123

German collectivism and the welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to members of other developed, capitalist societies, Germans still attach some positive connotations to collectivism. In particular, they see the welfare state as a guarantor of collective security and social harmony, and as an agent of national interests by means of macroeconomic planning. The combination of collectivist social goals and statist means can be traced back to the

Elliot Yale Neaman

1990-01-01

124

Young physicians and the Finnish welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article aims to focus on how young physicians in general and different subpopulations, in particular, see the role of the welfare state. The author seeks to compare young physicians' opinions with those of older physicians, a similar age group in the general population and all physicians. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A random sample was picked from the Finnish Medical

Arttu Saarinen

2009-01-01

125

Rats, man, and the welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible relationship between social securities and the incidence of various noncurable diseases is discussed. Paralleling the development of the welfare state there is a great incidence in the occurrence of a variety of physical and mental diseases. Sometime between 1840 and 1850 albino forms of the Norway rat were introduced into the research laboratory; it thus was subject to

Curt P. Richter

1959-01-01

126

Moral atrophy in the welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare state is often accused of being counterproductive: as the scope of public responsibility expands, private morality (especially altruism and benevolence) atrophies. This essay surveys psychological findings for evidence, which turns out to be broadly consistent with either of two models of moral development, each bearing distinct policy implications. The model of ‘morally keeping in practice’ that is implicit

Robert E. Goodin

1993-01-01

127

77 FR 69629 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY...under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program...under the Title IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants...

2012-11-20

128

75 FR 71710 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY...under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program...under the Title IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants...

2010-11-24

129

76 FR 9788 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY...under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program...under the Title IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants...

2011-02-22

130

Welfare Reform and Lone Parents in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last thirty years saw dramatic increases in the proportion of children living in lone parent households. In 1997 the incoming Labour government initiated a series of policy reforms aimed at reducing this high level of child poverty. A key element of their strategy was a move towards increasing employment rates among families with children by a combination of increased

Paul Gregg; Susan Harkness; Sarah Smith

2007-01-01

131

School Reform in 10 States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third in a series, this report provides a brief look at the recent history of the education reform movements in 10 states. The report begins with an essay by William Chance, former executive director of the Washington State Temporary Committee on Educational Policies, Structure and Management. In an article entitled "Changing the Terms of…

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

132

Long-Term Implications of Welfare Reform for the Development of Adolescents and Young Adults  

PubMed Central

We draw upon the 3-wave longitudinal dataset called Welfare Children and Families: A Three-City Study to examine the long-term implications for adolescents and young adults (N=783) of mothers’ welfare receipt and labor force participation from 1999 to 2005. In general, changes in mothers’ work and welfare patterns were not associated with deterioration or improvement in youth development (ages 16 to 20 years at wave 3). The few significant associations suggested that youth whose mothers increased employment (net of welfare participation) were more likely to show declines in serious behavior problems and delinquency compared to youth whose mothers were unemployed or employed part-time during the study period. Welfare roll exits (controlling for employment experiences) were unrelated to adolescent and young adult outcomes. Mothers’ employment transitions were linked to improvements in household income and mothers’ self esteem in addition to reductions in financial strain and their own illegal activities. However, these associations did not explain the relation between maternal employment and youths’ improved behavior. These results do not support the predictions of either the supporters or the opponents of welfare reform, an outcome we discuss. PMID:21966077

Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Cherlin, Andrew J.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Fomby, Paula; Ribar, David C.; Coley, Rebekah Levine

2011-01-01

133

Welfare Reform and Community Colleges: A Policy and Research Context. MDRC Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the state of welfare after the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) passed by Congress in 1996. The National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS) is a federally initiated study that explores the questions of what works best and for whom. NEWWS evaluated seven areas across the…

Brock, Thomas; Matus-Grossman, Lisa; Hamilton, Gayle

134

Big Cities and Welfare Reform: Early Implementation and Ethnographic Findings from the Project on Devolution and Urban Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first report on the Project on Devolution and Urban Change, a multidisciplinary 5-year study of welfare reform in 4 large urban counties and their major cities (Cleveland, Los Angeles, Miami, and Philadelphia). It uses data from interviews and focus groups conducted with welfare agency officials and line staff, observations of…

Quint, Janet; Edin, Kathryn; Buck, Maria L.; Fink, Barbara; Padilla, Yolanda C.; Simmons-Hewitt, Olis; Valmont, Mary Eustace

135

Gaining Ground, Moving Up: The Change in the Economic Status of Single Mothers under Welfare Reform. Civic Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a follow-up of a 2001 study that examined changes in the welfare and work participation of single mothers. This study addresses whether single mothers earn enough to compensate for loss of benefits under welfare reform and the extent to which these women have access to income from sources other than their own earnings. Data come from…

O'Neil, June; Hill, M. Anne

136

The Impact of Welfare Reform on Academic Outcomes: Does Parental Work Boost Grades? Institute for Policy Research Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1996 welfare reform act forced many poor parents into the labor market, with little understanding of how the parents' workforce participation would affect family life in general and their children in particular. In this paper, researchers examine the relationship between parental workforce participation, welfare receipt, and children's…

Pareja, Amber Stitziel, Lewis, Dan A.

137

Five years later: poor women's health care coverage after welfare reform.  

PubMed

The 1996 welfare reform law aims to increase poor women's participation in the work force and encourage their financial independence. Because women's ability to obtain and retain employment is affected by their health status, welfare reform's success is fundamentally tied to poor women's access to health care and to health insurance. Despite this, the rate of uninsurance among poor women with children has grown by half in recent years, leaving 37% of poor mothers uninsured in 2000. Coverage through employer-sponsored insurance has increased only slightly, and Medicaid participation has dropped. Although many factors contributed to this, welfare policies and procedures and low Medicaid eligibility levels had unintended yet significant negative effects on women's health care coverage. The sharp decline in poor women's health care coverage is likely to be one of several health-related issues that Congress will consider as it debates the reauthorization of the welfare law in 2002. Both public and private efforts will be necessary to improve coverage for poor women with children. Much progress has been made during the past 5 years in covering poor and near-poor children, but their parents have been left behind. The same efforts that proved successful for children, including broadening eligibility for coverage and simplifying the application process, can be used to improve the health and well-being of parents and to strengthen their ability to care for and support their families. PMID:11905484

Mann, Cindy; Hudman, Julie; Salganicoff, Alina; Folsom, Amanda

2002-01-01

138

From "Boys Town" to "Oliver Twist": Separating Fact from Fiction in Welfare Reform and Out-of-Home Placement of Children and Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of the rationale for responding to welfare reform is followed by an overview of orphanages and child and youth care workers. A therapeutic parent model of reform is presented, and welfare reform proposals are evaluated in the model's context. (SLD)

Shealy, Craig N.

1995-01-01

139

Implementing Time-Limited Welfare: Early Experiences in Three States. The Cross-State Study of Time-Limited Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines time-limited welfare beginning at the broadest level, tracing the rapid emergence of time-limited welfare as a policy approach in part I. Chapter 1 examines the history of time-limited welfare and the key challenges posed by this policy. Part II begins to focus on the three participating states--Florida, Vermont, and…

Bloom, Dan; Butler, David

140

Welfare Time Limits: State Policies, Implementation, and Effects on Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of welfare time limits on families in different states was examined in a comprehensive study that involved the following activities: (1) a survey of state welfare administrators regarding states' time-limit policies and experiences to date; (2) site visits to five states; and (3) a synthesis of research on time limits. The following…

Bloom, Dan; Farrell, Mary; Fink, Barbara

141

After Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past few years, the American RadioWorks has raised the bar for like-minded radio documentary programs, producing thought-provoking and insightful studies on topics such as, Congressional reform, intelligent design, and international adoption programs. In this recently released documentary, John Biewen has created this introspective look into the world of welfare reform in the United States, and how it has affected the lives of five different women and their families. The women profiled come from a host of different backgrounds, and visitors may be surprised at some of the findings that Biewen presents in the documentary. The site also includes an interactive feature that allows users to find out how their own state ranks in terms of welfare and foodstamp recipients, welfare check sizes, time limits, and unemployment rates. Visitors can also look over a list of additional external links of interest and also read the complete transcript of the program.

Biewen, John

2006-01-01

142

Methodology and estimation of the welfare impact of energy reforms on households in Azerbaijan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation develops a new approach that enables policy-makers to analyze welfare gains from improvements in the quality of infrastructure services in developing countries where data are limited and supply is subject to interruptions. An application of the proposed model in the former Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan demonstrates how this approach can be used in welfare assessment of energy sector reforms. The planned reforms in Azerbaijan include a set of measures that will result in a significant improvement in supply reliability, accompanied by a significant increase in the prices of energy services so that they reach the cost recovery level. Currently, households in rural areas receive electricity and gas for only a few hours a day because of a severe deterioration of the energy infrastructure following the collapse of the Soviet Union. The reforms that have recently been initiated will have far-reaching poverty and distributional consequences for the country as they result in an improvement in supply reliability and an increase in energy prices. The new model of intermittent supply developed in this dissertation is based on the household production function approach and draws on previous research in the energy reliability literature. Since modern energy sources (network gas and electricity) in Azerbaijan are cleaner and cheaper than the traditional fuels (fuel wood, etc.), households choose modern fuels whenever they are available. During outages, they rely on traditional fuels. Theoretical welfare measures are derived from a system of fuel demands that takes into account the intermittent availability of energy sources. The model is estimated with the data from the Azerbaijan Household Energy Survey, implemented by the World Bank in December 2003/January 2004. This survey includes an innovative contingent behavior module in which the respondents were asked about their energy consumption patterns in specified reform scenarios. Estimation results strongly indicate that households in the areas with poor supply quality have a high willingness to pay for reliability improvements. However, a relatively small group of households may incur substantial welfare losses from an electricity price increase even when it is combined with a partial reliability improvement. Unlike an earlier assessment of the same reforms in Azerbaijan, analysis in this dissertation clearly shows that targeted investments in improving service reliability may be the best way to mitigate adverse welfare consequences of electricity price increases. Hence, policymakers should focus their attention on ensuring that quality improvements are a central component of power sector reforms. Survey evidence also shows that, although households may incur sizable welfare losses from indoor air pollution when they rely on traditional fuels, they do not recognize indoor air pollution as a factor contributing to the high incidence of respiratory illness among fuel wood users. Therefore, benefits may be greater if policy interventions that improve the reliability of modern energy sources are combined with an information campaign about the adverse health effects of fuel wood use. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Klytchnikova, Irina

143

‘Subversive liberalism’: Market integration, globalization and the European welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

European welfare state autonomy is being eroded by both European integration and ‘globalization’. The attempted creation of a European ‘social’ area, the completion of the internal market, the competitive effects of trade liberalization and the impact on policy autonomy of greater international capital mobility all have implications for the future of welfare states. This article argues that, in combination with

Martin Rhodes

1995-01-01

144

Sponsored Privatization of Schooling in a Welfare State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the emergence of privatization in Israel's educational system. The first part provides an overview of the provision of educational services in a welfare state. The second part describes educational privatization in a welfare state, and the third part presents examples of two forms of privatization that have emerged in the…

Chen, Michael

145

The Welfare State and Family Breakup: The Mythical Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on Durkheim's theory of social integration, an analysis of states' spending for public welfare and their divorce rates for 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1985 showed that the welfare state is not a destabilizing influence on family life as critics have charged. Past divorce rates were shown to have the most significant influence on current divorce…

Zimmerman, Shirley L.

1991-01-01

146

Rethinking the western construction of the welfare state.  

PubMed

This article employs case studies of China and Hong Kong to question the western ethnocentric construction of the welfare state that predominates in comparative social policy research. The authors argue that welfare regimes, and particularly the "welfare state," have been constructed as capitalist-democratic projects and that this has the damaging effect of excluding from analyses not only several advanced capitalist societies in the Asian-Pacific area but also the world's most populous country. If welfare state regimes can only coexist with western political democracies, then China and Hong Kong are excluded automatically. A similar result occurs if the traditional social administration approach is adopted whereby a "welfare state" is defined in terms only of direct state provision. The authors argue that such assumptions are untenable if state welfare is to be analyzed as a universal phenomenon. Instead of being trapped within an ethnocentric welfare statism, what social policy requires is a global political economy perspective that facilitates comparisons of the meaning of welfare and the state's role in producing it north, south, east and west. PMID:8932602

Walker, A; Wong, C K

1996-01-01

147

Where Personality Meets Policy: William Jefferson Clinton and the Passing of Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996 President William Jefferson Clinton passed into law the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, aiming to permanently alter the welfare state in America. The measure, created by a Republican dominated Congress, called for the end of federal responsibility for the program, instead placing that responsibility in the hands of the states. This federal responsibility was a cornerstone

JONATHAN D. KUHR

148

Welfare Reform in Los Angeles: Implementation, Effects, and Experiences of Poor Families and Neighborhoods. The Project on Devolution and Urban Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report concludes the main portion of MDRC's Project on Devolution and Urban Change, an eight-year effort to chart the course of welfare reform in four big urban counties: Los Angeles, Cuyahoga (Cleveland), Miami-Dade, and Philadelphia. The goal of the study was to find out whether federal welfare reform would lead to meaningful changes in…

Polit, Denise F.; Nelson, Laura; Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn; Seith, David

2005-01-01

149

Maternal work behavior under welfare reform: How does the transition from welfare to work affect child development?  

E-print Network

on Poverty and Social Welfare Policy, and by grants from the National Institute of Child Health and Human welfare to work affect child development? Abstract Using data from a longitudinal sample of former welfare to work affect parenting behavior and child behavior problems. We use a fixed-effects regression

Shyy, Wei

150

How does the welfare state influence individuals’ social capital?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current literature there is emerging consensus about a positive correlation between countries' welfare efforts and the social capital of their inhabitants: the larger the welfare state, the more social capital its inhabitants have. This paper pulls the discussion an important step further by asking what mechanisms can be responsible for this correlation. Based on theory and previous findings,

John P. T. M. Gelissen; Wim J. H. van Oorschot; Ellen Finsveen

2012-01-01

151

Measuring Is Believing! Improving Conventional Indicators of Welfare State Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Welfare effort (social spending as a percentage of GDP) has conventionally been the preferred measure for comparisons in space and time of the level of development of welfare states. However, a wide variety of other measuring systems are potentially available in this field, because there are different sources and different methods for calculating…

Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon; Alaez-Aller, Ricardo; Diaz-de-Basurto, Pablo

2010-01-01

152

Welfare Reform in a Hard Place: The West Virginia Experience. Rockefeller Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structured work and training activities for welfare recipients in West Virginia began in 1962 when the state's entire caseload of two-parent families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children was enrolled in mandatory work and training activities. In 1980s-1990s, the Community Work Experience Program became an important tool in…

Plein, L. Christopher

153

Agricultural Export Subsidies and Domestic Support Reform Under the WTO System: What Does It Mean for Welfare in West Africa?  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis paper analyses the potential welfare impacts West Africa tends to encounter from liberalising agricultural export subsidies and domestic support in developed and developing countries according to the reform proposals of the Doha Development Agenda. We base our analysis on the July framework scenario which considers a tiered formula that adopts a Harbinson Approach plus sensitive and special product provisions.

John Alexander Nuetah; Ting Zuo; Xin Xian

2011-01-01

154

Marijuana and cocaine use among female African-American welfare recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key issue that came to the forefront during the welfare reform debate in the United States during the 1990s concerned the relationship between welfare receipt and drug use and abuse. This paper examines the relationship between persistent welfare assistance, welfare background, and marijuana and cocaine use among African-American women. We hypothesize that women who have received welfare assistance for

Chyvette T Williams; Hee-Soon Juon; Margaret E Ensminger

2004-01-01

155

Maternal Work Behavior under Welfare Reform: How Does the Transition from Welfare to Work Affect Child Development? JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a longitudinal sample of former and current welfare recipients in Michigan spanning 1997 through 1999, the Womens Employment Study, this analysis examined how transitions from welfare to work affect parenting behavior and child behavior problems. Researchers used a fixed-effects regression design to control for all time-invariant…

Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Danziger, Sandra K.

156

Federal Habeas Corpus Reform: The State's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing a national survey of assistant state attorneys general, this article examines the effects of the Rehnquist Court's judicially initiated habeas corpus reforms upon the justice system. Although the Court's initiatives were directed at the branch of government about which the justices presumably possess their greatest knowledge and expertise, the reforms generated unanticipated consequences. Contrary to the justices' goal of

Christopher E. Smith

1995-01-01

157

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...

2013-10-01

158

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...

2012-10-01

159

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...

2011-10-01

160

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...

2010-10-01

161

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...

2014-10-01

162

Political order and the ambivalence of expertise: Count Rumford and welfare reform in late eighteenth-century Munich.  

PubMed

From 1784 to 1798, the military expert and natural philosopher Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, worked in Munich for Elector Karl Theodor of Bavaria on a series of reforms that demanded a careful articulation of the reformer's expertise. This case study of Rumford's welfare reforms posits that the ambivalent nature of expertise, which relies simultaneously on generally accessible and on exclusive knowledge, was already present in the conceptual framework of Rumford's mechanical experimental philosophy and that this ambivalence was visible in the performative practice of the experimenter. Gestures of revelation and concealment and of displaying and obscuring were crucial to Rumford's (temporary) success in establishing his authority in Bavaria. Challenged by local advisers, the reformer called on a newly emergent form of public. Rumford's conceptual and practical articulation of expertise thus contributed to an increasing polarization of the political order in the Bavarian capital. PMID:20973458

Maerker, Anna

2010-01-01

163

The Challenge of Compliance: Food Security in Rural Households Affected by Welfare Reform. Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined welfare reform and food security issues. Interviews were conducted with 32 rural Louisiana women in 1997-98 when they were receiving welfare payments, in 1998-99 when they were in transition, and in 2000-01 when none received Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Most women were African-American; about half had not…

Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol; Tiller, Vicky V.; Smith, Jennifer

164

Child Welfare: Most States Are Developing Statewide Information Systems, but Reliability of Child Welfare Data Could Be Improved.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To better monitor children and families served by state child welfare agencies, Congress authorized matching funds for the development of statewide automatic child welfare information systems (SACWIS) and required that U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) compile information on children served by state agencies. This report to…

Pietrowiak, Diana; Schibanoff, Sara L.

165

Kinship Care in Child Welfare: An Analysis of States' Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing number of children are placed with relatives and supported with foster care payments. This paper describes study of states' policies on use of kinship care as a child welfare service. Analysis of policies revealed a lack of clarity, a lack of consistency across states, and value conflicts regarding policies used to guide placement of…

Gleeson, James P.; Craig, Lynn C.

1994-01-01

166

Remember the Children: Mothers Balance Work and Child Care under Welfare Reform. Growing Up in Poverty Project 2000; Wave 1 Findings--California, Connecticut, Florida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details a study that sought to answer whether welfare reform was meeting its goals of reducing mothers' dependency and boosting children's futures, and whether these reforms were having discernable effects on young children. During the second half of 1998, the study randomly selected 948 single mothers with young children from 5…

Policy Analysis for California Education, Berkeley, CA.

167

The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Education, Welfare Reform, Reducing Smoking, Workman's Compensation, Children's Health & Safety, Unintended Pregnancies/Births. Report No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A telephone survey of a random sample of over 1,650 Pennsylvania citizens solicited opinions on proposals for improvements in the areas of: (1) welfare reform; (2) smoking reduction; (3) unintended pregnancies and unwanted births; (4) education reform; (5) children's health and safety; and (6) workmen's compensation. Each section of this report…

Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

168

Text, Lies, and the Welfare State: The Portrayal of Welfare Recipients in Welfare-to-Work Educational Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed the ideological messages about welfare recipients promoted in two welfare-to-work educational programs. Data were collected through interviews with students, teachers, and administrators at an adult literacy classroom serving unemployed women on welfare and an employment preparation program designed to increase job skills of women…

Sandlin, Jennifer A.

169

Public policy update. Welfare reform and teen parents: are we missing the point?  

PubMed

The aim of teenage pregnancy prevention initiatives should be to provide sexuality education that is age-appropriate, medically accurate, and available at each grade level with a positive view of sexuality and information and skills that contribute to sexual health and the ability to make decisions. Abstinence should be included as long as it is not fear-based and is part of the promotion of responsible sexuality. Contraceptive information must be available to those already sexually active. Subsidized day care for children of poor adolescent mothers must be at the top of the agenda of services integrated with job programs and school-to-work initiatives. Quality child care can provide a solid foundation in personal health, negotiation, self-esteem, and individual rights and responsibilities. Quick-fix and punitive measures are out of place in programs that rely on growth in individual responsibility. An innovative approach to social welfare programming would include comprehensive sexuality education, reproductive health services, child care, health insurance, and job training. The Clinton welfare reform drafts combine elements of teen pregnancy prevention with punitive action. What is needed is greater investment in programs enhancing sexuality education, acceptance and understanding of sexuality, and access to affordable reproductive health services. The Clinton plan focuses primarily on the National Mobilization for Youth Opportunity and Responsibility, which is a national media campaign to educate youth about responsibility and the benefits of staying in school and delaying childbearing. About 1000 middle and high schools in high-poverty areas would be targeted. Opportunities would be offered to go to college or have access to job training. Controls would be placed on adolescents by requiring minor parents to live with a responsible adult, minor mothers to stay in school, and to limit disbursements for additional children while on Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Child support would be required of fathers. These key measures do not address the root causes of teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy would decline if teenagers understood information on alternative to intercourse and sources and methods of contraception. Teenagers must be able to talk with partners about sexual limits and how to say "no" or avoid risky situations. Access to condoms or contraception must be available in the community at low or no cost. PMID:12345600

Wacker, B L; Gambrell, A E

1994-01-01

170

State Capacity: The Missing Piece in Child Welfare Privatization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Privatization has been used to address the limited capacity of government to achieve positive results in child welfare systems. Privatized systems have not realized better outcomes than their public counterparts, however, and many states continue to struggle with implementation. In order to demonstrate that privatization is in fact an investment…

Barillas, Katherine Howard

2011-01-01

171

State Employee and Retiree Health and Welfare Benefits Program  

E-print Network

State Employee and Retiree Health and Welfare Benefits Program Medical Plan Changes Effective July of providers and hospitals who agree to accept a lower payment amount for their services (allowed benefit services chemotherapy/radiation organ transplants Applies to all services except those with a copay office

Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

172

‘Marx’ or the Market? Intra-party Power and Social Democratic Welfare State Retrenchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in the intra-party balance of power explain variation in social democratic responses to the economic crisis of the late 1970s. This article evidences this claim by analysing the case of welfare state retrenchment by social democratic parties. Welfare state retrenchment is electorally risky for social democrats and often contrary to their principles. Therefore cases of welfare state retrenchment by

Gijs Schumacher

2012-01-01

173

Medicaid, the States and Health Care Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care reform in the US is relying extensively on Medicaid for achieving universal health coverage. This article addresses the question of whether Medicaid is an appropriate foundation for reducing the ranks of the uninsured, given its dependence on economic conditions and the vulnerability of state budgets, along with the ever-changing preferences of governors and legislators. This article assesses the

Laura Katz Olson

2012-01-01

174

Housing - Market Commodity of the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main thesis of the paper is that housing policies are best perceived as state correctives to the housing market. The 'dominant policy theory' is that market contracts serve as the main mechanism for distributing housing, while state intervention has the form of correctives, defining the economic and institutional setting of those market contracts. In the paper, the dominance of

Bo Bengtsson

175

African American Children in the Child Welfare System: Requiem or Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sobering statistics concerning the plight of African American children have become routine excerpts found in nearly every publication concerning the child welfare system. This article examines the laws that govern the child welfare system in this country and assesses the manner in which these laws do not rectify or prevent the poor outcomes experienced by African American children. The

Carla M. Curtis; Ramona W. Denby

2011-01-01

176

Running To Keep in Place: The Continuing Evolution of Our Nation's Child Welfare System. Occasional Paper. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, researchers conducted case studies on 12 states and multiple local sites to document how welfare reform and other changes affected child welfare agencies, following up on 1997 case studies. They conducted interviews with welfare and child welfare stakeholders and focus groups with child welfare workers. Respondents discussed the impact of…

Malm, Karin; Bess, Roseana; Leos-Urbel, Jacob; Geen, Robert; Markowitz, Teresa

177

Health system reform in the United States  

PubMed Central

In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider. PMID:24596894

McDonough, John E

2014-01-01

178

Welfare Reform. States' Implementation and Effects on the Workforce Development System. Statement of Cynthia M. Fagnoni, Director, Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues, Health, Education, and Human Services Division. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Training, and Life-Long Learning, Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on effectiveness of welfare-to-work approaches shows programs that combine approaches--job search assistance and education and training--have better employment and earnings outcomes than either approach alone. Consistent with findings and the work focus of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, states have…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

179

The continuing significance of race: A case study of the impact of welfare reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the experiences of African American and Caucasian welfare recipients in the Wisconsin Works (W-2) Program\\u000a that uses community-based organizations (CBOs), as opposed to public agencies for its welfare services, to determine if race\\u000a was declining in significance. It found that race is significant. African Americans’ job interviews were shorter than Caucasians.\\u000a African Americans were required to take

Michael Bonds

2006-01-01

180

The Costs of Child Protection in the Context of Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financing structure of any large public service system both reveals the priorities held by policymakers and drives the delivery of services. Of the $11.2 billion in public funds for child welfare services, somewhat less than half is federal. As this article explains, federal funds for child welfare overwhelmingly go to support out-of-home care (foster care and adoption services), and

Mark E. Courtney

1998-01-01

181

Reforming the State Secrets Privilege  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush’s Administration has repeatedly asserted the state secrets privilege as grounds for the dismissal of civil cases challenging the legality of its conduct in the war on terror. Specifically, the Administration has sought dismissal of all cases challenging two different government practices: (1) its use of “extraordinary rendition,” under which the Executive removes

Amanda Frost

2009-01-01

182

Young Unwed Fathers and Welfare Reform. Meeting Highlights and Background Briefing Report. Report of a Family Impact Seminar (Washington, D.C., November 18, 1988).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains highlights of a seminar which focused on young unwed fathers and welfare reform. Comments by these panelists are summarized: Rikki Baum, legislative assistant to Senator Patrick Moynihan; Linda Mellgren, from the Office of Income Security; and Margaret Boeckmann, Director of the Office of Employment Policy, Maryland Department…

Ooms, Theodora; Herendeen, Lisa

183

Bridging the Gap: Higher Education and Career-Centered Welfare Reform. Proceedings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference examined the current welfare policy and the continued use of higher education as a tool for moving low-income people into self-supporting careers. The proceedings include: welcoming remarks by Stephen Greenwald; keynote addresses by William Spriggs and Danny Simmons; a lunch address by Rae Alexander-Minter; remarks by Patricia…

Kosar, Kevin R., Ed.

184

Work after Welfare Reform and the Well-being of Children* Rucker C. Johnson  

E-print Network

24- MH51363), the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (P50-HD38986 of Child Health and Human Development to Kalil (F32 HD08145-01) and Dunifon (F32 HD08627-01). Special's development. JEL classification: J13, J22, I38 Key words: maternal employment; welfare; child development #12

Shyy, Wei

185

Teenage childbearing and welfare reform: Lessons from a decade of demonstration and evaluation research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the causes and consequences of teenage childbearing. It also describes those teenage parents on welfare and their life circumstances that facilitate or impede their success as young parents. The third section describes a major federal demonstration of a mandatory JOBS-type program for teenage parents and its effectiveness in promoting self-sufficiency among this population. The fourth section discusses

Rebecca Maynard

1995-01-01

186

The Juggling Act: Navigating Parent Involvement in the Welfare Reform Era  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how parents supported their children's education while transitioning from welfare to work. Interviews with parents, elementary school educators, and staff at a community-based organization were conducted in an urban Tennessee community. Navigating work and parenting responsibilities was particularly challenging when children…

Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

2013-01-01

187

Beyond Declining Caseloads: Advocates' Tools for Monitoring Welfare Reform. Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that child advocates are increasingly implementing monitoring projects to track the status of former welfare families and are using the findings to inform their agendas, policymakers, and the general public, this issue brief introduces monitoring strategies and suggests issues for consideration in designing a monitoring project. Monitoring,…

Freeley, Theresa J.; Brady, Sheri A.

188

Pedagogy of the Consumer: The Politics of Neo-Liberal Welfare Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Situated against the backdrop of a widespread and growing interest in the linkages between neo-liberalism and welfare, this paper introduces the lens of neo-liberalism as a conceptual strategy for thinking about contemporary issues in education policy. Through charting the historic rise of unfettered market institutions and practices in the…

Wilkins, Andrew

2012-01-01

189

Teenage Childbearing and Welfare Reform: Lessons from a Decade of Demonstration and Evaluation Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews important facts and findings from the research on the causes and consequences of teenage childbearing. Describes those parents on welfare and their life circumstances that facilitate or impede their success as young parents and ways of mitigating the adverse consequences of early childbearing for the young mothers and their children. (AA)

Maynard, Rebecca

1995-01-01

190

Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative. Summary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connecticut's Jobs First program was subjected to a rigorous, large-scale evaluation. During the evaluation, nearly 5,000 single-parent welfare applicants and recipients in 2 cities were randomly assigned to Jobs First or to the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) group. Each group's progress was compared over a 4-year period. The…

Bloom, Dan; Scrivener, Susan; Michalopoulos, Charles; Morris, Pamela; Hendra, Richard; Adams-Ciardullo, Diana; Walter, Johanna

191

“It Still Don't Make You Feel Like You're Doin' It”: Welfare Reform and Perceived Economic Self-Efficacy  

PubMed Central

The massive federal welfare reform effort of 1996 contained an inherent assumption that welfare use negatively affected recipients' sense of self-efficacy. Little research attention has been given to examining this assumption. Using in-depth interviews, I explore economic self-efficacy perceptions of 31 young mothers who have experience receiving welfare. Financial choice, they said, was central to their perceptions of themselves as economic agents and therefore to their sense of self-efficacy. Findings presented here detail women's perceptions of their own economic abilities, as well as how welfare receipt, the character of work, and experiences related to parenting in poverty all affected women's opportunities for exercising agency. PMID:17364017

Grabowski, Lorie J. Schabo

2007-01-01

192

Child Welfare Workplace: The State of the Workforce and Strategies to Improve Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child welfare systems throughout the United States are being closely scrutinized as sensational cases appear in the media in nearly every state. At the federal level, with the Child and Family Service Review process, the government is documenting that states across the country are not conforming to federal child welfare requirements (DHHS, 2007)…

Scannapieco, Maria; Connell-Carrick, Kelli

2007-01-01

193

Steps to Success: Helping Women with Alcohol and Drug Problems Move from Welfare to Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report helps state and local decision makers understand the range of services ordinarily needed and provided in alcohol and drug treatment programs serving women and families receiving welfare and how those services support the goals of welfare reform. The model programs profiled here tend to the needs of women on welfare and their families…

Rubinstein, Gwen

194

Market Inefficiency, Insurance Mandate and Welfare: U.S. Health Care Reform 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a stochastic dynamic general equilibrium overlapping generations (OLG) model with endogenous health capital to study the macroeconomic effects of the Affordable Care Act of March 2010 also known as the Obama health care reform. We find that the insurance mandate enforced with fines and premium subsidies successfully reduces adverse selection in private health insurance markets

Juergen Jung; Chung Tran

2011-01-01

195

Market Inefficiency, Insurance Mandate and Welfare: U.S. Health Care Reform 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a stochastic dynamic general equilibrium overlapping generations (OLG) model with endogenous health capital to study the macroeconomic effects of the Affordable Care Act of March 2010 also known as the Obama health care reform. We find that the insurance mandate enforced with fines and premium subsidies successfully reduces adverse selection in private health insurance markets

Juergen Jung; Chung Tran

2010-01-01

196

Economic Growth and Policy Reform in the APEC Region: Trade and Welfare Implications by 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impacts of key trade reforms likely to affect the APEC region over the next decade. It does so by taking an economy-wide perspective using projections to the year 2005, based on the global CGE model known as GTAP. The paper begins by showing that the empirical impact of implementing the Uruguay Round depends significantly on how

Kym Anderson; Betina Dimaranan; Thomas W Hertel; Will Martin

1997-01-01

197

How Welfare States Shape the Gender Pay Gap: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the impact of the welfare state on cross-national variation in the gender wage gap. Earnings inequality between men and women is conceptualized as resulting from their different locations in the class hierarchy, combined with the severity of wage differentials between and within classes. This decomposition contributes to identifying the relevant dimensions of welfare states and testing their impact

Hadas Mandel; Michael Shalev

2009-01-01

198

Foster Care: Delayed Follow-Up of Noncomplying States May Reduce Incentive for Reform. United States General Accounting Office Report to the Commissioner of the Administration for Children, Youth and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief report focuses on one issue discussed in the General Accounting Office's (GAO) review of the foster care reforms required for states' receipt of additional funds under the Child Welfare Services grants program: whether the Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF) is providing incentive funds only to those states that have…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Program Evaluation and Methodology Div.

199

Welfare Reform's Effect on Child Welfare Caseloads. Discussion Papers 01-04. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates, policymakers, and researchers have predicted that changes in the welfare system brought about by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 would increase the number of children who are abused and neglected, referred to child protective services, and placed in foster care. This study examined how welfare

Geen, Rob; Fender, Lynn; Leos-Urbel, Jacob; Markowitz, Teresa

200

Child Welfare Financing: Looking beyond the New York State Family and Children's Services Block Grant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the Family and Children's Services Block Grant and the per diem rate methodology have not been effective, especially in the wake of the increasing number of children entering foster care, this policy brief explores ways in which New York State's child welfare system should allocate child welfare dollars to counties and providers to produce…

Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.

201

Health Care System Reform in China: Issues, Challenges and Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines health care reform in urban and rural China. Before health care reform, Chinese health service facilities were run entirely by the state and basically they performed a social welfare function. This health care system greatly improved the population health conditions but many problems started to emerge in 1980s when the economic reform started. Since then, the government

Rong Hu; Chunli Shen; Heng-fu Zou

2011-01-01

202

Poor Mothers' Rights to Education: Access and Support for Post-secondary Education in Aotearoa\\/New Zealand and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), commonly known as welfare reform, women in the United States who were previously eligible to attend college while receiving welfare benefits now need to meet mandatory work requirements. Public discourse on social welfare and welfare reform holds up an ideal of equal respect and reciprocity that is consistent with

Jill McLean Taylor

203

Pathologizing Poverty: New Forms of Diagnosis, Disability, and Structural Stigma under Welfare Reform  

PubMed Central

In 1996 the U.S. severely restricted public support for low income people, ending “welfare as we know it.” This led to dramatic increases in medicalized forms of support for indigent people, who increasingly rely on disability benefits justified by psychiatric diagnoses of chronic mental illness. We present case studies drawn from ethnographic data involving daily participant-observation between 2005-2012 in public clinics and impoverished neighborhoods in New York City, to describe the subjective experience of structural stigma imposed by the increasing medicalization of public support for the poor through a diagnosis of permanent mental disability. In some cases, disability benefits enable recipients to fulfill important social roles (sustaining a vulnerable household and promoting stable parenting). The status of family members who receive a monthly disability check improves within their kin and neighborhood-based networks, counterbalancing the felt stigma of being identified by doctors as “crazy”. A structural disjunction in stigmatizing processes emerges when a diagnosis of permanent medical cognitive pathology becomes a valuable survival strategy constituting the basis for fulfillment of household responsibilities. Through the decades, the stigmatized labels applied to the poor have shifted: from being a symptom of racial weakness, to the culture of poverty, and now to permanent medical pathology. The neoliberal bureaucratic requirement that the poor must repeatedly prove their “disabled” status through therapy and psychotropic medication appears to be generating a national and policy-maker discourse condemning SSI malingerers, resurrecting the 16th century specter of the “unworthy poor”. PMID:24507913

Hansen, Helena; Bourgois, Philippe; Drucker, Ernest

2013-01-01

204

Pathologizing poverty: new forms of diagnosis, disability, and structural stigma under welfare reform.  

PubMed

In 1996 the U.S. severely restricted public support for low income people, ending "welfare as we know it." This led to dramatic increases in medicalized forms of support for indigent people, who increasingly rely on disability benefits justified by psychiatric diagnoses of chronic mental illness. We present case studies drawn from ethnographic data involving daily participant-observation between 2005 and 2012 in public clinics and impoverished neighborhoods in New York City, to describe the subjective experience of structural stigma imposed by the increasing medicalization of public support for the poor through a diagnosis of permanent mental disability. In some cases, disability benefits enable recipients to fulfill important social roles (sustaining a vulnerable household and promoting stable parenting). The status of family members who receive a monthly disability check improves within their kin and neighborhood-based networks, counterbalancing the felt stigma of being identified by doctors as "crazy". When a diagnosis of mental pathology becomes a valuable survival strategy constituting the basis for fulfillment of household responsibilities, stigmatizing processes are structurally altered. Through the decades, the stigmatized labels applied to the poor have shifted: from being a symptom of racial weakness, to the culture of poverty, and now to permanent medical pathology. The neoliberal bureaucratic requirement that the poor must repeatedly prove their "disabled" status through therapy and psychotropic medication appears to be generating a national and policy-maker discourse condemning SSI malingerers, resurrecting the 16th century specter of the "unworthy poor". PMID:24507913

Hansen, Helena; Bourgois, Philippe; Drucker, Ernest

2014-02-01

205

Electoral rules, class coalitions and welfare state regimes, or how to explain Esping-Andersen with Stein Rokkan  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been recognized since the publication of Esping-Andersen's Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism that the advanced Western welfare state comes in—at least— three variants: as a Nordic social-democratic regime, a conservative regime on the European continent or as a liberal welfare state regime in the Anglo-Saxon countries. Why exactly welfare states fit into this three-regime typology remains controversial, however.

Philip Manow

2009-01-01

206

Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

2001-01-01

207

Welfare state and women's work: the professional projects of nurses and occupational therapists in Sweden.  

PubMed

In this article we explore how Swedish welfare politics within health-care and rehabilitation has opened up a space for nurses' and occupational therapists' professional projects. Using historical data, an analysis of the policy-making process behind welfare programs central to the professionalization of nursing and occupational therapy is presented. The time period covered is, in the case of nurses, the larger part of the twentieth century, while the modern history of occupational therapists first began in the 1940s. Special emphasis is placed on the corporative nature of the Swedish welfare state and the professional strategies utilized by nurses and occupational therapists in their struggle for jurisdiction. In the article, politicization is identified as a core strategy by which female-dominated welfare state occupations in Sweden have tried to gain influence over the welfare policy-making process and their occupations' jurisdiction. PMID:16359451

Evertsson, Lars; Lindqvist, Rafael

2005-12-01

208

Prioritization and the elusive effect on welfare - A Norwegian health care reform revisited.  

PubMed

The Faster Return to Work (FRW) scheme that Norwegian authorities implemented in 2007 is an example of a policy that builds on the human capital approach. The main idea behind the scheme is that long waiting times for hospital treatment lead to unnecessarily long periods of absence from work. To achieve a reduction in average sickness absence duration, the allocation of FRW funds and new treatment capacity is exclusively aimed at people on sick leave. Many countries have allocated funds to reduce waiting times for hospital treatment and research shows that more resources allocated to the hospital sector can reduce waiting times. Our results support this as the FRW scheme significantly reduces waiting times. However, on average the reduction in waiting times is not transformed into an equally large reduction in the sickness absence period. We find significant difference in the effects of FRW on length of sick leave between surgical and non-surgical patients though. The duration of sick leave for FRW patients undergoing surgical treatment is approximately 14 days shorter than for surgical patients on the regular waiting list. We find no significant effect of the scheme on length of sick leave for non-surgical patients. In sum, our welfare analysis indicates that prioritization of the kind that the FRW scheme represents is not as straightforward as one would expect. The FRW scheme costs more than it contributes in reduced productivity loss. We base our analyses on several different econometric methods using register data on approximately 13 500 individuals over the period 2007-2008. PMID:25637910

Aakvik, Arild; Holmĺs, Tor Helge; Kjerstad, Egil

2015-03-01

209

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United...

2010-07-01

210

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United...

2011-07-01

211

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United...

2014-07-01

212

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United...

2012-07-01

213

40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States...results in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United...

2013-07-01

214

Sector Models of the Welfare State: A Cross-National Analysis  

E-print Network

Sectoral Models of the 'Welfare State Correla~ed with thi~ underlying "logic of industrialism" (Kerr et. aI., 1964), IS a .change In the age composition of the population WIth a greatly Increased proportion of older persons in society (Hauser, 1976... aged population desiring higher benefits becomes a pol.itical force supportive of the welfare state. Thus, demographic change congruent with industrialization leads to a political demand for welfare-s!ate programs, as well as to a need for those...

DeViney, Stanley

1987-01-01

215

Expansion and retrenchment of the Swedish welfare state: a long-term approach.  

PubMed

In this article, we will undertake a long-term analysis of the evolution of the Swedish welfare state, seeking to explain that evolution through the use of a systemic approach. That is, our approach will consider the interrelations between economic growth (EG), the sociopolitical institutional framework (IF), and the welfare state (WS)-understood as a set of institutions embracing the labor market and its regulation, the tax system, and the so-called social wage-in order to find the main variables that elucidate its evolution. We will show that the expansive phase of the Swedish welfare state can be explained by the symbiotic relationships developed in the WS-EG-IF interaction, whereas the period of welfare state retrenchment is one result of changes operating within the sociopolitical IF and EG bases. PMID:25813499

Buendía, Luis

2015-04-01

216

Explaining State Government Administrative Reform - Focusing on Performance-Based Budgeting and State Executive Branch Reorganization  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the causes of administrative reform? Even though the question is critical in understanding administrative reform efforts and their impacts on administration and society, much remains to be understood about this process. In this dissertation, I will examine the following research question : What accounts for the occurrence of two types of state-level administrative reform - the adoption of

Chang-Soo Park

2003-01-01

217

Trade-offs and Veto Players: Reforming Pensions in France and Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

France, like other European countries, has faced growing challenges to its welfare state. Pensions in particular have been at the core of the public debate on recasting its 'social model'. This article analyses reform processes in the 1990s and early 2000s to explain 'how France reforms pensions'. While in other Bismarckian welfare states with pay-as-you-go pension systems, reform is usually

David Natali; Martin Rhodes

2004-01-01

218

Welfare Reform and American Indian Tribes: Critical Decisions for the Future of Indian Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRETORIA) gives American Indian tribes the option to run their own Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program or leave these services under state administration. Eight case studies were conducted in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Arizona with the Klamath Tribes,…

Kauffman, Jo Ann

219

States Will Lead the Way toward Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains remarks delivered by the Secretary of Education who spoke at the 2009 Governors Education Symposium. Secretary Duncan spoke about uses of Recovery Act funding to drive reform in four core areas of education: (1) Robust data systems that track student achievement and teacher effectiveness; (2) Teacher and principal quality;…

Duncan, Arne

2009-01-01

220

Neoliberalism, "globalization," unemployment, inequalities, and the welfare state.  

PubMed

This analysis of "neoliberalism" and its economic and social consequences is presented in six sections. Section I begins by describing the impact of neoliberal public policies on economic growth and inflation, on business profits and business investments, on productivity, on business credit, on unemployment and social inequalities, on social expenditures, and on poverty and family debt. The author shows that, except in the area of business profits and control of inflation, neoliberal policies have not proved superior to those they replaced. Section II deals with unemployment and social polarization in the developed capitalist countries. The author criticizes some of the theories put forward to explain these social problems, such as the introduction of new technologies and globalization of the economy, and suggests that a primary reason for these problems is the implementation of neoliberal policies. Section III challenges the widely held neoliberal perception that the U.S. economy is highly efficient and the E.U. economies are "sclerotic" due to their "excessive" welfare states and "rigid" labor markets. The author shows that the U.S. economy is not so dynamic, nor the E.U. economies so sclerotic. Some developed countries with greater social protection and more regulated labor markets are shown to be more successful than the United States in producing jobs and lowering unemployment. The reasons for the growing polarization in developed capitalist countries, rooted in political rather than economic causes, are discussed in section IV--especially the enormous power of the financial markets and their influence on international agencies and national governments, and the weakness of the labor movements, both nationally and internationally. Section V questions the major theses of globalization. The author shows that rather than globalization of commerce and investments, we are witnessing a regionalization of economic relations stimulated by political considerations. He also analyzes the globalization of capital finance, criticizing the thesis that capital markets are determining public policies. The economic determinism that underlies the globalization position is questioned, uncovering the importance of political explanations for understanding major social problems such as unemployment. Finally, section VI shows that neoliberal public policies on the deregulation of labor markets are creating enormous instability in the labor force, worsening the living conditions of the majority of the populations. PMID:9842492

Navarro, V

1998-01-01

221

The reforming states group and the promotion of federalism.  

PubMed

Since 1991, leaders in health policy from the legislative and executive branches of state government have come together, with financial support and staff collaboration from the Milbank Memorial Fund, to share their experiences and to work on practical solutions to pressing health care problems. What began with a handful of states at the forefront of health reform is now the Reforming States Group (RSG), a bipartisan, voluntary association that includes leaders from over 40 states. This article describes the origins, history, and future prospects of the RSG. PMID:9510901

Andersen, K S

1998-01-01

222

"Le Droit de L'Enfant:" Ideologies of the Child in 19th Century French Literature and Child Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines ideological themes present in movements for child labor reform and in literature in 19th century France. Separate sections cover early industrialization and child labor reform, the image of the romantic child in French literature, and ideology and reforms. By the mid-19th century, England, America, and France all had their…

Kirschner, Suzanne

223

Oral health and welfare state regimes: a cross-national analysis of European countries  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the potential relationship between welfare state regimes and oral health. This study assessed the oral health of adults in a range of European countries clustered by welfare regimes according to Ferrera's typology and the complementary Eastern type. We analysed data from Eurobarometer wave 72.3, a cross-sectional survey of 31 European countries carried out in 2009. We evaluated three self-reported oral health outcomes: edentulousness, no functional dentition (<20 natural teeth), and oral impacts on daily living. Age-standardized prevalence rates were estimated for each country and for each welfare state regime. The Scandinavian regime showed lower prevalence rates for all outcomes. For edentulousness and no functional dentition, there were higher prevalence rates in the Eastern regime but no significant differences between Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, and Southern regimes. The Southern regime presented a higher prevalence of oral impacts on daily living. Results by country indicated that Sweden had the lowest prevalences for edentulousness and no functional dentition, and Denmark had the lowest prevalence for oral impacts. The results suggest that Scandinavian welfare states, with more redistributive and universal welfare policies, had better population oral health. Future research should provide further insights about the potential mechanisms through which welfare-state regimes would influence oral health. PMID:23659239

Guarnizo-Herreńo, Carol C; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

2013-01-01

224

The State, Legal Rigor and the Poor: The Daily Practice of Welfare Control Social Analysis, forthcoming.  

E-print Network

1 The State, Legal Rigor and the Poor: The Daily Practice of Welfare Control Social Analysis +33 (0)3 68 85 61 70 vincent.dubois@misha.fr Abstract: The state comes into being through its acts. This paper focuses on state acts par excellence, by which the state controls its population. It is based

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

Exploring Attitudes Towards the Welfare State: Students' Views in Eight Democracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the dimensionality of attitudes towards the welfare state among university students in eight countries representing four worlds of welfare: liberal, radical, conservative and social democratic. We use new data from cross-nationally comparable 25-item questionnaires to derive a two-level bi-factorial hierarchical model that specifies six different attitude facets. These facets are clustered into two distinct sets of attitudes: the

CLARA SABBAGH; PIETER VANHUYSSE

2006-01-01

226

The context of child welfare performance measures.  

PubMed

A growing movement in the United States seeks to improve the outcomes achieved by public agencies through performance measurement strategies. In child welfare policy, a federally mandated performance measurement system has evolved since the 1980s, establishing the federal Child and Family Services Review which uses a series of performance indicators for evaluating the child welfare system. This article reviews the literature on performance measurement and performance management in the public sector in order to develop a conceptual framework for examining the federal child welfare performance measurement system. It briefly summarizes the evolution of federal policy related to performance measurement in child welfare. The framework is then used to guide an analysis of the debate surrounding the establishment of the current child welfare performance measurement system, concluding with recommendations for consideration in future reform efforts. PMID:23705647

Carnochan, Sarah; Samples, Mark; Lawson, Jennifer; Austin, Michael J

2013-01-01

227

CASAWORKS for Families: A Promising Approach to Welfare Reform and Substance-Abusing Women. A CASA White Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CASAWORKS for Families is the first national demonstration program to provide simultaneously drug and alcohol treatment; literacy, job, parenting, and social skills training; family violence prevention; and health care to help substance-abusing welfare parents recover. Its mission is to help women on welfare with substance abuse problems achieve…

Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

228

The persistence of health inequalities in modern welfare states: the explanation of a paradox.  

PubMed

The persistence of socioeconomic inequalities in health, even in the highly developed 'welfare states' of Western Europe, is one of the great disappointments of public health. Health inequalities have not only persisted while welfare states were being built up, but on some measures have even widened, and are not smaller in European countries with more generous welfare arrangements. This paper attempts to identify potential explanations for this paradox, by reviewing nine modern 'theories' of the explanation of health inequalities. The theories reviewed are: mathematical artifact, fundamental causes, life course perspective, social selection, personal characteristics, neo-materialism, psychosocial factors, diffusion of innovations, and cultural capital. Based on these theories it is hypothesized that three circumstances may help to explain the persistence of health inequalities despite attenuation of inequalities in material conditions by the welfare state: (1) inequalities in access to material and immaterial resources have not been eliminated by the welfare state, and are still substantial; (2) due to greater intergenerational mobility, the composition of lower socioeconomic groups has become more homogeneous with regard to personal characteristics associated with ill-health; and (3) due to a change in epidemiological regime, in which consumption behavior became the most important determinant of ill-health, the marginal benefits of the immaterial resources to which a higher social position gives access have increased. Further research is necessary to test these hypotheses. If they are correct, the persistence of health inequalities in modern European welfare states can partly be seen as a failure of these welfare states to implement more radical redistribution measures, and partly as a form of 'bad luck' related to concurrent developments that have changed the composition of socioeconomic groups and made health inequalities more sensitive to immaterial factors. It is argued that normative evaluations of health inequalities should take these explanations into account, and that a direct attack on the personal, psychosocial and cultural determinants of health inequalities may be necessary to achieve a substantial reduction of health inequalities. PMID:22475407

Mackenbach, Johan P

2012-08-01

229

States' spending for public welfare and their suicide rates, 1960 to 1995: what is the problem?  

PubMed

Drawing on Durkheim's theory of social integration, this discussion reports on findings from a pooled time-series analysis of states' spending for public welfare and their suicide rates, controlling for states' divorce rates, population change rates, population density, unemployment rates, sex ratio, and racial composition. The analysis spans a 35-year period, 1960 to 1995, at six different data points: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995. The major hypothesis was that states' suicide rates would increase with decreases in per capita spending for public welfare, controlling for the variables listed above in three different models and using OLS to analyze the data. In the basic model, states' spending for public welfare showed no relationship to states' suicide rates; in the second model that controlled for data year and in the third model that controlled for both data year and state, its relationship was significant, but in a negative direction. Suicide rates increased in states that reduced their per capita expenditures for public welfare during the observational period. Of all the variables, the influence of divorce on suicide was the most persistent and pronounced, followed by the percentage of whites in states' populations. Whether the findings reflect an increase in the unendurable psychological pain associated with suicide, or the weakening of ties that bind individuals to each other and to the larger society (as measured by states' divorce rates and per capita expenditures for public welfare), or the vulnerabilities associated with race, states can help counter suicide trends and such negative influences as divorce as evidenced by states that spend more for public welfare and have lower suicide rates. Given that clinicians work with people experiencing the unendurable psychological pain associated with suicide, the findings from these analyses have relevance for their practice. PMID:12080203

Zimmerman, Shirley L

2002-06-01

230

Ohio: A Microcosm of Tort Reform versus State Constitutional Mandates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tort reform emanates, for our purposes, from two primary bodies: state judicial and legislative branches. The vast panoply of congressional and regulatory federal action that bears on the protections afforded and rights to recover for persons within their ambit is a subject for another day. Similarly, the rare areas in which the Supreme Court of the United States establishes federal

Stephen J. Werber

2001-01-01

231

The Constitutionality of State Tort Reform Legislation and Lochner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stephen Presser begins his interesting paper with the observation that the invalidation of state tort reform legislation represents a severe crisis of the legitimacy of law and legal institutions. In fact, he states it was the most severe crisis oflegitimacy of law and legal institutions in our nation's history. Professor Presser claims that this crisis began in 1937 with the

George L. Priest

2001-01-01

232

Reforming US state legislatures: is one house better than two?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade unicameral proposals have been put forward in fourteen US states. In this paper we propose a theoretical framework casting some lights on the drawbacks of bicameral state legislatures and on the efiects of the proposed constitu- tional reforms. In a setting where lawmakers interact with a lobby through a bargaining process and with voters by means

Giovanni Facchiniy; Cecilia Testa

2008-01-01

233

Window shopping: state health reform politics in the 1990s.  

PubMed

Throughout the 1990s states sought politically acceptable policies to reduce the ranks of the uninsured. Visions of comprehensive health reform and universal coverage yielded by mid-decade to more modest measures to repair private health insurance markets, and to these enactments were added several new public programs (state and federal) to expand coverage for lower-income children and, in some cases, adults. Because governments remain ill equipped to counter the power of business, insurers, and providers in conflicts fought on private turf, reform agendas have been more readily set, moved, and cleared in public-sector arenas. Although the number of uninsured rose steadily until 1999, "catalytic federalism"--the accelerating interplay between state and federal reform forces and funds--may be putting the programmatic foundations for broader coverage incrementally into place. PMID:11194860

Brown, L D; Sparer, M S

2001-01-01

234

"They Get You out of Courage:" Persistent Deep Poverty among Former Welfare-Reliant Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We looked closely at families who remain in persistent deep poverty in the remote rural areas of one state, using welfare reform as the contextual backdrop. We examined the lives of 10 women who have participated in this qualitative research for over 6 years. The woman heading each family was a welfare program participant; she engaged (more or…

Blalock, Lydia L.; Tiller, Vicky R.; Monroe, Pamel A.

2004-01-01

235

The Choice Before Congress on Welfare Reauthorization: Real Jobs or Make Work? Position Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Work requirements in welfare reform proposed by the George W. Bush administration would impose much tougher work requirements on welfare recipients. Seventy percent of all adults would be required to work 40 hours per week, versus the 50 percent who are required to work 30 hours per week currently. In addition, states would be given little leeway…

Campbell, David; Rankin, Nancy; Levitan, Mark; Waller, Margy

236

Family policy and inequalities in health in different welfare states.  

PubMed

This article focuses on differences in health and welfare outcomes for families with children in three European countries, discussed in relation to national policies for child and family welfare. Data consist of policy documents and cross-national surveys. The document analysis was based on policy documents that described government policies. The statistical analyses utilize data from the European Social Survey. For the analyses in this article, a sub-sample of child families was selected from the countries Slovenia, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Data showed that England's policy has mainly addressed socially disadvantaged groups and areas. Sweden and Slovenia are mainly developing universal policies. The United Kingdom has high scores for subjective general health, but a steep income gradient in the population. Parents in England experience the highest level of at-risk-of-poverty. Sweden generally scores well on health outcomes and on level of at-risk-of-poverty, and the gradient in self-rated general health is the mildest. Slovenia has the weakest economy, but low levels of inequality and low child at-risk-for-poverty scores. The Slovenian example suggests that not only the level of economic wealth, but also its distribution in the population, has bearings on health and life satisfaction, not least on the health of children. PMID:24919301

Fosse, Elisabeth; Bull, Torill; Burström, Bo; Fritzell, Sara

2014-01-01

237

CAN AFCARS BE RESCUED? FIXING THE STATISTICAL YARDSTICK THAT MEASURES STATE CHILD WELFARE PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stories chronicling the inadequacies of state child welfare systems are routinely reported in our country's newspapers. Headlines about failures in Oregon, Wisconsin and Massachusetts are just the latest in a spate of tragedies that point to systems in crisis. In addition, the findings from the federal Children and Family Services Reviews (CFSR) showed that every state, along with the District

Mark Testa; Eun Koh; John Poertner

238

Stamp Duties In Indian States: A Case for Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alm, Annez, and Modi review the options for reform of stamp duties on immovable property transfers collected by Indian state governments. After briefly reviewing some of the many administrative difficulties experienced with the tax, they turn to an examination of its economic impacts. A review of stamp duties internationally indicates that Indian rates are exceptionally high, at rates often above

Arbind Modi; Patricia Annez; James Alm

2004-01-01

239

Generational equity and the politics of the welfare state.  

PubMed

The concept of generational equity--that the nation is squandering its wealth on entitlements to the elderly while children remain impoverished--has received considerable media attention. The author traces the source of that message to an organization, Americans for Generational Equity, which is dedicated to restructuring the Social Security system along the lines of a social assistance program: reduced benefits available at later ages only to those who qualify through means tests. The impact of this agenda would be to increase the labor force participation of older people, particularly women and minorities, those presently without private pension coverage and already heavily represented in that sector of the economy where labor shortage is developing. Defining national spending priorities in terms of intergenerational conflict obscures the fact that Social Security is the only U.S. welfare program that has been successful in reducing poverty levels. PMID:2265880

Quadagno, J

1990-01-01

240

Psychache in context:states'spending for public welfare and their suicide rates.  

PubMed

This analysis draws together the concept of psychache that describes the psychological pain associated with suicide and Durkheim's social integration theory in analyzing the relationship between states' spending for public welfare and their suicide rates over a 30-year period, from 1960, 1970, 1980, 1985, and 1990. Given that the threshold for enduring psychological pain varies from person to person, the questions were: Does suicide also vary with social context and has this changed over time? The answer to both questions was yes. Whereas the prevalence of divorce in combination with low population density and high rates of population change provided the context for interstate differences in suicide rates over the entire observational period and accounted for their increased variability in 1970 and 1980, this was not the case in 1985 or 1990. In both 1985 and 1990, the two variables that were important in this regard were states' spending for public welfare and race. In 1990, not only were suicide rates higher in states that spent less for public welfare than in states that spent more, but states' spending for public welfare was the only variable that accounted for the widening of differences in states' suicide rates. Given the strong prevailing skepticism that government can help solve people's problems and widespread antagonism toward government social spending, these findings carry an important message. PMID:7623014

Zimmerman, S L

1995-07-01

241

Welfare Reform: Success in Moving toward Work. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (October 16, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Congressional report contains the testimony and documents presented for the record at the second of two hearings on the effects of welfare reform and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant. Other areas receiving particular attention from witnesses included the impacts of education and training on employment patterns…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

242

The Welfare to Work Transition in the United States: Implications for Work-Related Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes the legislation upon which the current welfare-to-work transition in the United States is based and describes characteristics of the former welfare population from which various tiers of employment options have emerged: unsubsidized-employed workers, subsidized-employed workers, subsidized-unemployed recipients, and unsubsidized-unemployed individuals. It also discusses current program emphases, and presents a format for directions for future program development which includes academic programs, situated cognition programs, integrated literacy/occupational skills programs, and integrated literacy/soft skills training.

Fisher, James C.; Martin, Larry G.

2000-11-01

243

Welfare Leavers and Medicaid Dynamics: Five States in 1995. Cambridge, MA: Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adds more weight to the body of evidence showing that declines in the welfare caseload are likely to have a noticeable effect on state Medicaid programs, in terms of overall enrollment, caseload mix, and per capita expenditures. Also points to continuity problems in enrollment, which may be contributing to lack of insurance for low-income parents and children.

Marilyn Ellwood; Carol Irvin

2000-01-01

244

Individualized Service Provision in the New Welfare State: Lessons from Special Education in Finland  

E-print Network

against which they cannot be reliably insured. The shift away from insurance and towards skill-based riskIndividualized Service Provision in the New Welfare State: Lessons from Special Education continuing, active and honorable membership in society. Conversely, redistributive transfers from market

Saxenian, AnnaLee

245

Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

Odebode, Stella O.

2009-01-01

246

A Class Perspective on Gender Inequality: How Welfare States Shape the Gender Pay Gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gender division of paid labor is embedded within systems of class stratification. The gap between the average earnings of men and women derives from the tendency for women to occupy inferior class positions and thereby to disproportionately pay the price of class inequality. From a class perspective, welfare states have multiple impacts on the gender pay gap. They influence

Hadas Mandel; Michael Shalev

247

Child welfare workplace: the state of the workforce and strategies to improve retention.  

PubMed

Child welfare systems throughout the United States are being closely scrutinized as sensational cases appear in the media in nearly every state. At the federal level, with the Child and Family Service Review process, the government is documenting that states across the country are not conforming to federal child welfare requirements (DHHS, 2007) put in place to ensure the safety and wellbeing of children. One of the most crucial underlying causes of these inadequacies is a workforce that lacks the manpower for the tasks it confronts. To meet performance standards for the seven major Adoption and Safe Family Act child welfare safety outcomes, child protection agencies must stop the outward flow of staff from the workplace. This paper presents a study examining correlates related to retention. It was found supervisors and co-workers play a crucial role in the retention of workers. Strategies are presented aimed at assisting states in ways to slow the turnover rate of workers in child welfare. PMID:18456981

Scannapieco, Maria; Connell-Carrick, Kelli

2007-01-01

248

How Welfare States Shape the Gender Pay Gap: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assess the impact of the welfare state on cross-national variation in the gender wage gap. Earnings inequality between men and women is conceptualized as resulting from their different locations in the class hierarchy, combined with the severity of wage differentials between and within classes. This decomposition contributes to identifying…

Mandel, Hadas; Shalev, Michael

2009-01-01

249

"Newstart" or "Stop-Start"? the Implications of Recent Welfare Reforms on Undergraduate Students Who Are Sole Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the implications of recent income support payment changes for sole-parented families in Australia, and in particular, their capacity to access tertiary education. The government's program to reduce welfare benefit payments to sole-parented families already at high risk of economic disadvantage and social marginalization…

Lenette, Caroline; McDonald, Donna; Fowler, Jane L.

2014-01-01

250

Welfare Reform on American Indian Reservations: Initial Experience of Service Providers and Recipients on Reservations in Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with service providers and welfare recipients on 15 Arizona American Indian reservations indicated that low levels of education and work experience were barriers to employment, and employment was scarce. In remote areas, the lack of support services, paved roads, transportation, and communication made it impossible for many residents to…

Pandey, Shanta; Brown, Eddie F.; Scheuler-Whitaker, Leslie; Collier-Tenison, Shannon

2002-01-01

251

The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Abortion, Education, Term Limits, Welfare Reform, Health Insurance, Riverboat Gambling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the annual survey of public opinion in Pennsylvania. Telephone surveys were conducted with 1,744 people whose telephone numbers were randomly selected from all listed telephone numbers. Results of the survey indicate that: (1) Pennsylvanians strongly favor mandatory birth control counseling for welfare mothers, but opinion is…

Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

252

Politics, Policy, Practice and Personal Responsibility: Adult Education in an Era of Welfare Reform. NCSALL Reports #10A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of literacy to work should be considered in terms of the political and economic conditions that structure the experiences of the working and non-working poor with respect to education and work. Research shows welfare-to-work programs constitute behavioral solutions to what are structural economic problems; literacy alone cannot…

D'Amico, Deobrah

253

A Need For Correction: Reforming New York's Juvenile Justice System. Child Welfare Watch. Vol. 18, Fall 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the wake of a U.S. Justice Department investigation that found widespread use of excessive force by staff at upstate psychiatric care facilities for mentally ill children, this new edition of Child Welfare Watch identifies shortcomings in mental health services and explores possible solutions, including the expansion of alternatives to…

White, Andrew; Hemphill, Clara; Hurley, Kendra

2009-01-01

254

The Public Understanding of Assessment in Educational Reform in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States education system depends on legislation and funding at the federal, state and local levels. Public understanding of assessment therefore is important to educational reform in the USA. Educational reformers often invoke assessment information as a reason for reform, typically by citing unacceptable achievement on some measure or…

Brookhart, Susan M.

2013-01-01

255

Understanding Educational Reform in Global Context: Economy, Ideology, and the State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a set of national case studies on educational reform of higher education that views reform as processes of ideological and social struggles. The titles and authors are as follows: "Educational Reform: Social Struggles, the State and the World Economic System" (Mark B. Ginsburg, et al.); "Restructuring Education and the State in…

Ginsburg, Mark B., Ed.

256

State-Level Reforms That Support College-Level Program Changes in North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter describes the concurrent reforms occurring in North Carolina--both campus-level changes focused on such issues as developing structured programs of study and state-level reforms aimed at supporting the campus efforts.

Bowling, R. Edward; Morrissey, Sharon; Fouts, George M.

2014-01-01

257

Family economic resources in the post-reform era.  

PubMed

Aided by the longest economic expansion in U.S. history and other policy changes designed to make work pay, federal welfare reform legislation has spurred mothers to leave welfare at an unprecedented rate. The majority of mothers who left welfare are working, but most have jobs with low pay and limited benefits. This article discusses the relationship between economic resources and child well-being, and how family economic resources have changed under welfare reform. A survey of the research conducted since reform indicates the following: Families' economic resources clearly matter to child well-being, but the connections are complex and vary by the age of the child. Without the benefit of supports designed to "make work pay," many families working full time at the minimum wage have resources beneath the poverty line, and the poverty line itself falls substantially short of the needs of most working families. Although poverty overall has declined under welfare reform, a significant segment of families are worse off--in part because after leaving welfare, many families do not receive other government supports designed to help them. Most states are still struggling to design more effective systems for delivering supports to help low-income working families move out of poverty. The author cautions that the evolving story of welfare reform will need to be monitored carefully to achieve long-term positive impacts on family economic resources and child well-being. PMID:11980033

Zedlewski, Sheila Rafferty

2002-01-01

258

The Skill Composition of Migration and the Generosity of the Welfare State. NBER Working Paper No. 14738  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skilled migrants typically contribute to the welfare state more than they draw in benefits from it. The opposite holds for unskilled migrants. This suggests that a host country is likely to boost (respectively, curtail) its welfare system when absorbing high-skill (respectively, low-skill) migration. In this paper we first examine this hypothesis…

Cohen, Alon; Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim

2009-01-01

259

'Post-Freud' welfare reform and Lone parents' decision-making around work and family life1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare-to-work policy in the UK sees 'choice', in relation to lone parents' employment decisions increasingly defined in terms of powers of selection between options within active labour market programmes, with constraints on the option of non-market activity progressively tightened. In the past, lone parents with children below 16 years age maintained the right to decide whether to seek paid-work without

Anthony Rafferty; Jay Wiggan

260

The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-272): The First Ten Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 (PL 96-272) provided major federal initiatives to reform the state child welfare system. The goals of the act were to keep families together by providing them with services and to find permanent adoptive homes for children who could not be reunited with their parents. This report examines the…

National Foundation for Consumer Credit, Silver Spring, MD.

261

Revenue Generation in the Wake of Welfare Reform: Summary of the Pilot Learning Cluster on Early Childhood Finance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating more comprehensive, community-based support systems and reforming early childhood financing systems are critical to advancing the goal of having all children enter school ready to learn. The Finance Project is a national initiative to improve effectiveness, efficiency, and equity of financing for education, children's services, and…

Finance Project, Washington, DC.

262

Variations in labor supply between female and male hospital physicians: results from a modern welfare state.  

PubMed

In industrialized countries, female physicians have up to 10h lower labor supply a week than male physicians. At the same time, the number of female physicians is increasing. The question analyzed in this article is whether these differences in labor supply for female and male hospital physicians persist in a modern welfare society, such as Norway, where comprehensive welfare reforms aim to reduce gender inequality are implemented. Information on weekly working hours from all hospital physicians in Norway during the period 2001-2007 was merged with economic variables (wages, income from other sources, net personal dept), demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, children born in the year, number of children), managerial positions and variables describing the hospital, specialty and time (year). The estimation method employed both random and fixed-effects models. Labor supply for women was 10-11 percent or 4-4.5 h per week lower than among men. The effects of children diverged strongly between the sexes. For instance, childbirth in a given year reduced the supply of working hours by women by approximately 80% but had no effects for men. After controlling for children and other factors, female physicians worked some 3-4% or 1-1.5 fewer hours than comparable male physicians. Although significant, variation in labor supply between female and male physicians is much lower in Norway then in other advanced industrialized countries. PMID:22739127

Johannessen, Karl-Arne; Hagen, Terje P

2012-09-01

263

A Nordic Nirvana? Gender, Citizenship, and Social Justice in the Nordic Welfare States&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nordic model has emerged as some kind of exemplar in much center-left political debate. This overview article starts with a brief account of this political positioning and of the values underpinning the Nordic model. The main focus, however, is the extent to which the Nordic welfare states have been successful in promoting a women-friendly, gender-inclusive model of citizenship, taking

Ruth Lister

2009-01-01

264

Medicaid Issues in Family Welfare and Nursing Home Reform. Including H.R. 2270, a Bill To Amend Title XIX of the Social Security Act To Change the Medicaid Requirements for Nursing Facilities Based on Recommendations of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (April 24 and May 12, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two hearings held a month apart examine major issues concerning Medicaid benefits in family welfare and nursing home reform. The first set of hearings discusses the proposed Family Welfare Reform Act of 1987 (H.R. 1720), which is intended to replace the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program of the Social Security Act Title IV.…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

265

Research-Infused STEM Reform at South Carolina State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South Carolina State University (SCSU) has embarked upon a mission to transform its science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines by offering more scholarships to students talented in the sciences, by introducing advanced topics in the introductory STEM courses, and by expanding research opportunities for STEM students. Specific examples will be provided from physics and astronomy. Program accomplishments after one year of operation will be highlighted, along with the difficulties of instituting such a broad-based reform. NSF HBCU-UP Award #0506062

Smith, Daniel M., Jr.; Anderson, J. A.; Adzievski, K.

2006-12-01

266

Family Economic Well-Being Following the 1996 Welfare Reform: Trend Data from Five Non-Experimental Panel Studies  

PubMed Central

This analysis summarizes trends in family economic well-being from five non-experimental, longitudinal welfare-to-work studies launched following the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). The studies include a sizable group of parents and other caregivers who received TANF at the point of sample selection or shortly thereafter, and share a wide range of similar measures of economic well-being. This analysis provides descriptive information on how these families are faring over time. Our results confirm what has been found by previous studies. Many families remain dependent on public benefits, and are either poor or near-poor, despite gains in some indicators of economic well-being. We caution that these aggregate statistics may mask important heterogeneity among families. PMID:25505808

Slack, Kristen Shook; Magnuson, Katherine; Berger, Lawrence; Yoo, Joan; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Dunifon, Rachel; Dworsky, Amy; Kalil, Ariel; Knab, Jean; Lohman, Brenda J.; Osborne, Cynthia

2009-01-01

267

Welfare and immigration reform and use of prenatal care among women of Mexican ethnicity in San Diego, California.  

PubMed

Foreign-born women and, in particular, Hispanic foreign-born women, are less likely to have insurance, are less likely to have insurance that covers prenatal care, and are less likely to utilize prenatal care compared with US-born Hispanic women. Significant concern has been raised regarding the ability of immigrant women to access prenatal care services because of severe restrictions imposed on immigrants' eligibility for Medicaid-funded services following the passage in 1996 of the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reform Act (PRWORA) and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRAIRA). We conducted an interview-based study of prenatal care utilization with women of Mexican ethnicity and diverse immigration statuses in San Diego County, California. Our findings indicate that, despite increased levels of fear associated with recent immigration and with undocumented status, there were no statistically significant differences across immigration statuses in length of time to receipt of medical care for gynecological events and for prenatal care. PMID:15744476

Loue, Sana; Cooper, Marlene; Lloyd, Linda S

2005-01-01

268

The Impact of No-Fault Divorce Law Reform on Divorce in American States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By comparing changes in divorce rates of reform states with no-reform states, this study indicates that law changes have had little effect on increases in incidence of divorce in most states. Exceptions, such as California and Florida, should be tested with rival hypotheses pertinent to their special socioeconomic characteristics. (Author)

Wright, Gerald C., Jr.; Stetson, Dorothy M.

1978-01-01

269

Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries  

PubMed Central

Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05–0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22–0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08–0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10–0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26–0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14–3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86–3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health. PMID:23538729

Chung, Haejoo; Ng, Edwin; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Karlsson, Björn; Benach, Joan; Espelt, Albert; Muntaner, Carles

2013-01-01

270

Happy Marriage or Uneasy Alliance? The Relationship between Comprehensive School Reform and State Accountability Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine how the relationship between comprehensive school reform (CSR) and state accountability systems helps or hinders school improvement efforts. This article draws on case study data collected in schools in 3 states that received funding to implement reforms through the federal CSR program. Findings show that…

Datnow, Amanda

2005-01-01

271

Fiscal Sustainability and Retirement Security: A Reform Proposal for the Illinois State Universities  

E-print Network

1 Fiscal Sustainability and Retirement Security: A Reform Proposal for the Illinois State Universities Retirement System (SURS) February 9, 2012 Jeffrey R. Brown William G. Karnes Professor of FinanceIllinoispublicpensionsareinurgent need of reform, and the State Universities Retirement System (SURS) is no exception. For a variety

Illinois at Chicago, University of

272

Bureaucratic Reform and E-Government in the United States: An Institutional Perspective  

E-print Network

Bureaucratic Reform and E-Government in the United States: An Institutional Perspective Jane E. #12;Bureaucratic Reform and E-Government in the United States: An Institutional Perspective Jane E attention to structure, politics and policy into studies of e-government. It also invites attention

Schweik, Charles M.

273

Children of divorce in a Scandinavian welfare state: are they less affected than US children?  

PubMed

A fairly common view holds that children's risks of negative outcomes associated with family dissolution are generally small or even nonexistent in Scandinavia, and clearly smaller than what is usually found in the United States. This view was empirically examined in a recent large-scale study of 4,127 12-15-year-old children in Norway, of whom 623 had experienced parental divorce and lived in a single-mother family. The somewhat paradoxical pattern of findings was as follows: (a) The negative associations between parental divorce and various outcomes were found to be generally very similar in Norway and the United States in spite of the great differences in family policy and welfare benefits for single mothers (at the macro level); and (b) Mediational effects of family economic resources were in both countries most marked for the academic achievement area, and the predictive power of such variables was quite similar, again in spite of the great differences in absolute level of the economic resources available to single-mother families in the two countries. The results cast some doubt on the value of the absolute economic deprivation perspective in explaining the results, and the many Norwegian welfare benefits do not seem to mitigate the association between divorce and negative outcomes for the children involved. Also policy implications derived from the economic deprivation perspective are questioned. Alternative interpretations of the findings involving relative deprivation and economic resources as a partial proxy for other non-economic factors are briefly discussed. PMID:16433663

Breivik, Kyrre; Olweus, Dan

2006-02-01

274

A Call for Reformation of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although current research, educational theorists, and international comparison prove a need for reform, the United States' teacher preparation programs are failing. The following paper will call for the reform of teacher preparation programs in three distinct areas. Examination of current data, application of educational theorists'…

Dann, Ashley Ireland

2014-01-01

275

The Sustainability of a National Reading Reform Initiative in Two States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there have been any number of national reading reform efforts over the years, there is little evidence that such efforts have been sustained in schools over time. This study focused on addressing 2 questions: To what extent have Reading First schools in 2 states sustained the key elements of this reform over time? To what extent has…

Bean, Rita M.; Dole, Janice A.; Nelson, Kristin L.; Belcastro, Elizabeth G.; Zigmond, Naomi

2015-01-01

276

Reform in the General Education Movement: The Case of Michigan State College, 1938-1952  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses the case of Michigan State College (MSC) to reconsider understanding of reform in the general education movement. Using the lens of MSC, the author argues that reform in the general education movement operated in a matrix of influence that involved educational research, philanthropy, and (both inter- and intra-) institutional…

Zayed, Kevin S.

2012-01-01

277

Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Education Reform Strategy: Report on Country Consultations and Work Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991 a working group from the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) released a report, the OECS Education Reform Strategy (OERS), which detailed proposed reform strategies for the region. This document summarizes the report's nine recommendations and responses to the report. The report was distributed to Ministries of Education and…

Charles, Hubert J.

278

The Sustainability of Comprehensive School Reform Models in Changing District and State Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the sustainability of comprehensive school reform (CSR) models in the face of turbulent district and state contexts. It draws on qualitative data gathered in a longitudinal case study of six CSR models implemented in 13 schools in one urban district. Why do reforms sustain in some schools and not in others? How do changing…

Datnow, Amanda

2005-01-01

279

Does new public management work in reforming the state's role in agricultural marketing in developing countries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research investigated the extent to which 'new public management' style reforms (in which the state confines itself to contracting, guiding, facilitating and financing in providing public services, rather than delivering them itself through civil service organizations) are successful in the institutional context of developing countries. Studies of reform of public services to agricultural marketing were conducted in Ghana, India,

Michael Hubbard; Marisol Smith

1999-01-01

280

Standards-Based Reforms in the United States of America: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to introduce readers to the main aspects of standards-based reforms in the United States of America. Content analyses of policy documents, reports of studies on education reforms, standards' documents and curriculum frameworks, and verbal communications from officials of education agencies provided the main sources of…

Watt, Michael G.

2005-01-01

281

The crisis of the international capitalist order and its implications for the welfare state.  

PubMed

This article analyzes the current crisis of the international capitalist order and its consequences for the welfare state policies of developed and underdeveloped capitalist countries. Special emphasis is given to the impact of the crisis on state health care policies in those countries. The first part discusses the response of capital and labor to the crisis, with special focus on capital's political and ideological interventions in the areas of production, consumption, and legitimation; and their realization as health care policies. The second part analyzes the major capitalist responses to the crisis--the "market' and the "social contract' strategies--and their consequences for health care policy. The last part critically evaluates the call for a new economic order and its limitations. PMID:7085142

Navarro, V

1982-01-01

282

The Aftermath of Welfare Reform: Health, Health Insurance, and Access to Care among Families Leaving TANF in Oregon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research reports the initial findings of a statewide study that looks at health, insurance, and access to health care among families leaving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) for work. Most national and state-level evaluation projects focus primarily on the employment characteristics of TANF leavers and pay little or no attention…

Seccombe, Karen; Hartley, Heather; Newsom, Jason; Hoffman, Kim; Marchand, Gwen C.; Albo, Christina; Gordon, Cathy; Zaback, Tosha; Lockwood, Richard; Pope, Clyde

2007-01-01

283

The A B Cs of Welfare Reform: A Guide to the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 means that, for the first time, the federal government has shifted substantial responsibility for maintaining a social safety net for the most vulnerable populations to the state governments. This guide summarizes the contents of the new law, identifies…

Sullivan, Candace J.; Sugarman, Jule M.

284

EXPLAINING THE DISTINCTIVENESS OF MEXICAN-IMMIGRANT WELFARE BEHAVIORS: THE IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYMENT-RELATED CULTURAL REPERTOIRES  

PubMed Central

Social scientists generally seek to explain welfare-related behaviors in terms of economic choice, social structural, or culture of poverty theories. Because such explanations incompletely account for nativity differences in public assistance receipt among those of Mexican origin, this paper draws upon the sociology of migration and culture literatures to develop alternative materialist-based cultural repertoire hypotheses to explain the welfare behaviors of Mexican immigrants. We argue that immigrants from Mexico arrive and work in the United States under circumstances fostering employment-based cultural repertoires that, compared with natives and other immigrant groups, encourage less welfare participation (in part because such repertoires lead to faster welfare exits) and more post-welfare employment, especially in states with relatively more generous welfare-policies. Using individual-level data predating Welfare Reform from multiple panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), merged with state-level information on welfare-benefit levels, we assess these ideas by examining immigrant-group differences in welfare receipt, retention, and transition to employment across locales with varying levels of welfare benefits. Overall, the results are consistent with the notion that cultural repertoires incline Mexican immigrants to utilize welfare not primarily to avoid work, cope with disadvantage, or perpetuate a culture of dependency, but rather mostly to minimize employment discontinuities. This result carries important theoretical and policy implications. PMID:24489383

Van Hook, Jennifer; Bean, Frank D.

2011-01-01

285

Supporting Families in Transition. A Guide to Expanding Health Coverage in the Post-Welfare Reform World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program with a new state-run Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program and ended the automatic link between eligibility for cash assistance and eligibility for Medicaid for poor families. Since then, a number of new policies and programs seeking to extend free or affordable health coverage to low-income families have developed. This new publication from the Health Care Financing Administration and the Administration for Children and Families of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) guides readers through some of the options states have in their efforts to broaden Medicaid coverage. Organized in four chapters, the guide addresses reaching families inside and outside the TANF system, maintaining coverage for families who leave the system, and related funding opportunities.

286

Medicaid and State Health Care Reform: Process, Programs, and Policy Options  

PubMed Central

Health care reform is a continuously evolving process. The States and the Federal Government have struggled with policy issues to combat escalating Medicaid expenditures while ensuring access and quality of care to an ever-expanding population. In the absence of national health care reform, States are increasingly relying on Federal waivers to develop innovative approaches to address a myriad of issues associated with the present health care delivery system. This article provides a summary of State health care reform efforts that have been initiated under Federal waiver authority. PMID:10142572

Rotwein, Suzanne; Boulmetis, Maria; Boben, Paul J.; Fingold, Helaine I.; Hadley, James P.; Rama, Kathy L.; Van Hoven, Debbie

1995-01-01

287

The Impact of State Behavioral Health Reform on Native American Individuals, Families, and Communities  

PubMed Central

In 2005, the State of New Mexico undertook a sweeping transformation of all publicly funded behavioral health services. The reform was intended to enhance the cultural responsiveness and appropriateness of these services. To examine achievement of this objective, we conducted a qualitative study of the involvement of Native Americans in reform efforts and the subsequent impacts of reform on services for Native Americans. We found that the reform was relatively unsuccessful at creating mechanisms for genuine community input or improving behavioral health care for this population. These shortcomings were related to limited understandings of administrators concerning how tribal governments and health care systems operate, and the structural limitations of a managed care system that does not allow flexibility for culturally appropriate utilization review, screening, or treatment. However, interaction between the State and tribes increased, and we conclude that aspects of the reform could be strengthened to achieve more meaningful involvement and service improvements. PMID:22427455

Willging, Cathleen E.; Goodkind, Jessica; Lamphere, Louise; Saul, Gwendolyn; Fluder, Shannon; Seanez, Paula

2012-01-01

288

Welfare Transitions in the 1990s: The Economy, Welfare Policy, and the EITC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid decline in the welfare caseload remains a subject of keen interest to both policymakers and researchers. In this paper, I use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation spanning the period from 1986 to 1999 to analyze how the economy, welfare reform, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and other factors influenced welfare entries and exits, which

Jeffrey Grogger

2003-01-01

289

Taking Root in the Sunshine StateThe Emergence of the Media Reform Movement in the State of Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the emergence of the media reform movement in the state of Florida in 2008. Focusing on the development of a statewide coalition, the paper details the tensions between local and national policy agendas, the barriers faced by local activists as they attempt to build support for the concept of media reform in their communities, and the diversity

Jennifer M. Proffitt; Andy Opel; Joseph Gaccione

2009-01-01

290

Understanding the role of welfare state characteristics for health and inequalities – an analytical review  

PubMed Central

Background The past decade has witnessed a growing body of research on welfare state characteristics and health inequalities but the picture is, despite this, inconsistent. We aim to review this research by focusing on theoretical and methodological differences between studies that at least in part may lead to these mixed findings. Methods Three reviews and relevant bibliographies were manually explored in order to find studies for the review. Related articles were searched for in PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Database searches were done in PubMed and Web of Science. The search period was restricted to 2005-01-01 to 2013-02-28. Fifty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Results Three main approaches to comparative welfare state research are identified; the Regime approach, the Institutional approach, and the Expenditure approach. The Regime approach is the most common and regardless of the empirical regime theory employed and the amendments made to these, results are diverse and contradictory. When stratifying studies according to other features, not much added clarity is achieved. The Institutional approach shows more consistent results; generous policies and benefits seem to be associated with health in a positive way for all people in a population, not only those who are directly affected or targeted. The Expenditure approach finds that social and health spending is associated with increased levels of health and smaller health inequalities in one way or another but the studies are few in numbers making it somewhat difficult to get coherent results. Conclusions Based on earlier reviews and our results we suggest that future research should focus less on welfare regimes and health inequalities and more on a multitude of different types of studies, including larger analyses of social spending and social rights in various policy areas and how these are linked to health in different social strata. But, we also need more detailed evaluation of specific programmes or interventions, as well as more qualitative analyses of the experiences of different types of policies among the people and families that need to draw on the collective resources. PMID:24369852

2013-01-01

291

Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans: An Evaluation of Specific Measures Taken by States To Comply with the Indian Child Welfare Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study responds to the lack of research on Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) compliance by examining a nationwide sample of the ICWA section within state Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans (CFSP) and Annual Progress and Services Reports (APSR). These plans and reports address the administration of state child welfare systems. The…

Brown, Eddie F.; Limb, Gordon E.; Munoz, Ric; Clifford, Chey A.

292

Perspectives on animal welfare legislation and study considerations for field-oriented studies of raptors in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concern for the welfare of animals used in research and teaching has increased over the last 50 yr. Animal welfare legislation has resulted in guidelines for the use of animals in research, but the guidelines can be problematic because they focus on animals used in laboratory and agriculture research. Raptor biologists can be constrained by guidelines, restrictions, and oversight that were not intended for field research methods or wild animals in the wild or captivity. Field researchers can be further hampered by not understanding animal welfare legislation, who is subject to oversight, or that oversight is often provided by a committee consisting primarily of scientists who work with laboratory animals. Raptor researchers in particular may experience difficulty obtaining approval due to use of various species-specific trapping and handling methods. We provide a brief review of animal welfare legislation and describe the basic components and responsibilities of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in the United States. We identify topics in raptor research that are especially problematic to obtaining IACUC approval, and we provide insight on how to address these issues. Finally, we suggest that all raptor researchers, regardless of legal requirements, abide by the spirit of the animal welfare principles. Failure to do so may bring about further regulatory and permitting restrictions. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Strobel, B.

2010-01-01

293

The Power of Coalitions: Participation and Governance in California’s Public-Private Welfare State  

E-print Network

Healthcare – with business and medical interests that supported reform.Healthcare aimed to counter the massive expenditure advocates anticipated from Blue Cross to kill the reform.reform allies helped nearly 25,000 workers to unionize with SEIU at the hitherto non-union Catholic Healthcare

Eaton, Charlie; Weir, Margaret

2013-01-01

294

Promoting Supervisory Practice Change in Public Child Welfare: Lessons from University/Agency Collaborative Research in Four States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes qualitative findings regarding lessons learned from research and demonstration projects in four states focused on the implementation of clinical supervision within their public child welfare agencies. This was part of a larger mixed methods study of the effectiveness of these new clinical supervision models on practice,…

Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Millar, Kenneth

2012-01-01

295

An Examination of State Takeover as a School Reform Strategy in a Small Rural School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore state takeover as a school reform strategy in a small rural school district. Since 1988, more than 50 U.S. school districts in 20 states have been subject to some form of state takeover. A number of factors generally contribute to a state takeover, some of which include: poor student…

Brookover, Chester Wayne

2010-01-01

296

The Education Reform Bill ? 44 years of progress?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Education Reform Bill is contrasted with the 1944 Education Act, especially in regard to the schools sector and the responsibilities of local education authorities (LEAs). The 1944 Act is seen as part of the formation of a Welfare State after the devastation and social upheaval of the war, in which educational opportunity and notions of a just society were

John Tomlinson

1989-01-01

297

A perfect storm? Welfare, care, gender and generations in Uruguay.  

PubMed

This article claims that welfare states modelled on a contributory basis and with a system of entitlements that assumes stable two-parent families, a traditional breadwinner model, full formal employment and a relatively young age structure are profoundly flawed in the context of present-day challenges. While this is true for affluent countries modelled on the Bismarckian type of welfare system, the costs of the status quo are even more devastating in middle-income economies with high levels of inequality. A gendered approach to welfare reform that introduces the political economy and the economy of care and unpaid work is becoming critical to confront what may very well become a perfect storm for the welfare of these nations and their peoples. Through an in-depth study of the Uruguayan case, the authors show how the decoupling of risk and protection has torn asunder the efficacy of welfare devices in the country. An ageing society that has seen a radical transformation of its family and labour market landscapes, Uruguay maintained during the 1980s and 1990s a welfare state that was essentially contributory, elderly and male-oriented, and centred on cash entitlements. This contributed to the infantilization of poverty, increased the vulnerability of women and exacerbated fiscal stress for the system as a whole. Furthermore, because of high levels of income and asset inequality, the redistribution of risk between upper- and lower-income groups presented a deeply regressive pattern. The political economy of care and welfare has begun to change in the last decade or so, bringing about mild reforms in the right direction; but these might prove to be too little and too late. PMID:22165158

Filgueira, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Magdalena; Papadópulos, Jorge

2011-01-01

298

Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States  

PubMed Central

Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:18687625

Hoffman, Beatrix

2008-01-01

299

Screening for Domestic Violence in Public Welfare Offices  

PubMed Central

Despite a high prevalence of domestic violence among welfare clients, most studies of the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform find that women rarely receive domestic violence services in welfare offices. This study reviews findings from current research on the factors that improve the likelihood that women will reveal their domestic violence experiences to service personnel, and uses the guidelines drawn from this review to evaluate domestic violence screening practices in welfare offices using 782 transcribed interviews between welfare workers and clients from 11 sites in four states. The analysis found that only 9.3% of case encounters involved screening for domestic violence. Screening rates differed by state, interview type, and length of worker employment. Qualitative analysis of the interviews showed that the majority of screening by workers was routinized or consisted of informing clients of the domestic violence policy without asking about abuse. Only 1.2% of the interviews incorporated at least two of the procedures that increase the likelihood of disclosure among domestic violence survivors, suggesting deeply inadequate approaches to screening for abuse within the context of welfare offices, and a need for improved training, protocol, and monitoring of FVO implementation. PMID:18096857

Lindhorst, Taryn; Meyers, Marcia; Casey, Erin

2008-01-01

300

Public Assistance Receipt among Native-Born Children of Immigrants. Policy Brief. Welfare, Children & Families: A Three-City Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1996 welfare reform law restricted immigrants' eligibility for public assistance, although many states have at least partially restored their eligibility. However, about three-fourths of the children of non-citizen immigrants were born in the United States and are therefore eligible for all government benefits. This brief examines whether…

Cherlin, Andrew; Fomby, Paula; Angel, Ronald; Henrici, Jane

301

Current State and Problems of Higher Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education in Russia is experiencing changes in curriculum and in the specialization and function of institutions in the search for a better model for a post-Soviet society. The early 1990s saw the start of the reform of the system of education in Russia. However, problems of quality and of continuity with secondary education have still not…

Salnikov, N.; Burukhin, S.

2009-01-01

302

Corporate Education Reform and the Rise of State Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The election of Barack Obama appeared to signal a shift in U.S. policy toward the Left, particularly since Obama has been framed as a "socialist," but the education discourse and policy pursued under Obama and voiced by Secretary of Education Arne Duncan has shown that education reform remains in the midst of a powerful corporate model. This essay…

Thomas, P. L.

2013-01-01

303

P-16: The Last Education Reform. Book Two: Emerging Local, Regional, and State Efforts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second book in a series entitled "P-16: The Last Education Reform." It was the purpose of the authors to chronicle the growth of existing state and local P-16 councils and compacts across the United States and to look at what might constitute successful efforts and an ideal relationship between state and local efforts. The methodology…

Rochford, Joseph A.

2007-01-01

304

Leave No City Behind: England/United States Dialogue on Urban Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the United States and England initiated ambitious standards-based education reform to eliminate large gaps between their highest and lowest achievers. England appears to be ahead, having started in 1988 with a national curriculum, tests, and performance tables. The United States' No Child Left Behind Act began rewriting state rules in 2002…

Hannaway, Jane; Murphy, Marilyn; Reed, Jodie

2004-01-01

305

Comparison or consumption? Distinguishing between different effects of income on health in Nordic welfare states.  

PubMed

In the relation between income and health it has been suggested that individual level mechanisms are related either to absolute or to relative income. Both absolute income level and the individual's own income in relation to that of others are likely to affect health, but to distinguish between these effects in analyses has been difficult. The aim of this study is to distinguish between the effect on health of one's own position in the income distribution and the effect on health of the individual's ability to consume. Combining data from Sweden, Finland and Norway provides a setting where individuals with the same absolute income level may occupy different positions within their national income distribution. The data come from Swedish, Finnish and Norwegian surveys of living conditions from the mid 1990s. Both the position in the income distribution and the ability to consume is measured by household disposable equivalent income. In order to eliminate differences in price levels, household income is adjusted for purchasing power parities. The outcome measure used is limiting long-standing illness. There was a clear income gradient in health over the individual's relative position in their national income distribution. Stratifying for groups of household income adjusted for purchasing power parities, we still find a significant effect of the individual's relative position. In Nordic welfare states the relative position in the income distribution is related to limiting long-standing illness independently of the ability to consume among individuals with high ability to consume. PMID:15899321

Yngwe, Monica Aberg; Fritzell, Johan; Burström, Bo; Lundberg, Olle

2005-08-01

306

Welfare Reform: Reauthorization of Work and Child Care. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (March 15, 2005). Serial Number 109-4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this hearing was to hear testimony on the effects of welfare reform and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grant, and to examine one of the most important work supports available to low-income families, Federal child care assistance. The opening statements were delivered by the Honorable Howard P. "Buck" McKeon,…

US House of Representatives, 2005

2005-01-01

307

45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). (a) Scope...and local appropriated funds for child welfare services under title...

2013-10-01

308

45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). (a) Scope...and local appropriated funds for child welfare services under title...

2014-10-01

309

45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). (a) Scope...and local appropriated funds for child welfare services under title...

2012-10-01

310

45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). (a) Scope...and local appropriated funds for child welfare services under title...

2011-10-01

311

Climb On! From Welfare to a Degree.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In operation since 1990, the Gateway Program is a collaborative welfare reform effort developed by Colorado Mountain College (CMC), the county department of social services, and the local Job Training Partnership Act provider. One component of the program is the Link Program, developed to prepare welfare recipients for enrollment in vocational…

Christensen, Patti; Kime, Bruce

312

Splintered Accountability: State Governance and Education Reform. SUNY Series in Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The No Child Left Behind Act declared that improving education in every school in the United States was a top national priority. However, this act did not acknowledge how state departments of education have successfully constructed reforms for the past few decades, despite the power struggle between governors, legislators, school districts, and…

Shober, Arnold F.

2010-01-01

313

Oversight of State Education Reforms: The Motivations and Methods of Program "Fixers".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The oversight of state education reforms is explored in this paper, with a focus on the motivations of program fixers and the strategies they use to guide implementation. Fifty-seven interviews were conducted with legislators, committee staff, and legislative agency staff to analyze the program fixing process in six states--Arizona, Louisiana,…

Wohlstetter, Priscilla

314

Globalization and the Nation-State: Sovereignty and State Welfare in Jeopardy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the fact that although globalization cannot be resisted by the nation-state, it is often confronted by mixed reactions from both the GN (Global North) and the GS (Global South). The essay charges that globalization has political, economic and cultural impact on the nation-state, which ultimately impacts the issue of identity…

Jotia, Agreement Lathi

2011-01-01

315

Who's Hiring Whom for What? A Report on Employer Practices and Perceptions in Wisconsin and Their Implications for the Future of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The practices and perceptions of Wisconsin employers regarding welfare recipients were examined. First, 500 employers outside the Milwaukee metropolitan area were interviewed by telephone. Those data were merged with data from a survey of Milwaukee-area employers, resulting in a statewide sample of about 1,250 Wisconsin employers (25%, 35%, and…

Jacobson, Robert; Green, Gary

316

The Construction of the Masculine Citizen-Worker: An Ethnographic Comparison of Welfare-to-Work Workshops in the Netherlands and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In 1996, both the Netherlands and the United States adopted welfare legislation that aimed to exchange single mothers’ reliance on the welfare state for dependence on the labor market. The question is whether this signals an end of gender-differentiated socialcitizenship rights. Arguing that citizenship does not get constructed solely at the level of legislation, I turn to the face-to-face

Anna C. Korteweg

317

Higher Rates of Adolescent Substance Use in Child Welfare Versus Community Populations in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objective: Youth substance use exacts costly consequences for a variety of important health outcomes. We examined and compared prevalence rates and a common set of psychosocial factors of lifetime and current substance use among child welfare–involved youths and community youths from two nationally representative data sets. Method: Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we compared prevalence rates and conducted logistic regression models for eight binary outcome measures of substance use: lifetime and current use of alcohol, inhalant, marijuana, and other illicit drugs to examine predictors of substance involvement in the two samples. Results: Substance use prevalence was higher among child welfare–involved youths than community youths for lifetime marijuana use, lifetime and current inhalant use, and lifetime and current other illicit drug use. Among both child welfare–involved and community youths, delinquency was the factor most strongly associated with all lifetime substance use outcomes. Notably, family structure and parental closeness were important protective factors against current substance use among child welfare–involved youths. For community youths, poorer emotional health was the strongest indicator of current substance use. Conclusions: Substance use among all adolescents is a critical public health concern. Given the heightened vulnerability of child welfare–involved youths, it is particularly important to focus prevention and early intervention efforts on this population. Further research should explore additional factors associated with substance use among these youths so that child welfare and behavioral health systems may jointly target prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:24172108

Fettes, Danielle L.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Green, Amy E.

2013-01-01

318

Substance Abuse and Child Welfare: Clear Linkages and Promising Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the prevalence of substance abuse among families involved with the child welfare system and the impact of substance abuse on child welfare practice. Discusses how both the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 and welfare reform legislation intensify the need to address parental substance abuse effectively. Considers strategies for…

Semidei, Joseph; Radel, Laura Feig; Nolan, Catherine

2001-01-01

319

Symposium Review of Books. The Welfare of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares and contrasts the issues presented in two books pertaining to child poverty, policy, and welfare reform: "The Welfare of Children" (Duncan Lindsey) and "Rethinking Child Welfare in Canada" (Brian Wharf, Editor). Both provide excellent analysis and recommendations but lack attention to tracking systems that place children in different…

Rossi, Peter H.; Sarri, Rosemary

1995-01-01

320

Employment among Current and Former Welfare Recipients: A Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of welfare reform is to move recipients from welfare to work. Several factors influence the employment of welfare recipients. The purpose of this content analysis is to offer a comprehensive understanding of employment characteristics and important personal, family, and employment characteristics that either promote or deter…

Morris, Susan; Santhiveeran, Janaki; Lam, Brian Trung

2006-01-01

321

Schooling, Welfare and Parental Responsibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues of child protection, child abuse, and delinquency have generated public and academic concerns about the ability of adults to underwrite the physical, moral, and social welfare of children. At the same time, recent educational reform has provoked debate about the shifting balance of power between parents and teachers. This book combines…

Wyness, Michael G.

322

Social security, employment and Incapacity Benefit: critical reflections on A new deal for welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 2006 New Labour published a Green Paper on welfare reform, A new deal for welfare: empowering people to work. Following a consultation period the 2006 Welfare Reform Bill was published in July 2006. The main concern of the Green Paper was with Incapacity Benefit and the people who claim it. This paper critically engages with the proposals outlined

Chris Grover; Linda Piggott

2007-01-01

323

Recent Changes in Texas Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 1. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief updates an overview of welfare benefits and services in Texas in 1997, when House Bill 1863 and the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 first went into effect. Since 1997, Texas and 12 other states from the Assessing the New Federalism study have implemented many changes in social safety net…

Capps, Randy; Pindus, Nancy; Snyder, Kathleen; Leos-Urbel, Jacob

324

Implementing health care reform in the United States: intergovernmental politics and the dilemmas of institutional design.  

PubMed

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was enacted, and continues to operate, under conditions of political polarization. In this article, we argue that the law's intergovernmental structure has amplified political conflict over its implementation by distributing governing authority to political actors at both levels of the American federal system. We review the ways in which the law's demands for institutional coordination between federal and state governments (and especially the role it preserves for governors and state legislatures) have created difficulties for rolling out health-insurance exchanges and expanding the Medicaid program. By way of contrast, we show how the institutional design of the ACA's regulatory reforms of the insurance market, which diminish the reform's political salience, has allowed for considerably less friction during the implementation process. This article thus highlights the implications of multi-level institutional designs for the post-enactment politics of major reforms. PMID:24508181

Béland, Daniel; Rocco, Philip; Waddan, Alex

2014-05-01

325

Can States Lead the Way to Universal Coverage? The Effect of HealthCare Reform on the Uninsured  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the impact of state policy reforms on health insurance coverage in the U.S. states considering three approaches to reform: consumer protection policies, policies relaxing regulation on insurance companies, and policies expanding public benefits. Copyright (c) 2009 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.

Ben Lennox Kail; Jill Quadagno; Marc Dixon

2009-01-01

326

The “Vaguest Notion of Poverty” and the Blindness of Welfare State Histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty and welfare policies have typically been crafted by people with little or no knowledge of the “practical strain of poverty,” and it is rare when those affected by such policies have a part in their creation; they have, moreover, had little or no voice in the telling of the history of their own lives and experiences. Given this, this

Stephen Pimpare

2008-01-01

327

Children's Agency and the Welfare State: Policy Priorities and Contradictions in Australia and the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the early 1990s, liberal welfare regimes have begun to treat lone parents as workers rather than as carers. This has happened in conjunction with an ongoing "moral panic" about the need to develop policies to invest in children, and to protect them from adult worlds. The purpose of this article is to analyse contradictions within and between…

Redmond, Gerry

2010-01-01

328

The Recent Corporate Income Tax Reform Proposals in Canada and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In May 1985, Canada's Minister of Finance and the President of the United States each put forward a proposal for reforming his country's corporate income tax system. Both proposals called for a broadening of the tax base and the elimination of investment tax credits. The U. S. proposal also included indexation of depreciation allowances and inventory cost. The study reported

Patrick Grady

1986-01-01

329

Kerala: Radical Reform As Development in an Indian State. 2nd Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kerala, a state in southwestern India, has implemented radical reform as a development strategy. As a result, Kerala now has some of the Third World's highest levels of health, education, and social justice. Originally published in 1989, this book traces the role that movements of social justice played in Kerala's successful struggle to…

Franke, Richard W.; Chasin, Barbara H.

330

Labour Market Reforms and Changes in Wage Inequality in the United Kingdom and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares trends in male and female hourly wage inequality in the United Kingdom and the United States between 1979 and 1998. Our main finding is that the extent and pattern of wage inequality became increasingly similar in the two countries during this period. We attribute this convergence to 'U.S. style' reforms in the U.K. labour market. In particular,

Amanda Gosling; Thomas Lemieux

2001-01-01

331

A Legal Guide to State Pension Reform. Education Sector Policy Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just 18 minutes before the midnight signing deadline on May 15, 2010, Minnesota state legislators breathed a sigh of relief. Their bipartisan pension reform legislation, which passed both chambers by large margins and aimed to help shore up a potentially failing pension system, had just escaped a veto threat. Under pressure from his Republican…

Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

2012-01-01

332

Finding Common Ground in Pension Reform: Lessons from the Washington State Pension System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As states and localities across the nation consider the tradeoffs between defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) pension systems, it is important to gain insight into what implications pension reforms might have on workforce composition and teachers' retirement savings behavior. Moreover, it is also important to consider that…

Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus

2014-01-01

333

State-Level Support for Comprehensive School Reform: Implications for Policy and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current context of standards-based reform and heightened accountability for school performance, state education agencies (SEAs) have an important, but not yet well-articulated, role to play in local school improvement efforts. This article starts to articulate such a role by examining the variety of approaches and strategies used by 7 SEAs…

Lane, Brett; Gracia, Susan

2005-01-01

334

Reconsidering Genre Theory in K-12 Schools: A Response to School Reforms in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education reforms in the United States have placed new demands on English language learners (ELLs) and their teachers in K-12 public schools. In response, many teachers, teacher educators, and literacy scholars are reexamining genre theory and genre-based pedagogy as a way of supporting the academic literacy development of the growing number of…

Gebhard, Meg; Harman, Ruth

2011-01-01

335

Food Price Subsidies and Nutrition: Evidence from State Reforms to India's Public Distribution System1  

E-print Network

Food Price Subsidies and Nutrition: Evidence from State Reforms to India's Public Distribution food price subsidies affect household nutrition using a dramatic expansion of the availability. These results differ from recent studies suggesting that food subsidies have little effect on nutrition

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

336

Personnel management and productivity reform: Taming the civil service in Great Britain and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines recent efforts to improve public sector productivity through reform of personnel systems and processes in Great Britain and the United States. Productivity efforts in both countries have been stimulated by and implemented in highly politicized environments. They have been attempts to secure the values of not only economy and efficiency but also executive leadership and political responsiveness.

David L. Dillman

1986-01-01

337

The Superintendent and Educational Reform in the United States of America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the last two decades the intensity and complexity of educational reform in the United States of America have heightened interest among policymakers, practitioners, and professors in large-scale, systemic change. As a consequence, superintendents are being viewed as pivotal actors in the complex algorithm for managing districts and leading…

Björk, Lars G.; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Kowalski, Theodore J.

2014-01-01

338

Evaluating ARRA Programs and Other Educational Reforms: A Guide for States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) developed this guide to help you consider evaluation issues likely to arise as you launch ARRA-funded initiatives and other educational reform activities. Many states are already involved in evaluation, so many of the ideas presented here may be familiar. The authors…

Perez-Johnson, Irma; Walters, Kirk; Puma, Michael; Herman, Rebecca; Garet, Michael; Heppen, Jessica; Lemke, Mariann; Aladjem, Daniel; Amin, Samia; Burghardt, John

2011-01-01

339

The underlying theories of health care reform in the United States--strategy implications for hospitals.  

PubMed

The United State Health Reform (Affordable Care Act) presents health provides with the goals that should be achieved in the reformed health care environment and rationale for those goals. Developing strategies to implement the act's policies by any health care organization must take into account the underlying theories of the act: managed change though payment design and funds flow. Market place competition. To execute strategy effective internal organizational management is a must and can be facilitated through a strong alignment between mission and opperating factors. The mission must relate to the organization's markets. Markets are best addressed through a local perspective where the ACA goals can be applied within a specific community or culture. The systems approach brings as many participants in the system to define their mutual success as it relates to reform. PMID:22235723

McLaughlin, Daniel B; Militello, Jack

2011-01-01

340

The role of European welfare states in intergenerational monetary transfers: a micro-level perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT\\u000aThis article uses a comprehensive theoretical framework to explain why parents send money to particular children, and examines whether intergenerational solidarity is shaped by spending on various welfare domains or provisions as a percentage of gross domestic product. The theoretical model at the level of parents and children distinguishes parental resources and children’s needs as the most likely factors

NIELS SCHENK; PEARL DYKSTRA; INEKE MAAS

2010-01-01

341

The European influence on workers' compensation reform in the United States  

PubMed Central

Workers' compensation law in the United States is derived from European models of social insurance introduced in Germany and in England. These two concepts of workers' compensation are found today in the federal and state workers' compensation programs in the United States. All reform proposals in the United States are influenced by the European experience with workers' compensation. In 2006, a reform proposal termed the Public Health Model was made that would abolish the workers' compensation system, and in its place adopt a national disability insurance system for all injuries and illnesses. In the public health model, health and safety professionals would work primarily in public health agencies. The public health model eliminates the physician from any role other than that of privately consulting with the patient and offering advice solely to the patient. The Public Health Model is strongly influenced by the European success with physician consultation with industry and labor. PMID:22151643

2011-01-01

342

Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

Thomas, Harold G.

2012-01-01

343

The Role of District Leadership in Radical Reform: Philadelphia's Experience under the State Takeover, 2001-2006. An Occasional Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leadership is key in the success of any reform, especially one as ambitious and complex as that in Philadelphia. "The case of Philadelphia is noteworthy as an exemplar of the implementation of paradigm-breaking new reforms in the governance and delivery of urban education." This report follows the first five years of the state takeover and the…

Useem, Elizabeth; Christman, Jolley Bruce; Boyd, William Lowe

2006-01-01

344

The State of Teacher Evaluation Reform: State Education Agency Capacity and the Implementation of New Teacher-Evaluation Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Obama administration's Race to the Top competitive grant program initiated an unprecedented wave of state teacher-evaluation reform across the country. To date, most of the scholarly analysis of this activity has focused on the design of the evaluation instruments or the implementation of the new evaluations by districts and schools. But…

McGuinn, Patrick

2012-01-01

345

The State, Markets and Higher Education Reform in Botswana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Market forces are being introduced in public spheres such as higher education and public health, which hitherto were closed to such forces. Ironically, it is the state that is responsible for this process of marketisation. Some see this state action as leading to a growing influence of the state in public policy while others see an attenuation of…

Tabulawa, Richard; Polelo, Mino; Silas, Onalenna

2013-01-01

346

Spreadsheets, Service Providers, and the Statehouse: Using Data and the Wraparound Process to Reform Systems for Children and Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation descriptions in the research literature tend to ignore the full context of the community change efforts from which they emerged. In this paper, we describe a range of evaluation studies and data collection activities conducted over the course of one state’s effort to reform its child welfare system on behalf of families with children experiencing serious mental health problems.

Eric J. Bruns; Jim Rast; Christa Peterson; Janet Walker; Jone Bosworth

2006-01-01

347

Mortality of White Americans, African Americans, and Canadians: The Causes and Consequences for Health of Welfare State Institutions and Policies  

PubMed Central

The life expectancy of African Americans has been substantially lower than that of white Americans for as long as records are available. The life expectancy of all Americans has been lower than that of all Canadians since the beginning of the 20th century. Until the 1970s this disparity was the result of the low life expectancy of African Americans. Since then, the life expectancy of white Americans has not improved as much as that of all Canadians. This article discusses two issues: racial disparities in the United States, and the difference in life expectancy between all Canadians and white Americans. Each country's political culture and institutions have shaped these differences, especially national health insurance in Canada and its absence in the United States. The American welfare state has contributed to and explains these differences. PMID:15787952

Kunitz, Stephen J; Pesis-Katz, Irena

2005-01-01

348

Regulation and federalism: legal impediments to state health care reform.  

PubMed

In recent years, many states have attempted to address the cost and access problems that face their health care systems. Such efforts, however, are significantly impeded by a variety of federalism doctrines that limit the ability of states to regulate the health care market. This Article surveys some of those federalism barriers, including the constitutional restraints imposed by the Commerce Clause, the Privileges and Immunities Clause, and the Fourteenth Amendment, and the statutory hurdles created by ERISA, the Social Security Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. This Article concludes that the restraints that these doctrines and statutes place on states reflect not only federalism concerns, but also deeper ambivalence about governmental regulation of the health care market. Only when that ambivalence is resolved can a proper division of labor between the states and federal government be determined. PMID:8368199

Parmet, W E

1993-01-01

349

An examination of the persistence of the residual child welfare system in the United States: Addressing charges of radical theoretical myopia with implications for social work practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States follows what has been termed a residual approach to its public child welfare system. This article describes the residual model and contrasts it with the policies of other industrialized nations. It also explores the causes and persistence of the residual model in the United States through the lens of structural-functionalist theory. By doing so, this article attempts

Peter M. Cabrera Jr

2009-01-01

350

Different welfare states--different policies? An analysis of the substance of national health promotion policies in three European countries.  

PubMed

This study examines healthy public policy development in three European countries representing different welfare regimes: England representing the liberal model; Norway, the social democratic model; and the Netherlands, the corporatist model. National policy documents were used for the analysis. In England and Norway, health promotion has a prominent place and there is a political focus on the broader determinants of health. However, while the Norwegian policies have an explicit focus on the social gradient, the English policies have a much clearer focus on disadvantaged groups and geographic areas. In the Netherlands, the main focus is on disease prevention and risk behaviors. In the Netherlands and England there is a strong focus on the free will of the population in changing unhealthy lifestyles. By analyzing the different policies in the light of Esping-Andersen's typology of welfare state regimes, it is possible to better understand the differences among the countries. While all types of regimes seem willing to develop targeted measures, the social democratic regime seems the most willing to also develop structural measures addressing the wider social determinants of health. PMID:21563624

Fosse, Elisabeth

2011-01-01

351

Education Source Book: The State Legislators' Guide for Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A compendium of proposals for model state laws intended to restore parental and local control and to improve teaching and discipline in elementary and secondary education is presented in this report. The proposals, together with explanatory passages, are presented in three categories: (1) parents' role in education, (2) teachers' role in…

Barrett, Nanette

352

Surprising Momentum: Spurring Education Reforms in States and Localities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter first examines how the Obama administration was able to promote its K-12 agenda using the vehicle of economic stimulus policy, and how that agenda compares with prior federal and state education policy. As a basis for explaining President Obama's policy choices, a second section discusses the ideas and political dynamics shaping his…

McDonnell, Lorraine M.

2010-01-01

353

Juvenile Justice Reform: State Experiences. Criminal Justice Paper #4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community-based programs in the juvenile justice system present a promising alternative to the disappointing results achieved by large institutional facilities. A diverse group of states has found that intensive, individualized services provided in small, family-like residential settings or in the juvenile's own home yield comparable or reduced…

Pierce, Robert; Yondorf, Barbara

354

Scientific assessment of animal welfare.  

PubMed

Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this is likely to be a major focus for animal welfare science activity in the early twenty-first century. PMID:25263963

Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

2015-01-01

355

The science of animal welfare  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and values; thus they may view an animal’s welfare status as good or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of these human differences in perception the actual state of welfare for the animal does exist in a range from good ...

356

Child Welfare Policy Manual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document conveys mandatory policies that have their basis in Federal Law and/or program regulations. It also provides interpretations of Federal Statutes and program regulations initiated by inquiries from State Child Welfare agencies or Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Regional Offices. The manual replaces the Children's…

Administration for Children & Families, 2008

2008-01-01

357

Positive animal welfare states and encouraging environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours.  

PubMed

Affective neuroscience, incorporating neurophysiology and neuropsychology, is providing increasing evidence that certain behaviours of animals may be interpreted in terms of what they are intending to achieve, i.e. their goals. It is also providing evidence that allows inferences to be made about the affective contents of some goal-directed behaviours. These neuroscience-supported inferences are aligned with recommendations based on prior behaviour-based investigations of animals' preferences, aversions and priorities, and these observations together support the cautious use of particular behaviours to infer what the accompanying affects may be. In this review, therefore, some attention is given to negative affects and their relationships to poor animal welfare, but the primary focus is the positive affects animals may experience when they successfully engage in rewarding goal-directed behaviours, encapsulated in the concept of positive affective engagement. The review draws together reports of environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours observed in a range of species and under diverse circumstances in order to illustrate the likely widespread occurrence of the positive affects that may accompany them. Particular consideration is given to affects that are potentially associated with some aspects of exploration and food acquisition in stimulus rich or impoverished environments, and to those that may be associated with aspects of the affiliative interactions of bonding or bond affirmation, maternal care, play and sexual activity. It is concluded that animals given the opportunity to engage in such activities may experience some positive affects. However, the intensity of an animal's experience of particular positive affects is likely to range from zero to very high because the associated behaviours occur intermittently, variation may occur during different phases of a goal-directed behaviour, and other positive or negative affects experienced at the same time may have greater impact. As good welfare is achieved both by minimising negative affects and promoting positive ones and as conscious sentient animals may be expected to have an interest in experiencing as little pain and as much pleasure as possible, it is argued that there is an ethical obligation to take practical steps to help them to achieve these outcomes. Such steps would include providing them with opportunities to express more behaviours that are associated with rewarding or satisfying experiences understood in terms of positive affective engagement. PMID:24875367

Mellor, D J

2015-01-01

358

When Child Welfare Agencies Rely on Voluntary Kinship Placements: New Federalism Issues and Options for States. An Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizing findings from a forthcoming book, this policy brief examines when and how child welfare agencies rely on kin to care for children who are taken into state custody. The discussion is based on intensive case studies of local kinship care policies and practices; the case studies were conducted in 13 counties in Alabama, California,…

Malm, Karin; Geen, Rob

359

Family Policy, Welfare, and Single Motherhood in the United States and Denmark: A Cross-National Analysis of Discourse and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasts family and child-care discourse and policies in United States and Denmark, with focus on discourse about the poor, about women and welfare, about single motherhood, and about the role of government in providing for children. Critically analyzes dissolution of U.S. social "safety net" and contrasts it with Danish discourse of universalism…

Polakow, Valerie

1997-01-01

360

IMPORTANT BENEFIT UPDATE CONCERNING SAME-SEX SPOUSES The State of Maryland Employee and Retiree Health and Welfare Benefits Program will be  

E-print Network

IMPORTANT BENEFIT UPDATE CONCERNING SAME-SEX SPOUSES The State of Maryland Employee and Retiree Health and Welfare Benefits Program will be immediately updated to include same-sex spouses as eligible, not just same sex spouses and will be used to determine if coverage for the spouse is subject to imputed

Adali, Tulay

361

A Strategy for Assessing Costs of Implementing New Practices in the Child Welfare System: Adapting the English Cost Calculator in the United States  

PubMed Central

In decisions to adopt and implement new practices or innovations in child welfare, costs are often a bottom-line consideration. The cost calculator, a method developed in England that can be used to calculate unit costs of core case work activities and associated administrative costs, is described as a potentially helpful tool for assisting child welfare administrators to evaluate the costs of current practices relative to their outcomes and could impact decisions about whether to implement new practices. The process by which the cost calculator is being adapted for use in US child welfare systems in two states is described and an illustration of using the method to compare two intervention approaches is provided. PMID:20976620

Snowden, Lonnie R.; Padgett, Courtenay; Saldana, Lisa; Roles, Jennifer; Holmes, Lisa; Ward, Harriet; Soper, Jean; Reid, John; Landsverk, John

2015-01-01

362

Why China's economic reforms differ: the M-form hierarchy and entry\\/expansion of the non-state sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's thirteen years of reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical structure based on the functional or specialization

Yingyi Qian; Chenggang Xu

1993-01-01

363

The Decision To Investigate: Understanding State Child Welfare Screening Policies and Practices. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States. Series A, No. A-38. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses state child welfare screening policies and practices, presenting data from a 1997 survey that examined the nature of states' formal screening policies and number of initial allegations of child maltreatment that states screened out. Although all states screen these allegations before investigation, little is known about the…

Tumlin, Karen C.; Geen, Rob

364

Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

2014-01-01

365

Designing Inter-Organizational Networks to Implement Education Reform: An Analysis of State Race to the Top Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with the implementation of state designed Race to the Top (RttT) funded reform networks. Drawing on a conceptual framework developed from the networked governance literature, we analyzed the 12 state RttT grantees' applications. Our analysis revealed that states

Russell, Jennifer Lin; Meredith, Julie; Childs, Joshua; Stein, Mary Kay; Prine, Deanna Weber

2015-01-01

366

Overview of the Common Core State Standard initiative and educational reform movement from the vantage of speech-language pathologists.  

PubMed

Educational reform is sweeping the country. The adoption and the implementation of the Common Core State Standards in almost every state are meant to transform education. It is intended to update the way schools educate, the way students learn, and to ultimately prepare the nation's next generation for the global workplace. This article will describe the Common Core State Standard initiative and the underlying concerns about the quality of education in the United States as well as the opportunities this reform initiative affords speech-language pathologists. PMID:22538706

Staskowski, Maureen

2012-05-01

367

Welfare Policies and Adolescents: Exploring the Roles of Sibling Care, Maternal Work Schedules, and Economic Resources  

PubMed Central

This study uses data from three longitudinal experimental evaluations of US state welfare reform programs to examine whether program-induced changes in families’ reliance on sibling care are linked with the effects of welfare programs on selected schooling outcomes of high risk, low-income adolescents. The findings from two of the welfare programs indicate that increased reliance on sibling care was concomitant with unfavorable effects of the programs on adolescent schooling outcomes. In the third welfare program examined, the program did not yield any increases in the use of sibling care or unfavorable effects on adolescent schooling outcomes, suggesting that sibling care is one likely contributor to the negative effects of welfare programs on adolescent schooling outcomes. These findings are discussed in terms of the pattern of the programs’ effects on families’ income, as well as maternal work on nonstandard schedules, aside from the programs’ effects on maternal employment, which play contributory roles in shaping the extent to which welfare programs led to less favorable effects on the schooling outcomes of adolescents with younger siblings. PMID:21347556

Hsueh, JoAnn; Gennetian, Lisa A.

2011-01-01

368

Children's Budget Watch: Investments in Our Future. A Profile of State and Federal Spending for Children in Pennsylvania, FY 1989-1990 through FY 1995-1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report profiles trends in state and federal spending for children in Pennsylvania from fiscal year (FY) 1989-1990 through 1995-1996, and highlights budgetary trends and the impact of federal welfare reform on selected children's health, nutrition, early care and education, elementary and secondary education, income support, and child welfare

Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children, Harrisburg.

369

Fostering Capacity: The Role of Faith-Based Congregations in the Child Welfare System in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on recent collaborative efforts between child welfare agencies and local congregations to recruit foster families. Drawing on in-depth interviews with persons involved in collaborations of this type, the article discusses the advantages and pitfalls associated with faith-based collaboration in the child welfare system. The major advantages seem to accrue both in congregations' strong religious motivations to care

Michael Howell-Moroney

2009-01-01

370

Literacy, Welfare & Work: Longitudinal Research Project. Final Report and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 3-year Literacy, Welfare, and Work Longitudinal Research Project explored the complex relationship between literacy and employment within the context of welfare reform in Manitoba, in an attempt to identify the barriers to education and employment that adult learners experience, as well as the policies, programs, and support services that best…

Smith, Janet

371

Can transportation strategies help meet the welfare challenge?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, nearly fourteen million Americans received welfare benefits which was developed originally to allow widowed or divorced women to stay at home with their children. The 1996 welfare reform package aimed to do just the opposite. The many changes seek to move recipients out of the home and into wage work. While inadequate access to employment clearly contributes to

Martin Wachs; Brian Taylor

1997-01-01

372

Revalidating External Prison Classifications Systems: The Experience of Ten States and Model for Classification Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) funded projects to assist ten states with the revalidation of their external objective classification systems that determine which facility an inmate should be housed. The ten participating states included Delaware, Montana, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. Written by Patricia L. Hardyman, James Austin, and Owan C. Tulloch, this 146-page report reveals the work undertaken by the participating states, provides an overall outline of the essential tasks required for revalidation, and summarizes external classification trends along with the lessons learned from these reforms. The report also includes copies of classification instruments and statistical tables to describe options for other states faced with similar problems.

Austin, James, 1948-

2002-01-01

373

Welfare Reform: Moving the Hard-to-Employ Recipients into the Workforce. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study collected information on the participation of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients in work and work activities and their characteristics and how they have changed over time. Data were gathered on strategies states use to help hard-to-employ (HTE) TANF recipients get and keep jobs and on challenges states face in…

Fagnoni, Cynthia M.

374

Crime, psychiatry and the insanity defence: a report on some recent reforms in the United States.  

PubMed

There have been substantial developments in mental health law in the United States over the last 10-15 years. Once focal point has been the insanity defence, discussed here. The operational consequences of the legal changes remain to be assessed empirically, but informed speculation is possible. Both a description of the reforms and the assessment of their potential effect are relevant to members of the psychiatric profession in Australia, whether they be forensic specialists or traditional practitioners or researchers. Selective consideration of the American experience, as opposed to contemplating Wholesale transposition, is the appropriate posture for Australian policymakers. PMID:8724336

Brakel, S J; Cavanaugh, J L

1996-02-01

375

How would patent reform legislation in the United States impact the pharmaceutical industry?  

PubMed

The United States Congress is attempting to tackle a perceived problem with so-called 'patent trolls' by introducing legislation directed at the particular traits attributable to these patent holders. Two of these proposed provisions involve fee-shifting and heightened pleading standards. The problem is that these legislative proposals are not narrowly tailored, but rather are blunt instruments that will likely impact all patent holders. This threat is particularly problematic for the pharmaceutical industry, where the proposed patent reform is likely to disrupt the delicate balance established for Hatch-Waxman-type litigation. PMID:25387953

Williams, Andrew W

2015-02-01

376

Part IV: Reformers in medical education and practice: Effect of managed care organization in the United States  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Part I (Can J Plast Surg 2000;8:25–29) established that standards of professional practice shift constantly. When a standard falls short of professional expectation or when a physician becomes more concerned with financial gain rather than patient care, society needs the action of a reformer. Parts I, II (Can J Plast Surg 2001;9:59–68) and III (Can J Plast Surg 2002;10:103–108) covered 500 BC to 1970 AD and comprised 31 physicians who introduced innovations in medical knowledge or medical philosophy. Part IV deals with a time in which new conditions have been imposed on medical practice. In the United States, medical education and practice felt the repercussions of financial institutions participating in health care management. STUDY DESIGN: The reformers were scientists who conformed to our definition of ‘reformer’: a person whose action restored, reshaped or advanced the structure or ideology of medical practice. RESULTS: This survey demonstrated that the reforms were accomplished by scientists possessing critical judgement and analytical qualities that enabled them to influence the direction of medical education and practice. In the last 20 years, financial institutions imposed different criteria that may require future reformers to reestablish lost objectives. CONCLUSION: Reforms have been achieved through intuitive leaps, alterations of conventional practice, painstaking research or administrative restructuring. The present health management in the United States requires new solutions. PMID:24222993

Entin, Martin A

2003-01-01

377

A Process Map For State-Wide Engineering Technology/Manufacturing Technology Curriculum Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the period of three years, FLATE, the National Science Foundation-funded Florida Advanced Technological Education Center for Manufacturing, has undertaken reform of Florida's Associate in Science (A.S.) and Associate of Applied Science (A.A.S.) degrees associated with manufacturing and related technologies. This reform has resulted in a statewide degree in Engineering Technology with a common technology core, based on a national certification, and five specialization tracks to meet local needs. There are a number of benefits to this change or consolidation of Engineering Technology 2-year programs in Florida. These include: 1) A degree program that meets manufacturers skills and knowledge competencies related to foundational skills in engineering technology. 2) All Community Colleges in the State can market jointly to students and industry employers with a common degree program and certification; 3) Completion of the common technology core creates a portable completion point that allows students to transfer within the community college system to an institution with their desired specialization; 4) The national certification utilized, MSSC's Certified Production Technician (CPT), assesses a student/workers foundational skill and knowledge in four broad areas common to all manufacturing sectors: Manufacturing Processes and Production; Quality Assurance; Maintenance Awareness; and Safety. This certification is portable across manufacturing sectors and has been defined by industry; 5) Selecting the MSSC competencies to inform and anchor the curricular frameworks of the degree core allows currency, precision, relevance and abundant competencies; and, 6) The utilization of a national certification to inform the as a curricular framework common technology core has enabled the creation of a statewide articulation pathway from the secondary system, technical schools and incumbent worker training programs into the new degree. The multi-year process through which FLATE worked to outline, analyze, evaluate, and change the statewide system based on national standards and assessments, as well as students abilities and needs required engagement of essential stakeholders through out the state, including but not limited to: Florida's Community Colleges, Florida Department of Education, Manufacturers, Workforce Florida, State and Regional Manufacturers Associations, and Economic Developers. Presented herein is the process map for facilitating this reform via review of existing frameworks, coordinating the statewide curriculum team, hosting workshops, soliciting industry input, selection of national certification, developing the new frameworks for the engineering technology core courses, and institutionalization within the Department of Education. The process for conducting this reform could be applied to any technical career cluster to facilitate relevant degree programs and articulation pathways.

Barger, Marilyn

378

Adapting Systems of Care for Child Welfare Practice with Immigrant Latino Children and Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent reform efforts in the child welfare system have called for child welfare agencies to provide community-based services and to increase the involvement of external stakeholders in identifying and developing services within the community. At the same time, child welfare agencies are faced with the challenge of providing services to an…

Dettlaff, Alan J.; Rycraft, Joan R.

2010-01-01

379

Teaching Note-CASA Volunteerism: Preparing MSW Students for Public Child Welfare Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to reform public child welfare systems across the nation, Title IV-E child welfare training programs were established over 2 decades ago. Participating students typically engage in a customized educational experience as part of their MSW program that prepares them to work in the field of child welfare upon graduation. This article…

Berrick, Jill Duerr; Durst, Wendy

2014-01-01

380

State Drug Policy Reform Movement: The Use of Ballot Initiatives and Legislation to Promote Diversion to Drug Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most of the past 25 years, the federal government and many states have adopted a tough, punitive approach to drug offenses. In recent years, changes in public perception and state budget shortfalls have spurred a policy reform movement across the political spectrum that advocates diverting low-level, nonviolent drug offenders into treatment rather than incarcerating them. In nine of the

Curtis J. VanderWaal; Jamie F. Chriqui; Rachel M. Bishop; Duane C. McBride; Douglas Y. Longshore

2006-01-01

381

Parental Leave in Romania and Hungary and European Accession: Welfare State Untransformed  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the nature of the relationship between the political and economic structures of the EU and those of nation states seems a conflict-ridden one - featuring integrative tendencies of the former against the occasional self-preserving and self-reinforcing ambitions of the latter -, arguably leading to the slow surrender of state sovereignty as the prerogative of the final (political) decision 2,

Borbála Kovács

382

School Reform Resource Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to help schools make successful school reform a reality. It provides the background and perspectives necessary for a school constituency to understand the current climate of education reform in the United States and what is known about successful school reform. The manual also provides inquiry-based techniques for…

Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning, Aurora, CO.

383

Importing the Poor: Welfare Magnetism and Cross-Border Welfare Migration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the welfare programs in two counties bordering different states along with comparative welfare expenditure in interior counties tests the theory that Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients migrate to counties which have a higher per capita welfare budget. Research shows that border counties with a $100 differential…

Journal of Human Resources, 2005

2005-01-01

384

Florida's Lessons for Indiana K-12 Reform. School Choice Issues in the State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jeb Bush campaigned for Governor on a clear and bracing set of education reforms in 1998. Having won office, he immediately pursued a dual track strategy of education reform: standards and accountability for public schools, choice options for dissatisfied parents. Florida lawmakers followed these reforms with additional measures, including…

Ladner, Matthew

2009-01-01

385

45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357...Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER...ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...

2010-10-01

386

Constraints on the retreat from a welfare-orientated approach to public health care in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Both in its articulation of values and through incremental changes, the Malaysian government has signalled a change in attitude towards the welfare approach which had hitherto characterized public health care policy. This change envisions an end to reliance upon the state for the provision and financing of health services and the fostering of a system of family-based welfare. In the future citizens should finance their own health care through savings, insurance or as part of their terms of employment. While the state will still accept a degree of responsibility for those unable to pay for their health care, it wishes to share this burden with the corporate sector and non-government organizations as part of a national policy of the 'Caring Society'. In this article the retreat from a commitment to a welfare model of public health care is documented and some of the serious obstacles to such a policy are discussed. It is concluded that the government's aspirations for reforming the welfare model will need to be tempered by both practical and political considerations. Moreover, the socio-economic consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997 are likely to increase the need for government welfare action. PMID:10387810

Barraclough, S

1999-04-01

387

Child Welfare Knowledge Transmission, Practitioner Retention, and University-Community Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the implementation of a Title IV-E child welfare training program in Louisiana. A collaborative arrangement between the state child welfare agency and seven state university social work programs provides for student monetary stipends in return for child welfare training and work as public child welfare employees upon graduation. On a test of child welfare knowledge, students in

Kristin A. Gansle; Alberta J. Ellett

2003-01-01

388

Evaluating Impact Effects of Tax Reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey paper provides coverage of the inputs from the theory side which go into the empirical analysis of impact effects of tax reforms. Inequality, social welfare, progressivity and horizontal inequity effects are considered. The value judgements inherent in selecting the target group for analysis, specifying welfare through household utility, equivalizing incomes and otherwise incorporating differences in household needs into

Peter J. Lambert; Daniel Slottje

1993-01-01

389

Assessment of Behavior Management and Behavioral Interventions in State Child Welfare Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Official state program reviews of 204 substitute care facilities were assessed for the types of behavior management and behavioral interventions used and the extent to which agency practices were consistent with learning theory principles. Data were also collected on the type and number of professional staff available to implement and oversee…

Wong, Stephen E.

2006-01-01

390

Tackling the Failures of the Welfare State "Thinking the Do-able"  

E-print Network

. The advisers spoke of how, corroded by unemployment, the area had become crushed by low self-esteem, a lack the benefits system. Rather it examines how the State can improve and better co-ordinate its many arms to meet

Glasgow, University of

391

Did reform of the non-group health insurance market affect the decision to be self-employed? Evidence from state reforms in the 1990s.  

PubMed

This paper estimates whether state-level implementation of community rating and guaranteed issue regulations in the non-group health insurance market during the 1990s affected the decision of taxpayers to be self-employed. Using a panel of tax returns that span 1987-2000, we find no statistically significant effect of the reforms on the propensity to be self-employed overall, although we find evidence of an increase in self-employment among older taxpayers and weaker evidence of decreases among younger cohorts. PMID:23775775

Heim, Bradley T; Lurie, Ithai Z

2014-07-01

392

Implementing the Affordable Care Act: state approaches to premium rate reforms in the individual health insurance market.  

PubMed

The Affordable Care Act protects people from being charged more for insurance based on factors like medical history or gender and establishes new limits on how insurers can adjust premiums for age, tobacco use, and geography. This brief examines how states have implemented these federal reforms in their individual health insurance markets. We identify state rating standards for the first year of full implementation of reform and explore critical considerations weighed by policymakers as they determined how to adopt the law's requirements. Most states took the opportunity to customize at least some aspect of their rating standards. Interviews with state regulators reveal that many states pursued implementation strategies intended primarily to minimize market disruption and premium shock and therefore established standards as consistent as possible with existing rules or market practice. Meanwhile, some states used the transition period to strengthen consumer protections, particularly with respect to tobacco rating. PMID:25588235

Giovannelli, Justin; Lucia, Kevin W; Corlette, Sabrina

2014-12-01

393

Social security reform in the twenty-first century: the United States.  

PubMed

The paper reviews the history of the Social Security system in the United States in the twentieth century and discusses options for the twenty-first. Because of the steady aging of the U.S. population and the impending retirement of the large baby boom cohort, the Social Security program now is in long-term actuarial deficit. The standard twentieth century approach to this actuarial deficit would be to raise payroll taxes enough to pay for anticipated future benefit increases, but for several reasons that approach may not be so popular this time around. The author's preferred approach is a gradual trimming of long-term benefit growth, plus "add on" individual accounts to provide new saving, for the economy and for the retirement system. The paper also criticizes proposals for Social Security reform made by President Clinton and a committee appointed by President Bush, generally because these proposals do not provide enough new saving. PMID:12503330

Gramlich, Edward M

2002-01-01

394

The Trojan Horse of Educational Reform: A Look at One State's Experience and the Perceptions of Selected School Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey addressed the financial impact of state-mandated reforms on 40 rural Oklahoma school districts. A majority of school administrators surveyed reported that they did not receive adequate dollars to meet curriculum standard mandates and the minimum teacher salary schedule. Long-term results may include consolidation. (LP)

Chance, Edward W.

1993-01-01

395

The School-to-College Transition in the Context of Educational Reform: Student Retention and the State Policy Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the impact of state-level educational reform in Kentucky on college student retention. By tracking the educational progress of students who graduated from high school in a large school district and who subsequently enrolled in a research university in the same metropolitan area, the study reveals that the accountability…

Welsh, John F.; Petrosko, Joseph; Taylor, Hal

2007-01-01

396

A "New Breed" of Principal: Marcus Foster and Urban School Reform in the United States, 1966-1969  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 1960s, as part of the black freedom struggle in the United States, African-American educators increasingly achieved the position of school principal in the nation's big cities, helping to transform that office into a more dynamic force for school reform. This article presents the accomplishments and the struggles of one such principal,…

Spencer, John

2009-01-01

397

Education Reform and Decentralization in Mexico and the Creation of "Educacion Civica" in the State of Jalisco  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors investigate Mexican education reform and decentralization and how the state of Jalisco focused in the early twenty-first century on developing a sequential curriculum for teaching civics in grades 1-6. The authors use the term "educacion civica" because in Mexico the curriculum emphasizes the acquisition of values and…

Contreras, Gloria; Rice, Marion J.

2009-01-01

398

1 April 20, 1998 From State-led to Grassroots-led Land Reform in Latin America1  

E-print Network

1 April 20, 1998 From State-led to Grassroots-led Land Reform in Latin America1 by Alain de Janvry arable land in Latin America is in large farms accounting for 26% of the total number of farms households suffer from poverty, 60% of which are in extreme poverty, as compared to 34% of urban households

Walter, M.Todd

399

Continuously Uncertain Reform Effort: State-Mandated History and Social Science Curriculum and the Perceptions of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined teachers' attitudes and beliefs in one over-performing urban/suburban high school of the state-mandated curriculum framework under conditions that I label a continuously uncertain reform effort or a top-down mandated curriculum involving constant mixed-messages as to its content, accountability demands, and future existence.…

Martell, Christopher

2010-01-01

400

Timing Is Everything: Building State Policy on Teacher Credentialing in an Era of Multiple, Competing, and Rapid Education Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Senate Bill (SB) 2042, authored by Senator Marion Bergeson, was passed to establish a new system for providing teacher preparation within the state of California. The credentialing reforms introduced in SB 2042 follow a tradition described by Irving Hendrik and stake their own claims regarding the locus of control over teacher quality, the role of…

Sandy, Mary Vixie

2006-01-01

401

Epilogue. Child Poverty and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes problems and concerns expressed in this special issue devoted to child poverty. Examines child poverty under the broader context of wealth and power, presenting it in a historical perspective. Suggests that children raised in poverty experience more than the simple stress and strains of living on the margins. Discusses current problems…

Lindsey, Duncan

1995-01-01

402

Welfare Reform and Urban Children. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest, which is based on findings from a large variety of studies, reviews the known effects of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 on children to date and discusses the Act's possible future effects. Federal statistics show a positive trend in poverty reduction, though other sources are not optimistic…

Schwartz, Wendy

403

State Medicaid managed care enrollment: understanding the political calculus that drives Medicaid managed care reforms.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to understand the political motivations underlying Medicaid managed care reforms by examining the determinants of enrollment of beneficiaries in managed care plans in the fifty states. To highlight the role of the model variables, including measures of the political environment, public interest, and special interests, a distinction is made between capitated and fee-for-service managed care enrollment. The results show that cost containment within the context of the Medicaid program is perceived as strongly favored by voters. Accordingly, the relative cost and tax price of providing Medicaid services are important factors in states' decision to enroll Medicaid beneficiaries in managed care plans, particularly capitated ones. The results also indicate a surprisingly significant influence by labor unions that generally oppose managed care enrollment for fears of lost jobs. The recipient population and provider groups also play an important role in shaping the Medicaid managed care landscape. The influence of variables measuring states' ability and willingness to pay and median voter preferences suggest that, within the context of Medicaid managed care enrollment, the public's interests are being served; however, the results also point toward inequities within the program and implications concerning financing arrangements between states and the federal government. PMID:17639017

Pracht, Etienne E

2007-08-01

404

THE “FREEDOM SUIT”:Feminism and Dress Reform in the United States, 1848-1875  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dress-reform movement, often misrepresented as a fad of women's rights leaders, was in fact a distinct movement with roots in nineteenth-century health reform. It represents a different brand of feminism from that of the women's rights movement and a “road not taken” by nineteenth-century feminism. Dress reformers were committed to an exemplary action model of social change that assumed

AMY KESSELMAN

1991-01-01

405

Importing the Poor: Welfare Magnetism and Cross-Border Welfare Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

I test for welfare-induced migration by comparing AFDC participation in border counties to interior counties within states. If migration costs are lower for border-county residents, border counties on the high-benefit side of a state border should have higher welfare participation relative to interior counties of the same state. Border counties on the low-benefit side should have lower welfare participation relative

Terra McKinnish

2005-01-01

406

Post-Adoption Contact Reform: Compounding the State-Ordered Termination of Parenthood?  

E-print Network

of the proposals on "open adoption" and child welfare in the light of the available empirical evidence, and their compatibility with both the European Convention on Human Rights and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child....

Sloan, Brian

2014-05-23

407

Do training programs help AFDC recipients leave the welfare rolls? An evaluation of New York City's BEGIN (Begin Employment Gain Independence Now) program.  

PubMed

Guided by the Federal Family Support Act of 1988 and the Job Opportunity and Basic Skills Program (JOBS), welfare reform initiatives on state and local levels were designed to foster employability among the public assistance population. Reform has focused on enhancing the supply of labor rather than the demand for labor as a route to labor force participation for the public assistance population. Program reforms assume that, by providing job training, educational services, and training-related expenses, labor market entry of the participating clientele would be facilitated while caseloads and public expenditures would decline. To date, analysis of similar programs in many states indicates that the impact of such programs in reducing public assistance caseloads is marginal. In New York City, despite the large investment of public funds in such programs, prior to this study the outcome of program implementation remained largely unknown. This study evaluates New York City's BEGIN program outcome target defined as the ability of the program to move welfare clients off public assistance and into the labor market. While the results of the study indicate that New York City's BEGIN program does not improve client's odds of leaving welfare, when compared to the odds of a non-participation client, there are several significant findings. The impact of program participation can be distinguished among distinct age groups. While older clients responded positively to BEGIN participation, access to day care was the only factor that significantly improved the probability that clients younger than 36 years of age would leave the welfare rolls within a two-year period. In response to the findings, the researchers suggest that future welfare reform efforts should grant localities broader flexibility to determine their own target population so that resources can be allocated to those groups that are most likely to benefit from specific programs. PMID:10177354

Angelo, L; March, J A

1997-01-01

408

WOMEN'S MOVEMENTS AND STATE POLICY REFORM AIMED AT DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN:A Comparison of the Consequences of Movement Mobilization in the U.S. and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the social movement mobilization that led to reforms in police and judicial handling of battering in the United States to the movement ideology, organization, and tactics that resulted in analogous policy reform in the processing of dowry burnings and beatings in India. Using field notes and secondary sources from both countries, the article examines how both movements

DIANE MITSCH BUSH

1992-01-01

409

A School-University Partnership's Involvement in State Mandated Reform: The Impact of a Teacher-Based Professional Development Model on Teachers, or, "Caught in the Headlights!"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined teachers' experiences in the Washington state-mandated educational reform process, their pedagogical responses to the reform initiatives, and the way in which these were mediated by professional development activities such as those initiated by the Goals 2000 project. Five Washington teachers participated in this case study.…

Laguardia, Armando; Grisham, Dana; Gallucci, Chrysan; Jamison, Shelli; Brink, Beverly; Peck, Cap

410

School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences Measurements of welfare state in cattle to improve quality of life in different  

E-print Network

to improve quality of life in different commercial environments. The concept of quality of life has received to minimise negative welfare; consumer pressure has now placed an emphasis on quality of life. Quality of life to their quality of life in commercial environments Entry requirement A first class or upper second class UK BSc

Evans, Paul

411

Why do rich countries prefer free trade over free migration? The role of the modern welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to traditional trade theory (Heckscher–Ohlin), free trade and free migration are equivalent measures of economic integration leading both to an equalization of factor prices. This prediction is in sharp opposition to the observed preference of rich countries for free trade over free migration. We provide an explanation for this inconsistency: the redistribution policies in the countries. Social welfare in

Dietmar Wellisch; Uwe Walz

1998-01-01

412

Why do rich countries prefer free trade over free migration? The role of the modern welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to traditional trade theory (Heckscher—Ohlin), free trade and free migration are equivalent measures of economic integration leading both to an equalization of factor prices. This prediction is in sharp opposition to the observed preference of rich countries for free trade over free migration. We provide an explanation for this inconsistency: the redistribution policies in the countries. Social welfare in

Dietmar Wellisch; Uwe Walz

1997-01-01

413

The Transition of Youth with Disabilities from the Child Welfare System: An Analysis of State Administrative Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth with disabilities are disproportionately represented in the child welfare system (Crosse, Kaye, & Ratnofsky, 1992; Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Although research on this topic is limited, youth with disabilities who are emancipating from foster care are at risk for particularly poor outcomes, experiencing even lower rates of employment,…

Hill, Katharine Miller

2010-01-01

414

Eugenics and the Welfare State in Sweden: The Politics of Social Margins and the Idea of a Productive Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the ideological and political role of Social Democracy in the enactment of eugenic policies in Sweden during the 1930s and 1940s. At first sight, these policies, which could be defined as ‘welfare eugenics’, are in contrast to the ‘racist’ romantic and mythically-based eugenic policies often promoted by conservatives and national socialists. This article analyses this claim

Alberto Spektorowski; Elisabet Mizrachi

2004-01-01

415

Recent Changes in Washington Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 6. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief examines changes in Washington's welfare-to-work, child care, and child welfare systems since 1997, presenting information from visits to Washington in 1999 and 2000. It profiles Washington's demographic, economic, and political conditions, reviewing its income support and social services systems and highlighting recent changes,…

Thompson, Terri S.; Snyder, Kathleen; Malm, Karin; O'Brien, Carolyn

416

Health care reform in the United States: radical surgery needed now more than ever.  

PubMed

It is often claimed that American health care provides good medical care, but the system through which that care is financed is falling apart. In 1994, Joseph A. Califano, Jr., former Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare reported that the American health care system was in such turmoil, that it needed radical surgery. Health care in the United States is different from other countries. Health care costs in America have skyrocketed and in 2006 occupied 16% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) with a budget of over $2 trillion. Health care expenditures per capita in the United States are higher than 13 other countries utilized in a sample by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Estimated spending according to wealth was utilized to measure each country's health care spending in comparison to each other. This measure, including various parameters (undoubtedly some have been missed), largely showed that after adjusting to its higher per capita income levels, the United States spends $477 billion - $1,645 per capita more on health care than any other peer country. Many health care proposals have been forwarded since 1965, when Lyndon Johnson succeeded in enacting Medicare. These come from Republicans, Democrats, Independents, physicians, insurers, non-partisan and partisan groups. However, none has been able to provide a guaranteed proposal to fix the health care ills and also provide reasonable coverage. This manuscript will review escalating national health care expenditures, factors contributing to health care increases, health care systems in many other countries, and various proposals. PMID:18196168

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

2008-01-01

417

MYTHS AS BARRIERS TO HEALTH CARE REFORM IN THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. health care system is deteriorating in terms of decreasing access, increased costs, unacceptable quality, and poor system performance compared with health care systems in many other industrialized Western countries. Reform efforts to establish universal insurance coverage have been defeated on five occasions over the last century, largely through successful opposition by pro-market stakeholders in the status quo. Reform

John P. Geyman

2003-01-01

418

Comprehensive School Reform: A Longitudinal Study of School Improvement in One State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on comprehensive school reform (CSR) reform in 48 schools over 6 consecutive years. In 1998, a total of 24 schools received CSR awards to improve student achievement. Control schools were carefully matched on 26 demographic variables to form a comparison group. Students' average performance, as represented in publicly available school…

Good, Thomas L.; Burross, Heidi Legg; McCaslin, Mary M.

2005-01-01

419

Animal Welfare—Scientific Approaches to the Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonhuman animal welfare is of significant public interest, globally and within the United States. Value-based judgments are intrinsic to animal welfare assessment, according to the relative weighting of factors associated with animal performance, health, affective states, and natural living. The concept of animal welfare is consistent with the scientific method because questions are open to deductive reasoning, formation of hypotheses

Suzanne T. Millman

2009-01-01

420

Understanding and Measuring Child Welfare Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new “Children's and Family Services Reviews” (CFSR) process focuses on the effectiveness of services to children and families by measuring client outcomes. This article reviews the research literature related to child welfare outcomes in order to provide a context for federal accountability efforts. It also summarizes the 2001 federal mandate to hold states accountable for child welfare outcomes and

Amy Dandrade; Kathy Lemon Osterling; Michael J. Austin

2008-01-01

421

Phantom Welfare: Public Relief for Corporate America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and quantifies major types of federal subsidies to American businesses, calling subsidies important policies that directly affect more traditional welfare programs. Notes that policies responsible for "phantom welfare state" represent major redistribution of wealth that partially accounts for growing gap between rich and poor. Discusses…

Huff, Daniel D.; Johnson, David A.

1993-01-01

422

Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste  

SciTech Connect

A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: (1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; (2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and (3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Wood, R.A.; Barnes, C.M.

2002-08-15

423

The U.S. 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and undocumented migration to the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major goals of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) is to reduce the number of undocumented immigrants\\u000a coming to and residing in the United States. This goal is pursued by allocating increased resources to Border Patrol enforcement,\\u000a imposing penalties on employers for hiring undocumented workers, and offering to legalize the undocumented population that\\u000a has resided

Michael J. White; Frank D. Bean; Thomas J. Espenshade

1990-01-01

424

Reforming Science: Structural Reforms  

PubMed Central

Science has a critical role to play in addressing humanity's most important challenges in the twenty-first century. However, the contemporary scientific enterprise has developed in ways that prevent it from reaching maximum effectiveness and detract from the appeal of a research career. To be effective, the methodological and culture reforms discussed in the accompanying essay must be accompanied by fundamental structural reforms that include a renewed vigorous societal investment in science and scientists. PMID:22184420

2012-01-01

425

The Postwar Greek Welfare Model within the Context of Southern European Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter treats the welfare state as a historical phenomenon, which emerged after the Second World War, but its origins can be traced back in time. Its consolidation was the result of conflicts, but also compromises between oppositional social forces. The focus will be on the Greek case. However, the discourse over the special features of the Greek welfare state

Vasiliki Rapti

426

The Small State, Markets and Tertiary Education Reform in a Globalised Knowledge Economy: Decoding Policy Texts in Botswana's Tertiary Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of global discourses have gained currency in national education policies. The need to reform education systems is coated in economic terms, the rationale of which is efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. Education is assigned the task of producing a competitive workforce in the global market. In these reforms, education is…

Polelo, Mompati Mino

2009-01-01

427

A study on laws related to women's welfare.  

PubMed

Since 1980, the domestic policy of every Korean government has focused on the construction of a welfare society, yet real change remains elusive, leaving women particularly neglected. This study examines social security legislation, especially the laws that define the status and welfare of women with the goal of advancing women's welfare and eliminating sexual discrimination against them. Welfare laws and literature were collected and examined from Korea and aboard, and facilities were visited. This paper reviews: 1) the theoretical background of women's welfare including the feminist critique and strategies for the welfare state and social welfare, and the significance and necessity of women's welfare; 2) women's welfare: international treaties and trends, including the World Declaration of Human Rights, international agreements on human rights, the International Labor Organization Treaty, the UN Convention on the Elimination of Sexual Discrimination Against Women, and the women's development strategies toward the year 2000; 3) the analysis of the laws and regulations related to women's welfare, including the systematic organization of women's welfare law (judicial, and systematic organization by applicable clients), the constitutional basis of the women's welfare related legislation and legal principles, the main feature and problems of the women's welfare related legislation, e.g. the Social Security Act: the National Pensions Act, Medical Insurance Act, the Livelihood Protection Act, Mother-child Welfare Act, Child Welfare Act, the Anti-prostitution Act, and the Gender Equal Employment Act, and 4) the direction of revision of the women's welfare related legislation including the revision and legislation of women's welfare related laws, restructuring of the delivery system, and the formation of proper environment conducive to the realization of women's welfare. PMID:12285932

Kim, E

1991-01-01

428

Protecting Confederate Soldiers and Mothers: Pensions, Gender, and the Welfare State in the U.S. South, a Case Study from Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

foundation of social welfare. 2 However, this wealth of scholarship has largely neglected the South and its regional variation on Civil War pensions. Little scholarly work has yet been done on the relationship between Civil War pensions and the development of social welfare in the region, or in fact on social welfare policy in the South at all. 3 This

Elna C. Green

2006-01-01

429

The current state of health care in the former Soviet Union: implications for health care policy and reform.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. Given the many profound health care problems facing Russia and the other former Soviet republics, there are a number of fundamental policy questions that deserve close attention as part of the reform process. METHODS. Summary data regarding Soviet health care issues were drawn from government agency reports, scholarly books and journals, recent press reports, and the authors' personal research. RESULTS. Smoking, alcohol, accidents, poor sanitation, inadequate nutrition, and extensive environmental pollution contribute to illness and premature mortality in Russia and the other newly independent states. Hospitals and clinics are poorly maintained and equipped; most physicians are poorly trained and inadequately paid; and there is essentially no system of quality management. While efforts at reform, which emphasize shifting to a system of "insurance medicine," have been largely unsuccessful, they have raised several important policy issues that warrant extensive research and discussion. CONCLUSIONS. Without considering the implications and consequences of alternative policy directions, Russia and the other states face the very real possibility of developing health care systems that improve the overall level of care but also incorporate limited access and escalating costs. Russian health care reform leaders can learn from the health care successes in the West and avoid repeating our mistakes. PMID:8604753

Barr, D A; Field, M G

1996-01-01

430

Reform: To What End?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author looks at school reform in light of his experiences documenting effective public education in classrooms across the United States. Observing in an inner-city 1st grade classroom, he sees a teacher who is knowledgeable, resourceful, and particularly effective with her students. He notes that none of the current high-profile reform ideas…

Rose, Mike

2010-01-01

431

Do Generous Welfare States Generate Efficiency Gains Which Counterbalance Short Run Losses? Testing Downside Risk Theory with Economic Panel Data for the U.S., Germany and the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the paper is to assess the theory that the downside risk insurance provided by more generous welfare states generates long run efficiency gains, which counterbalance the short run efficiency losses caused by work disincentives in these states (Feldstein 1974, 1976; Sinn 1995, 1996). Testing downside risk theory requires long term…

Headey, Bruce; Muffels, Ruud

2008-01-01

432

Kudzu, Rabbits, and School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essay on school reform argues that quality teachers are key to successful reform, not reform rhetoric by state governors and U.S. Presidents. Asserts that primary mission of schooling is to provide students an educational apprenticeship in democracy. Qualified, caring, competent teachers are essential to accomplish this mission. (PKP)

Goodlad, John I.

2002-01-01

433

Using Cash Incentives to Encourage Progress of Welfare Recipients in Adult Basic Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Welfare reform legislation in Tennessee provided adult basic education classes for welfare recipients whose literacy skills were below ninth grade. Although more than half of those eligible enrolled in adult basic education, many dropped out. The Completion Bonus, a cash incentive program, was instituted to encourage the completion of education…

Ziegler, Mary; Ebert, Olga; Cope, Gail

2004-01-01

434

Maternal Working Conditions and Child Well-Being in Welfare-Leaving Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the wake of welfare reform, thousands of low-income single mothers have transitioned into the labor market. In this article, the authors examine how the work conditions of mothers leaving welfare for employment are associated with the emotional well-being of 372 children ages 5 to 15 years. The authors examine the cumulative incidence, over a…

Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Bajracharya, Ashish

2005-01-01

435

Welfare, Work and Raising Children: Conversations with Twenty-One Maine Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five years after the massive overhaul of the nation's welfare system, 21 Maine families receiving public assistance spoke about their lives during welfare reform. The following were among the key themes that emerged throughout the conversations: (1) those leaving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) often remain poor or very nearly poor;…

Hastedt, Christine B.; Smith, Rebekah J.

436

The role of drug use in welfare to work: Evidence from Houston, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of drug abuse among welfare recipients in Houston, TX and compare the work activities and employment barriers of drug abusers in order to better understand the potential effects of welfare reform for this population. Four hypotheses were tested comparing the work activities and employment barriers of drug abusers to others

Doohee Lee

1999-01-01

437

A qualitative look at child care selection among rural welfare-to-work participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare reforms of 1996 changed the administration of public assistance to children and families. One of the key provisions, requiring parents to join the workforce, resulted in an expanded need for child care. Prior research demonstrates that welfare recipients, particularly in rural areas, utilize informal child care arrangements. Further, recipients in rural communities face greater challenges due to a

Allison De Marco

2008-01-01

438

Reforming and Consolidating Federal Job Training Programs. Hearing on Examining Proposals To Reform and Consolidate Federal Job Training Programs, before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing is a continuation of a bipartisan effort to consolidate, reform, and revitalize federally funded job training programs. Testimony includes statements of U.S. senators and individuals representing the following: National Association of State Job Training Coordinating Council and Human Resource Investment Council; American Federation of…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

439

State Implementation of Reforms Promoted under the Recovery Act. A Report from Charting the Progress of Education Reform: An Evaluation of the Recovery Act's Role. NCEE 2014-4011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA or the Recovery Act) of 2009 provided an unprecedented level of funding for K-12 education. The program created a "historic opportunity to save hundreds of thousands of jobs, support states and school districts, and advance reforms and improvements that will create long-lasting results for our…

Webber, Ann; Troppe, Patricia; Milanowski, Anthony; Gutmann, Babette; Reisner, Elizabeth; Goertz, Margaret

2014-01-01

440

Teen Pregnancy. State and Federal Efforts To Implement Prevention Programs and Measure Their Effectiveness. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teenage pregnancy and parenthood have unfortunate consequences for society, teenage mothers, and the children born to them. This report to the Senate is intended to provide information on (1) state strategies to reduce teen pregnancy and how states fund these efforts; (2) how welfare reform affected states' strategies; (3) the extent to which…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

441

Healthcare Reform and the Next Generation: United States Medical Student Attitudes toward the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act  

PubMed Central

Context Over one year after passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), legislators, healthcare experts, physicians, and the general public continue to debate the implications of the law and its repeal. The PPACA will have a significant impact on future physicians, yet medical student perspectives on the legislation have not been well documented. Objective To evaluate medical students' understanding of and attitudes toward healthcare reform and the PPACA including issues of quality, access and cost. Design, Setting, and Participants An anonymous electronic survey was sent to medical students at 10 medical schools (total of 6982 students) between October–December 2010, with 1232 students responding and a response rate of 18%. Main Outcome Measures Medical students' views and attitudes regarding the PPACA and related topics, measured with Likert scale and open response items. Results Of medical students surveyed, 94.8% agreed that the existing United States healthcare system needs to be reformed, 31.4% believed the PPACA will improve healthcare quality, while 20.9% disagreed and almost half (47.7%) were unsure if quality will be improved. Two thirds (67.6%) believed that the PPACA will increase access, 6.5% disagreed and the remaining 25.9% were unsure. With regard to containing healthcare costs, 45.4% of participants indicated that they are unsure if the provisions of the PPACA will do so. Overall, 80.1% of respondents indicated that they support the PPACA, and 78.3% also indicated that they did not feel that reform efforts had gone far enough. A majority of respondents (58.8%) opposed repeal of the PPACA, while 15.0% supported repeal, and 26.1% were undecided. Conclusion The overwhelming majority of medical students recognized healthcare reform is needed and expressed support for the PPACA but echoed concerns about whether it will address issues of quality or cost containment. PMID:21931604

Huntoon, Kristin M.; McCluney, Colin J.; Scannell, Christopher A.; Wiley, Elizabeth A.; Bruno, Richard; Andrews, Allen; Gorman, Paul

2011-01-01

442

Steady-state modeling and bifurcation behavior of circulating fluidized bed membrane reformer–regenerator for the production of hydrogen for fuel cells from heptane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of hydrogen for fuel cells by steam reforming of heptane is investigated in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Membrane Reformer-Regenerator (CFBMRR) system (A.I.Ch.E. Journal 49(5) (2003) 1250). Palladium based hydrogen permselective membranes are used for hydrogen removal and dense perovskite oxygen permselective membranes are used for oxygen introduction. A series of pseudo-steady-state simulations show that when the catalyst is

Zhongxiang Chen; Said S. E. H. Elnashaie

2004-01-01

443

Drivers of health reform in the United States: 2012 and beyond.  

PubMed

American medicine has seen radical changes in the past decade. In particular, radiology has been affected, notably first with the passage of the Deficit Reduction Act in 2005 and then with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2010. Health care reforms are not only driven by political agendas. This process is also a response to underlying social, economic, and technological realities. It is unlikely that reform efforts will just evaporate because of a single change in government or with a decision by the US Supreme Court. Regardless of who sits in the Oval Office and which party controls Congress, there are forces that will need to be addressed through policy changes in the coming years. The underlying drivers of health care reform are legion, but health care inflation, fiscal mismanagement by government, poor planning for demographic changes that affect entitlement programs, questions about the quality of health outcomes, and a desire for universal health care were all central factors in the reforms put forth since 2009. Radiologists should be preparing now for continued change in both the public and private sectors in health care for the foreseeable future. These changes are likely to have profound impacts on our profession. Radiologists and their groups should plan to pay greater attention to these events and should seek to have a much greater level of involvement in the political and social processes that lead to policy changes in health care. PMID:23025861

Lexa, Frank J

2012-10-01

444

Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although becoming widespread, especially in view of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and without a universally-accepted definition, most discussions of standards-based reforms (SBR) include certain commonalities, including: (1) Academic expectations for students; (2) Alignment of key elements of the educational system to promote attainment of these…

Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Yuan, Kun

2008-01-01

445

Participatory democracy by default: land reform, social movements and the state in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing literature on the experiences of participatory democracy in Latin America. Largely focused on urban areas and municipal service provision, the literature provides important lessons as to whether, how, and why participation works to improve the quality of democracy. In this paper, I examine an unlikely case of participatory democracy: the struggle for land reform in the

Wendy Wolford

2010-01-01

446

Statistics and Health Care Reform in the United States Jasjeet Singh Sekhon  

E-print Network

this reform, universal coverage has almost been achieved, with 97% of all residents covered as of 2009 of health care, slow the growth of health care costs, and regulate the industry. These stark differences care" would lead to "death panels." These have been amply discussed and discredited by the media

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

447

Active citizens and the therapeutic state: the role of democratic participation in local government reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Local Government Bill and the White and Green Papers informing it claim to deliver an agenda of democratic renewal. The reforms promise to reconnect local councils with local communities through a process of political renewal, a new statutory duty of community-wide consultation and the encouragement of active citizenship. This article assesses whether the plans for increased popular engagement in

David Chandler

2000-01-01

448

Elite Power and Educational Reform: An Historiographical Analysis of Canada and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I reopen some of the seminal theoretical debates among critical scholars on the nature of educational reform, arguing that there has been a consistent tendency in the literature to dismiss or downplay the significance of "instrumentalist" analyses in favour of cultural/hegemonic and structuralist explanations. As a result,…

Brownlee, Jamie

2013-01-01

449

Financing long-term care for frail elderly in France: the ghost reform.  

PubMed

Like many welfare states, France is faced with increasing demand for long term care (LTC) services. Public LTC coverage has evolved over the past 15 years, reaching a coverage depth of 70%. Nonetheless, it does not provide adequate and equitable financial protection for the growing number of frail elderly individuals, who are expected to constitute 3% of the population by the year 2060. Since 2005, various financing reform proposals have been debated, ranging from a newly covered risk under the social security system to targeted subsidies for private LTC insurance. However, to date no reform measure has been enacted. This article provides a brief history of publicly financed LTC in France in order to provide a context for the ongoing debate, including the positions and relative political power of the various stakeholders and the doubtful short-term prospect for reform. PMID:23827261

Chevreul, Karine; Berg Brigham, Karen

2013-08-01

450

Steering without navigation equipment: the lamentable state of Australian health policy reform  

PubMed Central

Background Commentary on health policy reform in Australia often commences with an unstated logical error: Australians' health is good, therefore the Australian Health System is good. This possibly explains the disconnect between the options discussed, the areas needing reform and the generally self-congratulatory tone of the discussion: a good system needs (relatively) minor improvement. Results This paper comments on some issues of particular concern to Australian health policy makers and some areas needing urgent reform. The two sets of issues do not overlap. It is suggested that there are two fundamental reasons for this. The first is the failure to develop governance structures which promote the identification and resolution of problems according to their importance. The second and related failure is the failure to equip the health services industry with satisfactory navigation equipment - independent research capacity, independent reporting and evaluation - on a scale commensurate with the needs of the country's largest industry. These two failures together deprive the health system - as a system - of the chief driver of progress in every successful industry in the 20th Century. Conclusion Concluding comment is made on the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission (NHHRC). This continued the tradition of largely evidence free argument and decision making. It failed to identify and properly analyse major system failures, the reasons for them and the form of governance which would maximise the likelihood of future error leaning. The NHHRC itself failed to error learn from past policy failures, a key lesson from which is that a major - and possibly the major - obstacle to reform, is government itself. The Commission virtually ignored the issue of governance. The endorsement of a monopolised system, driven by benevolent managers will miss the major lesson of history which is illustrated by Australia's own failures. PMID:19948044

2009-01-01

451

Welfare in horse breeding.  

PubMed

Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

Campbell, M L H; Sandře, P

2015-04-25

452

Recent Changes in Alabama Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 10. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alabama has a long history of providing a modest safety net for low-income families and children. This report examines Alabama's cash assistance, workforce development, child care, and child welfare systems for low-income families with children. Information comes from interviews with managers and front-line workers, focus groups with parents and…

Holcomb, Pamela A.; Schlichter, Kathryn; Schmidt, Stefanie R.; Adams, Gina; Leos-Urbel, Jacob

453

For the Welfare of Children: Lessons Learned from Class Action Litigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of papers brings together distinguished experts writing on the use of class action litigation to reform public child welfare systems. It is an effort to tease out of four decades of experience in this work, the factors that increase the likelihood that litigation will result in successful system reform. This publication is an outgrowth…

Meltzer, Judith, Ed.; Joseph, Rachel Molly, Ed.; Shookhoff, Andy, Ed.

2012-01-01

454

The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.  

PubMed

This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change. PMID:21057098

Sitek, Micha?

2010-08-01

455

Evaluating Interdependent Watershed Conservation and Ground Water Management Reforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conserving the watershed can help to preserve ground water recharge. Preventing overuse of available water through pricing reforms can also substantially increase the value of an aquifer. Inasmuch as users are accustomed to low prices, efficiency pricing may be politically infeasible, and watershed conservation may be considered as an alternative. We estimate and compare welfare gains from pricing reform and watershed conservation for a water management district in Oahu that obtains its water supply from the Pearl Harbor aquifer. We find that pricing reform is welfare superior to watershed conservation unless the latter is able to prevent very large recharge losses. Watershed conservation that yields net gains in combination with pricing reform may cause net losses without the pricing reform. If adoption of watershed conservation delays the implementation of pricing reform, the benefits of the latter are significantly reduced.

Pitafi, Basharat A.; Roumasset, James A.

2006-12-01

456

The health care system under French national health insurance: lessons for health reform in the United States.  

PubMed

The French health system combines universal coverage with a public-private mix of hospital and ambulatory care and a higher volume of service provision than in the United States. Although the system is far from perfect, its indicators of health status and consumer satisfaction are high; its expenditures, as a share of gross domestic product, are far lower than in the United States; and patients have an extraordinary degree of choice among providers. Lessons for the United States include the importance of government's role in providing a statutory framework for universal health insurance; recognition that piecemeal reform can broaden a partial program (like Medicare) to cover, eventually, the entire population; and understanding that universal coverage can be achieved without excluding private insurers from the supplementary insurance market. PMID:12511380

Rodwin, Victor G

2003-01-01

457

Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index.  

PubMed

Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and food. Body condition and faeces consistence were worse in summer. Many daily grazing hours (range average above 3 to 9 h) turned out to be more beneficial than few daily grazing hours (range average above 9 to 21 h) for the welfare of the dairy herds. In conclusion, this study reports a positive within-herd effect of summer grazing on dairy cow welfare, where many daily grazing hours were more beneficial than few daily grazing hours. PMID:23244468

Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sřrensen, J T

2013-05-01

458

Transforming Education through the Arts. Proceedings of a Special Hearing on Arts and Education Reform in the States (Washington, D.C., January 12-14, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an edited version of testimony presented to a special hearing on the role of arts education in education reform. A special committee of eight state legislators assembled to hear testimony from 12 organizations, including the National Endowment for the Arts and the U.S. Department of Education, the Council for Chief State School…

Loyacono, Laura, Ed.

459

Child welfare outcomes revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of outcome measures in child welfare has been part of agency and academic discussions for at least two decades. In 1989, McDonald, Lieberman, Poertner and Hornby contributed to the implementation of an outcome focus through the publication of “Child Welfare Standards for Success.” That paper presented the results of a comprehensive review of published and unpublished research that

Cyndie Murray; Thomas P. McDonald

2000-01-01

460

Child Welfare Outcomes 1998: Annual Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report is the first in a series of annual reports from the Department of Health and Human Services required by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 (ASFA). The report "presents data on State performance in meeting the needs of children and families who come into contact with the child welfare system, focusing specifically on the "outcomes, or results, for these children." It also examines the condition of child welfare programs nationwide, presents data measuring outcomes, and offers findings and conclusions.

2000-01-01

461

The Impact of Federal and State Laws on Children Exposed to Domestic Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes current and proposed federal and state civil laws to better understand their potential impact on children affected by domestic violence. Considers legislation and policy trends related to domestic violence, child custody and visitation, child protection systems, welfare reform, and immigration. (Contains 100 references.) (SLD)

Matthews, Martha A.

1999-01-01

462

Measuring Success of Constitutional Reforms: Evidence from Territorial Reforms in Eight Western Democracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of constitutional reforms so far have equated formal ratification with a successful reform. The paper goes beyond this narrow focus by adding substantive success as a second dimension based on two indicators: degree of agenda fulfilment and degree to which the reform contributes to solve the constitutional problem. Analysing territorial reforms in unitary or federal states, we distinguish two

Nathalie Behnke; Bettina Petersohn; Andrea Fischer-Hotzel; Dominic Heinz

2011-01-01

463

"HEALTH REFORM: MOVING FORWARD, FOCUS ON THE STATES" Join us Monday, March 28, 2011 from 6:00pm -7:30pm for an interactive video conference. Health policy  

E-print Network

"HEALTH REFORM: MOVING FORWARD, FOCUS ON THE STATES" Join us Monday, March 28, 2011 from 6:00pm - 7:30pm for an interactive video conference. Health policy experts at both the Harvard Kennedy School and Georgetown University will explore health care reform initiatives and state responses to the federal law

Schrag, Daniel

464

Reforming Science and Mathematics Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural

J. J. Lagowski

1995-01-01

465

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

466

The Legal Rights of LGBT Youth in State Custody: What Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Professionals Need to Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth in state custody, regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity, have federal and state constitutional and statutory rights. These rights guarantee a young person safety in their placement as well as freedom from deprivation of their liberty interest. Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth have these rights…

Estrada, Rudy; Marksamer, Jody

2006-01-01

467

Happiness and Welfare  

E-print Network

In this dissertation I argue that while hedonism seems to be the correct theory of happiness, happiness does not seem to be the essence of welfare; after all, it appears that a person may be brainwashed over a given duration, ...

Meseroll, Sean

2014-08-31

468

Responding to the Needs of Young People Leaving State Care: Law, Practice, and Policy in England and Northern Ireland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that the challenge for state child welfare services when young people leave care is to prepare them to cope with pressures surrounding this transition. Reviews existing research to explore current practice in England and Northern Ireland, and considers whether recent legislative reform in the two jurisdictions will help develop policy and…

Pinkerton, John; Stein, Mike

1995-01-01

469

Feasibility Study on the Development of Teachers Resource Centres: Consultants Report. Organization of Eastern Caribbean States Education Reform Strategy Project 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is based on the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Educational Reform Strategy Project No. 5 which found that a Teachers Resource Center (TRC) can be a vehicle to provide essential equipment and materials to schools organized in clusters and to serve as meeting places for officials, principles, and teachers. Approximately…

Brown, Gerald R.; Halliday, Joseph J.

470

Farmers, Scientists, and Officers of Industry: The Formation and Reformation of Land-Grant Colleges in the Northeastern United States, 1862-1906  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the formation, reformation, and standardization of land-grant colleges in the Northeastern United States during the last four decades of the nineteenth century. It is a history that explores the turbulent origins of land-grant colleges in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont,…

Sorber, Nathan M.

2011-01-01

471

The Appalachian Math Science Partnership: A Multi-State Umbrella Partnership Promoting Local Mathematics and Science Reform. Close-Up Papers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers presented in this paper accompany a core report about the Appalachian Math Science Partnership (AMSP) entitled "The Appalachian Math Science Partnership: A Multi-State Umbrella Partnership Promoting Local Mathematics and Science Reform Report." Each of them focuses on an especially effective strategy or component of the AMSP umbrella…

Inverness Research, 2008

2008-01-01

472

Blueprints for Reform: Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Blueprints for Reform is a summation of reports offering teachers, parents, policymakers, business leaders, and others a starting point for their exploration of the education system and its response to reform. This chapter looks at how student assessment in American schools might be redesigned to match the goals of science education reform put forth in that are exemplified in efforts such as Project 2061's Benchmarks for Science Literacy. It is divided into three sections that describe current assessment practice in the United States, suggest changes that are needed in order for science reform goals to be implemented, and explore possibilities and recommendations for closing the gap between current practice and a more ideal vision of science assessment.

473

Role of Directorates in Promoting Nursing and Midwifery Across the Various States of India: Call for Leadership for Reforms  

PubMed Central

Background: While the roles and responsibilities of nursing professionals have multiplied over the years, but there are huge concerns with regard to the development of the nursing workforce and human resources (HR) issues for their career growth. The major lacuna is in not involving the nursing professionals in policy framing and decision-making. As a result, there is a leadership crisis of the nursing workforce across India. Objectives: The paper, is part of the WHO supported study, entitled “Study on Nursing and Midwifery in India: a critical review”, is developed with the objective to review the current organizational and management structure for the nursing positions at the State Directorates in India and obtain a Leadership perspective to strengthen nursing management capacities to address maternal health issues. Materials and Methods: The study descriptive and qualitative in nature and the sources of information were both primary and secondary collected from 16 states of India. Results: Since none of the states have neither a Nursing Cell nor the post of Director Nursing, final decision-making powers rest with state health secretaries and medical directors. The nursing management structure majorly managed by senior policy makers from the medical fraternity, and provides very little scope for nursing professionals to participate in policy decision making to bring about reforms. There is no uniformity on HR issues concerning career graphs and pay structures across the states. Conclusions: In order to strengthen nursing as a profession and for facilitating their role at the policy level, more powers and autonomy needs to be given to them and this requires HR policy guidelines for nurses. Setting up a separate nursing directorate, to be headed by a senior nursing professional, is suggested in every state along with a strong nursing division at the National level. This total paradigm shift will empower nursing professionals to take up the leadership role at the policy level to bring about necessary reforms. Across the country, nursing professionals repeatedly echoed one requirement: To reframe nursing leadership at all levels. PMID:25861169

Bagga, Rajni; Jaiswal, Vaishali; Tiwari, Ritika

2015-01-01

474

Shaping Health Reform: State Government Influence in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has significant implications for state governments and its passage presents an opportunity to contribute to inquiries into ways that state officials wield influence in the national legislative process. State officials were occasionally influential when they drew on state experience and expertise and congress members were willing to benefit from this knowledge. State officials

John Dinan

2011-01-01

475

Promote the general welfare to ourselves and our posterity: the founding documents of the United States and the nation's health care debate.  

PubMed

A recent on-line discussion asked whether healthcare for Americans is a constitutional right or a privilege. One can debate whether one can extract a legal right to healthcare from the Declaration of Independence depending on whether one sees it is a philosophical or as a legal document. The Constitution of the United States of America lists "promote the general welfare" and protect "ourselves and our posterity" as some of its aims. Perhaps this would demand the inclusion of certain basic health services such as immunizations and antimicrobial therapy for every citizen; even for illegal immigrants, in order to protect the public. America must decide whether health care is a privilege or a right! If it is a privilege, one must accept the exclusion of some individuals and the unintended consequences of epidemics. If it is a constitutional right, one must accept paying for that right with increased taxes and the unintended consequences on the economy. But who should pay, how much and for what? PMID:20872179

Bengtsson, Bengt-Ola S

2011-08-01

476

LEAVE AND PAY EXCEPTION REPORT (LAPER): GUIDELINES FOR OPS CONTRACT EMPLOYEES (Work Group: OPSC) In compliance with the federal Affordable Care Act (ACA) healthcare reform legislation and Florida state law expanding healthcare coverage to  

E-print Network

) In compliance with the federal Affordable Care Act (ACA) healthcare reform legislation and Florida state law expanding healthcare coverage to eligible OPS employees, the Department of Management Services, the state

Wu, Shin-Tson

477

Evaluation of an Innovative Social Work Education Model: The Kentucky Public Child Welfare Certification Program (PCWCP)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research evaluated the effectiveness of the Public Child Welfare Certification Program, a specialized child welfare program delivered in bachelor of social work (BSW) curricula across the state of Kentucky. This evaluation gathered data for 10 years on satisfaction with the program, preparation for work in the state's child welfare agency,…

Barbee, Anita; Sullivan, Dana; Borders, Kevin; Antle, Becky; Hall, J. Christopher; Fox, Steve; Moran, Erin Beth

2009-01-01

478

The Mexico-United States Border: Public Policy and Chicano Economic Welfare. Studies in Human Resources Development No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1970, the gross national product for the United States was over $974 billion; for Mexico, it was $33 billion. The U.S. per capita national income was approximately $4,300, while Mexico's was slightly above $500. Living as neighbors with the reality of these vast differences has led to the implementation of various policy measures by both…

Briggs, Vernon M., Jr.

479

Child Welfare Services for Indigenous Populations: A Comparison of Child Welfare Histories, Policies, Practices and Laws for American Indians and Norwegian Samis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article takes Dixon and Scheurell's framework for understanding colonisation processes within social welfare policies and applies it to child welfare for Indigenous populations in the United States and Norway. While those countries' historical child welfare policies follow Dixon and Scheurell's hypotheses regarding colonisation, each nation…

Jacobs, Mary Ann; Saus, Merete

2012-01-01

480

Educational Governance Reforms: The Uncertain Role of Local School Boards in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S., local school boards have long played a prominent role in governing public education. States have authority for\\u000a public education via the Tenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which reserves powers to the states that the Constitution\\u000a does not delegate to the federal government or prohibit states from assuming. In the mid-1800s, states began establishing\\u000a state-wide public school

Deborah Land; Sam Stringfield

481

United States health care reform in 2009: a primer for gastroenterologists.  

PubMed

The US health care system is characterized by staggering costs alongside limited access, uneven quality, and subpar health outcomes. Although federal policymakers have long acknowledged this health care crisis, there still has been no fundamental realignment in health care organization or delivery. With a new Presidential Administration and deep economic recession, profound changes now appear imminent. These changes are likely to impact gastroenterologists significantly, including who they treat, how they deliver care, and how they are compensated. This article considers the most likely reforms, including health insurance and the drive toward universal coverage; a shift to reimbursement models that reward quality over the entire episode of care; reorganization of health care delivery around more highly integrated practices, patient-centered medical homes, and accountable care organizations; and electronic health records, comparative effectiveness research, and reporting transparency as necessary tools for implementing systemic change. Finally, anticipating these changes, this article concludes with specific recommendations to enable gastroenterologists to adapt to new practice environments. PMID:19631289

Dorn, Spencer D

2009-11-01

482

State and Local Level Special Education Programs That Work and Federal Barriers to Innovation. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the transcript of a hearing before the House Subcommittee on Education Reform about state and local level special education programs that work and federal barriers to innovation as part of efforts to reform the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Highlights of the testimony include: (1) progress in New York in…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

483

Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization  

PubMed Central

Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

2010-01-01

484

The state and health care reform: the National Health Insurance and Public Health Act of 1949  

E-print Network

State-centered theory, elite theory, and the organizational state environment perspective have all been put forth to explain how policies come to be enacted in government and who benefits from such policy initiatives. It is proposed that the same...

Schemmer, Ruth Ann, 1960

1994-01-01

485

Explaining Whole System Reform in Small States: The Case of Trinidad and Tobago Secondary Education Modernization Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes drivers and impediments to secondary school reform in Trinidad and Tobago during the period from 1999 to 2009. International assessment data suggested limited progress on improving system quality and equity. Several policy levers and barriers have been defined in current system reform theory. However, explanations for the…

De Lisle, Jerome

2012-01-01

486

Moving Education Reform Forward: Grantmakers Reflect on a Convening with State and Local Government  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In January 2011, teams of government education leaders and grantmakers from 13 states convened for Moving Forward with a Transformative Education Agenda: Practical Solutions for States and Districts, a first-ever national discussion of how grantmakers and state and local education officials might work together to promote elementary and secondary…

Lawrence, Steven

2011-01-01

487

The political economy of state-formation in the Arab Middle East: Rentier states, economic reform, and democratization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that rentier states stand in contrast to states that have to rely on domestic resource extraction. They display a particular path to state-formation that by and large defies the European path of state-formation: natural resource dependence (mainly oil dependence) has created weak states that are autonomous from societal demands and that do not rely on domestic taxation.

Rolf Schwarz

2008-01-01

488

Health reform: the human resource challenges for Central Asian Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries.  

PubMed

This paper examines the key human resource issues for health amongst mid-level workers in Central Asia CIS countries. It focuses on Azerbaijan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan highlighting the human resource issues that are evident within these countries and illustrating how they differ from those described in the sub-Saharan developing countries. The key human resource issue highlighted by the World Health Organization Report [WHO. (2006). World Health Report: Working together for health. Geneva: WHO] was the scarcity of health workers. Four million health care workers were identified as essential if the health services of the world are able to meet current health needs. The primary area of need highlighted was in Africa. Africa bears the greatest burden of disease but has the lowest number of health care workers. In the CIS countries in Central Asia different human resource issues have emerged. The Soviet health care system was comprehensive but labour intensive it had a primarily acute and a specialist disease focused approach with little investment in primary and community health care. It was unsustainable and the legacy that it left the new Central Asian emerging nations was of a large workforce with poor levels of competence and outdated approaches to providing care along with a crumbling infrastructure. In response to this situation health reform has been introduced which focuses on a family model of primary health care with family doctors supported by Family Health Nurses. This approach is beginning to make a difference to the morbidity and mortality of the populations but still has a long way to go before its full benefits are realised. PMID:19388425

Parfitt, Barbara

2009-01-01

489

The Role of Social Workers in Welfare to Work Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare to work is an important arena for understanding the changing nature of social policy and practice in Australia, the UK, Hong Kong, and the United States. This article discusses some key policy and practice issues in respect to social work professional training and practice. Welfare to work programs focus on “active” measures and stress the importance of “responsibilities” for

Jane Millar; Michael J. Austin

2006-01-01

490

Conducting Culturally Competent Evaluations of Child Welfare Programs and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the population of the United States has changed over the last two decades, so has the population of children who come to the attention of the child welfare system, resulting in increasing calls for cultural competence in all aspects of child welfare programming and practice. Given the changing demographics among children involved in the child…

Dettlaff, Alan J.; Fong, Rowena

2011-01-01

491

Factors Influencing MSW Students' Interest in Public Child Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public child welfare agencies have long been perceived as key training and employment settings for professional social workers in the United States. Nonetheless, within the last 30 years, concern has been raised with respect to the perceived “de-professionalization” of many public social service jobs, making a large portion of social work positions in public child welfare unappealing to the professionally

Robin Perry

2005-01-01

492

Welfare Systems and African-Americans: Historical Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An historical discussion of the relationship of American welfare systems to African-Americans, stating that Europeans, primarily from England, reluctantly established meagre, inhumane welfare systems based on seventeenth century English philosophy and tradition for members of their own nationality group after more than two centuries of poverty in…

Nicholson, Rosetta

1975-01-01

493

Demystifying Welfare: Its Feminization and Its Effect on Stakeholders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Welfare is misunderstood, mystified, and feminized by many stakeholders (i.e. government, media, majoritarian culture, etc.). This text analysis will assess how well the text achieved the following: (1) articulate why the current U.S. welfare state is based upon myths or false assumptions, (2) analyze what these false assumptions mean for…

Hartlep, Nicholas D.

2008-01-01

494

Reforming process  

SciTech Connect

A process for reforming a naphtha feedstock is disclosed. The reforming process is effected at reforming conditions in contact with a catalyst comprising a platinum group metal component and a group iv-a metal component composited with an alumina support wherein said support is prepared by admixing an alpha alumina monohydrate with an aqueous ammoniacal solution having a ph of at least about 7.5 to form a stable suspension. A salt of a strong acid, e.g., aluminum nitrate, is commingled with the suspension to form an extrudable paste or dough. On extrusion, the extrudate is dried and calcined to form said alumina support.

Mitsche, R.T.; Pope, G.N.

1981-01-06

495

[Current aspects of the state and improvement of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of workers and passengers of Russian railways].  

PubMed

The data on the sanitary-epidemiological state of Railways objects of Russia are presented. Bacteriological examination of drinking water taken from the water systems of passenger cars showed that 3.9-5.0% of the samples did not meet the health standards (p < 0.01). Samples of workplace air in industrial enterprises did not meet hygienic standards: on vapors and gases--4.6%, dust and aerosols--13.6%. In 52.9 +/- 2.6% of examined drivers cabs there was revealed noncompliance to hygienic standards on physical factors: on the noise--45.1 +/- 2.7%, vibration--35.6 +/- 2.7%, etc. Out of the total number of occupational diseases locomotive drivers account for about 40% of cases, including sensorineural hearing loss up to 80%. Morbidity with temporary disability among drivers of locomotives are 20-25% higher (p < 0.05), than in the whole railway transport. The suggestions on the improvement of sanitary-hygienic monitoring in rail transport are given. PMID:24340904

Kas'kov, Iu N; Farkhatdinov, G A; Podkorytov, Iu I; Khusnutdinova, N Sh

2013-01-01

496

The state, conflict and the individual: the effect of the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) insurrections in Sri Lankan on the mental welfare of a population.  

PubMed

This article describes the nature and effect of violence and conflict on the social and personal welfare of a local population using the example of the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (VP) insurrections in Sri Lanka. It considers the impact of violence on individuals and communities both directly from traumatic events and indirectly through the social and political consequences of the violence. Mental health is taken as an indicator of human welfare, and its relationship to the political and economic factors that form the environmental context is examined. The paper concludes that the mental welfare of a population following an insurrection is impaired by the effect of individual trauma, the nature of violence experienced and the way that social and economic conditions supporting mental health are undermined. PMID:16180734

Watkins, Jonathan D

2005-01-01

497

Catalog of School Reform Models. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog describes 44 school-reform models. It was prepared for the U.S. Department of Education in direct response to the Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration program. The catalog's purpose is to aid schools, school districts, and states as they investigate external models that can be incorporated into comprehensive school-reform

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

498

Casaworks for FamiliesA New Treatment Model for Substance-Abusing Parenting Women on Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a brief overview of CASAWORKS for Families(CWF), an innovative intervention designed to help substance-abusing parentingwomen on welfare. CWFwas developed in response to the passage of welfare reform legislation in 1996. Factors that provided a background and context for the development ofCWFare considered. The rationale, key elements, and the conduct of a pilot demonstration of CWFar e described.

Jon Morgenstern; Mary Nakashian; Diana D. Woolis; Fay M. Gibson; Nancy L. Bloom; Brenda G. Kaulback

2003-01-01

499

A study of optimal state shares in mixed oligopoly: Implications for SOE reform and foreign competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies the optimal state share in a partially state-owned enterprise (SOE) from the perspectives of a social planner and a transition-economy government that is under pressure to provide employment. In a mixed-oligopoly model, we find that when the SOE is cost inefficient relative to the private firm, the effects of employment burden on the optimal state shares are

Qunyan SUN; Anming ZHANG; Jie LI

2005-01-01

500

Welfare, Tax Burden and Fiscal Balance in Artificial Societies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan's social security system is facing a crisis by short-sighted policies to balance of the accounts in a financial crisis. However, such a balance of accounts does not necessarily bring remedy of financial difficulties. If it is possible to reduce the social security payments because the weak become independent, it is considered that short-sighted reforms cause a further financial crisis. This study explores how welfare and tax burden influence fiscal balance using multi-agent simulations. The results of simulation show that fiscal balance is improved by high-welfare than a cut in fiscal expenditures, and that welfare reducing is impossible unless the three relations of social configuration (market, obligatory, and communal relations) function in balance with each other.

Kikuchi, Toshiko