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Sample records for stationary compression ignition

  1. 75 FR 47520 - Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... rulemaking published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010 (75 FR 32612). That notice proposed revisions to... Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... the standards of performance for stationary compression ignition and spark ignition...

  2. 75 FR 32611 - Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... were initially published on July 11, 2006 (71 FR 39153). New source performance standards implement... noted in the proposed rule (70 FR 39870) that it was reviewing the possibility of promulgating more... containing separate standards of performance for stationary spark ignition (SI) engines. (73 FR 3567)...

  3. 40 CFR Table 2a to Subpart Zzzz of... - Emission Limitations for New and Reconstructed 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE >500...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Reconstructed 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE >500 HP and New and Reconstructed 4SLB Stationary RICE â¥250 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP Emissions 2a Table 2a to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63... 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE >500 HP and New and Reconstructed 4SLB Stationary...

  4. 40 CFR Table 2d to Subpart Zzzz of... - Requirements for Existing Compression Ignition Stationary RICE Located at Area Sources of HAP...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ignition Stationary RICE Located at Area Sources of HAP Emissions 2d Table 2d to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63... Stationary RICE Located at Area Sources of HAP Emissions As stated in §§ 63.6600 and 63.6640, you must comply with the following emission and operating limitations for existing compression ignition stationary...

  5. 40 CFR Table 2c to Subpart Zzzz of... - Requirements for Existing Compression Ignition Stationary Rice Located at Major Sources of HAP...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ignition Stationary Rice Located at Major Sources of HAP Emissions 2c Table 2c to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63... Stationary Rice Located at Major Sources of HAP Emissions As stated in §§ 63.6600 and 63.6640, you must comply with the following requirements for existing compression ignition stationary RICE: For...

  6. 40 CFR Table 2c to Subpart Zzzz of... - Requirements for Existing Compression Ignition Stationary RICE Located at a Major Source of HAP...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for Existing Compression Ignition Stationary RICE Located at a Major Source of HAP Emissions and Existing Spark Ignition Stationary RICE â¤500 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP Emissions 2c Table 2c to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63 Protection of Environment...

  7. 40 CFR Table 2a to Subpart Zzzz of... - Emission Limitations for New and Reconstructed 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE >500...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission Limitations for New and Reconstructed 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE >500 HP and New and Reconstructed 4SLB Stationary RICE â¥250 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP Emissions 2a Table 2a to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63 Protection of Environment...

  8. Simultaneous dual mode combustion engine operating on spark ignition and homogenous charge compression ignition

    DOEpatents

    Fiveland, Scott B.; Wiggers, Timothy E.

    2004-06-22

    An engine particularly suited to single speed operation environments, such as stationary power generators. The engine includes a plurality of combustion cylinders operable under homogenous charge compression ignition, and at least one combustion cylinder operable on spark ignition concepts. The cylinder operable on spark ignition concepts can be convertible to operate under homogenous charge compression ignition. The engine is started using the cylinders operable under spark ignition concepts.

  9. Future Prospects of Low Compression Ignition Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azim, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a review and analysis of the effects of compression ratio and inlet air preheating on engine performance in order to assess the future prospects of low compression ignition engines. Regulation of the inlet air preheating allows some control over the combustion process in compression ignition engines. Literature shows that low compression ratio and inlet air preheating are more beneficial to internal combustion engines than detrimental. Even the disadvantages due to low compression ratio are outweighed by the advantages due to inlet air preheating and vice versa.

  10. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart Zzzz of... - Operating Limitations for New and Reconstructed 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR 63.8(g) for a different temperature range. ... stationary RICE complying with the requirement to reduce CO emissions and using an oxidation catalyst; or... concentration of formaldehyde in the stationary RICE exhaust and using an oxidation catalyst; or 4SLB...

  11. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart Zzzz of... - Operating Limitations for New and Reconstructed 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sources can petition the Administrator pursuant to the requirements of 40 CFR 63.8(g) for a different... complying with the requirement to reduce CO emissions and using an oxidation catalyst; or 2SLB and 4SLB... formaldehyde in the stationary RICE exhaust and using an oxidation catalyst a. Maintain your catalyst so...

  12. 40 CFR Table 2c to Subpart Zzzz of... - Requirements for Existing Compression Ignition Stationary RICE Located at a Major Source of HAP...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 63... subpart. 3 Sources can petition the Administrator pursuant to the requirements of 40 CFR 63.6(g) for... as necessary.3 Minimize the engine's time spent at idle and minimize the engine's startup time...

  13. 40 CFR Table 2a to Subpart Zzzz of... - Emission Limitations for New and Reconstructed 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE >500...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 63... Administrator pursuant to the requirements of 40 CFR 63.6(g) for alternative work practices. ... concentration of formaldehyde to 17 ppmvd or less at 15 percent O2 until June 15, 2007 Minimize the...

  14. 40 CFR Table 2c to Subpart Zzzz of... - Requirements for Existing Compression Ignition Stationary RICE Located at a Major Source of HAP...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 63... subpart. 3 Sources can petition the Administrator pursuant to the requirements of 40 CFR 63.6(g) for... as necessary.3 Minimize the engine's time spent at idle and minimize the engine's startup time...

  15. 40 CFR Table 2c to Subpart Zzzz of... - Requirements for Existing Compression Ignition Stationary RICE Located at a Major Source of HAP...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 63... petition the Administrator pursuant to the requirements of 40 CFR 63.6(g) for alternative work practices. ... comes first, and replace as necessary.3 Minimize the engine's time spent at idle and minimize the...

  16. 40 CFR Table 2a to Subpart Zzzz of... - Emission Limitations for New and Reconstructed 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE >500...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 63... Administrator pursuant to the requirements of 40 CFR 63.6(g) for alternative work practices. ... concentration of formaldehyde to 17 ppmvd or less at 15 percent O2 until June 15, 2007 Minimize the...

  17. 40 CFR Table 2a to Subpart Zzzz of... - Emission Limitations for New and Reconstructed 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE >500...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 63... Administrator pursuant to the requirements of 40 CFR 63.6(g) for alternative work practices. ... concentration of formaldehyde to 17 ppmvd or less at 15 percent O2 until June 15, 2007 Minimize the...

  18. Friction of Compression-ignition Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H , Jr

    1936-01-01

    The cost in mean effective pressure of generating air flow in the combustion chambers of single-cylinder compression-ignition engines was determined for the prechamber and the displaced-piston types of combustion chamber. For each type a wide range of air-flow quantities, speeds, and boost pressures was investigated. Supplementary tests were made to determine the effect of lubricating-oil temperature, cooling-water temperature, and compression ratio on the friction mean effective pressure of the single-cylinder test engine. Friction curves are included for two 9-cylinder, radial, compression-ignition aircraft engines. The results indicate that generating the optimum forced air flow increased the motoring losses approximately 5 pounds per square inch mean effective pressure regardless of chamber type or engine speed. With a given type of chamber, the rate of increase in friction mean effective pressure with engine speed is independent of the air-flow speed. The effect of boost pressure on the friction cannot be predicted because the friction was decreased, unchanged, or increased depending on the combustion-chamber type and design details. High compression ratio accounts for approximately 5 pounds per square inch mean effective pressure of the friction of these single-cylinder compression-ignition engines. The single-cylinder test engines used in this investigation had a much higher friction mean effective pressure than conventional aircraft engines or than the 9-cylinder, radial, compression-ignition engines tested so that performance should be compared on an indicated basis.

  19. Prechamber Compression-Ignition Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H , Jr

    1938-01-01

    Single-cylinder compression-ignition engine tests were made to investigate the performance characteristics of prechamber type of cylinder head. Certain fundamental variables influencing engine performance -- clearance distribution, size, shape, and direction of the passage connecting the cylinder and prechamber, shape of prechamber, cylinder clearance, compression ratio, and boosting -- were independently tested. Results of motoring and of power tests, including several typical indicator cards, are presented.

  20. Low emissions compression ignited engine technology

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Gerald N.; Kilkenny, Jonathan P.; Fluga, Eric C.; Duffy, Kevin P.

    2007-04-03

    A method and apparatus for operating a compression ignition engine having a cylinder wall, a piston, and a head defining a combustion chamber. The method and apparatus includes delivering fuel substantially uniformly into the combustion chamber, the fuel being dispersed throughout the combustion chamber and spaced from the cylinder wall, delivering an oxidant into the combustion chamber sufficient to support combustion at a first predetermined combustion duration, and delivering a diluent into the combustion chamber sufficient to change the first predetermined combustion duration to a second predetermined combustion duration different from the first predetermined combustion duration.

  1. Variable valve timing in a homogenous charge compression ignition engine

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Faletti, James J.; Funke, Steven J.; Maloney, Ronald P.

    2004-08-03

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogenous charge compression ignition engines, in which fuel is injected when the cylinder piston is relatively close to the bottom dead center position for its compression stroke. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder during the compression stroke to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. The present invention utilizes internal exhaust gas recirculation and/or compression ratio control to control the timing of ignition events and combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Thus, at least one electro-hydraulic assist actuator is provided that is capable of mechanically engaging at least one cam actuated intake and/or exhaust valve.

  2. High load operation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Liechty, Michael P.; Hardy, William L.; Rodman, Anthony; Hergart, Carl-Anders

    2008-12-23

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine is set up by first identifying combinations of compression ratio and exhaust gas percentages for each speed and load across the engines operating range. These identified ratios and exhaust gas percentages can then be converted into geometric compression ratio controller settings and exhaust gas recirculation rate controller settings that are mapped against speed and load, and made available to the electronic

  3. A Study on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Gasoline Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Makoto; Morikawa, Koji; Itoh, Jin; Saishu, Youhei

    A new engine concept consisting of HCCI combustion for low and midrange loads and spark ignition combustion for high loads was introduced. The timing of the intake valve closing was adjusted to alter the negative valve overlap and effective compression ratio to provide suitable HCCI conditions. The effect of mixture formation on auto-ignition was also investigated using a direct injection engine. As a result, HCCI combustion was achieved with a relatively low compression ratio when the intake air was heated by internal EGR. The resulting combustion was at a high thermal efficiency, comparable to that of modern diesel engines, and produced almost no NOx emissions or smoke. The mixture stratification increased the local A/F concentration, resulting in higher reactivity. A wide range of combustible A/F ratios was used to control the compression ignition timing. Photographs showed that the flame filled the entire chamber during combustion, reducing both emissions and fuel consumption.

  4. Hydrogen as an Auxiliary Fuel in Compression-Ignition Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Foster, H

    1936-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine whether a sufficient amount of hydrogen could be efficiently burned in a compression-ignition engine to compensate for the increase of lift of an airship due to the consumption of the fuel oil. The performance of a single-cylinder four-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine operating on fuel oil alone was compared with its performance when various quantities of hydrogen were inducted with the inlet air. Engine-performance data, indicator cards, and exhaust-gas samples were obtained for each change in engine-operating conditions.

  5. Ignition and combustion: Low compression ratio, high output diesel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of converting a spark ignition aircraft engine GTSI0-520 to compression ignition without increasing the peak combustion pressure of 1100 lbs/sq.in. was determined. The final contemplated utilized intake air heating at idle and light load and a compression ratio of about 10:1 with a small amount of fumigation (the addition of about 15% fuel into the combustion air before the cylinder). The engine used was a modification of a Continental-Teledyne gasoline engine cylinder from the GTSI0-520 supercharged aircraft engine.

  6. The Quiescent-Chamber Type Compression-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, H H

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of performance tests of a single-cylinder 4-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine having a vertical disk form of combustion chamber without air flow. The number, size, and direction of the orifices of the fuel-injection nozzles used were independently varied. A table and graphs are presented showing the performance of the engine with different nozzles; results of tests at different compression ratios, boost pressures, and coolant temperatures are also included.

  7. CORONA DISCHARGE IGNITION FOR ADVANCED STATIONARY NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul D. Ronney

    2003-09-12

    An ignition source was constructed that is capable of producing a pulsed corona discharge for the purpose of igniting mixtures in a test chamber. This corona generator is adaptable for use as the ignition source for one cylinder on a test engine. The first tests were performed in a cylindrical shaped chamber to study the characteristics of the corona and analyze various electrode geometries. Next a test chamber was constructed that closely represented the dimensions of the combustion chamber of the test engine at USC. Combustion tests were performed in this chamber and various electrode diameters and geometries were tested. The data acquisition and control system hardware for the USC engine lab was updated with new equipment. New software was also developed to perform the engine control and data acquisition functions. Work is underway to design a corona electrode that will fit in the new test engine and be capable igniting the mixture in one cylinder at first and eventually in all four cylinders. A test engine was purchased for the project that has two spark plug ports per cylinder. With this configuration it will be possible to switch between corona ignition and conventional spark plug ignition without making any mechanical modifications.

  8. Fundamental Interactions in Gasoline Compression Ignition Engines with Fuel Stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolk, Benjamin Matthew

    Transportation accounted for 28% of the total U.S. energy demand in 2011, with 93% of U.S. transportation energy coming from petroleum. The large impact of the transportation sector on global climate change necessitates more-efficient, cleaner-burning internal combustion engine operating strategies. One such strategy that has received substantial research attention in the last decade is Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). Although the efficiency and emissions benefits of HCCI are well established, practical limits on the operating range of HCCI engines have inhibited their application in consumer vehicles. One such limit is at high load, where the pressure rise rate in the combustion chamber becomes excessively large. Fuel stratification is a potential strategy for reducing the maximum pressure rise rate in HCCI engines. The aim is to introduce reactivity gradients through fuel stratification to promote sequential auto-ignition rather than a bulk-ignition, as in the homogeneous case. A gasoline-fueled compression ignition engine with fuel stratification is termed a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine. Although a reasonable amount of experimental research has been performed for fuel stratification in GCI engines, a clear understanding of how the fundamental in-cylinder processes of fuel spray evaporation, mixing, and heat release contribute to the observed phenomena is lacking. Of particular interest is gasoline's pressure sensitive low-temperature chemistry and how it impacts the sequential auto-ignition of the stratified charge. In order to computationally study GCI with fuel stratification using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and chemical kinetics, two reduced mechanisms have been developed. The reduced mechanisms were developed from a large, detailed mechanism with about 1400 species for a 4-component gasoline surrogate. The two versions of the reduced mechanism developed in this work are: (1) a 96-species version and (2

  9. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Rodman, Anthony; Liechty, Michael P.; Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  10. Influence of several factors on ignition lag in a compression-ignition engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred

    1932-01-01

    This investigation was made to determine the influence of fuel quality, injection advance angle, injection valve-opening pressure, inlet-air pressure, compression ratio, and engine speed on the time lag of auto-ignition of a Diesel fuel oil in a single-cylinder compression-ignition engine as obtained from an analysis of indicator diagrams. Three cam-operated fuel-injection pumps, two pumps cams, and an automatic injection valve with two different nozzles were used. Ignition lag was considered to be the interval between the start of injection of the fuel as determined with a Stroborama and the start of effective combustion as determined from the indicator diagram, the latter being the point where 4.0 x 10(exp-6) pound of fuel had been effectively burned. For this particular engine and fuel it was found that: (1) for a constant start and the same rate of fuel injection up the point of cut-off, a variation in fuel quantity from 1.2 x 10(exp-4) to 4.1 x 10(exp-4) pound per cycle has no appreciable effect on the ignition lag; (2) injection advance angle increases or decreases the lag according to whether density, temperature, or turbulence has the controlling influence; (3) increase in valve-opening pressure slightly increases the lag; and (4) increase of inlet-air pressure, compression ratio, and engine speed reduces the lag.

  11. Compression ignition of hydrogen-containing mixtures in shock tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, S. P.; Gelfand, B. E.; Khomik, S. V.; Agafonov, G. L.

    2010-12-01

    The state of the art of the problem of discrepancy between the values measured in shock tubes and calculated for the delay of ignition of hydrogen-containing systems has been analyzed. It is shown that in the low-temperature region the off-design appearance of reaction sites leads to the propagation of a flame in a mixture heated by a reflected shock wave. The parameter of the time of mixture combustion in a deflagration regime has been introduced and the use of it together with the calculated delay in self-ignition for delimitation and classification of thermal and gas-dynamic phenomena on compression ignition of hydrogen-containing mixtures in shock tubes has been suggested.

  12. A Comparison of Several Methods of Measuring Ignition Lag in a Compression-ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A

    1934-01-01

    The ignition lag of a fuel oil in the combustion chamber of a high speed compression-ignition engine was measured by three different methods. The start of injection of the fuel as observed with a Stoborama was taken as the start of the period of ignition lag in all cases. The end of the period of ignition lag was determined by observation of the appearance of incandescence in the combustion chamber, by inspection of a pressure-time card for evidence of pressure rise, and by analysis of the indicator card for evidence of the combustion of a small but definite quantity of fuel. A comparison of the values for ignition lags obtained by these three methods indicates that the appearance of incandescence is later than other evidences of the start of combustion, that visual inspection of a pressure-time diagram gives consistent and usable values with a minimum requirement of time and/or apparatus, and that analysis of the indicator card is not worth while for ignition lag alone.

  13. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Free Piston Linear Alternator

    SciTech Connect

    Janson Wu; Nicholas Paradiso; Peter Van Blarigan; Scott Goldsborough

    1998-11-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) free piston powered linear alternator has been conducted to determine if improvements can be made in the thermal and conversion efficiencies of modern electrical generator systems. Performance of a free piston engine was investigated using a rapid compression expansion machine and a full cycle thermodynamic model. Linear alternator performance was investigated with a computer model. In addition linear alternator testing and permanent magnet characterization hardware were developed. The development of the two-stroke cycle scavenging process has begun.

  14. Modeling Ignition and Combustion in Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engines Employing Very Early Injection Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Takeshi; Tsurushima, Tadashi; Shimazaki, Naoki; Harada, Akira; Sasaki, Satoru; Hayashi, Koichi; Asaumi, Yasuo; Aoyagi, Yuzo

    An ignition and combustion model has been developed to predict the heat release rate in direct injection compression ignition engines employing very early injection timing. The model describes the chemical reactions, including low-temperature oxidation. The KIVA II computer code was modified with the present ignition and combustion model. The numerical results indicate that the model developed in this work reproduces major features of two-stage autoignition, as well as experimentally observed trends in NOx and unburned fuel emissions. The computational results show that fuel injection timing significantly influences NOx emissions. Results also indicate that fuel droplets that enter the squish region possibly become unburned fuel emissions. Some graphical results demonstrate the relationships among the in-cylinder fuel spray distributions, fuel-air equivalence ratio, temperature, and mass fractions of NO and unburned fuel.

  15. Homogenous charge compression ignition engine having a cylinder including a high compression space

    DOEpatents

    Agama, Jorge R.; Fiveland, Scott B.; Maloney, Ronald P.; Faletti, James J.; Clarke, John M.

    2003-12-30

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogeneous charge compression engines. In these engines, fuel is injected upstream or directly into the cylinder when the power piston is relatively close to its bottom dead center position. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder as the power piston advances to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the power piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. Thus, the present invention divides the homogeneous charge between a controlled volume higher compression space and a lower compression space to better control the start of ignition.

  16. Control of Ignition and Combustion of Dimethyl Ether in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Oh; Azetsu, Akihiko; Oikawa, Chikashi

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is known to have high thermal efficiency and low nitrogen oxide emission. However, the control of ignition timing and its combustion period over a wide range of engine speeds and loads is one of the barriers to the realization of the engine. On the lean side of the equivalence ratio, control of ignition is difficult due to its long delay of ignition, and there is knocklike problem under high load. In both computations and experiments of HCCI engine operated on dimethyl ether, the operable range (the possible range of fuel input from just ignitable to knock-occurring state) shifted to the rich side with decreasing intake temperature and amount of mixing of carbon dioxide. The range of fuel input was reduced at low intake temperatures, because the hot flame onset angle advanced more quickly than it did at high intake temperatures. However, the mixing of CO2 caused the operable range to shift to the rich side while retaining the same range. The results of this study indicated the possibility of high-load operation or extension of the load range by exhaust gas recirculation.

  17. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Zzzz of... - Operating Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition 4SRB Stationary RICE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP Emissions and Existing Spark Ignition 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at an Area Source of HAP... Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at...

  18. Combustion in a High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M

    1933-01-01

    An investigation conducted to determine the factors which control the combustion in a high-speed compression-ignition engine is presented. Indicator cards were taken with the Farnboro indicator and analyzed according to the tangent method devised by Schweitzer. The analysis show that in a quiescent combustion chamber increasing the time lag of auto-ignition increases the maximum rate of combustion. Increasing the maximum rate of combustion increases the tendency for detonation to occur. The results show that by increasing the air temperature during injection the start of combustion can be forced to take place during injection and so prevent detonation from occurring. It is shown that the rate of fuel injection does not in itself control the rate of combustion.

  19. A mechanism for the compressive ignition of liquid monopropellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, W. F.; Knapton, J. D.; Mandzy, J.

    1980-01-01

    Possible mechanisms for compressive ignition of liquid monopropellants are discussed. These mechanisms all involve the collapse of a gas filled bubble imbedded in the liquid. A model of the collapse of a gas bubble in an incompressible liquid and the combustion of the surrounding liquid after ignition occurs is presented. The effect of gas covolume, liquid density, the adiabatic exponent, rate of pressurization and prepressurization are investigated. Calculations for finite and infinite liquid volumes are also presented. Gas generation in the bubble is shown to have a significant effect on its evolution and the introduction of a surface enhancement factor leads to a runaway reaction. For the conditions considered, the reacting bubble oscillates at a frequency of about 35 kHz over the first 0.5 milliseconds. This frequency decreases as the surface enhancement factor is increased. The implication is that a one dimensional model of this process may be tractable from the standpoint of computer time.

  20. Controlling And Operating Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (Hcci) Engines

    DOEpatents

    Flowers, Daniel L.

    2005-08-02

    A Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine system includes an engine that produces exhaust gas. A vaporization means vaporizes fuel for the engine an air induction means provides air for the engine. An exhaust gas recirculation means recirculates the exhaust gas. A blending means blends the vaporized fuel, the exhaust gas, and the air. An induction means inducts the blended vaporized fuel, exhaust gas, and air into the engine. A control means controls the blending of the vaporized fuel, the exhaust gas, and the air and for controls the inducting the blended vaporized fuel, exhaust gas, and air into the engine.

  1. Emission of a Dual-Fuel Turbocharged Compression Ignition Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rózycki, Andrzej

    2012-02-01

    The paper describes the results of a four-cylinder dual fuel turbocharged compression ignition engine. The aim of the study was to determine the maximum CNG share in thefuel mixture delivered into the cylinder. Analysis of the investigation results showed that the CNG energy share in the fuel charge delivered into the cylinder can reach 45%. At that level of CNG energy share a 15% reduction in maximum torque is achieved in comparison with the standard fuelling. The unburnt hydrocarbon emission increases significantly. Emissions of other principal pollutants reach values comparable with those obtained at standard fuelling.

  2. The effect of shock dynamics on compressibility of ignition-scale National Ignition Facility implosions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Dewald, E. L.; Robey, H. F.; Rygg, J. R.; Meezan, N. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; et al

    2014-11-03

    The effects of shock dynamics on compressibility of indirect-drive ignition-scale surrogate implosions, CH shells filled with D3He gas, have been studied using charged-particle spectroscopy. Spectral measurements of D3He protons produced at the shock-bang time probe the shock dynamics and in-flight characteristics of an implosion. The proton shock yield is found to vary by over an order of magnitude. A simple model relates the observed yield to incipient hot-spot adiabat, suggesting that implosions with rapid radiation-power increase during the main drive pulse may have a 2x higher hot-spot adiabat, potentially reducing compressibility. A self-consistent 1-D implosion model was used to infermore » the areal density (pR) and the shell center-of-mass radius (Rcm) from the downshift of the shock-produced D3He protons. The observed pR at shock-bang time is substantially higher for implosions, where the laser drive is on until near the compression bang time ('short-coast'), while longer-coasting implosions have lower pR. This corresponds to a much larger temporal difference between the shock- and compression-bang time in the long-coast implosions (~800 ps) than in the short-coast (~400 ps); this will be verified with a future direct bang-time diagnostic. This model-inferred differential bang time contradicts radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which predict constant 700–800 ps differential independent of coasting time. This result is potentially explained by uncertainties in modeling late-time ablation drive on the capsule. In an ignition experiment, an earlier shock-bang time resulting in an earlier onset of shell deceleration, potentially reducing compression and, thus, fuel pR.« less

  3. The effect of shock dynamics on compressibility of ignition-scale National Ignition Facility implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Dewald, E. L.; Robey, H. F.; Rygg, J. R.; Meezan, N. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Friedrich, S.; Bionta, R.; Olson, R.; Atherton, J.; Barrios, M.; Bell, P.; Benedetti, R.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Betti, R.; Bradley, D.; Callahan, D.; Casey, D.; Collins, G.; Dixit, S.; Döppner, T.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S.; Grim, G.; Hatchett, S.; Jones, O.; Khan, S.; Kilkenny, J.; Kline, J.; Knauer, J.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O.; LePape, S.; Li, C. K.; Lindl, J.; Ma, T.; Mackinnon, A.; Macphee, A.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Meyerhofer, D.; Moody, J.; Moses, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Parham, T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Prasad, R.; Ralph, J.; Rosen, M.; Ross, J. S.; Sangster, T. C.; Sepke, S.; Sinenian, N.; Sio, H. W.; Spears, B.; Springer, P.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R.; Weber, S.; Wilson, D.; Zacharias, R.

    2014-11-01

    The effects of shock dynamics on compressibility of indirect-drive ignition-scale surrogate implosions, CH shells filled with D3He gas, have been studied using charged-particle spectroscopy. Spectral measurements of D3He protons produced at the shock-bang time probe the shock dynamics and in-flight characteristics of an implosion. The proton shock yield is found to vary by over an order of magnitude. A simple model relates the observed yield to incipient hot-spot adiabat, suggesting that implosions with rapid radiation-power increase during the main drive pulse may have a 2× higher hot-spot adiabat, potentially reducing compressibility. A self-consistent 1-D implosion model was used to infer the areal density (ρR) and the shell center-of-mass radius (Rcm) from the downshift of the shock-produced D3He protons. The observed ρR at shock-bang time is substantially higher for implosions, where the laser drive is on until near the compression bang time ("short-coast"), while longer-coasting implosions have lower ρR. This corresponds to a much larger temporal difference between the shock- and compression-bang time in the long-coast implosions (˜800 ps) than in the short-coast (˜400 ps); this will be verified with a future direct bang-time diagnostic. This model-inferred differential bang time contradicts radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which predict constant 700-800 ps differential independent of coasting time; this result is potentially explained by uncertainties in modeling late-time ablation drive on the capsule. In an ignition experiment, an earlier shock-bang time resulting in an earlier onset of shell deceleration, potentially reducing compression and, thus, fuel ρR.

  4. The effect of shock dynamics on compressibility of ignition-scale National Ignition Facility implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, A. B. Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Petrasso, R. D.; Sinenian, N.; Sio, H. W.; Hicks, D. G.; Dewald, E. L.; Robey, H. F.; Rygg, J. R.; Meezan, N. B.; Friedrich, S.; Bionta, R.; Atherton, J.; Barrios, M.; and others

    2014-11-15

    The effects of shock dynamics on compressibility of indirect-drive ignition-scale surrogate implosions, CH shells filled with D{sup 3}He gas, have been studied using charged-particle spectroscopy. Spectral measurements of D{sup 3}He protons produced at the shock-bang time probe the shock dynamics and in-flight characteristics of an implosion. The proton shock yield is found to vary by over an order of magnitude. A simple model relates the observed yield to incipient hot-spot adiabat, suggesting that implosions with rapid radiation-power increase during the main drive pulse may have a 2× higher hot-spot adiabat, potentially reducing compressibility. A self-consistent 1-D implosion model was used to infer the areal density (ρR) and the shell center-of-mass radius (R{sub cm}) from the downshift of the shock-produced D{sup 3}He protons. The observed ρR at shock-bang time is substantially higher for implosions, where the laser drive is on until near the compression bang time (“short-coast”), while longer-coasting implosions have lower ρR. This corresponds to a much larger temporal difference between the shock- and compression-bang time in the long-coast implosions (∼800 ps) than in the short-coast (∼400 ps); this will be verified with a future direct bang-time diagnostic. This model-inferred differential bang time contradicts radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which predict constant 700–800 ps differential independent of coasting time; this result is potentially explained by uncertainties in modeling late-time ablation drive on the capsule. In an ignition experiment, an earlier shock-bang time resulting in an earlier onset of shell deceleration, potentially reducing compression and, thus, fuel ρR.

  5. The effect of shock dynamics on compressibility of ignition-scale National Ignition Facility implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Dewald, E. L.; Robey, H. F.; Rygg, J. R.; Meezan, N. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Friedrich, S.; Bionta, R.; Olson, R.; Atherton, J.; Barrios, M.; Bell, P.; Benedetti, R.; Hopkins, L. Berzak; Betti, R.; Bradley, D.; Callahan, D.; Casey, D.; Collins, G.; Dixit, S.; Döppner, T.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S.; Grim, G.; Hatchett, S.; Jones, O.; Khan, S.; Kilkenny, J.; Kline, J.; Knauer, J.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O.; LePape, S.; Li, C. K.; Lindl, J.; Ma, T.; Mackinnon, A.; Macphee, A.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Meyerhofer, D.; Moody, J.; Moses, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Parham, T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Prasad, R.; Ralph, J.; Rosen, M.; Ross, J. S.; Sangster, T. C.; Sepke, S.; Sinenian, N.; Sio, H. W.; Spears, B.; Springer, P.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R.; Weber, S.; Wilson, D.; Zacharias, R.

    2014-11-03

    The effects of shock dynamics on compressibility of indirect-drive ignition-scale surrogate implosions, CH shells filled with D3He gas, have been studied using charged-particle spectroscopy. Spectral measurements of D3He protons produced at the shock-bang time probe the shock dynamics and in-flight characteristics of an implosion. The proton shock yield is found to vary by over an order of magnitude. A simple model relates the observed yield to incipient hot-spot adiabat, suggesting that implosions with rapid radiation-power increase during the main drive pulse may have a 2x higher hot-spot adiabat, potentially reducing compressibility. A self-consistent 1-D implosion model was used to infer the areal density (pR) and the shell center-of-mass radius (Rcm) from the downshift of the shock-produced D3He protons. The observed pR at shock-bang time is substantially higher for implosions, where the laser drive is on until near the compression bang time ('short-coast'), while longer-coasting implosions have lower pR. This corresponds to a much larger temporal difference between the shock- and compression-bang time in the long-coast implosions (~800 ps) than in the short-coast (~400 ps); this will be verified with a future direct bang-time diagnostic. This model-inferred differential bang time contradicts radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which predict constant 700–800 ps differential independent of coasting time. This result is potentially explained by uncertainties in modeling late-time ablation drive on the capsule. In an ignition experiment, an earlier shock-bang time resulting in an earlier onset of shell deceleration, potentially reducing compression and, thus, fuel pR.

  6. Dynamic control of a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Mehresh, Parag; Schuh, David; Kieser, Andrew J.; Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.; Rodman, Anthony; Liechty, Michael P.

    2008-06-03

    A homogenous charge compression ignition engine is operated by compressing a charge mixture of air, exhaust and fuel in a combustion chamber to an autoignition condition of the fuel. The engine may facilitate a transition from a first combination of speed and load to a second combination of speed and load by changing the charge mixture and compression ratio. This may be accomplished in a consecutive engine cycle by adjusting both a fuel injector control signal and a variable valve control signal away from a nominal variable valve control signal. Thereafter in one or more subsequent engine cycles, more sluggish adjustments are made to at least one of a geometric compression ratio control signal and an exhaust gas recirculation control signal to allow the variable valve control signal to be readjusted back toward its nominal variable valve control signal setting. By readjusting the variable valve control signal back toward its nominal setting, the engine will be ready for another transition to a new combination of engine speed and load.

  7. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart Zzzz of... - Emission Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP... Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a... emission limitations for existing, new and reconstructed 4SRB stationary RICE at 100 percent load plus...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Zzzz of... - Operating Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP... Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a... stationary RICE complying with the requirement to reduce formaldehyde emissions by 76 percent or more (or...

  9. Direct Injection Compression Ignition Diesel Automotive Technology Education GATE Program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Carl L

    2006-09-25

    The underlying goal of this prqject was to provide multi-disciplinary engineering training for graduate students in the area of internal combustion engines, specifically in direct injection compression ignition engines. The program was designed to educate highly qualified engineers and scientists that will seek to overcome teclmological barriers preventing the development and production of cost-effective high-efficiency vehicles for the U.S. market. Fu1iher, these highly qualified engineers and scientists will foster an educational process to train a future workforce of automotive engineering professionals who are knowledgeable about and have experience in developing and commercializing critical advanced automotive teclmologies. Eight objectives were defmed to accomplish this goal: 1. Develop an interdisciplinary internal co1nbustion engine curriculum emphasizing direct injected combustion ignited diesel engines. 2. Encourage and promote interdisciplinary interaction of the faculty. 3. Offer a Ph.D. degree in internal combustion engines based upon an interdisciplinary cuniculum. 4. Promote strong interaction with indusuy, develop a sense of responsibility with industry and pursue a self sustaining program. 5. Establish collaborative arrangements and network universities active in internal combustion engine study. 6. Further Enhance a First Class educational facility. 7. Establish 'off-campus' M.S. and Ph.D. engine programs of study at various indusuial sites. 8. Extend and Enhance the Graduate Experience.

  10. Compression-ignition fuel properties of Fischer-Tropsch syncrude

    SciTech Connect

    Suppes, G.J.; Terry, J.G.; Burkhart, M.L.; Cupps, M.P.

    1998-05-01

    Fischer-Tropsch conversion of natural gas to liquid hydrocarbon fuel typically includes Fischer-Tropsch synthesis followed by refining (hydrocracking and distillation) of the syncrude into mostly diesel or kerosene with some naphtha (a feedstock for gasoline production). Refining is assumed necessary, possibly overlooking the exception fuel qualities of syncrude for more direct utilization as a compression-ignition (CI) fuel. This paper evaluates cetane number, viscosity, cloud-point, and pour-point properties of syncrude and blends of syncrude with blend stocks such as ethanol and diethyl ether. The results show that blends comprised primarily of syncrude are potentially good CI fuels, with pour-point temperature depression being the largest development obstacle. The resulting blends may provide a much-needed and affordable alternative CI fuel. Particularly good market opportunities exist with Environmental Policy Act (EPACT) applications.

  11. Calculations of the Performance of a Compression-Ignition Engine-Compressor Turbine Combination I : Performance of a Highly Supercharged Compression-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, J. C.; Mendelson, Alexander

    1945-01-01

    Small high-speed single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were tested to determine their performance characteristics under high supercharging. Calculations were made on the energy available in the exhaust gas of the compression-ignition engines. The maximum power at any given maximum cylinder pressure was obtained when the compression pressure was equal to the maximum cylinder pressure. Constant-pressure combustion was found possible at an engine speed of 2200 rpm. Exhaust pressures and temperatures were determined from an analysis of indicator cards. The analysis showed that, at rich mixtures with the exhaust back pressure equal to the inlet-air pressure, there is excess energy available for driving a turbine over that required for supercharging. The presence of this excess energy indicates that a highly supercharged compression-ignition engine might be desirable as a compressor and combustion chamber for a turbine.

  12. Reactivity-controlled compression ignition drive cycle emissions and fuel economy estimations using vehicle system simulations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Curran, Scott J.; Gao, Zhiming; Wagner, Robert M.

    2014-12-22

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve reactivity-controlled compression ignition has been shown to reduce NOX and soot emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared with conventional diesel combustion. The reactivity-controlled compression ignition concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load, allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. In this paper, a multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition strategy is employed where the engine switches from reactivity-controlled compression ignition to conventional diesel combustion whenmore » speed and load demand are outside of the experimentally determined reactivity-controlled compression ignition range. The potential for reactivity-controlled compression ignition to reduce drive cycle fuel economy and emissions is not clearly understood and is explored here by simulating the fuel economy and emissions for a multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition–enabled vehicle operating over a variety of US drive cycles using experimental engine maps for multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition, conventional diesel combustion, and a 2009 port-fuel injected gasoline engine. Drive cycle simulations are completed assuming a conventional mid-size passenger vehicle with an automatic transmission. Multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition fuel economy simulation results are compared with the same vehicle powered by a representative 2009 port-fuel injected gasoline engine over multiple drive cycles. Finally, engine-out drive cycle emissions are compared with conventional diesel combustion, and observations regarding relative gasoline and diesel tank sizes needed for the various drive cycles are also summarized.« less

  13. Reactivity-controlled compression ignition drive cycle emissions and fuel economy estimations using vehicle system simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott J.; Gao, Zhiming; Wagner, Robert M.

    2014-12-22

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve reactivity-controlled compression ignition has been shown to reduce NOX and soot emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared with conventional diesel combustion. The reactivity-controlled compression ignition concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load, allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. In this paper, a multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition strategy is employed where the engine switches from reactivity-controlled compression ignition to conventional diesel combustion when speed and load demand are outside of the experimentally determined reactivity-controlled compression ignition range. The potential for reactivity-controlled compression ignition to reduce drive cycle fuel economy and emissions is not clearly understood and is explored here by simulating the fuel economy and emissions for a multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition–enabled vehicle operating over a variety of US drive cycles using experimental engine maps for multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition, conventional diesel combustion, and a 2009 port-fuel injected gasoline engine. Drive cycle simulations are completed assuming a conventional mid-size passenger vehicle with an automatic transmission. Multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition fuel economy simulation results are compared with the same vehicle powered by a representative 2009 port-fuel injected gasoline engine over multiple drive cycles. Finally, engine-out drive cycle emissions are compared with conventional diesel combustion, and observations regarding relative gasoline and diesel tank sizes needed for the various drive cycles are also summarized.

  14. [Chemiluminescence spectroscopic analysis of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion processes].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-feng; Yao, Ming-fa; Jin, Chao; Zhang, Peng; Li, Zhe-ming; Zheng, Zun-qing

    2010-10-01

    To study the combustion reaction kinetics of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) under different port injection strategies and intake temperature conditions, the tests were carried out on a modified single-cylinder optical engine using chemiluminescence spectroscopic analysis. The experimental conditions are keeping the fuel mass constant; fueling the n-heptane; controlling speed at 600 r x min(-1) and inlet pressure at 0.1 MPa; controlling inlet temperature at 95 degrees C and 125 degrees C, respectively. The results of chemiluminescence spectrum show that the chemiluminescence is quite faint during low temperature heat release (LTHR), and these bands spectrum originates from formaldehyde (CH2O) chemiluminescence. During the phase of later LTHR-negative temperature coefficient (NTC)-early high temperature heat release (HTHR), these bands spectrum also originates from formaldehyde (CH2O) chemiluminescence. The CO--O* continuum is strong during HTHR, and radicals such as OH, HCO, CH and CH2O appear superimposed on this CO--O* continuum. After the HTHR, the chemiluminescence intensity is quite faint. In comparison to the start of injection (SOI) of -30 degrees ATDC, the chemiluminescence intensity is higher under the SOI = -300 degrees ATDC condition due to the more intense emissions of CO--O* continuum. And more radicals of HCO and OH are formed, which also indicates a more intense combustion reaction. Similarly, more intense CO--O* continuum and more radicals of HCO and OH are emitted under higher intake temperature case. PMID:21137383

  15. Optical Pulse Compression Based on Stationary Rescaled Pulse Propagation in a Comblike Profiled Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Takashi; Tobioka, Hideaki; Igarashi, Koji; Namiki, Shu

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, optical pulse compression using a comblike profiled fiber (CPF) is theoretically and experimentally studied, in which highly nonlinear fibers and single-mode fibers are alternately concatenated. Stationary rescaled pulse (SRP), is the main focus, which is a recently discovered nonlinear stationary pulse in CPF. The fundamental characteristics of SRP are investigated, and SRP propagation is applied to the design of the CPF pulse compressor. Using the proposed design method, the specifications of the CPF can easily be controlled, such as the compression ratio per step of the CPF or the pedestal of the output pulse. Two experimental results of pulse compression using the CPF based on the proposed design method are shown: 1) pulse compression with a large compression ratio per step of the CPF and 2) low-pedestal and wideband wavelength-tunable compression. A parametric noise-amplification phenomenon occurring in a compression process for an optical pulse sequence is also numerically analyzed.

  16. High Efficiency, Low Emissions Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-31

    This is the final report of the High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Research Program for the U.S. Department of Energy. Work under this co-funded program began in August 2005 and finished in July 2010. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate a low emission, high thermal efficiency engine system that met 2010 EPA heavy-duty on-highway truck emissions requirements (0.2g/bhp-hr NOx, 0.14g/bhp-hr HC and 0.01g/bhp-hr PM) with a thermal efficiency of 46%. To achieve this goal, development of diesel homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion was the chosen approach. This report summarizes the development of diesel HCCI combustion and associated enabling technologies that occurred during the HECC program between August 2005 and July 2010. This program showed that although diesel HCCI with conventional US diesel fuel was not a feasible means to achieve the program objectives, the HCCI load range could be increased with a higher volatility, lower cetane number fuel, such as gasoline, if the combustion rate could be moderated to avoid excessive cylinder pressure rise rates. Given the potential efficiency and emissions benefits, continued research of combustion with low cetane number fuels and the effects of fuel distillation are recommended. The operation of diesel HCCI was only feasible at part-load due to a limited fuel injection window. A 4% fuel consumption benefit versus conventional, low-temperature combustion was realized over the achievable operating range. Several enabling technologies were developed under this program that also benefited non-HCCI combustion. The development of a 300MPa fuel injector enabled the development of extended lifted flame combustion. A design methodology for minimizing the heat transfer to jacket water, known as precision cooling, will benefit conventional combustion engines, as well as HCCI engines. An advanced combustion control system based on cylinder pressure measurements was developed. A Well

  17. 76 FR 37953 - Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    .... On June 8, 2010 (75 FR 32612), the EPA proposed amendments to the standards of performance for...). The NSPS were originally promulgated on July 11, 2006 (71 FR 39153). New source performance standards... 30 l/ cyl (73 FR 37095). The rule promulgated two new tiers of standards for newly...

  18. A Preliminary Motion-picture Study of Combustion in a Compression-ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, E C; Waldron, C D

    1934-01-01

    Motion pictures were taken at 1,850 frames per second of the spray penetration and combustion occurring in the N.A.C.A. combustion apparatus arranged to operate as a compression-ignition engine. Indicator cards were taken simultaneously with the motion pictures by means of the N.A.C.A. optical indicator. The motion pictures showed that when ignition occurred during injection it started in the spray envelope. If ignition occurred after injection cut-off, however, and after considerable mixing had taken place, it was impossible to predict where the ignition would start. The pictures also showed that ignition usually started at several points in the combustion chamber. With this apparatus, as the injection advance angle increased from 0 degrees to 40 degrees before top center, the rate of flame spread increased and the duration of the burning decreased.

  19. Multi-dimensional modeling of the application of catalytic combustion to homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Wen; Xie, Maozhao

    2006-12-01

    The detailed surface reaction mechanism of methane on rhodium catalyst was analyzed. Comparisons between numerical simulation and experiments showed a basic agreement. The combustion process of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine whose piston surface has been coated with catalyst (rhodium and platinum) was numerically investigated. A multi-dimensional model with detailed chemical kinetics was built. The effects of catalytic combustion on the ignition timing, the temperature and CO concentration fields, and HC, CO and NOx emissions of the HCCI engine were discussed. The results showed the ignition timing of the HCCI engine was advanced and the emissions of HC and CO were decreased by the catalysis.

  20. PDF modeling of chemically reacting flows in a compression-ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj Mohan, Vivek Raja; Haworth, Daniel; Li, Jian

    2013-11-01

    A transported probability density function (PDF) model is used to simulate the in-cylinder combustion processes in a compression-ignition heavy-duty engine. The flow inside the cylinder in a compression-ignition engine is chemically reacting and highly turbulent. Therefore, the turbulent fluctuations in composition and temperature will influence the mean reaction rates. These turbulence-chemistry interactions (TCI) play an important role in predicting the combustion processes accurately. Recent results from in-cylinder combustion simulations for a compression-ignition engine are compared with measured data for several operating conditions. The PDF model, which takes into account for TCI, predicts the combustion processes more accurately compared to a model which neglects TCI. Marked differences are observed in predicting the flame structure and the pressure and heat-release traces as well as in predicting the emission characteristics.

  1. Gasoline surrogate modeling of gasoline ignition in a rapid compression machine and comparison to experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Kukkadapu, G; Kumar, K; Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Sung, S J

    2011-09-15

    The use of gasoline in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) and in duel fuel diesel - gasoline engines, has increased the need to understand its compression ignition processes under engine-like conditions. These processes need to be studied under well-controlled conditions in order to quantify low temperature heat release and to provide fundamental validation data for chemical kinetic models. With this in mind, an experimental campaign has been undertaken in a rapid compression machine (RCM) to measure the ignition of gasoline mixtures over a wide range of compression temperatures and for different compression pressures. By measuring the pressure history during ignition, information on the first stage ignition (when observed) and second stage ignition are captured along with information on the phasing of the heat release. Heat release processes during ignition are important because gasoline is known to exhibit low temperature heat release, intermediate temperature heat release and high temperature heat release. In an HCCI engine, the occurrence of low-temperature and intermediate-temperature heat release can be exploited to obtain higher load operation and has become a topic of much interest for engine researchers. Consequently, it is important to understand these processes under well-controlled conditions. A four-component gasoline surrogate model (including n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and 2-pentene) has been developed to simulate real gasolines. An appropriate surrogate mixture of the four components has been developed to simulate the specific gasoline used in the RCM experiments. This chemical kinetic surrogate model was then used to simulate the RCM experimental results for real gasoline. The experimental and modeling results covered ultra-lean to stoichiometric mixtures, compressed temperatures of 640-950 K, and compression pressures of 20 and 40 bar. The agreement between the experiments and model is encouraging in terms of first

  2. Compression dynamics of an indirect drive fast ignition target

    SciTech Connect

    R.B. Stephens; S.P. Hatchett; R.E. Turner; K.A. Tanaka; R. Kodama; R. Kodama; J.M. Soures

    2002-11-12

    In an x-ray driven reentrant cone fast ignition target the x-ray spectrum contains a high energy component that cause preheating of the reentrant cone and mixing of its gold into the collapsing shell. Direct laser drive might avoid this problem.

  3. A Laser Spark Plug Ignition System for a Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D.L.

    2007-05-01

    To meet the ignition system needs of large bore, high pressure, lean burn, natural gas engines a side pumped, passively Q-switched, Nd:YAG laser was developed and tested. The laser was designed to produce the optical intensities needed to initiate ignition in a lean burn, high compression engine. The laser and associated optics were designed with a passive Q-switch to eliminate the need for high voltage signaling and associated equipment. The laser was diode pumped to eliminate the need for high voltage flash lamps which have poor pumping efficiency. The independent and dependent parameters of the laser were identified and explored in specific combinations that produced consistent robust sparks in laboratory air. Prior research has shown that increasing gas pressure lowers the breakdown threshold for laser initiated ignition. The laser has an overall geometry of 57x57x152 mm with an output beam diameter of approximately 3 mm. The experimentation used a wide range of optical and electrical input parameters that when combined produced ignition in laboratory air. The results show a strong dependence of the output parameters on the output coupler reflectivity, Q-switch initial transmission, and gain media dopant concentration. As these three parameters were lowered the output performance of the laser increased leading to larger more brilliant sparks. The results show peak power levels of up to 3MW and peak focal intensities of up to 560 GW/cm2. Engine testing was performed on a Ricardo Proteus single cylinder research engine. The goal of the engine testing was to show that the test laser performs identically to the commercially available flashlamp pumped actively Q-switched laser used in previous laser ignition testing. The engine testing consisted of a comparison of the in-cylinder, and emissions behavior of the engine using each of the lasers as an ignition system. All engine parameters were kept as constant as possilbe while the equivalence ratio (fueling), and

  4. 40 CFR 1036.620 - Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... year 2011 compression-ignition engines. 1036.620 Section 1036.620 Protection of Environment... model year 2011 compression-ignition engines. For model years 2014 through 2016, you may certify your... alternate CO2 standard for light and medium heavy-duty vocational-certified engines (certified for CO2...

  5. Exhaust Emissions Measured Under Real Traffic Conditions from Vehicles Fitted with Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Lijewski, Piotr; Fuć, Paweł

    2011-06-01

    The tests performed under real traffic conditions provide invaluable information on the relations between the engine parameters, vehicle parameters and traffic conditions (traffic congestion) on one side and the exhaust emissions on the other. The paper presents the result of road tests obtained in an urban and extra-urban cycles for vehicles fitted with different engines, spark ignition engine and compression ignition engine. For the tests a portable emission analyzer SEMTECH DS. by SENSORS was used. This analyzer provides online measurement of the concentrations of exhaust emission components on a vehicle in motion under real traffic conditions. The tests were performed in city traffic. A comparative analysis has been presented of the obtained results for vehicles with individual powertrains.

  6. A Preliminary Study of Fuel Injection and Compression Ignition as Applied to an Aircraft Engine Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, Arthur W

    1927-01-01

    This report summarizes some results obtained with a single cylinder test engine at the Langley Field Laboratory during a preliminary investigation of the problem of applying fuel injection and compression ignition to aircraft engines. For this work a standard Liberty Engine cylinder was fitted with a high compression, 11.4 : 1 compression ratio, piston, and equipped with an airless injection system, including a primary fuel pump, an injection pump, and an automatic injection valve. The results obtained during this investigation have indicated the possibility of applying airless injection and compression ignition to a cylinder of this size, 8-inch bore by 7-inch stroke, when operating at engine speeds as high as 1,850 R. P. M. A minimum specific fuel consumption with diesel engine fuel oil of 0.30 pound per I. HP. Hour was obtained when developing about 16 B. HP. At 1,730 R. P. M.

  7. Detailed Analysis and Control Issues of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, Salvador M.; Flowers, Daniel L.; Martinez-Frias, Joel; Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Dibble, Robert

    2002-08-25

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low NOx and particulate matter emissions. This paper describes the HCCI research activities being currently pursued at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at the University of California Berkeley. Current activities include analysis as well as experimental work.

  8. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott; Hanson, Reed M; Wagner, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    Reactivity controlled compression ignition is a low-temperature combustion technique that has been shown, both in computational fluid dynamics modeling and single-cylinder experiments, to obtain diesel-like efficiency or better with ultra-low nitrogen oxide and soot emissions, while operating primarily on gasoline-like fuels. This paper investigates reactivity controlled compression ignition operation on a four-cylinder light-duty diesel engine with production-viable hardware using conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Experimental results are presented over a wide speed and load range using a systematic approach for achieving successful steady-state reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion. The results demonstrated diesel-like efficiency or better over the operating range explored with low engine-out nitrogen oxide and soot emissions. A peak brake thermal efficiency of 39.0% was demonstrated for 2600 r/min and 6.9 bar brake mean effective pressure with nitrogen oxide emissions reduced by an order of magnitude compared to conventional diesel combustion operation. Reactivity controlled compression ignition emissions and efficiency results are compared to conventional diesel combustion operation on the same engine.

  9. Extents of alkane combustion during rapid compression leading to single and two stage ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.; Griffiths, J.F.; Mohamed, C.; Curran, H.; Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K.

    1996-02-01

    Extents of reactant consumption have been measured during the course of spontaneous ignition following rapid compression of N-pentane and N-heptane and also of PRF 60 (N-heptane = i-octane, 2.2.4 trimethylpentane) in stoichiometric mixtures with air. Compressed gas temperatures of 720-750 K and 845-875 K were studied at reactant densities of 131 mol m{sup minus 3}. At the lower gas temperature there was no evidence of reactant consumption during the course of the compression stroke. Two-stage ignition occurred at these temperatures, but only modest proportions of n-pentane were consumed during the first stage (< 15%) whereas about 40% of proportions of n- heptane reacted under the same conditions. At the higher compressed gas temperature the oxidation of n-pentane began only after the piston had stopped, whereas more than 30% of the n-heptane had already been consumed in the final stage of the compression stroke. The behavior of the PRF 60 mixture differed somewhat from that of N- pentane despite the similarly of the research octane numbers. Although there was a preferential oxidation of n-heptane at T{sub c} = 850K, which persisted throughout the early development of spontaneous ignition during the post-compression period, oxidation of both components of the PRF 60 mixture began before the piston had stopped. Numerical simulations of the spontaneous ignition under conditions resembling those of the rapid compression experiments show that the predicted reactivity from detailed kinetics are consistent with the observed features. Insights into the kinetic interactions that give rise to the relative reactivities of the primary reference fuel components are established

  10. Thermonuclear Burn in Ignition-Scale ICF Targets under Highly Compressed Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, L. John; Logan, B. Grant; Zimmerman, George; Moody, John; Ho, Darwin; Strozzi, David; Rhodes, Mark; Caporaso, George; Werner, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that demonstrate the impact of highly compressed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of spherically-converging ICF targets with application to the National Ignition Facility indirect-drive ignition capsule [L.J.Perkins et al., Phys. Plasmas, to be published Aug 2013]. Initial seed fields of 20-100T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 104 T (100 MG) under implosion can relax hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ~50% in targets degraded by lower-mode perturbations compared to those with no applied field. This accrues from range shortening and magnetic mirror trapping of fusion alpha particles, suppression of electron heat conduction and potential reduction of hydrodynamic instability growth. This may permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities. The field may also ameliorate adverse hohlraum plasma conditions such as stimulated Raman scattering. We also discuss experimental concepts for a potential NIF hohlraum coil driven by a co-located pulsed power supply that may be capable of detectable alpha particle heating and fusion yield through magnetized volumetric burn in a high pressure DT gas capsule.

  11. Fuel mixture stratification as a method for improving homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operation

    DOEpatents

    Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.

    2006-10-31

    A method for slowing the heat-release rate in homogeneous charge compression ignition ("HCCI") engines that allows operation without excessive knock at higher engine loads than are possible with conventional HCCI. This method comprises injecting a fuel charge in a manner that creates a stratified fuel charge in the engine cylinder to provide a range of fuel concentrations in the in-cylinder gases (typically with enough oxygen for complete combustion) using a fuel with two-stage ignition fuel having appropriate cool-flame chemistry so that regions of different fuel concentrations autoignite sequentially.

  12. Fuel Vaporization and Its Effect on Combustion in a High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1933-01-01

    The tests discussed in this report were conducted to determine whether or not there is appreciable vaporization of the fuel injected into a high-speed compression-ignition engine during the time available for injection and combustion. The effects of injection advance angle and fuel boiling temperature were investigated. The results show that an appreciable amount of the fuel is vaporized during injection even though the temperature and pressure conditions in the engine are not sufficient to cause ignition either during or after injection, and that when the conditions are such as to cause ignition the vaporization process affects the combustion. The results are compared with those of several other investigators in the same field.

  13. A Multicomponent Blend as a Diesel Fuel Surrogate for Compression Ignition Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Yuanjiang; Mehl, Marco; Liu, Wei; Lu, Tianfeng; Pitz, William J.; Som, Sibendu

    2015-05-12

    A mixture of n-dodecane and m-xylene is investigated as a diesel fuel surrogate for compression ignition engine applications. Compared to neat n-dodecane, this binary mixture is more representative of diesel fuel because it contains an alkyl-benzene which represents an important chemical class present in diesel fuels. A detailed multi-component mechanism for n-dodecane and m-xylene was developed by combining a previously developed n-dodecane mechanism with a recently developed mechanism for xylenes. The xylene mechanism is shown to reproduce experimental ignition data from a rapid compression machine and shock tube, speciation data from the jet stirred reactor and flame speed data. This combined mechanism was validated by comparing predictions from the model with experimental data for ignition in shock tubes and for reactivity in a flow reactor. The combined mechanism, consisting of 2885 species and 11754 reactions, was reduced to a skeletal mechanism consisting 163 species and 887 reactions for 3D diesel engine simulations. The mechanism reduction was performed using directed relation graph (DRG) with expert knowledge (DRG-X) and DRG-aided sensitivity analysis (DRGASA) at a fixed fuel composition of 77% of n-dodecane and 23% m-xylene by volume. The sample space for the reduction covered pressure of 1 – 80 bar, equivalence ratio of 0.5 – 2.0, and initial temperature of 700 – 1600 K for ignition. The skeletal mechanism was compared with the detailed mechanism for ignition and flow reactor predictions. Finally, the skeletal mechanism was validated against a spray flame dataset under diesel engine conditions documented on the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) website. These multi-dimensional simulations were performed using a Representative Interactive Flame (RIF) turbulent combustion model. Encouraging results were obtained compared to the experiments with regards to the predictions of ignition delay and lift-off length at different ambient temperatures.

  14. Compression ignition sensitivity of NOS-365 under rapid propellant fill conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandzy, J.; Schaefer, K.; Knapton, J. D.; Morrison, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    The ullage compression ignition sensitivity of NOS-365 monopropellant under the pressure condition expected to be found in a medium caliber regenerative liquid propellant gun is evaluated. The results from the rapidly loaded propellant tests performed to date are presented. For this case, the physical state of the propellant is characterized by the presence of turbulence and a finely distributed ullage field. A description of the test fixtures, procedures and results is given. It is argued that the results to date indicate that with relatively simple precautionary measures NOS-365 can be rendered sufficiently immune to the ullage compression ignition mechanism to permit it to be safely used in a regenerative liquid propellant gun.

  15. Compression-ignition Engine Performance at Altitudes and at Various Air Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H

    1937-01-01

    Engine test results are presented for simulated altitude conditions. A displaced-piston combustion chamber on a 5- by 7-inch single cylinder compression-ignition engine operating at 2,000 r.p.m. was used. Inlet air temperature equivalent to standard altitudes up to 14,000 feet were obtained. Comparison between performance at altitude of the unsupercharged compression-ignition engine compared favorably with the carburetor engine. Analysis of the results for which the inlet air temperature, inlet air pressure, and inlet and exhaust pressure were varied indicates that engine performance cannot be reliably corrected on the basis of inlet air density or weight of air charge. Engine power increases with inlet air pressure and decreases with inlet air temperatures very nearly as straight line relations over a wide range of air-fuel ratios. Correction factors are given.

  16. A reduced mechanism for biodiesel surrogates with low temperature chemistry for compression ignition engine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhaoyu; Plomer, Max; Lu, Tianfeng; Som, Sibendu; Longman, Douglas E.

    2012-04-01

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. It is a renewable energy source that can be used in these engines without significant alteration in design. The detailed chemical kinetics of biodiesel is however highly complex. In the present study, a skeletal mechanism with 123 species and 394 reactions for a tri-component biodiesel surrogate, which consists of methyl decanoate, methyl 9-decanoate and n-heptane was developed for simulations of 3-D turbulent spray combustion under engine-like conditions. The reduction was based on an improved directed relation graph (DRG) method that is particularly suitable for mechanisms with many isomers, followed by isomer lumping and DRG-aided sensitivity analysis (DRGASA). The reduction was performed for pressures from 1 to 100 atm and equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 2 for both extinction and ignition applications. The initial temperatures for ignition were from 700 to 1800 K. The wide parameter range ensures the applicability of the skeletal mechanism under engine-like conditions. As such the skeletal mechanism is applicable for ignition at both low and high temperatures. Compared with the detailed mechanism that consists of 3299 species and 10806 reactions, the skeletal mechanism features a significant reduction in size while still retaining good accuracy and comprehensiveness. The validations of ignition delay time, flame lift-off length and important species profiles were also performed in 3-D engine simulations and compared with the experimental data from Sandia National Laboratories under CI engine conditions.

  17. Flash Kα radiography of laser-driven solid sphere compression for fast ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, H.; Lee, S.; Shiroto, T.; Nagatomo, H.; Arikawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Ueda, T.; Shigemori, K.; Sunahara, A.; Ohnishi, N.; Beg, F. N.; Theobald, W.; Pérez, F.; Patel, P. K.; Fujioka, S.

    2016-06-01

    Time-resolved compression of a laser-driven solid deuterated plastic sphere with a cone was measured with flash Kα x-ray radiography. A spherically converging shockwave launched by nanosecond GEKKO XII beams was used for compression while a flash of 4.51 keV Ti Kα x-ray backlighter was produced by a high-intensity, picosecond laser LFEX (Laser for Fast ignition EXperiment) near peak compression for radiography. Areal densities of the compressed core were inferred from two-dimensional backlit x-ray images recorded with a narrow-band spherical crystal imager. The maximum areal density in the experiment was estimated to be 87 ± 26 mg/cm2. The temporal evolution of the experimental and simulated areal densities with a 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics code is in good agreement.

  18. Characterization of Diesel and Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion in a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine using OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Sundar Rajan; Srinivasan, Kalyan Kumar; Stegmeir, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Direct-injection compression ignition combustion of diesel and gasoline were studied in a rapid compression-expansion machine (RCEM) using high-speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging. The RCEM (bore = 84 mm, stroke = 110-250 mm) was used to simulate engine-like operating conditions at the start of fuel injection. The fuels were supplied by a high-pressure fuel cart with an air-over-fuel pressure amplification system capable of providing fuel injection pressures up to 2000 bar. A production diesel fuel injector was modified to provide a single fuel spray for both diesel and gasoline operation. Time-resolved combustion pressure in the RCEM was measured using a Kistler piezoelectric pressure transducer mounted on the cylinder head and the instantaneous piston displacement was measured using an inductive linear displacement sensor (0.05 mm resolution). Time-resolved, line-of-sight OH* chemiluminescence images were obtained using a Phantom V611 CMOS camera (20.9 kHz @ 512 x 512 pixel resolution, ~ 48 μs time resolution) coupled with a short wave pass filter (cut-off ~ 348 nm). The instantaneous OH* distributions, which indicate high temperature flame regions within the combustion chamber, were used to discern the characteristic differences between diesel and gasoline compression ignition combustion. The authors gratefully acknowledge facilities support for the present work from the Energy Institute at Mississippi State University.

  19. Indirect-drive pre-compression of CH coated cone-in-shell target with guiding wire for fast ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weimin; Gu, Yuqiu; Shan, Lianqiang; Zhang, Baohan

    2013-10-01

    Compared with central ignition of laser fusion, fast ignition separates compression and ignition thus it can relax the requirements on the implosion symmetry and the driven energy. The Research Center of Laser Fusion has begun the related experimental researches on fast ignition based on SHENGUANG II laser facility. The small scale cone-in-shell target with guiding wire for fast ignition was pre-compressed by the SHENGUANG II eight 260J/2ns/3 ω laser beams indirectly since beam smoothing was not available currently. To minimize the mixing of the compressed fuel and high-Z vapor produced by the M-line emission from the gold holhraum, a 3 μm CH foil was coated on the full outer surface of the cone and guiding wire. The maximum density of the compressed cone-in-shell target 1.3 ns after the lasers' irradiation on the inside wall of hohlraum is about 5.0 g/cm3 , and the implosion velocity is close to 1.9*107 cm/s, which are well consistent with the simulation results with two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code. Experimental results and simulation results also demonstrated the coated CH foil could minimize the mixing effectively. By the appropriate design, target can remain robust before the maximum compression, that is, the time while the hot electrons produced by ignition laser pulse deposit energy in the compressed fuel.

  20. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables

  1. Transition from cool flame to thermal flame in compression ignition process

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzaki, Kotaro; Goto, Yuichi; Tezaki, Atsumu

    2008-07-15

    The mechanism that initiates thermal flames in compression ignition has been studied. Experimentally, a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine was used with DME, n-heptane, and n-decane. Arrhenius plots of the heat release rate in the HCCI experiments showed that rates of heat release with DME, n-heptane, and n-decane exhibited a certain activation energy that is identical to that of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition reaction. The same feature was observed in diesel engine operation using ordinary diesel fuel with advanced ignition timing to make ignition occur after the end of fuel injection. These experimental results were reproduced in nondimensional simulations using kinetic mechanisms for DME, n-heptane, and n-decane, the last being developed by extending the n-heptane mechanism. Methanol addition, which suppresses low-temperature oxidation (LTO) and delays the ignition timing, had no effect on the activation energy obtained from the Arrhenius plot of heat release rate. Nevertheless, methanol addition lowered the heat release rates during the prethermal flame process. This is because H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation during cool flame was reduced by adding methanol. The mechanism during the transition process from cool flame to thermal flame can be explained quantitatively using thermal explosion theory, in which the rate-determining reaction is H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition, assuming that heat release in this period is caused by partial oxidation of DME and HCHO initiated with the reaction with OH produced though H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition. (author)

  2. Experimental investigation of piston heat transfer under conventional diesel and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Hendricks, Terry Lee; Ghandhi, Jaal B

    2014-01-01

    The piston of a heavy-duty single-cylinder research engine was instrumented with 11 fast-response surface thermocouples, and a commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit the signals from the moving piston. The raw thermocouple data were processed using an inverse heat conduction method that included Tikhonov regularization to recover transient heat flux. By applying symmetry, the data were compiled to provide time-resolved spatial maps of the piston heat flux and surface temperature. A detailed comparison was made between conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion operations at matched conditions of load, speed, boost pressure, and combustion phasing. The integrated piston heat transfer was found to be 24% lower, and the mean surface temperature was 25 C lower for reactivity-controlled compression ignition operation as compared to conventional diesel combustion, in spite of the higher peak heat release rate. Lower integrated piston heat transfer for reactivity-controlled compression ignition was found over all the operating conditions tested. The results showed that increasing speed decreased the integrated heat transfer for conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition. The effect of the start of injection timing was found to strongly influence conventional diesel combustion heat flux, but had a negligible effect on reactivity-controlled compression ignition heat flux, even in the limit of near top dead center high-reactivity fuel injection timings. These results suggest that the role of the high-reactivity fuel injection does not significantly affect the thermal environment even though it is important for controlling the ignition timing and heat release rate shape. The integrated heat transfer and the dynamic surface heat flux were found to be insensitive to changes in boost pressure for both conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition

  3. Compression-ignition engine performance with undoped and doped fuel oils and alcohol mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Foster, Hampton H

    1939-01-01

    Several fuel oils, doped fuel oils, and mixtures of alcohol and fuel oil were tested in a high-speed, single-cylinder, compression-ignition engine to determine power output, fuel consumption, and ignition and combustion characteristics. Fuel oils or doped fuel oils of high octane number had shorter ignition lags, lower rates of pressure rise, and gave smoother engine operation than fuel oils or doped fuel oils of low octane number. Higher engine rotative speeds and boost pressures resulted in smoother engine operation and permitted the use of fuel oils of relatively low octane number. Although the addition of a dope to a fuel oil decreased the ignition lag and the rate of pressure rise, the ensuing rate of combustion was somewhat slower than for the undoped fuel oil so that the effectiveness of combustion was practically unchanged. Alcohol used as an auxiliary fuel, either as a mixture or by separate injection, increased the rates of pressure rise and induced roughness. In general, the power output decreased as the proportion of alcohol increased and, below maximum power, varied with the heating value of the total fuel charge.

  4. Effect of laser pulse energy on the laser ignition of compressed natural gas fueled engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Dhananjay Kumar; Wintner, Ernst; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Laser pulses of few a nanoseconds' duration are focused by an appropriate converging lens system, leading to breakdown of the medium (combustible gases), resulting in the formation of intense plasma. Plasma thus induced can be used to initiate the combustion of combustible air-fuel mixtures in a spark ignition engine provided the energy of the plasma spark is high enough. Laser ignition has several advantages over the conventional spark ignition system, especially in case of lean air-fuel mixture. In this study, laser ignition of compressed natural gas was investigated in a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC) as well as in a single-cylinder engine. Flame kernel visualizations for different pulse energy of natural gas-air mixtures were carried out in the CVCC. The images of the development of early flame kernel stages and its growth with time were recorded by shadowgraphy technique. The effect of laser pulse energy on the engine combustion, performance, and emissions was investigated using different air-fuel mixtures. Increased peak cylinder pressure, higher rate of heat release, faster combustion, and increased combustion stability were observed for higher laser pulse energies. The effect of laser pulse energy on the engine-out emissions was also investigated in this study.

  5. LES/FMDF of turbulent jet ignition in a rapid compression machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Validi, Abdoulahad; Schock, Harold; Toulson, Elisa; Jaberi, Farhad; CFD; Engine Research Labs, Michigan State University Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI) is an efficient method for initiating and controlling combustion in combustion systems, e.g. internal combustion engines. It enables combustion in ultra-lean mixtures by utilizing hot product turbulent jets emerging from a pre-chamber combustor as the ignition source for the main combustion chamber. Here, we study the TJI-assisted ignition and combustion of lean methane-air mixtures in a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) for various flow/combustion conditions with the hybrid large eddy simulation/filtered mass density function (LES/FMDF) computational model. In the LES/FMDF model, the filtered form of compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a high-order finite difference scheme for the turbulent velocity, while the FMDF transport equation is solved with a Lagrangian stochastic method to obtain the scalar (species mass fraction and temperature) field. The LES/FMDF data are used to study the physics of TJI and combustion in RCM. The results show the very complex behavior of the reacting flow and the flame structure in the pre-chamber and RCM.

  6. Combustion in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines: Experiments and Detailed Chemical Kinetic Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, D L

    2002-06-07

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are being considered as an alternative to diesel engines. The HCCI concept involves premixing fuel and air prior to induction into the cylinder (as is done in current spark-ignition engine) then igniting the fuel-air mixture through the compression process (as is done in current diesel engines). The combustion occurring in an HCCI engine is fundamentally different from a spark-ignition or Diesel engine in that the heat release occurs as a global autoignition process, as opposed to the turbulent flame propagation or mixing controlled combustion used in current engines. The advantage of this global autoignition is that the temperatures within the cylinder are uniformly low, yielding very low emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}, the chief precursors to photochemical smog). The inherent features of HCCI combustion allows for design of engines with efficiency comparable to, or potentially higher than, diesel engines. While HCCI engines have great potential, several technical barriers exist which currently prevent widespread commercialization of this technology. The most significant challenge is that the combustion timing cannot be controlled by typical in-cylinder means. Means of controlling combustion have been demonstrated, but a robust control methodology that is applicable to the entire range of operation has yet to be developed. This research focuses on understanding basic characteristics of controlling and operating HCCI engines. Experiments and detailed chemical kinetic simulations have been applied to the characterize some of the fundamental operational and design characteristics of HCCI engines. Experiments have been conducted on single and multi-cylinder engines to investigate general features of how combustion timing affects the performance and emissions of HCCI engines. Single-zone modeling has been used to characterize and compare the implementation of different control strategies. Multi

  7. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart Zzzz of... - Emission Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE > 500 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP Emissions 1a Table 1a to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  8. Compression ignition engine fuel properties of a used sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend

    SciTech Connect

    Oezaktas, T.

    2000-05-01

    Vegetable oils may be used with dilution modification technique as an alternative diesel fuel. In this study, a used sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend (20:80 {nu}/{nu}%) was investigated in a Pancar Motor E-108-type diesel engine to observe engine characteristics and exhaust emission. The effect of the compression ratio on ignition delay characteristics and smoke emissions of blend fuel was determined in this CFR engine. The results of fuel blends were compared with the reference grade No. 2-D diesel fuel.

  9. Two stroke homogenous charge compression ignition engine with pulsed air supplier

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, John M.

    2003-08-05

    A two stroke homogenous charge compression ignition engine includes a volume pulsed air supplier, such as a piston driven pump, for efficient scavenging. The usage of a homogenous charge tends to decrease emissions. The use of a volume pulsed air supplier in conjunction with conventional poppet type intake and exhaust valves results in a relatively efficient scavenging mode for the engine. The engine preferably includes features that permit valving event timing, air pulse event timing and injection event timing to be varied relative to engine crankshaft angle. The principle use of the invention lies in improving diesel engines.

  10. Performance of a High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engine Using Multiple Orifice Fuel Injection Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Foster, H H

    1930-01-01

    This report presents test results obtained at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics during an investigation to determine the relative performance of a single-cylinder, high-speed, compression-ignition engine when using fuel injection valve nozzles with different numbers, sizes, and directions of round orifices. A spring-loaded, automatic injection valve was used, centrally located at the top of a vertical disk-type combustion chamber formed between horizontally opposed inlet and exhaust valves of a 5 inch by 7 inch engine.

  11. Compression ignition engine having fuel system for non-sooting combustion and method

    SciTech Connect

    Bazyn, Timothy; Gehrke, Christopher

    2014-10-28

    A direct injection compression ignition internal combustion engine includes a fuel system having a nozzle extending into a cylinder of the engine and a plurality of spray orifices formed in the nozzle. Each of the spray orifices has an inner diameter dimension of about 0.09 mm or less, and define inter-orifice angles between adjacent spray orifice center axes of about 36.degree. or greater such that spray plumes of injected fuel from each of the spray orifices combust within the cylinder according to a non-sooting lifted flame and gas entrainment combustion pattern. Related methodology is also disclosed.

  12. Nonlinear stability of non-stationary cross-flow vortices in compressible boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gajjar, J. S. B.

    1995-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of long wavelength non-stationary cross-flow vortices in a compressible boundary layer is investigated and the work extends that of Gajjar (1994) to flows involving multiple critical layers. The basic flow profile considered in this paper is that appropriate for a fully three-dimensional boundary layer with O(1) Mach number and with wall heating or cooling. The governing equations for the evolution of the cross-flow vortex are obtained and some special cases are discussed. One special case includes linear theory where exact analytic expressions for the growth rate of the vortices are obtained. Another special case is a generalization of the Bassom & Gajjar (1988) results for neutral waves to compressible flows. The viscous correction to the growth rate is derived and it is shown how the unsteady nonlinear critical layer structure merges with that for a Haberman type of viscous critical layer.

  13. Nonlinear stability of non-stationary cross-flow vortices in compressible boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajjar, J. S. B.

    1995-05-01

    The nonlinear evolution of long wavelength non-stationary cross-flow vortices in a compressible boundary layer is investigated and the work extends that of Gajjar (1994) to flows involving multiple critical layers. The basic flow profile considered in this paper is that appropriate for a fully three-dimensional boundary layer with O(1) Mach number and with wall heating or cooling. The governing equations for the evolution of the cross-flow vortex are obtained and some special cases are discussed. One special case includes linear theory where exact analytic expressions for the growth rate of the vortices are obtained. Another special case is a generalization of the Bassom & Gajjar (1988) results for neutral waves to compressible flows. The viscous correction to the growth rate is derived and it is shown how the unsteady nonlinear critical layer structure merges with that for a Haberman type of viscous critical layer.

  14. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart IIIi of... - Certification Requirements for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Certification Requirements for Stationary Fire Pump Engines... Stationary Fire Pump Engines 3 Table 3 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment...

  15. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart IIIi of... - Certification Requirements for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Part 60, Subpt... Stationary Fire Pump Engines 3 Table 3 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Engines Engine power Starting model year engine manufacturers must certify new stationary fire...

  16. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart IIIi of... - Certification Requirements for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Certification Requirements for Stationary Fire Pump Engines... Stationary Fire Pump Engines 3 Table 3 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment...

  17. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart IIIi of... - Certification Requirements for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Part 60, Subpt... Stationary Fire Pump Engines 3 Table 3 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Engines Engine power Starting model year engine manufacturers must certify new stationary fire...

  18. Challenging and Future of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines; an Advanced and Novel Concepts Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkelawy, Medhat; Yu-Sheng, Zhang; Hagar, Alm El-Din; Yu, Jing-Zhou

    The potential of HCCI combustion to reduce the internal combustion engines exhaust emissions, particularly NOX and soot emissions, and to delimit the application range of this technique as well as a detailed analysis of previous and current results of combustion chemistry, emission behaviors, the challenging facing this technique, and all controlling parameters including transient states are introduced. From HCCI combustion chemistry and emissions analysis it was found that, the heavy fuels displays two-stage heat release or two stage combustion process involving low temperature oxidation (LTO) stage followed by high temperature oxidation (HTO) stage separated by a time delay between them is attributed to negative temperature coefficient (NTC), the advantage of NOX emissions reduction from HCCI engine diminishing at high load condition, HC production is reduced with increasing the engine load, and the soot ejection is negligible during all operating conditions. Valve timing, compression ratio, inlet air temperature, and EGR show an advanced control on the HCCI combustion behaviors over a wide range of speed and load. The use of EGR in HCCI operation is limited at EGR-rates about 70% at this point the reaction rates and ignition timing are so much reduced and retarded, respectively, and leads to misfiring and production of HC-emissions. Homogenization of fuel, air, and recycled burnt gases prior to ignition in addition to the control of ignition and combustion timing, and heat release rates are obstructs that must be overcome in order to realize the advantages of HCCI engine in the future.

  19. Improving the performance of a compression ignition engine by directing flow of inlet air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemper, Carlton

    1946-01-01

    The object of this report is to present the results of tests performed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the effect on engine performance of directing the flow of the inlet air to a 5-inch by 7-inch cylinder, solid injection, compression ignition engine, After a few preliminary tests, comparative runs were made at a speed of 1500 r.p.m. with and without directed air flow. It was found that directing the flow of the inlet air toward the fuel injection valve gave steadier engine operation, and an appreciable increase in power, and decreased fuel consumption. The results indicate the possibility of improving the performance of a given type of combustion chamber without changing its shape and with no change in valve timing. They would also seem to prove that directional turbulence, set up before the inlet valve of a four-stroke cycle engine, continues in the engine cylinder throughout the compression stroke.

  20. Variations in speciated emissions from spark-ignition and compression-ignition motor vehicles in California's south coast air basin.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, David E; Arnott, W Patrick; Sagebiel, John C; Mazzoleni, Lynn; Chow, Judith C; Gabele, Peter A; Crews, William; Snow, Richard; Clark, Nigel N; Wayne, W Scott; Lawson, Douglas R

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study examined the sources of uncertainties in using an organic compound-based chemical mass balance receptor model to quantify the contributions of spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine exhaust to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5). This paper presents the chemical composition profiles of SI and CI engine exhaust from the vehicle-testing portion of the study. Chemical analysis of source samples consisted of gravimetric mass, elements, ions, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) by the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Speciation Trends Network (STN) thermal/optical methods, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, steranes, alkanes, and polar organic compounds. More than half of the mass of carbonaceous particles emitted by heavy-duty diesel trucks was EC (IMPROVE) and emissions from SI vehicles contained predominantly OC. Although total carbon (TC) by the IMPROVE and STN protocols agreed well for all of the samples, the STN/IMPROVE ratios for EC from SI exhaust decreased with decreasing sample loading. SI vehicles, whether low or high emitters, emitted greater amounts of high-molecular-weight particulate PAHs (benzo[ghi]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and coronene) than did CI vehicles. Diesel emissions contained higher abundances of two- to four-ring semivolatile PAHs. Diacids were emitted by CI vehicles but are also prevalent in secondary organic aerosols, so they cannot be considered unique tracers. Hopanes and steranes were present in lubricating oil with similar composition for both gasoline and diesel vehicles and were negligible in gasoline or diesel fuels. CI vehicles emitted greater total amounts of hopanes and steranes on a mass per mile basis, but abundances were comparable to SI exhaust normalized to TC emissions within measurement uncertainty. The combustion-produced high-molecular-weight PAHs were found in used

  1. Numerical investigation of spontaneous flame propagation under Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagatwala, Ankit; Sankaran, Ramanan; Kokjohn, Sage; Chen, Jacqueline

    2014-11-01

    Results from one and two-dimensional direct numerical simulations under dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) conditions will be presented. These simulations employ an improved model of compression heating through mass source/sink terms developed in a previous work, which incorporates feedback from the flow to follow a predetermined experimental pressure trace. One-dimensional simulations explored the effect of temperature and fuel concentration gradients on the combustion mode. Two-dimensional simulations explored parametric variation in temperature stratification, pressure profiles and n-heptane concentration. Statistics derived from analysis of local diffusion/reaction balances were used to elucidate combustion characteristics for the different cases. Both deflagration and spontaneous ignition modes were observed to co-exist. Higher n-heptane concentration and higher level of thermal stratification resulted in a greater degree of flame propagation, whereas lower n-heptane concentration (higher fraction of iso-octane) and higher pressure resulted in more prevalent autoignition. Starting with a uniform initial temperature and a stratified n-heptane concentration also resulted in a large fraction of combustion occurring through flame propagation.

  2. Fuel Spray and Flame Formation in a Compression-Ignition Engine Employing Air Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1937-01-01

    The effects of air flow on fuel spray and flame formation in a high-speed compression-ignition engine have been investigated by means of the NACA combustion apparatus. The process was studied by examining high-speed motion pictures taken at the rate of 2,200 frames a second. The combustion chamber was of the flat-disk type used in previous experiments with this apparatus. The air flow was produced by a rectangular displacer mounted on top of the engine piston. Three fuel-injection nozzles were tested: a 0.020-inch single-orifice nozzle, a 6-orifice nozzle, and a slit nozzle. The air velocity within the combustion chamber was estimated to reach a value of 425 feet a second. The results show that in no case was the form of the fuel spray completely destroyed by the air jet although in some cases the direction of the spray was changed and the spray envelope was carried away by the moving air. The distribution of the fuel in the combustion chamber of a compression-ignition engine can be regulated to some extent by the design of the combustion chamber, by the design of the fuel-injection nozzle, and by the use of air flow.

  3. Emission of a compression ignition engine fuelled by diesel and imitated syngas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahgoub, Bahaaddein Kamal M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Karim, Zainal Ambri B. A.

    2012-06-01

    Biomass can be converted into a useful source of energy through gasification. The gasification product, known as synthesis gas or syngas, composition of syngas may fluctuate due to many factors such as operational errors of the gasifier as well as the type of feedstock used or may be due to the feeding rate fluctuation. Therefore it would be difficult to assess the effect of syngas composition and diesel replacement ratio to the emission when combusted in dual fuel syngas - diesel compression ignition engine. In order to overcome this problem controllable composition and conditions of imitated syngas was used in this study by selective three compositions of syngas close to the real conditions. The objective of this study is to determine the exhaust emissions of a compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel and imitated syngas at different compositions and diesel replacement ratios to determine the most appropriate composition of syngas and diesel replacement ratio which will give less emission. The test results on syngas emission are compared with the results of diesel. CO2 and NOX emission level was reduced on syngas dual fuel mode, but there were increases in CO and THC emissions throughout all syngas compositions examined due to poor combustion efficiency of dual fuel operation.

  4. Coefficients of discharge of fuel-injection nozzles for compression-ignition engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the coefficients of discharge of nozzles with small, round orifices of the size used with high-speed compression-ignition engines. The injection pressures and chamber back pressures employed were comparable to those existing in compression-ignition engines during injection. The construction of the nozzles was varied to determine the effect of the nozzle design on the coefficient. Tests were also made with nozzles assembled in an automatic injection valve, both with a plain and with a helically grooved stem. It was found that a smooth passage before the orifice is requisite for high flow efficiency. A beveled leading edge before the orifice gave a higher coefficient of discharge than a rounded edge. The results with the nozzles assembled in an automatic injection valve having a plain stem duplicated those with the nozzles assembled at the end of a straight tube of constant diameter. Lower coefficients were obtained with the nozzles assembled in an injection valve having a helically grooved stem. When the coefficients of nozzles of any one geometrical shape were plotted against values of corresponding Reynold's numbers for the orifice diameters and rates of flow tested, it was found that experimental points were distributed along a single curve.

  5. Two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear burn in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets under compressed axial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Werner, C. J.

    2013-07-15

    We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20–100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 × 10{sup 4} T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ∼50%. The compressed field is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities.

  6. Analysis of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines for Cogeneration Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S; Martinez-Frias, J; Reistad, G

    2004-04-30

    This paper presents an evaluation of the applicability of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines (HCCI) for small-scale cogeneration (less than 1 MWe) in comparison to five previously analyzed prime movers. The five comparator prime movers include stoichiometric spark-ignited (SI) engines, lean burn SI engines, diesel engines, microturbines and fuel cells. The investigated option, HCCI engines, is a relatively new type of engine that has some fundamental differences with respect to other prime movers. Here, the prime movers are compared by calculating electric and heating efficiency, fuel consumption, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and capital and fuel cost. Two cases are analyzed. In Case 1, the cogeneration facility requires combined power and heating. In Case 2, the requirement is for power and chilling. The results show that the HCCI engines closely approach the very high fuel utilization efficiency of diesel engines without the high emissions of NOx and the expensive diesel fuel. HCCI engines offer a new alternative for cogeneration that provides a unique combination of low cost, high efficiency, low emissions and flexibility in operating temperatures that can be optimally tuned for cogeneration systems. HCCI engines are the most efficient technology that meets the oncoming 2007 CARB NOx standards for cogeneration engines. The HCCI engine appears to be a good option for cogeneration systems and merits more detailed analysis and experimental demonstration.

  7. Radiochemical determination of Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule compression at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, D A; Moody, K J; Gharibyan, N; Grant, P M; Gostic, J M; Torretto, P C; Wooddy, P T; Bandong, B B; Despotopulos, J D; Cerjan, C J; Hagmann, C A; Caggiano, J A; Yeamans, C B; Bernstein, L A; Schneider, D H G; Henry, E A; Fortner, R J

    2014-06-01

    We describe a radiochemical measurement of the ratio of isotope concentrations produced in a gold hohlraum surrounding an Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). We relate the ratio of the concentrations of (n,γ) and (n,2n) products in the gold hohlraum matrix to the down-scatter of neutrons in the compressed fuel and, consequently, to the fuel's areal density. The observed ratio of the concentrations of (198m+g)Au and (196g)Au is a performance signature of ablator areal density and the fuel assembly confinement time. We identify the measurement of nuclear cross sections of astrophysical importance as a potential application of the neutrons generated at the NIF. PMID:24985820

  8. Radiochemical determination of Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule compression at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, D. A. Moody, K. J.; Gharibyan, N.; Grant, P. M.; Gostic, J. M.; Torretto, P. C.; Wooddy, P. T.; Bandong, B. B.; Cerjan, C. J.; Hagmann, C. A.; Caggiano, J. A.; Yeamans, C. B.; Bernstein, L. A.; Schneider, D. H. G.; Henry, E. A.; Fortner, R. J.; Despotopulos, J. D.

    2014-06-15

    We describe a radiochemical measurement of the ratio of isotope concentrations produced in a gold hohlraum surrounding an Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). We relate the ratio of the concentrations of (n,γ) and (n,2n) products in the gold hohlraum matrix to the down-scatter of neutrons in the compressed fuel and, consequently, to the fuel's areal density. The observed ratio of the concentrations of {sup 198m+g}Au and {sup 196g}Au is a performance signature of ablator areal density and the fuel assembly confinement time. We identify the measurement of nuclear cross sections of astrophysical importance as a potential application of the neutrons generated at the NIF.

  9. Increasing the Air Charge and Scavenging the Clearance Volume of a Compression-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Hicks, C W; Foster, H H

    1934-01-01

    The object of the investigation presented in this report was to determine the effects of increasing the air charge and scavenging the clearance volume of a 4-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine having a vertical-disk form combustion chamber. Boosting the inlet-air pressure with normal valve timing increased the indicated engine power in proportion to the additional air inducted and resulted in smoother engine operation with less combustion shock. Scavenging the clearance volume by using a valve overlap of 145 degrees and an inlet-air boost pressure of approximately 2 1/2 inches of mercury produced a net increase in performance for clear exhaust operation of 33 percent over that obtained with normal valve timing and the same boost pressure. The improved combustion characteristics result in lower specific fuel consumption, and a clearer exhaust.

  10. DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST CONTROL OF HYDROCARBON AEROSOLS FROM REACTIVITY CONTROLLED COMPRESSION IGNITION COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Barone, Teresa L; Curran, Scott; Cho, Kukwon; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Wagner, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is a novel combustion process that utilizes two fuels with different reactivity to stage and control combustion and enable homogeneous combustion. The technique has been proven experimentally in previous work with diesel and gasoline fuels; low NOx emissions and high efficiencies were observed from RCCI in comparison to conventional combustion. In previous studies on a multi-cylinder engine, particulate matter (PM) emission measurements from RCCI suggested that hydrocarbons were a major component of the PM mass. Further studies were conducted on this multi-cylinder engine platform to characterize the PM emissions in more detail and understand the effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) on the hydrocarbon-dominated PM emissions. Results from the study show that the DOC can effectively reduce the hydrocarbon emissions as well as the overall PM from RCCI combustion. The bimodal size distribution of PM from RCCI is altered by the DOC which reduces the smaller mode 10 nm size particles.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF NOX CONTROL ON A COMPRESSION IGNITION LARGE BORE RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volume II of the report is a compendium of detailed emission and test data from field tests of a large-bore, compression-ignition reciprocating engine burning diesel fuel. The engine was tested during two operating modes: at baseline (normal operation), and with fuel injection re...

  12. 76 FR 25246 - Control of Emissions From New and In-Use Marine Compression-Ignition Engines and Vessels; CFR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 1042 Control of Emissions From New and In-Use Marine Compression- Ignition Engines and Vessels; CFR Correction Correction In rule document 2011-8794 appearing on pages 20550-20551 in the...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF NOX CONTROL ON A COMPRESSION IGNITION LARGE BORE RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volume I of the report gives emission results from field tests of the exhaust gas from a large-bore, compression-ignition reciprocating engine burning diesel fuel. An objective of the tests was to evaluate the operating efficiency of the engine with combustion modification NOx co...

  14. 76 FR 20550 - Control of Emissions From New and In-Use Marine Compression-Ignition Engines and Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 1042 Control of Emissions From New and In-Use Marine Compression- Ignition Engines and... July 1, 2010, on page 240, in Sec. 1042.901, the definition of ``New vessel'' is reinstated to read as follows: Sec. 1042.901 Definitions. * * * * * New vessel means any of the following: (1) A vessel...

  15. 76 FR 26620 - Control of Emissions From New and In-Use Marine Compression-Ignition Engines and Vessels; CFR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 1042 Control of Emissions From New and In-Use Marine Compression- Ignition Engines and... issue of Wednesday, May 4, 2011, make the following correction: Sec. 1042.901 On page 25246, in...

  16. 75 FR 37310 - Control of Emissions From New and In-Use Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 1039 Control of Emissions From New and In-Use Nonroad Compression- Ignition Engines CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1000 to End, revised as of July...

  17. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIi of... - Labeling and Recordkeeping Requirements for New Stationary Emergency Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60... for New Stationary Emergency Engines 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment... Stationary Emergency Engines Engine power Starting model year 19≤KW<56 (25≤HP<75) 2013 56≤KW<130...

  18. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIi of... - Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines... Stationary Fire Pump Engines 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment...

  19. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIi of... - Labeling and Recordkeeping Requirements for New Stationary Emergency Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60... for New Stationary Emergency Engines 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment... Stationary Emergency Engines Engine power Starting model year 19≤KW<56 (25≤HP<75) 2013 56≤KW<130...

  20. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIi of... - Labeling and Recordkeeping Requirements for New Stationary Emergency Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Part 60... for New Stationary Emergency Engines 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment... Stationary Emergency Engines Engine power Starting model year 19≤KW<56 (25≤HP<75) 2013 56≤KW<130...

  1. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIi of... - Labeling and Recordkeeping Requirements for New Stationary Emergency Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Part 60... for New Stationary Emergency Engines 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment... Stationary Emergency Engines Engine power Starting model year 19≤KW<56 (25≤HP<75) 2013 56≤KW<130...

  2. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIi of... - Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines... Stationary Fire Pump Engines 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment...

  3. Visualizing fast electron energy transport into laser-compressed high-density fast-ignition targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrott, L. C.; Wei, M. S.; McGuffey, C.; Solodov, A. A.; Theobald, W.; Qiao, B.; Stoeckl, C.; Betti, R.; Chen, H.; Delettrez, J.; Döppner, T.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Y.; Habara, H.; Iwawaki, T.; Key, M. H.; Luo, R. W.; Marshall, F. J.; McLean, H. S.; Mileham, C.; Patel, P. K.; Santos, J. J.; Sawada, H.; Stephens, R. B.; Yabuuchi, T.; Beg, F. N.

    2016-05-01

    Recent progress in kilojoule-scale high-intensity lasers has opened up new areas of research in radiography, laboratory astrophysics, high-energy-density physics, and fast-ignition (FI) laser fusion. FI requires efficient heating of pre-compressed high-density fuel by an intense relativistic electron beam produced from laser-matter interaction. Understanding the details of electron beam generation and transport is crucial for FI. Here we report on the first visualization of fast electron spatial energy deposition in a laser-compressed cone-in-shell FI target, facilitated by doping the shell with copper and imaging the K-shell radiation. Multi-scale simulations accompanying the experiments clearly show the location of fast electrons and reveal key parameters affecting energy coupling. The approach provides a more direct way to infer energy coupling and guide experimental designs that significantly improve the laser-to-core coupling to 7%. Our findings lay the groundwork for further improving efficiency, with 15% energy coupling predicted in FI experiments using an existing megajoule-scale laser driver.

  4. Detailed Characterization of Particulates Emitted by Pre-Commercial Single-Cylinder Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Reitz, Paul; Stewart, Mark L.; Imre, D.; Loeper, Paul; Adams, Cory; Andrie, Michael; Rothamer, David; Foster, David E.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Najt, Paul M.; Solomon, Arun S.

    2014-08-01

    Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines have the potential to achieve high fuel efficiency and to significantly reduce both NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions by operating under dilute partially-premixed conditions. This low temperature combustion strategy is dependent upon direct-injection of gasoline during the compression stroke and potentially near top dead center (TDC). The timing and duration of the in-cylinder injections can be tailored based on speed and load to create optimized conditions that result in a stable combustion. We present the results of advanced aerosol analysis methods that have been used for detailed real-time characterization of PM emitted from a single-cylinder GCI engine operated at different speed, load, timing, and number and duration of near-TDC fuel injections. PM characterization included 28 measurements of size and composition of individual particles sampled directly from the exhaust and after mass and/or mobility classification. We use these data to calculate particle effective density, fractal dimension, dynamic shape factors in free-molecular and transition flow regimes, average diameter of primary spherules, number of spherules, and void fraction of soot agglomerates.

  5. Ignition and structure of a laminar diffusion flame in a compressible mixing layer with finite rate chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosch, C. E.; Jackson, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    The ignition and structure of a reacting compressible mixing layer is considered using finite rate chemistry lying between two streams of reactants with different freestream speeds and temperatures. Numerical integration of the governing equations show that the structure of the reacting flow can be quite complicated depending on the magnitude of the Zeldovich number. An analysis of both the ignition a diffusion flame regimes is presented using a combination of large Zeldovich number asymptotics and numerics. This allows to analyze the behavior of these regimes as a function of the parameters of the problem.

  6. Experimental investigation of gasoline compression ignition combustion in a light-duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeper, C. Paul

    Due to increased ignition delay and volatility, low temperature combustion (LTC) research utilizing gasoline fuel has experienced recent interest [1-3]. These characteristics improve air-fuel mixing prior to ignition allowing for reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot (or particulate matter, PM). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Engine Research Center (Ra et al. [4, 5]) have validated these attributes and established baseline operating parameters for a gasoline compression ignition (GCI) concept in a light-duty diesel engine over a large load range (3-16 bar net IMEP). In addition to validating these computational results, subsequent experiments at the Engine Research Center utilizing a single cylinder research engine based on a GM 1.9-liter diesel engine have progressed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition processes, and established the capability of critical controlling input parameters to better control GCI operation. The focus of this thesis can be divided into three segments: 1) establishment of operating requirements in the low-load operating limit, including operation sensitivities with respect to inlet temperature, and the capabilities of injection strategy to minimize NOx emissions while maintaining good cycle-to-cycle combustion stability; 2) development of novel three-injection strategies to extend the high load limit; and 3) having developed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition kinetics, and how changes in physical processes (e.g. engine speed effects, inlet pressure variation, and air-fuel mixture processes) affects operation, develop operating strategies to maintain robust engine operation. Collectively, experimental results have demonstrated the ability of GCI strategies to operate over a large load-speed range (3 bar to 17.8 bar net IMEP and 1300-2500 RPM, respectively) with low emissions (NOx and PM less than 1 g/kg-FI and 0.2 g/kg-FI, respectively), and low

  7. The effect of diluent gases on ignition delay times in the shock tube and in the rapid compression machine

    SciTech Connect

    Wuermel, J.; Silke, E.J.; Curran, H.J.; O Conaire, M.S.; Simmie, J.M.

    2007-10-15

    The diluent gas used in the preparation of test fuel/oxygen mixtures is inert and does not take part in the chemical reaction. However, it does have an effect on the measured ignition delay time both in rapid compression machines and in shock tubes - argon decelerates ignition in the RCM, but accelerates it in the shock tube under some conditions. This opposite effect is due to the times scales involved in these experimental devices. Typical ignition delay times in the RCM are in the region of 1-200 ms, while those in the shock tube are much shorter (10-1000 {mu}s). Comparative RCM experiments and simulations for helium, argon, xenon, and nitrogen have shown extreme heat loss in the postcompression period, particularly for helium. Autoignition measurements of 2,3-dimethylpentane have highlighted a direct dependency of ignition delay time on the type of diluent used, where longer ignition delay time were recorded with argon. This increased ignition delay time is due to the extreme cooling of argon in the postcompression period. This observation was strengthened by comparative experiments with helium and argon, where the diluent effect was even stronger for helium, caused by its higher thermal conductivity. In the shock tube, the diluent effect is opposite to that in the RCM. For dilute mixtures of isooctane, calculations have predicted that mixtures with argon will ignite faster than those with nitrogen, based on the relative heat capacities of the two diluent gases. Overall, we conclude that the choice of diluent gases in experimental devices must be made with care, as ignition delay times can depend strongly on the type of diluent gas used. (author)

  8. 40 CFR 60.4212 - What test methods and other procedures must I use if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must I use if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine with a... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Testing... owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine with a displacement of less than...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4212 - What test methods and other procedures must I use if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... must I use if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine with a... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Testing... owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine with a displacement of less than...

  10. 40 CFR 60.4212 - What test methods and other procedures must I use if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must I use if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine with a... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Testing... owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine with a displacement of less than...

  11. 40 CFR 60.4208 - What is the deadline for importing or installing stationary CI ICE produced in previous model years?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Other Requirements for Owners and Operators § 60.4208 What is the deadline for importing... and operators may not install stationary CI ICE (excluding fire pump engines) that do not meet...

  12. 40 CFR 60.4212 - What test methods and other procedures must I use if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... must I use if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine with a... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Testing... owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine with a displacement of less than...

  13. A rapid compression machine investigation of oxidation and auto-ignition of n-heptane: Measurements and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Minetti, R.; Carlier, M.; Ribaucour, M.; Therssen, E.; Sochet, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    n-Heptane oxidation and auto-ignition in a rapid compression machine is studied in the low and intermediate temperature regimes at high pressures. Experimental ignition delay times and some phenomenological aspects related to knock in engines are presented, providing additional information at lower temperatures on previously published delays from shock tube experiments. The products of oxidation are identified and time profiles are measured during a two-stage ignition process. Eight C{sub 7} heterocycles, heptenes, lower 1-alkenes, aldehydes, and carbon monoxide are the main species. Their origin is discussed in relation to the isomerization and decomposition of heptylperoxy radicals. The high selectivity observed in the formation of lower 1-alkenes is explained by the scission of the {beta} C-C bond of the {beta}-hydroperoxyheptyl radicals weakened by the presence of oxygen atoms. Numerical simulation of the experiments with Warnatz`a comprehensive chemical mechanism gives satisfactory results for cool flame and total ignition delays, but fails to reproduce the detailed chemistry before auto-ignition.

  14. Ion acceleration by petawatt class laser pulses and pellet compression in a fast ignition scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, C.; Londrillo, P.; Liseykina, T. V.; Macchi, A.; Sgattoni, A.; Turchetti, G.

    2009-07-01

    Ion drivers based on standard acceleration techniques have faced up to now several difficulties. We consider here a conceptual alternative to more standard schemes, such as HIDIF (Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion), which are still beyond the present state of the art of particle accelerators, even though the requirements on the total beam energy are lowered by fast ignition scenarios. The new generation of petawatt class lasers open new possibilities: acceleration of electrons or protons for the fast ignition and eventually light or heavy ions acceleration for compression. The pulses of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) lasers allow ions acceleration with very high efficiency at reachable intensities ( I˜1021 W/cm2), if circularly polarized light is used since we enter in the radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) regime. We analyze the possibility of accelerating carbon ion bunches by interaction of a circularly polarized pulses with an ultra-thin target. The advantage would be compactness and modularity, due to identical accelerating units. The laser efficiency required to have an acceptable net gain in the inertial fusion process is still far from the presently achievable values both for CPA short pulses and for long pulses used for direct illumination. Conversely the energy conversion efficiency from the laser pulse to the ion bunch is high and grows with the intensity. As a consequence the energy loss is not the major concern. For a preliminary investigation of the ions bunch production we have used the PIC code ALaDyn developed to analyze the results of the INFN-CNR PLASMONX experiment at Frascati National Laboratories (Rome, Italy) where the 0.3 PW laser FLAME will accelerate electrons and protons. We present the results of some 1D simulations and parametric scan concerning the acceleration of carbon ions that we suppose to be fully ionized. Circularly polarized laser pulses of 50 J and 50-100 fs duration, illuminating a 100 μm2 area of a 20 nm thick carbon

  15. Boosted performance of a compression-ignition engine with a displaced piston

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Foster, Hampton H

    1936-01-01

    Performance tests were made using a rectangular displacer arranged so that the combustion air was forced through equal passages at either end of the displacer into the vertical-disk combustion chamber of a single-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle compression-ignition test engine. After making tests to determine optimum displacer height, shape, and fuel-spray arrangement, engine-performance tests were made at 1,500 and 2,000 r.p.m. for a range of boost pressures from 0 to 20 inches of mercury and for maximum cylinder pressures up to 1,150 pounds per square inch. The engine operation for boosted conditions was very smooth, there being no combustion shock even at the highest maximum cylinder pressures. Indicated mean effective pressures of 240 pounds per square inch for fuel consumptions of 0.39 pound per horsepower-hour have been readily reproduced during routine testing at 2,000 r.p.m. at a boost pressure of 20 inches of mercury.

  16. Effect of Combustion-chamber Shape on the Performance of a Prechamber Compression-ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, C S; Collins, J H , Jr

    1934-01-01

    The effect on engine performance of variations in the shape of the prechamber, the shape and direction of the connecting passage, the chamber volume using a tangential passage, the injection system, and the direction od the fuel spray in the chamber was investigated using a 5 by 7 inch single-cylinder compression-ignition engine. The results show that the performance of this engine can be considerably improved by selecting the best combination of variables and incorporating them in a single design. The best combination as determined from these tests consisted of a disk-shaped chamber connected to the cylinder by means of a flared tangential passage. The fuel was injected through a single-orifice nozzle directed normal to the air swirl and in the same plane. At an engine speed of 1,500 r.p.m. and with the theoretical fuel quantity for no excess air, the engine developed a brake mean effective pressure of 115 pounds per square inch with a fuel consumption of 0.49 pound per brake horsepower-hour and an explosion pressure of 820 pounds per square inch. A brake mean effective pressure of 100 pounds per square inch with a brake-fuel consumption of 0.44 pound per horsepower-hour at 1,500 r.p.m. was obtained.

  17. Performance tests of a single-cylinder compression-ignition engine with a displacer piston

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, C S; Foster, H H

    1935-01-01

    Engine performance was investigated using a rectangular displacer on the piston crown to cause a forced air flow in a vertical-disk combustion chamber of a single-cylinder, 4-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine. The optimum air-flow area was determined first with the area concentrated at one end of the displacer and then with the area equally divided between two passages, one at each end of the displacer. Best performance was obtained with the two-passage air flow arranged to give a calculated maximum air-flow speed of 8 times the linear crank-pin speed. With the same fuel-spray formation as used without the air flow, the maximum clear exhaust brake mean effective pressure at 1,500 r.p.m. was increased from 90 to 115 pounds per square inch and the corresponding fuel consumption reduced from 0.46 to 0.43 pound per brake horsepower-hour. At 1,200 r.p.m., a maximum clear exhaust brake mean effective pressure of 120 pounds per square inch was obtained at a fuel consumption of 0.42 pound per brake horsepower-hour. At higher specific fuel consumption the brake mean effective pressure was still increasing rapidly.

  18. An investigation of the acoustic characteristics of a compression ignition engine operating with biodiesel blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, D.; Tesfa, B.; Yuan, X.; Wang, R.; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation has been carried out on the acoustic characteristics of a compression ignition (CI) engine running with biodiesel blends under steady state operating conditions. The experiment was conducted on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection and turbocharged diesel engine which runs with biodiesel (B50 and B100) and pure diesel. The signals of acoustic, vibration and in-cylinder pressure were measured during the experiment. To correlate the combustion process and the acoustic characteristics, both phenomena have been investigated. The acoustic analysis resulted in the sound level being increased with increasing of engine loads and speeds as well as the sound characteristics being closely correlated to the combustion process. However, acoustic signals are highly sensitive to the ambient conditions and intrusive background noise. Therefore, the spectral subtraction was employed to minimize the effects of background noise in order to enhance the signal to noise ratio. In addition, the acoustic characteristics of CI engine running with different fuels (biodiesel blends and diesel) was analysed for comparison. The results show that the sound energy level of acoustic signals is slightly higher when the engine fuelled by biodiesel and its blends than that of fuelled by normal diesel. Hence, the acoustic characteristics of the CI engine will have useful information for engine condition monitoring and fuel content estimation.

  19. Combustion and emissions characteristics of a compression ignition engine fueled with n-butanol blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusri, I. M.; Mamat, R.; Ali, O. M.; Aziz, A.; Akasyah, M. K.; Kamarulzaman, M. K.; Ihsan, C. K.; Mahmadul, H. M.; Rosdi, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The use of biomass based renewable fuel, n-butanol blends for compression ignition (CI) engine has attracted wide attention due to its superior properties such as better miscibility, higher energy content, and cetane number. In this present study the use of n-butanol 10% blends (Bu10) with diesel fuel has been tested using 4-cylinder, 4-stroke common rail direct injection CI engine to investigate the combustion and emissions of the blended fuels. Based on the tested engine at BMEP=3.5Bar Bu10 fuel indicates lower first and second peak pressure by 5.4% and 2.4% for engine speed 1000rpm and 4.4% and 2.1% for engine speed 2500rpm compared to diesel fuel respectively. Percentage reduction relative to diesel fuel at engine speeds 1000rpm and 2500rpm for Bu10: Exhaust temperature was 7.5% and 5.2% respectively; Nitrogen oxides (NOx) 73.4% and 11.3% respectively.

  20. Engine performance and emission of compression ignition engine fuelled with emulsified biodiesel-water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maawa, W. N.; Mamat, R.; Najafi, G.; Majeed Ali, O.; Aziz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The depletion of fossil fuel and environmental pollution has become world crucial issues in current era. Biodiesel-water emulsion is one of many possible approaches to reduce emissions. In this study, emulsified biodiesel with 4%, 6% and 8% of water contents were prepared to be used as fuel in a direct injection compression ignition engine. The performance indicator such as brake power, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions such as NOx and particulate matter (PM) were investigated. The engine was set at constant speed of 2500 rpm and load from 20% to 60%. All the results were compared to B5 (blend of 95% petroleum diesel and 5% palm oil biodiesel) biodiesel. At low load, the BSFC decrease by 12.75% at 4% water ratio and decreased by 1.5% at 6% water ratio. However, the BSFC increases by 17.19% with increasing water ratio to 8% compared to B5. Furthermore, there was no significant decrease in brake power and BTE at 60% load. For 20% and 40% load there was some variance regarding to brake power and BTE. Significant reduction in NOx and PM emissions by 73.87% and 20.00% respectively were achieved with increasing water ratio to 8%. Overall, it is observed that the emulsified of biodiesel-water is an appropriate alternative fuel method to reduce emissions.

  1. Particle emissions, volatility, and toxicity from an ethanol fumigated compression ignition engine.

    PubMed

    Surawski, Nicholas C; Miljevic, Branka; Roberts, Boyd A; Modini, Robin L; Situ, Rong; Brown, Richard J; Bottle, Steven E; Ristovski, Zoran D

    2010-01-01

    Particle emissions, volatility, and the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated for a pre-Euro I compression ignition engine to study the potential health impacts of employing ethanol fumigation technology. Engine testing was performed in two separate experimental campaigns with most testing performed at intermediate speed with four different load settings and various ethanol substitutions. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to determine particle size distributions, a volatilization tandem differential mobility analyzer (V-TDMA) was used to explore particle volatility, and a new profluorescent nitroxide probe, BPEAnit, was used to investigate the potential toxicity of particles. The greatest particulate mass reduction was achieved with ethanol fumigation at full load, which contributed to the formation of a nucleation mode. Ethanol fumigation increased the volatility of particles by coating the particles with organic material or by making extra organic material available as an external mixture. In addition, the particle-related ROS concentrations increased with ethanol fumigation and were associated with the formation of a nucleation mode. The smaller particles, the increased volatility, and the increase in potential particle toxicity with ethanol fumigation may provide a substantial barrier for the uptake of fumigation technology using ethanol as a supplementary fuel. PMID:19994903

  2. Application of Interval Interpolation for the Description of Compression-Ignition Engine Performance Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeck, Tomasz; Prajwowski, Konrad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper is presented a calculation method based on Lagrange's interpolation formula which has been used for mathematical description of the performance characteristics of a compression-ignition engine of the 359 type of the Polish production. Its application allows simplification of experimental tests through preservation of a minimum number of measuring points and estimation of other data analytically. In order to minimise the interpolation error occurring with polynomials of high degrees and constant node distances, the characteristics were approximated by spline functions with both solutions being shown comparatively in the graphical form. As calculation examples, the curves of specific fuel consumption and infrared radiation absorption coefficient were chosen, which had been obtained during examinations on engine test bench for a drive unit fuelled with four types of fuel. In addition, results of the experiment required for their determination were tabulated. The presented method may be used in further tests of a given engine as well as on other experimental benches, aiding long-lasting and expensive optimisation of operating parameters when using fuels of plant origin. Description of any performance characteristics by means of interval interpolation is convenient from the practical side and does not cause greater calculation problems since polynomials of low degrees are being used in the procedure.

  3. Characterization and effect of using Mahua oil biodiesel as fuel in compression ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapilan, N.; Ashok Babu, T. P.; Reddy, R. P.

    2009-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in India, to search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly. This led to the choice of Mahua Oil (MO) as one of the main alternative fuels to diesel. In this investigation, Mahua Oil Biodiesel (MOB) and its blend with diesel were used as fuel in a single cylinder, direct injection and compression ignition engine. The MOB was prepared from MO by transesterification using methanol and potassium hydroxide. The fuel properties of MOB are close to the diesel and confirm to the ASTM standards. From the engine test analysis, it was observed that the MOB, B5 and B20 blend results in lower CO, HC and smoke emissions as compared to diesel. But the B5 and B20 blends results in higher efficiency as compared to MOB. Hence MOB or blends of MOB and diesel (B5 or B20) can be used as a substitute for diesel in diesel engines used in transportation as well as in the agriculture sector.

  4. Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Parks, II, James E; Wagner, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

  5. Volatility characterization of nanoparticles from single and dual-fuel low temperature combustion in compression ignition engines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lucachick, Glenn; Curran, Scott; Storey, John Morse; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Northrop, William F.

    2016-03-10

    Our work explores the volatility of particles produced from two diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) modes proposed for high-efficiency compression ignition engines. It also explores mechanisms of particulate formation and growth upon dilution in the near-tailpipe environment. Moreover, the number distribution of exhaust particles from low- and mid-load dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) and single-fuel premixed charge compression ignition (PPCI) modes were experimentally studied over a gradient of dilution temperature. Particle volatility of select particle diameters was investigated using volatility tandem differential mobility analysis (V-TDMA). Evaporation rates for exhaust particles were compared with V-TDMA results for candidate pure n-alkanesmore » to identify species with similar volatility characteristics. The results show that LTC particles are mostly comprised of material with volatility similar to engine oil alkanes. V-TDMA results were used as inputs to an aerosol condensation and evaporation model to support the finding that smaller particles in the distribution are comprised of lower volatility material than large particles under primary dilution conditions. Although the results show that saturation levels are high enough to drive condensation of alkanes onto existing particles under the dilution conditions investigated, they are not high We conclude that observed particles from LTC operation must grow from low concentrations of highly non-volatile compounds present in the exhaust.« less

  6. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pump Engines 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Part 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines...

  7. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pump Engines 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines...

  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pump Engines 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Part 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines...

  9. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pump Engines 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines...

  10. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pump Engines 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines...

  11. A Description and Test Results of a Spark-Ignition and a Compression-Ignition 2-Stroke-Cycle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Whitney, E G

    1935-01-01

    This report presents performance results of air cooled and water-cooled engines. The results obtained were sufficiently promising to warrant further investigation with fuel injection and spark ignition, with the same arrangement of inlet ports and exhaust valves at the bottom of the cylinder and the exhaust gases discharged through two poppet valves in the cylinder head. The displacement of the engine was 118 cubic inches. Optimum performance was obtained with the inlet air directed into the cylinder at an angle of 20 degrees to the radial.

  12. Quasispherical fuel compression and fast ignition in a heavy-ion-driven X-target with one-sided illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Logan, B. Grant; Perkins, L. John

    2011-03-01

    The HYDRA radiation-hydrodynamics code [M. M. Marinak et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2275 (2001)] is used to explore one-sided axial target illumination with annular and solid-profile uranium ion beams at 60 GeV to compress and ignite deuterium-tritium fuel filling the volume of metal cases with cross sections in the shape of an "X" (X-target). Quasi-three-dimensional, spherical fuel compression of the fuel toward the X-vertex on axis is obtained by controlling the geometry of the case, the timing, power, and radii of three annuli of ion beams for compression, and the hydroeffects of those beams heating the case as well as the fuel. Scaling projections suggest that this target may be capable of assembling large fuel masses resulting in high fusion yields at modest drive energies. Initial two-dimensional calculations have achieved fuel compression ratios of up to 150X solid density, with an areal density ρR of about 1 g/cm2. At these currently modest fuel densities, fast ignition pulses of 3 MJ, 60 GeV, 50 ps, and radius of 300 μm are injected through a hole in the X-case on axis to further heat the fuel to propagating burn conditions. The resulting burn waves are observed to propagate throughout the tamped fuel mass, with fusion yields of about 300 MJ. Tamping is found to be important, but radiation drive to be unimportant, to the fuel compression. Rayleigh-Taylor instability mix is found to have a minor impact on ignition and subsequent fuel burn-up.

  13. Physicochemical characterization of particulate emissions from a compression ignition engine: the influence of biodiesel feedstock.

    PubMed

    Surawski, N C; Miljevic, B; Ayoko, G A; Elbagir, S; Stevanovic, S; Fairfull-Smith, K E; Bottle, S E; Ristovski, Z D

    2011-12-15

    This study undertook a physicochemical characterization of particle emissions from a single compression ignition engine operated at one test mode with 3 biodiesel fuels made from 3 different feedstocks (i.e., soy, tallow, and canola) at 4 different blend percentages (20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) to gain insights into their particle-related health effects. Particle physical properties were inferred by measuring particle number size distributions both with and without heating within a thermodenuder (TD) and also by measuring particulate matter (PM) emission factors with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM(10)). The chemical properties of particulates were investigated by measuring particle and vapor phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and also Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) concentrations. The particle number size distributions showed strong dependency on feedstock and blend percentage with some fuel types showing increased particle number emissions, while others showed particle number reductions. In addition, the median particle diameter decreased as the blend percentage was increased. Particle and vapor phase PAHs were generally reduced with biodiesel, with the results being relatively independent of the blend percentage. The ROS concentrations increased monotonically with biodiesel blend percentage but did not exhibit strong feedstock variability. Furthermore, the ROS concentrations correlated quite well with the organic volume percentage of particles - a quantity which increased with increasing blend percentage. At higher blend percentages, the particle surface area was significantly reduced, but the particles were internally mixed with a greater organic volume percentage (containing ROS) which has implications for using surface area as a regulatory metric for diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions. PMID:22039912

  14. Reactivity controlled compression ignition drive cycle emissions and fuel economy estimations using vehicle systems simulations - IJER

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Curran, Scott; Gao, Zhiming; Wagner, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve reactivity- controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has been shown to reduce NOX and soot emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared with conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The RCCI concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load, allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. However, the current range of the experimental RCCI engine map investigated here does not allow for RCCI operation over the entirety of somemore » drive cycles. A multi-mode RCCI strategy is employed where the engine switches from RCCI to CDC when speed and load fall outside of the experimentally determined RCCI range. The potential for RCCI to reduce drive cycle fuel economy and emissions is not clearly understood and is explored here by simulating the fuel economy and emissions for a multi-mode RCCI-enabled vehicle operating over a variety of US drive cycles using experimental engine maps for multi-mode RCCI, CDC, and a 2009 port-fuel injected gasoline engine. Simulations are completed assuming a conventional mid-size passenger vehicle with an automatic transmission. RCCI fuel economy simulation results are compared with the same vehicle powered by a representative 2009 PFI gasoline engine over multiple drive cycles. Engine-out drive cycle emissions are compared to CDC, and observations regarding relative gasoline and diesel tank sizes needed for the various drive cycles are also summarized.« less

  15. Emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion and affect on emission control devices

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Kass, Michael D; Huff, Shean P; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Storey, John Morse

    2010-01-01

    A light-duty diesel engine has been operated in advanced combustion modes known generally as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The emissions have been characterized for several load and speed combinations. Fewer NO{sub x} and particulate matter (PM) emissions are produced by PCCI, but higher CO and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions result. In addition, the nature of the PM differs from conventional combustion; the PM is smaller and has a much higher soluble organic fraction (SOF) content (68% vs. 30% for conventional combustion). Three catalyst technologies were studied to determine the affects of HECC on catalyst performance; the technologies were a lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), and diesel particulate filter (DPF). The LNT benefited greatly from the reduced NO{sub x} emissions associated with PCCI. NO{sub x} capacity requirements are reduced as well as overall tailpipe NO{sub x} levels particularly at low load and temperature conditions where regeneration of the LNT is difficult. The DOC performance requirements for PCCI are more stringent due to the higher CO and HC emissions; however, the DOC was effective at controlling the higher CO and HC emissions at conditions above the light-off temperature. Below light-off, CO and HC emissions are problematic. The study of DPF technology focused on the fuel penalties associated with DPF regeneration or 'desoot' due to the different PM loading rates from PCCI vs. conventional combustion. Less frequent desoot events were required from the lower PM from PCCI and, when used in conjunction with an LNT, the lower PM from less frequent LNT regeneration. The lower desoot frequency leads a {approx}3% fuel penalty for a mixture of PCCI and conventional loads vs. {approx}4% for conventional only combustion.

  16. Radiation hydrodynamics modeling of the highest compression inertial confinement fusion ignition experiment from the National Ignition Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Weber, C. R.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Jones, O. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sepke, S. M.; Thomas, C. A.

    2015-02-01

    The recently completed National Ignition Campaign (NIC) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) showed significant discrepancies between post-shot simulations of implosion performance and experimentally measured performance, particularly in thermonuclear yield. This discrepancy between simulation and observation persisted despite concerted efforts to include all of the known sources of performance degradation within a reasonable two-dimensional (2-D), and even three-dimensional (3-D), simulation model, e.g., using measured surface imperfections and radiation drives adjusted to reproduce observed implosion trajectories [Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 056318 (2013)]. Since the completion of the NIC, several effects have been identified that could explain these discrepancies and that were omitted in previous simulations. In particular, there is now clear evidence for larger than anticipated long-wavelength radiation drive asymmetries and a larger than expected perturbation seeded by the capsule support tent. This paper describes an updated suite of one-dimensional (1-D), 2-D, and 3-D simulations that include the current best understanding of these effects identified since the NIC, as applied to a specific NIC shot. The relative importance of each effect on the experimental observables is compared. In combination, these effects reduce the simulated-to-measured yield ratio from 125:1 in 1-D to 1.5:1 in 3-D, as compared to 15:1 in the best 2-D simulations published previously. While the agreement with the experimental data remains imperfect, the comparison to the data is significantly improved and suggests that the largest sources for the previous discrepancies between simulation and experiment are now being included.

  17. Radiation hydrodynamics modeling of the highest compression inertial confinement fusion ignition experiment from the National Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Weber, C. R.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Jones, O. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sepke, S. M.; Thomas, C. A.

    2015-02-15

    The recently completed National Ignition Campaign (NIC) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) showed significant discrepancies between post-shot simulations of implosion performance and experimentally measured performance, particularly in thermonuclear yield. This discrepancy between simulation and observation persisted despite concerted efforts to include all of the known sources of performance degradation within a reasonable two-dimensional (2-D), and even three-dimensional (3-D), simulation model, e.g., using measured surface imperfections and radiation drives adjusted to reproduce observed implosion trajectories [Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 056318 (2013)]. Since the completion of the NIC, several effects have been identified that could explain these discrepancies and that were omitted in previous simulations. In particular, there is now clear evidence for larger than anticipated long-wavelength radiation drive asymmetries and a larger than expected perturbation seeded by the capsule support tent. This paper describes an updated suite of one-dimensional (1-D), 2-D, and 3-D simulations that include the current best understanding of these effects identified since the NIC, as applied to a specific NIC shot. The relative importance of each effect on the experimental observables is compared. In combination, these effects reduce the simulated-to-measured yield ratio from 125:1 in 1-D to 1.5:1 in 3-D, as compared to 15:1 in the best 2-D simulations published previously. While the agreement with the experimental data remains imperfect, the comparison to the data is significantly improved and suggests that the largest sources for the previous discrepancies between simulation and experiment are now being included.

  18. Some Effects of Injection Advance Angle, Engine-Jacket Temperature, and Speed on Combustion in a Compression-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1936-01-01

    An optical indicator and a high-speed motion-picture camera capable of operating at the rate of 2,000 frames per second were used to record simultaneously the pressure development and the flame formation in the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus. Tests were made at engine speeds of 570 and 1,500 r.p.m. The engine-jacket temperature was varied from 100 degrees to 300 degrees F. And the injection advance angle from 13 degrees after top center to 120 degrees before top center. The results show that the course of the combustion is largely controlled by the temperature and pressure of the air in the chamber from the time the fuel is injected until the time at which combustion starts and by the ignition lag. The conclusion is presented that in a compression-ignition engine with a quiescent combustion chamber the ignition lag should be the longest that can be used without excessive rates of pressure rise; any further shortening of the ignition lag decreased the effective combustion of the engine.

  19. Schlieren-based temperature measurement inside the cylinder of an optical spark ignition and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine.

    PubMed

    Aleiferis, Pavlos; Charalambides, Alexandros; Hardalupas, Yannis; Soulopoulos, Nikolaos; Taylor, A M K P; Urata, Yunichi

    2015-05-10

    Schlieren [Schlieren and Shadowgraphy Techniques (McGraw-Hill, 2001); Optics of Flames (Butterworths, 1963)] is a non-intrusive technique that can be used to detect density variations in a medium, and thus, under constant pressure and mixture concentration conditions, measure whole-field temperature distributions. The objective of the current work was to design a schlieren system to measure line-of-sight (LOS)-averaged temperature distribution with the final aim to determine the temperature distribution inside the cylinder of internal combustion (IC) engines. In a preliminary step, we assess theoretically the errors arising from the data reduction used to determine temperature from a schlieren measurement and find that the total error, random and systematic, is less than 3% for typical conditions encountered in the present experiments. A Z-type, curved-mirror schlieren system was used to measure the temperature distribution from a hot air jet in an open air environment in order to evaluate the method. Using the Abel transform, the radial distribution of the temperature was reconstructed from the LOS measurements. There was good agreement in the peak temperature between the reconstructed schlieren and thermocouple measurements. Experiments were then conducted in a four-stroke, single-cylinder, optical spark ignition engine with a four-valve, pentroof-type cylinder head to measure the temperature distribution of the reaction zone of an iso-octane-air mixture. The engine optical windows were designed to produce parallel rays and allow accurate application of the technique. The feasibility of the method to measure temperature distributions in IC engines was evaluated with simulations of the deflection angle combined with equilibrium chemistry calculations that estimated the temperature of the reaction zone at the position of maximum ray deflection as recorded in a schlieren image. Further simulations showed that the effects of exhaust gas recirculation and air

  20. Effect of Nozzle Design on Fuel Spray and Flame Formation in a High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1937-01-01

    Fuel was injected from different type of injection nozzles into the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus, operated as a compression-ignition engine. High speed motion pictures were taken of the fuel sprays and combustion. Single-orifice nozzles of 0.008, 0.020, and 0.040 inch diameter, and multiorifice nozzles having 2, 6, and 16 orifices were tested. Nozzles having impinging jets and slit orifices were also included. The photographs indicate that the rate of vapor diffusion from the spray is comparatively slow and that this slow rate of diffusion for combustion chambers with little or no air flow prevents the compression-ignition engine from giving the high performance inherent in the high compression ratios. The sprays from the multiorifice nozzles destroyed the air movement to a greater extent than did those from single orifice nozzles. It is concluded that high performance cannot be realized until the methods of distributing the fuel are improved by means of the injection-nozzle design, air flow, or both.

  1. The effectiveness of a double-stem injection valve in controlling combustion in a compression-ignition engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Whitney, E G

    1931-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine to what extent the rates of combustion in a compression-ignition engine can be controlled by varying the rates of fuel injection. The tests showed that the double-stem valve operated satisfactorily under all normal injection conditions; the rate of injection has a definite effect on the rate of combustion; the engine performance with the double-stem valve was inferior to that obtained with a single-stem valve; and the control of injection rates permitted by an injection valve of two stages of discharge is not sufficient to effect the desired rates of combustion.

  2. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for 2008 Model Year and Later Emergency Stationary CI ICE

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Later Emergency Stationary CI ICE 2 Table 2 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for 2008 Model Year and...

  3. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for 2008 Model Year and Later Emergency Stationary CI ICE

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Later Emergency Stationary CI ICE 2 Table 2 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for 2008 Model Year and...

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for 2008 Model Year and Later Emergency Stationary CI ICE

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Later Emergency Stationary CI ICE 2 Table 2 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Part 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for 2008 Model Year and...

  5. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for 2008 Model Year and Later Emergency Stationary CI ICE

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Later Emergency Stationary CI ICE 2 Table 2 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Part 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for 2008 Model Year and...

  6. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for 2008 Model Year and Later Emergency Stationary CI ICE

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Later Emergency Stationary CI ICE 2 Table 2 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for 2008 Model Year and...

  7. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIi of... - Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Part 60, Subpt... Stationary Fire Pump Engines 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Engines Mode No. Engine speed 1 Torque(percent) 2 Weightingfactors 1 Rated 100 0.30 2 Rated 75 0.50...

  8. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIi of... - Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Part 60, Subpt... Stationary Fire Pump Engines 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Engines Mode No. Engine speed 1 Torque(percent) 2 Weightingfactors 1 Rated 100 0.30 2 Rated 75 0.50...

  9. Stability of stationary solutions to the outflow problem for full compressible Navier-Stokes equations with large initial perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Ling; Wang, Tao; Zou, Qingyang

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the large-time behavior of solutions to an outflow problem of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for viscous and heat-conducting ideal polytropic gases in the half line. The non-degenerate stationary solution is shown to be asymptotically stable under large initial perturbation with no restriction on the adiabatic exponent, provided that the boundary strength is sufficiently small. The proofs are based on the nonlinear energy estimates and the crucial step is to obtain positive lower and upper bounds of the density and the temperature uniformly in time and space.

  10. Experimental study and chemical analysis of n-heptane homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion with port injection of reaction inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, Xingcai; Ji, Libin; Zu, Linlin; Hou, Yuchun; Huang, Cheng; Huang, Zhen

    2007-05-15

    The control of ignition timing in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) of n-heptane by port injection of reaction inhibitors was studied in a single-cylinder engine. Four suppression additives, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), were used in the experiments. The effectiveness of inhibition of HCCI combustion with various additives was compared under the same equivalence ratio of total fuel and partial equivalence ratio of n-heptane. The experimental results show that the suppression effectiveness increases in the order MTBE < isopropanol << ethanol < methanol. But ethanol is the best additive when the operating ranges, indicated thermal efficiency, and emissions are considered. For ethanol/n-heptane HCCI combustion, partial combustion may be observed when the mole ratio of ethanol to that of total fuel is larger than 0.20; misfires occur when the mole ratio of ethanol to that of total fuel larger than 0.25. Moreover, CO emissions strongly depend on the maximum combustion temperature, while HC emissions are mainly dominated by the mole ratio of ethanol to that of total fuel. To obtain chemical mechanistic informations relevant to the ignition behavior, detailed chemical kinetic analysis was conducted. The simulated results also confirmed the retarding of the ignition timing by ethanol addition. In addition, it can be found from the simulation that HCHO, CO, and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH could not be oxidized completely and are maintained at high levels if the partial combustion or misfire occurs (for example, for leaner fuel/air mixture). (author)

  11. Extending operating range of a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine via cylinder deactivation

    DOEpatents

    Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.; Duffy, Kevin P.; Liechty, Michael P.

    2008-05-27

    An HCCI engine has the ability to operate over a large load range by utilizing a lower cetane distillate diesel fuel to increase ignition delay. This permits more stable operation at high loads by avoidance of premature combustion before top dead center. During low load conditions, a portion of the engines cylinders are deactivated so that the remaining cylinders can operate at a pseudo higher load while the overall engine exhibits behavior typical of a relatively low load.

  12. Fast ignition of a compressed inertial confinement fusion hemispherical capsule by two proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Temporal, Mauro

    2006-12-15

    A hemispherical conically guided indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion capsule has been considered. The fast ignition of the precompressed capsule driven by one or two laser-accelerated proton beams has been numerically investigated. The energy distribution of the protons is Gaussian with a mean energy of 12 MeV and a full width at half maximum of 1 MeV. A new scheme that uses two laser-accelerated proton beams is proposed. It is found that the energy deposition of 1 kJ provided by a first proton beam generates a low-density cylindrical channel and launches a forward shock. A second proton beam, delayed by a few tens of ps and driving the energy of 6 kJ, crosses the low-density channel and heats the dense shocked region where the ignition of the deuterium-tritium nuclear fuel is achieved. For the considered capsule, this new two-beam configuration reduces the ignition energy threshold to 7 kJ.

  13. The Effect of Compression Ratio, Fuel Octane Rating, and Ethanol Content on Spark-Ignition Engine Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Leone, Thomas G; Anderson, James E; Davis, Richard S; Iqbal, Asim; Reese, Ronald A; Shelby, Michael H; Studzinski, William M

    2015-09-15

    Light-duty vehicles (LDVs) in the United States and elsewhere are required to meet increasingly challenging regulations on fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as criteria pollutant emissions. New vehicle trends to improve efficiency include higher compression ratio, downsizing, turbocharging, downspeeding, and hybridization, each involving greater operation of spark-ignited (SI) engines under higher-load, knock-limited conditions. Higher octane ratings for regular-grade gasoline (with greater knock resistance) are an enabler for these technologies. This literature review discusses both fuel and engine factors affecting knock resistance and their contribution to higher engine efficiency and lower tailpipe CO2 emissions. Increasing compression ratios for future SI engines would be the primary response to a significant increase in fuel octane ratings. Existing LDVs would see more advanced spark timing and more efficient combustion phasing. Higher ethanol content is one available option for increasing the octane ratings of gasoline and would provide additional engine efficiency benefits for part and full load operation. An empirical calculation method is provided that allows estimation of expected vehicle efficiency, volumetric fuel economy, and CO2 emission benefits for future LDVs through higher compression ratios for different assumptions on fuel properties and engine types. Accurate "tank-to-wheel" estimates of this type are necessary for "well-to-wheel" analyses of increased gasoline octane ratings in the context of light duty vehicle transportation. PMID:26237538

  14. Combustion behaviors of a compression-ignition engine fueled with diesel/methanol blends under various fuel delivery advance angles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zuohua; Lu, Hongbing; Jiang, Deming; Zeng, Ke; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Junqiang; Wang, Xibin

    2004-12-01

    A stabilized diesel/methanol blend was described and the basic combustion behaviors based on the cylinder pressure analysis was conducted in a compression-ignition engine. The study showed that increasing methanol mass fraction of the diesel/methanol blends would increase the heat release rate in the premixed burning phase and shorten the combustion duration of the diffusive burning phase. The ignition delay increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle for both the diesel fuel and the diesel/methanol blends. For a specific fuel delivery advance angle, the ignition delay increased with the increase of the methanol mass fraction (oxygen mass fraction) in the fuel blends and the behaviors were more obvious at low engine load and/or high engine speed. The rapid burn duration and the total combustion duration increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. The centre of the heat release curve was close to the top-dead-centre with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. Maximum cylinder gas pressure increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and the maximum cylinder gas pressure of the diesel/methanol blends gave a higher value than that of the diesel fuel. The maximum mean gas temperature remained almost unchanged or had a slight increase with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and it only slightly increased for the diesel/methanol blends compared to that of the diesel fuel. The maximum rate of pressure rise and the maximum rate of heat release increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle of the diesel/methanol blends and the value was highest for the diesel/methanol blends. PMID:15288277

  15. 40 CFR 60.4208 - What is the deadline for importing or installing stationary CI ICE produced in the previous model...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the deadline for importing or... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition...

  16. 40 CFR 60.4208 - What is the deadline for importing or installing stationary CI ICE produced in previous model years?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the deadline for importing or... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4217 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels? 60.4217... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4217 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4207 - What fuel requirements must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine subject to this subpart? 60... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Fuel Requirements for Owners and Operators § 60.4207 What fuel requirements must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal...

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for Stationary Pre-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Part 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for...-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection...

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for Stationary Pre-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Part 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for...-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for Stationary Pre-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for...-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4217 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels? 60.4217... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4217 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels?...

  3. 40 CFR 60.4217 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels? 60.4217... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4217 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels?...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4207 - What fuel requirements must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine subject to this subpart? 60... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Fuel Requirements for Owners and Operators § 60.4207 What fuel requirements must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal...

  5. 40 CFR 60.4207 - What fuel requirements must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine subject to this subpart? 60... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Fuel Requirements for Owners and Operators § 60.4207 What... a stationary CI internal combustion engine subject to this subpart? (b) Beginning October 1,...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for Stationary Pre-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for...-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4207 - What fuel requirements must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine subject to this subpart? 60... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Fuel Requirements for Owners and Operators § 60.4207 What fuel requirements must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4217 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels? 60.4217... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4217 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special...

  9. Time-resolved compression of a capsule with a cone to high density for fast-ignition laser fusion.

    PubMed

    Theobald, W; Solodov, A A; Stoeckl, C; Anderson, K S; Beg, F N; Epstein, R; Fiksel, G; Giraldez, E M; Glebov, V Yu; Habara, H; Ivancic, S; Jarrott, L C; Marshall, F J; McKiernan, G; McLean, H S; Mileham, C; Nilson, P M; Patel, P K; Pérez, F; Sangster, T C; Santos, J J; Sawada, H; Shvydky, A; Stephens, R B; Wei, M S

    2014-01-01

    The advent of high-intensity lasers enables us to recreate and study the behaviour of matter under the extreme densities and pressures that exist in many astrophysical objects. It may also enable us to develop a power source based on laser-driven nuclear fusion. Achieving such conditions usually requires a target that is highly uniform and spherically symmetric. Here we show that it is possible to generate high densities in a so-called fast-ignition target that consists of a thin shell whose spherical symmetry is interrupted by the inclusion of a metal cone. Using picosecond-time-resolved X-ray radiography, we show that we can achieve areal densities in excess of 300 mg cm(-2) with a nanosecond-duration compression pulse--the highest areal density ever reported for a cone-in-shell target. Such densities are high enough to stop MeV electrons, which is necessary for igniting the fuel with a subsequent picosecond pulse focused into the resulting plasma. PMID:25503788

  10. The Effect of Clearance Distribution on the Performance of a Compression-ignition Engine with a Precombustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, C. S.; Collins, J. H. Jr

    1932-01-01

    The clearance distribution in a precombustion chamber cylinder head was varied so that for a constant compression ratio of 13.5 the spherical auxiliary chambers contained 20, 35, 50, and 70 per cent of the total clearance volume. Each chamber was connected to the cylinder by a single circular passage, flared at both ends, and of a cross-sectional area proportional to the chamber volume, thereby giving the same calculated air-flow velocity through each passage. Results of engine-performance tests are presented with variations of power, fuel consumption, explosion pressure, rate of pressure rise, ignition lag, heat loss to the cooling water, and motoring characteristics. For good performance the minimum auxiliary chamber volume, with the cylinder head design used, was 35 per cent of the total clearance volume; for larger volumes the performance improves but slightly. With the auxiliary chamber that contained 35 percent of the clearance volume there were obtained the lowest explosion pressures, medium rates of pressure rise, and slightly less than the maximum power. For all clearance distributions an increase in engine speed decreased the ignition lag in seconds and increased the rate of pressure rise.

  11. Time-resolved compression of a capsule with a cone to high density for fast-ignition laser fusion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Anderson, K. S.; Beg, F. N.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Habara, H.; et al

    2014-12-12

    The advent of high-intensity lasers enables us to recreate and study the behaviour of matter under the extreme densities and pressures that exist in many astrophysical objects. It may also enable us to develop a power source based on laser-driven nuclear fusion. Achieving such conditions usually requires a target that is highly uniform and spherically symmetric. Here we show that it is possible to generate high densities in a so-called fast-ignition target that consists of a thin shell whose spherical symmetry is interrupted by the inclusion of a metal cone. Using picosecond-time-resolved X-ray radiography, we show that we can achievemore » areal densities in excess of 300 mg cm -2 with a nanosecond-duration compression pulse -- the highest areal density ever reported for a cone-in-shell target. Such densities are high enough to stop MeV electrons, which is necessary for igniting the fuel with a subsequent picosecond pulse focused into the resulting plasma.« less

  12. Time-resolved compression of a capsule with a cone to high density for fast-ignition laser fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Anderson, K. S.; Beg, F. N.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Habara, H.; Ivancic, S.; Jarrott, L. C.; Marshall, F. J.; McKiernan, G.; McLean, H. S.; Mileham, C.; Nilson, P. M.; Patel, P. K.; Pérez, F.; Sangster, T. C.; Santos, J. J.; Sawada, H.; Shvydky, A.; Stephens, R. B.; Wei, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The advent of high-intensity lasers enables us to recreate and study the behaviour of matter under the extreme densities and pressures that exist in many astrophysical objects. It may also enable us to develop a power source based on laser-driven nuclear fusion. Achieving such conditions usually requires a target that is highly uniform and spherically symmetric. Here we show that it is possible to generate high densities in a so-called fast-ignition target that consists of a thin shell whose spherical symmetry is interrupted by the inclusion of a metal cone. Using picosecond-time-resolved X-ray radiography, we show that we can achieve areal densities in excess of 300 mg cm-2 with a nanosecond-duration compression pulse—the highest areal density ever reported for a cone-in-shell target. Such densities are high enough to stop MeV electrons, which is necessary for igniting the fuel with a subsequent picosecond pulse focused into the resulting plasma.

  13. Time-resolved compression of a capsule with a cone to high density for fast-ignition laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Anderson, K. S.; Beg, F. N.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Habara, H.; Ivancic, S.; Jarrott, L. C.; Marshall, F. J.; McKiernan, G.; McLean, H. S.; Mileham, C.; Nilson, P. M.; Patel, P. K.; Pérez, F.; Sangster, T. C.; Santos, J. J.; Sawada, H.; Shvydky, A.; Stephens, R. B.; Wei, M. S.

    2014-12-12

    The advent of high-intensity lasers enables us to recreate and study the behaviour of matter under the extreme densities and pressures that exist in many astrophysical objects. It may also enable us to develop a power source based on laser-driven nuclear fusion. Achieving such conditions usually requires a target that is highly uniform and spherically symmetric. Here we show that it is possible to generate high densities in a so-called fast-ignition target that consists of a thin shell whose spherical symmetry is interrupted by the inclusion of a metal cone. Using picosecond-time-resolved X-ray radiography, we show that we can achieve areal densities in excess of 300 mg cm -2 with a nanosecond-duration compression pulse -- the highest areal density ever reported for a cone-in-shell target. Such densities are high enough to stop MeV electrons, which is necessary for igniting the fuel with a subsequent picosecond pulse focused into the resulting plasma.

  14. Experimental investigation of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion of biodiesel fuel with external mixture formation in a CI engine.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, D; Nagarajan, G; Ganesan, S

    2014-01-01

    In parallel to the interest in renewable fuels, there has also been increased interest in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. HCCI engines are being actively developed because they have the potential to be highly efficient and to produce low emissions. Even though HCCI has been researched extensively, few challenges still exist. These include controlling the combustion at higher loads and the formation of a homogeneous mixture. To obtain better homogeneity, in the present investigation external mixture formation method was adopted, in which the fuel vaporiser was used to achieve excellent HCCI combustion in a single cylinder air-cooled direct injection diesel engine. In continuation of our previous works, in the current study a vaporised jatropha methyl ester (JME) was mixed with air to form a homogeneous mixture and inducted into the cylinder during the intake stroke to analyze the combustion, emission and performance characteristics. To control the early ignition of JME vapor-air mixture, cooled (30 °C) Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technique was adopted. The experimental result shows 81% reduction in NOx and 72% reduction in smoke emission. PMID:24383396

  15. Methodology development of a time-resolved in-cylinder fuel oxidation analysis: Homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion study application

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, L.; Guibert, P.; Cavadias, S.; Dupre, S.; Momique, J.C.

    2008-08-15

    A technique was developed and applied to understand the mechanism of fuel oxidation in an internal combustion engine. This methodology determines the fuel and concentrations of various intermediates during the combustion cycle. A time-resolved measurement of a large number of species is the objective of this work and is achieved by the use of a sampling probe developed in-house. A system featuring an electromagnetically actuated sampling valve with internal N{sub 2} dilution was developed for sampling gases coming from the combustion chamber. Combustion species include O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, fuel components, and hydrocarbons produced due to incomplete combustion of fuel. Combustion gases were collected and analyzed with the objectives of analysis by an automotive exhaust analyzer, separation by gas chromatography, and detection by flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry. The work presented was processed in a homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion mode context. (author)

  16. Review of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engines and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) effects on HCCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akma Tuan Kamaruddin, Tengku Nordayana; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Sies, Mohsin Mohd

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development in ICE which leads to the new advanced combustion mode named Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). It explains regarding the theory and working principle of HCCI plus the difference of the process in gasoline and diesel fuelled engines. Many of pioneer and recent research works are discussed to get the current state of art about HCCI. It gives a better indication on the potential of this method in improving the fuel efficiency and emission produced by the vehicles' engine. Apart from the advantages, the challenges and future trend of this technology are also included. HCCI is applying few types of control strategy in producing the optimum performance. This paper looks into Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) as one of the control strategies.

  17. Lightweight, low compression aircraft diesel engine. [converting a spark ignition engine to the diesel cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, T. L.; Bottrell, M. S.; Eagle, C. D.; Bachle, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of converting a spark ignition aircraft engine to the diesel cycle was investigated. Procedures necessary for converting a single cylinder GTS10-520 are described as well as a single cylinder diesel engine test program. The modification of the engine for the hot port cooling concept is discussed. A digital computer graphics simulation of a twin engine aircraft incorporating the diesel engine and Hot Fort concept is presented showing some potential gains in aircraft performance. Sample results of the computer program used in the simulation are included.

  18. Evolution and current understanding of physicochemical characterization of particulate matter from reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion on a multicylinder light-duty engine

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Storey, John Morse; Curran, Scott J.; Lewis, Samuel A.; Barone, Teresa L.; Dempsey, Adam B.; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie; Hanson, Reed M.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Northrop, William F.

    2016-08-04

    Low-temperature compression ignition combustion can result in nearly smokeless combustion, as indicated by a smoke meter or other forms of soot measurement that rely on absorbance due to elemental carbon content. Highly premixed low-temperature combustion modes do not form particulate matter in the traditional pathways seen with conventional diesel combustion. Previous research into reactivity controlled compression ignition particulate matter has shown, despite a near zero smoke number, significant mass can be collected on filter media used for particulate matter certification measurement. In addition, particulate matter size distributions reveal that a fraction of the particles survive heated double-dilution conditions. This papermore » summarizes research completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to date on characterizing the nature, chemistry and aftertreatment considerations of reactivity controlled compression ignition particulate matter and presents new research highlighting the importance of injection strategy and fuel composition on reactivity controlled compression ignition particulate matter formation. Particle size measurements and the transmission electron microscopy results do show the presence of soot particles; however, the elemental carbon fraction was, in many cases, within the uncertainty of the thermal–optical measurement. Particulate matter emitted during reactivity controlled compression ignition operation was also collected with a novel sampling technique and analyzed by thermal desorption or pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Particulate matter speciation results indicated that the high boiling range of diesel hydrocarbons was likely responsible for the particulate matter mass captured on the filter media. Finally, to investigate potential fuel chemistry effects, either ethanol or biodiesel were incorporated to assess whether oxygenated fuels may enhance particle emission reduction.« less

  19. Simultaneous temperature and exhaust-gas recirculation-measurements in a homogeneous charge-compression ignition engine by use of pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Weikl, Markus C; Beyrau, Frank; Leipertz, Alfred

    2006-05-20

    Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy was used for the simultaneous determination of temperature and exhaust-gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge-compression ignition engine. Measurements were performed in a production-line four-cylinder gasoline engine operated with standard gasoline fuel through small optical line-of-sight accesses. The homogenization process of fresh intake air with recirculated exhaust gas was observed during the compression stroke, and the effect of charge temperature on combustion timing is shown. Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy spectra could not only be taken in the compression stroke but also during the gas-exchange cycle and after combustion. Consequently, the used method has been shown to be suitable for the investigation of two of the key parameters for self-ignition, namely temperature and charge composition. PMID:16708111

  20. Hydraulics of Fuel-Injection Pumps for Compression-ignition Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M

    1932-01-01

    Formulas are derived for computing the instantaneous pressures delivered by a fuel pump. The first derivation considers the compressibility of the fuel and the second, the compressibility, elasticity, and inertia of the fuel. The second derivation follows that given by Sass; it is shown to be the more accurate of the two. Additional formulas are given for determining the resistance losses in the injection tube. Experimental data are presented in support of the analyses. The report is concluded with an application of the theory to the design of fuel pump injection systems for which sample calculations are included.

  1. 19 CFR 12.74 - Nonroad and stationary engine compliance with Federal antipollution emission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regulated under 40 CFR part 94, see 40 CFR part 94, subpart I. This includes propulsion engines and... requirements for subject nonroad and stationary engines. See 40 CFR part 1068, subpart D, with the following exceptions: (1) For nonroad compression-ignition regulated under 40 CFR part 89, see 40 CFR part 89,...

  2. Electrostatic-discharge ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. B.; Miller, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Electrode in cylinder permits charge to transfer during top dead center compression stroke in modified Otto-cycle engine. Charge transfer produces spark which causes ignition of droplets without resorting to other ignition devices which are incapable of igniting ultralean mixtures.

  3. Numerical Analysis of Autoignition and Combustion of n-Butane and Air Mixture in Homogeneous-Charge Compression-Ignition Engine Using Elementary Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Yudai; Iida, Norimasa

    The present study focuses on clarifying the combustion mechanism of the homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engine in order to control ignition and combustion as well as to reduce HC and CO emissions and to maintain high combustion efficiency by calculating the chemical kinetics of elementary reactions. For the calculations, n-butane was selected as fuel since it is a fuel with the smallest carbon number in the alkane family that shows two-stage autoignition (heat release with low-temperature reaction (LTR) and with high-temperature reaction (HTR)) similarly to higher hydrocarbons such as gasoline. The CHEMKIN code was used for the calculations assuming zero dimensions in the combustion chamber and adiabatic change. The results reveal the heat release mechanism of the LTR and HTR, the control factor of ignition timing and combustion speed, and the condition need to reduce HC and CO emissions and to maintain high combustion efficiency.

  4. Performance of a Compression-ignition Engine with a Precombustion Chamber Having High-Velocity Air Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Moore, C S

    1931-01-01

    Presented here are the results of performance tests made with a single-cylinder, four stroke cycle, compression-ignition engine. These tests were made on a precombustion chamber type of cylinder head designed to have air velocity and tangential air flow in both the chamber and cylinder. The performance was investigated for variable load and engine speed, type of fuel spray, valve opening pressure, injection period and, for the spherical chamber, position of the injection spray relative to the air flow. The pressure variations between the pear-shaped precombustion chamber and the cylinder for motoring and full load conditions were determined with a Farnboro electric indicator. The combustion chamber designs tested gave good mixing of a single compact fuel spray with the air, but did not control the ensuing combustion sufficiently. Relative to each other, the velocity of air flow was too high, the spray dispersion by injection too great, and the metering effect of the cylinder head passage insufficient. The correct relation of these factors is of the utmost importance for engine performance.

  5. Effect of air-entry angle on performance of a 2-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earle, Sherod L; Dutee, Francis J

    1937-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the effect of variations in the horizontal and vertical air-entry angles on the performance characteristics of a single-cylinder 2-stroke-cycle compression-ignition test engine. Performance data were obtained over a wide range of engine speed, scavenging pressure, fuel quantity, and injection advance angle with the optimum guide vanes. Friction and blower-power curves are included for calculating the indicated and net performances. The optimum horizontal air-entry angle was found to be 60 degrees from the radial and the optimum vertical angle to be zero, under which conditions a maximum power output of 77 gross brake horsepower for a specific fuel consumption of 0.52 pound per brake horsepower-hour was obtained at 1,800 r.p.m. and 16-1/2 inches of Hg scavenging pressure. The corresponding specific output was 0.65 gross brake horsepower per cubic inch of piston displacement. Tests revealed that the optimum scavenging pressure increased linearly with engine speed. The brake mean effective pressure increased uniformly with air quantity per cycle for any given vane angle and was independent of engine speed and scavenging pressure.

  6. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel-Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanwar, Roopesh; Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar; Singh, Aditya Narayan; Agrawal, Yadvendra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Diesel vehicles are the nerves and veins of transportation, particularly in developing countries. With the rapid rate of modernization, increasing demand of fuel is inevitable. The exponential increase in fuel prices and the scarcity of its supply from the environment have promoted interest in the development of alternative sources of fuel. In this work, genus Ricinus communis L. was studied in order to delimit their potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. Further, castor oil, ethyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and tested on a four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The test was carried out at a constant speed of 3000 rpm at different loads. The results represent a substantial decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) emission with an increasing biodiesel percentage. The reduction of CO in B05, B10, B15 and B20 averaged 11.75, 22.02, 24.23 and 28.79 %, respectively, compared to mineral diesel. The emission results of the comparative test indicated that CO, oxygen (O2) and smoke density emissions are found to be lower when the engine is filled with B05, B10, B15 and B20 as compared to mineral diesel, while carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) with B05, B10, B15 and B20 are found to increase marginally. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption decrease and increase respectively in biodiesel with different blends in comparison of mineral diesel.

  7. Evidence of multi-petapascal pressures in converging shock compression of deutero-polyethene at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, B.-L.; Nilsen, J.; Kritcher, A. L.; Doeppner, T.; Swift, D. C.; Collins, G. W.; Glenzer, S.; Kraus, D.; Falcone, R. W.

    2015-06-01

    A converging shock was induced in a sphere of deuterated polyethene using a hohlraum x-ray drive at the National Ignition Facility. A CH ablator was deposited over the sample, including a Ge-doped radiographic marker layer near its inner edge. Density and opacity profiles were deduced from streaked x-ray radiography, giving a measurement of the shock Hugoniot from 10-80 TPa. As the shock reached the center of the sample, intense x-rays and neutrons were produced, detected with x-ray cameras and neutron scintillators respectively. Penumbral imaging of the x-ray flash showed that shock convergence was spherical to 20 percent or better. The neutron time-of-flight record showed a well-resolved D-D peak, and also a lower D-T peak from tritons produced in the D-D reactions. The x-ray and neutron signals were in very encouraging agreement with radiation hydrodynamics simulations. Analysis of the peak shapes and comparison with the simulations indicates that reaction-averaged temperatures in the hotspot were in the kilovolt range with pressures of several petapascals (tens of gigabars). The hotspot can provide valuable insight on the limits of shock compression before transport perturbs the state ahead. Performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Physicochemical characterization of particulate emissions from a compression ignition engine employing two injection technologies and three fuels.

    PubMed

    Surawski, N C; Miljevic, B; Ayoko, G A; Roberts, B A; Elbagir, S; Fairfull-Smith, K E; Bottle, S E; Ristovski, Z D

    2011-07-01

    Alternative fuels and injection technologies are a necessary component of particulate emission reduction strategies for compression ignition engines. Consequently, this study undertakes a physicochemical characterization of diesel particulate matter (DPM) for engines equipped with alternative injection technologies (direct injection and common rail) and alternative fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel, a 20% biodiesel blend, and a synthetic diesel). Particle physical properties were addressed by measuring particle number size distributions, and particle chemical properties were addressed by measuring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Particle volatility was determined by passing the polydisperse size distribution through a thermodenuder set to 300 °C. The results from this study, conducted over a four point test cycle, showed that both fuel type and injection technology have an impact on particle emissions, but injection technology was the more important factor. Significant particle number emission (54%-84%) reductions were achieved at half load operation (1% increase-43% decrease at full load) with the common rail injection system; however, the particles had a significantly higher PAH fraction (by a factor of 2 to 4) and ROS concentrations (by a factor of 6 to 16) both expressed on a test-cycle averaged basis. The results of this study have significant implications for the health effects of DPM emissions from both direct injection and common rail engines utilizing various alternative fuels. PMID:21627159

  9. Simulating Study of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Light-Duty Diesel Fuel Economy and Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Wagner, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    We utilize the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) combined with transient engine and aftertreatment component models to simulate the impact of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) on the fuel economy and emissions of light-duty (LD) diesel-powered conventional and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Our simulated aftertreatment train consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), lean NOx trap (LNT), and catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The results indicate that utilizing PCCI combustion significantly reduces fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions for the conventional diesel-powered vehicle with NOx and particulate emissions controls. These benefits result from a favorable engine speed-load distribution over the cycle combined with a corresponding reduction in the need to regenerate the LNT and DPF. However, the current PCCI technology appears to offer less potential benefit for diesel HEVs equipped with similar emissions controls. This is because PCCI can only be activated over a relatively small part of the drive cycle. Thus we conclude that future utilization of PCCI in diesel HEVs will require significant extension of the available speed-load range for PCCI and revision of current HEV engine management strategies before significant benefits can be realized.

  10. Application of multicriteria decision making methods to compression ignition engine efficiency and gaseous, particulate, and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Surawski, Nicholas C; Miljevic, Branka; Bodisco, Timothy A; Brown, Richard J; Ristovski, Zoran D; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2013-02-19

    Compression ignition (CI) engine design is subject to many constraints, which present a multicriteria optimization problem that the engine researcher must solve. In particular, the modern CI engine must not only be efficient but must also deliver low gaseous, particulate, and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions so that its impact on urban air quality, human health, and global warming is minimized. Consequently, this study undertakes a multicriteria analysis, which seeks to identify alternative fuels, injection technologies, and combustion strategies that could potentially satisfy these CI engine design constraints. Three data sets are analyzed with the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations and Geometrical Analysis for Interactive Aid (PROMETHEE-GAIA) algorithm to explore the impact of (1) an ethanol fumigation system, (2) alternative fuels (20% biodiesel and synthetic diesel) and alternative injection technologies (mechanical direct injection and common rail injection), and (3) various biodiesel fuels made from 3 feedstocks (i.e., soy, tallow, and canola) tested at several blend percentages (20-100%) on the resulting emissions and efficiency profile of the various test engines. The results show that moderate ethanol substitutions (~20% by energy) at moderate load, high percentage soy blends (60-100%), and alternative fuels (biodiesel and synthetic diesel) provide an efficiency and emissions profile that yields the most "preferred" solutions to this multicriteria engine design problem. Further research is, however, required to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) emissions with alternative fuels and to deliver technologies that do not significantly reduce the median diameter of particle emissions. PMID:23343018

  11. Effects of Air-Fuel Spray and Flame Formation in a Compression-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1937-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken at the rate of 2,500 frames per second of the fuel spray and flame formation in the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus. The compression ratio was 13.2 and the speed 1,500 revolutions per minute. An optical indicator was used to record the time-pressure relationship in the combustion chamber. The air-fuel ratio was varied from 10.4 to 365. The results showed that as the air-fuel ratio was increased definite stratification of the charge occurred in the combustion chamber even though moderate air flow existed. The results also showed the rate of vapor diffusion to be relatively slow.

  12. DESIGN OF A HIGH COMPRESSION, DIRECT INJECTION, SPARK-IGNITION, METHANOL FUELED RESEARCH ENGINE WITH AN INTEGRAL INJECTOR-IGNITION SOURCE INSERT, SAE PAPER 2001-01-3651

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stratified charge research engine and test stand were designed and built for this work. The primary goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of using a removal integral injector ignition source insert which allows a convenient method of charging the relative locat...

  13. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    SciTech Connect

    Pratapas, John; Mather, Daniel; Kozlovsky, Anton

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen’s significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an

  14. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    SciTech Connect

    John Pratapas; Daniel Mather; Anton Kozlovsky

    2007-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen's significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an

  15. The Effects of Fuel Stratification and Heat Release Rate Shaping in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelVescovo, Dan A.

    Low temperature combustion strategies have demonstrated high thermal efficiency with low emissions of pollutants, including oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter. One such combustion strategy, called Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI), which involves the port injection of a low reactivity fuel such as gasoline, ethanol, or natural gas, and a direct injection of a high reactivity fuel, such as diesel, has demonstrated excellent control over the heat release event due to the introduction of in-cylinder stratification of equivalence ratio and reactivity. The RCCI strategy is inherently fuel flexible, however the direct injection strategy needs to be tailored to the combination of premixed and direct injected fuels. Experimental results demonstrate that, when comparing different premixed fuels, matching combustion phasing with premixed mass percentage or SOI timing is not sufficient to retain baseline efficiency and emissions results. If the bulk characteristics of the heat release event can be matched, however, then the efficiency and emissions can be maintained. A 0-D methodology for predicting the required fuel stratification for a desired heat release for kinetically-controlled stratified-charge combustion strategies is proposed and validated with 3-D reacting and non-reacting CFD simulations performed with KIVA3Vr2 in this work. Various heat release rate shapes, phasing, duration, and premixed and DI fuel chemistries are explored using this analysis. This methodology provides a means by which the combustion process of a stratified-charge, kinetically-controlled combustion strategy could be optimized for any fuel combination, assuming that the fuel chemistry is well characterized.

  16. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Samveg

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are one of the most promising engine technologies for the future of energy conversion from clean, efficient combustion. HCCI engines allow high efficiency and lower CO2 emission through the use of high compression ratios and the removal of intake throttle valves (like Diesel), and allow very low levels of urban pollutants like nitric oxide and soot (like Otto). These engines, however, are not without their challenges, such as low power density compared with other engine technologies, and a difficulty in controlling combustion timing. This dissertation first addresses the power output limits. The particular strategies for enabling high power output investigated in this dissertation focus on avoiding five critical limits that either damage an engine, drastically reduce efficiency, or drastically increase emissions: (1) ringing limits, (2) peak in-cylinder pressure limits, (3) misfire limits, (4) low intake temperature limits, and (5) excessive emissions limits. The research shows that the key factors that enable high power output, sufficient for passenger vehicles, while simultaneously avoiding the five limits defined above are the use of: (1) high intake air pressures allowing improved power output, (2) highly delayed combustion timing to avoid ringing limits, and (3) using the highest possible equivalence ratio before encountering ringing limits. These results are revealed by conducting extensive experiments spanning a wide range of operating conditions on a multi-cylinder HCCI engine. Second, this dissertation discusses strategies for effectively sensing combustion characteristics on a HCCI engine. For effective feedback control of HCCI combustion timing, a sensor is required to quantify when combustion occurs. Many laboratory engines use in-cylinder pressure sensors but these sensors are currently prohibitively expensive for wide-scale commercialization. Instead, ion sensors made from inexpensive sparkplugs

  17. A perspective on the range of gasoline compression ignition combustion strategies for high engine efficiency and low NOx and soot emissions: Effects of in-cylinder fuel stratification

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott J.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2016-01-14

    Many research studies have shown that low temperature combustion in compression ignition engines has the ability to yield ultra-low NOx and soot emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. To achieve low temperature combustion, sufficient mixing time between the fuel and air in a globally dilute environment is required, thereby avoiding fuel-rich regions and reducing peak combustion temperatures, which significantly reduces soot and NOx formation, respectively. It has been demonstrated that achieving low temperature combustion with diesel fuel over a wide range of conditions is difficult because of its properties, namely, low volatility and high chemical reactivity. On the contrary, gasolinemore » has a high volatility and low chemical reactivity, meaning it is easier to achieve the amount of premixing time required prior to autoignition to achieve low temperature combustion. In order to achieve low temperature combustion while meeting other constraints, such as low pressure rise rates and maintaining control over the timing of combustion, in-cylinder fuel stratification has been widely investigated for gasoline low temperature combustion engines. The level of fuel stratification is, in reality, a continuum ranging from fully premixed (i.e. homogeneous charge of fuel and air) to heavily stratified, heterogeneous operation, such as diesel combustion. However, to illustrate the impact of fuel stratification on gasoline compression ignition, the authors have identified three representative operating strategies: partial, moderate, and heavy fuel stratification. Thus, this article provides an overview and perspective of the current research efforts to develop engine operating strategies for achieving gasoline low temperature combustion in a compression ignition engine via fuel stratification. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics modeling of the in-cylinder processes during the closed valve portion of the cycle was used to illustrate the opportunities

  18. Simulation: Gasoline Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-13

    The Mira supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility helped Argonne researchers model what happens inside an engine when you use gasoline in a diesel engine. Engineers are exploring this type of combustion as a sustainable transportation option because it may be more efficient than traditional gasoline combustion engines but produce less soot than diesel.

  19. Mathematical study of methods to reduce emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate from a compression ignited, direct injection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiming

    2001-11-01

    A phenomenological model based on the multizone concept and a three-dimensional CFD model were used to predict the effect of engine modification on particulated and NOx emission from a compression ignited direct injection (CIDI) engine. The phenomenological model consisted of a spray model, an evaporation model, a heat release model, NOx formation, soot formation, and oxidation model, and can be used to predict the combustion process and pollutant emission in a CIDI diesel engine. The advantage of the multizone model over the 3-D CFD model is the small CPU and memory it requires for a simulation. In this study, the phenomenological model was used to investigate (1) the effect of increasing the intake-air O2 content on soot and NO x emission as a function of power level and wall temperature; and (2) the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and split fuel injection on pollutant emission, and compare their soot penalty at a given NOx emission. The results indicate that EGR with a relatively low temperature can reduce NOx emission with a minimum penalty of soot particle emission. The use of EGR is promising for significantly reducing NOx emission with small or no penalty of soot particle emission. The effect of auxiliary gas injection (AGI) on diesel engine combustion and emission was studied using KIVA 3V, a multidimensional computation fluid dynamics code. AGI enhances the diesel combustion via mixing to reduce the emission of pollutants. The simulation of a high-speed gas jet model with a relatively coarse computational grids was described. The choice of turbulent length scale for optimum simulation suitability is dependent of local mesh grid. The results demonstrate that AGI creates a second-way flow in the cylinder, which improves the mixing of charge in the cylinder. The effect of AGI on combustion and flow movement is significant. The use of exhaust gas on the AGI can reduce soot emission, while NOx emission also can be decreased to some degree. To reduce

  20. Simple model of the indirect compression of targets under conditions close to the national ignition facility at an energy of 1.5 MJ

    SciTech Connect

    Rozanov, V. B. Vergunova, G. A.

    2015-11-15

    The possibility of the analysis and interpretation of the reported experiments with the megajoule National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser on the compression of capsules in indirect-irradiation targets by means of the one-dimensional RADIAN program in the spherical geometry has been studied. The problem of the energy balance in a target and the determination of the laser energy that should be used in the spherical model of the target has been considered. The results of action of pulses differing in energy and time profile (“low-foot” and “high-foot” regimes) have been analyzed. The parameters of the compression of targets with a high-density carbon ablator have been obtained. The results of the simulations are in satisfactory agreement with the measurements and correspond to the range of the observed parameters. The set of compared results can be expanded, in particular, for a more detailed determination of the parameters of a target near the maximum compression of the capsule. The physical foundation of the possibility of using the one-dimensional description is the necessity of the closeness of the last stage of the compression of the capsule to a one-dimensional process. The one-dimensional simulation of the compression of the capsule can be useful in establishing the boundary behind which two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulation should be used.

  1. Simple model of the indirect compression of targets under conditions close to the national ignition facility at an energy of 1.5 MJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, V. B.; Vergunova, G. A.

    2015-11-01

    The possibility of the analysis and interpretation of the reported experiments with the megajoule National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser on the compression of capsules in indirect-irradiation targets by means of the one-dimensional RADIAN program in the spherical geometry has been studied. The problem of the energy balance in a target and the determination of the laser energy that should be used in the spherical model of the target has been considered. The results of action of pulses differing in energy and time profile ("low-foot" and "high-foot" regimes) have been analyzed. The parameters of the compression of targets with a high-density carbon ablator have been obtained. The results of the simulations are in satisfactory agreement with the measurements and correspond to the range of the observed parameters. The set of compared results can be expanded, in particular, for a more detailed determination of the parameters of a target near the maximum compression of the capsule. The physical foundation of the possibility of using the one-dimensional description is the necessity of the closeness of the last stage of the compression of the capsule to a one-dimensional process. The one-dimensional simulation of the compression of the capsule can be useful in establishing the boundary behind which two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulation should be used.

  2. Simulating the Impact of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Light-Duty Diesel Fuel Economy and Emissions of Particulates and NOx

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Wagner, Robert M; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    We utilize the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) combined with transient engine and aftertreatment component models implemented in Matlab/Simulink to simulate the effect of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) on the fuel economy and emissions of light-duty diesel-powered conventional and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Our simulated engine is capable of both conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) over real transient driving cycles. Our simulated aftertreatment train consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), lean NOx trap (LNT), and catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The results demonstrate that, in the simulated conventional vehicle, PCCI can significantly reduce fuel consumption and emissions by reducing the need for LNT and DPF regeneration. However, the opportunity for PCCI operation in the simulated HEV is limited because the engine typically experiences higher loads and multiple stop-start transients that are outside the allowable PCCI operating range. Thus developing ways of extending the PCCI operating range combined with improved control strategies for engine and emissions control management will be especially important for realizing the potential benefits of PCCI in HEVs.

  3. Evaluating temperature and fuel stratification for heat-release rate control in a reactivity-controlled compression-ignition engine using optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark P. B.; Kokjohn, Sage L.; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-23

    We investigated the combustion process in a dual-fuel, reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engine using a combination of optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling to explain the role of equivalence ratio, temperature, and fuel reactivity stratification for heat-release rate control. An optically accessible engine is operated in the RCCI combustion mode using gasoline primary reference fuels (PRF). A well-mixed charge of iso-octane (PRF = 100) is created by injecting fuel into the engine cylinder during the intake stroke using a gasoline-type direct injector. Later in the cycle, n-heptane (PRF = 0) is delivered through a centrally mounted diesel-type common-rail injector. This injection strategy generates stratification in equivalence ratio, fuel blend, and temperature. The first part of this study uses a high-speed camera to image the injection events and record high-temperature combustion chemiluminescence. Moreover, the chemiluminescence imaging showed that, at the operating condition studied in the present work, mixtures in the squish region ignite first, and the reaction zone proceeds inward toward the center of the combustion chamber. The second part of this study investigates the charge preparation of the RCCI strategy using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer under non-reacting conditions to quantify fuel concentration distributions prior to ignition. The fuel-tracer PLIF data show that the combustion event proceeds down gradients in the n-heptane distribution. The third part of the study uses chemical kinetics modeling over a range of mixtures spanning the distributions observed from the fuel-tracer fluorescence imaging to isolate the roles of temperature, equivalence ratio, and PRF number stratification. The simulations predict that PRF number stratification is the dominant factor controlling the ignition location and growth rate of the reaction zone. Equivalence ratio has a smaller, but still significant

  4. DRIVE CYCLE EFFICIENCY AND EMISSIONS ESTIMATES FOR REACTIVITY CONTROLLED COMPRESSION IGNITION IN A MULTI-CYLINDER LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL ENGINE

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott; Briggs, Thomas E; Cho, Kukwon; Wagner, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to reduce NOx and PM emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The RCCI concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that by varying both the percent of premixed gasoline and EGR rate, stable combustion can be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. Changing the percent premixed gasoline changes the fuel reactivity stratification in the cylinder providing further control of combustion phasing and pressure rise rate than the use of EGR alone. This paper examines the combustion and emissions performance of light-duty diesel engine using direct injected diesel fuel and port injected gasoline to carry out RCCI for steady-state engine conditions which are consistent with a light-duty drive cycle. A GM 1.9L four-cylinder engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure EGR system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline. Engine-out emissions, engine performance and combustion behavior for RCCI operation is compared against both CDC and a premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) strategy which relies on high levels of EGR dilution. The effect of percent of premixed gasoline, EGR rate, boost level, intake mixture temperature, combustion phasing and pressure rise rate is investigated for RCCI combustion for the light-duty modal points. Engine-out emissions of NOx and PM were found to be considerably lower for RCCI operation as compared to CDC and PCCI, while HC and CO emissions were higher. Brake thermal efficiency was similar or higher for many of the modal conditions for RCCI operation. The emissions results are used to estimate hot-start FTP-75 emissions levels with RCCI and are compared against CDC and PCCI modes.

  5. Heavy-Duty Stoichiometric Compression Ignition Engine with Improved Fuel Economy over Alternative Technologies for Meeting 2010 On-Highway Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby J. Baumgard; Richard E. Winsor

    2009-12-31

    The objectives of the reported work were: to apply the stoichiometric compression ignition (SCI) concept to a 9.0 liter diesel engine; to obtain engine-out NO{sub x} and PM exhaust emissions so that the engine can meet 2010 on-highway emission standards by applying a three-way catalyst for NO{sub x} control and a particulate filter for PM control; and to simulate an optimize the engine and air system to approach 50% thermal efficiency using variable valve actuation and electric turbo compounding. The work demonstrated that an advanced diesel engine can be operated at stoichiometric conditions with reasonable particulate and NOx emissions at full power and peak torque conditions; calculated that the SCI engine will operate at 42% brake thermal efficiency without advanced hardware, turbocompounding, or waste heat recovery; and determined that EGR is not necessary for this advanced concept engine, and this greatly simplifies the concept.

  6. Comparative combustion studies on various plant oil esters and the long term effects of an ethyl ester on a compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, C.S.; Fuls, J.

    1982-01-01

    Combustion studies on both ethyl and methyl esters of various plant oils were carried out using the same engine for all the tests so that comparative studies could be achieved. Twelve esters were tested and the pertinent data was recorded. Some of the more important results are published in this paper to serve as a comparative guide to the study of plant oil esters as fuel. Bruwer et. al. (1980) suggested the use of plant oil esters to prevent injector coking in modern compression ignition engines. Very little information is available on the long term effects of such ester use. Cyclic endurance tests have been carried out on Perkins engines running on ethyl esters of sunflower oil. The exciting results of this work are reported, with specific reference to one tractor engine which has recorded more than 1 300 trouble free hours. 3 tables.

  7. Evaluating temperature and fuel stratification for heat-release rate control in a reactivity-controlled compression-ignition engine using optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Musculus, Mark P. B.; Kokjohn, Sage L.; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-23

    We investigated the combustion process in a dual-fuel, reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engine using a combination of optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling to explain the role of equivalence ratio, temperature, and fuel reactivity stratification for heat-release rate control. An optically accessible engine is operated in the RCCI combustion mode using gasoline primary reference fuels (PRF). A well-mixed charge of iso-octane (PRF = 100) is created by injecting fuel into the engine cylinder during the intake stroke using a gasoline-type direct injector. Later in the cycle, n-heptane (PRF = 0) is delivered through a centrally mounted diesel-type common-rail injector. This injectionmore » strategy generates stratification in equivalence ratio, fuel blend, and temperature. The first part of this study uses a high-speed camera to image the injection events and record high-temperature combustion chemiluminescence. Moreover, the chemiluminescence imaging showed that, at the operating condition studied in the present work, mixtures in the squish region ignite first, and the reaction zone proceeds inward toward the center of the combustion chamber. The second part of this study investigates the charge preparation of the RCCI strategy using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer under non-reacting conditions to quantify fuel concentration distributions prior to ignition. The fuel-tracer PLIF data show that the combustion event proceeds down gradients in the n-heptane distribution. The third part of the study uses chemical kinetics modeling over a range of mixtures spanning the distributions observed from the fuel-tracer fluorescence imaging to isolate the roles of temperature, equivalence ratio, and PRF number stratification. The simulations predict that PRF number stratification is the dominant factor controlling the ignition location and growth rate of the reaction zone. Equivalence ratio has a smaller, but still

  8. Indications of flow near maximum compression in layered deuterium-tritium implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Knauer, J. P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Munro, D. H.; Sayre, D. B.; Spears, B. K.; Bionta, R. M.; Bond, E. J.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D.; Casey, D. T.; Döppner, T.; Frenje, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hurricane, O.; Kritcher, A.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Mackinnon, A.; Meezan, N.; Patel, P.; Petrasso, R. D.; Ralph, J. E.; Springer, P. T.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2016-08-01

    An accurate understanding of burn dynamics in implosions of cryogenically layered deuterium (D) and tritium (T) filled capsules, obtained partly through precision diagnosis of these experiments, is essential for assessing the impediments to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. We present measurements of neutrons from such implosions. The apparent ion temperatures Tion are inferred from the variance of the primary neutron spectrum. Consistently higher DT than DD Tion are observed and the difference is seen to increase with increasing apparent DT Tion. The line-of-sight rms variations of both DD and DT Tion are small, ˜150 eV , indicating an isotropic source. The DD neutron yields are consistently high relative to the DT neutron yields given the observed Tion. Spatial and temporal variations of the DT temperature and density, DD-DT differential attenuation in the surrounding DT fuel, and fluid motion variations contribute to a DT Tion greater than the DD Tion, but are in a one-dimensional model insufficient to explain the data. We hypothesize that in a three-dimensional interpretation, these effects combined could explain the results.

  9. Indications of flow near maximum compression in layered deuterium-tritium implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Gatu Johnson, M; Knauer, J P; Cerjan, C J; Eckart, M J; Grim, G P; Hartouni, E P; Hatarik, R; Kilkenny, J D; Munro, D H; Sayre, D B; Spears, B K; Bionta, R M; Bond, E J; Caggiano, J A; Callahan, D; Casey, D T; Döppner, T; Frenje, J A; Glebov, V Yu; Hurricane, O; Kritcher, A; LePape, S; Ma, T; Mackinnon, A; Meezan, N; Patel, P; Petrasso, R D; Ralph, J E; Springer, P T; Yeamans, C B

    2016-08-01

    An accurate understanding of burn dynamics in implosions of cryogenically layered deuterium (D) and tritium (T) filled capsules, obtained partly through precision diagnosis of these experiments, is essential for assessing the impediments to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. We present measurements of neutrons from such implosions. The apparent ion temperatures T_{ion} are inferred from the variance of the primary neutron spectrum. Consistently higher DT than DD T_{ion} are observed and the difference is seen to increase with increasing apparent DT T_{ion}. The line-of-sight rms variations of both DD and DT T_{ion} are small, ∼150eV, indicating an isotropic source. The DD neutron yields are consistently high relative to the DT neutron yields given the observed T_{ion}. Spatial and temporal variations of the DT temperature and density, DD-DT differential attenuation in the surrounding DT fuel, and fluid motion variations contribute to a DT T_{ion} greater than the DD T_{ion}, but are in a one-dimensional model insufficient to explain the data. We hypothesize that in a three-dimensional interpretation, these effects combined could explain the results. PMID:27627237

  10. Indications of flow near maximum compression in layered deuterium-tritium implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Knauer, J. P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Munro, D. H.; Sayre, D. B.; et al

    2016-08-15

    Here, an accurate understanding of burn dynamics in implosions of cryogenically layered deuterium (D) and tritium (T) filled capsules, obtained partly through precision diagnosis of these experiments, is essential for assessing the impediments to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. We present measurements of neutrons from such implosions. The apparent ion temperatures Tion are inferred from the variance of the primary neutron spectrum. Consistently higher DT than DD Tion are observed and the difference is seen to increase with increasing apparent DT Tion. The line-of-sight rms variations of both DD and DT Tion are small, ~150eV, indicating an isotropicmore » source. The DD neutron yields are consistently high relative to the DT neutron yields given the observed Tion. Spatial and temporal variations of the DT temperature and density, DD-DT differential attenuation in the surrounding DT fuel, and fluid motion variations contribute to a DT Tion greater than the DD Tion, but are in a one-dimensional model insufficient to explain the data. We hypothesize that in a three-dimensional interpretation, these effects combined could explain the results.« less

  11. A Review of Sub-Scale Test Methods to Evaluate the Friction and Wear of Ring and Liner Materials for Spark- and Compression Ignition Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.

    2002-01-22

    A review was conducted of past laboratory-scale test methods and to assess their validity for ranking materials and lubricants for use as piston and liner materials in compression-ignition (CI) and spark-ignition (SI) engines. Most of the previous work was aimed at simulating SI engine environments. This report begins with a discussion of the numerous factors that can affect the validity of an approach to simulating engine conditions in a laboratory. These include not only mechanical, chemical and thermal factors, but also human factors as regards how the vehicle is operated and maintained. The next section provides an annotated review of open literature publications that address the issues of laboratory simulation of engine components. A comparison of these studies indicates a lack of sufficient standardization in procedures to enable a systematic comparison of one publication to another. There were just a few studies that compared several laboratory test methods to engine test results, and these indicated that some test methods correlate, at least qualitatively, better than others. The last section provides a series of recommendations for improving the accuracy and validity of laboratory-scale simulations of engine behavior. It became clear that much of the engine wear damage occurs during start-up when the engine is cold, and this calls into the question the usefulness of test methods that attempt to simulate steady-state running conditions. It is recommended that a new standard test method, perhaps developed with the help of the ASTM wear and erosion committee, be developed. It would use cold start-up conditions in the presence of degraded oil, or simulated degraded oil.

  12. Mutual colliding impact fast ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2014-09-15

    It is proposed to apply the well established colliding beam technology of high energy physics to the fast hot spot ignition of a highly compressed DT (deuterium-tritium) target igniting a larger D (deuterium) burn, by accelerating a small amount of solid deuterium, and likewise a small amount of tritium, making a head-on collision in the center of the target, projecting them through conical ducts situated at the opposite side of the target and converging in its center. In their head-on collision, the relative collision velocity is 5/3 times larger compared to the collision velocity of a stationary target. The two pieces have for this reason to be accelerated to a smaller velocity than would otherwise be needed to reach upon impact the same temperature. Since the velocity distribution of the two head-on colliding projectiles is with its two velocity peaks non-Maxwellian, the maximum cross section velocity product turns out to be substantially larger than the maximum if averaged over a Maxwellian. The D and T projectiles would have to be accelerated with two sabots driven by powerful particle or laser beams, permitting a rather large acceleration length. With the substantially larger cross section-velocity product by virtue of the non-Maxwellian velocity distribution, a further advantage is that the head-on collision produces a large magnetic field by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect, enhancing propagating burn. With this concept, the ignition of the neutron-less hydrogen-boron (HB{sup 11}) reaction might even be possible in a heterogeneous assembly of the hydrogen and the boron to reduce the bremsstrahlung-losses, resembling the heterogeneous assembly in a graphite-natural uranium reactor, there to reduce the neutron losses.

  13. Mutual colliding impact fast ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2014-09-01

    It is proposed to apply the well established colliding beam technology of high energy physics to the fast hot spot ignition of a highly compressed DT (deuterium-tritium) target igniting a larger D (deuterium) burn, by accelerating a small amount of solid deuterium, and likewise a small amount of tritium, making a head-on collision in the center of the target, projecting them through conical ducts situated at the opposite side of the target and converging in its center. In their head-on collision, the relative collision velocity is 5/3 times larger compared to the collision velocity of a stationary target. The two pieces have for this reason to be accelerated to a smaller velocity than would otherwise be needed to reach upon impact the same temperature. Since the velocity distribution of the two head-on colliding projectiles is with its two velocity peaks non-Maxwellian, the maximum cross section velocity product turns out to be substantially larger than the maximum if averaged over a Maxwellian. The D and T projectiles would have to be accelerated with two sabots driven by powerful particle or laser beams, permitting a rather large acceleration length. With the substantially larger cross section-velocity product by virtue of the non-Maxwellian velocity distribution, a further advantage is that the head-on collision produces a large magnetic field by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect, enhancing propagating burn. With this concept, the ignition of the neutron-less hydrogen-boron (HB11) reaction might even be possible in a heterogeneous assembly of the hydrogen and the boron to reduce the bremsstrahlung-losses, resembling the heterogeneous assembly in a graphite-natural uranium reactor, there to reduce the neutron losses.

  14. Investigation on the gaseous and particulate emissions of a compression ignition engine fueled with diesel-dimethyl carbonate blends.

    PubMed

    Cheung, C S; Zhu, Ruijun; Huang, Zuohua

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) on the gaseous and particulate emissions of a diesel engine was investigated using Euro V diesel fuel blended with different proportions of DMC. Combustion analysis shows that, with the blended fuel, the ignition delay and the heat release rate in the premixed combustion phase increase, while the total combustion duration and the fuel consumed in the diffusion combustion phase decrease. Compared with diesel fuel, with an increase of DMC in the blended fuel, the brake thermal efficiency is slightly improved but the brake specific fuel consumption increases. On the emission side, CO increases significantly at low engine load but decreases at high engine load while HC decreases slightly. NO(x) reduces slightly but the reduction is not statistically significant, while NO(2) increases slightly. Particulate mass and number concentrations decrease upon using the blended fuel while the geometric mean diameter of the particles shifts towards smaller size. Overall speaking, diesel-DMC blends lead to significant improvement in particulate emissions while the impact on CO, HC and NO(x) emissions is small. PMID:21081245

  15. The Effect of Connecting-passage Diameter on the Performance of a Compression-ignition Engine with a Precombustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, C S; Collins, J H

    1932-01-01

    Results of motoring tests are presented showing the effect of passage diameter on chamber and cylinder compression pressures, maximum pressure differences, and f.m.e.p. over a speed range from 300 to 1,750 r.p.m. Results of engine performance tests are presented which show the effect of passage diameter on m.e.p., explosion pressures, specific fuel consumption, and rates of pressure rise for a range of engine speeds from 500 to 1,500 r.p.m. The cylinder compression pressure, the maximum pressure difference, and the f.m.e.p. decreased rapidly as the passage diameter increased to 29/64 inch, whereas further increase in passage diameter effected only a slight change. The most suitable passage diameter for good engine performance and operating characteristics was 29/64 inch. Passage diameter became less critical with a decrease in engine speed. Therefore, the design should be based on maximum operating speed. Optimum performance and satisfactory combustion control could not be obtained by means of any single diameter of the connecting passage.

  16. Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine: Basic Operating Characteristics and Cylinder-to-Cylinder Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

    2001-03-12

    A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

  17. Internal combustion engine report: Spark ignited ICE GenSet optimization and novel concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; Blarigan, P. Van

    1998-08-01

    In this manuscript the authors report on two projects each of which the goal is to produce cost effective hydrogen utilization technologies. These projects are: (1) the development of an electrical generation system using a conventional four-stroke spark-ignited internal combustion engine generator combination (SI-GenSet) optimized for maximum efficiency and minimum emissions, and (2) the development of a novel internal combustion engine concept. The SI-GenSet will be optimized to run on either hydrogen or hydrogen-blends. The novel concept seeks to develop an engine that optimizes the Otto cycle in a free piston configuration while minimizing all emissions. To this end the authors are developing a rapid combustion homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine using a linear alternator for both power take-off and engine control. Targeted applications include stationary electrical power generation, stationary shaft power generation, hybrid vehicles, and nearly any other application now being accomplished with internal combustion engines.

  18. A computational investigation of diesel and biodiesel combustion and NOx formation in a light-duty compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zihan; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Som, Sibendu

    2012-04-24

    Diesel and biodiesel combustion in a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine were simulated during a closed cycle (from IVC to EVO), using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE, coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The computational domain was constructed based on engine geometry and compression ratio measurements. A skeletal n-heptane-based diesel mechanism developed by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and a reduced biodiesel mechanism derived and validated by Luo and co-workers were applied to model the combustion chemistry. The biodiesel mechanism contains 89 species and 364 reactions and uses methyl decanoate, methyl-9- decenoate, and n-heptane as the surrogate fuel mixture. The Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) spray breakup model for diesel and biodiesel was calibrated to account for the differences in physical properties of the fuels which result in variations in atomization and spray development characteristics. The simulations were able to capture the experimentally observed pressure and apparent heat release rate trends for both the fuels over a range of engine loads (BMEPs from 2.5 to 10 bar) and fuel injection timings (from 0° BTDC to 10° BTDC), thus validating the overall modeling approach as well as the chemical kinetic models of diesel and biodiesel surrogates. Moreover, quantitative NOx predictions for diesel combustion and qualitative NOx predictions for biodiesel combustion were obtained with the CFD simulations and the in-cylinder temperature trends were correlated to the NOx trends."

  19. Ignition process in Diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentzel, W

    1936-01-01

    This report analyzes the heating and vaporization process of fuel droplets in a compression-ignition engine on the basis of the theory of similitude - according to which, the period for heating and complete vaporization of the average size fuel drop is only a fraction of the actually observed ignition lag. The result is that ignition takes place in the fuel vapor air mixture rather than on the surface of the drop. The theoretical result is in accord with the experimental observations by Rothrock and Waldron. The combustion shock occurring at lower terminal compression temperature, especially in the combustion of coal-tar oil, is attributable to a simultaneous igniting of a larger fuel-vapor volume formed prior to ignition.

  20. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart Zzzz of... - Operating Limitations for New and Reconstructed 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR 63.8(g) for a different temperature range. ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Operating Limitations for New and... an Area Source of HAP Emissions 2b Table 2b to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63 Protection of...

  1. Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-14

    The focus of the present paper was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over a variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition. The experiments were conducted on a modern four cylinder light-duty diesel engine that was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. The results indicate that the authority to control the combustion phasing through the fuel delivery strategy (e.g., direct injection timing or premixed gasoline percentage) is not a strong function of the EHN concentration in the direct-injected fuel. It was also observed that NOx emissions are a strong function of the global EHN concentration in-cylinder and the combustion phasing. Finally, in general, NOx emissions are significantly elevated for gasoline/gasoline+EHN operation compared with gasoline/diesel RCCI operation at a given operating condition.

  2. Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-14

    The focus of the present paper was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over amore » variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition. The experiments were conducted on a modern four cylinder light-duty diesel engine that was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. The results indicate that the authority to control the combustion phasing through the fuel delivery strategy (e.g., direct injection timing or premixed gasoline percentage) is not a strong function of the EHN concentration in the direct-injected fuel. It was also observed that NOx emissions are a strong function of the global EHN concentration in-cylinder and the combustion phasing. Finally, in general, NOx emissions are significantly elevated for gasoline/gasoline+EHN operation compared with gasoline/diesel RCCI operation at a given operating condition.« less

  3. The contribution of lubricant to the formation of particulate matter with reactivity controlled compression ignition in light-duty diesel engines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Storey, John Morse; Curran, Scott; Dempsey, Adam B.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur; Reitz, Rolf; Walker, N. Ryan; Wright, Chris

    2014-12-25

    Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has been shown in single- and multi-cylinder engine research to achieve high thermal efficiencies with ultra-low NOX and soot emissions. The nature of the particulate matter (PM) produced by RCCI operation has been shown in recent research to be different than that of conventional diesel combustion and even diesel low-temperature combustion. Previous research has shown that the PM from RCCI operation contains a large amount of organic material that is volatile and semi-volatile. However, it is unclear if the organic compounds are stemming from fuel or lubricant oil. The PM emissions from dual-fuel RCCI weremore » investigated in this study using two engine platforms, with an emphasis on the potential contribution of lubricant. Both engine platforms used the same base General Motors (GM) 1.9-L diesel engine geometry. The first study was conducted on a single-cylinder research engine with primary reference fuels (PRFs), n-heptane, and iso-octane. The second study was conducted on a four-cylinder GM 1.9-L ZDTH engine which was modified with a port fuel injection (PFI) system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. Multi-cylinder RCCI experiments were run with PFI gasoline and direct injection of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) mixed with gasoline at 5 % EHN by volume. In addition, comparison cases of conventional diesel combustion (CDC) were performed. Particulate size distributions were measured, and PM filter samples were collected for analysis of lube oil components. Triplicate PM filter samples (i.e., three individual filter samples) for both gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS; organic) analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF; metals) were obtained at each operating point and queued for analysis of both organic species and lubricant metals. Here, the results give a clear indication that lubricants do not contribute significantly to the formation of RCCI PM.« less

  4. The contribution of lubricant to the formation of particulate matter with reactivity controlled compression ignition in light-duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Curran, Scott; Dempsey, Adam B.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur; Reitz, Rolf; Walker, N. Ryan; Wright, Chris

    2014-12-25

    Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has been shown in single- and multi-cylinder engine research to achieve high thermal efficiencies with ultra-low NOX and soot emissions. The nature of the particulate matter (PM) produced by RCCI operation has been shown in recent research to be different than that of conventional diesel combustion and even diesel low-temperature combustion. Previous research has shown that the PM from RCCI operation contains a large amount of organic material that is volatile and semi-volatile. However, it is unclear if the organic compounds are stemming from fuel or lubricant oil. The PM emissions from dual-fuel RCCI were investigated in this study using two engine platforms, with an emphasis on the potential contribution of lubricant. Both engine platforms used the same base General Motors (GM) 1.9-L diesel engine geometry. The first study was conducted on a single-cylinder research engine with primary reference fuels (PRFs), n-heptane, and iso-octane. The second study was conducted on a four-cylinder GM 1.9-L ZDTH engine which was modified with a port fuel injection (PFI) system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. Multi-cylinder RCCI experiments were run with PFI gasoline and direct injection of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) mixed with gasoline at 5 % EHN by volume. In addition, comparison cases of conventional diesel combustion (CDC) were performed. Particulate size distributions were measured, and PM filter samples were collected for analysis of lube oil components. Triplicate PM filter samples (i.e., three individual filter samples) for both gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS; organic) analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF; metals) were obtained at each operating point and queued for analysis of both organic species and lubricant metals. Here, the results give a clear indication that lubricants do not contribute significantly to the formation of RCCI PM.

  5. Investigation of spray characteristics from a low-pressure common rail injector for use in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kihyung; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2004-03-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion provides extremely low levels of pollutant emissions, and thus is an attractive alternative for future IC engines. In order to achieve a uniform mixture distribution within the engine cylinder, the characteristics of the fuel spray play an important role in the HCCI engine concept. It is well known that high-pressure common rail injection systems, mainly used in diesel engines, achieve poor mixture formation because of the possibility of direct fuel impingement on the combustion chamber surfaces. This paper describes spray characteristics of a low-pressure common rail injector which is intended for use in an HCCI engine. Optical diagnostics including laser diffraction and phase Doppler methods, and high-speed camera photography, were applied to measure the spray drop diameter and to investigate the spray development process. The drop sizing results of the laser diffraction method were compared with those of a phase Doppler particle analyser (PDPA) to validate the accuracy of the experiments. In addition, the effect of fuel properties on the spray characteristics was investigated using n-heptane, Stoddard solvent (gasoline surrogate) and diesel fuel because HCCI combustion is sensitive to the fuel composition. The results show that the injector forms a hollow-cone sheet spray rather than a liquid jet, and the atomization efficiency is high (small droplets are produced). The droplet SMD ranged from 15 to 30 µm. The spray break-up characteristics were found to depend on the fuel properties. The break-up time for n-heptane is shorter and the drop SMD is smaller than that of Stoddard solvent and diesel fuel.

  6. Pulsed spheromak reactor with adiabatic compression

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T K

    1999-03-29

    Extrapolating from the Pulsed Spheromak reactor and the LINUS concept, we consider ignition achieved by injecting a conducting liquid into the flux conserver to compress a low temperature spheromak created by gun injection and ohmic heating. The required energy to achieve ignition and high gain by compression is comparable to that required for ohmic ignition and the timescale is similar so that the mechanical power to ignite by compression is comparable to the electrical power to ignite ohmically. Potential advantages and problems are discussed. Like the High Beta scenario achieved by rapid fueling of an ohmically ignited plasma, compression must occur on timescales faster than Taylor relaxation.

  7. Effect of Premixed Fuel Preparation for Partially Premixed Combustion with a Low Octane Gasoline on a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M.; Cannella, William C.

    2015-05-12

    Gasoline compression ignition concepts with the majority of the fuel being introduced early in the cycle are known as partially premixed combustion (PPC). Previous research on single- and multi-cylinder engines has shown that PPC has the potential for high thermal efficiency with low NOx and soot emissions. A variety of fuel injection strategies has been proposed in the literature. These injection strategies aim to create a partially stratified charge to simultaneously reduce NOx and soot emissions while maintaining some level of control over the combustion process through the fuel delivery system. The impact of the direct injection strategy to createmore » a premixed charge of fuel and air has not previously been explored, and its impact on engine efficiency and emissions is not well understood. This paper explores the effect of sweeping the direct injected pilot timing from -91° to -324° ATDC, which is just after the exhaust valve closes for the engine used in this study. During the sweep, the pilot injection consistently contained 65% of the total fuel (based on command duration ratio), and the main injection timing was adjusted slightly to maintain combustion phasing near top dead center. A modern four cylinder, 1.9 L diesel engine with a variable geometry turbocharger, high pressure common rail injection system, wide included angle injectors, and variable swirl actuation was used in this study. The pistons were modified to an open bowl configuration suitable for highly premixed combustion modes. The stock diesel injection system was unmodified, and the gasoline fuel was doped with a lubricity additive to protect the high pressure fuel pump and the injectors. The study was conducted at a fixed speed/load condition of 2000 rpm and 4.0 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The pilot injection timing sweep was conducted at different intake manifold pressures, swirl levels, and fuel injection GTP-15-1067, Dempsey 2 pressures. The gasoline used in this study

  8. Effect of Premixed Fuel Preparation for Partially Premixed Combustion with a Low Octane Gasoline on a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M.; Cannella, William C.

    2015-05-12

    Gasoline compression ignition concepts with the majority of the fuel being introduced early in the cycle are known as partially premixed combustion (PPC). Previous research on single- and multi-cylinder engines has shown that PPC has the potential for high thermal efficiency with low NOx and soot emissions. A variety of fuel injection strategies has been proposed in the literature. These injection strategies aim to create a partially stratified charge to simultaneously reduce NOx and soot emissions while maintaining some level of control over the combustion process through the fuel delivery system. The impact of the direct injection strategy to create a premixed charge of fuel and air has not previously been explored, and its impact on engine efficiency and emissions is not well understood. This paper explores the effect of sweeping the direct injected pilot timing from -91° to -324° ATDC, which is just after the exhaust valve closes for the engine used in this study. During the sweep, the pilot injection consistently contained 65% of the total fuel (based on command duration ratio), and the main injection timing was adjusted slightly to maintain combustion phasing near top dead center. A modern four cylinder, 1.9 L diesel engine with a variable geometry turbocharger, high pressure common rail injection system, wide included angle injectors, and variable swirl actuation was used in this study. The pistons were modified to an open bowl configuration suitable for highly premixed combustion modes. The stock diesel injection system was unmodified, and the gasoline fuel was doped with a lubricity additive to protect the high pressure fuel pump and the injectors. The study was conducted at a fixed speed/load condition of 2000 rpm and 4.0 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The pilot injection timing sweep was conducted at different intake manifold pressures, swirl levels, and fuel injection GTP-15-1067, Dempsey 2 pressures. The gasoline used in this study has

  9. Fusion in Magnetically Compressed Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, V. N.

    2004-11-01

    A comparative analysis is presented of the positive and negative features of systems using magnetic compression of the thermonuclear fusion target (MAGO/MTF) aimed at solving the controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF) problem. The niche for the MAGO/MTF system, among the other CTF systems, in the parameter space of the energy delivered to the target, and its input time to the target, is shown. This approach was investigated at RFNC-VNIIEF for more than 15 years using the unique technique of applying explosive magnetic generators (EMG) as the energy source to preheat fusion plasma, and accelerate a liner to compress the preheated fusion plasma to the parameters required for ignition. EMG based systems produce already fusion neutrons, and their relatively low cost and record energy yield enable full scale experiments to study the possibility of achieving ignition threshold without constructing expensive stationary installations. A short review of the milestone results on the road to solving the CTF problem in the MAGO/MTF system is given.

  10. Magnetic Booster Fast Ignition Macron Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Friedwardt Winterberg

    2007-10-01

    Fast Impact ignition using the magnetic booster target concept is studied for isentropic compression and for thermonuclear micro-detonation. Fast ignition of a dense beam-magnetized cylindrical pure D target by multi-megampere GeV proton beams generated with a Super Marx Generator is studied. Shear flow stabilization of think cylindrical axial current confined DT detonation targets.