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Sample records for statement sewage effluent

  1. The dissipation of phosphorus in sewage and sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Collingwood, R W

    Of the 41 kt of phosphorus reaching the sewage works in England and Wales 15 kt is removed in sewage sludge and the remainder is disposed of to rivers. 60% of the sewage sludge is now used as fertilizer and this proportion will no doubt increase in the future. The total use of sewage sludge, however, represents only about 5% of the current annual usage of artificial phosphorus fertilizer. At present there is no general economic incentive to make better use of the phosphorus in effluents. Phosphorus removal is expensive--about 2--3 pence/m3. If all the sewage effluents in England and Wales were to be so treated the cost would be about 100--150 million pounds annually, that is about 50% of the present costs of sewage treatment. In certain cases, but rarely in the UK, phosphate is removed, not to conserve phosphorus but to minimize the problems it creates in the environment. The phosphorus removed has little value as fertilizer. Alternative methods of using the phosphorus in effluents by the production and harvesting of crops of algae or aquatic plants have so far proved uneconomic. However, these methods need to be reviewed periodically as they may in the future become economically more attractive, especially in warmer climates where plant growth can be maintained throughout the year. PMID:357121

  2. Land Application of Sewage Effluents and Sludges: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    This report contains 568 selected abstracts concerned with the land application of sewage effluents and sludges. The abstracts are arranged in chronological groupings of ten-year periods from the l940's to the mid-l970's. The report also includes an author index and a subject matter index to facilitate reference to specific abstracts or narrower…

  3. Virus movement in soil columns flooded with secondary sewage effluent.

    PubMed Central

    Lance, J C; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

    1976-01-01

    Secondary sewage effluent containing about 3 X 10(4) plaque-forming units of polio virus type 1 (LSc) per ml was passed through columns 250 cm in length packed with calcareous sand from an area in the Salt River bed used for ground-water recharge of secondary sewage effluent. Viruses were not detected in 1-ml samples extracted from the columns below the 160-cm level. However, viruses were detected in 5 of 43 100-ml samples of the column drainage water. Most of the viruses were adsorbed in the top 5 cm of soil. Virus removal was not affected by the infiltration rate, which varied between 15 and 55 cm/day. Flooding a column continuosly for 27 days with the sewage water virus mixture did not saturate the top few centimeters of soil with viruses and did not seem to affect virus movement. Flooding with deionized water caused virus desorption from the soil and increased their movement through the columns. Adding CaCl2 to the deionized water prevented most of the virus desorption. Adding a pulse of deionized water followed by sewage water started a virus front moving through the columns, but the viruses were readsorbed and none was detected in outflow samples. Drying the soil for 1 day between applying the virus and flooding with deionized water greatly reduced desorption, and drying for 5 days prevented desorption. Large reductions (99.99% or more) of virus would be expected after passage of secondary sewage effluent through 250 cm of the calcareous sand similar to that used in our laboratory columns unless heavy rains fell within 1 day after the application of sewage stopped. Such virus movement could be minimized by the proper management of flooding and drying cycles. PMID:185960

  4. Removal of viruses from sewage, effluents, and waters

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Gerald

    1973-01-01

    All sewage and water treatment processes remove or destroy viruses. Some treatment methods are better than others, but none is likely to remove all of the viruses present in sewage or in raw water. Primary settling of solids probably removes a great many of the viruses in sewage because viruses are largely associated with the solids. Long storage of effluents or water is destructive to viruses. Activated sludge is the best biological method for removing viruses from sewage. Trickling filters and oxidation ponds are erratic, the latter probably because of short-circuiting. Coagulation with metal ions is the most effective single treatment method for removing viruses from sewage and from raw waters, according to laboratory studies at least. Lime is the best coagulant for these purposes in the rapidly virucidal high pH range. Polyelectrolytes also can sediment viruses. Rapid filtration through clean sand does not remove viruses, but filtration of coagulated effluents does, probably because the layering floc itself adsorbs viruses. Clays and carbon adsorb viruses to some extent, but the process is not efficient. Ultimately, disinfection should help to produce virus-free waters for drinking and virus-free effluents for discharge into waters with which man may come into contact. Because disinfection is not a simple matter, disinfectants must be selected according to need. Effluents and waters containing solids can probably be disinfected only by heat or by penetrating radiation, waters discharged into streams should not be disinfected with anything that will injure or kill aquatic life (unless the toxic products can be neutralized), and drinking-waters should carry a disinfecting residue. PMID:4607010

  5. Effects of sewage effluents on water quality in tropical streams.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Nieves, Débora; McDowell, William H; Potter, Jody D; Martínez, Gustavo; Ortiz-Zayas, Jorge R

    2014-11-01

    Increased urbanization in many tropical regions has led to an increase in centralized treatment of sewage effluents. Research regarding the effects of these wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on the ecology of tropical streams is sparse, so we examined the effects of WWTPs on stream water quality on the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. Nutrient concentrations, discharge, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD), and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) at 254 nm were measured upstream from the WWTP effluent, at the WWTP effluent, and below the WWTP effluent. All parameters measured (except DO) were significantly affected by discharge of WWTP effluent to the stream. The values of SUVA at 254 nm were typically lower (<2.5 m mg L) in WWTP effluents than those measured upstream of the WWTP, suggesting that WWTP effluents are contributing labile carbon fractions to receiving streams, thus changing the chemical composition of dissolved organic carbon in downstream reaches. Effluents from WWTP contributed on average 24% to the stream flow at our tropical streams. More than 40% of the nutrient loads in receiving streams came from WWTP effluents, with the effects on NO-N and PO-P loads being the greatest. The effect of WWTPs on nutrient loads was significantly larger than the effect of flow due to the elevated nutrient concentrations in treated effluents. Our results demonstrate that inputs from WWTPs to streams contribute substantially to changes in water quality, potentially affecting downstream ecosystems. Our findings highlight the need to establish nutrient criteria for tropical streams to minimize degradation of downstream water quality of the receiving streams. PMID:25602222

  6. Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKinn, T.

    1985-05-01

    Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms)) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of one year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ day (23.6 dry tons/acre yr). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (27 dry tons/acre yr), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (22 dry tons/acre yr) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. N and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured im primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7% N and 0.94% P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8% N and 0.79% P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nurtrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N/ha yr and 321 to 387 kg P/ha yr, respectively.

  7. Microbial transformation of nitroaromatic compounds in sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Hallas, L E; Alexander, M

    1983-04-01

    The transformation of mono- and dinitroaromatic compounds was measured in sewage effluent maintained under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Most of the nitrobenzene, 3- and 4-nitrobenzoic acids, and 3- and 4-nitrotoluenes and much of the 1,2- and 1,3-dinitrobenzenes disappeared both in the presence and absence of oxygen. Under anaerobiosis, 2,6-dinitrotoluene and 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid disappeared slowly, but no loss was evident in 28 days in aerated sewage. Aromatic amines did not accumulate during the aerobic decomposition of the mononitro compounds. They did appear in nonsterile, but not in sterile, sewage incubated aerobically with the dinitro compounds and anaerobically with all the chemicals. Analysis by gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that aniline was formed from nitrobenzene, toluidine was formed from 3- and 4-nitrotoluenes, and aminobenzoic acid was formed from 3- and 4-nitrobenzoic acids under anaerobiosis, and that nitroaniline was formed from 1,2- and 1,3-dinitrobenzenes, aminonitrotoluene resulted from 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and aminonitrobenzoic acid was a product of 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid under both conditions. The isomeric forms of the metabolites were not established. Aniline, 4-toluidine, and 4-aminobenzoic acid added to sewage disappeared from aerated nonsterile, but not from sterile, sewage or sewage in the absence of oxygen. 2-Nitroaniline, 2-amino-3-nitrotoluene, and 2-amino-5-nitrobenzoic acid added to sewage persisted for at least 60 days in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Gas chromatographic and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses demonstrated that acetanilide and 2-methylquinoline were formed from aniline, 4-methylformanilide and 4-methylacetanilide were formed from 4-toluidine, 2-methylbenzimidazole was a product of 2-nitroaniline, and unidentified benzimidazoles were formed from 2-amino-3-nitrotoluene in the absence of oxygen, and that 2-nitroacetanilide and 2-methyl-6

  8. Microbial Transformation of Nitroaromatic Compounds in Sewage Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Hallas, Laurence E.; Alexander, Martin

    1983-01-01

    The transformation of mono- and dinitroaromatic compounds was measured in sewage effluent maintained under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Most of the nitrobenzene, 3- and 4-nitrobenzoic acids, and 3- and 4-nitrotoluenes and much of the 1,2- and 1,3-dinitrobenzenes disappeared both in the presence and absence of oxygen. Under anaerobiosis, 2,6-dinitrotoluene and 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid disappeared slowly, but no loss was evident in 28 days in aerated sewage. Aromatic amines did not accumulate during the aerobic decomposition of the mononitro compounds. They did appear in nonsterile, but not in sterile, sewage incubated aerobically with the dinitro compounds and anaerobically with all the chemicals. Analysis by gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that aniline was formed from nitrobenzene, toluidine was formed from 3- and 4-nitrotoluenes, and aminobenzoic acid was formed from 3- and 4-nitrobenzoic acids under anaerobiosis, and that nitroaniline was formed from 1,2- and 1,3-dinitrobenzenes, aminonitrotoluene resulted from 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and aminonitrobenzoic acid was a product of 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid under both conditions. The isomeric forms of the metabolites were not established. Aniline, 4-toluidine, and 4-aminobenzoic acid added to sewage disappeared from aerated nonsterile, but not from sterile, sewage or sewage in the absence of oxygen. 2-Nitroaniline, 2-amino-3-nitrotoluene, and 2-amino-5-nitrobenzoic acid added to sewage persisted for at least 60 days in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Gas chromatographic and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses demonstrated that acetanilide and 2-methylquinoline were formed from aniline, 4-methylformanilide and 4-methylacetanilide were formed from 4-toluidine, 2-methylbenzimidazole was a product of 2-nitroaniline, and unidentified benzimidazoles were formed from 2-amino-3-nitrotoluene in the absence of oxygen, and that 2-nitroacetanilide and 2-methyl-6

  9. Global hepatic gene expression in rainbow trout exposed to sewage effluents: a comparison of different sewage treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Cuklev, Filip; Gunnarsson, Lina; Cvijovic, Marija; Kristiansson, Erik; Rutgersson, Carolin; Björlenius, Berndt; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2012-06-15

    Effluents from sewage treatment plants contain a mixture of micropollutants with the potential of harming aquatic organisms. Thus, addition of advanced treatment techniques to complement existing conventional methods has been proposed. Some of the advanced techniques could, however, potentially produce additional compounds affecting exposed organisms by unknown modes of action. In the present study the aim was to improve our understanding of how exposure to different sewage effluents affects fish. This was achieved by explorative microarray and quantitative PCR analyses of hepatic gene expression, as well as relative organ sizes of rainbow trout exposed to different sewage effluents (conventionally treated, granular activated carbon, ozonation (5 or 15 mg/L), 5 mg/L ozone plus a moving bed biofilm reactor, or UV-light treatment in combination with hydrogen peroxide). Exposure to the conventionally treated effluent caused a significant increase in liver and heart somatic indexes, an effect removed by all other treatments. Genes connected to xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome p450 1A, were differentially expressed in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluents, though only effluent treatment with granular activated carbon or ozone at 15 mg/L completely removed this response. The mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 kDa was induced in all three groups exposed to ozone-treated effluents, suggesting some form of added stress in these fish. The induction of estrogen-responsive genes in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluent was effectively reduced by all investigated advanced treatment technologies, although the moving bed biofilm reactor was least efficient. Taken together, granular activated carbon showed the highest potential of reducing responses in fish induced by exposure to sewage effluents. PMID:22575374

  10. OCCURRENCE OF 'CRYPTOSPORIDIUM' OOCYSTS IN SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SELECTED SURFACE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An existing method for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water was modified to investigate oocyst prevalence in large volumes of water. Surface waters and sewage effluents were filtered, eluted from the filter, and concentrated using centrifugation. The resultant pellet...

  11. Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKim, T.

    1985-05-01

    Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of 1 year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (23.6 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (27 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (22 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. Nitrogen and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7 percent N and 0.94 percent P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8 percent N and 0.79 percent P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nutrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ and 321 to 387 kg P ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/, respectively.

  12. Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and adenoviruses in Finnish bathing waters and purified sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria; Pitkänen, Tarja; Siljanen, Henri M P; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Torvinen, Eila; Siitonen, Anja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2013-03-01

    A total of 50 Finnish bathing water samples and 34 sewage effluent samples originating from 17 locations were studied in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Campylobacter were present in 58% and adenoviruses in 12% of all bathing water samples; 53% of all sewage effluent samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 59% for adenoviruses. C. jejuni was the most common Campylobacter species found and human adenovirus serotype 41 was the most common identified adenovirus type. Bathing water temperature displayed a significant negative relationship with the occurrence of Campylobacter. One location had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of C. coli isolates in the bathing water and in sewage effluent, suggesting that sewage effluent was the source of C. coli at this bathing site. The counts of faecal indicator bacteria were not able to predict the presence of Campylobacter spp. or adenoviruses in the bathing waters. Thus the observed common presence of these pathogens in Finnish sewage effluents and bathing waters may represent a public health risk. The low water temperature in Finland may enhance the prevalence of Campylobacter in bathing waters. More attention needs to be paid to minimizing the concentrations of intestinal pathogens in bathing waters. PMID:23428555

  13. The economics of the disposal of sewage and trade effluents*

    PubMed Central

    Townend, C. B.

    1959-01-01

    In this review of the economics of the disposal of sewage and trade wastes, the author touches on all aspects of the subject, from the annual costs of sewerage and sewage-disposal services in England and Wales, and what he terms the “uneconomics” of pollution of natural waters, to the financing of capital expenditure on the construction of new sewage works and equipment and on alterations to existing works. He discusses the purposes and relative costs of the various processes in the treatment of domestic sewage and outlines the special problems involved in the disposal of trade wastes. PMID:13839093

  14. Identification of persisten anionic surfactant-derived chemicals in sewage effluent and groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, J.A.; Leenheer, J.A.; Thorn, K.A.; Barber, L.B., II; Rostad, C.; Macalady, D.L.; Daniel, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Preparative isolation and fractionation procedures coupled with spectrometric analyses were used to identify surfactant-derived contaminants in sewage effluent and sewage-contaminated groundwater from a site located on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Anionic surfactants and their biodegradation intermediates were isolated from field samples by ion exchange and fractionated by solvent extraction and adsorption chromatography. Fractions were analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Carboxylated residues of alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants were detected in sewage effluent and contaminated groundwater. Linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LAS) were identified in sewage effluent and groundwater. Groundwater LAS composition suggested preferential removal of select isomers and homologs due to processes of biodegradation and partitioning. Tetralin and indane sulfonates (DATS), alicyclic analogs of LAS, were also identified in field samples. Although DATS are a minor portion of LAS formulations, equivalent concentrations of LAS and DATS in groundwater suggested persistence of alicyclic contaminant structures over those of linear structure. Sulfophenyl-carboxylated (SPC) LAS biodegradation intermediates were determined in sewage effluent and groundwater. Homolog distributions suggested that SPC containing 3-10 alkyl-chain carbons persist during infiltration and groundwater transport. Surfactant-derived residues detected in well F300-50 groundwater have a minimum residence time in the range of 2.7-4.6 yr. LAS detected in groundwater at 500 m from infiltration has been stable over an estimated 50-500 half lives.

  15. Students as Scientists: A Study of the Effects of Sewage Plant Effluent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, James W.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1977, six different classes of Ashland High School (Ohio) biology students have been monitoring a local river for the presence of sewage treatment plant effluent. Several project results, physicochemical parameters, and data on biota collected at two stations are presented. (JN)

  16. Patterns of estrogen occurrence in sewage treatment effluent (STPE) from a university campus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to evaluate the extent to which sewage treatment plant effluent (STPE) irrigation reduces or eliminates the entrance of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) into groundwater, studies on the fate and transport of selected EDCs in the Penn State spray-irrigation system are on-going. This stu...

  17. Bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent using man-made biofilms: effects of some variables.

    PubMed

    Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

    2014-11-01

    Biofilm samples were established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for a month. In batch cultures, such biofilms were effective in removing crude oil, pure n-hexadecane, and pure phenanthrene contaminating sewage effluent. The amounts of the removed hydrocarbons increased with increasing biofilm surface area exposed to the effluent. On the other hand, addition of the reducing agent thioglycollate dramatically inhibited the hydrocarbon bioremediation potential of the biofilms. The same biofilm samples removed contaminating hydrocarbons effectively in three successive batch bioremediation cycles but started to become less effective in the cycles thereafter, apparently due to mechanical biofilm loss during successive transfers. As major hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, the biofilms harbored species belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Zavarzinia, Mycobacterium, Microbacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Gordonia, Bosea, Sphingobium, Brachybacterium, and others. The nitrogen fixer Azospirillum brasilense and the microalga Ochromonas distigma were also present; they seemed to enrich the biofilms, with nitrogenous compounds and molecular oxygen, respectively, which are known to enhance microbiological hydrocarbon degradation. It was concluded that man-made biofilms based upon sewage microflora are promising tools for bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent. PMID:25146193

  18. Treated sewage effluent (water) potential to be used for horticultural production in Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emongor, V. E.; Ramolemana, G. M.

    Botswana being semi-arid and arid country, the provision of drinking water and water for agricultural production is becoming increasingly scarce and expensive. Measures that can augment the available sources of water or measures that can reduce the demand on potable water should be given serious consideration. Horticulturists have incorporated new technology into many of their production programs, which has enabled them to grow more horticultural crops with less water; however, more effort is needed. Techniques such as drip irrigation, sensors, growing plants with low water requirements, timing and scheduling of irrigation to the growth needs of the plant, mulching, and establishing a minimum water quality standard for horticultural crops must be used to stretch agricultural water supplies. Recycling agricultural water and using treated municipal sewage effluent is a viable option for increasing horticultures’ future water supply in Botswana. Agriculture wastewater and sewage effluents often contain significant quantities of heavy metals and other substances that may be toxic to people but beneficial to horticultural crops. However, before sewage effluent can be used for commercial production of vegetables and fruits, research must be undertaken to determine whether there is accumulation of heavy metals and faecal coliforms in the edible portion of the horticultural produce which may be detrimental to human health 15-20 years later. Research must be undertaken to assess the impact of sewage effluent on soil physical, chemical properties and environment after continued use.

  19. Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant δ 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The δ 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant

  20. Treatment of anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge using soilless cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchimura, Koki; Sago, Yuki; Kamahara, Hirotsugu; Atsuta, Yoichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2014-02-01

    Soilless cultivation was carried out using anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge as liquid fertilizer, with a preparation which cultures microorganisms in nutrient solution. As a result, ammonium ions contained in the effluent were nitrified into nitrate ions by the microorganisms. And then, Japanese mustard spinach (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was cultivated by soilless cultivation system. The plants were grown well using microbial nutrient solution, which similar to the plants using conventional inorganic nutrient solution. In contrast, the plants were grown poorly using the effluent as liquid fertilizer without microorganisms.

  1. Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents.

    PubMed

    Ajayan, K V; Selvaraju, M; Thirugnanamoorthy, K

    2011-08-15

    Microalgae exhibit a number of heavy metal uptake process by different metabolism. In this study, the ability of microalgae for removal of heavy metal from wastewater was studied. Growth and biochemical contents of microalgae were determined by spectrophotometer. Heavy metal analysis of wastewater effluents were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after treatment at laboratory scale. The growth of Scenedesmus bijuga and Oscillatoria quadripunctulata in sewage wastewater was higher than those grown in synthetic medium. Whereas, the growth of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata in sterilized petrochemical effluents was slightly lower than that grown in the standard synthetic medium. The chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein content of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized sewage wastewater were higher than those grown in the standard medium. Similarly S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized petrochemical effluents showed lower contents of pigments and protein than those grown in sewage and synthetic medium. Heavy metals copper, cobalt, lead and zinc were removed by 37-50, 20.3-33.3, 34.6-100 and 32.1-100%, respectively from sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluent using Ocillatoria culture. The metal absorption by S. bijuga were (Cu, Co, Pb, Zn) 60-50, 29.6-66, 15.4-25 and 42.9-50%, respectively from sewage and petrochemical effluents. Both species showed high level of heavy metal removal efficiency and metal sorption efficiency of both microalgae depended on the type of biosorbent, the physiological status of the cells, availability of heavy metal, concentration of heavy metal and chemical composition of wastewater. PMID:22545355

  2. Sewage effluent as a source of Campylobacter sp. in a surface water catchment.

    PubMed

    Rechenburg, Andrea; Kistemann, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Campylobacter sp. can regularly be found in wastewater-affected surface waters. The occurrence of Campylobacter sp. in rivers, treated sewage and combined sewer overflows was analysed in a catchment with sparse annual precipitation. During regular treatment the reduction efficacy for Campylobacter sp. varies between 1.75 and 3.5 log(10). However, Campylobacter sp. concentrations do not increase downstream in the river as more sewage treatment plants discharge into it. During rain events, the Campylobacter sp. concentration in the river upstream of any sewage plant rises and in the sewer overflow water it is more than 150-fold higher than the average concentration in the river water at the river mouth. The highest Campylobacter sp. loads and the highest risk of infection occur during summertime after heavy rainfall. Risk management strategies should focus on problems regarding water scarcity, reuse of sewage effluent and the impact of heavy rain events. PMID:20183194

  3. Microalgae as bioabsorbents for treating mixture of electroplating and sewage effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.S.; Chow, H.; Wong, M.H. )

    1991-09-01

    The effectiveness of copper and nickel uptake by microalgae grown in the mixture of electroplating effluent and sewage was studied. The results showed that a high percentage of copper removal (68.1%-88.2%) was achieved by Chlorella pyrenoidosa (strain No. 26) reared in the mixture of 90% electroplating effluent and 10% raw sewage during the first 3 days despite the fact that cell growth was inhibited. Similar results were also obtained by using Chlorella HKBC-C3, another species collected from one of the heavy metal polluted sites in Hong Kong, isolated and cultured in the Biology Department. There was no significant difference (P greater than 0.05) in the removal of copper and nickel from the effluent between these 2 algal species. However, it was noted that removal of nickel from the mixture by the two species were comparatively lower (less than 20%) than the removal of copper (greater than 68%).

  4. SOIL FILTRATION OF SEWAGE EFFLUENT OF A RURAL AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The treatment performance of irrigation using primary lagoon treated municipal sewage is compared to normal stream or ditch water irrigation when applied to mountain meadows and crops in a high altitude climate during summer months. The two irrigation waters are applied at differ...

  5. Water quality of treated sewage effluent in a rural area of the upper Thames Basin, southern England, and the impacts of such effluents on riverine phosphorus concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P.; Neal, Margaret; Love, Alison J.; Hill, Linda; Wickham, Heather

    2005-03-01

    Data for water quality surveys of effluent from sewage treatment works (STWs) in the rural Kennet/Dun sub-catchments of the upper Thames Basin are presented to characterize treated sewage effluent. Water quality determinand relationships with boron (B) are presented to provide information that can be used, with stream water quality information, to assess the relative inputs of treated sewage effluent pollutants to streams in rural areas. The approach is based on three points: (1) information on sewage effluent and agricultural pollution is of concern in relation to the management of UK lowland river systems in rural environments; (2) the lack of detailed information on sewage runoff chemistry and flow means that direct assessment of sewage effluent pollution to surface waters cannot be gauged; (3) B provides a clear chemically conservative marker of sewage sources in surface and ground waters. Three types of relationship to B were observed. Firstly, determinands such as Na, Cl, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and NO 3 showed a positive linear relationship with B and there is a near zero intercept; these components are essentially derived from sewage sources. Secondly, Mg and SO 4 show linear relationships with B, but there is a non-zero intercept; these components have both a sewage component and a background component linked to water supplies from surface and groundwater sources. Thirdly, there are determinands that show no relationship with boron. In this study, an erratic pattern was observed for ammonium. This probably reflects the variable removal of this pollutant from sewage sources. Near constant concentrations of components such as Ca and alkalinity, which come from the background aquifer sources, were also found. SRP and B relationships for rivers in the upper Thames Basin showed the potential importance of (a) removal processes in the stream/groundwater for SRP derived from STW effluent inputs and (b) tertiary P stripping at the STWs on river water SRP

  6. Identification of estrogenic activity change in sewage, industrial and livestock effluents by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byeong-Yong; Kang, Sung-Wook; Yoo, Jisu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Bae, Paek-Hyun; Jung, Jinho

    2012-11-01

    In this study, reduction of estrogenic activity in three different types of effluents from sewage, industrial and livestock wastewater treatment plants by gamma-irradiation was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid assay. After gamma-ray treatment at a dose of 10 kGy, estrogenic activities of sewage, industrial and livestock effluents decreased from 4.4 to 3.0, 1.5 to 1.0 and 16 to 9.9 ng-EEQ L-1, respectively. The substantial reduction of estrogenic activity in livestock effluent was attributable to the degradation of 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Although bisphenol A (BPA) was found at the highest concentration in all effluents, its contribution to the estrogenic activity was not significant due to its low relative estrogenic potency. Meanwhile, the calculated estrogenic activity based on concentrations of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA in the effluents significantly differed from the measured ones. Overestimation may have resulted by dissolved organic matters in effluents inhibiting the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA, whereas underestimation was likely due to estrogenic by-products generated by gamma-irradiation.

  7. Impacts of sewage effluent on tree survival, water quality and nutrient removal in coastal plain swamps

    SciTech Connect

    Kuenzler, E.J.

    1987-09-01

    An investigation was conducted of the impacts of sprayed municipal sewage on swamp tree survival and the effects of the swamp system on nutrient concentrations below the outfalls on two streams on the coastal plain of North Carolina. Effluent was discharged to one swamp stream by aerial spraying and to the other stream by way of a small ditch. Ninety-eight percent of the trees struck directly by the spray were dead within 18 months of the date spraying began. Both swamp systems removed sufficient quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus within a few kilometers to account for virtually all of the sewage nutrient load to the swamps.

  8. Oxidative stress responses in longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) exposed to pulp and paper mill and municipal sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Ken D; McMaster, Mark E; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2004-04-28

    While recent evidence indicates that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and associated oxidative damage are frequently observed in fish populations with exposure to pulp and paper mill effluents, the potential for ROS generation from municipal sewage effluents has not been addressed. This study investigates the utility of measures of oxidative stress in delineating the effects of both pulp and paper mill and municipal sewage discharges. Longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) were collected below three pulp and paper mill and two municipal sewage effluent discharges over a 3-year period within the Wapiti and Athabasca River systems in northern Alberta. Biochemical responses in longnose sucker varied between the two rivers systems, with more pronounced changes occurring within the Wapiti River. Of the suite of biochemical parameters examined, fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (FAO) activity was the most sensitive indicator of pulp and paper mill exposure, but was only infrequently induced with exposure to municipal sewage effluent. Hepatic and gonadal 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and hepatic free iron were less consistently elevated with exposure to pulp and paper mill effluent than FAO activity, and were also only infrequently altered with sewage effluent exposure. Hepatic ascorbic acid, liver somatic index, and condition factor were consistently altered with exposure to both sewage and pulp and paper mill effluents. While specific biochemical and organismal responses varied with effluents and time, the collective suite of oxidative stress endpoints proved to be useful tools in identifying relative influences of municipal sewage and pulp and paper mill effluent on fish populations in adjacent receiving waters. PMID:15063075

  9. Food webs of two intermittently open estuaries receiving 15N-enriched sewage effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadwen, Wade L.; Arthington, Angela H.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures were used to assess the response of food webs to sewage effluent discharged into two small intermittently open estuaries in northern New South Wales, Australia. One of these systems, Tallows Creek, has a history of direct sewage inputs, whilst the other, Belongil Creek, receives wastewater via an extensive wetland treatment system. The food webs of both systems were driven by algal sources of carbon, reflecting high autotrophic productivity in response to the nutrients entering the system from sewage effluent. All aquatic biota collected from Tallows Creek had significantly enriched δ15N signatures relative to their conspecifics from Belongil Creek, indicating that sewage nitrogen had been assimilated and transferred throughout the Tallows Creek food web. These δ15N values were higher than those reported from studies in permanently open estuaries receiving sewage effluent. We suggest that these enriched signatures and the transfer of nitrogen throughout the entire food web reflect differences in hydrology and associated nitrogen cycling processes between permanently open and intermittently open estuaries. Although all organisms in Tallows Creek were generally 15N-enriched, isotopically light (less 15N-enriched) individuals of estuary perchlet ( Ambassis marianus) and sea mullet ( Mugil cephalus) were also collected. These individuals were most likely recent immigrants into Tallows Creek, as this system had only recently been opened to the ocean. This isotopic discrimination between resident (enriched) and immigrant (significantly less enriched) individuals can provide information on fish movement patterns and the role of heavily polluted intermittently open estuaries in supporting commercially and recreationally valuable estuarine species.

  10. Chloride/bromide and chloride/fluoride ratios of domestic sewage effluents and associated contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Vengosh, A.; Pankratov, I.

    1998-09-01

    To establish geochemical tools for tracing the origin of ground water contamination, the authors examined the variations of Cl/Br and Cl/F (weight) ratios in (1) domestic waste water from the Dan Region Sewage Reclamation Project and from reservoirs in the central coast of Israel; (2) associated contaminated ground water; and (3) pristine ground water from the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel. The data show that supply water, anthropogenic NaCl and fluoridation control the Cl/Br and Cl/F ratios of domestic waste water, and conventional sewage treatment does not affect the anthropogenic inorganic signals. The Cl/Br ratios of ground water contaminated with sewage effluent reflect conservative mixing proportions of sewage and regional ground water components. Sensitivity tests demonstrate that it is possible to detect and distinguish sewage contamination from marine ratios after a sewage contribution of 5 to 15% is mixed with regional ground water. Mixing with Br-enriched fresh water however, would reduce this sensitivity. Since the high Cl/Br signal of sewage effluents is distinguishable from other anthropogenic sources with low Cl/Br ratios and from natural contamination sources, Cl/Br ratios can therefore be a useful inorganic tracer for identification of the origin of contaminated ground water. The Cl/F ratios of sewage-contaminated ground water were higher than those in the original sewage effluent, which suggests retention of fluoride into the aquifer solid phase.

  11. Aqueous stability of gadolinium in surface waters receiving sewage treatment plant effluent Boulder Creek, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Taylor, H.E.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Barber, L.B.

    2005-01-01

    In many surface waters, sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent is a substantial source of both regulated and unregulated contaminants, including a suite of complex organic compounds derived from household chemicals, pharmaceutical, and industrial and medical byproducts. In addition, STP effluents in some urban areas have also been shown to have a positive gadolinium (Gd) anomaly in the rare earth element (REE) pattern, with the Gd derived from its use in medical facilities. REE concentrations are relatively easy to measure compared to many organic wastewater compounds and may provide a more widely utilized tracer of STP effluents. To evaluate whether sewage treatment plant-associated Gd is a useful tracer of treatment plant effluent, an investigation of the occurrence, fate, and transport of rare earth elements was undertaken. The rare earth element patterns of four of five STP effluents sampled display positive Gd anomalies. The one site that did not have a Gd anomaly serves a small community, population 1200, with no medical facilities. Biosolids from a large metropolitan STP are not enriched in Gd even though the effluent is, suggesting that a substantial fraction of Gd remains in the aqueous phase through routine treatment plant operation. To evaluate whether STP-derived Gd persists in the fluvial environment, a 14-km study reach downstream of an STP was sampled. Gadolinium anomalies were present at all five downstream sites, but the magnitude of the anomaly decreased. Effluent from STPs is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic constituents, and to better understand the chemical interactions and their effect on REEs, the aqueous speciation was modeled using comprehensive chemical analyses of water samples collected downstream of STP input. These calculations suggest that the REEs will likely remain dissolved because phosphate and carbonate complexes dominate over free REE ions. This study supports the application of Gd anomalies as a useful tracer of urban

  12. Microalgae population dynamics in photobioreactors with secondary sewage effluent as culture medium

    PubMed Central

    Marchello, Adriano E.; Lombardi, Ana T.; Dellamano-Oliveira, Maria José; de Souza, Clovis W.O.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus present in sewage can be used for microalgae growth, possibiliting cost reduction in the production of microalgae at the same time that it decreases the eutrophication potential of the effluent. This research aimed at monitoring the native community of microalgae and coliform bacteria in a secondary effluent from anaerobic municipal sewage treatment. Two treatments (aerated and non-aerated) were performed to grow microalgae under semi-controlled conditions in semi-closed photobioreactors in a greenhouse. The results showed no significant pH and coliforms (total and Escherichia coli ) variation between treatments. Nutrient concentrations were reduced supporting microalgae growth up to 10 7 cells.mL −1 independent of aeration. Exponential growth was obtained from the first day for the non-aerated, but a 5 day lag phase of growth was obtained for the aerated. Chlorella vulgaris was the dominant microalgae (99.9%) in both treatments. In the aerated, 5 algae classes were detected (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Euglenophyceae), with 12 taxa, whereas in the non-aerated, 2 classes were identified (Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae), with 5 taxa. We concluded that effluent is viable for microalgae growth, especially Chlorella vulgaris, at the same time that the eutrophication potential and coliforms are decreased, contributing for better quality of the final effluent. PMID:26221091

  13. Growth, chemical composition and soil properties of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings irrigated with sewage effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hayssam M.; Khamis, Mohamed H.; Hassan, Fatma A.

    2012-06-01

    This study was carried out at a greenhouse of Sabahia Horticulture Research Station, Alexandria, Egypt, to study the effect of sewage effluent on the growth and chemical composition of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings as well as on soil properties for three stages. The irrigation treatments were primary-treated wastewater and secondary-treated wastewater, in addition to tap water as control. Therefore, the treated wastewater was taken from oxidation ponds of New Borg El-Arab City. Results of these study revealed that the primary effluent treatment explored the highest significant values for vegetative growth and biomass, compared to the other treatments. In addition, the higher significant concentration and uptake of chemical composition in different plant parts were obtained from the primary effluent treatment during the three stages of irrigation. It was found that the concentration of heavy metals in either plant or soil was below as compared to the world-recommended levels. These findings suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating T. speciosa seedlings grown in calcareous soil was beneficial for the improvement of soil properties and production of timber trees, and also important for the safe manner of disposal of wastewater.

  14. Microalgae population dynamics in photobioreactors with secondary sewage effluent as culture medium.

    PubMed

    Marchello, Adriano E; Lombardi, Ana T; Dellamano-Oliveira, Maria José; de Souza, Clovis W O

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus present in sewage can be used for microalgae growth, possibiliting cost reduction in the production of microalgae at the same time that it decreases the eutrophication potential of the effluent. This research aimed at monitoring the native community of microalgae and coliform bacteria in a secondary effluent from anaerobic municipal sewage treatment. Two treatments (aerated and non-aerated) were performed to grow microalgae under semi-controlled conditions in semi-closed photobioreactors in a greenhouse. The results showed no significant pH and coliforms (total and Escherichia coli ) variation between treatments. Nutrient concentrations were reduced supporting microalgae growth up to 10 (7) cells.mL (-1) independent of aeration. Exponential growth was obtained from the first day for the non-aerated, but a 5 day lag phase of growth was obtained for the aerated. Chlorella vulgaris was the dominant microalgae (99.9%) in both treatments. In the aerated, 5 algae classes were detected (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Euglenophyceae), with 12 taxa, whereas in the non-aerated, 2 classes were identified (Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae), with 5 taxa. We concluded that effluent is viable for microalgae growth, especially Chlorella vulgaris, at the same time that the eutrophication potential and coliforms are decreased, contributing for better quality of the final effluent. PMID:26221091

  15. Identification of a new N-nitrosodimethylamine precursor in sewage containing industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Ohkubo, Keiko; Iwamoto, Takuji; Tanaka, Yasuo; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Echigo, Shinya; Akiba, Michihiro

    2014-10-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potential human carcinogen, is known to be a disinfection byproduct of chloramination and ozonation. NDMA is formed during ozonation at water purification plants in the Yodo River basin, a major drinking water source in western Japan. An NDMA precursor, 1,1,5,5-tetramethylcarbohydrazide (TMCH) was identified in sewage containing industrial effluents via ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The mean of the NDMA molar formation yield of TMCH upon ozonation in four water matrices was 140%. TMCH removal was low during biological treatment processes at a sewage treatment plant. The mean TMCH contribution to total NDMA precursors upon ozonation of the primary, secondary, and final effluents of the sewage treatment plant in January and February of 2014 was 43-72%, 51-72%, and 42-60%, respectively, while the contributions of 4,4'-hexamethylenebis(1,1-dimethylsemicarbazide) and 1,1,1',1'-tetramethyl-4,4'-(methylene-di-p-phenylene)disemicarbazide, two other known NDMA precursors, were limited to 0.6% and 6.9%, respectively. Thus, TMCH was identified as the primary precursor yielding NDMA upon ozonation in the Yodo River basin. PMID:25184404

  16. ANALYSIS ON EFFLUENT WATER QUALITY AND ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION AFTER INTRODUCING ADVANCED SEWAGE TREATMENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiojiri, Yasuo; Maekawa, Shunich

    We analyze effluent water quality and electricity consumption after in troducing advanced treatment in sewage treatment plant. We define 'advanced treatment ratio' as volume of treated water through advanced treatment processes divided by total volume of treated water in plant. Advanced treatment ratio represents degree of introducing advanced treatment. We build two types of equation. One represents relation between effluent water quality and advanced treatment ratio, the other between electricity consumption and advanced treatment ratio. Each equation is fitted by least squares on 808 samples: 8 fiscal years operation data of 101 plants working in Kanagawa, Tokyo, Saitama and Chiba areas, and coefficient of advanced treatment ratio is estimated. The result is as follows. (1) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at nitrogen removal, T-N in effluent water decreases by 51.3% and electricity consum ption increases by 52.2%. (2) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at phosphorus removal, T-P in effluent water decreases by 27.8%. Using the above result, we try prioritizing 71 plants in Tokyo Bay watershed about raising advanced treatment ratio, so that, in total, pollutant in effluent water decreases with minimized increase of electricity consumption.

  17. Usage of sewage effluent in irrigation of some woody tree seedlings. Part 3: Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hayssam M; El-Mahrouk, El-Sayed M; Hassan, Fatma A; El-Tarawy, Mohamed A

    2011-04-01

    A pot experiment was investigated to study the effect of sewage irrigation treatments (primary and secondary effluents) compared with tap water on the growth and chemical constituents of mahogany seedlings (Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.) as well as soil chemical properties. The experiment was conducted at a greenhouse in the nursery of Timber Trees Research Department of Sabahia, Horticultural Research Station in Alexandria, Egypt, from June 2003 to December 2004 for three irrigation periods (6, 12 and 18 months). The sewage effluent waters were taken from oxidation ponds located in New Borg EL-Arab city and used directly for irrigation. The primary effluent treatment was superior than other treatments in improving the growth parameters (plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, leaves number, fresh and dry weights of leaves, shoots and roots and shoot/root ratio) and showed the highest concentration and total uptake of N, P, K, Cd, Ni, Pb and Fe in plant parts, followed by secondary effluent then tap water. The data revealed that soil salinity in terms of electrical conductivity of saturated paste (EC), CaCO3%, organic matter% and soluble anions and cations were influenced significantly by primary or secondary effluent treatment. The data also showed that the use of sewage effluent for irrigation increased N, P, K and DTPA-extractable-heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of sewage effluent on growth parameters and elements content in plant parts and treated soil were more pronounced as water treatments were used for long period. The results suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating mahogany trees grown on calcareous sandy loam soil was an important agriculture practice for improving soil properties, increasing fuel and timber production, and is an economic and safe way to dispose wastewaters. PMID:23961125

  18. Soil and stream-water impacts of sewage effluent irrigation onto steeply sloping land

    SciTech Connect

    Speir, T.W.; Schaik, A.P. van; Kettles, H.A.; Vincent, K.W.; Campbell, D.J.

    1999-08-01

    In a pilot study, the authors investigated how irrigation of secondary sewage effluent onto steeply sloping land affected soil physical, chemical, and biochemical properties, the composition of soil- and surface-waters and the vegetation of the site. The 3.36-ha site received up to 44 mm effluent/wk for 65 wk. Irrigation significantly improved total- and Olsen-P status of the soils and greatly enhanced nitrification potential. Respiration increased with increasing soil water content, but microbial biomass was not greatly affected by irrigation. Soil phosphatase activity decreased with increasing P fertility. Soil physical properties were not affected by effluent and hydraulic conductivities were sufficient to conduct water into and through the soil profiles. Soil- and surface-water NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations increased markedly, especially in the second half of the trial when soil nitrification rates were also high. However, the streamwater NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations remained well below the drinking water limit concentration of 11.3 g m{sup {minus}3}. In contrast, streamwater NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}-P concentrations remained low and results indicated that concentrations of PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}-P in river water, resulting from a full-scale irrigation scheme, would not exceed the target limit level of 0.0056 g m{sup {minus}3}. Irrigation accelerated natural successional changes in the vegetation, with a decline in undesirable fire-prone and shrubby species and an increase in native trees and tree ferns. These results demonstrated that, in the short term at least, a carefully designed and implemented irrigation scheme on steepland could renovate secondary sewage effluent, without adversely affecting soil properties and surface water quality.

  19. Pharmaceuticals in on-site sewage effluent and ground water, Western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godfrey, E.; Woessner, W.W.; Benotti, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Human use of pharmaceuticals results in the excretion and disposal of compounds that become part of municipal and domestic waste streams. On-site waste water disposal and leaking city sewer systems can provide avenues for the migration of effluent to the underlying aquifers. This research assessed the occurrence and persistence of 22 target pharmaceuticals in septic tank effluent and two shallow, coarse-grained aquifers in western Montana. Twelve compounds (acetaminophen, caffeine, codeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, erythromycin-18, nicotine, paraxanthine, ranitidine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and warfarin) were detected in a high school septic tank effluent. Three of the 12 compounds, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, and nicotine, were detected in the underlying sand and gravel aquifer after effluent percolation through a 2.0-m thick sand vadose zone. Sampling of a second sand, gravel, and cobble dominated unconfined aquifer, partially overlain by septic systems and a city sewer system, revealed the presence of caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, nicotine, and trimethoprim. The presence of carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole in these aquifers appears to correlate with local usage based on a reported monthly prescription volume. This work highlights the need for expanding geochemical investigations of sewage waste impacted ground water systems to include sampling for selected pharmaceuticals. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  20. Detection of Peramivir and Laninamivir, New Anti-Influenza Drugs, in Sewage Effluent and River Waters in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Takashi; Ishiuchi, Hirotaka; Inoyama, Tomomi; Teranishi, Yusuke; Yamaoka, Misato; Sato, Takaji; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Mino, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report of the detection of two new anti-influenza drugs, peramivir (PER) and laninamivir (LAN), in Japanese sewage effluent and river waters. Over about 1 year from October 2013 to July 2014, including the influenza prevalence season in January and February 2014, we monitored for five anti-influenza drugs—oseltamivir (OS), oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), zanamivir (ZAN), PER, and LAN—in river waters and in sewage effluent flowing into urban rivers of the Yodo River system in Japan. The dynamic profiles of these anti-influenza drugs were synchronized well with that of the numbers of influenza patients treated with the drugs. The highest levels in sewage effluents and river waters were, respectively, 82 and 41 ng/L (OS), 347 and 125 ng/L (OC), 110 and 35 ng/L (ZAN), 64 and 11 ng/L (PER), and 21 and 9 ng/L (LAN). However, application of ozone treatment before discharge from sewage treatment plants was effective in reducing the levels of these anti-influenza drugs in effluent. The effectiveness of the ozone treatment and the drug dependent difference in susceptibility against ozone were further evidenced by ozonation of a STP effluent in a batch reactor. These findings should help to promote further environmental risk assessment of the generation of drug-resistant influenza viruses in aquatic environments. PMID:26110817

  1. Detection of peramivir and laninamivir, new anti-influenza drugs, in sewage effluent and river waters in Japan.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Takashi; Ishiuchi, Hirotaka; Inoyama, Tomomi; Teranishi, Yusuke; Yamaoka, Misato; Sato, Takaji; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Mino, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report of the detection of two new anti-influenza drugs, peramivir (PER) and laninamivir (LAN), in Japanese sewage effluent and river waters. Over about 1 year from October 2013 to July 2014, including the influenza prevalence season in January and February 2014, we monitored for five anti-influenza drugs-oseltamivir (OS), oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), zanamivir (ZAN), PER, and LAN-in river waters and in sewage effluent flowing into urban rivers of the Yodo River system in Japan. The dynamic profiles of these anti-influenza drugs were synchronized well with that of the numbers of influenza patients treated with the drugs. The highest levels in sewage effluents and river waters were, respectively, 82 and 41 ng/L (OS), 347 and 125 ng/L (OC), 110 and 35 ng/L (ZAN), 64 and 11 ng/L (PER), and 21 and 9 ng/L (LAN). However, application of ozone treatment before discharge from sewage treatment plants was effective in reducing the levels of these anti-influenza drugs in effluent. The effectiveness of the ozone treatment and the drug dependent difference in susceptibility against ozone were further evidenced by ozonation of a STP effluent in a batch reactor. These findings should help to promote further environmental risk assessment of the generation of drug-resistant influenza viruses in aquatic environments. PMID:26110817

  2. Detection of glucocorticoid receptor agonists in effluents from sewage treatment plants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Go; Sato, Kentaro; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takigami, Hidetaka; Brouwer, Abraham; Nakayama, Kei

    2015-09-15

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as anti-inflammatory drugs. Our previous study demonstrated that several GCs such as cortisol and dexamethasone (Dex) were frequently detected in effluents collected from Japanese sewage treatment plants (STPs) in 2012. In this study, we used the GC-Responsive Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (GR-CALUX) assay to elucidate GC receptor (GR) agonistic activities of ten pure synthetic GCs and selected STP effluents in Japan for assessment of the risks associated with the presence of GR agonists. The tested GCs demonstrated dose-dependent agonistic effects in the GR-CALUX assay and their EC50 values were calculated for estimation of relative potencies (REPs) compared to Dex. The GR agonistic potency was in the rank of: clobetasol propionate > clobetasone butyrate > betamethasone 17-valerate > difluprednate > betamethasone 17,21-dipropionate > Dex > betamethasone > 6α-methylprednisolone > prednisolone > cortisol. The GR agonistic activity in STP effluents as measured in Dex-equivalent (Dex-EQ) activities ranged from < 3.0-78 ng L(-1) (median: 29 ng L(-1), n = 50). To evaluate the contribution of the target GCs, theoretical Dex-EQs were calculated by multiplying the concentrations of each GC by its respective REP. Our calculation of Dex-EQ contribution for individual GR agonists indicated that the well-known GCs cortisol and Dex should not be given priority for subsequent in vivo testing, monitoring and removal experiments, but rather the highly potent synthetic GCs clobetasol propionate and betamethasone 17-valerate (REP = 28 and 3.1) as well as other unidentified compounds are important GR agonists in STP effluents in Japan. PMID:25965047

  3. Integrated Biomarker Responses of Effluents from Municipal Sewage Treatment Works in Goldfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, G. H.; Xia, J.; Zhang, H. Z.; Wang, C.

    2010-11-01

    The organic toxicants were extracted from the effluents from municipal sewage treatment works (STWs) in Nanjing (Chengbei, Suojincun and Jiangxinzhou STWs) by using solid phase extraction. AChE, GST, EROD, GPx and Na+/K+-ATPase activities in goldfish (Carassius auratus) were determmed after exposure of the extracted components. The extracts of water samples from the three STWs induced AChE, GST, EROD and Na+/K+-ATPase activities. The responses of enzymatic activities were mostly significant for those exposures of intermediate polar components, weakly polar components and/or nonpolar hexane extracts. Integrated biomarker response (IBR) index were calculated and used to evaluate an integrated impact of organic toxicants from different sampling sites. The order of negative biological effects of the three STWs was Jiangxinzhou>Chengbei>Suojincun.

  4. Assessment of reproductive biomarkers in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from sewage effluent recipients.

    PubMed

    Björkblom, Carina; Mustamäki, Noora; Olsson, Per-Erik; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Wiklund, Tom

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of endocrine disruption close to sewage treatment plant effluent discharges along the Finnish Baltic Sea coast using a set of reproductive biomarkers present in adult three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Possible variation and sensitivity of the biomarkers during an entire reproductive period were also examined. The analysis of vitellogenin (VTG) for estrogenic activity and spiggin for androgenic activity, together with histopathological analysis indicated that sticklebacks were exposed to estrogenic loads sufficient to cause inappropriate production of VTG and to disrupt normal testicular structure in adult male sticklebacks. No androgenic disruption was observed. The results emphasize the need of a combination of several reproductive biomarkers in fish and repeated sampling for the detection of potential endocrine modulating substances under field condition. PMID:21656640

  5. Ecological risk of estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage plant effluent and reclaimed water.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Huang, Huang; Sun, Ying; Wang, Chao; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Hu, Hong-Ying; Kameya, Takashi; Fujie, Koichi

    2013-09-01

    The long-term ecological risk of micropollutants, especially endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has threatened reclaimed water quality. In this study, estrogenic activity and ecological risk of eight typical estrogenic EDCs in effluents from sewage plants were evaluated. The estrogenic activity analysis showed that steroidal estrogens had the highest estrogenic activity (ranged from 10(-1) to 10(3) ng-E2/L), phenolic compounds showed weaker estrogenic activity (mainly ranged from 10(-3) to 10 ng-E2/L), and phthalate esters were negligible. The ecological risk of the estrogenic EDCs which was characterized by risk quotient ranged from 10(-4) to 10(3), with an order in descending: steroids estrogens, phenolic compounds and phthalate esters. The eight estrogenic EDCs were scored and sorted based on the comparison of the estrogenic activity and the ecological risk, suggesting that 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) should be the priority EDCs to control in municipal sewage plants. PMID:23735815

  6. Occurrences and fate of selected human antibiotics in influents and effluents of sewage treatment plant and effluent-receiving river Yamuna in Delhi (India).

    PubMed

    Mutiyar, Pravin K; Mittal, Atul K

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics consumption has increased worldwide, and their residues are frequently reported in aquatic environments. It is believed that antibiotics reach aquatic water bodies through sewage. Medicine consumed for healthcare practices are often released into sewage, and after sewage treatment plant, it reaches the receiving water bodies of lakes or rivers. In the present study, we determined the fate of some commonly used antibiotics in a sewage treatment plant (STP) located in Delhi and the environmental concentration of these antibiotics in the Yamuna River, which receives the sewage and industrial effluent of Delhi. There are many reports on antibiotics occurrences in STP and river water worldwide, but monitoring data from the Indian subcontinent is sparse. Samples were taken from a STP and from six sampling sites on the Yamuna River. Several antibiotics were tested for using offline solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with photodiode array analysis. Recoveries varied from 25.5-108.8 %. Ampicillin had the maximum concentration in wastewater influents (104.2 ± 98.11 μg l(-1)) and effluents (12.68 ± 8.38 μg l(-1)). The fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins had the lower concentrations. Treatment efficiencies varied between 55 and 99 %. Significant amounts of antibiotics were discharged in effluents and were detected in the receiving water body. The concentration of antibiotics in the Yamuna River varied from not detected to 13.75 μg l(-1) (ampicillin) for the compounds investigated. PMID:24085621

  7. Effects of sewage effluent and ethynyl oestradiol upon molecular markers of oestrogenic exposure, maturation and reproductive success in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus, Pallas).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Craig D; Brown, Elaine; Craft, John A; Davies, Ian M; Moffat, Colin F; Pirie, David; Robertson, Fiona; Stagg, Ronald M; Struthers, Susan

    2003-01-24

    Male fish in several UK estuaries are known to be exposed to oestrogenic contamination, and whilst a limited number of studies have shown that exposure to oestrogens can reduce the reproductive success of fish, the impact of environmentally relevant exposures is less clear. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effects of exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of a sewage effluent and the synthetic oestrogen 17alpha-ethynyl oestradiol (EE(2)) upon the reproductive success of a marine fish. Sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) were exposed for 7 months to EE(2) or a sewage effluent containing known xeno-oestrogens (alkylphenol polyethoxylates) and bred using within treatment crosses. Nominal exposure concentrations were 6 ng l(-1) EE(2), 0.3 or 0.03% v/v sewage effluent. At the end of the breeding trials, expression of hepatic zona radiata protein (Zrp) and vitellogenin (Vtg) mRNA were determined using two recently developed cDNA probes. Exposure to 6 ng l(-1) EE(2) induced Zrp and Vtg mRNA expression in male and female sand goby, impaired male maturation and reproductive behaviour, reduced female fecundity and reduced egg fertility. As a consequence, fertile egg production of the EE(2)-exposed population was reduced by 90%. Exposure to sewage effluent (0.3% v/v) increased adult mortality and female Zrp and Vtg mRNA expression, but did not induce male vitellogenesis. Exposure to EE(2) and 0.3% v/v sewage effluent impaired development of the male urogenital papilla. Fish exposed to 0.03% v/v sewage effluent produced more fertile eggs than those exposed to 0.3% effluent, or those receiving no effluent. It is concluded that male vitellogenesis in an oestrogenically exposed population may be accompanied by reduced reproductive success, but that it may not be indicative of altered reproductive output in a population exposed to an industrial sewage effluent. PMID:12505380

  8. Assessment of sewage treatment plant effluents impact on river water quality using dissolved Rb/Sr ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Nirel, P.M.; Revaclier, R. )

    1999-06-15

    The authors present a new approach to elucidate and manage the impact of sewage effluents on river water quality using the dissolved Rb/Sr ratio. Rubidium is present in larger quantities than strontium in biological matrices (such as feces and urine), so that the ratio of these two elements represents an effective tracer. This is especially true in regions where the natural Rb/Sr ratio is low (calcareous regions). For a given water quality, the Rb/Sr ratio will remain constant, regardless of the river flow. Since both elements are easy to measure, this ratio has already been successfully used for pollution assessment in Geneva. The Rb/Sr ratio can also be used to model, for a given watershed, the capacity to withstand the effect of sewage effluent and to recover its natural quality.

  9. Comparative developmental toxicity of new aromatic halogenated DBPs in a chlorinated saline sewage effluent to the marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2013-10-01

    Using seawater for toilet flushing may introduce high levels of bromide and iodide into a city's sewage treatment works, and result in the formation of brominated and iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination to disinfect sewage effluents. In a previous study, the authors' group has detected the presence of many brominated DBPs and identified five new aromatic brominated DBPs in chlorinated saline sewage effluents. The presence of brominated DBPs in chlorinated saline effluents may pose adverse implications for marine ecology. In this study, besides the detection and identification of another seven new aromatic halogenated DBPs in a chlorinated saline sewage effluent, their developmental toxicity was evaluated using the marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii. For comparison, the developmental toxicity of some commonly known halogenated DBPs was also examined. The rank order of the developmental toxicity of 20 halogenated DBPs was 2,5-dibromohydroquinone > 2,6-diiodo-4-nitrophenol ≥ 2,4,6-triiodophenol > 4-bromo-2-chlorophenol ≥ 4-bromophenol > 2,4-dibromophenol ≥ 2,6-dibromo-4-nitrophenol > 2-bromo-4-chlorophenol > 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol > 2,4-dichlorophenol > 2,4,6-tribromophenol > 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde > bromoform ≥ 2,4,6-trichlorophenol > 2,6-dibromophenol > 2,6-dichlorophenol > iodoacetic acid ≥ tribromoacetic acid > bromoacetic acid > chloroacetic acid. On the basis of developmental toxicity data, a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was established. The QSAR involved two physical-chemical property descriptors (log P and pKa) and two electronic descriptors (the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy and the highest occupied molecular orbital energy) to indicate the transport, biouptake, and biointeraction of these DBPs. It can well predict the developmental toxicity of most of the DBPs tested. PMID:24024886

  10. The effect of sewage effluent on the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the Sand River, Limpopo, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seanego, K. G.; Moyo, N. A. G.

    Population growth in urban areas is putting pressure on sewage treatment plants. The improper treatment of sewage entering the aquatic ecosystems causes deterioration of the water quality of the receiving water body. The effect of sewage effluent on the Sand River was assessed. Eight sampling sites were selected, site 1 and 2 were upstream of the sewage treatment plant along the urbanised area of Polokwane, whilst sites 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 were downstream. The physico-chemical parameters and coliform counts in the water samples were determined. The suitability of the water for irrigation was also determined. Hierarchical average linkage cluster analysis produced two clusters, grouping two sites above the sewage treatment works and six sites downstream of the sewage effluent discharge point. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified total nitrogen, total phosphorus, conductivity and salinity as the major factors contributing to the variability of the Sand River water quality. These factors are strongly associated with the downstream sites. Canonial correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated the macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae, Belastomatidae, Chaoborus and Hirudinea being strongly associated with nitrogen, phosphorus, conductivity and temperature. Escherichia coli levels in the Polokwane wastewater treatment works maturation ponds, could potentially lead to contamination of the Polokwane aquifer. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio was between 1.5 and 3.0 and residual sodium carbonate was below 1.24 Meq/l, indicating that the Sand River water is still suitable for irrigation. The total phosphorus concentrations fluctuated across the different site. Total nitrogen concentrations showed a gradual decrease downstream from the point of discharge. This shows that the river still has a good self-purification capacity.

  11. Radiolytic decomposition of multi-class surfactants and their biotransformation products in sewage treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, M; Gehringer, P; Eschweiler, H; Barceló, D

    2007-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation (EBI), as one of the most efficient advanced oxidation processes, was applied to the treatment of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent, with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of radiolytic decomposition of multi-class surfactants. Target compounds, included several high-volume surfactant groups, such as alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) and their biotransformation products, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), alkyl sulfates (AS), alkylether sulfates (AES), coconut diethanol amides (CDEA), alcohol ethoxylates (AEO) and polyethylene glycols (PEGs). EBI treatment of STP effluent (total concentration of APEO-derived compounds 265mugl(-1), being APE(2)C the most abundant by-degradation products) resulted in efficient decomposition of all alkylphenolic compounds; elimination of 94% longer ethoxy chain nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO, n(EO)=3-15) was obtained when 3kGy were applied. Slightly less efficient decomposition of short ethoxy chain oligomers (NPEO(1) and NPEO(2)) was observed, resulting in disappearance of about 80% of the initially present compounds. LC-MS analysis of treated wastewater suggested that the mechanism of EBI degradation of APEOs is a combination of two parallel pathways: a progressive shortening and oxidation of the ethoxy chain, which resulted in a formation of short ethoxy chain oligomers and APECs and central fission that resulted in formation of PEGs. Decomposition of APECs at 1kGy initially yielded APs, which were subsequently eliminated applying higher radiation doses. With a radiation dose of 2kGy about 95% of NPE(1)C and 97% of NPE(2)C were decomposed. Similar elimination rates were obtained for octylphenolic compounds. Radiolytic treatment applied was also very effective in removing PEGs formed as by-products from APEO degradation, as well as in decomposing other surfactants, such as linear LAS, AS and AES. PMID:16808959

  12. Assessment of odour problem in sewage-treated effluent in a closed loop irrigation system.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad Saeed; Miran, Mamdoh M

    2011-05-01

    Uses of wastewater drives significant economic activity, supports countless livelihoods particularly those for developing countries. While using wastewater, the challenge is to identify practical, affordable safeguards that do not threaten the health of users. In Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah, treated sewage effluent (TSE) is used for landscape purposes. In the present study, the odour problem caused by TSE in community area has been addressed. Samples were collected and analysed for total coliform, odour, trihalomethanes (THMs), total organic carbon (TOC) and other physicochemical parameters. Results show that in distribution network, residual chlorine was below the detection limit, turbidity, THMs, TOC and total coliform concentration was much higher than point source, and concentration of these parameters was further increased in problematic areas. It was also observed that areas with odourous problem were at the tail of irrigation network. This indicates that odour problem was due to less residual chlorine high turbidity, high rate of coliform and TOC. In odourous water samples, carbon disulphide and dimethyl sulphide were also identified by GC/MS, while in other areas where there was no odour, both these compounds were not detected. Odour problem was successfully resolved by improving sand filtration system to minimise turbidity the main cause of odour, increasing the residual chlorine at the treatment plant and regularly flushing the distribution network. PMID:20568010

  13. Purification ability and carbon dioxide flux from surface flow constructed wetlands treating sewage treatment plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiming; Lin, Li; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Hai

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a two-year experiment was carried out to investigate variation of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from free water surface constructed wetlands (FWS CW) systems treating sewage treatment plant effluent, and treatment performance was also evaluated. The better 74.6-76.6% COD, 92.7-94.4% NH4(+)-N, 60.1-84.7% TN and 49.3-70.7% TP removal efficiencies were achieved in planted CW systems compared with unplanted systems. The planted CW was a net CO2 sink, while the unplanted CW was a net CO2 source in the entire study period. An obvious annual and seasonal variability of CO2 fluxes from different wetland systems was also presented with the average CO2 flux ranging from -592.83mgm(-2)h(-1) to 553.91mgm(-2)h(-1) during 2012-2013. In addition, the net exchange of CO2 between CW systems and the atmosphere was significantly affected by air temperature, and the presence of plants also had the significant effect on total CO2 emissions. PMID:27544264

  14. Concentrations of nitrifying bacteria in sewages, effluents, and a receiving stream and resistance of these organisms to chlorination.

    PubMed Central

    Strom, P F; Matulewich, V A; Finstein, M S

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of NH4+-and NO2-oxidizers in samples from four activated sludge plants treating mainly domestic sewage were obtained using a most-probable-number (MPN) technique. Ranges of concentrations per milliliter of each, respectively, were 1,010 to 3,880 and 79 to 145 in settled sewages, 32 to 7,420 and 2 to 1,010 in secondary effluents, and less than 0.1 to 622 and 0.1 to 70 in chlorinated secondary effluents. The results of this field study indicated that nitrifiers were more resistant to chlorination than fecal streptococci, which were also enumerated. In laboratory studies the survivals of these bacterial groups in secondary effluents were determined after exposure to chlorine residuals of up to 2 mg/liter for 0 to 60 min. The nitrifiers proved considerably more resistant than fecal streptococci, with NO2-oxidizers showing greater resistance than NH4+-oxidizers. Below the outfall of one of the plants that discharges heavily chlorinated unnitrified effluent, NH4+-oxidizers amounted to approximately 200 X 10(5) per g of slime scraped from stream-bed rocks. Upstream of the outfall this was approximatley 3 X 10(5)/G. PMID:818958

  15. Assessment of in vivo estrogenic response and identification of environmental estrogens in influent and effluent from a sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenting; Wang, Zhijun; Lian, Chuanjie

    2013-09-01

    The in vivo estrogenic response and estrogenic contents of the influent and effluent collected from a sewage treatment plant located in Jiaozuo were assessed. The bioassay showed significant serum vitellogenin (VTG) induction in all the treated male goldfish (Carassius auratus) and significant gonad atrophies were only observed in the fish induced the most VTG expressions. Six target estrogens (estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, 4-n-octylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol and bisphenol A) were detected in different polar fractions, with the exception of the 25 % and 50 % methanol fractions extracted from the influent and the 25 %, 50 %, 95 % and 100 % methanol fractions extracted from the effluent. For both the influent and effluent, natural and synthetic steroidal estrogens were detected in those extracted fractions induced the most abundant VTG expressions. PMID:23877625

  16. Short-term exposure to a treated sewage effluent alters reproductive behaviour in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Sebire, Marion; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Taylor, Nick G H; Maack, Gerd; Tyler, Charles R

    2011-09-01

    Some UK sewage treatment work (STW) effluents have been found to contain high levels of anti-androgenic activity, but the biological significance of this activity to fish has not been determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to a STW effluent with anti-androgenic activity on the reproductive physiology and behaviour of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Fish were exposed to a STW effluent (50 and 100%, v/v) with a strong anti-androgenic activity (328.56±36.83 μgl(-1) flutamide equivalent, as quantified in a recombinant yeast assay containing the human androgen receptor) and a low level of oestrogenic activity (3.32±0.66 ngl(-1) oestradiol equivalent, quantified in a recombinant yeast assay containing the human oestrogen receptor) for a period of 21 days in a flow-through system in the laboratory. Levels of spiggin, an androgen-regulated protein, were not affected by the STW effluent exposure, nor were levels of vitellogenin (a biomarker of oestrogen exposure), but the reproductive behaviour of the males was impacted. Males exposed to full strength STW effluent built fewer nests and there was a significant reduction in male courtship behaviour for exposures to both the 50 and 100% STW effluent treatments compared with controls. The effect seen on the reproduction of male sticklebacks may not necessarily have been as a consequence of the endocrine active chemicals present in the STW effluent alone, but could relate to other features of the effluent, such as turbidity that can impair visual signalling important for courtship interactions. Regardless the specific causation, the data presented show that effluents from STW have an impact on reproductive behaviour in male sticklebacks which in turn affects reproductive performance/outcome. The study further highlights the use of fish behaviour as a sensitive endpoint for assessing potential effects of contaminated water bodies on fish reproduction. PMID:21684244

  17. Biomarker responses and reproductive toxicity of the effluent from a Chinese large sewage treatment plant in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Ma, Taowu; Wan, Xiaoqiong; Huang, Qinghui; Wang, Zijian; Liu, Jiankang

    2005-04-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the potential toxicity of the effluent from a large sewage treatment plant (GBD-STP) in Beijing. Japanese medakas (Oryzias latipes) at reproduction active period were exposed to a serial of graded concentrations of the effluent or 100 ng l-1 of 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2, positive control). Growth, gonadosomatic index (GSI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), reproductive success, induction potency of vitellogenin (VTG) in male fish and that of 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity (EROD) in male fish liver were used as test endpoints. The growth suppression of fish was observed in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in significant differences in both body length and body weight of medaka above 5% effluent. This effluent can inhibit the growth of gonad of medakas and are more sensitive to male than to female. At exposure concentration of 40% and higher, there was an unexpected decrease of HSI values, which may be resulted from sub-lethal toxicity of effluent to fish liver. VTG of plasma in males were induced in all exposure concentration levels, but not in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of 5% effluent would be the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) affecting reproductive success when examining fertile individuals, fecundity and fertilization rate. The overt CYP1A response and higher reproductive toxicity may be indicative of low process efficiency of this STP. PMID:15722100

  18. In vitro characterization of the effectiveness of enhanced sewage treatment processes to eliminate endocrine activity of hospital effluents.

    PubMed

    Maletz, Sibylle; Floehr, Tilman; Beier, Silvio; Klümper, Claudia; Brouwer, Abraham; Behnisch, Peter; Higley, Eric; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus; Gebhardt, Wilhelm; Linnemann, Volker; Pinnekamp, Johannes; Hollert, Henner

    2013-03-15

    Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems is related to sewage effluents. Due to the possible adverse effects on wildlife and humans, degradation and removal of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites during wastewater treatment is an increasingly important task. The present study was part of a proof of concept study at a medium sized country hospital in western Germany that investigated efficiency of advanced treatment processes to remove toxic potencies from sewage. Specifically, the efficiency of treatment processes such as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and ozonation to remove endocrine disruptive potentials was assessed. Estrogenic effects were characterized by use of two receptor-mediated in vitro transactivation assays, the Lyticase Yeast Estrogen Screen (LYES) and the Estrogen Receptor mediated Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (ER CALUX(®)). In addition, the H295R Steroidogenesis Assay (H295R) was utilized to detect potential disruption of steroidogenesis. Raw sewage contained measurable estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated potency as determined by use of the LYES (28.9 ± 8.6 ng/L, 0.33× concentration), which was reduced after treatment by MBR (2.3 ± 0.3 ng/L) and ozone (1.2 ± 0.4 ng/L). Results were confirmed by use of ER CALUX(®) which measured concentrations of estrogen equivalents (EEQs) of 0.2 ± 0.11 ng/L (MBR) and 0.01 ± 0.02 ng/L (ozonation). In contrast, treatment with ozone resulted in greater production of estradiol and aromatase activity at 3× and greater concentrations in H295R cells. It is hypothesized that this is partly due to formation of active oxidized products during ozonation. Substance-specific analyses demonstrated efficient removal of most of the measured compounds by ozonation. A comparison of the ER-mediated responses measured by use of the LYES and ER CALUX(®) with those from the chemical analysis using a mass-balance approach revealed estrone (E1) to be the main compound that caused the estrogenic effects

  19. Ozonation and activated carbon treatment of sewage effluents: removal of endocrine activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Stalter, Daniel; Magdeburg, Axel; Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about endocrine disrupting compounds in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents give rise to the implementation of advanced treatment steps for the elimination of trace organic contaminants. The present study investigated the effects of ozonation (O(3)) and activated carbon treatment (AC) on endocrine activities [estrogenicity, anti-estrogenicity, androgenicity, anti-androgenicity, aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonistic activity] with yeast-based bioassays. To evaluate the removal of non-specific toxicity, a cytotoxicity assay using a rat cell line was applied. Wastewater (WW) was sampled at two STPs after conventional activated sludge treatment following the secondary clarifier (SC) and after subsequent advanced treatments: O(3), O(3) + sand filtration (O(3-SF)), and AC. Conventional treatment reduced estrogenicity, androgenicity, and AhR agonistic activity by 78-99% compared to the untreated influent WW. Anti-androgenicity and anti-estrogenicity were not detectable in the influent but appeared in SC, possibly due to the more effective removal of respective agonists during conventional treatment. Endocrine activities after SC ranged from 2.0 to 2.8 ng/L estradiol equivalents (estrogenicity), from 4 to 22 μg/L 4-hydroxytamoxifen equivalents (anti-estrogenicity), from 1.9 to 2.0 ng/L testosterone equivalents (androgenicity), from 302 to 614 μg/L flutamide equivalents (anti-androgenicity), and from 387 to 741 ng/L β-naphthoflavone equivalents (AhR agonistic activity). In particular, estrogenicity and anti-androgenicity occurred in environmentally relevant concentrations. O(3) and AC further reduced endocrine activities effectively (estrogenicity: 77-99%, anti-androgenicity: 63-96%, AhR agonistic activity: 79-82%). The cytotoxicity assay exhibited a 32% removal of non-specific toxicity after O(3) compared to SC. O(3) and sand filtration reduced cytotoxic effects by 49%, indicating that sand filtration contributes to the removal of toxicants. AC was the

  20. Evaluation of gamma radiation levels for reducing pathogenic bacteria and fungi in animal sewage and laboratory effluents.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, M M; Brooks, B W; Stewart, R B; Dion, W; Trudel, J R; Ouwerkerk, T

    1987-01-01

    Sewage samples collected from animal wastes and from effluents at an animal disease laboratory were inoculated with known numbers of pathogenic organisms and subjected to various doses of gamma radiation from a 60Co source. Surviving test organisms were quantitatively determined by selective and enrichment techniques. The experiment was modeled as a quantal assay in which probit analysis was applied to obtain D10 values. The D10 value represents the irradiating dose required to reduce the population by 90%. The D10 value ranged from 13.4 krad for Campylobacter fetus to 156.6 krad for Streptococcus faecalis in animal sewage. However, the D10 value for the laboratory effluent was generally lower. Based on the estimated D10 values, the rating of the test organisms in decreasing order of radiosensitivity appeared as follows: Brucella abortus, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter laridis, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Salmonella muenster, Candida albicans, Clostridium difficile and Streptococcus faecalis. If the D5 and D1 values were utilized, this listing would be only slightly altered. PMID:3651881

  1. Post-irrigation impact of domestic sewage effluent on composition of soils, crops and ground water--a case study.

    PubMed

    Yadav, R K; Goyal, B; Sharma, R K; Dubey, S K; Minhas, P S

    2002-12-01

    Long-term irrigation with sewage water adds large amounts of carbon, major and micro- nutrients to the soil. We compared the spatial distribution of N, P, K and other micronutrients and toxic elements in the top 0.6 m of an alluvial soil along with their associated effects on the composition of crops and ground waters after about three decades of irrigation with domestic sewage effluent as a function of distance from the disposal point. Use of sewage for irrigation in various proportions improved the organic matter to 1.24-1.78% and fertility status of soils especially down to a distance of 1 km along the disposal channel. Build up in total N was up to 2908 kg ha(-1), available P (58 kg ha(-1)), total P (2115 kg ha(-1)), available K (305 kg ha(-1)) and total K (4712 kg ha(-1)) in surface 0.15 m soil. Vertical distribution of these parameters also varied, with most accumulations occurring in surface 0.3 m. Traces of NO3-N (up to 2.8 mg l(-1)), Pb (up to 0.35 mg l(-1)) and Mn (up to 0.23 mg l(-1)) could also be observed in well waters near the disposal point thus indicating initiation of ground water contamination. However, the contents of heavy metals in crops sampled from the area were below the permissible critical levels. Though the study confirms that the domestic sewage can effectively increase water resource for irrigation but there is a need for continuous monitoring of the concentrations of potentially toxic elements in soil, plants and ground water. PMID:12503913

  2. The occurrence and ecological risks of endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants, and in natural seawater from a marine reserve of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Xu, Elvis G B; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zheng, Gene J S; Lee, Joseph H W; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-08-30

    We determined the concentrations of 12 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in sewage effluents collected from three different sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Hong Kong, and found 4-nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) were the most abundant EDCs. Effluent concentrations of NP and BPA were higher in dry season than in wet season, but opposite seasonal changes of NP were observed in receiving waters, probably due to the surface runoff. The two secondary STPs showed higher removal efficiency for these compounds than the preliminary STP, while having higher removal efficiency in wet season. Therefore, it is necessary to upgrade the preliminary STP and improve the EDC removal efficiency in dry season. Seawaters from the Cape D' Aguilar Marine Reserve adjacent to these STPs also exhibited elevated NP levels with a hazard quotient >1. Furthermore, diluted effluents from the STPs elicited significant transcriptional responses of EDC-related genes in the marine medaka fish. PMID:24650541

  3. Rapid, single-step most-probable-number method for enumerating fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, E. F.; Silverman, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    A single-step most-probable-number method for determining the number of fecal coliform bacteria present in sewage treatment plant effluents is discussed. A single growth medium based on that of Reasoner et al. (1976) and consisting of 5.0 gr. proteose peptone, 3.0 gr. yeast extract, 10.0 gr. lactose, 7.5 gr. NaCl, 0.2 gr. sodium lauryl sulfate, and 0.1 gr. sodium desoxycholate per liter is used. The pH is adjusted to 6.5, and samples are incubated at 44.5 deg C. Bacterial growth is detected either by measuring the increase with time in the electrical impedance ratio between the innoculated sample vial and an uninnoculated reference vial or by visual examination for turbidity. Results obtained by the single-step method for chlorinated and unchlorinated effluent samples are in excellent agreement with those obtained by the standard method. It is suggested that in automated treatment plants impedance ratio data could be automatically matched by computer programs with the appropriate dilution factors and most probable number tables already in the computer memory, with the corresponding result displayed as fecal coliforms per 100 ml of effluent.

  4. The presence of the top prescribed pharmaceuticals in treated sewage effluents and receiving waters in Southwest Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ghoshdastidar, Avik J; Fox, Shannon; Tong, Anthony Z

    2015-01-01

    From a list of the top prescribed drugs in Canada, 11 pharmaceuticals and two metabolites were selected for study in municipal sewage treatment plant effluents and receiving waters. Wastewater samples were collected from 16 wastewater treatment plants across Southwest Nova Scotia including the Annapolis Valley, South Shore, and Metropolitan Halifax. Samples were also collected between 100 and 200 m downstream of effluent outflows. Seven pharmaceuticals were found above μg/L levels with their highest concentrations as follows: metformin (10.6 μg/L), acetaminophen (28.9 μg/L), paraxanthine (18.2 μg/L), cotinine (3.10 μg/L), caffeine (115 μg/L), naproxen (29.1 μg/L), and venlafaxine (2.65 μg/L). Metformin, paraxanthine, caffeine, naproxen, ramipril, and venlafaxine were detected in every wastewater effluent sample. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in pharmaceutical occurrence by treatment methods, weak dependence of pharmaceutical concentrations on populations, and the co-occurrence of some pharmaceuticals. Experimental results might indicate the limitation of primary only treatment methods in breaking down pharmaceuticals. PMID:25099660

  5. EXPECTED EFFECTS OF RESIDUAL CHLORINE AND NITROGEN IN SEWAGE EFFLUENT ON THE ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEM OF GREENWICH COVE, RI: AN ENERGY SYSTEMS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical, toxicological, and energy systems modeling were combined to make estimates of likely ecosystem-level effects due to residual chlorine in sewage effluent. The energy systems model also allowed us to make estimates of the effects of nutrient loading on the estuary both se...

  6. INVESTIGATION OF CE/LIF AS A TOOL IN THE CHARACTERIZATION OF SEWAGE EFFLUENT FOR FLUORESCENT ACIDICS: DETERMINATION OF SALICYLIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory



    The investigation of emerging contaminant issues is a proactive effort in environmental analysis. As a part of this effort, sewage effluent is of current analytical interest because of the presence of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites and personal care products The en...

  7. Reduction in the estrogenic activity of a treated sewage effluent discharge to an English river as a result of a decrease in the concentration of industrially derived surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, David A; Brighty, Geoff C; Daniel, Mic; Jobling, Susan; Harries, Jule E; Hurst, Mark R; Kennedy, Joe; Kirby, Sonia J; Morris, Steven; Routledge, Edwin J; Sumpter, John P; Waldock, Michael J

    2002-03-01

    As a result of the introduction of tighter discharge limits and effluent treatment processes at source, the concentration of alkylphenol ethoxylates and nonylphenol present in the final effluent discharge from a sewage treatment works that treats trade effluent from the textiles industry was reduced. The estrogenic effects of the final effluent discharge to the Aire River were compared over a four-year period during which various treatment measures were introduced. Male rainbow trout exposed to the effluent on four occasions in consecutive years (1994-1997) showed a reduction in the level of induced vitellogenesis between 1994 and 1997. A marked decrease in gonadosomatic index (GSI) and increase in heptaosomatic index (HSI) was measured in fish exposed to the effluent in 1994. In successive years, these differences diminished, and in the case of the GSI no measurable difference was observed between fish exposed to the final effluent or those in the control group in 1997. However, an increase in HSI was still measurable in 1997 in fish exposed to the final effluent and at sites farther downstream. The reduction in the effects of the effluent paralleled the reduction in the concentration of nonylphenol as well as its mono- and diethoxylates, which have been demonstrated to produce estrogenic effects in trout exposed to these compounds in the laboratory. This study demonstrates that the setting of more restricted discharge limits for known estrogenic chemicals of industrial origin can lead to significant reductions in the estrogenic activity of the watercourses into which the effluents are discharged. PMID:11878464

  8. Alternate Methods of Effluent Disposal for On-Lot Home Sewage Systems. Special Circular 214.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Several alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches and oversized absorption areas are discussed. Site characteristics and preparation are outlined. Each alternative is accompanied by a diagram…

  9. ASSESSMENT OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN EFFLUENTS FROM SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Newly developed molecular biology methods have been used for the measurement of estrogenic activity in source-biased studies of sewage treatment plants. Studies in Texas and New Mexico have shown the utility of the measurement of changes in vitellogenin gene expression in fathea...

  10. Effects on ground-water quality from irrigating pasture with sewage effluent near Lakeland, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichenbaugh, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Since 1969 an average of 25,000 gpd of domestic secondary-treated effluent has been used to supplement irrigation of 30 acres of grazed pasture north of Lakeland, Florida. Monitor wells were contructed near the effluent-irrigated pasture. The water table in the surficial aquifer under the pasture varied from 1.0 to 3.3 feet below land surface. Total nitrogen was less than 20 percent of the effluent content after percolating 8 feet; no increase in nitrogen was detected 20 feet below the surface, or in down-gradient ground water. There was no evidence of phosphorus or carbon contamination of ground water. Low numbers of bacteria (generally coliform) were noted in some samples from nine wells. Four wells sampled contained bacteria of probable fecal origin. Low-rate application of the effluent to the pasture apparently has had little effect on the soil and ground water. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...

  12. Effects of raw and diluted municipal sewage effluent with micronutrient foliar sprays on the growth and nutrient concentration of foxtail millet in southeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Asgharipour, Mohammad Reza; Reza Azizmoghaddam, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of irrigation with raw or diluted municipal sewage effluent accompanied by foliar micronutrient fertilizer sprays was examined on the growth, dry matter accumulation, grain yield, and mineral nutrients in foxtail millet plants. The experimental design was a split plot with three irrigation sources: raw sewage, 50% diluted sewage, and well water comprising the main treatments, and four combinations of Mn and Zn foliar sprays as sub-treatments that were applied with four replications. The experiment was conducted in 2009 at the Zabol University research farm in Zabol, south Iran. The applied municipal sewage effluent contained higher levels of micronutrients and macronutrients and exhibited greater degrees of electrical conductivity compared to well water. Because of the small scale of industrial activities in Zabol, the amount of heavy metals in the sewage was negligible (below the limits set for irrigation water in agricultural lands); these contaminants would not be severely detrimental to crop growth. The experimental results indicated that irrigation of plants with raw or diluted sewage stimulates the measured growth and productivity parameters of foxtail millet plants. The concentrations of micronutrients and macronutrients were also positively affected. These stimulations were attributed to the presence of high levels of such essential nutrients as N, P, and organic matter in wastewater. Supplied in sewage water alone, Mn and Zn were not able to raise the productivity of millet to the level obtained using fertilizers at the recommended values; this by itself indicated that additional nutrients from fertilizers are required to obtain higher levels of millet productivity with sewage farming. Despite the differences in nutrient concentrations among the different irrigation water sources, the micronutrient foliar sprays did not affect the concentrations of micronutrients and macronutrients in foxtail millet plants. These results suggested

  13. Impact of an estrogenic sewage treatment plant effluent on life-history traits of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ilona; Oehlmann, Jörg; Oetken, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to upgrade sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the last decades, STPs are still a major source for the contamination of surface waters, including emerging pollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Because many of these substances are not completely removed in conventional STPs they are regularly detected in surface waters where they have the potential to affect local macroinvertebrate communities. The objective of the current work was to investigate the impact of an estrogenic wastewater effluent on the key life-history traits of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex. G. pulex was exposed in artificial indoor flow-channels under constant conditions to different wastewater concentrations (0%, 33%, 66%, 100%). In parallel the estrogenic activity of wastewater samples was determined using the yeast estrogen screen (YES). Estrogenic activities in the STP effluent were up to 38.6 ng/L estradiol equivalents (EEQ). Amphipods exhibited an increasing body length with increasing wastewater concentrations. Furthermore, we observed a shift of the sex ratio in favour of females, a significantly increased fraction of brooding females and increased fecundity indices with increasing wastewater concentrations. The increased body length is likely to be attributed to the additional nutrient supply while the occurrence of EDCs in the wastewater is the probable cause for the altered sex ratio and fecundity in exposed Gammarus cohorts. PMID:25594120

  14. Changes in water quality of treated sewage effluents by their receiving environments in Tablas de Daimiel National Park, Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Ramos, David; Sánchez-Emeterio, Gema; Florín Beltrán, Máximo

    2016-04-01

    The Tablas de Daimiel National Park (TDNP), a floodplain wetland located in the Upper Guadiana Basin (central Spain), receives pollution from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) discharging their treated sewage effluents (TSEs) to tributary channels to the wetland. The TSEs suffer transformations on their way to the TDNP, but the water quality is controlled only at the point of discharge. In this work, we analyse the change in water quality of the TSE from four urban WWTPs in the surroundings of the TDNP (Alcázar de San Juan, Daimiel, Manzanares and Villarrubia de los Ojos towns). The water samples were taken at the outlet of the plants and in the receiving environments, to analyse the water quality transformation of the TSE. The different discharge configurations of each WWTP have been related with the water quality transformation of their TSE, to interpret the influence of the hydro-geomorphology in the improvement or deterioration of the water quality of TSE. We found that the discharge of TSE into slow flow channels with macrophyte vegetation facilitates water self-purification but, with time, the accumulation of sludge in the beds of the effluents tends to be the cause of the deterioration of the water quality. PMID:25982982

  15. Presence of pharmaceuticals in benthic fauna living in a small stream affected by effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Grabicova, Katerina; Grabic, Roman; Blaha, Martin; Kumar, Vimal; Cerveny, Daniel; Fedorova, Ganna; Randak, Tomas

    2015-04-01

    Aquatic organisms can be affected not only via polluted water but also via their food. In the present study, we examined bioaccumulation of seventy pharmaceuticals in two benthic organisms, Hydropsyche sp. and Erpobdella octoculata in a small stream affected by the effluent from a sewage treatment plant (STP) in Prachatice (South Bohemia region, Czech Republic). Furthermore, water samples from similar locations were analyzed for all seventy pharmaceuticals. In water samples from a control locality situated upstream of the STP, ten of the seventy pharmaceuticals were found with average total concentrations of 200 ng L(-1). In water samples collected at STP-affected sites (downstream the STP's effluent), twenty-nine, twenty-seven and twenty-nine pharmaceuticals were determined at average total concentrations of 2000, 2100 and 1700 ng L(-1), respectively. Six of the seventy pharmaceuticals (azithromycin, citalopram, clarithromycin, clotrimazole, sertraline, and verapamil) were found in Hydropsyche. Four pharmaceuticals (clotrimazole, diclofenac, sertraline, and valsartan) were detected in Erpobdella. Using evaluation criterion bioconcentration factor (BCF) is higher than 2000 we can assign azithromycin and sertraline as bioaccumulative pharmaceuticals. Even pharmaceuticals present at low levels in water were found in benthic organisms at relatively high concentrations (up to 85 ng g(-1) w.w. for azithromycin). Consequently, the uptake of pharmaceuticals via the food web could be an important exposure pathway for the wild fish population. PMID:25283339

  16. E. coli Regrowth in a Constructed Wetland Receiving Treated Sewage Effluent: A Threat to Human Health?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constructed wetlands are used throughout the world to filter toxins from treated wastewater and to increase wildlife habitat. Bird and mammal excretions result in background levels of enteric bacteria in any natural wetland, but regrowth of bacteria in wastewater effluent can further increase microb...

  17. ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced state-of-the-art technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs [azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, m...

  18. Detection of pharmaceuticals and phytochemicals together with their metabolites in hospital effluents in Japan, and their contribution to sewage treatment plant influents.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Takashi; Arima, Natsumi; Tsukada, Ai; Hirami, Satoru; Matsuoka, Rie; Moriwake, Ryogo; Ishiuchi, Hirotaka; Inoyama, Tomomi; Teranishi, Yusuke; Yamaoka, Misato; Mino, Yoshiki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Fujita, Yoshikazu; Masada, Mikio

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of 41 pharmaceuticals and phytochemicals (PPs) including their metabolites was surveyed in hospital effluent in an urban area of Japan. A detailed survey of sewage treatment plant (STP) influent and effluent, and river water was also conducted. Finally, mass balances with mass fluxes of the target PPs through the water flow were evaluated and the degree of contribution of hospital effluent to the environmental discharge was estimated. The results indicate that 38 compounds were detectable in hospital effluent over a wide concentration range from ng/L to μg/L, with a maximum of 92μg/L. The contributions of PPs in the hospital effluent to STP influent varied widely from <0.1% to 14.8%. Although almost all of the remaining components could be removed below 1.0ng/L at STPs by the addition of ozone treatment, a number of PPs still remained above 10ng/L in STP effluent. These findings suggest the importance of applying highly developed treatments to hospital effluents and at STPs in the future to reduce the environmental risks posed by PPs. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the presence of two conjugated metabolites of acetaminophen, acetaminophen glucuronide and acetaminophen sulfate, as well as of loxoprofen and loxoprofen alcohol, in hospital effluent, STP, and river waters. PMID:26802347

  19. Tracking multiple modes of endocrine activity in Australia's largest inland sewage treatment plant and effluent- receiving environment using a panel of in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jenna; Bain, Peter A; Kumar, Anupama; Hepplewhite, Christopher; Ellis, David J; Christy, Andrew G; Beavis, Sara G

    2015-10-01

    Estrogenicity of sewage effluents, and related ecotoxicological effects in effluent-receiving environments, have been widely reported over the last 2 decades. However, relatively little attention has been given to other endocrine pathways that may be similarly disrupted by a growing list of contaminants of concern. Furthermore, the Australian evidence base is limited compared with those of Europe and North America. During a low dilution period in summer, the authors investigated multiple endocrine potencies in Australia's largest inland sewage treatment plant (STP) and the Lower Molonglo/Upper Murrumbidgee effluent-receiving environment. This STP receives 900 L/s of mostly domestic wastewater from a population of 350 000, and contributes a high proportion of total flow in the lower catchment during dry periods. A panel of in vitro receptor-driven transactivation assays were used to detect (anti)estrogenic, (anti) androgenic, (anti)progestagenic, glucocorticoid, and peroxisome-proliferator activity at various stages of the sewage treatment process. Total estrogenic and (anti)androgenic potency was removed after primary and/or secondary treatment; however, total removal efficiency for glucocorticoid potency was poorer (53-66%), and progestagenic potency was found to increase along the treatment train. Estrogenicity was detected in surface waters and bed sediments upstream and downstream of the effluent outfall, at maximum levels 10 times lower than low-hazard thresholds. Glucocorticoid and progestagenic activity were found to persist to 4 km downstream of the effluent outfall, suggesting that future research is needed on these endocrine-disrupting chemical categories in effluent-receiving systems. PMID:25939690

  20. Denitrification in a South Louisiana wetland forest receiving treated sewage effluent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boustany, R.G.; Crozier, C.R.; Rybczyk, J.M.; Twilley, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    Although denitrification has the potential to reduce nitrate (NO3a??) pollution of surface waters, the quantification of denitrification rates is complex because it requires differentiation from other mechanisms and is highly variable in both space and time. This study first measured potential denitrification rates at a wetland forest site in south Louisiana before receipt of secondary wastewater effluent, and then, following 30 months of effluent application, landscape gradients of dissolved nitrate (NO3a??) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured. A computer model was developed to quantify N transformations. Floodwater NO3a?? and N2O concentrations were higher in the forest receiving effluent than in the adjacent control forest. Denitrification rates of NO3a?? -amended soil cores ranged from 0.03a??0.45 g N ma??2 da??1 with an overall mean of 0.10 g N ma??2 da??1. Effluent N is being applied at a rate of approximately 0.034 g N ma??2 da??1, with approximately 95% disappearing along a 1 km transect. In the treatment forest, floodwater NO3a?? concentrations decreased from 1000 M at the inflow point to 50 M along the 1 km transect. Nitrous oxide concentrations increased from 0.25 M to 1.2 M within the first 100 m, but decreased to 0.1 M over the next 900 m. The initial increase in N2O was presumably a result ofin situ denitrification. Model analyses indicated that denitrification was directly associated with nitrification and was limited by the availability of NO3a?? produced by nitrification. Due to different redox potential optima, coupling of nitrification and denitrification was a function of a balance of environmental conditions that was moderately favorable to both processes. N removal efficiency was largely dependent on the proportion of effluent NH4+ to NO3a?? . When NH4+ /NO3a?? was 1, average N removal efficiency ranged from 95a??100%, but ratios that were >1 reduced average efficiencies to as low as 57%. Actual effluent NH4+ /NO3a?? loading ratios at this

  1. Analysis of Bio-Obtainable Endocrine Disrupting Metals in River Water and Sediment, Sewage Influent/Effluent, Sludge, Leachate, and Concentrated Leachate, in the Irish Midlands Shannon Catchment

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Antoinette M.; Brougham, Concepta A.; Fogarty, Andrew M.; Roche, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The application of an acid digestion and subsequent solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure were implemented as preliminary treatments prior to quantifying the levels of potentially endocrine disrupting metals (EDMs) in a variety of solid and liquid matrices. These included (solid) river sediment, leachate sediment and sewage sludge and also (liquid) river water, landfill leachate, concentrated leachate, sewage influent, and sewage effluent, sampled in the Irish Midlands. The total concentrations of cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn), after extraction and preconcentration, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Mercury (Hg) in sediment and sludge was determined using cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS). For sewage sludge maximum values (mg/kgdw) of 4700 Ni, 1642 Mn, 100.0 Cd, 3400 Zn, 36.70 Co, 750.0 Pb, 485.8 Cr, and 1003 Cu were determined whilst in leachate sediment, maximum values (mg/kgdw) of 32.10 Ni, 815.0 Mn, 32.78 Cd, 230.3 Zn, 26.73 Co, 3525 Pb, 124.9 Cr, and 50.13 Cu were found. Over several months, the data showed elevated levels in sewage influents, effluents, and sludges compared to a battery of adjacent river water samples and corresponding sediments. There was a definite trend for target values for sediments to be exceeded, while intervention values were only exceeded for cadmium. Overall the pattern in terms of concentration was sewage > leachate > river matrices. A nonparametric assessment of the effect of sewage treatment method on median metal levels in sludge revealed statistically significant differences at the 95% level of confidence for Co, Cr, and Hg and at the 90% level of confidence for Cd. PMID:20150974

  2. Rapid determination of 12 antibiotics and caffeine in sewage and bioreactor effluent by online column-switching liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lima Gomes, Paulo C F; Tomita, Inês N; Santos-Neto, Álvaro J; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a column-switching solid-phase extraction online-coupled to a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 12 antibiotics (7 sulfonamides and 5 fluoroquinolones) and caffeine detected in the sewage and effluent of a pilot anaerobic reactor used in sewage treatment. After acidification and filtration, the samples were directly injected into a simple and conventional LC system. Backflush and foreflush modes were compared based on the theoretical plates and peak asymmetry observed. The method was tested in terms of detection (MDL) and quantification limit (MQL), linearity, relative recovery, and precision intra- and inter-day in lab-made sewage samples. The method presented suitable figures of merit in terms of detection, varying from 8.00 × 10(-5) to 6.00 × 10(-2) ng (0.800 up to 600 ng L(-1); caffeine) with direct injection volume of only 100 μL and 13 min of total analysis time (sample preparation and chromatographic run). When the method was applied in the analysis of sewage and effluent of the anaerobic reactor (n = 15), six antibiotics and caffeine were detected in concentrations ranging from 0.018 to 1097 μg L(-1). To guarantee a reliable quantification, standard addition was used to overcome the matrix effect. PMID:26446896

  3. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  4. Declines in phosphorus concentration in the upper River Thames (UK): links to sewage effluent cleanup and extended end-member mixing analysis.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P; Williams, Richard; Love, Alison; Neal, Margaret; Wickham, Heather; Harman, Sarah; Armstrong, Linda

    2010-02-15

    Phosphorus concentrations in the upper River Thames Basin (southeastern England) are described and linked to sewage effluent sources. Weekly surveys between 1997 and 2007 of the Thames and two of its major tributaries, the Thame and the Kennet indicated that phosphorus was mainly in soluble reactive (SRP) form. Baseflow concentrations in the Thames reduced from 1584microg/l in 1998 to 376microg/l in 2006 and from 2655 to 715microg/l for the Thame. Flow response, flux and endmember mixing analysis indicated that these declines resulted from SRP reductions in sewage treatment works (STW) effluent following phosphorus stripping for the major STWs in the region. This was confirmed by comparing our analysis with direct measurements of SRP in the effluents based on Environment Agency data. A within-river loss under baseflow of approximately 64% (range 56-78%) of the SRP-effluent input was estimated for the Thames, with a near balance for the Thame. SRP concentrations in the Kennet were an order of magnitude lower than the Thames/Thame: non-point sources dominated and were important for all the rivers at high flows. It was concluded that removal of SRP from effluents would be insufficient SRP in the Thames and Thame to meet annual average environmental targets of 50 to 120microg/l. The paper flags the value of combining hydrological/chemical tracing and concentration/flux approaches to data interrogation and the bonus of having actual measurements of the effluent. It highlights the need for fuller assessment of water storage/sediment/biota interactions for phosphorus and for caution in using boron as a long-term tracer for effluent inputs, its concentrations having declined markedly in response to reduced usage in washing powders: the value of using sodium as a tracer for examining SRP changes is shown. PMID:19919876

  5. Soil chemistry and phosphorus retention capacity of North Carolina coastal plain swamps receiving sewage effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, C.J.; Walbridge, M.R.; Burns, A.

    1988-11-01

    Several hundred freshwater swamps in North Carolina currently receive municipal waste-water inputs. In the study researchers examined three Coastal Plain wetlands to (1) characterize their soil chemical properties, (2) determine short-term and long-term effects of effluent additions on soil chemistry, (3) estimate the phosphorus sorption capacities of these swamp soils and determine the relationship between P sorption capacity and soil chemistry, and (4) develop a predictive index to evaluate the P sorption potentials of other N.C. Coastal Plain swamps.

  6. Flotation technique with coagulant and polymer application applied to the post-treatment of effluents from anaerobic reactor treating sewage.

    PubMed

    Reali, A P; Penetra, R G; de Carvalho, M E

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study performed with a lab-scale batch DAF unit fed with previously coagulated (with FeCl3 and/or cationic polymer) effluent from a pilot-scale expanded bed anaerobic reactor treating domestic sewage. The association between ferric chloride and polymers was studied, aimed at sludge reduction. Ferric chloride dosages ranging from 15 to 65 mg.l-1, and polymer dosages from 0.25 to 7.0 mg.l-1 were investigated. Flocculation conditions were kept constant: 20 min of time (Tf) and 80 s-1 of mean velocity gradient (Gf). Air requirement was kept to 19.0 g of air.m-3 wastewater, using 20% recycle ratio and saturation pressure at 450 kPa. When the anaerobic reactor was operating at steady state conditions, it was possible to reduce the FeCl3 dosage from 65 to 30 mg.l-1 after applying 0.4 mg.l-1 of non-ionic polymer, before the DAF process. For these dosages, 79% COD removal (residual of 23 mg.l-1), 86% total phosphate removal (residual of 0.9 mg.l-1) and 98% turbidity removal (residual of 2.6 NTU) were observed. Furthermore, the use of adequate polymer together with 30 mgFeCl3.l-1 leads to the production of high rising rate flocs. PMID:11575086

  7. The determination of fertilizer quality of the formed struvite from effluent of a sewage sludge anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Ayla; Yilmazel, Y Dilsad; Demirer, Goksel N

    2010-09-15

    The formation of struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4).6H(2)O) in wastewater treatment plants can lead to scaling and thus operational problems reducing the treatment efficiency. However, struvite has significant commercial value as an agricultural fertilizer. Therefore, controlled struvite formation in wastewater treatment plants not only presents an opportunity to recover nutrients but also corresponds to the valorization of wastes. NH(4)-N and PO(4)-P removal and recovery from the effluent of a full-scale sewage sludge anaerobic digester via controlled struvite precipitation were investigated in this study. The effect of the residual heavy metal and micropollutant content of the formed struvite on fertilizer quality was also evaluated. Removal efficiencies of NH(4)-N, PO(4)-P and COD were 89.35%, 95% and 39.78% when Mg:N:P molar ratio was 1.5:1:1 and pH was 9.0. Mercury, nickel, zinc and chrome concentrations derived from struvite precipitation were below the regulatory limit for fertilizer usage in Turkey. The precipitate did not contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis conducted on the precipitate indicated a struvite formation. PMID:20605682

  8. Effects of heavy metals contained in soil irrigated with a mixture of sewage sludge and effluent for thirty years on soil microbial biomass and plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katanda, Y.; Mushonga, C.; Banganayi, F.; Nyamangara, J.

    The use of sewage effluent as a source of nutrients and water in peri-urban crop production is widespread in developing countries. A study was conducted in 2005 at Crowborough and Firle farms (near Harare) to assess effect of Cd on microbial biomass and activity, effect of sewage sludge and effluent on soybean (Glycine max L (Merr)) nodulation, and uptake of Zn and Cu by lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.), mustard rape ( Brassica juncea L.), covo ( Brassica napus) and star grass ( Cynodon nlemfuensis). The soil that was used had been irrigated with sewage sludge and effluent for 30 years. Soil collected from Crowborough farm was enriched with Cd to different concentrations (0.4-5 mg Cd kg -1 soil) using Cd(NO 3) 2 and microbial biomass C and N (chloroform-incubation extraction) and respiration rates (CO 2 evolution) determined. A similar experiment to determine the effect of repeated addition of small amounts of Cd to soil over time on the same parameters was conducted. Three vegetables and star grass were grown in a pot experiment and harvested at six weeks after transplanting for the determination of above ground dry matter yield, and Zn and Cu, uptake. In another pot experiment, two soybean varieties, Magoye and Solitaire, were harvested after eight weeks and nodule number and effectiveness, and above ground dry matter yield were then determined. Cd significantly decreased biomass C (68%) and N (73%). Microbial respiration also significantly decreased. It was concluded that long-term application of sewage sludge and effluent to soil has negative effects on soil micro organisms, including Rhizobia. These micro organisms are essential for N-fixation. The damage to Rhizobia, caused diminished nodulation of soybean. Mustard rape and lettuce can accumulate Zn and Cu beyond toxic limits without apparent reduction in growth thereby posing a serious concern to the food chain. The consumption of mustard rape and lettuce grown on soil amended with sewage sludge and effluent at

  9. Study of the temporal nutrient dynamic of a temporary Mediterranean river receiving direct sewage effluents.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Arthur; Boutron, Olivier; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Salles, Christian; Rodier, Claire; Marchand, Pierre; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Tournoud, Marie-George

    2010-05-01

    Arid and semiarid areas where the temporary rivers and streams occur, account for one third of the earth's surface land area. However, little is known regarding their hydrologic and biogeochemical behaviour. In the European Community, all water resources have to be monitored following the requirements outlined in the Water Framework Directive (WFD-2000/60/EC). The temporary rivers provide a significant challenge in developing appropriate sampling strategy for their monitoring. The objective of this work is to characterize the nutrient dynamic on the Vène River for different hydrological conditions. To this aim, a strategic sampling was realized on this river. We selected key locations located upstream and downstream the most important point- and/or diffuse-pollution sources. 23 sampling stations were chosen: 13 sites are located in the main river and 10 sites concern direct inputs (including two sewage inputs). The spatial sampling realized all along the river was conducted on a one-day survey campaign for different hydrological conditions (including periods of very low flow and high flow). At each station, grab water samples were collected and were analysed for the different nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) forms. Additionally, automatic samplers coupled to three stream-gauges installed along the river permitted to collect water samples during flood events. The first results were obtained for two one-day survey campaigns which occurred in June and September 2009 at, respectively, the beginning and the end of the dry period. During these periods, the karstic spring was dry and the two wastewater inputs contributed to a great share of the flow discharge (up to 80 %). Concerning the water quality, a similar trend was observed for the evolution of N and P concentrations all along the river course, i.e., an increase was observed just after each sewage inputs (up to 2400 µg/l for ammonium and up to 4900 µg/l for total phosphorus), followed by a drop of concentrations

  10. The occurrence and distribution of pharmaceutical compounds in the effluents of a major sewage treatment plant in Northern Taiwan and the receiving coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Fang, Tien-Hsi; Nan, Fan-Hua; Chin, Tzong-Shean; Feng, Hui-Min

    2012-07-01

    The pharmaceutical residues in waste water from the largest sewage treatment plant (STP) in Northern Taiwan and in seawater around the effluent discharged area were determined. An environmental risk assessment for the marine environment was conducted based on the environment risk quotient (ERQ). The concentrations of the analyzed compounds in STP influent and effluent were generally higher than those found in coastal seawater. Relatively higher values were found at the estuarine mouth and the discharged area, suggesting that the STP effluent is a point source. The removal efficiency and half life of the analyzed compounds were 6.3-46.8% and 3-18 days, respectively. The ERQ value theoretical calculation was generally greater than 1. However, when the measured concentrations replaced the predicated concentrations, the ERQ values were considerably lower than 1. Therefore, our results call for a re-evaluation of the risks posed by pharmaceuticals to coastal marine ecosystems in Northern Taiwan. PMID:22608946

  11. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in effluent from sewage treatment plant from eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Sroka, Jacek; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Cencek, Tomasz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia (synonyms: Giardia duodenalis, Giardia intestinalis) are emerging protozoa causing disease in humans and animals worldwide. These parasites can pose a serious threat to immunocompromised people, for whom the symptoms are more severe and may include abdominal pain, watery diarrhoea, nausea, headaches, malaise, and fever. One of the sources of these parasites can be treated wastewater from wastewater treatment plants (WTPs). Samples of treated wastewater (effluent), each of 10 L volume, were collected from 13 municipal WTPs located in eastern Poland. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were separated by the immunomagnetic method. The presence and/or concentration of protozoan (oo)cysts in effluent samples were determined by direct immunofluorescent microscopy, nested PCR and Real Time PCR. Viability of (oo)cysts was determined by double-staining with the use of Live/Dead BacLight kit (Invitrogen). Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 8 WTPs (61.5%) and Giardia spp. cysts in 11 WTPs (84.6%) by microscopic analysis. Both pathogens were detected in samples from 7 WTPs. Median concentrations of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in 13 examined samples were 2.2/L and 6.6/L, respectively, while mean concentrations were 28.5/L and 113.6/L, respectively. In positive samples, Cryptosporidium oocysts concentrations ranged from 0.4 - 154.1 oocysts per litre, and Giardia cysts concentrations ranged from 0.7 - 660 cysts per litre. By nested PCR, Giardia DNA was detected in 4 samples of the 13 examined, (30.8%) while Cryptosporidium DNA was never detected. In Real Time PCR, positive results for Giardia were obtained in 5 samples (38.5%) and in none of the samples for Cryptosporidium, with the exception of one equivocal result. Viable (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 3 out of 4 samples examined, in the ranges of 12.5 - 60% and 50 - 100% of total (oo)cysts, respectively. In view of our preliminary

  12. An extensive gastroenteritis outbreak after drinking-water contamination by sewage effluent, Finland.

    PubMed

    Laine, J; Huovinen, E; Virtanen, M J; Snellman, M; Lumio, J; Ruutu, P; Kujansuu, E; Vuento, R; Pitkänen, T; Miettinen, I; Herrala, J; Lepistö, O; Antonen, J; Helenius, J; Hänninen, M-L; Maunula, L; Mustonen, J; Kuusi, M

    2011-07-01

    An inappropriate cross-connection between sewage- and drinking-water pipelines contaminated tap water in a Finnish town, resulting in an extensive waterborne gastroenteritis outbreak in this developed country. According to a database and a line-list, altogether 1222 subjects sought medical care as a result of this exposure. Seven pathogens were found in patient samples of those who sought treatment. To establish the true disease burden from this exposure, we undertook a population-based questionnaire investigation with a control population, infrequently used to study waterborne outbreaks. The study covered three areas, contaminated and uncontaminated parts of the town and a control town. An estimated 8453 residents fell ill during the outbreak, the excess number of illnesses being 6501. Attack rates were 53% [95% confidence interval (CI) 49.5-56.4] in the contaminated area, 15.6% (95% CI 13.1-18.5) in the uncontaminated area and 6.5% (95% CI 4.8-8.8) in the control population. Using a control population allowed us to differentiate baseline morbidity from the observed morbidity caused by the water contamination, thus enabling a more accurate estimate of the disease burden of this outbreak. PMID:20843387

  13. [Excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra characteristics of DOM in a subsurface constructed wetland for advanced treatment of municipal sewage plant effluent].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-ming; Wang, Meng-meng; Ma, Rui; Li, Jian-hua

    2012-03-01

    Composition and dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were analyzed in a horizontal subsurface constructed wetland for advanced treatment of municipal sewage plant effluent using three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluores cence spectroscopy (3D-EEM). The results indicate that the two subsurface constructed wetlands performed excellent purification of organic substances, and the removal rates of COD(cr), and DOC were 61.6% and 70.1%, respectively. The constructed wetland system filled with ceramsite showed slightly greater removal efficiency of organic substance than that with zeolite substrate. Four different types of peaks such as aromatic protein-like compounds (S), soluble microbial byproducts (T), fulvic acid-like compounds, visible fulvic-like (M) and UV fulvic-like compounds (A) were found in DOM from inflow and outflow of the subsurface wetlands based on the three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy analysis. The fluorescence intensity of the four peaks was significantly decreased in the effluent after purification by the subsurface constructed wetlands. Especially, the visible fulvic-like compounds and soluble microbial byproducts were effectively removed from the sewage plant effluent by the subsurface constructed wetland with fluorescence intensity reduction percentages of 16.4% and 11.7%. Aromatic structures of humic-like compounds were weakened and organic compounds with benzene rings were decreased in the outflow of the subsurface constructed wetland. This indicates that the subsurface constructed wetlands can decompose the chemically stable and biorefractory humic-like compounds. The fluorescence intensity of M and T peaks decreased along distance, while the fluorescence intensity of S peaks firstly increased, then decreased along the distance of the subsurface constructed wetlands. As compared to zeolite substrate constructed wetland system, the constructed wetland system filled with ceramsite was more effective to reduce the

  14. Predicting concentrations of cytostatic drugs in sewage effluents and surface waters of Catalonia (NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Franquet-Griell, Helena; Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Ventura, Francesc; Lacorte, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    Cytostatic drugs, used in chemotherapy, are excreted unchanged by urine and feces or modified as metabolites. Elimination of these drugs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is often incomplete and residues reach surface water. Their presence in the natural environment depends on consumption patterns, excretion fraction and the effectiveness of the wastewater treatment. This study compiled the total consumption of cytostatic drugs in Catalonia (NE Spain) and provides data on the occurrence and risk of anticancer drugs in the aquatic environment by calculating predicted environmental concentrations (PECs). PECs were estimated using publicly available consumption data in the period of 2010-2012, published or calculated excretion values and wastewater elimination rates for a suite of 132 compounds. This allows predicting the range of concentrations in effluent wastewaters and receiving waters. Out of the 132 cytostatics, mycophenolic acid and hydroxycarbamide had a PEC value higher than 10ngL(-1). PECs were compared with MECs (measured environmental concentrations) to evaluate the reliability of the estimation. A risk assessment was conducted to determine the potential adverse effects of cytostatics in the environment. All the risk quotients calculated using EC50 in Daphnia magna were below 1, showing no significant risk. PMID:25721243

  15. 3,3',5-Triiodo-L-thyronine-like activity in effluents from domestic sewage treatment plants detected by in vitro and in vivo bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Tomonori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2008-02-01

    Thyroid system-disrupting activity in effluents from municipal domestic sewage treatment plants was detected using three in vitro assays and one in vivo assay. Contaminants in the effluents were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and eluted stepwise with different organic solvents. The majority of the thyroid system-disrupting activity was detected in the dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) fraction after SPE in all three in vitro assays: competitive assays of 3,3',5-[{sup 125}I]triiodo-L-thyronine ([{sup 125}I]T{sub 3}) binding to the plasma protein transthyretin (TTR assay) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR assay) and T{sub 3}-dependent luciferase assay (Luc assay). Subsequent reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of the dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) fraction separated contaminants potent in the TR and Luc assays from those potent in the TTR assay. The contaminants potent in the TR and Luc assays were also potent in an in vivo short-term gene expression assay in Xenopus laevis (Tadpole assay). The present study demonstrated that the effluents from domestic sewage treatment plants contain contaminants with T{sub 3}-like activity of {approx} 10{sup -10} M T{sub 3}-equivalent concentration (T{sub 3}EQ) and that the TR and Luc assays are powerful in vitro bioassays for detecting thyroid system-disrupting activity in effluents. The availability and applicability of these bioassays for screening contaminants with thyroid system-disrupting activity in the water environment are discussed.

  16. Determination of natural and synthetic glucocorticoids in effluent of sewage treatment plants using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tomohiko; Sato, Kentaro; Joon-Woo, Kim; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Go; Nakayama, Kei

    2015-09-01

    A sensitive and comprehensive analytical method for glucocorticoids (GCs) in water samples was developed and applied to effluent of sewage treatment plants (STPs). In the present study, totally 10 natural and synthetic GCs, including cortisol, betamethasone valerate, clobetasol propionate, clobetasone butyrate, difluprednate, betamethasone, dexamethasone, betamethasone dipropionate, methylprednisolone, and prednisolone, were targeted. Analytes were extracted and concentrated using an OASIS HLB solid phase extraction cartridge. Chromatographic separation and quantification were achieved using an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatograph coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS). Method detection limits were 0.05 to 0.89 ng/L, which were 1-2 orders of magnitude more sensitive than in the previous reports. Cortisol was detected in more than half of (27 out of 50) analyzed effluent samples at concentrations in the range of ND-1.36 ng/L, indicating continuous discharge of natural GC via STP effluent. On the other hand, dexamethasone + betamethasone, prednisolone, betamethasone valerate, and clobetasol propionate were detected in 25, 8, 20, and 9 samples among 50 effluent samples, respectively, suggesting not extreme but significant administration of synthetic GCs. PMID:25963071

  17. Simultaneous nutrient removal, optimised CO2 mitigation and biofuel feedstock production by Chlorogonium sp. grown in secondary treated non-sterile saline sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwan Yin; Ng, Tsz Wai; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng; Kwan, Ka Ki; Chan, King Ming; Huang, Guocheng; Yip, Ho Yin; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-10-30

    The phycoremediation process has great potential for effectively addressing environmental pollution. To explore the capabilities of simultaneous algal nutrient removal, CO2 mitigation and biofuel feedstock production from spent water resources, a Chlorogonium sp. isolated from a tilapia pond in Hong Kong was grown in non-sterile saline sewage effluent for a bioremediation study. With high removal efficiencies of NH3-N (88.35±14.39%), NO3(-)-N (85.39±14.96%), TN (93.34±6.47%) and PO4(3-)-P (91.80±17.44%), Chlorogonium sp. achieved a CO2 consumption rate of 58.96 mg L(-1) d(-1), which was optimised by the response surface methodology. Under optimised conditions, the lipid content of the algal biomass reached 24.26±2.67%. Overall, the isolated Chlorogonium sp. showed promising potential in the simultaneous purification of saline sewage effluent in terms of tertiary treatment and CO2 sequestration while delivering feedstock for potential biofuel production in a waste-recycling manner. PMID:25967099

  18. Cumulative effects of sewage sludge and effluent mixture application on soil properties of a sandy soil under a mixture of star and kikuyu grasses in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madyiwa, S.; Chimbari, M.; Nyamangara, J.; Bangira, C.

    Although sewage effluent and sludge provides nutrients for plant growth, its continual use over extended periods can result in the accumulation of heavy metals in soils and in grass to levels that are detrimental to the food chain. This study was carried in 2001 out at Firle farm, owned by the Municipality of Harare, to assess heavy metal loading on a sandy soil and uptake of the metals by pasture grass consisting of a mixture of Cynodon nlemfuensis (star grass) and Pennisetum clandestinum Chiov (kikuyu grass) following sewage effluent and sludge application for 29 years. Firle Farm receives treated effluent and sludge emanating from domestic and industrial sources. Soil and grass samples were taken from the study area, consisting of 3 ha of non-irrigated area (control) and 1.3 ha of irrigated area. Both the soil and grass samples were tested for Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Sewage sludge addition resulted in high levels of soil pollution, especially in the 20 cm horizon, in the irrigated area when compared to the control. Grasses took up moderate levels of Cu and Zn, and limited levels of Pb. Nickel was not detectable in grasses despite high levels in the irrigated soil. Copper uptake was several times higher than the suggested potentially toxic level of 12 mg/kg [Soil Science Society of America, Micronutrients in agriculture, second ed., Wisconsin, USA, 1991]. Lead uptake averaged 1.0 mg/kg, which was below 10 mg/kg the suggested limit for agronomic crops [E.M. Seaker, Zinc, copper, cadmium and lead in minespoil, water and plants from reclaimed mine land amended with sewage sludge, 1991]. Cu and Zn showed relatively higher mobility down the soil profile than Ni and Pb. Even then, the concentrations in the lower soil layers were very small, suggesting that the metals were unlikely to contaminate groundwater. There was no direct correlation between metal levels in soils and grasses. It was postulated that it is the bio

  19. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  20. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  1. Recovery and biological oxidation of dissolved methane in effluent from UASB treatment of municipal sewage using a two-stage closed downflow hanging sponge system.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Norihisa; Hatamoto, Masashi; Sumino, Haruhiko; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-03-15

    A two-stage closed downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was used as a post-treatment to prevent methane being emitted from upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluents containing unrecovered dissolved methane. The performance of the closed DHS reactor was evaluated using real municipal sewage at ambient temperatures (10-28 °C) for one year. The first stage of the closed DHS reactor was intended to recover dissolved methane from the UASB effluent and produce a burnable gas with a methane concentration greater than 30%, and its recovery efficiency was 57-88%, although the amount of dissolved methane in the UASB effluent fluctuated in the range of 46-68 % of methane production greatly depending on the temperature. The residual methane was oxidized and the remaining organic carbon was removed in the second closed DHS reactor, and this reactor performed very well, removing more than 99% of the dissolved methane during the experimental period. The rate at which air was supplied to the DHS reactor was found to be one of the most important operating parameters. Microbial community analysis revealed that seasonal changes in the methane-oxidizing bacteria were key to preventing methane emissions. PMID:25576697

  2. Coprostanol as a potential tracer of particulate sewage effluent to shelf waters adjacent to the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. C.; Wade, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    Samples were collected in the Chesapeake Bay entrance and contiguous shelf waters and were subsequently analyzed for particulate coprostanol and cholesterol concentrations. Surface coprostanol concentrations were fairly uniform, with a slight increase with depth. This increase with depth may be due to sewage-associated particulates settling as they leave the Bay, or the resuspension of contaminated sediment. Preliminary findings indicate sewage-associated materials are being transported from the Chesapeake Bay to shelf waters, where they may have a detrimental affect on living marine resources.

  3. Markers of anthropogenic contamination: A validated method for quantification of pharmaceuticals, illicit drug metabolites, perfluorinated compounds, and plasticisers in sewage treatment effluent and rain runoff.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, John L; Swinden, Julian; Hooda, Peter S; Barker, James; Barton, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    An effective, specific and accurate method is presented for the quantification of 13 markers of anthropogenic contaminants in water using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Validation was conducted according to the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. Method recoveries ranged from 77 to 114% and limits of quantification between 0.75 and 4.91 ng/L. A study was undertaken to quantify the concentrations and loadings of the selected contaminants in 6 sewage treatment works (STW) effluent discharges as well as concentrations in 5 rain-driven street runoffs and field drainages. Detection frequencies in STW effluent ranged from 25% (ethinylestradiol) to 100% (benzoylecgonine, bisphenol-A (BPA), bisphenol-S (BPS) and diclofenac). Average concentrations of detected compounds in STW effluents ranged from 3.62 ng/L (ethinylestradiol) to 210 ng/L (BPA). Levels of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) as well as the plasticiser BPA were found in street runoff at maximum levels of 1160 ng/L, 647 ng/L and 2405 ng/L respectively (8.52, 3.09 and 2.7 times more concentrated than maximum levels in STW effluents respectively). Rain-driven street runoff may have an effect on levels of PFCs and plasticisers in receiving rivers and should be further investigated. Together, this method with the 13 selected contaminants enables the quantification of various markers of anthropogenic pollutants: inter alia pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and their metabolites from humans and improper disposal of drugs, while the plasticisers and perfluorinated compounds may also indicate contamination from industrial and transport activity (street runoff). PMID:27348563

  4. Endocrine disrupting activities in sewage effluent and river water determined by chemical analysis and in vitro assay in the context of granular activated carbon upgrade.

    PubMed

    Grover, D P; Balaam, J; Pacitto, S; Readman, J W; White, S; Zhou, J L

    2011-09-01

    As part of endocrine disruption in catchments (EDCAT) programme, this work aims to assess the temporal and spatial variations of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in River Ray, before and after the commissioning of a full-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) plant at a sewage treatment works (STW). Through spot and passive sampling from effluent and river sites, estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities were determined by chemical analysis and in vitro bio-assay. A correlation was found between chemical analyses of the most potent estrogens (estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2)) and yeast estrogen screen (YES) measurement, both showing clearly a reduction in estrogenic activity after the commissioning of the GAC plant at the STW. During the study period, the annual average concentrations of E1, E2 and EE2 had decreased from 3.5 ng L(-1), 3.1 ng L(-1) and 0.5 ng L(-1) to below their limit of detection (LOD), respectively, with a concentration reduction of at least 91%, 81% and 60%. Annual mean estrogenic activity measured by YES of spot samples varied from 1.9 ng L(-1) to 0.4 ng L(-1) E2 equivalent between 2006 and 2008 representing a 79% reduction. Similarly, anti-androgenic activity measured by yeast anti-androgen screen (anti-YAS) of spot samples was reduced from 148.8 to 22.4 μg flutamide L(-1), or by 85%. YES and anti-YAS values were related to each other, suggesting co-existence of both types of activities from chemical mixtures in environmental samples. The findings confirm the effectiveness of a full-scale GAC in removing both estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities from sewage effluent. PMID:21546050

  5. Sources and distribution of nitrate in ground water at a farmed field irrigated with sewage treatment-plant effluent, Tallahassee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    The city of Tallahassee, Florida began applying sewage treatment-plant effluent to a sprayfield southeast of the city in 1980. Fertilizers containing inorganic nitrogen were also applied in conjunction with the operation of a commercial farm at this site. Analysis of groundwater in the surficial aquifer and the Upper Floridan aquifer have indicated that nitrate concentrations in some wells exceed the prescribed drinking water maximum contaminant level of 10 mg/L (nitrate as nitrogen). Nitrate concentrations greater than the maximum contaminant level were not detected in samples from monitoring wells outside the sprayfield boundary. Analyses of water from the unsaturated zone indicated that conversion of organic nitrogen and ammonia to nitrate was complete before the nitrogen- enriched water reached the water table. Groundwater samples from wells in the surficial and Upper Floridan aquifers less than 100 ft deep located inside sprayed areas had mean concentrations of nitrate much higher than samples from similar wells located outside sprayed areas at the southeast sprayfield. These shallow wells inside the sprayed areas were the only wells in which the maximum contaminant level for nitrate was exceeded. Analyses of the nitrogen isotope ratios in groundwater were used to determine whether the major source of nitrogen was treated sewage or fertilizers. The nitrogen isotope ratios in contaminated groundwater at the southeast sprayfield were compared to those at another sprayfield southwest of the city, where treated sewage was the sole source of nitrogen. Statistical analyses indicated a significant difference in the nitrogen isotope ratios at the two sites, indicating that both nitrogen sources are significant at the southeast sprayfield. (USGS)

  6. Predicting phosphorus concentrations in British rivers resulting from the introduction of improved phosphorus removal from sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Bowes, Michael J; Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P; Smith, Jim T; Davies, Helen N

    2010-09-01

    Phosphorus (P) concentration and flow data gathered during the 1990s for a range of British rivers were used to determine the relative contributions of point and diffuse inputs to the total P load, using the Load Apportionment Model (LAM). Heavily urbanised catchments were dominated by sewage inputs, but the majority of the study catchments received most of their annual phosphorus load from diffuse sources. Despite this, almost 80% of the study sites were dominated by point source inputs for the majority of the year, particularly during summer periods when eutrophication risk is greatest. This highlights the need to reduce sewage P inputs to improve the ecological status of British rivers. These modelled source apportionment estimates were validated against land-use data and boron load (a chemical marker for sewage). The LAM was applied to river flow data in subsequent years, to give predicted P concentrations (assuming no change in P source inputs), and these estimates were compared with observed concentration data. This showed that there had been significant reductions in P concentration in the River Thames, Aire and Ouse in the period 1999 to 2002, which were attributable to the introduction of P stripping at sewage treatment works (STW). The model was then used to forecast P concentrations resulting from the introduction of P removal at STW to a 2 or 1mgl(-1) consent limit. For the urbanised rivers in this study, the introduction of phosphorus stripping to a 1mgl(-1) consent level at all STW in the catchment would not reduce P concentrations in the rivers to potentially limiting concentrations. Therefore, further sewage P stripping will be required to comply with the Water Framework Directive. Diffuse P inputs may also need to be reduced before some of the highly nutrient-enriched rivers achieve good ecological status. PMID:20547413

  7. Water resource recovery by means of microalgae cultivation in outdoor photobioreactors using the effluent from an anaerobic membrane bioreactor fed with pre-treated sewage.

    PubMed

    Viruela, Alexandre; Murgui, Mónica; Gómez-Gil, Tao; Durán, Freddy; Robles, Ángel; Ruano, María Victoria; Ferrer, José; Seco, Aurora

    2016-10-01

    With the aim of assessing the potential of microalgae cultivation for water resource recovery (WRR), the performance of three 0.55m(3) flat-plate photobioreactors (PBRs) was evaluated in terms of nutrient removal rate (NRR) and biomass production. The PBRs were operated outdoor (at ambient temperature and light intensity) using as growth media the nutrient-rich effluent from an AnMBR fed with pre-treated sewage. Solar irradiance was the most determining factor affecting NRR. Biomass productivity was significantly affected by temperatures below 20°C. The maximum biomass productivity (52.3mgVSS·L(-1)·d(-1)) and NRR (5.84mgNH4-N·L(-1)·d(-1) and 0.85mgPO4-P·L(-1)·d(-1)) were achieved at solar irradiance of 395μE·m(-2)·s(-1), temperature of 25.5°C, and HRT of 8days. Under these conditions, it was possible to comply with effluent nutrient standards (European Directive 91/271/CEE) when the nutrient content in the influent was in the range of 40-50mgN·L(-1) and 6-7mg P·L(-1). PMID:27394990

  8. Spatial distribution and importance of potential perfluoroalkyl acid precursors in urban rivers and sewage treatment plant effluent--case study of Tama River, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ye, Feng; Tokumura, Masahiro; Islam, Md Saiful; Zushi, Yasuyuki; Oh, Jungkeun; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2014-12-15

    Production and use of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is regulated worldwide. However, numerous potential precursors that eventually decompose into PFOS and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are still being used and have not been studied in detail. Therefore, knowledge about the levels and sources of the precursors is essential. We investigated the total concentration of potential PFAA precursors in the Tama River, which is one of the major rivers flowing into the Tokyo Bay, by converting all the perfluorinated carboxylic acid (PFCA) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid (PFSA) precursors into PFCAs by chemical oxidation. The importance of controlling PFAA precursors was determined by calculating the ratios of PFCAs formed by oxidation to the PFAAs originally present (ΣΔ[PFCAC4-C12]/Σ[PFAAs]before oxidation) (average = 0.28 and 0.69 for main and tributary branch rivers, respectively). Higher total concentrations of Δ[PFCAs] were found in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents. However, the ratios found in the effluents were lower (average = 0.21) than those found in the river water samples, which implies the decomposition of some precursors into PFAAs during the treatment process. On the other hand, higher ratios were observed in the upstream water samples and the existence of emission sources other than the STP effluents was indicated. This study showed that although the treatment process converting a part of the PFAA precursors into PFAAs, STPs were important sources of precursors to the Tama River. To reduce the levels of PFAAs in the aquatic environment, it is necessary to reduce the emission of the PFAA precursors as well. PMID:25262552

  9. Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description (SYS 27)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank.

  10. Multi-residue analytical methodology-based liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry for the analysis of pharmaceutical residues in surface water and effluents from sewage treatment plants and hospitals.

    PubMed

    Al-Qaim, Fouad F; Abdullah, M P; Othman, Mohamed R; Latip, Jalifah; Zakaria, Zuriati

    2014-06-01

    An analytical method that facilitated the analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals residue (caffeine, prazosin, enalapril, carbamazepine, nifedipine, levonorgestrel, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, gliclazide, diclofenac-Na, and mefenamic acid) with a single pre-treatment protocol was developed. The proposed method included an isolation and concentration procedure using solid phase extraction (Oasis HLB), a separation step using high-performance liquid chromatography, and a detection procedure that applies time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The method was validated for drinking water (DW), surface water (SW), sewage treatment plant (STP) influent and effluent, and hospital (HSP) influent and effluent. The limits of quantification were as low as 0.4, 1.6, 5, 3, 2.2 and 11 ng/L in DW, SW, HSP influent and effluent, STP effluent, and STP influent, respectively. On average, good recoveries higher than 75% were obtained for most of the target analytes in all matrices. Matrix effect was evaluated for all samples matrices. The proposed method successfully determined and quantified the target compounds in raw and treated wastewater of four STPs and three hospitals in Malaysia, as well as in two SW sites. The results showed that a number of the studied compounds pose moderate to high persistency in sewage treatment effluents as well as in the recipient rivers, namely; caffeine, simvastatin, and hydrochlorothiazide. Ten out of 11 compounds were detected and quantified in 13 sampling points. Caffeine was detected with the highest level, with concentrations reaching up to 9099 ng/L in STP influent. PMID:24768127

  11. Screening concentration of E1, E2 and EE2 in sewage effluents and surface waters of the "Pampas" region and the "Río de la Plata" estuary (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Valdés, María Eugenia; Marino, Damián José; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Ronco, Alicia Estela; Carriquiriborde, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were investigated for the first time in sewage effluents and receiving waters of the "Río de la Plata" estuary and neighboring areas by means of LC-MS/MS. E2 and EE2 were ubiquitous in the evaluated sewage effluent samples showing concentrations ranging between 122-631 and 65-187 ng/L, respectively. In surface waters, these estrogens were only detected in the "Girado" stream (Chascomús) at 369 and 43 ng/L, respectively. No significant relationship was found among the size of the served population and the concentration of the estrogens in the sewage effluent. The detection of these estrogens in receiving waters was dependent on the dilution capacity of the system. The studied estrogens were undetectable at the La Plata City water supply station. Conversely, concentrations found at the "Girado" stream indicate a potential ecotoxicological risk of these estrogens to the local aquatic biota. PMID:25380649

  12. Presence of illicit drugs and metabolites in influents and effluents of 25 sewage water treatment plants and map of drug consumption in France.

    PubMed

    Nefau, Thomas; Karolak, Sara; Castillo, Luis; Boireau, Véronique; Levi, Yves

    2013-09-01

    Consumption of illicit drugs is a new concern for water management that must be considered not only because of the social and public health aspects but also in an environmental context in relation with the contamination of surface waters. Indeed, sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents contain drug residues that have not been eliminated since STP treatments are not completely efficient in their removal. We developed and validated an HPLC-MS/MS analytical method to assess the concentrations of 17 illicit drugs and metabolites in raw urban wastewaters: cocaine and its metabolites, amphetamine and amphetamine-likes (methamphetamine, MDMA, MDEA, MDA), opiates and opiate substitutes (methadone and buprenorphine), and THC-COOH cannabis metabolite. This method has been applied to the analysis of influent and effluent samples from 25 STPs located in France all over the country. The results allowed evaluating the drug consumption in the areas connected to the STPs and the efficiency of the treatment technology implied. We selected STPs according to their volume capacity, their treatment technologies (biofilters, activated sludges, MBR) and their geographical location. In influents, the concentrations varied between 6 ng/L for EDDP (main metabolite of methadone) and 3050 ng/L for benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite). Consumption maps were drawn for cocaine, MDMA, opiates, cannabis and amphetamine-like compounds. Geographical significant differences were observed and highlighted the fact that drug consumption inside a country is not homogeneous. In parallel, comparisons between STP technology processes showed differences of efficiency. More, some compounds appear very resistant to STP processes leading to the contamination of receiving water. PMID:23770552

  13. Suitability of macrophytes for nutrient removal from surface flow constructed wetlands receiving secondary treated sewage effluent in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Greenway, M

    2003-01-01

    From a botanical perspective the major difference between waste stabilisation ponds and wetlands is the dominance of algae or floating plants in the former and emergent plants in the latter. Algae, floating and submerged plants remove nutrients directly from the water column whereas emergent species remove nutrients from the sediment. Water depth is a crucial factor in determining which plant types will become established. Surface flow constructed wetlands offer the greatest potential to grow a wide variety of different types of macrophytes. In assessing the suitability of plant species for nutrient removal, consideration must be given not only to nutrient uptake for growth but also storage of nutrients as plant biomass. A survey of macrophytes in 15 surface flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent was conducted in Queensland; 63 native species and 14 introduced species were found. Emergent species have been able to tolerate deeper water than in their natural environment and permanent waterlogging. All species grew well in the higher nutrient enriched wastewater. Submerged, floating leaved-attached and free floating species had the highest tissue nutrient content, followed by aquatic creepers. All these species remove nutrients from the water column. Emergent species had lower nutrient content but a greater biomass and were therefore able to store more nutrients per unit area of wetland. In order to maximise the efficiency of constructed wetlands for nutrient removal, a range of species should be used. Native species should be selected in preference to introduced/exotic species. PMID:14510202

  14. Ground-Water Quality and Potential Effects of Individual Sewage Disposal System Effluent on Ground-Water Quality in Park County, Colorado, 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Lisa D.; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Park County, Colorado, began a study to evaluate ground-water quality in the various aquifers in Park County that supply water to domestic wells. The focus of this study was to identify and describe the principal natural and human factors that affect ground-water quality. In addition, the potential effects of individual sewage disposal system (ISDS) effluent on ground-water quality were evaluated. Ground-water samples were collected from domestic water-supply wells from July 2001 through October 2004 in the alluvial, crystalline-rock, sedimentary-rock, and volcanic-rock aquifers to assess general ground-water quality and effects of ISDS's on ground-water quality throughout Park County. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, bacteria, and boron; and selected samples also were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon, human-related (wastewater) compounds, trace elements, radionuclides, and age-dating constituents (tritium and chlorofluorocarbons). Drinking-water quality is adequate for domestic use throughout Park County with a few exceptions. Only about 3 percent of wells had concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, and (or) uranium that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national, primary drinking-water standards. These primary drinking-water standards were exceeded only in wells completed in the crystalline-rock aquifers in eastern Park County. Escherichia coli bacteria were detected in one well near Guffey, and total coliform bacteria were detected in about 11 percent of wells sampled throughout the county. The highest total coliform concentrations were measured southeast of the city of Jefferson and west of Tarryall Reservoir. Secondary drinking-water standards were exceeded more frequently. About 19 percent of wells had concentrations of one or more constituents (pH, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and dissolved solids) that exceeded secondary drinking-water standards

  15. IN VITRO IDENTIFICATION OF ANDROGENIC AND ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATIONS (CAFO) AND TERTIARY-TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fr...

  16. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  17. SEWAGE DISPOSAL ON AGRICULTURAL SOILS: CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS. VOLUME I. CHEMICAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The city of San Angelo, Texas, has used sewage effluent which has undergone primary treatment for irrigation of the same 259-hectare sewage farm since 1958. The impact of 18 years of sewage effluent irrigation on the soil and water quality was studied from 1975 to 1977. The volum...

  18. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  19. Accumulation of Metals in Soils, Groundwater and Edible Parts of Crops Grown Under Long-Term Irrigation with Sewage Mixed Industrial Effluents.

    PubMed

    Yadav, R K; Minhas, P S; Lal, Khajanchi; Chaturvedi, R K; Yadav, Gajender; Verma, T P

    2015-08-01

    Farmers in developing countries irrigate crops using raw urban and industrial effluents with consequent risks from metal contamination. Therefore, soils, crops and groundwater from an effluent irrigation use site were assessed for Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb. Total and available contents of metals in soil followed the order Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd. Crops accumulated more Pb, followed by Cd, Ni and Cr. Pb exceeded the permissible limit with wastewater irrigation only, but Cd exceeded the limit even with combined irrigations of wastewater and groundwater. Among crops, sugar beet assimilated highest Cd (3.14 μg g(-1)) and Pb (6.42 μg g(-1)) concentrations. Legumes accumulated more metals than cereals. Long-term use of wastewater and its conjunctive use with groundwater led to toxic accumulations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr. Cd with higher availability and mobility indices and lower toxicity limit, posed the maximum risk of food-chain contamination. PMID:25894348

  20. Polar organic chemical integrative sampling and liquid chromatography- electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry for assessing selected prescription and illicit drugs in treated sewage effluents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper was twofold: (1) to demonstrate the coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and microliquid chromatography-electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry and (2) to assess the ability of these methodologies to detect six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in a real-world environment, e.g., waste water effluent. In the effluent from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), azithromycin was detected at concentrations ranging from 15 to 66 ng/L, which is equivalent to a total annual release of 1 to 4 kg into receiving waters. Detected and confirmed in the effluent from two WWTPs were two illicit drugs, methamphetamine and MDMA, at 2 and 0.5 ng/L, respectively. Although the ecotoxicologic significance of drugs in environmental matrices, particularly water, has not been closely examined, it can only be surmised that these substances have the potential to adversely affect biota that are continuously exposed to them even at very low levels. The potential for chronic effects on human health is also unknown but of increasing concern because of the multi-use character of water, particularly in densely populated, arid areas.

  1. Sewage treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alex G.

    1995-01-01

    The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

  2. Partial oxidation of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, M.A.; Martin, M.C.; McKenzie, K.W.

    1993-07-27

    A process is described comprising: (1) splitting a stream of dewatered sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 17-40 wt.% into a first stream and a second stream; (2) drying the first stream of dewatered sewage sludge to produce a stream of dried sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 75-99 wt.%: (3) grinding the dried sewage sludge from (2) to a particle size so that 100 wt% passes through ASTM E11 Standard Sieve Designation 1.40 mm; (4) mixing about 2-8 parts by dry weight aqueous slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel having a solids content of about 50-70 wt. % with each part by weight of said second stream of dewatered sewage sludge from (1); (5) heating the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry from (4) to a temperature of about 140-212 F; and mixing together 3-9 parts by dry weight of the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage sludge slurry from (4) with each part by weight of dried sewage sludge from (2) to produce a pumpable fuel slurry comprising sewage sludge and solid carbonaceous fuel and having a solids content in the range of about 45-70 wt. %; and (6) reacting the fuel slurry from (5) in the reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator at a temperature in the range of about 1800-3500 F and a pressure in the range of about 1-35 atmospheres, and in the presence of free-oxygen containing gas, thereby producing a hot raw effluent gas stream of synthesis gas, reducing gas or fuel gas; (7) cooling, cleaning and purifying said raw effluent gas stream to produce a stream of fuel gas; (8) burning the fuel gas from (7) with air in a combustor of a gas turbine, and passing the hot exhaust gas through an expansion turbine which drives an electric generator; and (9) passing the hot exhaust gas from (8) in indirect heat exchange with water to produce steam for use in drying said first stream of dewatered sewage sludge in (2) and/or for heating said solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry is (5) by indirect heat exchange.

  3. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution time of flight mass spectrometry for chemical characterization of sewage treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xiyu; Leonards, Pim; Legler, Juliette; van der Oost, Ron; de Boer, Jacob; Lamoree, Marja

    2015-02-01

    For the first time a comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC) system coupled with a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HR-ToF MS) was developed and applied for analysis of emerging toxicants in wastewater effluent. The system was optimized and validated using environmental standard compound mixtures of e.g. carbamate pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), to characterize the chromatographic system, to test the stability of the retention times and orthogonality. Various stationary phases in the second dimension were compared for the LC×LC analysis of silicon rubber passive sampler extracts of a wastewater effluent. A combination of C18 and Pentafluorophenyl (PFP) was found to be most effective. Finally, the hyphenation of LC×LC with HR-ToF MS was optimized, including splitter settings, transfer of data files between the different software packages and background subtraction using instrument software tools, after which tentative identification of 20 environmental contaminants was achieved, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals and food additives. As examples, three pesticides (isoproturon, terbutryn and diazinon) were confirmed by two-dimensional retention alignment. PMID:25578044

  4. Macroalgae blooms and delta 15N in subtropical coastal lagoons from the Southeastern Gulf of California: discrimination among agricultural, shrimp farm and sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Piñón-Gimate, Alejandra; Soto-Jiménez, Martín F; Ochoa-Izaguirre, María Julia; García-Pagés, Eynar; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2009-08-01

    Macroalgae blooms of Gracilaria vermiculophylla, Hypnea spinella and Spyridia filamentosa have been found in coastal lagoons in the SE Gulf of California. Agriculture, livestock, shrimp and poultry farms and sewage contribute anthropogenic nitrogen to the systems. The delta(15)N of these sources, water column and macroalgae were studied in order to identify the N supply for macroalgae blooms. delta(15)N of three species of macroalgae (4.3-13.6 per thousand) were enriched compared to the water column (delta(15)N-NO(3)(-) 3.7-6.8 per thousand), probably because of fractioning from the macroalgae. delta(15)N of POM (1.4-10.3 per thousand) was similar to the water column but the relationship was unclear. Depending on the site, macroalgae showed different delta(15)N values since some sites receive more or less influence from one given source of the associated watershed, which is reflected in the different delta(15)N values of the macroalgae of the same system and in the relative contributions of the sources. PMID:19442992

  5. Analysis and occurrence of pharmaceuticals, estrogens, progestogens and polar pesticides in sewage treatment plant effluents, river water and drinking water in the Llobregat river basin (Barcelona, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuster, Marina; López de Alda, Maria José; Hernando, Maria Dolores; Petrovic, Mira; Martín-Alonso, Jordi; Barceló, Damià

    2008-08-01

    SummaryThis work investigated the presence of 21 emerging contaminants of various chemical groups (7 estrogens, 3 progestogens, 6 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and 5 acidic pesticides) in the Llobregat river basin (NE Spain). Waters from the outlet of various sewage treatment plants (STP) and waterworks located along the river basin, as well as water samples from the river or its tributaries upstream and downstream of these plants were analysed in two pilot monitoring studies. Chemical analyses were performed by means of on-line or off-line solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Methods detection limits (in ng/L) were ⩽0.85 for estrogens, ⩽3.94 for progestogens, ⩽30 for PPCPs, and ⩽0.99 for pesticides. Of the estrogens and progestogens analysed, only estrone-3-sulfate, estrone, estriol and progesterone were found to be present in the low nanogram per liter range in some of the samples investigated. Except for atenolol, all PPCPs studied (ibuprofen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, salicylic acid, and triclosan) could be identified at levels usually lower than 250 ng/L and up to 1200 ng/l (diclofenac). Of the various pesticides investigated (2,4-D, bentazone; MCPA, mecoprop and propanil) MCPA and 2,4-D were the most ubiquitous and abundant and bentazone the only one not detected. Individual concentrations were most often below 100 ng/L and never surpassed the EU limits.

  6. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage effluent, continental and coastal waters from the Northwestern Mediterrean Sea: Comparison between two contrasted catchment areas (Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guigue, Catherine; Ferretto, Nicolas; Méjanelle, Laurence; Tedetti, Marc; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Goutx, Madeleine

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed from sewage treatment plant waters and surface waters collected in continental (rivers), harbour and off-shore marine sites from Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coastal areas between 2009 and 2013 (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, France). After collection, water samples were first filtered on glass fiber filters, then PAHs from the dissolved phase were extracted using liquid-liquid or solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, while those from particles were treated according to Bligh and Dyer method. After a possible purification step, extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Regardless of the study area, dissolved and particulate PAH (18 parents + alkylated homologues) concentration averages were 150.2 ± 140.5 ng l-1and 39.4 ± 71.2 ng l-1, respectively. Interestingly, the concentration in dissolved PAHs was on average 3.8 higher than the concentration in particulate PAHs. In addition, a gradient of PAH concentrations was observed from coastal waters with the highest values in harbours and outlet sewage effluents and the lowest values in off-shore marine waters. Intermediate concentrations were recorded in continental waters. In the Marseilles Bay, dissolved PAH concentrations were significantly higher and associated to increased signatures of unburned and combusted fossil fuels, mainly from heating, during the cold period (November-April). In contrast, unburned petroleum signature dominated in the warm period (May-October), emphasizing the intense shipping traffic and urban/industrial activities occurring in one of the largest Mediterranean harbour and city. Conversely, in the Vermeille coastal waters, dissolved PAH concentrations were higher during the warm period when particulate PAHs displayed the lowest concentrations, suggesting a seasonal related partition between dissolved and particulate PAHs. In addition, in the Vermeille coastal waters, PAHs were dominated by

  7. Estrogen mediated effects in the Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, following field exposures to sewage effluent containing estrogenic compounds and activity.

    PubMed

    Andrew-Priestley, M N; O'Connor, W A; Dunstan, R H; Van Zwieten, L; Tyler, T; Kumar, A; MacFarlane, G R

    2012-09-15

    The Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, has been demonstrated as a useful biomonitor of estrogenic compounds following laboratory exposures, yet its utility in the assessment of estrogenic exposure and effects under field conditions requires investigation. To achieve this aim, S. glomerata were deployed in Newcastle, Australia in the effluent receiving marine waters of Burwood Beach WWTP (Burwood Beach "near", <50 m from outfall and Burwood Beach "far", 100-150 m from outfall) and reference locations (Redhead, Fingal Island 1 and Fingal Island 2) at depths of 4, 8 and 12 m for six weeks. Effluent receiving waters of Burwood Beach WWTP were found to be a suitable impact location, demonstrated via measurement of estrogenic compounds and activity throughout the deployment. Estrogenic compounds were detected (average of combined solids and liquid fractions) at average concentrations of: 1.42 ng/L for estrone, 0.69 ng/L for 17β estradiol, 3.83 ng/L for estriol (E3), 0.56 ng/L for 17α-ethynylestradiol, 64.2 ng/L for bisphenol A, 7.51 ng/L for 4-nonylphenol and 5.93 ng/L for 4-tert-octylphenol. Total estrogenic activity was estimated at 4.48 ng/L EEQ via the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES(®)) assay (average of combined solid and liquid fractions). Female vitellogenin gene expression was highest at Burwood Beach locations, yet no significant differences were detected among locations for either sex. Vitellogenin protein was significantly higher (p<0.05) in S. glomerata at Burwood Beach Near compared to reference locations for the 4 and 12 m depths. Increased proportions of females were found at Burwood Beach Near, at 4m depth (p<0.05). Both Burwood Beach locations had higher proportions of mature female gonadal development stages compared to reference locations (p<0.05). Oocyte area was highest at both Burwood Beach locations, but no significant differences were detected among locations. Findings provided further evidence that female S. glomerata may be a suitable

  8. Development of a quantitative high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for sucralose in sewage effluent, surface water, and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Morlock, Gertrud E; Schuele, Leonard; Grashorn, Sebastian

    2011-05-13

    Sucralose, a persistent chlorinated substance used as sweetener, can already be found in waste water, and various countries focused on the release of sucralose into the aquatic environment. A quantitative high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method, which is orthogonal to existing methods, was developed to analyze sucralose in water. After sample preparation, separation of up to 17 samples was performed in parallel on a HPTLC plate silica gel 60 F(254) with a mixture of isopropyl acetate, methanol and water (15:3:1, v/v/v) within 15 min. Due to the weak native UV absorption of sucralose (≤200 nm), various post-chromatographic derivatization reactions were compared to selectively detect sucralose in effluent and surface water matrices. Thereby p-aminobenzoic acid reagent was discovered as a new derivatization reagent for sucralose. Compared to the latter and to β-naphthol, derivatization with aniline diphenylamine o-phosphoric acid reagent was slightly preferred and densitometry was performed by absorbance measurement at 400 nm. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of sucralose in drinking and surface water was calculated to be 100 ng/L for a given recovery rate of 80% and the extraction of a 0.5 L water sample. The sucralose content determined in four water samples obtained during an interlaboratory trial in 2008 was in good agreement to the mean laboratory values of that trial. According to the t-test, which compares the results with the target value, the means obtained by HPTLC were not significantly different from the respective means of six laboratories, analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-TOF-MS with the use of mostly isotopically labeled standards. The good accuracy and high sample throughput capacity proved HPTLC as a well suited method regarding quantification of sucralose in various aqueous matrices. PMID:21185029

  9. Salmonella aberdeen infection in cattle associated with human sewage

    PubMed Central

    Bicknell, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Salmonella aberdeen was established as the cause of illness in 30 out of a herd of 90 milking cows. The illness was only moderately severe, and all animals responded to treatment. The source of infection was considered to be human sewage effluent overflowing onto grazing land. There was no report of human infection in the area from which the effluent came. PMID:4501833

  10. TOXICITY TESTS OF EFFLUENTS WITH MARSH PLANTS IN WATER AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods are described for toxicity testing of water and sediment with the rooted marsh plants, Echinochloa crusgalli var. crusgalli and var. zelavensis (freshwater) and Spartina alterniflora (estuarine). ive industrial effluents, a sewage treatment plant effluent and a herbicide ...

  11. The Impact of Sewage Discharge in a Marine Embayment: A Stable Isotope Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, S.; Tatner, P.; Jack, I.; Arnott, C.

    2001-01-01

    Stable isotope analyses, δ 13C and δ 15N, of sewage tolerant benthic invertebrates seaward of a sewage effluent discharged in a marine embayment, the Firth of Forth, East Scotland, suggest that the polychaete worm Nereis virens is a suitable species for identifying biological assimilation of sewage derived organic matter. The sewage isotopic signal is not strongly recorded in the sediment due to the combined action of tidal movement, wind-induced wave action and benthic invertebrate grazing of particulate matter on the sea-bed. δ 13C of the plankton is significantly different from the effluent, but δ 15N is not which precludes its use as a trace.

  12. Sewage Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  13. Statement of work for services provided by the waste sampling and characterization facility for the effluent and environmental monitoring program during calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-28

    This document defines the services the Waste Sampling & Characterization Facility (WSCF) shall provide the Effluent and Environmental Monitoring Program (EEM) throughout the calendar year for analysis. The purpose of the EEM Program is to monitor liquid and gaseous effluents, and the environment immediately around the facilities which may contain radioactive and hazardous materials. Monitoring data are collected, evaluated, and reported to determine their degree of compliance with applicable federal and state regulations and permits. The Appendix identifies the samples EEM plans to submit for analysis in CY-1997. Analysis of effluent (liquid and air discharges) and environmental (air, liquid, animal, and vegetative) samples is required using standard laboratory procedures, in accordance with regulatory and control requirements cited in Quality Assurance Program Plan for Radionuclide Airborne Emissions Monitoring (especially Appendix G) (VTHC 1995a), Effluent Monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for Radionuclide Airborne Emissions Data (WHC 1995b), Operational Environmental Monitoring Program Quality Assurance Project Plan (WHC 1994b), and Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (DOE 1996). Should changes to this document be necessary, WSCF or the Air & Water Services (A&WS) Organization may amend it at any time with a jointly approved internal memo.

  14. Quality requirements for irrigation with sewage water

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwer, H.; Idelovitch, E. )

    1987-11-01

    Irrigation is an excellent use for sewage effluent because it is mostly water with nutrients. For small flows, the effluent can be used on special, well-supervised sewage farms, where forage, fiber, or seed crops are grown that can be irrigated with standard primary or secondary effluent. Large-scale use of the effluent requires special treatment so that it meets the public health, agronomic, and aesthetic requirements for unrestricted use. Crops in the unrestricted-use category include those that are consumed raw or brought raw into the kitchen. Most state or government standards deal only with public health aspects, and prescribe the treatment processes or the quality parameters that the effluent must meet before it can be used to irrigate a certain category of crops. However, agronomic aspects related to crops and soils must also be taken into account. Quality parameters to be considered include bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens; total salt content and sodium adsorption ratio of the water; nitrogen; phosphorus; chloride and chlorine; bicarbonate; heavy metals, boron, and other trace elements; pH; and synthetic organics. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

  15. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1 : 2 (effluent : biomass) at 200 rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 162 mg/L, and 190 mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

  16. Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Milivoj

    1954-01-01

    The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation. PMID:13160760

  17. IDENTIFYING COMPOUNDS DESPITE CHROMATOGRAPHY LIMITATIONS: ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN TREATED SEWAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Highly concentrated extracts of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents contain detectable
    levels of dozens of compounds resulting from human activities. Recent concern over use and
    disposal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPS) (1) has stimulated interest ...

  18. 1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TANKS AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TANKS AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT, BUILDING 304, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Sewage Plant & Tanks, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  19. Sewage: waste or resource

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlin, C.

    1980-10-01

    This article contains a historical review of sewage, its collection and disposal, its treatment and its application. It was not until the second half of the 19th Century that it was realized, that sewage should be returned to the soil where its immense fertilizer value would prove a source of prosperity. The production of biogas and/or alcohol has been largely overlooked and the utilization of sewage as a renewable resource is urged.

  20. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  1. Coprostanol distribution from sewage discharge into Sarasota Bay, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.H.; Brown, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Distribution of the fecal sterol, coprostanol, was determined in sediment from forty-one sites throughout Sarasota Bay, Florida. This project was part of a water quality study to estimate the impact of sewage effluent discharged from the City of Sarasota's wastewater treatment plant into Sarasota Bay. Coprostanol (5..beta..-cholestan-3..beta..-ol) is one of the principal sterols found in the feces of man and other mammals, and has been shown to be a reliable marker of fecal pollution. For this study, coprostanol was used as an indicator to estimate the extent to which sewage-derived particulate matter has been distributed within Sarasota Bay sediment.

  2. Modelling defined mixtures of environmental oestrogens found in domestic animal and sewage treatment effluents using an in vitro oestrogen-mediated transcriptional activation assay (T47D-KBluc).

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Dieldrich S; Gray, L Earl; Wilson, Vickie S

    2012-06-01

    There is growing concern of exposure of fish, wildlife and humans to water sources contaminated with oestrogens and the potential impact on reproductive health. Environmental oestrogens can come from various sources including concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFO), municipal waste, agricultural and industrial effluents. US EPA's drinking water contaminant candidate list 3 (CCL3) includes several oestrogenic compounds. Although these contaminants are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, they are known or anticipated to occur in public water systems and may require future regulation under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Using an in vitro transcriptional activation assay, this study evaluated oestrogens from CCL3 both individually and as a seven oestrogen mixture (fixed ray design) over a broad range of concentrations, including environmentally relevant concentrations. Log EC(50) and Hillslope values for individual oestrogens were as follows: estrone, -11.92, 1.283; estradiol-17α, -9.61, 1.486; estradiol-17β, 11.77, 1.494; estriol, -11.14, 1.074; ethinyl estradiol-17α, -12.63, 1.562; Mestranol, -11.08, 0.809 and Equilin, -11.48, 0.946. In addition, mixtures that mirrored the primary oestrogens found in swine, poultry and dairy CAFO effluent (fixed-ratio ray design), and a ternary mixture (4 × 4 × 4 factorial design) of oestrogens found in hormone replacement therapy and/or oral contraceptives were tested. Mixtures were evaluated for additivity using both the concentration addition (CA) model and oestrogen equivalence (EEQ) model. For each of the mixture studies, a broad range of concentrations were tested, both above and below environmentally relevant concentrations. Results show that the observed data did not vary consistently from either the CA or EEQ predictions for any mixture. Therefore, either the CA or EEQ model should be useful predictors for modelling oestrogen mixtures. PMID:22612477

  3. Lockport Sewage Lagoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student initiated stewardship project that resulted in the transformation of a sewage lagoon near the school into a place to study nature. Contains a list of 20 things that discourage a successful stewardship project. (LZ)

  4. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate.

    PubMed

    Sial, R A; Chaudhary, M F; Abbas, S T; Latif, M I; Khan, A G

    2006-12-01

    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were

  5. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate

    PubMed Central

    Sial, R.A.; Chaudhary, M.F.; Abbas, S.T.; Latif, M.I.; Khan, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were

  6. Sewage pollution effects on mesozooplankton structure in a shallow temperate estuary.

    PubMed

    Biancalana, Florencia; Menéndez, María C; Berasategui, Anabela A; Fernández-Severini, Melisa D; Hoffmeyer, Mónica S

    2012-06-01

    The effects of a sewage effluent with no treatment on the mesozooplankton structure and the environmental quality were evaluated in the Bahía Blanca Estuary, during June to November 1995. The highest values of particulate organic matter, nutrients and specially phosphate, were observed in the effluent discharge zone. In addition, taxa richness, mesozooplankton abundance and Shannon diversity values were lower in the sewage discharge area compared with the less polluted area. Eurytemora americana and Acartia tonsa as well as larvae of Balanus glandula, Neohelice granulata and Spionidae were found in the discharge area with lower densities. These results highlight the importance of sewage effluent effects on mesozooplankton community providing background data to use in other monitoring programmes. PMID:21814721

  7. Microbial quantities and enzyme activity in soil irrigated with sewage for different lengths of time.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoming; Ma, Teng; Chen, Liuzhu; Cui, Yahui; Du, Peng; Liao, Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Sewage is widely used on agricultural soils in peri-urban areas of developing countries to meet shortages of water resource. Although sewage is a good source of plant nutrients, it also increases the heavy metals loads to soils. Microbial responses to these contaminants may serve as early warning indicators of adverse effects of sewage irrigation on soil quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of time of sewage irrigation on soil microbial indicators. Soil samples were collected from seven soil sites (S1-S7) irrigated with 0 years, 16 years, 23 years, 25 years, 27 years, 32 years and 52 years, respectively in Shijiazhuang of China and analyzed. For each soil sample, we determined the quantities of bacteria, fungi and actinomycete, and enzyme activities of urease, sucrase, phosphatase, dehydrogenase and catalase. Our results showed that the soils of S2-S7 irrigated with sewage effluents for different times (ranged between 16 and 52 years) exhibited higher densities of bacteria, actinomycete, urease, sucrase and phosphatase but lower densities of fungi when compared with S1 irrigated with sewage effluents for 0 years. The soil S7 irrigated with sewage effluents for longest times (52 years) contained lowest activities of catalase when compared with the soils of S1-S6. The densities of bacteria (R = 0.877, p < 0.01), actinomycete (R = 0.875, p < 0.01), sucrase (R = 0.858, p < 0.01) and phosphatase (R = 0.804, p < 0.05) were significantly correlated in a positive manner with time of sewage irrigation. Soil fungi quantities and urease, dehydrogenase and catalase activities did not change significantly with irrigation time. This study confirms that sewage irrigation had negative effects on microbial properties including fungi, catalase and dehydrogenase in the long term, so there is a need for continuous monitoring for sustainable soil health. PMID:25190356

  8. Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Sewage After an Outbreak on a French Island.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takayuki; Lhomme, Sébastien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Le Mehaute, Philippe; Guillois, Yvonnick; Couturier, Elizabeth; Izopet, Jacques; Abranavel, Florence; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2016-09-01

    A hepatitis E outbreak, which occurred on a small isolated island, provided an opportunity to evaluate the association between the number of hepatitis E cases in the community and the concentration of virus detected in sewage. Samples were collected from the different sewage treatment plants from the island and analyzed for the presence of hepatitis E (HEV) virus using real-time RT-PCR. We demonstrated that if 1-4 % of inhabitants connected to a WWTP were infected with HEV, raw sewage contained HEV at detectable levels. The finding that such a small number of infected people can contaminate municipal sewage works raises the potential of the further distribution of the virus. Indeed, investigating the routes of transmission of HEV, including the potential for sewage effluent to contain infectious HEV, may help us to better understand the epidemiology of this pathogen, which is considered to be an emerging concern in Europe. PMID:27165600

  9. Modeling the Radiological Impact of Tritium in Sewage Sludge Being Used as Fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Venter, A.; Smith, G

    2005-07-15

    A study was undertaken to assess the radiological impact on humans via the foodchain resulting from the presence of tritium and C-14 in sewage sludge being used as fertilizer on agricultural land. The key endpoint of the assessment was the annual individual dose to an average member of potential critical groups. As part of the assessment, a model was developed to simulate the distribution of tritium between sewage sludge and effluent in the sewage treatment plant, the release of tritium upon sludge decomposition and subsequent uptake by plants and animals. The modeling assumptions, as well as key parameters and parameter values will be discussed in this paper.

  10. Steroidal estrogen sources in a sewage-impacted coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Griffith, David R; Kido Soule, Melissa C; Eglinton, Timothy I; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B; Gschwend, Philip M

    2016-08-10

    Estrogens are known to be potent endocrine disrupting chemicals that are commonly found in wastewater effluents at ng L(-1) levels. Yet, we know very little about the distribution and fate of estrogens in coastal oceans that receive wastewater inputs. This study measured a wide range of steroidal estrogens in sewage-impacted seawater using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) together with the method of standard addition. In Massachusetts Bay, we find conjugated, free, and halogenated estrogens at concentrations that are consistent with dilution at sites close to the sewage source. At a site 6 miles down current of the sewage source, we observe estrone (E1) concentrations (520 ± 180 pg L(-1)) that are nearly double the nearfield concentrations (320 ± 60 pg L(-1)) despite 9-fold dilution of carbamazepine, which was used as a conservative sewage tracer. Our results suggest that background E1 concentrations in Massachusetts Bay (∼270 ± 50 pg L(-1)) are derived largely from sources unrelated to wastewater effluent such as marine vertebrates. PMID:27465804

  11. Pathway level impacts of in situ exposure of fathead minnow to effluent mixtures in the Duluth harbor

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a major effort to characterize the potential adverse effects of effluents released from sewage treatment plants in North America. At many locations pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, and other chemicals of emerging concerns are present in the environment at concentra...

  12. Potential environmental toxicity from hemodialysis effluent.

    PubMed

    Machado, Carla Keite; Pinto, Luciano Henrique; Del Ciampo, Lineu Fernando; Lorenzi, Luciano; Correia, Cláudia Hack Gumz; Häder, Donat Peter; Erzinger, Gilmar Sidnei

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the toxicity of certain potentially toxic compounds on various aquatic organisms allows to assess the impact that these pollutants on the aquatic biota. One source of pollution is the wastewater from hemodialysis. The process of sewage treatment is inefficient in inhibition and removal of pathogenic bacteria resistant to antibiotics in this wastewater. In many countries, such as Brazil, during emergencies, sewage and effluents from hospitals are often dumped directly into waterways without any previous treatment. The objective of this study was to characterize the effluents generated by hemodialysis and to assess the degree of acute and chronic environmental toxicity. The effluents of hemodialysis showed high concentrations of nitrites, phosphates, sulfates, ammonia, and total nitrogen, as well as elevated conductivity, turbidity, salinity, biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, exceeding the thresholds defined in the CONAMA Resolution 430. The samples showed acute toxicity to the green flagellate Euglena gracilis affecting different physiological parameters used as endpoints in an automatic bioassay such as motility, precision of gravitational orientation (r-value), compactness, upward movement, and alignment, with mean EC50 values of recalculate as 76.90 percent (±4.68 percent) of the undiluted effluents. In tests with Daphnia magna, the acute toxicity EC50 was 86.91 percent (±0.39 percent) and a NOEC value of 72.97 percent and a LEOC value 94.66 percent. PMID:24580820

  13. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  14. TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

  15. PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM SEWAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosphorus is a growth limiting nutrient that is mined from rock ore, refined, used in fertilizers, and discharged to the environment through municipal sewage. The impacts of phosphorus discharge include severe eutrophication of fresh water bodies. The future sustainable use of...

  16. Nutrient input from the Loxahatchee River Environmental Control District sewage-treatment plant to the Loxahatchee River Estuary, southeastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonntag, W.H.; McPherson, B.F.

    1984-01-01

    Two test discharges of treated-sewage effluent were made to the Loxahatchee River in February and September 1981 from the ENCON sewage-treatment plant to document nutrient loading and downstream transport of the effluent to the estuary under maximum daily discharge allowable by law (4 million gallons per day). Concentrations of total nitrogen in the effluent exceeded background concentrations by as much as 7 times during the February test, while concentrations of total phosphorus exceeded background concentrations by as much as 112 times during the September test. The effluent was transported downstream to the estuary in less than 24 hours. Discharge of treated sewage effluent to the river-estuary system in the 1981 water year accounted for less than 0.5 percent of the total nitrogen and 8 percent of the total phosphorus discharged from the major tributaries to the estuary. If maximum discharges of effluent (4 million gallons per day) were sustained throughout the year, annual nitrogen loading from the effluent would account for 5 to 18 percent of the total nitrogen input by the major tributaries to the estuary. With maximum discharges of effluent, annual phosphorus loading would exceed the amount of phosphorus input by the major tributaries to the estuary by 54 to 167 percent. (USGS)

  17. Process for utilizing a pumpable fuel from highly dewatered sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.R.

    1993-08-10

    A process is described for disposing of sewage sludge comprising: (1) dewatering an aqueous slurry of sewage sludge having a solids content of at least about 3 wt. % to produce an aqueous slurry of sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 5 to 20 wt. %; (2) pressing and/or centrifuging the dewatered slurry of sewage sludge from (1) to produce amorphous sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 28 to 50 wt. %; (3) heating the amorphous sewage sludge from (2) in a closed pressure vessel at a temperature in the range of about 150 F to 510 F in the absence of air for a period in the range of about 3 seconds to 60 minutes and shearing the sewage sludge by a rotor/mixer operating at a speed in the range of about 15 to 100 rpm, thereby producing a pumpable slurry of sewage sludge having a viscosity in the range of about 400 to 1,500 centipoise when a measured at 200 F and a higher heating value in the range of about 5,000 to 9,500 Btu/lb, dry basis; and (4) burning said pumpable slurry from (3) in a partial oxidation gasifier, furnace, boiler, or incinerator to produce an effluent gas stream.

  18. 33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality specified in 40 CFR 133.102; (3) The geometric mean of the samples from the discharge during any... the Administrator in 40 CFR part 136, which confirm that the water quality of the effluents proposed... treated sewage or graywater. 159.309 Section 159.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  19. Sewage effects in marine and estuarine environments. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of disposal of sewage effluents and sludge on marine and estuarine environments. Citations discuss the effects on specific flora and fauna, ocean dumping problems, and pollutant distribution. Regional and site-specific studies regarding environmental effects of ocean waste disposal are presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  1. Strategy for olive mill wastewater treatment and reuse with a sewage plant in an arid region.

    PubMed

    Boukchina, R; Choi, E; Kim, S; Yu, Y B; Cheung, Y J

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the treatability of OMW (olive mill wastewater) with sewage and sewage sludge, which could supplement nutrients and microbes required for OMW treatment and reduce its possible toxicity. The amount of OMW added to an aeration tank was based on the loading difference between the designed and actual COD loads, while the amount added to anaerobic digestion for energy recovery was determined by CH4 production. The COD removal efficiencies were 70-85% for both systems. Compost of OMW with dried sewage sludge also showed a similar temperature profile without OMW addition. This strongly suggested that OMW can be treated at a sewage plant without pretreatment and the treated effluent can be reused in irrigation for an arid region. PMID:17564372

  2. Excitation-emission matrices applied to the study of urban effluent discharges in the Chubut River (Patagonia, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Chiarandini Fiore, Jessica Paola; Scapini, María del Carmen; Olivieri, Alejandro César

    2013-08-01

    Natural and contaminated waters of the final reaches of the Chubut River (Patagonia, Argentina) were studied to obtain information about river organic matter and effects of domestic and industrial discharges (fishery effluents and sewages). Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrices (EEMs) were obtained from samples only filtered (0.45 μm) and diluted, if necessary, to avoid the inner filter effect. In addition, physicochemical parameters were measured to know the quality of the water and the effluents. Results show that EEMs allow a rapid and simple control of the effluents from fisheries and domestic sewage in Chubut River estuary, necessary to take management decisions. PMID:23325315

  3. Fate of radiocesium in sewage treatment process released by the nuclear accident at Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Kamei-Ishikawa, Nao; Ito, Ayumi; Tagami, Keiko; Umita, Teruyuki

    2013-10-01

    The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) which occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 resulted in releases of radionuclides such as (134)Cs (half-life:T1/2=2.06 yr), (137)Cs (T1/2=30.04 yr) and (131)I (T1/2=8.05 d) to the environment. For this paper, we observed the monthly variations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) and stable Cs concentrations in influent, effluent, sewage sludge, and sludge ash collected from a sewage treatment plant 280 km north of the FDNPP from July to December, 2011. Using the stable Cs results, we concluded the mass balance of Cs in the sewage treatment plant showed that about 10% of the Cs entering the sewage treatment plant would be transferred to the sewage sludge, and then Cs in the sewage sludge was totally recovered in the sludge ash. The behavior of Cs was similar to that of Rb, but it was not similar to that of K in the sewage treatment process. PMID:23838042

  4. Toxicity of municipal wastewater effluents contaminated by pentachlorophenol in southwest Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wylie, G.D.; Finger, S.E.; Crawford, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Toxicity of effluents from two sewage treatment plants in Joplin, Missouri, was tested using Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas. No test organisms survived in effluents from either plant, in effluents diluted with water from Turkey Creek (the receiving stream), or in water from Turkey Creek. Mortality was complete in all but the most dilute treatments of effluents, in which reconstituted water was used as the diluent. High concentrations of pentachlorophenol (130–970 μg liter−1) in effluents and the receiving stream likely caused mortality during the 7-day tests. Detectable concentrations of other phenolic compounds indicated the presence in Turkey Creek of other toxic by-products of pentachlorophenol manufacture. This study demonstrated the utility of biological tests of whole effluents to determine toxicity of wastewater effluents.

  5. 40 CFR 104.4 - Statement of basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Statement of basis and purpose. 104.4 Section 104.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEARINGS ON EFFLUENT STANDARDS FOR TOXIC POLLUTANTS § 104.4 Statement of basis and purpose. Whenever...

  6. Predicting the physical effects of relocating Boston's sewage outfall

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, R.P.; Jenter, H.L.; Blumberg, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    Boston is scheduled to cease discharge of sewage effluent in Boston Harbor in Spring 2000 and begin discharge at a site 14 km offshore in Massachusetts Bay in a water depth of about 30 m. The effects of this outfall relocation on effluent dilution, salinity and circulation are predicted with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The simulations predict that the new bay outfall will greatly decrease effluent concentrations in Boston Harbor (relative to the harbour outfall) and will not significantly change mean effluent concentrations over most of Massachusetts Bay. With the harbour outfall, previous observations and these simulations show that effluent concentrations exceed 0??5% throughout the harbour, with a harbour wide average of 1-2%. With the bay outfall, effluent concentrations exceed 0??5% only within a few km of the new outfall, and harbour concentrations drop to 0??1-0??2%, a 10-fold reduction. During unstratified winter conditions, the local increase in effluent concentration at the bay outfall site is predicted to exist throughout the water column. During stratified summer conditions, however, effluent released at the sea bed rises and is trapped beneath the pycnocline. The local increase in effluent concentration is limited to the lower layer, and as a result, surface layer effluent concentrations in the vicinity of the new outfall site are predicted to decrease (relative to the harbour outfall) during the summer. Slight changes are predicted for the salinity and circulation fields. Removing the fresh water associated with the effluent discharge in Boston Harbor is predicted to increase the mean salinity of the harbour by 0??5 and decrease the mean salinity by 0??10-0??15 within 2-3 km of the outfall. Relative to the existing mean flow, the buoyant discharge at the new outfall is predicted to generate density-driven mean currents of 2-4 cm s-1 that spiral out in a clockwise motion at the surface during winter and at the pycnocline (15-20 m depth

  7. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  8. Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Baruch; Avnimelech, Yoram; Juanico, Marcelo

    1996-07-01

    Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the most immediately available solution. The body of initiatives presently structured by the Ministry of the Environment of Israel are herein described, with the aim to contribute to the search for a long-term solution of salinity problems in arid countries. The new initiatives are based on: (1) search for new technologies to reduce salt consumption and discharge into sewage; (2) different technologies to cope with different situations; (3) raising the awareness of the public and industry on the environmental implications of salinity pollution; and (4) an elastic legal approach expressed through new state-of-the-art regulations. The main contributor to the salinity of sewage in Israel is the watersoftening process followed by the meat koshering process. Some of the adopted technical solutions are: the discharge of the brine into the sea, the substitution of sodium by potassium salts in the ion-exchangers, the construction of centralized systems for the supply of soft water in industrial areas, the precipitation of Ca and Mg in the effluents from ion-exchangers and recycling of the NaCI solution, a reduction of the discharge of salts by the meat koshering process, and new membrane technology for salt recovery.

  9. Efficiency of combined process of ozone and bio-filtration in the treatment of secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Smriti; Tripathi, B D

    2011-07-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the efficiency of the combined process of biofiltration with ozonation to improve the quality of secondary effluent. The secondary effluent from the Dinapur Sewage Treatment Plant Varanasi, India was used in this work. The process of biofiltration with the plant species of Eichornia crassipes and Lemna minor, at a flow rate of 262 ml min(-1) and plant density of 30 mg L(-1) for 48 h, in combination with the process of ozonation with ozone dose of 10 mg L(-1) and contact time of 5 min was applied. Results revealed that combined process was statistically most suitable for the highest degradation of physico-chemical and microbial parameters with improving BDOC value. The biofiltration process is able to remove highest percentage of toxic heavy metals from the secondary effluent without production of toxicity. This technique is highly recommendable for tropical wastewater where sewage is mixed with industrial effluents. PMID:21550800

  10. Changes in Nitrogen to Phosphorus ratio in the Inner Saronikos Gulf (West Aegean Sea) in relation to the operation of the Sewage Treatment Plant of Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psyllidou-Giouranovits, Rosa

    2013-04-01

    In this work we provide an overview of nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratio in the inner Saronikos gulf as it has changed over the last twenty five (25) years in relation to the sewage discharges from the Sewage Treatment Plant of Athens in Psittalia Island. Saronikos gulf receives effluents from Athens Metropolitan area (population over 5 million). Until 1994, domestic and industrial sewage of Athens was discharged untreated into the surface water layer of Keratsini and Elefsis bay, whereas, after 1994, the sewage of the Athens Metropolitan area were primarily treated in Psitallia Sewage Treatment Plant and discharged in the inner Saronikos Gulf. Additionally, the secondary stage of the Psittalia Sewage Plant operated in the end of 2004 affecting the nitrogen to phosphorus (DIN:P) ratio (DIN stands for nitrate+nitrite+ammonium). The treated effluent plume frorm Psittalia Sewage Treatment Plant is trapped within the seasonal pycnocline developed during May-November, whereas, during the mixing period (December-April) it reaches the sea-surface. During the last 25 years, significant temporal variation of nutrient concentrations has been observed which has revealed an increase of the DIN:P ratio near the Psittalia Sewage Treatment Plant. In the vicinity of the sewage outfall in Psittalia, DIN:P ratio in the deep layer (30m-bottom) did not show significant variation between the two periods: before and after the operation of the Sewage Treatment Plant (12.9 before the operation of the sewage treatment and 13.3 after the operation of the sewage treatment) showing that inorganic nitrogen and phosphate changed almost with the same rate. However, the limiting factor for phytoplankton growth remains nitrogen. On the contrary, significant increase of DIN:P ratio was observed in the surface layer between the two periods, during summer (stratified period). DIN:P increased from 5.9 for the period 1987-1995 (before the Sewage Treatment Plant operation) to 19.6 for the period 1995

  11. 40 CFR 501.13 - Attorney General's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Attorney General's statement. 501.13 Section 501.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STATE SLUDGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Development and Submission of State Programs § 501.13...

  12. 40 CFR 501.13 - Attorney General's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Attorney General's statement. 501.13 Section 501.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STATE SLUDGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Development and Submission of State Programs § 501.13...

  13. Judgmental Bias in the Rating of Attitude Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruvold, William H.

    1975-01-01

    Judges holding divergent attitudes rated two sets of statements regarding uses of water reclaimed from sewage. Results showed a close linear relationship between item scale values obtained from positive and negative attitudinal groups, and a somewhat reduced rating range for judges holding unfavorable personal attitudes toward reuse. (Author/RC)

  14. 40 CFR 501.13 - Attorney General's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attorney General's statement. 501.13 Section 501.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STATE SLUDGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Development and Submission of State Programs § 501.13...

  15. 40 CFR 501.13 - Attorney General's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Attorney General's statement. 501.13 Section 501.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STATE SLUDGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Development and Submission of State Programs § 501.13...

  16. 40 CFR 501.13 - Attorney General's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Attorney General's statement. 501.13 Section 501.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STATE SLUDGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Development and Submission of State Programs § 501.13...

  17. Effect of chlorination on antibiotic resistance profiles of sewage-related bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, G E; Tobin, R S; Junkins, B; Kushner, D J

    1984-01-01

    A total of 1,900 lactose-fermenting bacteria were isolated from raw sewage influent and chlorinated sewage effluent from a sewage treatment plant, as well as from chlorinated and neutralized dilute sewage, before and after a 24-h regrowth period in the laboratory. Of these isolates, 84% were resistant to one or more antibiotics. Chlorination of influent resulted in an increase in the proportion of bacteria resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin, the increase being most marked after regrowth occurred following chlorination. Of the other nine antibiotics tested, chlorination resulted in an increased proportion of bacteria resistant to some, but a decrease in the proportion resistant to the remainder. Multiple resistance was found for up to nine antibiotics, especially in regrowth populations. Identification of about 5% of the isolates showed that the highest proportion of Escherichia coli fell in untreated sewage. Some rare and potentially pathogenic species were isolated from chlorinated and regrowth samples, including Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pestis, Pasteurella multocida, and Hafnia alvei. Our results indicate that chlorination, while initially lowering the total number of bacteria in sewage, may substantially increase the proportions of antibiotic-resistant, potentially pathogenic organisms. PMID:6476832

  18. Effluent blending in constructed wetlands: Pollution prevention applications at a coal yard treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Carder, J.P.; Hoylman, A.M.; Sparks, B.J.

    1995-12-31

    Effluent blending, in combination with constructed wetland biotechnology, is a promising method for reducing the loading rates of pollution to receiving streams. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a project is underway to demonstrate this principle. An 8:2 ratio of sewage treatment plant to coal yard runoff treatment facility (CYRTF) effluent will be polished by 2 constructed wetland cells containing emergent wetland plants in saturated pea gravel at a rate of 3600 gallons per day. The relatively high concentration of nutrients in the STP effluent should stimulate biological processes leading to the reduction of chemical oxygen demand and the conversion of excess sulfate (in the CYRTF effluent) to alkalinity. Chlorine, which is added to the STP effluent to control bacteria, should also be eliminated. Measurements of wastewater toxicity, before and after the effluent blend has passed through the constructed wetlands, will be used to assess the technology`s effectiveness at reducing pollution.

  19. Occurrence of anionic surfactants in treated sewage: risk assessment to aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Mungray, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2008-12-30

    A comparative evaluation of occurrence of and risk to aquatic environment due to anionic surfactants (AS) in treated effluents from three main treatment processes, i.e. activated sludge process (ASP), oxidation pond (OP), and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR) is presented. UASBR effluents contained substantial concentrations of AS (4.25-5.91mg/L as average AS removal was not found to exceed 18%). Post-treatment of UASBR effluent using 1-1.6 days detention, anaerobic polishing ponds (PP) was also found quite ineffective. In UASBR-PP combine, AS reduced only up to 30%. Effluents from OP based sewage treatment plants (STPs) also contained significant concentrations of AS. On the contrary, effluent AS or linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) concentrations recorded in ASP effluents were quite low (less than 0.2mg/L). Unlike UASBR, LAS or AS removals greater than 99% are achieved in ASP. Treated effluents from UASBR and OP based STPs when discharged to aquatic ecosystems are likely to cause substantial risk to aquatic environment due to the presence of AS while effluents from ASP are not supposed to pose risk. Need to find an effective aerobic post-treatment unit to UASBR for desired removal of AS is emphasized. PMID:18430511

  20. Sewage outfall plume dispersion observations with an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    PubMed

    Ramos, P; Cunha, S R; Neves, M V; Pereira, F L; Quintaneiro, I

    2005-01-01

    This work represents one of the first successful applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for interdisciplinary coastal research. A monitoring mission to study the shape and estimate the initial dilution of the S. Jacinto sewage outfall plume using an AUV was performed on July 2002. An efficient sampling strategy enabling greater improvements in spatial and temporal range of detection demonstrated that the sewage effluent plume can be clearly traced using naturally occurring tracers in the wastewater. The outfall plume was found at the surface highly influenced by the weak stratification and low currents. Dilution varying with distance downstream was estimated from the plume rise over the outfall diffuser until a nearly constant value of 130:1, 60 m from the diffuser, indicating the near field end. Our results demonstrate that AUVs can provide high-quality measurements of physical properties of effluent plumes in a very effective manner and valuable considerations about the initial mixing processes under real oceanic conditions can be further investigated. PMID:16477997

  1. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145 +/- 5 mW/m2, 470 omega) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190 +/- 5 mW/m2. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency was 78.1 +/- 0.2% with initial TCOD of 49.7 g/L. The power generation of SMFC was depended on the sludge concentration, while dilution of the raw sludge resulted in higher power density. The maximum power density was saturated at sludge concentration of 17 g-TCOD/L, where 290 mw/m2 was achieved. When effluents from an anaerobic digester that was fed with raw sludge were used as substrate in the SMFC, a maximum power density of 318 mW/m2, and a final TCOD removal of 71.9 +/- 0.2% were achieved. These results have practical implications for development of an effective system to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously recover energy. PMID:22053457

  2. Facility effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  3. Marine sewage disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.W.

    1981-03-03

    An activated sludge marine sewage disposal apparatus is described that includes an aeration chamber immediately adjacent to a flooded settling tank, rising above a disinfectant chamber and a holding chamber disposed around the lower part of the tank. Flow from the aeration chamber to the settling tank is through a port in the common wall between the aeration chamber and settling tank, and up inside a pond separated from the rest of the tank by a downwardly flaring baffle of skirt depending from the top of the tank. A single shimmer at the center of the area at the top of the pond picks up floating solids and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber. A vent disposed directly over the shimmer continuously draws off air and gas to the aeration chamber. A sludge return line picks up heavy solids for the bottom of the tank and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber through a riser located in the aeration chamber. Liquid in the settling tank flows out through a submerged perforated pipe into a standpipe in the aeration chamber, with is located centrally in the aeration chamber, and overflows through an inverted U tube, vented to the aeration chamber, the tube connecting to a downcomer sending the liquid back through the common wall to the disinfectant compartment. When sufficient volume of fluid accumulates in the disinfectant compartment, it overflows into a holding tank, from which it emerges via a port.

  4. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. PMID:27038882

  5. Long-term study of palladium in road tunnel dust and sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Leopold, K; Maier, M; Weber, S; Schuster, M

    2008-11-01

    The present work summarizes data about palladium contents of road tunnel dust from 1994 to 2007 and sewage sludge ash from 1972 to 2006. Since palladium is emitted from automotive catalytic converters as elemental particles, road dust is quiet useful to study traffic-related Pd emissions. Very high Pd values of up to 516 microg Pd kg(-1) were found in the road dust samples collected in 2007. Heavy metals of all urban emissions, also dental practice effluent, are enriched in sewage sludge ash and thus this matrix is useful for the documentation of palladium emission caused by the use of Pd alloys in dental medicine. In sewage sludge ash highest Pd contents of maximum 460 microg Pd kg(-1) were found in the years 1986-1997. In both matrices correlations of Pd content to Pd demand of industry are discussed. PMID:18355951

  6. OCCURRENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT UROPATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI CLONAL GROUP A IN WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isolates of Escherichia coli belonging to clonal group A (CGA), a recently described disseminated cause of drug-resistant urinary tract infections in humans, were present in four of seven sewage effluents collected from geographically dispersed areas of the United States. ...

  7. Determination of clindamycin and its metabolite clindamycin sulfoxide in diverse sewage samples.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Reinhard; Schubert, Sara; Mühlbauer, Viktoria; Büttner, Bozena; Marx, Conrad; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2014-10-01

    In a research project on risk management of harmful substances in water cycles, clindamycin and 12 further antibiotics were determined in different sewage samples. In contrast to other antibiotics, an increase of the clindamycin concentration in the final effluent in comparison to the influent of the sewage treatment plant (STP) was observed. A back transformation from the main metabolite clindamycin sulfoxide to clindamycin during the denitrification process has been discussed. Therefore, the concentration of this metabolite was measured additionally. Clindamycin sulfoxide was stable in the STP and the assumption of back transformation of the metabolite to clindamycin was confuted. To explain the increasing clindamycin concentration in the STP, the ratio of clindamycin sulfoxide to clindamycin was observed. The ratio increased in dry spells with concentrated samples and with long dwell time in the sewer system. A short hydraulic retention in waste water system and diluted samples in periods of extreme rainfall lead to a lower ratio of clindamycin sulfoxide to clindamycin concentration. A plausible explanation of this behavior could be that clindamycin was adsorbed strongly to a component of the sewage during this long residence time and in the STP, clindamycin was released. In the common sample preparation in the lab, clindamycin was not released. Measurements of clindamycin and clindamycin sulfoxide in the influent and effluent of STP is advised for sewage monitoring. PMID:24310902

  8. Evidence for Cometabolism in Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Stuart N.; O'Mara, Nancy L.; Alexander, Martin

    1980-01-01

    A procedure was developed to demonstrate cometabolism in models of natural ecosystems. The procedure involves showing the formation of metabolic products in high yield and the lack of incorporation of substrate carbon into cellular constituents. Samples of four 14C-labeled herbicides (trifluralin, profluralin, fluchloralin, and nitrofen) were incubated with sewage aerobically and under discontinuous anaerobiosis for 88 days, and fresh sewage was added at intervals. Products were formed from each of the herbicides in nonsterile, but not in sterile, sewage. The yield of recovered products reached 87% for profluralin and more than 90% for fluchloralin and trifluralin, and the number of products ranged from 6 for nitrofen to 12 for fluchloralin. Concentrating the sewage microflora 40-fold greatly enhanced the rate of conversion. None of the radioactivity from the herbicide entered the nucleoside pool of the sewage microflora. The lack of incorporation of substrate carbon into cells and the almost stoichiometric conversion of the substrate to organic products indicate that members of the microbial community were cometabolizing the test compounds. PMID:16345657

  9. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  10. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  11. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  12. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  13. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  14. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  15. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  16. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  17. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  18. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SEWAGE SLUDGE-SOIL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to characterize the chemical properties of municipal sewage sludges, to evaluate the fate of sludge components in soils, and to determine the distribution of trace metals in milling fractions of grains grown on sludge-treated soils.

  20. A mesocosm approach for detecting stream invertebrate community responses to treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Grantham, Theodore E; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Perrée, Isabelle; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2012-01-01

    The discharge of wastewater from sewage treatment plants is one of the most common forms of pollution to river ecosystems, yet the effects on aquatic invertebrate assemblages have not been investigated in a controlled experimental setting. Here, we use a mesocosm approach to evaluate community responses to exposure to different concentrations of treated wastewater effluents over a two week period. Multivariate analysis using Principal Response Curves indicated a clear, dose-effect response to the treatments, with significant changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages after one week when exposed to 30% effluent, and after two weeks in the 15% and 30% effluent treatments. Treatments were associated with an increase in nutrient concentrations (ammonium, sulfate, and phosphate) and reduction of dissolved oxygen. These findings indicate that exposure to wastewater effluent cause significant changes in abundance and composition of macroinvertebrate taxa and that effluent concentration as low as 5% can have detectable ecological effects. PMID:22035931

  1. Characterisation of raw sewage and performance assessment of primary settling tanks at Firle Sewage Treatment Works, Harare, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muserere, Simon Takawira; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Nhapi, Innocent

    The need for more stringent effluent discharge standards as prescribed by the Environmental Management Act 20:27 to protect the environment can be sustainably achieved with the aid of Activated Sludge Models. Thus, the researchers believe it is time to re-evaluate wastewater characteristics at Firle Sewage Treatment Works (STW) and make use of activated sludge simulators to address pollution challenges caused by the sewage plant. Therefore, this paper characterizes raw sewage and assesses settled and unsettled sewage in order to evaluate the performance of the primary treatment system and the suitability of the settled sewage for treatment by the subsequent Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) system at Firle STW. Parameters studied included COD, BOD, TKN, TP, NH3, TSS, pH and Alkalinity. Composite samples were collected over a 9-day campaign period (27 June to 6 July 2012), hourly grab samples over 24 hrs and composite samples on 6 March 2012 which were then analysed in the lab in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater to support the City of Harare 2004-2012 lab historical records. Concentrations for unsettled sewage in mg/L were COD (527 ± 32), BOD (297 ± 83) TKN (19.0 ± 2.0), TP (18 ± 3), NH3 (24.0 ± 12.9), TSS (219 ± 57), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 266 ± 36 mg/L. For settled sewage the corresponding values in mg/L were COD (522 ± 15), BOD (324 ± 102), TKN (21.0 ± 3.0), TP (19.0 ± 2.0), NH3 (25.6 ± 11.2), TSS (250 ± 66), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 271 ± 17 mg/L. The plant design values for raw sewage are COD (650 mg/L), BOD (200 mg/L), TKN (40 mg/L) and TP (11 mg/L). Thus, COD and nitrogen were within the plant design range while BOD and TP were higher. Treatability of sewage in BNR systems is often inferred from the levels of critical parameters and also the ratios of TKN/COD and COD/TP. The wastewater average settled COD/BOD, COD/TP and TKN/COD ratio were 1.7 ± 0.5, 27.1 ± 3.1 and 0.04 ± 0

  2. 1988 NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...

  3. Anionic surfactants in treated sewage and sludges: risk assessment to aquatic and terrestrial environments.

    PubMed

    Mungray, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2008-05-01

    Compared to low concentrations of anionic surfactants (AS) in activated sludge process effluents (ASP) (<0.2 mg/L), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-polishing pond (UASB-PP) effluents were found to contain very high concentrations of AS (>3.5 mg/L). AS (or linear alkylbenzen sulfonate, LAS) removals >99% have been found for ASP while in case of UASB-PP it was found to be < or = 30%. AS concentrations averaged 7347 and 1452 mg/kg dry wt. in wet UASB and dried sludges, respectively. Treated sewage from UASB based sewage treatment plants (STPs) when discharged to aquatic ecosystems are likely to generate substantial risk. Post-treatment using 1-1.6d detention, anaerobic, non-algal polishing ponds was found ineffective. Need of utilizing an aerobic method of post-treatment of UASB effluent in place of an anaerobic one has been emphasized. Natural drying of UASB sludges on sludge drying beds (SDBs) under aerobic conditions results in reduction of adsorbed AS by around 80%. Application of UASB sludges on SDBs was found simple, economical and effective. While disposal of treated UASB effluent may cause risk to aquatic ecosystems, use of dried UASB sludges is not likely to cause risk to terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:17706412

  4. Compiled data on the vascular aquatic plant program, 1975 - 1977. [for sewage lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of a single cell, facultative sewage lagoon was significantly improved with the introduction of vascular aquatic plants. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was the dominant plant from April to November; duckweed (Lemna spp.) and (Spirodela spp.) flourished from December to March. This 2 ha lagoon received approximately 475 cu m/day of untreated sewage and has a variable COD sub 5 loading rate of 22-30 kg/ha/day. During the first 14 months of operation with aquatic plants, the average influent BOD sub 5 was reduced by 95% from 110 mg/l to an average of 5 mg/l in the effluent. The average influent suspended solids were reduced by 90% from 97 mg/l to 10 mg/l in the effluent. Significant reductions in nitrogen and phosphorus were effected. The monthly kjeldahl nitrogen for influent and effluent averaged 12.0 and 3.4 mg/l, respectively, a reduction of 72%. The total phosphorus was reduced on an average of 56% from 3.7 mg/l influent to 1.6 mg/l effluent.

  5. Occurrence and behavior of illicit drugs and metabolites in sewage water from the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Valencia region).

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Serrano, Roque; Ferrer, Carlos; Tormos, Isabel; Hernández, Félix

    2014-07-15

    In this work, a study on the occurrence and behavior of illicit drugs and metabolites in sewage water systems has been made. A comprehensive dataset was obtained by analyzing illicit drugs daily in influent and effluent waters from three sewage treatment plants (STPs), over three different weeks. To complete this dataset, monitoring was conducted during an international pop/rock festival, an interesting facet within this study. The STPs selected were sited along the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Castellón province, Valencia region) and represent towns of different sizes, with appreciable variations in the population in the summer period. Illicit drug concentrations in the influents were low, except during the celebration of the music festival, when the levels of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, MDA and MDMA increased. Comparing the influent and effluent concentration data allowed the rough estimation of the removal of illicit drugs and metabolites by each STP. Removal efficiencies were estimated between 75 and 100% for most of the analytes under investigation. The loads discharged into the aquatic ecosystem were also calculated from effluent data. Weekly discharges of drugs and metabolites via effluent sewage waters presented values commonly below 10 g for each individual drug, with the exception of benzoylecgonine, which usually exceeded this level. The increase in population and drug consumption during the music event led to a notable increase in the weekly discharges, reaching values up to 406 g of MDMA and 122 g of benzoylecgonine. PMID:24342491

  6. The toxicity of silver nanoparticles to zebrafish embryos increases through sewage treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Muth-Köhne, Elke; Sonnack, Laura; Schlich, Karsten; Hischen, Florian; Baumgartner, Werner; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Schäfers, Christoph; Fenske, Martina

    2013-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely believed to be retained in the sewage sludge during sewage treatment. The AgNPs and their derivatives, however, re-enter the environment with the sludge and via the effluent. AgNP were shown to occur in surface water, while evidence of a potential toxicity of AgNPs in aquatic organisms is growing. This study aims to examine the toxicity of AgNPs to the embryos of the aquatic vertebrate model zebrafish (Danio rerio) before and after sewage treatment plants (STPs) processes. Embryos were treated with AgNP (particle size: >90 % <20 nm) and AgNO3 in ISO water for 48 h and consequently displayed effects such as delayed development, tail malformations and edema. For AgNP, the embryos were smaller than the controls with conspicuously smaller yolk sacs. The corresponding EC50 values of 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) were determined as 73 μg/l for AgNO3 and 1.1 mg/l for AgNP. Whole-mount immunostainings of primary and secondary motor neurons also revealed secondary neurotoxic effects. A TEM analysis confirmed uptake of the AgNPs, and the distribution within the embryo suggested absorption across the skin. Embryos were also exposed (for 48 h) to effluents of AgNP-spiked model STP with AgNP influent concentrations of 4 and 16 mg/l. These embryos exhibited the same malformations than for AgNO3 and AgNPs, but the embryo toxicity of the sewage treatment effluent was higher (EC50 = 142 μg/l; 48 hpf). On the other hand, control STP effluent spiked with AgNPs afterwards was less toxic (EC50 = 2.9 mg/l; 48 hpf) than AgNPs in ISO water. This observation of an increased fish embryo toxicity of STP effluents with increasing AgNP influent concentrations identifies the accumulation of AgNP in the STP as a potential source of effluent toxicity. PMID:23975539

  7. Removal of organotins during sewage treatment: a case study.

    PubMed

    Voulvoulis, N; Scrimshaw, M D; Lester, J N

    2004-06-01

    Discharge consents for tributyltin (TBT) from wastewater treatment works in the UK are set by the Environment Agency. These values are normally derived from the Environmental Quality Standards for concentrations of TBT in the receiving water, based on the volume of effluent discharged and subsequent dilution within the environment. In this study, a sampling program was designed to monitor concentrations of TBT (and other organotins) in the influent and effluent at each stage of treatment. Sampling was undertaken at 3 hourly intervals, over 24 hours, at 8 locations throughout the works for five days. Organotin concentrations were determined using capillary gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. The results demonstrated that TBT was consistently present in the influent at concentrations of approximately 0.1 microg l(-1). However, a "pulse" of TBT and monobutyltin (MBT) was observed on the third day when the concentration of TBT and MBT in the influent increased to 14 microg l(-1). This "pulse" of TBT and MBT was also observed as the wastewater passed through the unit treatment processes. Concentrations of both compounds were much reduced in the final effluent (TBT 2.5 microg l(-1) and MBT 6.9 microg l(-1)). Over the entire period, the average removal of TBT during primary treatment was 81%, and during secondary biological treatment was 71%. The overall removal efficiency of the plant, taking into account the recycling of returned liquors was 86% between influent and effluent for TBT. Removal efficiency of TBT was correlated to that of suspended solids, and it was demonstrated that on days when suspended solids removal was low, TBT removal was also reduced. The mass flow of organotins through the plant indicated that the majority of TBT was concentrated into the sewage sludge. Concentrations of TBT in sludge at the plant were approximately 18 microg kg(-1) (dry weight). PMID:15369293

  8. RESPONSE OF BENTHIC ECOSYSTEMS TO DEEP OCEAN SEWAGE OUTFALLS IN HAWAII: A NUTRIENT CYCLING APPROACH TO BIOLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the nutrient budgets, benthic metabolism and community structures observed around two deep ocean sewage outfalls off Oahu, Hawaii. The authors conclude that, at an ecosystem management level, the overall effect of effluent on benthic and pelagic ecosystems of...

  9. Current state of sewage treatment in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Tian, Huifang

    2014-12-01

    The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the aspects of scale, treatment processes, sludge handling, geographical distribution, and discharge standards. By 2012, there were 3340 WWTPs in operation in China with a capacity of 1.42 × 10(8) m(3)/d. The number of medium-scale WWTPs (1-10 × 10(4) m(3)/d) counted for 75% of total WWTPs. On average, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of small-scale, medium-scale, large-scale and super-large-scale WWTPs were 81, 85.5, 87.5 and 86.5%, respectively. Generally speaking, the nutrients removal instead of COD removal was of concern. As to the different processes, oxidation ditch, anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)/O) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were the mainstream technologies in China. These technologies had minor difference in terms of overall COD removal efficiency. The sludge treatment in WWTPs was basically "thickening-coagulation-mechanical dehydration" and the major disposal method was sanitary landfill in China. The distributions of WWTPs and their utilization showed significant regional characteristics. The sewage treatment capacity of China concentrated on the coastal areas and middle reaches of Yangtze River, which were the economically developed zones. Besides, most WWTPs enforced the Class 1 or Class 2 discharge standards, but few realized wastewater reuse. Finally, existing problems were discussed, including low removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus, emerging contaminants, low reuse of reclaimed water, poor sludge treatment and disposal, low execution standard of effluent, and emissions of greenhouse gas from WWTPs. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures were given. PMID:25189479

  10. Gene expression profiles of Fathead minnows exposed to surface waters above and below a sewage treatment plant in Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Adelman, Ira; Liu, Li; Denslow, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Water treatment plants are often not effective in removing pharmaceuticals, personal care products or natural hormones from their effluents. To test the effects of these effluents on fish, we exposed male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) for 48 hours to effluents at two sites, one up-stream and the other down-stream from a water treatment plant. Gene expression profiling showed that significant changes occurred in the gonad of fish exposed below, compared to above the treatment plant and to laboratory control fish. Among the biological processes affected were the innate immune response, response to stress, control of homeostasis, control of transcription, metabolism, and cell communication. This work suggests that fish are impacted by exposures to the sewage treatment effluents and effects can be detected rapidly by gene expression profiling. PMID:18417205

  11. Impact of storm water runoff on efficiency of the effluent treatment plant - a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Suresh, I.V.; Murthy, M.V.R.L.; Sanghi, S.K.; Yadava, R.N.; Wanganeo, A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of storm water runoff on an existing sewage treatment plant situated in an industrial township. Significant dilution effect is observed during the monsoon period (June-September) in the influent and effluent characteristics of sewage. The estimated excess runoff water during these months is mainly due to the rainfall in the region and due to the absence of proper control or design for the collection of storm water, thereby avoiding the discharge of the storm water into the treatment plant. This has resulted in the reduction of BOD, COD, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, thus decreasing the efficiency of gas generation. 7 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Profiles and removal efficiency of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by two different types of sewage treatment work in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Man, Yu Bon; Chow, Ka Lai; Man, Ming; Lam, James Chung Wah; Lau, Frankie Tat Kwong; Fung, Wing Cheong; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-02-01

    This study was to investigate removal efficiencies and profiles of 14 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners by two different types of sewage treatment work (STW) in Hong Kong: Stonecutters Island STW (SCISTW) which uses chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) process and Sha Tin STW (STSTW) which adopts biological treatment. The results indicated that both SCISTW and STSTW had a high total removal efficiency for BDE-47, BDE-99 BDE-209 and total PBDEs (SCISTW: 71.6 ± 15.8, 84.7 ± 12.3, 96.0 ± 2.62 and 87.4 ± 8.02%, respectively; STSTW: 74.8 ± 9.5, 90.7 ± 9.14, 96.2 ± 2.41 and 89.3 ± 2.62%, respectively) and PBDEs were chiefly removed by sorption. However, the profile of PBDEs demonstrated that the relative proportions of BDE-28 and BDE-47 in total PBDEs markedly increased, while that of BDE-209 decreased in the effluent samples of the two sewage treatment works, especially in STSTW. The percentage of BDE-209 in total PBDEs in effluent (49.3%) of SCISTW was 21.2% lower than that in influent (70.5%), and the percentage of BDE-209 in total PBDEs in effluent (13.8%) of STSTW was 34.1% reduced from influent (47.9%). Despite overall removal, the percentage of BDE-47 in total PBDEs in effluent (17.6%) of SCISTW was 6.85% higher than that in influent (10.7%), and the percentage of BDE-47 in total PBDEs in effluent (33.5%) of STSTW was 18.1% increased from influent (16.8%). The increase in proportion of BDE-47 in the effluent might raise environmental and public health concerns. Our study is a first attempt in reporting the PBDE congener profiles in different phases of sewage treatment. PMID:25461027

  13. Sewage in ground water in the Florida Keys

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    More than 24,000 septic tanks, 5,000 cesspools, and greater than 600 shallow disposal wells introduce sewage effluents into porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To assess the fate of sewage nutrients, 21 2- to 20-m-deep wells were core drilled and completed as water-monitoring wells. The wells were sampled quarterly and analyzed for 17 parameters. including nutrients and bacteria. Nutrients (mainly NH4, - which is 30 to 40 times higher than in surface sea water) were detected in ground water beneath the Keys and offshore coral reefs. Highest levels were beneath reefs 5 to 8 km offshore. Ground waters were generally hypersaline and fecal bacteria (fecal coliform and streptococci) were detected in ground water beneath living coral reefs. Higher sea level on the Florida Bay side of the Keys is proposed as the mechanism for forcing ground water toward offshore coral reefs. Tidal pumping, which is more pronounced near the Keys, causes leakage of ground water where the sediment is thin. Areas lacking sediment cover consist of bare limestone bedrock or permeable coral reefs. These are the areas where coral diseases and algal growth have increased in recent years. Pollutants entering the ground water beneath the Florida Keys are likely to be transported seaward beneath impermeable Holocene sediments and may be upwelling through coral reefs and other hardbottom communities.

  14. Tracking persistent pharmaceutical residues from municipal sewage to drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberer, Thomas

    2002-09-01

    In urban areas such as Berlin (Germany) with high municipal sewage water discharges and low surface water flows there is a potential risk of drinking water contamination by polar organic compounds when groundwater recharge is used in drinking water production. Thus, some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are not eliminated completely in the municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they are discharged as contaminants into the receiving waters. In terms of several monitoring studies carried out in Berlin between 1996 and 2000, PhACs such as clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, propyphenazone, primidone and carbamazepine were detected at individual concentrations up to the μg/l-level in influent and effluent samples from STPs and in all surface water samples collected downstream from the STPs. Under recharge conditions, several compounds were also found at individual concentrations up to 7.3 μg/l in samples collected from groundwater aquifers near to contaminated water courses. A few of the PhACs were also identified at the ng/l-level in Berlin tap water samples.

  15. Chemical Disinfection of Holding-Tank Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Sobsey, Mark D.; Wallis, Craig; Melnick, Joseph L.

    1974-01-01

    A number of chemical disinfectants were evaluated for their bactericidal and virucidal effectiveness in holding-tank sewage. It was found that the disinfection efficiencies of formaldehyde, benzalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, and methylene blue were markedly improved if the pH of the sewage was raised from 8.0 to 10.5. When formaldehyde, benzalkonium chloride, and methylene blue were tested with either 2-week holding times with no sewage additions or 10-day holding times with daily sewage additions, disinfection effectiveness was maintained as long as the sewage pH was kept at 10.5 and the disinfectant concentration was kept at 100 mg/liter or more. Calcium hypochlorite, zinc sulfate, and phenol were found to be relatively ineffective disinfectants for holding-tank sewage. PMID:4374122

  16. Chemical disinfection of holding-tank sewage.

    PubMed

    Sobsey, M D; Wallis, C; Melnick, J L

    1974-11-01

    A number of chemical disinfectants were evaluated for their bactericidal and virucidal effectiveness in holding-tank sewage. It was found that the disinfection efficiencies of formaldehyde, benzalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, and methylene blue were markedly improved if the pH of the sewage was raised from 8.0 to 10.5. When formaldehyde, benzalkonium chloride, and methylene blue were tested with either 2-week holding times with no sewage additions or 10-day holding times with daily sewage additions, disinfection effectiveness was maintained as long as the sewage pH was kept at 10.5 and the disinfectant concentration was kept at 100 mg/liter or more. Calcium hypochlorite, zinc sulfate, and phenol were found to be relatively ineffective disinfectants for holding-tank sewage. PMID:4374122

  17. An evaluation of free water surface wetlands as tertiary sewage water treatment of micro-pollutants.

    PubMed

    Breitholtz, Magnus; Näslund, Maria; Stråe, Daniel; Borg, Hans; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

    2012-04-01

    Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean. Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1 ng L(-1) to 7.6 μg L(-1) in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary

  18. Intermittent operation of low pressure UF membranes for sewage reuse at household level.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Vasileios I; Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos; Melidis, Paraschos; Ntougias, Spyridon; Aivasidis, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    A household-scale wastewater treatment system was operated with domestic sewage. The system could recover gardening/irrigation water from raw sewage or secondary effluent by low pressure ultrafiltration (UF). The UF membranes (surface area = 3.5 m(2), pore size = 0.04 μm) were operated at constant transmembrane pressure (0.13 bar). The proposed technology was examined for approximately 2 months without membrane cleaning. Membrane operation was performed periodically (one or two times per week), simulating water usage for gardening irrigation. During raw sewage filtration (chemical oxygen demand (COD) total = 242 ± 71 mg L(-1), COD soluble = 105 ± 51 mg L(-1), suspended solids = 188 ± 58 mg L(-1)), low permeate COD was achieved (52 ± 25 mg L(-1)), whereas nitrogen and phosphorus were recovered in the permeate. The water recovered during 1 h of operation displayed a gradual decrease from 42 to 22 L m(-2)h(-1) during the 50-d time period. For the secondary effluent filtration, the UF module achieved consistently a recovery rate of 39.6 ± 8.0 L m(-2)h(-1), with an average permeate COD of 37 mg L(-1). In this case, the fouling layer (cake layer) was completely reversible after the relaxation period, rendering the process suitable for unattended household applications. PMID:23985509

  19. Enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria for application after direct low-temperature anaerobic sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Kampman, Christel; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Luesken, Francisca A; van Alen, Theo A; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Zeeman, Grietje; Buisman, Cees J N; Temmink, Hardy

    2012-08-15

    Despite many advantages of anaerobic sewage treatment over conventional activated sludge treatment, it has not yet been applied in temperate zones. This is especially because effluent from low-temperature anaerobic treatment contains nitrogen and dissolved methane. The presence of nitrogen and methane offers the opportunity to develop a reactor in which methane is used as electron donor for denitrification. Such a reactor could be used in a new concept for low-temperature anaerobic sewage treatment, consisting of a UASB-digester system, a reactor for denitrification coupled to anaerobic methane oxidation, and a nitritation reactor. In the present study denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria similar to 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' were enriched. Maximum volumetric nitrite consumption rates were 33.5 mg NO(2)(-)-N/Ld (using synthetic medium) and 37.8 mg NO(2)(-)-N/Ld (using medium containing effluent from a sewage treatment plant), which are similar to the maximum rate reported so far. Though the goal was to increase the rates, in both reactors, after reaching these maximum rates, volumetric nitrite consumption rates decreased in time. Results indicate biomass washout may have significantly decelerated enrichment. Therefore, to obtain higher volumetric consumption rates, further research should focus on systems with complete biomass retention. PMID:22657102

  20. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  1. Composition and method for the treatment of sewage

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.

    1981-01-20

    Sewage treatment composition formed by combination of triancontanol with an organic soil improvement agent derived by digestion of milch cow excrement and method of treating sewage are described to reduce sludge by addition of the composition to the sewage.

  2. 1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF STORAGE SHED (BLDG 773). SECURITY FENCE EAST OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Sewage Treatment Plant, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    MedlinePlus

    Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants Hazard Alert During construction and maintenance of sewage and ... Careful work habits can help protect you. Some Biological Hazards That May Be in Sewage Or Wastewater ...

  4. Estimating effluent COD

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Landine, R.

    1995-06-01

    In many parts of the world, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a primary effluent parameter. Unlike BOD, which considers only biodegradable organics, COD also includes non-degradable organics and non-degradable biological oxidation by-products, generally referred to as soluble microbial products (SMP). The SMP can vary from 2% to 10% of the influent degradable COD. If the technology is limited to biological treatment only, the degradable COD will be removed. Further reductions in COD will require physical chemical treatments such as activated carbon. Effluent COD values for several industrial wastewaters are presented. Effluent characteristics from the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewaters are also discussed.

  5. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  6. Biological nitrate removal using a food waste-derived carbon source in synthetic wastewater and real sewage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haowei; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Menglu; Yan, Feng; Gong, Changxiu; Wang, Quan

    2016-01-15

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from food waste to improve biological nutrient removal has drawn much attention. In this study, acidogenic liquid from food waste was used as an alternative carbon source for synthetic wastewater treatment. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were suitable for denitrification, and the change in acidogenic liquid composition had no negative effect on denitrification. The denitrification rates using optimal carbon-to-nitrate ratios of acidogenic liquid were more than 25 mg NO3-N/(gVSS·h). At the same time, acidogenic liquid was used to improve nutrient removal from summer and winter sewage. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were acceptable for summer sewage treatment. Total nitrogen in the final effluent was less than 7 mg/L. Two additional hours were required for winter sewage treatment, and the C/N ratio had to be >6. PMID:26547269

  7. Steroid markers to assess sewage and other sources of organic contaminants in surface sediments of Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, I; Mesa, M; Alonso-Hernandez, C M

    2014-09-15

    Analyses of faecal steroids in coastal sediments from Cienfuegos Bay Cuba indicate chronic sewage contamination at the main outfalls from the city, where concentrations of coprostanol up to 5400ngg(-)(1) (dry wt) were measured. In contrast, steroid concentrations and compositions from sites from the south part of the Bay are characteristic of uncontaminated sewage environments. The levels of coprostanol in the Cienfuegos sediments compares to the lower to mid-range of concentrations reported for coastal sediments on a world-wide basis, with sedimentary levels markedly below those previously reported for heavily impacted sites. This study delivers baseline data for further investigation of the effectiveness of the proposed sewerage plan promoted by the GEF project in Cienfuegos. Investigations on the correlations between faecal steroids and other organic contaminants confirmed that the major source of petroleum hydrocarbons within the bay was associated with the sewage effluents from the Cienfuegos city. PMID:25127498

  8. Characteristics of treated effluents and their potential applications for producing concrete.

    PubMed

    Noruzman, Ainul Haezah; Muhammad, Bala; Ismail, Mohammad; Abdul-Majid, Zaiton

    2012-11-15

    Conservation and preservation of freshwater is increasingly becoming important as the global population grows. Presently, enormous volumes of freshwater are used to mix concrete. This paper reports experimental findings regarding the feasibility of using treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater in mixing concrete. Samples were obtained from three effluent sources: heavy industry, a palm-oil mill and domestic sewage. The effluents were discharge into public drain without danger to human health and natural environment. Chemical compositions and physical properties of the treated effluents were investigated. Fifteen compositional properties of each effluent were correlated with the requirements set out by the relevant standards. Concrete mixes were prepared using the effluents and freshwater to establish a base for control performance. The concrete samples were evaluated with regard to setting time, workability, compressive strength and permeability. The results show that except for some slight excesses in total solids and pH, the properties of the effluents satisfy the recommended disposal requirements. Two concrete samples performed well for all of the properties investigated. In fact, one sample was comparatively better in compressive strength than the normal concrete; a 9.4% increase was observed at the end of the curing period. Indeed, in addition to environmental conservation, the use of treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater for mixing concrete could save a large amount of freshwater, especially in arid zones. PMID:22705857

  9. Sedimentary coprostanol as an index of sewage addition in Santa Monica Basin, southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesan, M.I.; Kaplan, I.R. )

    1990-02-01

    Sediment cores from Santa Monica Basin and effluent from two major municipal wastewater dischargers in southern California were analyzed for sterols. Specifically the fecal sterols, coprostanols (coprostanol and epicoprostanol), were quantitated to determine the degree of sewage addition to the sediment. Although coprostanols are distributed throughout the Santa Monica Basin sediments in association with fine particles, some stations contain elevated levels, either due to their proximity to the outfalls or because of preferential advection of fine-grained sediments into their location where anoxicity aids in better preservation. The progressive seaward decline of coprostanols relative to total sterols from the outfalls represents dilution of sewage by biogenic sterols. The ratios of coprostanols to dinosterol appears to be a better indicator of the degree of sewage addition. A rapid increase in content of coprostanols from about 1935 coincides with the start of offshore wastewater discharge by JWPCP, the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts on Palos Verdes Shelf. It is estimated that wastewater treatment plants release into southern California Bight 260 metric tons/yr of fecal sterols and 5 {times} 10{sup 4} metric tons/yr of sewage carbon.

  10. Detection of sewage organic chlorination products that are resistant to dechlorination with sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    MacCrehan, W.A.; Jensen, J.S.; Helz, G.R.

    1998-11-15

    Most of the 36 billion gal of treated sewage wastewater discharged daily into the environment in the United States is disinfected via chlorination. To minimize toxicity. dechlorination with sulfite or sulfur dioxide is often performed. Although dechlorination is considered instantaneous and complete, several studies have found residual toxicity of chlorinated/dechlorinated effluent to aquatic life. The authors investigated chlorination/dechlorination of the organic nitrogen components of sewage wastewater using both iodometric titration and a novel LC method. For LC, a postcolumn reaction with iodide rendered submicromolar chloramine concentrations detectable with amperometry. Using a gradient-elution LC separation, the retention and dechlorination behavior of a suite of model amines was determined, representing primary and secondary aliphatic, peptide, and protein-N. Chlorination/dechlorination experiments on freshly collected, tertiary-treated wastewater showed a fraction of the organic N-chloramines are dechlorinated slowly by sulfite with half-lives of >20 min. Chromatographic retention and kinetic behavior of the sewage N-chloramines was consistent with the behavior of the model peptides and proteins. Proteolytic hydrolysis markedly increased the peptide fraction observed upon chlorination of the wastewater. These results suggest that peptides and proteins contribute to slow dechlorination of sewage and may be a factor in the toxicity noted for chlorine-disinfected wastewater.

  11. NATIONAL WWTP EFFLUENT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of potential wildlife risk from exposure to environmental estrogens emphasize the need to better understand both estrogenic presence and persistence in treated wastewater effluents. In addition to wildlife exposure, human exposure should also be examined, especially in si...

  12. GEOTHERMAL EFFLUENT SAMPLING WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling methodology.

  13. Treatment of sewage sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Célia R G; Benatti, Cláudia T; Dias Filho, Benedito P

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the performance of a cylindrical anaerobic digester in treating secondary sewage sludge. A series of three independent batch experiments was performed for a total operation time of 60 d. The system of anaerobic digestion showed stability conditions, with no noticeable scum or foaming problems. The chemical oxygen demand reduction reached 29,21, and 45% in sludge and 95,85, and 82% in supernatant for the three experiments, respectively. Total coliform bacteria levels in the digester ranged from 10(4) to 10(5) in influent sludge and from 10(4) to 10(3) in effluent sludge, with an average reduction of 90%. Fecal coliforms of the order of 10(4) were enumerated in influent sludge and those of the order of 10(0) were enumerated in effluent sludge, with an average reduction of 99.9%. The studied system had satisfactory results, showing that both organic matter and indicator bacteria levels substantially decrease when the sludge is submitted to anaerobic digestion. PMID:12018315

  14. Investigation and evaluation of ultrasound reactor for reduction of fungi from sewage*

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Mohammad Hadi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Jahed, Gholam Reza; Sheikhi, Razieh

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to study the application of ultrasound reactor technology (USRT) as a disinfectant for reduction of fungi from sewage effluent. Fungi are carbon heterotrophs that require preformed organic compounds as carbon sources. USRT is an attractive means to improve water quality because of the system simplicity and no production of toxic by-products. An ultrasound reactor produces strong cavitation in aqueous solution causing shock waves and reactive free radicals by the violent collapse of the cavitation bubble. These effects should contribute to the physical disruption of microbial structures and inactivation of organisms. There was significant reduction in fungal growth, with decreased fungal growth with increasing USRT. In this study, ultrasound irradiation at a frequency of 42 kHz was used to expose suspensions of fungi to evaluate the disinfection efficacy of the ultrasound reactor. Also, this study showed that in this system more than 99% reduction of sewage fungi was achieved after 60 min. PMID:17610329

  15. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  16. My Town, My Creek, My Sewage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodburn, John H.

    1972-01-01

    After summarizing the ecology of polluted streams as well as the technology and biology of sewage treatment methods, and considering the economic and social aspects of introducing advanced sewage treatment, comments on the role of biology teachers in providing public information are made. (AL)

  17. REGROWTH OF SALMONELLAE IN COMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to investigate the regrowth of salmonellae in composted sewage sludge. Though composting effectively stabilizes and disinfects sewage sludges, the decrease in salmonellae may be only temporary, since this pathogen can survive and grow without a human or ani...

  18. BY-PRODUCTS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Robert Spurr

    1920-01-01

    Economy and conservation have worked for years at the problem of profit from sewage. Mr. Weston notes that many American cities have potential by-products enough to make recovery worth trying. English cities have found the American Miles process profitable. It will at least lessen the cost of sewage disposal. PMID:18010306

  19. Dynamics of size-fractionated bacterial communities during the coastal dispersal of treated municipal effluents.

    PubMed

    Liu, SiGuang; Luo, YuanRong; Huang, LingFeng

    2016-07-01

    Everyday huge amount of treated municipal wastewater is discharged into the coastal seawater. However, microbial biomarkers for the municipal effluent instead of the fecal species from raw sewage have not been proposed. Meanwhile, bacterial taxa for degrading large amounts of input organics have not been fully understood. In this study, raw effluent and serial water samples were collected from the coastal dispersal of two sewage treatment plants in Xiamen, China. Free-living (FL) and particle-associated (PA) bacterial communities were analyzed via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR to measure bacterial abundance. The PA bacterial communities in our samples exhibited higher cell abundance, alpha diversity, and population dynamics than the FL bacterial communities, which supports greater environmental significance of the PA bacterial communities. Two non-fecal but typical genera in activated sludge, Zoogloea and Dechloromonas, exhibited decreased but readily detectable abundance along the effluent dispersal distance. Furthermore, the dominating microbial species near the outfalls were related to well-known marine indigenous taxa, such as SAR11 clade, OM60 clade, low-GC Actinobacteria, and unclassified Flavobacteriales, as well as the less understood taxa like Pseudohongiella and Microbacteriaceae. It is interesting that these taxa exhibited two types of correlation patterns with COD concentration. Our study suggested Zoogloea as a potential indicator of municipal effluents and also proposed potential utilizers of residual effluent COD in marine environments. PMID:26944731

  20. [Antibiotic resistance of bacteria to 6 antibiotics in secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants].

    PubMed

    Lu, Sun-Qin; Li, Yi; Huang, Jing-Jing; Wei, Bin; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2011-11-01

    Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wastewater effluents is concerned as an emerging contaminant. To estimate antibiotic resistance in secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants, antibiotic tolerance of heterotrophic bacteria, proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and hemi-inhibitory concentrations of six antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, cefalexin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and rifampicin) were determined at two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Beijing. The results showed that proportions of ampicillin-resistant bacteria in WWTP-G and chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria in WWTP-Q were highest to 59% and 44%, respectively. The concentrations of ampicillin-resistant bacteria in the effluents of WWTP-G and WWTP-Q were as high as 4.0 x 10(3) CFU x mL(-1) and 3.5 x 10(4) CFU x mL(-1), respectively; the concentrations of chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria were 4.9 x 10(2) CFU x mL(-1) and 4.6 x 10(4) CFU x mL(-1), respectively. The data also indicated that the hemi-inhibitory concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria to 6 antibiotics were much higher than common concentrations of antibiotics in sewages, which suggested that antibiotic-resistant bacteria could exist over a long period in the effluents with low concentrations of antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria could be a potential microbial risk during sewage effluent reuse or emission into environmental waters. PMID:22295644

  1. Toxicity tests of effluents with marsh plants in water and sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, G.E.; Weber, D.E.; Simon, T.L.; Brashers, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    Methods are described for toxicity testing of water and sediment with two varieties of the freshwater marsh plant Echinochloa crusgalli (Linneaus) Palisot de Beauvois (Poaceae), and complex effluents. Two tests are described: a seed germination and early seedling growth test in water, and a survival and seedling growth test in natural and synthetic sediments. Effects of effluents from a sewage treatment plant, tannery, textile mill, pulp and paper mill, coking plant and sewage treatment plant included inhibition of germination, chlorophyll synthesis and growth. The tests with rooted marsh plants were sensitive to pollutants and detected toxicity of a range of pollutants in water and sediment. Synthetic sediments similar to natural sediments allowed toxicity tests to be done under carefully controlled conditions of particle size distribution, organic content, pH, electrode potential (Eh) and cation exchange capacity (CEC).

  2. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  3. Persistence of enteroviruses in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyan, T P

    1977-01-01

    Sewage from residential areas often contains viruses pathogenic for man and significant amounts are probably associated with solids in sewage sludge. Information on the survival of viruses in sewage sludge is necessary in order to develop guidelines for recycling programmes that involve spreading the sludge on land. In the present study, a number of enteroviruses were added to sewage sludge and the artificially contaminated sludges were tested for viruses at intervals over a 12-week period. Most of the viruses survived for many weeks at room temperature. It is clear that sewage sludge destined for land application should be adequately treated for virus inactivation. In interpreting these results, it should be borne in mind that the survival of hepatitis A virus might be similar. Recent reports about the reappearance of poliomyelitis in regions with immunization programmes should also be taken into consideration. PMID:202416

  4. Reductive dissolution and reactive solute transport in a sewage-contaminated glacial outwash aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, R.W.; Bennett, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    Contamination of shallow ground water by sewage effluent typically contains reduced chemical species that consume dissolved oxygen, developing either a low oxygen geochemical environment or an anaerobic geochemical environment. Based on the load of reduced chemical species discharged to shallow ground water and the amounts of reactants in the aquifer matrix, it should be possible to determine chemical processes in the aquifer and compare observed results to predicted ones. At the Otis Air Base research site (Cape Cod, Massachusetts) where sewage effluent has infiltrated the shallow aquifer since 1936, bacterially mediated processes such as nitrification, denitrification, manganese reduction, and iron reduction have been observed in the contaminant plume. In specific areas of the plume, dissolved manganese and iron have increased significantly where local geochemical conditions are favorable for reduction and transport of these constituents from the aquifer matrix. Dissolved manganese and iron concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 7.3 mg/L, and 0.001 to 13.0 mg/L, respectively, for 21 samples collected from 1988 to 1989. Reduction of manganese and iron is linked to microbial oxidation of sewage carbon, producing bicarbonate and the dissolved metal ions as by-products. Calculated production and flux of CO2 through the unsaturated zone from manganese reduction in the aquifer was 0.035 g/m2/d (12% of measured CO2 flux during winter). Manganese is limited in the aquifer, however. A one-dimensional, reaction-coupled transport model developed for the mildly reducing conditions in the sewage plume nearest the source beds showed that reduction, transport, and removal of manganese from the aquifer sediments should result in iron reduction where manganese has been depleted.

  5. Sewage contamination in a tropical coastal area (São Sebastião Channel, SP, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Muniz, P; da Silva, D A M; Bícego, M C; Bromberg, S; Pires-Vanin, A M S

    2015-10-15

    Urban effluent discharges in Brazilian coastal areas are a chronic problem and often lead to changes in the quality of the marine environment. São-Sebastião-Channel (SSC) is an important aquatic ecosystem to be monitored for urban sewage contamination due to the intense urban activities in that region, as well as the relative high biodiversity of marine organisms. In the area are present three submarine sewage outfalls, a commercial harbour and also the biggest oil terminal in Brazil. Total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total sulphur (TS), steroids and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) were measured in sediment samples collected in three strategic locations of the SSC in order to monitor urban sewage contamination. Total LAB and total sterols levels ranged from below DL-51.3 ng g(-1) and below DL-10.40 μg g(-1), respectively. Samples collected near sewage outfall in the central part of the SSC had higher concentrations of urban sewage-associated contaminants. PMID:26231066

  6. Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Prasertkulsak, Sirilak; Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Kootatep, Thammarat; Itonaga, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3. PMID:26606089

  7. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  8. Drugs of abuse and their metabolites in the Ebro River basin: occurrence in sewage and surface water, sewage treatment plants removal efficiency, and collective drug usage estimation.

    PubMed

    Postigo, Cristina; López de Alda, María José; Barceló, Damià

    2010-01-01

    Drugs of abuse and their metabolites have been recently recognized as environmental emerging organic contaminants. Assessment of their concentration in different environmental compartments is essential to evaluate their potential ecotoxicological effects. It also constitutes an indirect tool to estimate drug abuse by the population at the community level. The present work reports for the first time the occurrence of drugs of abuse and metabolites residues along the Ebro River basin (NE Spain) and also evaluates the contribution of sewage treatment plants (STPs) effluents to the presence of these chemicals in natural surface waters. Concentrations measured in influent sewage waters were used to back calculate drug usage at the community level in the main urban areas of the investigated river basin. The most ubiquitous and abundant compounds in the studied aqueous matrices were cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ephedrine and ecstasy. Lysergic compounds, heroin, its metabolite 6-monoacetyl morphine, and Delta(9)-tetradhydrocannabinol were the substances less frequently detected. Overall, total levels of the studied illicit drugs and metabolites observed in surface water (in the low ng/L range) were one and two orders of magnitude lower than those determined in effluent (in the ng/L range) and influent sewage water (microg/L range), respectively. The investigated STPs showed overall removal efficiencies between 45 and 95%. Some compounds, such as cocaine and amphetamine, were very efficiently eliminated (>90%) whereas others, such as ecstasy, methamphetamine, nor-LSD, and THC-COOH where occasionally not eliminated at all. Drug consumption estimates pointed out cocaine as the most abused drug, followed by cannabis, amphetamine, heroin, ecstasy and methamphetamine, which slightly differs from national official estimates (cannabis, followed by cocaine, ecstasy, amphetamine and heroin). Extrapolation of the consumption data obtained for the studied area to Spain points out a total

  9. Biochemical responses in the gills of Meretrix meretrix after exposure to treated municipal effluent.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ru; Meng, Fanping; Fu, Wenchao; Wang, Qun; Su, Enping

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical effects in marine bivalves exposed to increasing concentrations of treated municipal effluent (TME), as discharged into receiving marine waters, are investigated. The effluent was collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) in Qingdao (China). Meretrix meretrix were exposed to effluent volume ratio (EVR, ratio of effluent volume accounted for tailwater seawater mixture) 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% (v/v) TME for 15 days and the following biochemical responses in gills were measured: (1) the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione (GSH) content, and lipid peroxidation levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), as oxidative stress biomarkers; (2) the activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and gluthathione S-transferase (GST), as phase I and phase II conjugation enzymes, respectively; (3) acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as a biomarker of neurotoxicity, and (4) metallothioneins (MTs), as proteins strongly induced by heavy metals. Most of the biochemical indices present high and significant variation frequency (above 50%). There is enhancement in the antioxidant enzymes, EROD, GST, AChE, and MTs, as well as consumption of GSH. The current experimental results suggest that effluent with concentrations less than 20% (v/v) do not cause lipid peroxidation damage. This implies that the activated defense is sufficient to protect the bivalves' gill tissues from cytotoxicity produced by the effluent. Furthermore, GSH, GPx, MTs, and GR are suitable, and sufficiently sensitive, biomarkers to indicate the pollution levels in marine environments receiving such effluent. PMID:25450918

  10. Sewage derive [sup 15]N in the Baltic traced in fucus

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbie, J.E.; Fry, B. ); Larsson, U.; Elmgren, R. )

    1990-01-09

    Himmerfjarden, a fjord-like bay on the eastern shore of the Baltic, receives treated sewage from 250,000 inhabitants. Because the inorganic N in the effluent is enriched in [sup 15]N through denitrification, nitrification, and ammonia volatilization, an analysis of the distribution of [sup 15]N in the Bay tells how far from the source the sewage nitrogen moves. The attached macroalga Fucus vesiculosus was collected in early May from rocky shore at 0-0.5 m depth and the [sup 15]N content of the tips of the fronds analyzed. This N represents uptake and storage during the previous six months and growth during March and April. The [delta][sup 15]N was uniformly high (11-13[per thousand]) in the main body of the Bay within 15 km from the sewage source. Beyond 15 km values decreased with distance to a low of 4.6[per thousand] at 35 km, where the Bay ends and the coastal waters begin. Using the 11-13 and 4.6[per thousand] as endmembers, the percentage of sewage N making up the Fucus at any point may be calculated. The [delta][sub 15]N of particulate organic matter in the offshore Baltic waters was around 0[per thousand] and Fucus had an [delta][sup 15]N about 1.5[per thousand] higher than the POM. From this and other evidence we conclude that there is a belt of coastal water with an elevated [delta][sup 15]N lying along the east coast of the Baltic. This presumably derives from sewage and perhaps from agriculture and is potentially of use as a tracer of coastal zone/pelagic zone interactions.