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Integrated methodology for forensic oil spill identification.  


A new integrated methodology for forensic oil spill identification is presented. It consists of GC-MS analysis, chromatographic data processing, variable-outlier detection, multivariate data analysis, estimation of uncertainties, and statistical evaluation. The methodology was tested on four groups of diagnostic ratios composed of petroleum biomarkers and ratios within homologous PAH categories. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed and enabled the simultaneous analysis of many diagnostic ratios. Weathering was taken into account by considering the sampling uncertainties estimated from replicate spill samples. Statistical evaluation ensured an objective matching of oil spill samples with suspected source oils as well as classification into positive match, probable match, and nonmatch. The data analysis is further refined if two or more source oils are classified as probable match by using weighted least squares fitting of the principal components, local PCA models, and additional information relevant to the spill case. The methodology correctly identified the source of two spill samples (i.e., crude oils from Oseberg East and Oseberg Field Centre) and distinguished them from closely related source oils. PMID:15212267

Christensen, Jan H; Hansen, Asger B; Tomasi, Giorgio; Mortensen, John; Andersen, Ole



Statistical Tools for Forensic Analysis of Toolmarks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recovery and comparison of toolmarks, footprint impressions, and fractured surfaces connected to a crime scene are of great importance in forensic science. The purpose of this project is to provide statistical tools for the validation of the proposition t...

D. Baldwin M. Morris S. Bajic Z. Zhou M. J. Kreiser



Statistical Tools for Forensic Analysis of Toolmarks  

SciTech Connect

Recovery and comparison of toolmarks, footprint impressions, and fractured surfaces connected to a crime scene are of great importance in forensic science. The purpose of this project is to provide statistical tools for the validation of the proposition that particular manufacturing processes produce marks on the work-product (or tool) that are substantially different from tool to tool. The approach to validation involves the collection of digital images of toolmarks produced by various tool manufacturing methods on produced work-products and the development of statistical methods for data reduction and analysis of the images. The developed statistical methods provide a means to objectively calculate a ''degree of association'' between matches of similarly produced toolmarks. The basis for statistical method development relies on ''discriminating criteria'' that examiners use to identify features and spatial relationships in their analysis of forensic samples. The developed data reduction algorithms utilize the same rules used by examiners for classification and association of toolmarks.

David Baldwin; Max Morris; Stan Bajic; Zhigang Zhou; James Kreiser



Matching Methodology: Some Statistical Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Matching is defined as the methodology of merging micro-data to create larger files of data. Matching is often done to extract statistical information which cannot be obtained from the individual files that are incomplete. Current federal statistical prac...

P. K. Goel T. Ramalingam



Matching Methodology: Some Statistical Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Matching is defined as the methodology of merging micro-data files to create larger files of data. Matching is often done to extract statistical information which cannot be obtained from the individual files that are incomplete. Current federal statistica...

P. K. Goel T. Ramalingam



Nuclear Forensic Inferences Using Iterative Multidimensional Statistics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear forensics involves the analysis of interdicted nuclear material for specific material characteristics (referred to as 'signatures') that imply specific geographical locations, production processes, culprit intentions, etc. Predictive signatures rely on expert knowledge of physics, chemistry, and engineering to develop inferences from these material characteristics. Comparative signatures, on the other hand, rely on comparison of the material characteristics of the interdicted sample (the 'questioned sample' in FBI parlance) with those of a set of known samples. In the ideal case, the set of known samples would be a comprehensive nuclear forensics database, a database which does not currently exist. In fact, our ability to analyze interdicted samples and produce an extensive list of precise materials characteristics far exceeds our ability to interpret the results. Therefore, as we seek to develop the extensive databases necessary for nuclear forensics, we must also develop the methods necessary to produce the necessary inferences from comparison of our analytical results with these large, multidimensional sets of data. In the work reported here, we used a large, multidimensional dataset of results from quality control analyses of uranium ore concentrate (UOC, sometimes called 'yellowcake'). We have found that traditional multidimensional techniques, such as principal components analysis (PCA), are especially useful for understanding such datasets and drawing relevant conclusions. In particular, we have developed an iterative partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) procedure that has proven especially adept at identifying the production location of unknown UOC samples. By removing classes which fell far outside the initial decision boundary, and then rebuilding the PLS-DA model, we have consistently produced better and more definitive attributions than with a single pass classification approach. Performance of the iterative PLS-DA method compared favorably to that of classification and regression tree (CART) and k nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithms, with the best combination of accuracy and robustness, as tested by classifying samples measured independently in our laboratories against the vendor QC based reference set.

Robel, M; Kristo, M J; Heller, M A



Applied Probability Statistical Methodology and Computational Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report form the Department of Statistics, University of Georgia, concerns the above referenced grant, an equipment grant that provided partial funding for the acquisition of specified computing equipment to support research in the department. T...

R. Bradley



On statistical analysis of forensic DNA: Theory, methods and computer programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistics plays an important role in evaluating the evidential weight of forensic DNA. In this paper, general statistical principles for forensic DNA analysis are presented. We introduce the theory and methods for the statistical assessment in kinship determination and DNA mixture evaluation. In particular, analytical formulas for testing for biological relationship among three individuals and for assessing the DNA mixture

Wing K. Fung; Yue-Qing Hu; Yuk-Ka Chung



[The development of the scientific and methodological basis of Russian forensic biology].  


The development of the scientific and methodological basis of Russian forensic biology is retraced since the time of its formation as a self-contained branch of forensic medical examination. Comprehensive analysis of scientific publications and technical documents revealed principal directions along which forensic examination of evidential objects of biological origin developed. The wealth of research data obtained by forensic biologists during a long period (from the 1930s to the 2000s) is for the first time summarized and thoroughly analysed. PMID:20394200

Gusrov, A A


Ethical and Methodological Considerations for Gender Researchers in Forensic Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic psychology is a broad and rapidly growing field that encompasses the intersection of psychology and the law. Although\\u000a psychologists have been involved with research on forensically relevant subjects and have consulted on forensic issues for\\u000a over 100 years, the field has been in a period of expansion and professionalization since the 1970 s. As is often the case\\u000a during the

Kenneth V. Heard


Mobile Forensic Reference Materials: A Methodology and Reification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report concerns the theoretical and practical issues with automatically populating mobile devices with reference test data for use as reference materials in validation of forensic tools. It describes an application and data set developed to populate ...

A. Delaitre W. Jansen



Nuclear Forensics: A Methodology Applicable to Nuclear Security and to Non-Proliferation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Security aims at the prevention and detection of and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material. Nuclear Forensics is a key element of nuclear security. Nuclear Forensics is defined as a methodology that aims at re-establishing the history of nuclear material of unknown origin. It is based on indicators that arise from known relationships between material characteristics and process history. Thus, nuclear forensics analysis includes the characterization of the material and correlation with production history. To this end, we can make use of parameters such as the isotopic composition of the nuclear material and accompanying elements, chemical impurities, macroscopic appearance and microstructure of the material. In the present paper, we discuss the opportunities for attribution of nuclear material offered by nuclear forensics as well as its limitations. Particular attention will be given to the role of nuclear reactions. Such reactions include the radioactive decay of the nuclear material, but also reactions with neutrons. When uranium (of natural composition) is exposed to neutrons, plutonium is formed, as well as 236U. We will illustrate the methodology using the example of a piece of uranium metal that dates back to the German nuclear program in the 1940's. A combination of different analytical techniques and model calculations enables a nuclear forensics interpretation, thus correlating the material characteristics with the production history.

Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.; Lützenkirchen, K.; Galy, J.; Varga, Z.; Erdmann, N.; Buda, R.; Kratz, J.-V.; Trautmann, N.; Fifield, K.



Forensic Detection of Image Manipulation Using Statistical Intrinsic Fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the use of digital images has increased, so has the means and the incentive to create digital image forgeries. Accordingly, there is a great need for digital image forensic tech- niques capable of detecting image alterations and forged images. A number of image processing operations, such as histogram equalization or gamma correction, are equivalent to pixel value mappings. In

Matthew C. Stamm; K. J. Ray Liu



The Trojan Made Me Do It: A First Step in Statistical Based Computer Forensics Event Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study was exploratory and represents a first attempt at a standardized method for digital forensics event reconstruction based on statistical significance at a given error rate (? = .01). The study used four scenarios to test the ability to determine whether contraband images located on a system running Windows XP were intentionally downloaded or downloaded without the user's

Megan Carney; Marc Roger



Statistical methodology for forest harvesting model development  

SciTech Connect

A methodology is presented for using statistical analysis to select among different methods for obtaining sufficient detail within a forest harvesting simulation model without invalidating the model's output. The procedure is directed toward reducing the level of detail in the model. The method is to investigate alternative methods of generating the required samples to logically proceed through some phase of the harvesting operation. For example, in generating a sample of position and shear time for a feller-buncher in a felling simulation, the sample could potentially be generated from 1) a Monte Carlo sampling procedure, 2) a regression equation (developed from data collected), or 3) the use of a constant time. As long as any performance variable, such as the amount of wood harvested per unit of time, was not significantly affected, changing from 1 to 2 or 3 will reduce the level of detail in the model itself, and, therefore, the time and effort required to use the model. Procedures are developed in the paper for planning the randomization necessary for assuming independence of observations, calculating the number of runs needed to allow the assumption of normality, and testing for homogeniety of variance. Analysis of variance and tests on means are recommended, if appropriate assumptions can be justified, to compare the output of candidate procedures with actual data from test plots. Alternate procedures are proposed when various assumptions cannot be met. Ideas presented are illustrated by reference to the creation of a feller-buncher module for a forest harvesting model, but the approach is also applicable to development of complete harvesting models. (Refs. 29).

Hines, G.S.; Padgett, M.L.; Webster, D.B.; Sirois, D.L.



Current genetic methodologies in the identification of disaster victims and in forensic analysis.  


This review presents the basic problems and currently available molecular techniques used for genetic profiling in disaster victim identification (DVI). The environmental conditions of a mass disaster often result in severe fragmentation, decomposition and intermixing of the remains of victims. In such cases, traditional identification based on the anthropological and physical characteristics of the victims is frequently inconclusive. This is the reason why DNA profiling became the gold standard for victim identification in mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) or any forensic cases where human remains are highly fragmented and/or degraded beyond recognition. The review provides general information about the sources of genetic material for DNA profiling, the genetic markers routinely used during genetic profiling (STR markers, mtDNA and single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNP]) and the basic statistical approaches used in DNA-based disaster victim identification. Automated technological platforms that allow the simultaneous analysis of a multitude of genetic markers used in genetic identification (oligonucleotide microarray techniques and next-generation sequencing) are also presented. Forensic and population databases containing information on human variability, routinely used for statistical analyses, are discussed. The final part of this review is focused on recent developments, which offer particularly promising tools for forensic applications (mRNA analysis, transcriptome variation in individuals/populations and genetic profiling of specific cells separated from mixtures). PMID:22002120

Zi?tkiewicz, Ewa; Witt, Magdalena; Daca, Patrycja; Zebracka-Gala, Jadwiga; Goniewicz, Mariusz; Jarz?b, Barbara; Witt, Micha?



Applying Statistical Process Quality Control Methodology to Educational Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A subset of Statistical Process Control (SPC) methodology known as Control Charting is introduced. SPC methodology is a collection of graphical and inferential statistics techniques used to study the progress of phenomena over time. The types of control charts covered are the null X (mean), R (Range), X (individual observations), MR (moving…

Blumberg, Carol Joyce


Forensic discrimination of dyed hair color: II. Multivariate statistical analysis.  


This research is intended to assess the ability of UV-visible microspectrophotometry to successfully discriminate the color of dyed hair. Fifty-five red hair dyes were analyzed and evaluated using multivariate statistical techniques including agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis (DA). The spectra were grouped into three classes, which were visually consistent with different shades of red. A two-dimensional PCA observations plot was constructed, describing 78.6% of the overall variance. The wavelength regions associated with the absorbance of hair and dye were highly correlated. Principal components were selected to represent 95% of the overall variance for analysis with DA. A classification accuracy of 89% was observed for the comprehensive dye set, while external validation using 20 of the dyes resulted in a prediction accuracy of 75%. Significant color loss from successive washing of hair samples was estimated to occur within 3 weeks of dye application. PMID:20854362

Barrett, Julie A; Siegel, Jay A; Goodpaster, John V



Reconstructing recent human phylogenies with forensic STR loci: A statistical approach  

PubMed Central

Background Forensic Short Tandem Repeat (STR) loci are effective for the purpose of individual identification, and other forensic applications. Most of these markers have high allelic variability and mutation rate because of which they have limited use in the phylogenetic reconstruction. In the present study, we have carried out a meta-analysis to explore the possibility of using only five STR loci (TPOX, FES, vWA, F13A and Tho1) to carry out phylogenetic assessment based on the allele frequency profile of 20 world population and north Indian Hindus analyzed in the present study. Results Phylogenetic analysis based on two different approaches – genetic distance and maximum likelihood along with statistical bootstrapping procedure involving 1000 replicates was carried out. The ensuing tree topologies and PC plots were further compared with those obtained in earlier phylogenetic investigations. The compiled database of 21 populations got segregated and finely resolved into three basal clusters with very high bootstrap values corresponding to three geo-ethnic groups of African, Orientals, and Caucasians. Conclusion Based on this study we conclude that if appropriate and logistic statistical approaches are followed then even lesser number of forensic STR loci are powerful enough to reconstruct the recent human phylogenies despite of their relatively high mutation rates.

Agrawal, Suraksha; Khan, Faisal



Hardness assurance statistical methodology for semiconductor devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A statistical method is developed for determining electrical end-point limits for semiconductor devices subjected to radiation stress. The approach utilizes multiple lot radiation data and can be applied where lot-to-lot variations in radiation response are large compared to variations within a lot. Such limits may be used as design parameter limits or as failure limits for lot acceptance testing of future hardness-assured, semiconductor production lots. The method was applied for neutron and total gamma dose effects on low power bipolar transistors, digital TTL ICs, and a power transistor for which an adequate multiple-lot radiation database existed.

Arimura, I.; Namenson, A. I.



Contingency Model: Some Implications of Its Statistical and Methodological Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statistical and methodological adequacy of several aspects of Fiedler's (1967) contingency model of leadership effectiveness is considered. It is suggested that the use of rank order correlations, instead of product moment correlations, produces disto...

S. C. Shiflett



Statistical analyses to support forensic interpretation for a new ten-locus STR profiling system.  


A new ten-locus STR (short tandem repeat) profiling system was recently introduced into casework by the Forensic Science Service (FSS) and statistical analyses are described here based on data collected using this new system for the three major racial groups of the UK: Caucasian. Afro-Caribbean and Asian (of Indo-Pakistani descent). Allele distributions are compared and the FSS position with regard to routine significance testing of DNA frequency databases is discussed. An investigation of match probability calculations is carried out and the consequent analyses are shown to provide support for proposed changes in how the FSS reports DNA results when very small match probabilities are involved. PMID:11296886

Foreman, L A; Evett, I W



Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)|

Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.



Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part I: discrimination from related Salvia species.  


Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic herb that is internationally regulated. In this study, salvinorin A, the active compound in S. divinorum, was extracted from S. divinorum plant leaves using a 5-min extraction with dichloromethane. Four additional Salvia species (Salvia officinalis, Salvia guaranitica, Salvia splendens, and Salvia nemorosa) were extracted using this procedure, and all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Differentiation of S. divinorum from other Salvia species was successful based on visual assessment of the resulting chromatograms. To provide a more objective comparison, the total ion chromatograms (TICs) were subjected to principal components analysis (PCA). Prior to PCA, the TICs were subjected to a series of data pretreatment procedures to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. Successful discrimination of S. divinorum from the other four Salvia species was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot. To provide a numerical assessment of the discrimination, a series of statistical procedures such as Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores. The statistical procedures were then compared to determine the advantages and disadvantages for forensic applications. PMID:22038586

Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell



A methodology for statistical integrated circuit process design  

SciTech Connect

There has recently been widespread interest in statistical design techniques as the semiconductor industry places increasing emphasis on design for manufacturability in order to become more competitive. Despite an enormous amount of research in this area over the past two decades, very few previous statistical design approaches have been applied to real-world problems owing to the curse of dimensionality, which invariably leads to an excessive amount of computational effort. In this dissertation, the author proposes a practical methodology that can be applied to optimized the process yield of IC fabrication lines. Two key features of the methodology are macromodeling and problem decomposition. The goal of building empirical macromodels of the IC process is to substantially reduce the problem dimension as well as simulation cost. The reformulation of the yield maximization problem into a deterministic design centering problem allows us to employ powerful and efficient optimization algorithms to solve the problem. Moreover, by applying problem decomposition to the design centering procedure, further efficiency may be achieved when the resultant subproblems are loosely coupled. In addition, problem decomposition makes the design centering procedure readily parallelizable. Although he has only applied the proposed approach to IC process yield maximization problems, the underlying methodology is equally applicable to circuit yield optimization.

Low, Kah-Kuen.



A statistical methodology for deriving reservoir properties from seismic data  

SciTech Connect

The use of seismic data to better constrain the reservoir model between wells has become an important goal for seismic interpretation. The authors propose a methodology for deriving soft geologic information from seismic data and discuss its application through a case study in offshore Congo. The methodology combines seismic facies analysis and statistical calibration techniques applied to seismic attributes characterizing the traces at the reservoir level. They built statistical relationships between seismic attributes and reservoir properties from a calibration population consisting of wells and their adjacent traces. The correlation studies are based on the canonical correlation analysis technique, while the statistical model comes from a multivariate regression between the canonical seismic variables and the reservoir properties, whenever they ar predictable. In the case study, they predicted estimates and associated uncertainties on the lithofacies thicknesses cumulated over the reservoir interval from the seismic information. They carried out a seismic facies identification and compared the geological prediction results in the cases of a calibration on the whole data set and a calibration done independently on the traces (and wells) related to each seismic facies. The later approach produces a significant improvement in the geological estimation from the seismic information, mainly because the large scale geological variations (and associated seismic ones) over the field can be accounted for.

Fournier, F.; Derain, J.F. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)



Status Report on Statistical and Methodological Improvements in the U.S. Balance of Payments Statistics,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers: (1) the major known problem areas in the balance of payments; (2) provides a progress report on the statistical and methodological improvements that BEA has undertaken to resolve some of the problems; and (3) discusses the scope of proj...

L. J. Moczar



Evaluating innovative treatments in forensic mental health: A role for single case methodology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development of new forensic mental health services and treatments has created a demand for research and evidence relating to the effectiveness of interventions. Unfortunately, the literature on outcomes of treatments for mentally disordered offenders is sparse, compared with the substantial ‘what works’ literature regarding non-disordered offenders in the criminal justice system. In this paper we propose that single

Jason Davies; Kevin Howells; Lawrence Jones



A review of the methodological aspects of aspartic acid racemization analysis for use in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate age determination of adult cadavers and human remains is a key requirement in forensic practice. The current morphological methods lack accuracy and precision, require specialist training and are costly. The use of aspartic acid racemization (AAR) in human dentine provides a simple, cost-effective solution and the method can achieve accuracies of ±3 years at best. Currently, there are differences

E. R Waite; M. J Collins; S Ritz-Timme; H-W Schutz; C Cattaneo; H. I. M Borrman



Winning the Battles, Losing the War? Rethinking Methodology for Forensic Computing Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In the last ten years Forensic Computing (FC) has emerged in response to the challenges of illegal, criminal and other inappropriate on-line behaviours. As awareness ofthe need for the accurate and legally admissible collection, collation, analysis and presentation of digital data has grown, so has recognition of the challenges this requirement poses for technical, legal and organisational responses to

Vlasti Broucek; Paul Turner



Genetic identification of horse mackerel and related species in seafood products by means of forensically informative nucleotide sequencing methodology.  


In the present study, a methodology based on the amplification of a fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome b and subsequent phylogenetic analysis (FINS: forensically informative nucleotide sequencing) to genetically identify horse mackerels have been developed. This methodology makes possible the identification of more than 20 species belonging to the families Carangidae, Mullidae, and Scombridae. The main novelty of this work lies in the longest number of different horse mackerel species included and in the applicability of the developed methods to all kinds of processed products that can be found by consumers in markets around the world, including those that have undergone intensive processes of transformation, as for instance canned foods. Finally, the methods were applied to 15 commercial samples, all of them canned products. Therefore, these methods are useful for checking the fulfillment of labeling regulations for horse mackerels and horse mackerel products, verifying the correct traceability in commercial trade, and fisheries control. PMID:21332203

Lago, Fátima C; Herrero, Beatriz; Vieites, Juan M; Espiñeira, Montserrat



Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part II: association of adulterated samples to S. divinorum.  


Salvia divinorum is a plant material that is of forensic interest due to the hallucinogenic nature of the active ingredient, salvinorin A. In this study, S. divinorum was extracted and spiked onto four different plant materials (S. divinorum, Salvia officinalis, Cannabis sativa, and Nicotiana tabacum) to simulate an adulterated sample that might be encountered in a forensic laboratory. The adulterated samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting total ion chromatograms were subjected to a series of pretreatment procedures that were used to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. The data were then analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) to investigate association of the adulterated extracts to unadulterated S. divinorum. While association was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot, additional procedures including Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores to provide a statistical evaluation of the association observed. The advantages and limitations of each statistical procedure in a forensic context were compared and are presented herein. PMID:22160202

Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell



A validation framework for microbial forensic methods based on statistical pattern recognition  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses a general approach to validating microbial forensic methods that attempt to simultaneously distinguish among many hypotheses concerning the manufacture of a questioned biological agent sample. It focuses on the concrete example of determining growth medium from chemical or molecular properties of a bacterial agent to illustrate the concepts involved.

Velsko, S P



Statistical data analysis of bacterial t-RFLP profiles in forensic soil comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil can play an important role in forensic investigations in linking suspects or objects to a crime scene. Bacterial populations are one of the biotic parameters in soil which can be used for comparisons. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) is used to visualize these populations. Here we present a method to compare soil t-RFLP profiles based on Bray-Curtis distances.

Frederike C. A. Quaak; Irene Kuiper



Computational Forensic Techniques for Intellectual Property Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational forensic engineering (CFE) aims to identify the entity that created a particular intellectual property (IP). Rather than relying on watermarking content or designs, the generic CFE method- ology analyzes the statistics of certain features of a given IP and quan- tizes the likelihood that a well known source has created it. In this paper, we describe the generic methodology

Jennifer L. Wong; Darko Kirovski; Miodrag Potkonjak



Methodological note Statistical power in operations management research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the need and importance of statistical power analysis in field-based empirical research in Production and Operations Management (POM) and related disciplines. The concept of statistical power analysis is explained in detail and its relevance in designing and conducting empirical experiments is discussed. Statistical power reflects the degree to which differences in sample data in a statistical test

Rohit Verma; John C. Goodale


A simple, statistically based methodology for system tuning  

SciTech Connect

System tuning often occurs in response to observed changes in key performance indicators. But, how do we determine if a change is significant Our indicators are random variables. They display a natural'' variation. This presentation reviews techniques that may provide a great deal of assistance in determining the significance of a change -- and more importantly -- when and what to tune. The techniques were developed by Dr. William Shewhart at Bell Labs and refined by internationally known quality specialist W. Edwards Deming. Although founded on statistical theory, the techniques are easy to use, require no formal statistical training, and may help you

Benson, M.J.



A Statistical, Nonparametric Methodology for Document Degradation Model Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Printing, photocopying, and scanning processes degrade the image quality of a document. Statistical models of these degradation processes are crucial for document image understanding research. Models allow us to predict system performance, conduct controlled experiments to study the breakdown points of the systems, create large multilingual data sets with groundtruth for training classifiers, design optimal noise removal algorithms, choose values

Tapas Kanungo; Robert M. Haralick; Henry S. Baird; Werner Stuetzle; David Madigan



Methodological problems in the generation of household waste statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment of national targets designed to bring about more sustainable waste management in many developed countries has not generally been accompanied by the creation of reliable information systems for policy formulation and monitoring. In the first part of this paper the factors that complicate the collection of reliable household waste statistics are examined from both applied and theoretical perspectives.

Robin Flowerdew



The use of regression methodology for the compromise of confidential information in statistical databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regression methodology based technique can be used to compromise confidentiality in a statistical database. This holds true even when the DBMS prevents application of regression methodology to the database. Existing inference controls, including cell restriction, perturbation, and table restriction approaches, are shown to be generally ineffective against this compromise technique. The effect of incomplete supplemental knowledge on the regression

Michael A. Palley; Jeffrey S. Simonoff



A methodology for cost-risk analysis in the statistical validation of simulation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is presented for constructing the relationships among model user's risk, model builder's risk, acceptable validity range, sample sizes, and cost of data collection when statistical hypothesis testing is used for validating a simulation model of a real, observable system. The use of the methodology is illustrated for the use of Hotelling's two-sample T 2 test in testing the

Osman Balci; Robert G. Sargent



Statistical methodological issues in mapping historical schistosomiasis survey data.  


For schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases for which resources for control are still limited, model-based maps are needed for prioritising spatial targeting of control interventions and surveillance of control programmes. Bayesian geostatistical modelling has been widely and effectively used to generate smooth empirical risk maps. In this paper, we review important issues related to the modelling of schistosomiasis risk, including Bayesian computation of large datasets, heterogeneity of historical survey data, stationary and isotropy assumptions and novel approaches for Bayesian geostatistical variable selection. We provide an example of advanced Bayesian geostatistical variable selection based on historical prevalence data of Schistosoma mansoni in Côte d'Ivoire. We include a "parameter expanded normal mixture of inverse-gamma" prior for the regression coefficients, which in turn allows selection of blocks of covariates, particularly categorical variables. The implemented Bayesian geostatistical variable selection provided a rigorous approach for the selection of predictors within a Bayesian geostatistical framework, identified the most important predictors of S. mansoni infection risk and led to a more parsimonious model compared to traditional selection approaches that ignore the spatial structure in the data. In conclusion, statistical advances in Bayesian geostatistical modelling offer unique opportunities to account for important inherent characteristics of the Schistosoma infection, and hence Bayesian geostatistical models can guide the spatial targeting of control interventions. PMID:23648217

Chammartin, Frédérique; Hürlimann, Eveline; Raso, Giovanna; N'goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope



Automatic brain tumor detection in MRI: methodology and statistical validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated brain tumor segmentation and detection are immensely important in medical diagnostics because it provides information associated to anatomical structures as well as potential abnormal tissue necessary to delineate appropriate surgical planning. In this work, we propose a novel automated brain tumor segmentation technique based on multiresolution texture information that combines fractal Brownian motion (fBm) and wavelet multiresolution analysis. Our wavelet-fractal technique combines the excellent multiresolution localization property of wavelets to texture extraction of fractal. We prove the efficacy of our technique by successfully segmenting pediatric brain MR images (MRIs) from St. Jude Children"s Research Hospital. We use self-organizing map (SOM) as our clustering tool wherein we exploit both pixel intensity and multiresolution texture features to obtain segmented tumor. Our test results show that our technique successfully segments abnormal brain tissues in a set of T1 images. In the next step, we design a classifier using Feed-Forward (FF) neural network to statistically validate the presence of tumor in MRI using both the multiresolution texture and the pixel intensity features. We estimate the corresponding receiver operating curve (ROC) based on the findings of true positive fractions and false positive fractions estimated from our classifier at different threshold values. An ROC, which can be considered as a gold standard to prove the competence of a classifier, is obtained to ascertain the sensitivity and specificity of our classifier. We observe that at threshold 0.4 we achieve true positive value of 1.0 (100%) sacrificing only 0.16 (16%) false positive value for the set of 50 T1 MRI analyzed in this experiment.

Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Islam, Mohammad A.; Shaik, Jahangheer; Parra, Carlos; Ogg, Robert



Forensic DNA and bioinformatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of forensic science is increasingly based on biomolecular data and many European countries are establishing forensic databases to store DNA profiles of crime scenes of known offenders and apply DNA testing. The field is boosted by statistical and technological advances such as DNA microarray sequencing, TFT biosensors, machine learning algorithms, in particular Bayesian networks, which provide an effective

Lucia Bianchi; Pietro Liò



Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)|

Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.



Forensic Psychology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction to forensic psychology; Psychological structure of the administration of justice; The methods of forensic psychology; Psychological fundamentals of preliminary investigation; Psychological fundamentals of court proceedings; Psycholo...

A. V. Dulov



Forensic webwatch: Forensic computing.  


With the rapid and continuous development of information technology, policing faces new challenges. As computer equipments are becoming cheaper and the internet more readily available, computer crime and criminal exploitation is on the increase. Investigating such crimes requires identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of digital evidence, the key elements of forensic computing. This is helped by the fact that Locard's principle is applicable to this branch of science as much as in other areas of forensic science. This webwatch considers the ever evolving area of Forensic Computing. PMID:15763691

Bouhaidar, R



Artificial neural networks as an alternative to the traditional statistical methodology in plant research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we compared the unique artificial neural networks (ANNs) technology with the usual statistical analysis to establish its utility as an alternative methodology in plant research. For this purpose, we selected a simple in vitro proliferation experiment with the aim of evaluating the effects of light intensity and sucrose concentration on the success of the explant proliferation and

J. Gago; L. Martínez-Núñez; M. Landín; P. P. Gallego



Forming a Discipline: Applied Linguists' Literacy in Research Methodology and Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey responses of 121 professionals in applied linguistics indicated a range of knowledge of the concepts and procedures associated with empirical research. Respondents also showed differing attitudes about the usefulness of statistics and techniques in research methodology and the need to be informed about such procedures. (Author/CB)

Lazaraton, Anne; And Others



Statistical Test of the Rule Assessment Methodology by Latent Class Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem of Siegler's (1981) rule assessment methodology is that the assignment of subjects to rules takes place by an arbitrary criterion. This problem can be solved by latent class analysis by which we can test statistically how many rules are needed to fit the data and which these rules are. Two data sets of the balance scale test are

Brenda R. J. Jansen



Criminal computer forensics management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research paper addresses the methodology and approaches to managing criminal computer forensic investigations in a law enforcement environment with management controls, operational controls, and technical controls. Management controls cover policy and standard operating procedures (SOP's), methodology, and guidance. Operational controls cover SOP requirements, seizing evidence, evidence handling, best practices, and education, training and awareness. Technical controls cover acquisition and

Ray Yeager



Forensic DNA testing.  


Forensic DNA testing has a number of applications, including parentage testing, identifying human remains from natural or man-made disasters or terrorist attacks, and solving crimes. This article provides background information followed by an overview of the process of forensic DNA testing, including sample collection, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, short tandem repeat (STR) allele separation and sizing, typing and profile interpretation, statistical analysis, and quality assurance. The article concludes with discussions of possible problems with the data and other forensic DNA testing techniques. PMID:22135660

Butler, John M




Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of underground construction, forensic engineering is taken to be the application of engineering principles and methodologies to determine the cause of a performance deficiency, often a collapse, in an excavation, and the reporting of the findings, usually in the form of an expert opinion within the legal system. The procedures that may be used in forensic geotechnical



A methodology to compute fission prompt neutron multiplicity by statistical decay of fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology to compute fission prompt neutron and ? multiplicities for neutron-induced fission reactions is presented in this article. The basic tool of this procedure is the TALYS code, which follows the statistical decay of all fission fragments by using neutron-? emission competition. The neutron multiplicity probability distribution P(v) as well as the average prompt neutron energy are also computed. We present some hypothesis concerning Total Kinetic Energy distribution and the partitioning energy of the Total Excitation Energy.

Perez-Martin, S.; Hilaire, S.; Bauge, E.



Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)|

Cobb, P. G. W.



When is Digital Evidence Forensically Sound?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensically sound” is a term used extensively in the digital forensics community to qualify and, in some cases, to justify\\u000a the use of a particular forensic technology or methodology. Indeed, many practitioners use the term when describing the capabilities\\u000a of a particular piece of software or when describing a particular forensic analysis approach. Such a wide application of the\\u000a term

Rodney Mckemmish



Forensic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic chemistry” is a broad term that, if taken literally, would encompass most of the functions within a crime laboratory.\\u000a Techniques used in forensic chemistry are also used by the toxicology and trace analysis sections. However, forensic chemistry\\u000a generally refers to controlled substance or drug analysis.

Donnell Christian


Forensic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is

Suzanne Bell



CPR methodology with new steady-state criterion and more accurate statistical treatment of channel bow  

SciTech Connect

An overview is given of existing CPR design criteria and the methods used in BWR reload analysis to evaluate the impact of channel bow on CPR margins. Potential weaknesses in today's methodologies are discussed. Westinghouse in collaboration with KKL and Axpo - operator and owner of the Leibstadt NPP - has developed an optimized CPR methodology based on a new criterion to protect against dryout during normal operation and with a more rigorous treatment of channel bow. The new steady-state criterion is expressed in terms of an upper limit of 0.01 for the dryout failure probability per year. This is considered a meaningful and appropriate criterion that can be directly related to the probabilistic criteria set-up for the analyses of Anticipated Operation Occurrences (AOOs) and accidents. In the Monte Carlo approach a statistical modeling of channel bow and an accurate evaluation of CPR response functions allow the associated CPR penalties to be included directly in the plant SLMCPR and OLMCPR in a best-estimate manner. In this way, the treatment of channel bow is equivalent to all other uncertainties affecting CPR. Emphasis is put on quantifying the statistical distribution of channel bow throughout the core using measurement data. The optimized CPR methodology has been implemented in the Westinghouse Monte Carlo code, McSLAP. The methodology improves the quality of dryout safety assessments by supplying more valuable information and better control of conservatisms in establishing operational limits for CPR. The methodology is demonstrated with application examples from the introduction at KKL. (authors)

Baumgartner, S. [Axpo AG, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Bieli, R. [Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt AG, CH-5325 Leibstadt (Switzerland); Bergmann, U. C. [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, SE-721 63 Vaesteraas (Sweden)



Forensic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

Bell, Suzanne



A PIV Methodology for High-Resolution Measurement of Flow Statistics  

SciTech Connect

Particle-image velocimetry (PIV) is a flow-diagnostic technique that provides velocity fields from a comparison of images of particulate-laden flow. We have developed a PIV processing methodology that extracts measurements of the particle-displacement histogram from a flow video or ensemble of flow-image pairs. Single-pixel measurement of mean velocity can be obtained from an ensemble of {Omicron}10{sup 3} images. Measurements of higher-order moments of the velocity histogram require spatial averaging (i.e., lower spatial resolution), larger ensembles of images, or a combination of the two. We present single-pixel-resolution PIV measurements of a steady microflow and high-resolution measurements of the velocity histogram of a stationary turbulent flow. This methodology has applications in quantifying velocity statistics in other stochastic flows, e.g., bulk and near-wall boiling.

Eric B. Cummings; Robert W. Schefer; Jacob N. Chung



New advances in methodology for statistical tests useful in geostatistical studies  

SciTech Connect

Methodology for statistical procedures to perform tests of hypothesis pertaining to various aspects of geostatistical investigations has been slow in developing. The correlated nature of the data precludes most classical tests and makes the design of new tests difficult. Recent studies have led to modifications of the classical t test which allow for the intercorrelation. In addition, results for certain nonparametric tests have been obtained. The conclusions of these studies provide a variety of new tools for the geostatistician in deciding questions on significant differences and magnitudes.

Borgman, L.E.



Artificial neural networks as an alternative to the traditional statistical methodology in plant research.  


In this work, we compared the unique artificial neural networks (ANNs) technology with the usual statistical analysis to establish its utility as an alternative methodology in plant research. For this purpose, we selected a simple in vitro proliferation experiment with the aim of evaluating the effects of light intensity and sucrose concentration on the success of the explant proliferation and finally, of optimizing the process taking into account any influencing factors. After data analysis, the traditional statistical procedure and ANNs technology both indicated that low light treatments and high sucrose concentrations are required for the highest kiwifruit microshoot proliferation under experimental conditions. However, this particular ANNs software is able to model and optimize the process to estimate the best conditions and does not need an extremely specialized background. The potential of the ANNs approach for analyzing plant biology processes, in this case, plant tissue culture data, is discussed. PMID:19716625

Gago, J; Martínez-Núñez, L; Landín, M; Gallego, P P



New perspectives in forensic anthropology.  


A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field. PMID:19003882

Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A



Forensic Anthropology and Forensic Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents a critical analysis of forensic anthropology. An evaluation of the conception of forensic anthropology\\u000a across European and American countries is attempted. Furthermore, the authors set out to identify the growing fields in which\\u000a the anthropologist is involved, alone or together with forensic pathologists.\\u000a \\u000a Certification, training requirements, and teaching are rather heterogeneous across the several countries analyzed. Yet,

Eugénia Cunha; Cristina Cattaneo


Some Methodological and Statistical Issues in the Study of Change Processes in Psychotherapy  

PubMed Central

As the number of psychotherapies with demonstrated efficacy accumulates, an important task is to identify principles and processes of change. This information can guide treatment refinement, integration, and future development. However, the standard randomized control trial (RCT) design can limit the questions that can be asked and the statistical analyses that can be conducted. We discuss the importance of examining the shape of change, in addition to identifying mediators and moderators of change. We suggest methodological considerations for longitudinal data collection that can improve the kinds of therapy process questions that can be examined. We also review some data analytic approaches that are being used in other areas of psychology that have the potential to capture the complexity and dynamics of change in psychotherapy.

Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Hayes, Adele M.; Feldman, Greg C.



Computer Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence gathered from computers is increasingly important in criminal investigations, and forensic examination of computer and other digital data has become an indispensable tool for law enforcement, corporate security, and intelligence gathering. This columns presents an overview of the processes and problems related to computer forensics.

William H. Allen



Forensic Phonetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines, with skepticism, the history and development of forensic phonetics in response to the publication of "Forensic Phonetics" by J. Baldwin and P. French (1990). Three issues are specifically explored: (1) whether voices are unique, (2) whether a purely auditory approach is adequate, and (3) whether legally sufficient conclusions about…

Nolan, Francis



Forensic Web Watch Forensic Podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search for forensic podiatry sites on the Internet revealed thousands of ‘hits’, of which very few were of any educational merit. Following extensive sifting of these addresses, it was found that only a few of the associations for human identification included any information on forensic podiatry methods. The search was also made difficult by many websites failing to make

T Brown; G. N Rutty



Forensic Tools in an Academic Support Role  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The use of digital technology within the Academic environment has brought about significantchanges in the manner,in which courses are taught and examined. Complications are bound to arise that may benefit from the use of Digital Forensic methodologies,and tools. Digital Forensics is a growing discipline and is regarded as a young science especially when compared,with other established forensic sciences. This

Jock Forrester; Barry Irwin


Forensic Ballistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic ballistics is the application of ballistics for forensic purposes. The basis is formed by wound ballistics. Two main\\u000a mechanisms of injury are differentiated: the crush-mechanism resulting in the permanent cavity and the stretch-mechanism resulting\\u000a in the temporary cavity. The missile-tissue interactions such as yawing, deformation, fragmentation, and bone contact are\\u000a explained here and it is shown why the energy

Bernd Karger


Forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations,\\u000a in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine,\\u000a in road and work-place safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly\\u000a targeted

Olaf H. Drummer


A statistical comparison of protein and carbohydrate characterisation methodology applied on sewage sludge samples.  


Biochemical characterization of organic matter is becoming of key importance in wastewater treatment. The main objectives are to predict organic matter properties, such as granulation or flocculation, and hence treatment performance. Although standardized methods do exist for some organic molecules, such as volatile fatty acids or lipids, there are no standard methods to measure proteins and carbohydrates content, both biochemical families being the main components of sewage sludge. Consequently, the aim of the present work is to investigate the efficiency of several colorimetric methods to determine proteins and carbohydrates content as well as their compatibility with the sludge matrices. The different methods have been evaluated based on statistical criteria such as sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, rightness, and specificity using standard molecules such as Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), glucose, cellulose and a certified reference product. The Lowry and the Dubois methods have been shown to be the best compromise for the considered criteria after having been tested on sewage sludge samples obtained from different locations in a wastewater treatment plant. In average, the measured volatile fatty acids, lipids, proteins and carbohydrates contents represented 80 ± 7% (% volatile solids) of the organic matter. Proteins and carbohydrates represented in average 69 ± 3%. This study underlined that the choice of a relevant methodology is of great importance for organic matter measurement. PMID:23357791

Jimenez, Julie; Vedrenne, Fabien; Denis, Cécile; Mottet, Alexis; Déléris, Stephane; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Cacho Rivero, Jesús Andrés



Computer Forensics Today  

Microsoft Academic Search

When people hear the word “forensics,” it often generates a mental image of the movie series with Jack Klugman as a medical examiner named Quincy. The fact is that there are as many as 25 separate forensic disciplines. They run from forensic accounting to forensic medicine and forensic pathology. The word forensics literally means “a science that deals with the

Kelly J. Kuchta



Analysing forensic processes: Taking time into account  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of forensic psychology concerns sequences of behaviours or events. In this paper, we review some recent efforts to examine forensic issues as sequences, discuss some of the contemporary methodologies involved, and highlight some of the lessons that emerge from this research. Specifically, we show: (i) how research on public violence has benefited from studying incidents as patterns

Paul J. Taylor; Karen Jacques; Ellen Giebels; Mark Levine; Rachel Best; Jan Winter; Gina Rossi; Julia Fossi; Louise Falshaw



Investigating the implications of virtual forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer Forensic process consists of Preparation, Acquisition, Preservation, Examination and Analysis, and Reporting. With the booming of the virtualization technology and the popularity of virtual machines for end users to deal with daily works, the probability of using virtual machines for malicious purposes keeps increasing. In this paper we propose a methodology by using virtual forensics for malware analysis and

Harshit Sharma; Nitish Sabharwal



Forensic DNA-typing technologies: a review.  


Since the discovery of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling in 1985, forensic genetics has experienced a continuous technical revolution, both in the type of DNA markers used and in the methodologies or its detection. Highly informative and robust DNA-typing systems have been developed that have proven to be very effective in the individualization of biological material of human origin. DNA analysis has become the standard method in forensic genetics used by laboratories for the majority of forensic genetic expertise and especially in criminal forensic casework (stain analysis and hairs) and identification. PMID:15570096

Carracedo, Angel; Sánchez-Diz, Paula



Reporting characteristics of meta-analyses in orthodontics: methodological assessment and statistical recommendations.  


Ideally meta-analyses (MAs) should consolidate the characteristics of orthodontic research in order to produce an evidence-based answer. However severe flaws are frequently observed in most of them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the statistical methods, the methodology, and the quality characteristics of orthodontic MAs and to assess their reporting quality during the last years. Electronic databases were searched for MAs (with or without a proper systematic review) in the field of orthodontics, indexed up to 2011. The AMSTAR tool was used for quality assessment of the included articles. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test, one-way ANOVA, and generalized linear modelling. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to represent changes during the years in reporting of key items associated with quality. A total of 80 MAs with 1086 primary studies were included in this evaluation. Using the AMSTAR tool, 25 (27.3%) of the MAs were found to be of low quality, 37 (46.3%) of medium quality, and 18 (22.5%) of high quality. Specific characteristics like explicit protocol definition, extensive searches, and quality assessment of included trials were associated with a higher AMSTAR score. Model selection and dealing with heterogeneity or publication bias were often problematic in the identified reviews. The number of published orthodontic MAs is constantly increasing, while their overall quality is considered to range from low to medium. Although the number of MAs of medium and high level seems lately to rise, several other aspects need improvement to increase their overall quality. PMID:23493385

Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Papadopoulos, Moschos A; Athanasiou, Athanasios E



Review of the contemporary literature on how children report sexual abuse to others: Findings, methodological issues, and implications for forensic interviewers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods used during forensic interviews with children are driven by beliefs about how children recall and report child sexual abuse (CSA) to others. Summit (1983) proposed a theory (Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome) contending that, due to the specific traumatic characteristics of CSA, children will often delay disclosing abuse or altogether fail to disclose during childhood, deny abuse when asked,

Kamala London; Maggie Bruck; Daniel B. Wright; Stephen J. Ceci



Forensic archaeology and anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can\\u000a provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic\\u000a archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical\\u000a organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a

Kate Oakley



Chemical profiling of different hashish seizures by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and statistical methodology: A case report.  


Limited information is available regarding the methodology required to characterize hashish seizures for assessing the presence or the absence of a chemical link between two seizures. This casework report presents the methodology applied for assessing that two different police seizures were coming from the same block before this latter one was split. The chemical signature was extracted using GC-MS analysis and the implemented methodology consists in a study of intra- and inter-variability distributions based on the measurement of the chemical profiles similarity using a number of hashish seizures and the calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficient. Different statistical scenarios (i.e., a combination of data pretreatment techniques and selection of target compounds) were tested to find the most discriminating one. Seven compounds showing high discrimination capabilities were selected on which a specific statistical data pretreatment was applied. Based on the results, the statistical model built for comparing the hashish seizures leads to low error rates. Therefore, the implemented methodology is suitable for the chemical profiling of hashish seizures. PMID:24008198

Cadola, Liv; Broséus, Julian; Esseiva, Pierre



Evaluation of Statistical Methodologies Used in U. S. Army Ordnance and Explosive Work  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center (Huntsville, AL) to evaluate the mathematical basis of existing software tools used to assist the Army with the characterization of sites potentially contaminated with unexploded ordnance (UXO). These software tools are collectively known as SiteStats/GridStats. The first purpose of the software is to guide sampling of underground anomalies to estimate a site's UXO density. The second purpose is to delineate areas of homogeneous UXO density that can be used in the formulation of response actions. It was found that SiteStats/GridStats does adequately guide the sampling so that the UXO density estimator for a sector is unbiased. However, the software's techniques for delineation of homogeneous areas perform less well than visual inspection, which is frequently used to override the software in the overall sectorization methodology. The main problems with the software lie in the criteria used to detect nonhomogeneity and those used to recommend the number of homogeneous subareas. SiteStats/GridStats is not a decision-making tool in the classical sense. Although it does provide information to decision makers, it does not require a decision based on that information. SiteStats/GridStats provides information that is supplemented by visual inspections, land-use plans, and risk estimates prior to making any decisions. Although the sector UXO density estimator is unbiased regardless of UXO density variation within a sector, its variability increases with increased sector density variation. For this reason, the current practice of visual inspection of individual sampled grid densities (as provided by Site-Stats/GridStats) is necessary to ensure approximate homogeneity, particularly at sites with medium to high UXO density. Together with Site-Stats/GridStats override capabilities, this provides a sufficient mechanism for homogeneous sectorization and thus yields representative UXO density estimates. Objections raised by various parties to the use of a numerical ''discriminator'' in SiteStats/GridStats were likely because of the fact that the concerned statistical technique is customarily applied for a different purpose and because of poor documentation. The ''discriminator'', in Site-Stats/GridStats is a ''tuning parameter'' for the sampling process, and it affects the precision of the grid density estimates through changes in required sample size. It is recommended that sector characterization in terms of a map showing contour lines of constant UXO density with an expressed uncertainty or confidence level is a better basis for remediation decisions than a sector UXO density point estimate. A number of spatial density estimation techniques could be adapted to the UXO density estimation problem.

Ostrouchov, G



Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field.\\u000a This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both\\u000a multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying\\u000a observer model that defines

Rainer Böhme; Felix C. Freiling; Thomas Gloe; Matthias Kirchner



Forensic Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Brigham, J., & Grisso, T. (2003). Forensic Psychology. In D.K. Friedheim & I.B. Weiner (eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychology. Vol. 1: The history of psychology, (pp. 391-411). New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0471383201, 9780471383208.\\u000aLimited preview available via Google Books.

John C. Brigham; Thomas Grisso



Forensic microbiology.  


The field of forensic microbiology is fairly new and still evolving. With a threat of bioterror and biocrime, the rapid identification and subtyping of infectious agents is of upmost importance. Microbial genetic analysis is a valuable tool in this arena. The cost to sequence a microbial genome has fallen dramatically in recent years making this method more widely available. Surveillance and vigilance are important as is further research. The United States Department of Homeland Security established the Bioforensics Analysis Center to become the foremost U.S. biodefense research institution involved with bioforensics. Many countries are better prepared for biologic events than ever before, but more work is needed. Most medical laboratory scientists are not familiar with forensic principles or testifying in court. Demonstrating chain of custody and quality assurance are critical so that test results will be admissible in a court of law. The Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics has published guidelines for forensic microbiology laboratories. Incorporating these guidelines help to provide test results that are useful in legal proceedings. If a laboratory scientist suspects bioterror or biocrime, or other legal case, law enforcement agents must be notified and diagnostic samples preserved. Additional sample testing might be necessary in court cases. PMID:22693782

Lehman, Donald C



Visual culture in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary Western culture increasingly uses visual images as a method of communicating ideas, meaning and concepts. The reliance on visual information has dramatically increased with the evolution of newer imaging technologies. Images play a critical role within the media, advertising, popular culture, personal memories, medical science and forensic science. This paper will discuss relationships between methodologies used in visual culture

Glenn Porter



Forensic science – A true science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the US jurisprudence of the 1993 Daubert hearing requires judges to question not only the methodology behind, but also the principles governing, a body of knowledge to qualify it as scientific, can forensic science, based on Locard's and Kirk's Principles, pretend to this higher status in the courtroom? Moving away from the disputable American legal debate, this historical and

Frank Crispino; Olivier Ribaux; Max Houck; Pierre Margot




EPA Science Inventory

This study will provide a general methodology for integrating threshold information from multiple species ecological metrics, allow for prediction of changes of alternative stable states, and provide a risk assessment tool that can be applied to adaptive management. The integr...


A review of current statistical methodologies for in-storage sampling and surveillance in the grains industry.  


Effective, statistically robust sampling and surveillance strategies form an integral component of large agricultural industries such as the grains industry. Intensive in-storage sampling is essential for pest detection, integrated pest management (IPM), to determine grain quality and to satisfy importing nation's biosecurity concerns, while surveillance over broad geographic regions ensures that biosecurity risks can be excluded, monitored, eradicated or contained within an area. In the grains industry, a number of qualitative and quantitative methodologies for surveillance and in-storage sampling have been considered. Primarily, research has focussed on developing statistical methodologies for in-storage sampling strategies concentrating on detection of pest insects within a grain bulk; however, the need for effective and statistically defensible surveillance strategies has also been recognised. Interestingly, although surveillance and in-storage sampling have typically been considered independently, many techniques and concepts are common between the two fields of research. This review aims to consider the development of statistically based in-storage sampling and surveillance strategies and to identify methods that may be useful for both surveillance and in-storage sampling. We discuss the utility of new quantitative and qualitative approaches, such as Bayesian statistics, fault trees and more traditional probabilistic methods and show how these methods may be used in both surveillance and in-storage sampling systems. PMID:23009886

Elmouttie, D; Hammond, N E B; Hamilton, G



Countering Hostile Forensic Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital forensic investigations can be subverted by hostile forensic techniques and tools. This paper examines various hostile forensic techniques, including the exploitation of vulnerabilities in standard forensic procedures and denial of service attacks on forensic tools during imaging and analysis. Several techniques for concealing evidence within file systems and external to file systems are highlighted. In addition, strategies for countering hostile forensic techniques and tools are discussed.

Piper, Scott; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet


The Epistemology of Mathematical and Statistical Modeling: A Quiet Methodological Revolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quiet methodological revolution, a modeling revolution, has occurred over the past several decades, almost without discussion. In contrast, the 20th century ended with contentious argument over the utility of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). The NHST controversy may have been at least partially irrelevant, because in certain ways the…

Rodgers, Joseph Lee



The Epistemology of Mathematical and Statistical Modeling: A Quiet Methodological Revolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A quiet methodological revolution, a modeling revolution, has occurred over the past several decades, almost without discussion. In contrast, the 20th century ended with contentious argument over the utility of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). The NHST controversy may have been at least partially irrelevant, because in certain ways…

Rodgers, Joseph Lee



Forensic Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Technology is rapidly changing the speed and manner in which people interact with each other and with the world. As technology\\u000a helps criminals to operate more easily and quickly across borders, so law enforcement capability must continuously improve\\u000a to keep one step ahead. Computer forensics has become a specialized and accepted investigative technique with its own tools\\u000a and legal precedents

Xiang Li; Jennifer Seberry



Xbox Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsoft's Xbox game console is little more than a low-end personal computer; with a small amount of effort it can be modified to run additional operating systems, enabling it to store gigabytes worth of non-game-related files in addition to allowing it to run various computer services. Little has been published, however, on the proper forensic procedures to determine whether an

Paul K. Burke; Philip Craiger



Forensic Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic assessment has grown and advanced significantly during the last twenty years in particular. The present chapter has\\u000a reviewed and critically analyzed conceptual and empirical developments, as well as the addition of a variety of FAIs and FRIs\\u000a that are relevant to the legal decision-making process. Despite the important advances that we have described in this chapter,\\u000a however, there is

Kirk Heilbrun; Richard Rogers; Randy K. Otto


Deciphering the complex: Methodological overview of statistical models to derive OMICS-based biomarkers.  


Recent technological advances in molecular biology have given rise to numerous large-scale datasets whose analysis imposes serious methodological challenges mainly relating to the size and complex structure of the data. Considerable experience in analyzing such data has been gained over the past decade, mainly in genetics, from the Genome-Wide Association Study era, and more recently in transcriptomics and metabolomics. Building upon the corresponding literature, we provide here a nontechnical overview of well-established methods used to analyze OMICS data within three main types of regression-based approaches: univariate models including multiple testing correction strategies, dimension reduction techniques, and variable selection models. Our methodological description focuses on methods for which ready-to-use implementations are available. We describe the main underlying assumptions, the main features, and advantages and limitations of each of the models. This descriptive summary constitutes a useful tool for driving methodological choices while analyzing OMICS data, especially in environmental epidemiology, where the emergence of the exposome concept clearly calls for unified methods to analyze marginally and jointly complex exposure and OMICS datasets. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 54:542-557, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23918146

Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Campanella, Gianluca; Jombart, Thibaut; Bottolo, Leonardo; Portengen, Lutzen; Vineis, Paolo; Liquet, Benoit; Vermeulen, Roel C H



Forensic Inference from DNA Fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discovery of hypervariable regions of the human genome provides scientists with an important new tool for forensic inference. The DNA data obtained from these hypervariable regions have been dubbed DNA fingerprints. Despite the potential power of DNA fingerprints, their use has been fraught with controversy, deriving in part from a lack of statistical methods to summarize the information

B. Devlin; Neil Risch; Kathryn Roeder



Methodological Artifacts in Moderated Multiple Regression and Their Effects on Statistical Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to examine the degree to which the statistical power of moderated multiple regression (MMR) to detect the effects of a dichotomous moderator variable was affected by the main and interactive effects of (a) predictor variable range restriction, (b) total sample size, (c) sample sizes for 2 moderator variable-based subgroups, (d) predictor variable intercorrelation, and (e)

Herman Aguinis; Eugene F Stone-Romero



The Incremental Validity of Psychological Testing and Assessment: Conceptual, Methodological, and Statistical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been insufficient effort in most areas of applied psychology to evaluate incremental validity. To further this kind of validity research, the authors examined applicable research designs, including those to assess the incremental validity of test instruments, of test-informed clinical inferences, and of newly developed measures. The authors also considered key statistical and measurement issues that can influence incremental

John Hunsley; Gregory J. Meyer



Forensic entomology: a template for forensic acarology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insects are used in a variety of ways in forensic science and the developing area of forensic acarology may have a similar\\u000a range of potential. This short account summarises the main ways in which entomology currently contributes to forensic science\\u000a and discusses to what extent acarology might also contribute in these areas.

Bryan Turner



Forensic entomology: a template for forensic acarology?  


Insects are used in a variety of ways in forensic science and the developing area of forensic acarology may have a similar range of potential. This short account summarises the main ways in which entomology currently contributes to forensic science and discusses to what extent acarology might also contribute in these areas. PMID:19548095

Turner, Bryan



Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics—microbial forensics—has been created, which is focused

Bruce Budowle; Randall Murch; Ranajit Chakraborty



Bayesian Integrated Microbial Forensics  

SciTech Connect

In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax letters, researchers have been exploring ways to predict the production environment of unknown source microorganisms. Different mass spectral techniques are being developed to characterize components of a microbe’s culture medium including water, carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions added, and the presence of agar. Individually, each technique has the potential to identify one or two ingredients in a culture medium recipe. However, by integrating data from multiple mass spectral techniques, a more complete characterization is possible. We present a Bayesian statistical approach to integrated microbial forensics and illustrate its application on spores grown in different culture media.

Jarman, Kristin H.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wunschel, David S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.



Statistical Analysis of Metal Chelating Activity of Centella asiatica and Erythroxylum cuneatum Using Response Surface Methodology.  


The purpose of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the extraction parameters and the metal chelating activity of Centella asiatica (CA) and Erythroxylum cuneatum (EC). The response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters of methanolic extract of CA and EC with respect to the metal chelating activity. For CA, Run 17 gave optimum chelating activity with IC50 = 0.93?mg/mL at an extraction temperature of 25°C, speed of agitation at 200?rpm, ratio of plant material to solvent at 1?g?:?45?mL and extraction time at 1.5 hour. As for EC, Run 13 with 60°C, 200?rpm, 1?g?:?35?mL and 1 hour had metal chelating activity at IC50 = 0.3817?mg/mL. Both optimized extracts were further partitioned using a solvent system to evaluate the fraction responsible for the chelating activity of the plants. The hexane fraction of CA showed potential activity with chelating activity at IC50 = 0.090 and the ethyl acetate fraction of EC had IC50 = 0.120?mg/mL. The study showed that the response surface methodology helped to reduce the extraction time, temperature and agitation and subsequently improve the chelating activity of the plants in comparison to the conventional method. PMID:23533781

Mohd Salim, R J; Adenan, M I; Amid, A; Jauri, M H; Sued, A S



A statistical methodology for analyzing cooccurrence data from a large sample  

PubMed Central

Determining important associations among items in a large database is challenging due to multiple simultaneous hypotheses and the ability to select weak associations that are statistically but not clinically significant. The simple application of the ?2 test among all possible pairs of items results in mostly inappropriate associations surpassing the traditional (?=.05, ?2 =3.94) threshold. One can choose a stricter threshold to find stronger associations, but the choice may be arbitrary. We combined the volume test of Diaconis and Efron with a p value plot to select a more rigorous and less arbitrary threshold. The volume test adjusts the p value of the ?2 statistic. A plot of adjusted p values (1-p versus Np), where Np is the number of test statistics with a p value greater than p, should be linear if there are no true associations. The point where the plot deviates from a line can be used as a threshold. We used linear regression to select the threshold in a reproducible fashion. In one experiment, we found that the method selected a threshold similar to that previously obtained by manually reviewing associations.

Cao, Hui; Hripcsak, George; Markatou, Marianthi



Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*  

PubMed Central

This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice.

Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.



Methodologic and statistical approaches to studying human fertility and environmental exposure.  

PubMed Central

Although there has been growing concern about the effects of environmental exposures on human fertility, standard epidemiologic study designs may not collect sufficient data to identify subtle effects while properly adjusting for confounding. In particular, results from conventional time to pregnancy studies can be driven by the many sources of bias inherent in these studies. By prospectively collecting detailed records of menstrual bleeding, occurrences of intercourse, and a marker of ovulation day in each menstrual cycle, precise information on exposure effects can be obtained, adjusting for many of the primary sources of bias. This article provides an overview of the different types of study designs, focusing on the data required, the practical advantages and disadvantages of each design, and the statistical methods required to take full advantage of the available data. We conclude that detailed prospective studies allowing inferences on day-specific probabilities of conception should be considered as the gold standard for studying the effects of environmental exposures on fertility.

Tingen, Candace; Stanford, Joseph B; Dunson, David B



Methodological Development of the Conditional Sampling Method. Part I: Sensitivity to Statistical and Technical Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA), method based on the conditional sampling concept, has received increasing attention over the past few years as it can be used to measure surface fluxes of a wide variety of trace gases for which fast response analysers are not available. In the REA method, a turbulent flux is simply expressed as the product of the standard deviation of vertical wind velocity, the difference between mean scalar concentration in the updrafts and downdrafts and an empirical coefficient, (about 0.63 as based on simulations with a Gaussian distribution, and 0.58 as derived from experimental data). A simulation technique is developed here to evaluate the performance of a ground-based REA system. This analysis uses generated series whose internal structure can be controlled to a large extent. They are stationary and their characteristics are similar to those of physical turbulence. In a first step the influence of some statistical characteristics of vertical velocity and scalar concentration series is investigated. The effect of the third- and fourth-order moments can explain to some degree the difference between calculated and measured values. The impact of a threshold on the vertical velocity is then considered, and its effect on is quantified. The influence of the time lag between and the effective scalar sampling, and the consequences of lowpass filtering of the signal are also investigated. The simulation technique presented in this study can be used to develop elaborate algorithms for near real-time conditional sampling, based on the statistical characteristics of the previous sample.

Fotiadi, A. K.; Lohou, F.; Druilhet, A.; et al.


Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special nuclear materials and with a description of several actual case studies conducted at Livermore.

Hutcheon, I. D.; Grant, P. M.; Moody, K. J.


Forensic analysis of hydraulic props in longwall workings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic mining engineering tackles the application of mining engineering principles and methodologies to determine the causes of deficient performance in a given excavation or support, elaborating conclusions in the shape of expert opinions.Study of real cases, as well as development of campaigns for in-mine measurement and instrumentation, constitutes an element of unquestionable interest for forensic engineers. For that reason, the

R. Juárez-Ferreras; C. González-Nicieza; A. Menéndez-Díaz; A. E. Álvarez-Vigil; M. I. Álvarez-Fernández



Nonintrusive Component Forensics of Visual Sensors Using Output Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid technology development and the widespread use of visual sensors have led to a number of new problems related to protecting intellectual property rights, handling patent infringements, authenticating acquisition sources, and identifying content manipulations. This paper introduces nonintrusive component forensics as a new methodology for the forensic analysis of visual sensing information, aiming to identify the algorithms and parameters employed

Ashwin Swaminathan; Min Wu; K. J. Ray Liu



Forensic identification of blood in the presence of contaminations using Raman microspectroscopy coupled with advanced statistics: effect of sand, dust, and soil.  


Body fluid traces recovered at crime scenes are among the most common and important types of forensic evidence. However, the ability to characterize a biological stain at a crime scene nondestructively has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we expand the Raman spectroscopic approach for the identification of dry traces of pure body fluids to address the problem of heterogeneous contamination, which can impair the performance of conventional methods. The concept of multidimensional Raman signatures was utilized for the identification of blood in dry traces contaminated with sand, dust, and soil. Multiple Raman spectra were acquired from the samples via automatic scanning, and the contribution of blood was evaluated through the fitting quality using spectroscopic signature components. The spatial mapping technique allowed for detection of "hot spots" dominated by blood contribution. The proposed method has great potential for blood identification in highly contaminated samples. PMID:23898809

Sikirzhytskaya, Aliaksandra; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; McLaughlin, Gregory; Lednev, Igor K



Integrating Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)|

Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.



Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge.  


Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics--microbial forensics--has been created, which is focused on characterization of evidence from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, hoax, or an inadvertent release. Forensic microbiological investigations are essentially the same as any other forensic investigation regarding processing. They involve crime scene(s) investigation, chain of custody practices, evidence collection, handling and preservation, evidence shipping, analysis of evidence, interpretation of results, and court presentation. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidence, the forensic investigation will attempt to determine the etiology and identity of the causal agent, often in a similar fashion as in an epidemiologic investigation. However, for attribution, higher-resolution characterization is needed. The tools for attribution include genetic- and nongenetic-based assays and informatics to attempt to determine the unique source of a sample or at least eliminate some sources. In addition, chemical and physical assays may help determine the process used to prepare, store, or disseminate the bioweapon. An effective microbial forensics program will require development and/or validation of all aspects of the forensic investigative process, from sample collection to interpretation of results. Quality assurance (QA) and QC practices, comparable to those used by the forensic DNA science community, are being implemented. Lastly, partnerships with other laboratories will be requisite, because many of the necessary capabilities for analysis will not reside in the traditional forensic laboratory. PMID:15821943

Budowle, Bruce; Murch, Randall; Chakraborty, Ranajit



Computer Forensics in Forensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dierent users apply computer forensic systems, models, and terminology in very dierent ways. They often make incompatible assumptions and reach dierent conclusions about the validity and accuracy of the methods they use to log, audit, and present forensic data. In fact, it can be hard to say who, if anyone is right. We present several forensic systems and discuss situations

Sean Peisert; Matt Bishop; Keith Marzullo



Computer forensics in forensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different users apply computer forensic systems, models, and terminology in very different ways. They often make incompatible assumptions and reach different conclusions about the validity and accuracy of the methods they use to log, audit, and present forensic data. In fact, it can be hard to say who, if anyone is right. We present several forensic systems and discuss situations

Sean Peisert; Matt Bishop; Keith Marzullo



Doctoral Training in Statistics, Measurement, and Methodology in Psychology: Replication and Extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) Survey of PhD Programs in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada, the authors documented the quantitative methodology curriculum (statistics, measurement, and research design) to examine the extent to which innovations in quantitative methodology have diffused into the training of PhDs in psychology. In all, 201 psychology PhD programs (86%) participated. This survey replicated and extended a

Leona S. Aiken; Stephen G. West; Roger E. Millsap



Temporal Forensics and Anti-Forensics for Motion Compensated Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the ease with which digital information can be altered, many digital forensic techniques have been developed to authenticate multimedia content. Similarly, a number of anti-forensic operations have recently been designed to make digital forgeries undetectable by forensic techniques. However, like the digital manipulations they are designed to hide, many anti-forensic operations leave behind their own forensically detectable traces.

Matthew C. Stamm; W. Sabrina Lin; K. J. Ray Liu



A physically based statistical methodology for surface soil moisture retrieval in the Tibet Plateau using microwave vegetation indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for surface soil moisture measurement was developedMVIs are a function of vegetation water content or transmissivityThe methodology was shown to be effective for areas with sparse vegetation

T. J. Zhao; L. X. Zhang; J. C. Shi; L. M. Jiang



Digital Image Forensics via Intrinsic Fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital imaging has experienced tremendous growth in recent decades, and digital camera images have been used in a growing number of applications. With such increasing popularity and the availability of low-cost image editing software, the integrity of digital image content can no longer be taken for granted. This paper introduces a new methodology for forensic analysis of digital camera images.

Ashwin Swaminathan; Min Wu; K. J. Ray Liu



Nuclear forensic investigations: Two case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the methodology and analytical methods used in nuclear forensic investigations. Two case studies are taken as examples to illustrate this. These examples represent typical cases that have been analysed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) since last 10 years, i.e. the beginning of the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Results of the various analytical techniques are

M. Wallenius; K. Mayer; I. Ray



The DSM-5 and forensic psychiatry.  


In his first Law and Psychiatry column for the Journal of Psychiatric Practice, the author discusses potential forensic consequences of the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). While the transition to DSM-5 may prove challenging for both patients and clinicians, the scrutiny and adversarial process associated with forensic psychiatric practice will entail a unique set of challenges. The philosophy of innovation behind the DSM-5, and the attendant changes, could lead to some unintended consequences, particularly in medicolegal settings. This column highlights some of the major changes in DSM-5 and explores points of particular concern for forensic psychiatric practice, such as the move toward a non-multiaxial diagnostic system and dimensional severity ratings being superimposed on certain categorical diagnoses. The innovative changes featured in DSM-5, and the controversies surrounding some of them, could yield an environment of increased cynicism in courts of law, with renewed skepticism regarding mental health diagnoses and the forensic psychiatrists who testify about them. Fortunately, the best method for forensic psychiatric practice in this environment of change is to continue to adhere to a meticulous and transparent medicolegal process, with recognition that changes in the diagnostic manual will seldom alter essential medicolegal conclusions. Forensic psychiatrists may enhance their credibility and the strength of the opinions they offer by proactively illustrating how nuances in diagnosis do not change legally defined constructs such as insanity or incompetence. PMID:23653081

Wortzel, Hal S



Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick



Statistical analyses of 14 short tandem repeat loci in Brazilian populations from Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul states for forensic and identity testing purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the statistical features of a database for two Brazilian populations (one from the Rio de Janeiro State (southeast region), and one from the Mato Grosso do Sul State (central western region) using fourteen short tandem repeat loci (STR).

D. A. Silva; C. A. Crouse; R. Chakraborty; A. C. S. Góes; E. F. Carvalho



A hybrid Land Cover Dataset for Russia: a new methodology for merging statistics, remote sensing and in-situ information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a critical need for accurate land cover information for resource assessment, biophysical modeling, greenhouse gas studies, and for estimating possible terrestrial responses and feedbacks to climate change. However, practically all existing land cover datasets have quite a high level of uncertainty and suffer from a lack of important details that does not allow for relevant parameterization, e.g., data derived from different forest inventories. The objective of this study is to develop a methodology in order to create a hybrid land cover dataset at the level which would satisfy requirements of the verified terrestrial biota full greenhouse gas account (Shvidenko et al., 2008) for large regions i.e. Russia. Such requirements necessitate a detailed quantification of land classes (e.g., for forests - dominant species, age, growing stock, net primary production, etc.) with additional information on uncertainties of the major biometric and ecological parameters in the range of 10-20% and a confidence interval of around 0.9. The approach taken here allows the integration of different datasets to explore synergies and in particular the merging and harmonization of land and forest inventories, ecological monitoring, remote sensing data and in-situ information. The following datasets have been integrated: Remote sensing: Global Land Cover 2000 (Fritz et al., 2003), Vegetation Continuous Fields (Hansen et al., 2002), Vegetation Fire (Sukhinin, 2007), Regional land cover (Schmullius et al., 2005); GIS: Soil 1:2.5 Mio (Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute, 1996), Administrative Regions 1:2.5 Mio, Vegetation 1:4 Mio, Bioclimatic Zones 1:4 Mio (Stolbovoi & McCallum, 2002), Forest Enterprises 1:2.5 Mio, Rivers/Lakes and Roads/Railways 1:1 Mio (IIASA's data base); Inventories and statistics: State Land Account (FARSC RF, 2006), State Forest Account - SFA (FFS RF, 2003), Disturbances in forests (FFS RF, 2006). The resulting hybrid land cover dataset at 1-km resolution comprises the following classes: Forest (each grid links to the SFA database, which contains 86,613 records); Agriculture (5 classes, parameterized by 89 administrative units); Wetlands (8 classes, parameterized by 83 zone/region units); Open Woodland, Burnt area; Shrub/grassland (50 classes, parameterized by 300 zone/region units); Water; Unproductive area. This study has demonstrated the ability to produce a highly detailed (both spatially and thematically) land cover dataset over Russia. Future efforts include further validation of the hybrid land cover dataset for Russia, and its use for assessment of the terrestrial biota full greenhouse gas budget across Russia. The methodology proposed in this study could be applied at the global level. Results of such an undertaking would however be highly dependent upon the quality of the available ground data. The implementation of the hybrid land cover dataset was undertaken in a way that it can be regularly updated based on new ground data and remote sensing products (ie. MODIS).

Schepaschenko, D.; McCallum, I.; Shvidenko, A.; Kraxner, F.; Fritz, S.



Forensic discrimination of photocopy and printer toners. III. Multivariate statistics applied to scanning electron microscopy and pyrolysis gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copy toner samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy with X-ray dispersive analysis (SEM–EDX) and pyrolysis gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (Py–GC\\/MS). Principal component and cluster analysis of SEM data for 166 copy toner samples established 13 statistically different subgroups, with the presence or absence of a ferrite base being a major division. When toners were compared for which both SEM and

William J. Egan; Randolph C. Galipo; Brian K. Kochanowski; Stephen L. Morgan; Edward G. Bartick; Mark L. Miller; Dennis C. Ward; Robert F. Mothershead



DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It…

Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.



Complexity in Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic Science is an end-to-end process beginning at the scene and finishing in court. There are many opportunities for quality failures along the way. To limit the focus to the validity and robustness of the actual tests does not support the contribution of forensic science to the criminal justice system and risks compromising it. A particularly critical aspect of the

Stan Brown; Sheila Willis



Flies as forensic indicators.  


Synanthropic flies, particularly calliphorids, are initiators of carrion decomposition and, as such, are the primary and most accurate forensic indicators of time of death. The relevant biology and forensic applications of the egg, larva, pupa, and young adult are discussed for various species, with emphasis on thermal history and age markers. PMID:1941921

Greenberg, B



Forensic geology exhumed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term ``forensic'' is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as ``pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and

Joseph Didier Martinez



Forensic dental identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of deceased persons is the most common role of the forensic dentist. Forensic physical comparison of antemortem and postmortem dental data is used to establish that a found body and a missing person are one and the same to a high degree of certainty. An overview of this role is presented as a review of dental identification.

David Sweet



Forensic Science Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

Tech Directions, 2010



What are we doing about weight management in forensic psychiatry? A survey of forensic psychiatrists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Patients in secure units are at high risk of obesity because of antipsychotic medication, restrictions on freedom, and poor motivation to eat healthily and exercise. The aim of this paper is to investigate how consultant forensic psychiatrists address weight management, particularly with respect to inpatients. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on a review of the literature, a structured questionnaire was

Camilla Haw; Jean Stubbs



National Center for Statistics and Analysis Collected Technical Studies. Volume 3. Accident Data Analysis Results and Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The eight papers in this volume develop methodology for analyzing traffic accident data and study specific questions concerning traffic accident injuries. The topics addressed include the role of children in traffic accidents, underride accidents, whiplas...

D. Najjar J. Hedlund N. Bondy R. Blodgett S. Partyka



[The concept of "forensic medicine"].  


The analysis of the definition of forensic medicine and its evolution during the past 300 years is presented. The special character of forensic medicine, its subject-matter, scope of research, procedures, goals and targeted application of forensic medical knowledge are discussed. The original definition of the notion of "forensic medicine" is proposed. PMID:23888497

Popov, V L


Microbial Forensics: Applications in Bioterrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial forensics is a new discipline combining microbiology and forensic science. Unlike public health investigations, microbial forensics goes further to associate the source of the causative agent with a specific individual or group. Microbial forensics measures molecular variations between related microbial strains and their use to infer the origin, relationship, or transmission route of a particular microbial strain. Several advanced

Priyabrata Pattnaik; Asha Mukul Jana



Forensic DNA typing in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of forensic genetics, essential developmental impulses come from the advances of the molecular biology and human genome projects. This paper overviews existing technologies for forensic genetics in China and gives a perspective of forensic DNA analysis. In China, work has been done in the development of blood group serology of the conventional markers. Forensic scientists in China

Y. P. Hou



Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic

American Psychologist, 2013



Adapting the cultural formulation for clinical assessments in forensic psychiatry.  


Even as forensic psychiatrists have increasingly contemplated the role of culture in forensic psychiatry, practical cultural evaluations remain an under-theorized area with scant research. Older conceptions of cultural competence may risk stereotyping the evaluee on the basis of perceived group characteristics. This article offers a revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV) Outline for Cultural Formulation for use in forensic psychiatry by adjusting its formal guidelines with recommendations from the forensic mental health literature. As a person-centered method of conducting the interview, the Cultural Formulation probes cultural explanations of identity, illness, social support, functioning, and interaction with the medical and legal systems. In line with other psychiatric subspecialties, future research in forensic psychiatry can examine the extent to which the Cultural Formulation helps trainees with cultural competence, reconfigures diagnosis and treatment, and alters legal outcomes such as length of sentence. PMID:22396348

Aggarwal, Neil Krishan



Ethics and forensic psychiatry.  


This article has attempted to outline some of the important ethical issues faced by the psychiatrist in the forensic role. Much of forensic psychiatry is practiced by general psychiatrists without specific forensic training who must thereby familiarize themselves with the problem areas likely to be encountered in this work. They should also be knowledgeable about the ethics guidelines prepared by forensic psychology and forensic psychiatry organizations that are subject to frequent modification. Ethical problems often occur when psychiatrists exceed their expertise, their role as contracted, or the actual facts in the case. Psychiatric experts usually represent just a small part of most litigation, and an attitude of humility rather than grandiosity is appropriate. Expert witnesses serve as educators rather than decision makers in the case [21]. Given the complexity and uncertainty of medical decision making generally, whether in clinical or forensic medicine, forensic psychiatric opinions should be appropriately qualified by their limitations, acknowledged affirmatively rather than only on cross-examination. Expert witnesses commonly take an oath to "tell the truth, the whole truth." Forensic psychiatrists are not experts in moral matters and should not be rendering moral judgments or misusing their authority as psychiatrists to advance their own political or social ideology [19]. Testimony should be based on data and theory generally accepted in the profession, recognizing that there will always be minority views. Psychiatrists, however, should not be testifying based upon idiosyncratic views unsupported by at least a respectable minority of the profession. As in clinical psychiatry, complex or challenging forensic cases often require consultation from a knowledgeable colleague. PMID:12232975

Wettstein, Robert M



The imported forensic expert  

SciTech Connect

A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

Larson, C.P.



Statistical optimization of medium for the production of recombinant hirudin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient fermentation medium producing a colourless product with high yields has been developed for the production of recombinant hirudin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the medium constituents. A 25-1 fractional factorial central composite design has been chosen to explain the combined effect of the six medium constituents, viz. yeast extract, peptone, casamino acids, ammonium

K. Jagannadha Rao; Chul-Ho Kim; Sang-Ki Rhee



Parameter Identification for a Dispersive Dielectric in 2D Electromagnetics: Forward and Inverse Methodology with Statistical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present methodology for obtaining forward solutions to Maxwell's equations in two dimensions, in the presence of a Debye medium. Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) absorbing boundary conditions are used to absorb incoming energy at the finite boundaries. A time-domain, PDE formulation is presented, and a finite dierence time-domain (FDTD) algorithm is used to obtain numerical solutions. A least squares formulation

H. T. Banks; J. M. Bardsleyz


Nuclear forensic investigations: two case studies.  


This paper describes the methodology and analytical methods used in nuclear forensic investigations. Two case studies are taken as examples to illustrate this. These examples represent typical cases that have been analysed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) since last 10 years, i.e. the beginning of the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Results of the various analytical techniques are shown, which, together with other type of information, reveal the origin of the material. PMID:16410154

Wallenius, M; Mayer, K; Ray, I



Research in Computer Forensics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer Forensics involves the preservation, identification, extraction and documentation of computer evidence stored in the form of magnetically encoded information. With the proliferation of E-commerce initiatives and the increasing criminal activities...

H. C. Wai



Physics and forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources.

T. J. Wilkinson; D. L. Perry; M. C. Martin; W. R. McKinney



Physics and forensics  

SciTech Connect

This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources.

Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.



Forensic Science: Hair Identification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

Keller, Elhannan L.



Exploiting Statistical Methodologies and Controlled Vocabularies for Prioritized Functional Analysis of Genomic Experiments: the StRAnGER Web Application  

PubMed Central

StRAnGER is a web application for the automated statistical analysis of annotated gene profiling experiments, exploiting controlled biological vocabularies, like the Gene Ontology or the KEGG pathways terms. Starting from annotated lists of differentially expressed genes and gene enrichment scores, regarding the terms of each vocabulary, StRAnGER repartitions and reorders the initial distribution of terms to define a new distribution of elements. Each element pools terms holding the same enrichment score. The new distribution thus derived, is reordered in a decreasing order to the right, according to the observation score of the elements, while elements with the same score, are sorted again in a decreasing order of their enrichment scores. By applying bootstrapping techniques, a corrected measure of the statistical significance of these elements is derived, which enables the selection of terms mapped to these elements, unambiguously associated with respective significant gene sets. The selected terms are immunized against the bias infiltrating statistical enrichment analyses, producing technically very high statistical scores, due to the finite nature of the data population. Besides their high statistical score, another selection criterion for the terms is the number of their members, something that incurs a biological prioritization in line with a Systems Biology context. The output derived, represents a detailed ranked list of significant terms, which constitute a starting point for further functional analysis.

Chatziioannou, Aristotelis A.; Moulos, Panagiotis



Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics  

SciTech Connect

Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special considerations for the forensic arena - quality control, sample integrity, etc. Mark Wilson (retired FBI): Western Carolina University Chapter 4. Physical signatures: Light and electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gravimetry etc. Joseph Michael, Sandia National Laboratory Chapter 5. Lipids: FAME, PLFA, steroids, LPS, etc. James Robertson, Federal Bureau of Investigation Chapter 6. Carbohydrates: Cell wall components, cytoplasm components, methods Alvin Fox, University of South Carolina School of Medicine David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 7. Peptides: Peptides, proteins, lipoproteins David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 8. Elemental content: CNOHPS (treated in passing), metals, prospective cell types John Cliff, International Atomic Energy Agency Chapter 9. Isotopic signatures: Stable isotopes C,N,H,O,S, 14C dating, potential for heavy elements. Helen Kreuzer-Martin, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Michaele Kashgarian, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Chapter 10. Extracellular signatures: Cellular debris, heme, agar, headspace, spent media, etc Karen Wahl, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 11. Data Reduction and Integrated Microbial Forensics: Statistical concepts, parametric and multivariate statistics, integrating signatures Kristin Jarman, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Cliff, John B.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Wunschel, David S.



SEM in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic investigation traces of crime scenes are very popular in current TV serial stories. But demonstration of forensic\\u000a scientist’s work is very schematic and authors mix a lot of special fields of examinations together. All equipment has a special\\u000a effect and it is possible to be used for special determination samples. SEM with EDS\\/WDS makes is possible to observe topography

I. Turkova; M. Kotrly


Production of glutaminase (E.C. from Zygosaccharomyces rouxii: Statistical optimization using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A face centered central composite design was employed to investigate the interactive effects of four variables, viz. concentrations of sucrose, yeast extract, sodium chloride, and glutamine, identified earlier by one-factor-at-a-time approach, on glutaminase production by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. A significant influence of yeast extract on glutaminase production was noted. Response surface methodology (RSM) showed that a medium containing (g\\/l) sucrose, 17.8;

Padma Iyer; Rekha S. Singhal



Specialty guidelines for forensic psychology.  


In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists, 1991). These Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology were developed by the American Psychology-Law Society (Division 41 of the American Psychological Association [APA]) and the American Academy of Forensic Psychology. They were adopted by the APA Council of Representatives on August 3, 2011. PMID:23025747



Statistical and methodological challenges for disaster preparedness and medical needs assessment in Rio Grande Valley of Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, disaster preparedness through assessment of medical and special needs persons (MSNP) has taken a center place in public eye in effect of frequent natural disasters such as hurricanes, storm surge or tsunami due to climate change and increased human activity on our planet. Statistical methods complex survey design and analysis have equally gained significance as a consequence.

Sartaj Alam



Statistical methodology and assessment of seismic event characterization capability. Final report, 2 June 1993-2 September 1995  

SciTech Connect

This project has focused on developing and applying statistical methods to perform seismic event characterization/identification and on quantifying capabilities with regard to monitoring of a Comprehensive Test Ban. An automated procedure is described to categorize seismic events, based on multivariate analysis of features derived from seismic waveforms. Second, preliminary event identification results are presented for a seismic event which occurred on 5 January 1995 in the Southern Ural Mountains region. Third, various statistics are compiled regarding 1786 seismic events which occurred between 11 January 1995 and 12 February 1995 and were detected by a set of 30 GSETT-3 Alpha stations. Fourth, a fundamental problem is addressed of how to utilize multivariate discriminant data from a multistation network in order to optimize the power of the outlier test for fixed false alarm rate.

Fisk, M.D.; Gray, H.L.; McCartor, G.D.



Forensic trace DNA: a review.  


DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

van Oorschot, Roland Ah; Ballantyne, Kaye N; Mitchell, R John



Evaluating Traditional Chinese Medicine Using Modern Clinical Trial Design and Statistical Methodology: Application to a Randomized Controlled Acupuncture Trial  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in China and other Asian counties for thousands of years, is increasingly utilized in Western countries. However, due to inherent differences in how Western medicine and this ancient modality are practiced, employing so-called Western medicine-based gold standard research methods to evaluate TCM is challenging. This article is a discussion of the obstacles inherent in the design and statistical analysis of clinical trials of TCM. It is based on our experience in designing and conducting a randomized controlled clinical trial of acupuncture for post-operative dental pain control in which acupuncture was shown to be statistically and significantly better than placebo in lengthening the median survival time to rescue drug. We demonstrate here that PH assumptions in the common Cox model did not hold in that trial and that TCM trials warrant more thoughtful modeling and more sophisticated models of statistical analysis. TCM study design entails all the challenges encountered in trials of drugs, devices, and surgical procedures in Western medicine. We present possible solutions to some but leave many issues unresolved.

Lao, Lixing; Huang, Yi; Feng, Chiguang; Berman, Brian M; Tan, Ming T.



Enhancement of Forensic Computing Investigations through Memory Forensic Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of memory forensic techniques has the potential to enhance computer forensic investigations. The analysis of digital evidence is facing several key challenges; an increase in electronic devices, network connections and bandwidth, the use of anti-forensic technologies and the development of network centric applications and technologies has lead to less potential evidence stored on static media and increased amounts

Matthew Simon; Jill Slay



Digital Forensics Using Local Signal Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the rapid growth of the Internet and the popularity of digital imaging devices, digital imagery has become our major information source. Meanwhile, the development of digital manipulation techniques employed by most image editing software brings new challenges to the credibility of photographic images as the definite records of events. We…

Pan, Xunyu



Establishing network computer forensics classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the deployment of computer forensics classes at undergraduate and graduate levels in a shared classroom\\/lab environment. The course content combined broad-based computer forensics theory and practice with hands-on forensics tools, including networked EnCase Enterprise forensics software. Our discussion covers teaching and learning issues from the perspectives of the instructors and the graduate and undergraduate students. Lessons learned

Louise L. Soe; Dan Manson; Marcy Wright



Face Recognition in Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, we will first explain the current means of comparing faces used by forensic science laboratories. It is a\\u000a nonautomated process performed by forensic examiners and has been referred to as facial “photographic comparison” or forensic\\u000a facial identification. Next, we will outline the innovative ways in which facial recognition systems are being used by the\\u000a forensic community. Lastly,

Nicole A. Spaun


Integrating forensic information in a crime intelligence database.  


Since 2008, intelligence units of six states of the western part of Switzerland have been sharing a common database for the analysis of high volume crimes. On a daily basis, events reported to the police are analysed, filtered and classified to detect crime repetitions and interpret the crime environment. Several forensic outcomes are integrated in the system such as matches of traces with persons, and links between scenes detected by the comparison of forensic case data. Systematic procedures have been settled to integrate links assumed mainly through DNA profiles, shoemarks patterns and images. A statistical outlook on a retrospective dataset of series from 2009 to 2011 of the database informs for instance on the number of repetition detected or confirmed and increased by forensic case data. Time needed to obtain forensic intelligence in regard with the type of marks treated, is seen as a critical issue. Furthermore, the underlying integration process of forensic intelligence into the crime intelligence database raised several difficulties in regards of the acquisition of data and the models used in the forensic databases. Solutions found and adopted operational procedures are described and discussed. This process form the basis to many other researches aimed at developing forensic intelligence models. PMID:23127656

Rossy, Quentin; Ioset, Sylvain; Dessimoz, Damien; Ribaux, Olivier



Forensics on a Shoestring Budget  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

Greco, Joseph A.



Towards collaborative forensics: Preliminary framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital forensic analysis techniques have been significantly improved and evolved in past decade but we still face a lack of effective forensic analysis tools to tackle diverse incidents caused by emerging technologies and the advances in cyber crime. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive framework to address the efficacious deficiencies of current practices in digital forensics. Our framework, called

Mike Mabey; Gail-Joon Ahn



Forensic Aspects of Ballistic Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical forensic medicine is best defined as the application of forensic medical knowledge and techniques to the solution of law in the investigation of trauma involving living victims. 1–5 In the setting of emergency departments, these techniques include the correct forensic evaluation, documentation, and photography of traumatic injuries, as well as the recognition and proper handling of evidentiary material for

Jeanine Vellema; Hendrik Johannes Scholtz


Basic Concepts, Current Practices, and Available Resources for Forensic Investigations on Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project, entitled 'Development of a Methodology for Identifying Pavement Design and Construction Data Needed to Support a Forensic Investigation,' is to develop a database containing information useful in identifying the premature fail...

T. A. Victorine Z. Zhang D. W. Fowler W. R. Hudson



Forensic report writing.  


As the area of specialization of forensic psychology broadens its horizons, it will become increasingly more difficult for clinical psychologists to avoid participating in the forensic arena. As a result, clinical psychologists may be asked to write reports about therapeutic intervention or evaluations in divorce, personal injury, competency, abuse, or criminal proceedings. In this article, the author addresses the issues that the clinical psychologist needs to understand in writing reports that may be utilized in forensic settings. How these reports are affected by the American Psychological Association Ethics Code (APA; 2002), the audience receiving the report, the subject matter of the report, and dissemination of the information are all discussed in this article. PMID:16273512

Ackerman, Marc J



Forensic web watch.  


A search for forensic odontology sites on the Internet revealed thousands of 'hits', of which many constituted dentists offering a private service on their homepages. Several organisations and associations were identified following extensive sifting through these addresses and, despite its growing acceptance in the forensic community, the resources available were superficial and of only moderate educational content. Although many of the sites provided non-specialist information and points of contact for local experts only one was commended for its design and depth. The need for improvement in this field is therefore recommended. PMID:15274965

Swift, B; Rutty, G N



[Gunshot wounds: forensic pathology].  


Gunshot wounds are among the most complex traumatic lesions encountered in forensic pathology. At the time of autopsy, careful scrutiny of the wounds is essential for correct interpretation of the lesions. Complementary pathological analysis has many interests: differentiation between entrance and exit wounds, estimation of firing distance, differentiation between vital and post mortem wounds and wounds dating. In case of multiple headshots, neuropathological examination can provide arguments for or against suicide. Sampling of gunshot wounds at autopsy must be systematic. Pathological data should be confronted respectively to autopsy and death scene investigation data and also ballistic studies. Forensic pathologist must be aware of the limits of optic microscopy. PMID:22325312

Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy



Blurriness in Live Forensics: An Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Live Forensics discipline aims at answering basic questions related to a digital crime, which usually involves a computer-based system. The investigation should be carried out with the very goal to establish which processes were running, when they were started and by whom, what specific activities those processes were doing and the state of active network connections. Besides, a set of tools needs to be launched on the running system by altering, as a consequence of the Locard’s exchange principle [2], the system’s memory. All the methodologies for the live forensics field proposed until now have a basic, albeit important, weakness, which is the inability to quantify the perturbation, or blurriness, of the system’s memory of the investigated computer. This is the very last goal of this paper: to provide a set of guidelines which can be effectively used for measuring the uncertainty of the collected volatile memory on a live system being investigated.

Savoldi, Antonio; Gubian, Paolo


Unweighted fusion in microphone forensics using a decision tree and linear logistic regression models  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the exemplarily chosen domain of microphone forensics we show that media forensics can strongly benefit from combining statistical pattern recognition (using supervised classification) and unweighted information fusion (on the example of match-, rank- and decision level fusion). The practical results presented show that, by using a carefully selected fusion strategy and two multi-class classifiers (a decision tree and linear

Christian Kraetzer; Maik Schott; Jana Dittmann



Malingering in Forensic Neuropsychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MMPI-2 is one of the most widely used instruments in forensic neuropsychology. Unlike most tests, it has the advantage of containing validity scales that assist the examiner in determining the level of cooperation of the examinee. Scales that provide information for evaluating the validity of an MMPI-2 profile include VRIN, TRIN, L, F, K, F -K, FB, F(p), FBS

Paul R. Lees-Haley; Grant L. Iverson; Rael T. Lange; David D. Fox; Lyle M. Allen III



Forensic speaker recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looking at the different points highlighted in this article, we affirm that forensic applications of speaker recognition should still be taken under a necessary need for caution. Disseminating this message remains one of the most important responsibilities of speaker recognition researchers.

Joseph P. Campbell; Wade Shen; William M. Campbell; Reva Schwartz; Jean-François Bonastre; Driss Matrouf



Changing Concepts in Forensics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses five theoretical concepts in general and two theoretical models in particular that are involved in forensics. The five concepts are: (1) causation, an inquiry into the reasons for ongoing processes or problems; (2) inherency, the division of a universe into its necessary features and its accidental features; (3) presumption,…

Zarefsky, David


Forensic medicine in Bangladesh.  


In this paper, we discuss the current medico-legal practice and future plan to improve the medico-legal service of Bangladesh which is rooted in the remnants of British medical jurisprudence. It includes clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. In Bangladesh all unnatural deaths are to be reported at the nearest police station and an appointed police officer should visit the scene of crime for investigation and to arrange postmortem if required. The forensic services of the country are delivered partly by academic staffs of Government Medical Colleges and the rest by the Civil Surgeons. Sometimes, residential medical officers in the district hospitals perform the medico-legal work. Most of them have no forensic qualifications except a long exposure in the medico-legal field. Currently academic and professional postgraduate courses are available. The chemical examiner's laboratory is situated at Dhaka with the facility of quantitative tests only. The Government of Bangladesh is trying to standardize the existing system. A Workshop on medico-legal services has been organized regularly by The Medico-legal Society of Bangladesh. A DNA profiling laboratory at the Dhaka Medical College is in the process of being set up. Such progress will be a milestone in the development of the medico-legal service in Bangladesh. However, with a few exceptions, teaching and training facilities are still lacking. PMID:12935633

Islam, Muhammad Nurul; Islam, Mohammed Nasimul



Investigative Profiling with Computer Forensic Log Data and Association Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigative profiling is an important activity in computer forensics that can narrow the search for one or more computer perpetrators. Data mining is a technique that has produced good results in providing insight into large volumes of data. This paper describes how the association rule data mining technique may be employed to generate profiles from log data and the methodology

Tamas Abraham; Olivier Y. De Vel



Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)|

Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.



Reel forensic experts: Forensic psychiatrists as portrayed on screen.  


The lay public is much more likely to have encountered a forensic psychiatrist on television or in the movies than to have encountered a real one. Thus, by way of popular culture, the jury's perceptions and expectations of forensic expert witnesses may have been formed long before they take the stand. We describe a typology of five categories of forensic experts portrayed in fiction: Dr. Evil, The Professor, The Hired Gun, The Activist, and the Jack of All Trades. As art imitates life, these categories (aside from Dr. Evil) mirror real-life criticisms that have been made about forensic experts. PMID:21908760

Friedman, Susan Hatters; Cerny, Cathleen A; Soliman, Sherif; West, Sara G



Can freshwater mites act as forensic tools?  


Determination of post-mortem interval often employs analysis of age structure and diversity of saprophilic arthropods (including mites) that have colonized corpses. The majority of research has focused on decomposition processes in terrestrial situations, with relatively few studies on the utility of freshwater invertebrates as forensic agents. Most freshwater mites are predators, detritivores or algivores, and hence seem unlikely candidates as tools for aging or determining original placement of corpses or other bodily remains. The main exceptions to this are some aquatic Astigmata, which have occasionally been observed feeding on the tissues of moribund aquatic animals. Here I investigate Canadian law literature and published forensic research to determine how frequently freshwater mites are included in court cases or are found attending dead bodies. I found only one questionable report of aquatic mites in over 30 years of material from legal databases. Three published research papers reported mites associated with vertebrate flesh in fresh water. Only one paper provided an identification of mites finer than 'Acari' or 'water mites'. In this case, the mites were identified as Hydrozetes (Oribatida). In none of these papers were mites reported to be high in abundance or biomass, and in two of the three publications methodological problems and/or poor reporting of data raised doubts about interpretation of results. I conclude that based on their biology, there is little expectation that freshwater mites should be of great value as forensic tools, and this survey of legal and scientific literature supports my argument. PMID:19513807

Proctor, Heather C



History and Development of Clinical Forensic Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic medicine, forensic pathology, and legal medicine are terms used interchangeably throughout the world. Forensic medicine\\u000a is now commonly used to describe all aspects of forensic work rather than just forensic pathology, which is the branch of\\u000a medicine that investigates death. Clinical forensic medicine refers to that branch of medicine that involves an interaction\\u000a among law, judiciary, and police officials,

Jason Payne-James



Microsoft Academic Search

The ground-breaking report on forensic science by the National Academy of Sciences—Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward—raised numerous issues. One dominant theme that runs throughout the Report is the failure of some forensic science disciplines to comport with fundamental scientific principles—in particular, to support claims with empirical research. This essay attempts to answer the “why” question:

Paul C. Giannelli



Selected Issues in Forensic Neuropsychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its rapid growth in recent years, in many respects the field of forensic neuropsychology is still in its infancy.\\u000a Numerous opportunities remain for neuropsychologists who wish to include some form of forensic work in their scope of practice.\\u000a A good deal more research needs to be done in specific areas of interest to forensic neuropsychologists, such as malingering,\\u000a mild

Brian Goodyear; Douglas Umetsu


Forensic aspects of insulin.  


Insulin or, more appropriately, hypoglycaemia gives rise to a wide variety of interactions with the law. In most cases its role is not seriously open to question occasionally however, it is. This is especially true of situations in which insulin is suspected of having been used inappropriately or maliciously. The major differences between investigation of hypoglycaemia in clinical and forensic situation are that in the latter the history is often unreliable, appropriate samples for analysis were not collected, preserved or labelled correctly and analytical results are likely to be challenged on grounds of specificity, accuracy and interpretation. Immunoassay remains the mainstay of clinical investigation of hypoglycaemia but likely to become displaced by mass-spectrometry in the forensic situation especially now that human insulin is being replaced by synthetic insulin analogues for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:23751444

Marks, Vincent; Wark, Gwen



Computerized forensic facial reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic investigations frequently utilize facial reconstructions\\/approximations to stimulate recognition and identification.\\u000a Over the past 25 years, many computer-based systems have been developed, and with the recent rapid advances in medical imaging\\u000a and computer technology, the current systems claim high levels of efficiency, objectivity, and flexibility. The history of\\u000a computerized facial approximation\\/reconstruction is presented, along with a discussion of the advantages

Caroline Wilkinson



RNA in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA analysis offers insight into diseases and mechanisms leading to death and could develop into a valuable tool for diagnosis of the cause of death in forensic pathology. Other possible applications include the determination of the age of wounds and injuries and of the post-mortem interval. The molecular identification of body fluids by analysis of cell-specific mRNA expression already represents

M. Bauer



Forensic Evaluation of Juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Grisso, T. (1998). Forensic evaluation of juveniles. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press. ISBN 156887037X, 9781568870373\\u000aPublisher summary: In recent years, juvenile courts and juvenile attorneys have come to rely heavily on mental health professionals for evaluations of youths in delinquency cases. Evaluation questions include the youth's competence to stand trial, competence to waive Miranda rights prior to giving a

Thomas Grisso



Forensic wound examination.  


Wound examination is of prime importance in forensic pathology, and it is desirable to establish a wound examination system in order to evaluate and record the nature of wound more accurately and objectively. Modern diagnostic techniques and devices as well as advanced cell-biological methods should be introduced as the means for this aim. For example, radiological, endoscopic or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination have been used in addition to examination with the naked eye. In our department, a binocular surgical operating microscope is routinely employed at forensic autopsy, which is useful for elucidating the nature of wound in more detail. It is also necessary to determine whether a wound has vitality, and, if antemortem, how long before death the wound has been sustained. For the determination of wound age including vitality, various biological factors such as cytokines and extracellular matrix components involved in wound healing have been examined by histopathological methods. Our studies have shown that interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1 b, IL-6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are possibly useful markers for wound age determination as well as cell-biological indicators of vitality. Furthermore, molecular biological techniques have been intended to be applied to wound examination; our experimental study has shown that even mRNA of cytokines mentioned above can be histologically detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction or in situ hybridization. A trial of forensic wound examination from macroscopic to molecular level is discussed. PMID:10978618

Ohshima, T



Tattoos: forensic considerations.  


Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations. PMID:23846907

Byard, Roger W



Statistical methodology for pathogen detection.  


The main goal of the present study was to discuss the application of the McNemar test to the comparison of proportions in dependent samples. Data were analyzed from studies conducted to verify the suitability of replacing a conventional method with a new one for identifying the presence of Salmonella. It is shown that, in most situations, the McNemar test does not provide all the elements required by the microbiologist to make a final decision and that appropriate functions of the proportions need to be considered. Sample sizes suitable to guarantee a test with a high power in the detection of significant differences regarding the problem studied are obtained by simulation. Examples of functions that are of great value to the microbiologist are presented. PMID:17803152

Ogliari, Paulo José; de Andrade, Dalton Francisco; Pacheco, Juliano Anderson; Franchin, Paulo Rogério; Batista, Cleide Rosana Vieira



Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center: Forensic Analysis to Data Interpretation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of an...

T. F. Nichols



The rhetoric of therapy in forensic psychiatric nursing.  


The objective of this paper is to present the results obtained from a qualitative research study conducted in a forensic psychiatric setting and to explore the dual role associated with being both "agents of care and agents of social control." Following the narratives provided by nurses working in this field, the analysis that follows will problematize the rhetoric of therapy in forensic psychiatric nursing. In order to support the analysis, this article comprises four sections. The first section will briefly review the study's methodological considerations. Using a combination of Foucault and Goffman's work, the second section provides an empirical contextualization of correctional environments and their effects on nursing care. The third section explains the effects of having a contradictory mandate of care and custody from Festinger's (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance. Lastly, the fourth section provides a critique of disciplinary interventions in forensic psychiatric nursing, as it is explained by the participants. PMID:23176358

Jacob, Jean Daniel



New developments in forensic psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Briefly introduces the concept of forensic psychology, looking at areas such as stalking behaviour, self-mutilation, and execution competency. Suggests that the forensic psychiatrist needs to remain up to date with recent sexual harassment legislation, the use of neuropsychological testing and the assessment of child abuse. Covers other subjects including hate crime on the Internet, and psychological autopsy. Concludes that to

Suzanne David; Brian H. Kleiner



What Is Forensic Psychology, Anyway?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of how “forensic psychology” is defined has taken on a new urgency in the context of an application to have forensic psychology designated a “specialty” by the American Psychological Association. To provide a historical perspective, I briefly review early attempts to apply psychological concepts to legal issues, beginning with the McNaughten trial in England in 1843. I then

John C. Brigham



Forensic Psychotherapy and Group Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic Psychotherapy is a new discipline, the offspring of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychoanalytical Psychotherapy. Its aim is the psychodynamic understanding of offenders and their consequent treatment, regardless of the seriousness of the offence. It involves the understanding of the unconscious as well as the conscious motivations of the criminal mind, and of particular offence behaviour. It does not seek to

Estela V. Welldon



An overview of computer forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core goals of computer forensics are fairly straightforward: the preservation, identification, extraction, documentation, and interpretation of computer data. There are several policies and procedures that need to be out-lined and defined with regard to computer forensics are analyzed in this paper. Data must be able to be retrieved and analyzed without it is damaged. The authenticity of the data

P. D. Dixon



Computer forensic timeline visualization tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer Forensics is mainly about investigating crime where computers have been involved. There are many tools available to aid the investigator with this task. We have created a prototype of a new type of tool called CyberForensic TimeLab where all evidence is indexed by their time variables and plotted on a timeline. We believed that this way of visualizing the

Jens Olsson; Martin Boldt



Forensic Practice: Pride and Prejudice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of forensic psychology and psychiatry has evolved rapidly and our research instruments and experts command growing respect among both the scientific community and lay audiences. We have, however, focused almost exclusively on assessment rather than treatment and, in doing this, have fostered the perception that most forensic clients are not amenable to treatment. The author discusses the role

Jay Adams



Emerging Issues in Forensic Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic mental health traditionally was considered the backwater of forensic practice. However, because of advances in knowledge regarding the core issues of capacity and risk, and because of changes in the location of forensic assessment and treatment, “forensic” issues now permeate mental health practice and policy. While these advances have been important, there are a number of new issues that

John Petrila



Computer Forensics and Its Future Trend  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer forensics is the technology field that attempts to prove thorough, efficient, and secure means to investigate computer crime. Computer evidence must be authentic, accurate, complete and convincing to juries. In this paper, the stages of computer forensics are presented, and the theories and the realization of the forensics software are described. An example about forensic practice is also given.

WANG Ling; QIAN Hua-Lin



Computer Forensic: An Issue of Definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates what computer forensic is at the most basic level. The concept of Computer Forensic is thought to be widely known, but in essence is it? At the most fundamental level can computer forensics be defined. This paper will focus on a variety of approaches to actually defining computer forensics.

Steve Mccombie; Matt Warren



Exploratory Study on Computer Forensics Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of computer forensics technology signify much to attacking computer crime, invasion hunting, patch safety-bug, perfect safety system of network. This text makes a thorough and compact study on advancing computer forensics technology both at home and abroad; make an introduction of advancing technology, such as, dynamic computer forensics based on data mining, dynamic computer forensics based on Multi-agent,

Dan Hu



Global Forensic Science Collaboration: Standards and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on a presentation (Lucas 2011) by the author at a session organized by the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) at the International Association of Forensic Sciences Meeting in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, on September 16, 2011. The title of the session was “Global Research: The Forensic Science Edge.” The “global” nature of AAFS, forensic science, and

Douglas M. Lucas



Live digital forensics in a virtual machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional computer forensics is performed towards physical machines, using a set of forensic tools to acquire disk images and memory dumps. But it is much more different to deal with virtual machines. Live forensics is used to acquire volatile data and improve efficiency, but how to perform live forensics on a subject system with virtual machines hosted in? This paper

Lei Zhang; Dong Zhang; Lianhai Wang



Pharmacogenetics and forensic toxicology.  


Large inter-individual variability in drug response and toxicity, as well as in drug concentrations after application of the same dosage, can be of genetic, physiological, pathophysiological, or environmental origin. Absorption, distribution and metabolism of a drug and interactions with its target often are determined by genetic differences. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variations can appear at the level of drug metabolizing enzymes (e.g., the cytochrome P450 system), drug transporters, drug targets or other biomarker genes. Pharmacogenetics or toxicogenetics can therefore be relevant in forensic toxicology. This review presents relevant aspects together with some examples from daily routines. PMID:20828952

Musshoff, Frank; Stamer, Ulrike M; Madea, Burkhard



Compulsory Education: Statistics, Methodology, Reforms and New Tendencies. Conference Papers for the 8th Session of the International Standing Conference for the History of Education (Parma, Italy, September 3-6, 1986). Volume IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection, the last of four volumes on the history of compulsory education among the nations of Europe and the western hemisphere, analyzes statistics, methodology, reforms, and new tendencies. Twelve of the document's 18 articles are written in English, 3 are written in French and 3 are in Italian. Summaries accompany most articles; three…

Genovesi, Giovanni, Ed.


Forensic DNA analysis.  


Before the routine use of DNA profiling, blood typing was an important forensic tool. However, blood typing was not very discriminating. For example, roughly 30% of the United States population has type A-positive blood. Therefore, if A-positive blood were found at a crime scene, it could have come from 30% of the population. DNA profiling has a much better ability for discrimination. Forensic laboratories no longer routinely determine blood type. If blood is found at a crime scene, DNA profiling is performed. From Jeffrey's discovery of DNA fingerprinting to the development of PCR of STRs to the formation of DNA databases, our knowledge of DNA and DNA profiling have expanded greatly. Also, the applications for which we use DNA profiling have increased. DNA profiling is not just used for criminal case work, but it has expanded to encompass paternity testing, disaster victim identification, monitoring bone marrow transplants, detecting fetal cells in a mother's blood, tracing human history, and a multitude of other areas. The future of DNA profiling looks expansive with the development of newer instrumentation and techniques. PMID:22693781

McDonald, Jessica; Lehman, Donald C



Nanoparticles in forensic science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

Cantu, Antonio A.



Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)|

Gaensslen, Robert E.




SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

Nichols, T.



An Interdisciplinary Approach to Forensic IT and Forensic Psychology Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In WISE 4, Armstrong [1] presented a multidisciplinary view in computer forensics education. The view was primarily focusing solely on the education\\u000a of computer forensics students, which was indeed along the lines of multidisciplinarity. However, this view does not involve\\u000a integration between the different disciplines. In this paper, the scope of the approach is extended in order to allow a

Clare Wilson; Vasilios Katos; Caroline Strevens



Determination of Adult Age at Death in the Forensic Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-at-death assessment faces biological and methodological problems. Age-related processes show great variation, both within\\u000a and between populations. However, in forensic contexts, this parameter is crucial for identification, and both accuracy and\\u000a reliability are required. Rather than proposing a list of various methods, the aim of this chapter is to suggest the most\\u000a appropriate methods according to the indicators available for

Eric Baccino; Aurore Schmitt


Network Forensics on Packet Fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an approach to network forensics that makes it feasible to trace the content of all traffic that passed through the network via packet con- tent fingerprints. We develop a new data structure called the \\

Chia Yuan Cho; Sin Yeung Lee; Chung Pheng Tan; Yong Tai Tan



Forensic Potential of Flash Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis explores the forensic opportunities afforded by flash memory. It starts with a discussion of flash storage starting with the physics of flash devices, the development of flash translation layers (which allow flash devices to be used with unmod...

J. E. Regan



Forensic entomology: applications and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main\\u000a application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the\\u000a age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the\\u000a corpse. In

J. AmendtC; C. S. Richards; C. P. Campobasso; R. Zehner; M. J. R. Hall


Forensic Analysis of Xbox Consoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsoft’s Xbox game console can be modified to run additional operating systems, enabling it to store gigabytes of non-game\\u000a related files and run various computer services. Little has been published, however, on procedures for determining whether\\u000a or not an Xbox console has been modified, for creating a forensic duplicate, and for conducting a forensic investigation.\\u000a Given the growing popularity of

Paul Burke; Philip Craiger



How to Improve Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some institutional structures for inquiry produce better approximations to truth than others. The current institutional structure\\u000a of police forensics gives each lab a monopoly in the analysis of the police evidence it receives. Forensic workers have inadequate\\u000a incentives to produce reliable analyses of police evidence. Competition would create such incentives. I outline a system of\\u000a “competitive self regulation” for police

Roger Koppl



Plant genetics for forensic applications.  


An emerging application for plant DNA fingerprinting and barcoding involves forensic investigations. Examples of DNA analysis of botanical evidence include crime scene analysis, identifying the source of commercial plant products, and investigation of trade in illicit drugs. Here, we review real and potential applications of DNA-based forensic botany and provide a protocol for microsatellite genotyping of leaf material, a protocol that could be used to link a suspect to a victim or to a crime scene. PMID:22419487

Zaya, David N; Ashley, Mary V



Forensic DNA on the internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shear number of websites a vailable addressing the topic of forensic DNA investigation can make the search for specific\\u000a information time-consuming and frustrating. This review aims to relieve this tension by drawing the reader’s attention to\\u000a a small number of well-produced and maintained websites covering major aspects of the forensic DNA field in genomic and Y\\u000a chromosome short-tandem repeats

Eleanor A. M. Graham



Survival analysis as a statistical methodology for analyzing factors that affect milk coagulation time in Holstein-Friesian and Brown Swiss cows.  


The aim of this study was to propose the survival analysis technique as a statistical approach for the analysis of rennet coagulation time (RCT) able to make use of coagulating and noncoagulating (NC) milk information in order to estimate potential sources of variations that affects RCT. A total of 1,025 Italian Holstein-Friesian cows (HF; progeny of 54 sires) and 1,234 Brown Swiss cows (BS; progeny of 58 sires) reared in 34 and 38 herds, respectively, were milk-sampled once. Rennet coagulation time was analyzed with a semiparametric proportional hazard model (i.e., a Cox model), with the NC samples considered as censored records. Furthermore, a different censoring scenario, with a new end point at 18min, was considered after the rearrangement of the time space originally used for the observation of RCT. The percentage of NC samples was almost 10% for HF and 3.5% for BS cows in in the 31min set, whereas it increased to 44 and 24.9%, respectively, in the 18min set. Estimated hazard ratios indicated that the most important factors affecting the coagulation process were herd, days in milk, casein number, and milk acidity (expressed in terms of titratable acidity) for both HF and BS, whereas the SCS was relevant only for BS. The survival model seems to be particularly suitable for this analysis, as it can properly account for censored and uncensored records and appropriately use all available information. Moreover, this methodology allows us to rearrange the time space used for the observation of RCT and to define alternative traits (i.e., RCT with an end point at 18min). Our restriction of the time space and the increased percentage of censored records did not highlight any substantial differences in terms of the risk of coagulating with respect to the traditional 31min testing time. Although further research is needed to investigate the effect of these sources of variation on cheese yield, our results indicate that casein number, acidity, and SCS may be used as indicator traits for enhancing the technological properties of bovine milk. PMID:23831096

Cecchinato, A



Forensic document analysis using scanning microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authentication and identification of the source of a printed document(s) can be important in forensic investigations involving a wide range of fraudulent materials, including counterfeit currency, travel and identity documents, business and personal checks, money orders, prescription labels, travelers checks, medical records, financial documents and threatening correspondence. The physical and chemical characterization of document materials - including paper, writing inks and printed media - is becoming increasingly relevant for law enforcement agencies, with the availability of a wide variety of sophisticated commercial printers and copiers which are capable of producing fraudulent documents of extremely high print quality, rendering these difficult to distinguish from genuine documents. This paper describes various applications and analytical methodologies using scanning electron miscoscopy/energy dispersive (x-ray) spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and related technologies for the characterization of fraudulent documents, and illustrates how their morphological and chemical profiles can be compared to (1) authenticate and (2) link forensic documents with a common source(s) in their production history.

Shaffer, Douglas K.



Uniqueness in the forensic identification sciences--fact or fiction?  


Fingerprint analysts, firearms and toolmark examiners, and forensic odontologists often rely on the uniqueness proposition in order to support their theory of identification. However, much of the literature claiming to have proven uniqueness in the forensic identification sciences is methodologically weak, and suffers flaws that negate any such conclusion being drawn. The finding of uniqueness in any study appears to be an overstatement of the significance of its results, and in several instances, this claim is made despite contrary data being presented. The mathematical and philosophical viewpoint regarding this topic is that obtaining definitive proof of uniqueness is considered impossible by modern scientific methods. More importantly, there appears to be no logical reason to pursue such research, as commentators have established that uniqueness is not the essential requirement for forming forensic conclusions. The courts have also accepted this in several recent cases in the United States, and have dismissed the concept of uniqueness as irrelevant to the more fundamental question of the reliability of the forensic analysis. PMID:20832209

Page, Mark; Taylor, Jane; Blenkin, Matt



Statistical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present document sumarizes the methodology utilized by the UNESCO Division of Statistics in the 1994 assessment of estimates and projections of adult illiteracy by country in the world, Section I of this document provides an overview of the background and rationale behind the recent 1994 assessment, and the policy and monitoring relevance of literacy as a key indicator of

K. J. Holzinger



[Benzodiazepines and forensic aspects].  


Adverse effects of benzodiazepines are well known since the first one was used in 1958 (chlordiazepoxide). The literature collects study-cases or rarely controlled studies concerning side effects or paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines. They mostly described drowsiness and behavioral disinhibition, including increased well-being feeling but also hostility, rage access with feeling of invulnerability, serious crimes and sometimes homicides. Delusional, manic, confusional or depressive states are also pointed out. Rate for aggressive behaviour is 0.3 to 0.7% but distinction should be done between accidental or "idiosyncratic" reaction and voluntary sought disinhibition, clearly more frequent. No benzodiazepine has any specificity for these adverse effects but pharmacology, doses, associated drugs (or alcohol) and psychopathology interact to produce hazardous psychic states. Pharmacology: GABA induces a decrease in serotonin compound and vigilance. Pharmacokinetic: first dose effect or over-dose effect, short half-life, lipophily, affinity, digestive absorption, active metabolites interact. Psychopathology: age, alcohol association, psychological status (high initial level of hostility, impulsivity, frustration, personality disorder and depressive status). External conditions: chronic illness, affective and professional frustrations, physical or psychic exhaustion contribute also. Some benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, diazepam, clorazepate, triazolam, alprazolam, lorazepam, for example) are more often concerned for pharmacokinetics characteristics but also prescription habits. Forensic aspects should be considered in case of homicide. Especially, reality of benzodiazepines consumption and awareness of the potential paradoxical reaction should be precisely evaluated. Special focus on voluntary induced disinhibition has to be done for forensic considerations. Relationship but also crime facilitations are sometimes consciously sought. Some benzodiazepines have already been identified for this use: flunitrazepam, clorazepate but also triazolam and temazepam in UK, alprazolam in USA. Flunitrazepam is prohibited in USA and considered as narcotics in France. A Swedish study showed that violent acts were more frequent and serious in juvenile offenders taking flunitrazepam/alcohol than other young offenders staying in the same correctional institution. They recommended classification of flunitrazepam as narcotic. A study from Belgium with drug addicts concluded in the same way and asked for an increased information of professionals and a more efficient control of the delivery. Before concluding to idiosyncratic effect, and then possibly to penal irresponsibility, the forensic approach should consider: firstly the reality of the benzodiazepines absorption and implication in committing violence (urine test, chronology, amnesia); secondly, the association of unusual behaviour and converging circumstances (pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, psychopathology, external conditions); thirdly the consumer's knowledge of the disinhibition effect. In our prison practice, we have to be particularly cautious as population frequently associates personality disorder, drug addiction and high level of frustration related to penitential context. Special information should be given to inmates when benzodiazepines are prescribed, but more extensively, a preventive strategy should be adopted in general population. PMID:15029082

Michel, L; Lang, J-P


Forensic Physics 101: Falls from a height  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physics of falling from a height, a topic that could be included in a course on forensic physics or in an undergraduate class as an example of Newton's laws, is applied to a common forensic problem.

Rod Cross



Forensic Physics 101: Falls from a height  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physics of falling from a height, a topic that could be included in a course on forensic physics or in an undergraduate class as an example of Newton's laws, is applied to a common forensic problem.

Cross, Rod



DBT in an outpatient forensic setting.  


Literature shows that effective treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has become possible. However, borderline patients in forensic psychiatry do not seem to benefit from this development. In forensic psychiatry, prevention of criminal recidivism is the main focus of treatment, not core borderline problems like parasuicidal and self-destructive behavior. A dialectical behavioral treatment program for BPD was implemented in an outpatient forensic clinic in The Netherlands. Sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment data were collected from ten male, and nineteen female forensic BPD patients, and compared with corresponding data from fifty-eight non-forensic BPD patients. The results show that it is possible to implement dialectical behavior therapy in an outpatient forensic clinic. The data indicate that the exclusion of forensic patients, and especially female forensic patients, from evidence-based treatment is unjustified given the highly comparable clinical and etiological characteristics they share with female BPD patients from general mental health settings. PMID:22560672

van den Bosch, L M C; Hysaj, M; Jacobs, P



Extending a context model for microphone forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we extend an existing context model for statistical pattern recognition based microphone forensics by: first, generating a generalized model for this process and second, using this general model to construct a complex new application scenario model for microphone forensic investigations on the detection of playback recordings (a.k.a. replays, re-recordings, double-recordings). Thereby, we build the theoretical basis for answering the question whether an audio recording was made to record a playback or natural sound. The results of our investigations on the research question of playback detection imply that it is possible with our approach on our evaluation set of six microphones. If the recorded sound is not modified prior to playback, we achieve in our tests 89.00% positive indications on the correct two microphones involved. If the sound is post-processed (here, by normalization) this figure decreases (in our normalization example to 36.00%, while another 50.67% of the tests still indicate two microphones, of which one has actually not been involved in the recording and playback recording process).

Kraetzer, Christian; Qian, Kun; Dittmann, Jana



Forensic psychiatry in Chile.  


Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. PMID:23102739

St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu



[Troponin in forensic medicine].  


In this review we try to answer the question whether and to what degree contemporary forensic pathology takes advantage of quantitative and qualitative troponin determinations. The report is simultaneously an introduction to discussing our results in this area. To perform this review we used the database "PubMed". Polish literature, concurrent with the objective of the study and not included in "PubMed" or included in "OLDMEDLINE" was also analyzed. The identified publications, which were concurrent with the aim of the study, were read and citations were checked. If among the cited papers we found one that was concurrent with the subject of the review, it was also included. While several studies support the use of post-mortem blood and body fluid levels of cardiac troponin T and I as a marker of sudden cardiac death, in our opinion, further research is required to determine the effects of post-mortem autolysis, microbial activity, metabolic derangement and the use of different sample matrices in autopsy cases. PMID:23424943

Nowak, Agnieszka; Nowak, Seweryn; Chowaniec, Czes?aw; Wojnicz, Romuald


The development and practice of forensic podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic podiatry a small, but potentially useful specialty using clinical podiatric knowledge for the purpose of person identification. The practice of forensic podiatry began in the early 1970s in Canada and the UK, although supportive research commenced later in the 1990s. Techniques of forensic podiatry include identification from podiatry records, the human footprint, footwear, and the analysis of gait forms

Wesley Vernon



A second generation computer forensic analysis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The architecture of existing – first generation – computer forensic tools, including the widely used EnCase and FTK products, is rapidly becoming outdated. Tools are not keeping pace with increased complexity and data volumes of modern investigations. This paper discuses the limitations of first generation computer forensic tools. Several metrics for measuring the efficacy and performance of computer forensic tools

Daniel Ayers



Towards Proactive Computer-System Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines principles and approaches for proactive computer-system forensics. Proactive computer- system forensics is the design, construction and configuring of systems to make them most amenable to digital foren- sics analyses in the future. The primary goals of proac- tive computer-system forensics are system structuring and augmentation for automated data discovery, lead forma- tion, and efficient data preservation. This

Phillip G. Bradford; Marcus Brown; Josh Perdue; Bonnie Self



Usability of Forensics Tools: A User Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital forensics has become a critical part of almost every investigation, and users of digital forensics tools are becoming more diverse in their backgrounds and interests. As a result, usability is an important aspect of these tools. This paper examines the usability aspect of forensics tools through interviews and surveys designed to obtain feedback from professionals using these tools as

Hanan Hibshi; Timothy Vidas; Lorrie Cranor



Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)|

Journal of Chemical Education, 1985



Biometrics and Its Use in Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how biometrics is used in Forensics. It first gives a general introduction to biometrics desribing the main biometric technique of fingerprinting. hand geometry, eye\\/iris scans, and DNA. Then it gives an introduction of forensics with an example criminal case. Finally it discusses how biometrics is used in forensics, including an interesting handwriting example from the Ted Bundy

Jason Bernard Thompson



Detection of Hidden Information in Forensic Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic tools are used to create critical evidence in computer-related crimes investigation. The evidence has an effect on judgment by the court and it requires verification of forensic tools. The verification should require an agreement of law enforcement organizations. Computer Forensic Tool Testing (CFTT) Verification project provides a measure of assurance that the tools used in the investigations produce valid

Yeog Kim; Jewan Bang; Sangjin Lee; Jongin Lim



Bovine and equine forensic DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal forensic DNA analysis is being used for human criminal investigations (e.g traces from cats and dogs), wildlife management, breeding and food safety. The most common DNA markers used for such forensic casework are short tandem repeats (STR). Rules and guidelines concerning quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) have been well established for human forensic STR DNA testing, which

L. H. P. van de Goor



Educational and Training Models in Forensic Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of forensic psychology has experienced remarkable growth over the past three decades. Perhaps the best evidence of this growth is the number of forensic psychology training programs currently enrolling students. Those interested in forensic psychology can choose from several types of programs aimed at different educational outcomes. In addition, opportunities for postdoctoral fellowships, continuing education, and respecialization have

David DeMatteo; Geoffrey Marczyk; Daniel A. Krauss; Jeffrey Burl



System Support for Forensic Inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.

Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan


Methodological and statistical issues of quality of life (QoL) and economic evaluation in cancer clinical trials: report of a workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, quality of life (QoL) and economic evaluations have become increasingly important as additional outcome measures in cancer clinical trials. However, both fields of research are relatively new and in need of finding solutions to a substantial number of specific methodological problems. This paper reports on the proceedings of a symposium aimed at summarising and discussing some of

N Neymark; W Kiebert; K Torfs; L Davies; P Fayers; B Hillner; R Gelber; G Guyatt; P Kind; D Machin; E Nord; D Osoba; D Revicki; K Schulman; K Simpson



[Medical forensic expertise in obstetrics].  


Obstetrics is a profession where high risk and unpredictable emergency conditions are frequently encountered, potentially entailing numerous professional, legal and moral consequences. Forensic obstetrics is based on good clinical practice, state-of-the-art and ethical-deontological principles, while taking in consideration all subjects involved in the procedure of forensic expertise. The most common problems of medical expertise in obstetrics include perinatal hypoxia, premature delivery, shoulder dystocia, unnecessary medication, delivery after previous Cesarean section, breach delivery, delivery by Cesarean section and Cesarean section on demand. In addition, the obstetrician to midwife relation is discussed. PMID:19146188

Habek, Dubravko


Persecution of Jewish forensic pathologists.  


Not even forensic pathologists were spared by the anti-Jewish laws of the Third Reich. Fritz Strassmann and Paul Fraenckel were among more than 140 faculty of the Berlin Department of Medicine persecuted by the national socialist dictatorship. It was because of their Jewish background that Georg Strassmann was expelled from university in Breslau, and Leone Lattes was forced to leave in Pavia. Miklós Nyiszli was deported from Oradea to Auschwitz and forced to perform forensic autopsies. Stefan Jellinek in Vienna, Ludwik Hirszfeld in Warsaw and Friedrich Schiff in Berlin were other medical professionals whose achievements had enriched legal medicine before they became victims of anti-Jewish persecution. PMID:15364381

Strauch, H; Wirth, I



The Clinician and Forensic Medicine  

PubMed Central

Although it is an intrinsic part of all medical practice forensic medicine often is either unrecognized as such or is consciously or subconsciously evaded. The failure to apply some rather basic and simple forensic principles that only the physician is capable of doing may result in problems to the patient ranging from frustration to near catastrophe. For physicians who are reasonably well equipped to understand the legal system, the successful conclusion of a legal case, including, sometimes, an appearance in court, can be stimulating and interesting.

Root, Irving; Scott, Wayne



Forensic odontology in the disaster victim identification process.  


Disaster victim identification (DVI) is an intensive and demanding task involving specialists from various disciplines. The forensic dentist is one of the key persons who plays an important role in the DVI human identification process. In recent years, many disaster incidents have occurred that challenged the DVI team with various kinds of difficulties related to disaster management and unique situations in each disaster. New technologies have been developed to make the working process faster and more effective and the different DVI protocols have been evaluated and improved. The aim of this article is to collate all information regarding diagnostic tools and methodologies pertaining to forensic odontological DVI, both current and future. It can be concluded that lessons learned from previous disaster incidents have helped to optimize working protocols and to develop new tools that can be applied in future DVI operation. The working procedures have been greatly improved by newly developed technologies. PMID:23000806

Pittayapat, P; Jacobs, R; De Valck, E; Vandermeulen, D; Willems, G



Towards a Formalization of Digital Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While some individuals have referred to digital forensics as an art, the literature of the discipline suggests a trend toward the formalization of digital forensics as a forensic science. Questions about the quality of digital evidence and forensic soundness continue to be raised by researchers and practitioners in order to ensure the trustworthiness of digital evidence and its value to the courts. This paper reviews the development of digital forensic models, procedures and standards to lay a foundation for the discipline. It also points to new work that provides validation models through a complete mapping of the discipline.

Slay, Jill; Lin, Yi-Chi; Turnbull, Benjamin; Beckett, Jason; Lin, Paul


[Advances of forensic entomology in China].  


Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies studies of insects and arthropods to getting evidence for court and has an analogous advantage in the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) and other questions of forensic relevance. The paper expounds its definition and contents and reviews some progress of the studies in some aspects in China such as the constitution and succession of insect community on the different cadavers, the applications of morphological features of insects and the technology of analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in forensic entomology, and forensic entomological toxicology etc. PMID:17285870

Lan, Ling-mei; Liao, Zhi-gang; Chen, Yao-qing; Yao, Yue; Li, Jian-bo; Li, Mao-yang; Cai, Ji-feng



Forensic analysis of dyed textile fibers.  


Textile fibers are a key form of trace evidence, and the ability to reliably associate or discriminate them is crucial for forensic scientists worldwide. While microscopic and instrumental analysis can be used to determine the composition of the fiber itself, additional specificity is gained by examining fiber color. This is particularly important when the bulk composition of the fiber is relatively uninformative, as it is with cotton, wool, or other natural fibers. Such analyses pose several problems, including extremely small sample sizes, the desire for nondestructive techniques, and the vast complexity of modern dye compositions. This review will focus on more recent methods for comparing fiber color by using chromatography, spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The increasing use of multivariate statistics and other data analysis techniques for the differentiation of spectra from dyed fibers will also be discussed. PMID:19543886

Goodpaster, John V; Liszewski, Elisa A



Digital forensics: forensic analysis of an iPod shuffle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a discussion of the forensics of an iPod shuffle is presented. Due to the rapid rate at which technology is constantly advancing, digital music devices have evolved from simple devices capable of storing and playing a few songs, to devices capable of storing hundreds of songs, as well as other kinds of data. Apple's range of iPod

Iyatiti Mokube



Concepts and possibilities in forensic intelligence.  


Forensic intelligence can be viewed as comprising two parts, one directly concerning intelligence delivery in forensic casework, the other considering performance aspects of forensic work, loosely termed here as business intelligence. Forensic casework can be viewed as processes that produce an intelligence product useful to police investigations. Traditionally, forensic intelligence production has been confined to discipline-specific activity. This paper examines the concepts, processes and intelligence products delivered in forensic casework, the information repositories available from forensic examinations, and ways to produce within- and across-discipline casework correlations by using information technology to capitalise on the information sets available. Such analysis presents opportunities to improve forensic intelligence services as well as challenges for technical solutions to deliver appropriate data-mining capabilities for available information sets, such as digital photographs. Business intelligence refers primarily to examination of efficiency and effectiveness of forensic service delivery. This paper discusses measures of forensic activity and their relationship to crime outcomes as a measure of forensic effectiveness. PMID:16893621

Bell, Chris



Residential end-use load-shape estimation. Volume 1. Methodology and results of statistical disaggregation from whole-house metered loads. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

End-use load shapes are important for the development of improved load forecasting techniques, analysis of load management and costing\\/rate making. A methodology for estimating end-use load shapes using hourly whole-house metered load data, household demographic survey data, and weather data (temperature) is presented. Although the focus of the project was on the residential sector, the techniques developed can also be

P. B. Usoro; I. C. Schick



Transformations of summary statistics as input in meta-analysis for linear dose-response models on a logarithmic scale: a methodology developed within EURRECA  

PubMed Central

Background To derive micronutrient recommendations in a scientifically sound way, it is important to obtain and analyse all published information on the association between micronutrient intake and biochemical proxies for micronutrient status using a systematic approach. Therefore, it is important to incorporate information from randomized controlled trials as well as observational studies as both of these provide information on the association. However, original research papers present their data in various ways. Methods This paper presents a methodology to obtain an estimate of the dose–response curve, assuming a bivariate normal linear model on the logarithmic scale, incorporating a range of transformations of the original reported data. Results The simulation study, conducted to validate the methodology, shows that there is no bias in the transformations. Furthermore, it is shown that when the original studies report the mean and standard deviation or the geometric mean and confidence interval the results are less variable compared to when the median with IQR or range is reported in the original study. Conclusions The presented methodology with transformations for various reported data provides a valid way to estimate the dose–response curve for micronutrient intake and status using both randomized controlled trials and observational studies.



Can clinical CT data improve forensic reconstruction?  


In accidents resulting in severe injuries, a clinical forensic examination is generally abandoned in the initial phase due to high-priority clinical needs. However, in many cases, data from clinical computed tomography (CT) examinations are available. The goals of this prospective study were (a) to evaluate clinical CT data as a basis for forensic reconstruction of the sequence of events, (b) to assess if forensic radiological follow-up reading improves the forensic diagnostic benefit compared to the written clinical radiological reports, and (c) to evaluate if full data storage including additional reconstructed 0.6-mm slices enhances forensic analysis. Clinical CT data of 15 living individuals with imaging of at least the head, thorax, and abdomen following polytrauma were examined regarding the forensic evaluation of the sequence of events. Additionally, 0.6-mm slices and 3D images were reconstructed for forensic purposes and used for the evaluation. At the forensic radiological readings, additional traumatic findings were observed in ten of the 15 patients. The main weakness of the clinical reports was that they were not detailed enough, particularly regarding the localization of injuries and description of wound morphology. In seven cases, however, forensic conclusions were possible on the basis of the written clinical reports, whereas in five cases forensic reconstruction required specific follow-up reading. The additional 0.6-mm slices were easily available and with improved 3D image quality and forensic diagnostics. In conclusion, the use of clinical CT data can considerably support forensic expertise regarding reconstruction issues. Forensic follow-up reading as well as the use of additional thin slices for 3D analysis can further improve its benefit for forensic reconstruction purposes. PMID:23412132

Schuh, P; Scheurer, E; Fritz, K; Pavlic, M; Hassler, E; Rienmüller, R; Yen, K



ISFG: recommendations regarding the use of non-human (animal) DNA in forensic genetic investigations.  


The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only. PMID:21106449

Linacre, A; Gusmão, L; Hecht, W; Hellmann, A P; Mayr, W R; Parson, W; Prinz, M; Schneider, P M; Morling, N



RRSS - Methodological Issues

Methodologic research involves developing and improving the methods of assessing factors related to cancer risk factors, screening, diagnosis, treatment, survival, and progression of disease following cancer. Methodologic issues cover statistical questions, health and risk assessment, factors associated with obtaining and using biospecimens, use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and factors influencing cancer incidence.


Analysis of Linux RAM Forensics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During a forensic investigation of a computer system, the ability to retrieve volatile information can be of critical importance. The contents of RAM could reveal malicious code running on the system that has been deleted from the hard drive or, better ye...

J. M. Urrea



The Rorschach in Forensic Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rorschach is one of the most widely used, openly accepted, and frequently requested tests in forensic psychology practice (Piotrowski, 1996; Meloy, 1991; Weiner, Exner, & Sciara, 1996). Well-trained psychologists with a sophisticated understanding of the individual, psychological constructs, base rates, and conditional probabilities, derive information from the Rorschach beyond what is available from diagnosis, self-report, and interview. The Rorschach

Carl B. Gacono; F. Barton Evans III; Donald J. Viglione



Selection Effects in Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we consider the following question: does a forensic expert need to know exactly how the evidential material was selected? We set up a few simple models of situations in which the way evidence is selected may influence its value in court. Although reality is far from a probabilistic model, and one should be very careful when applying

Geert Jan; FranxYves van Gennip; Peter Hochs; Misja NuyensLuigi PallaCorrie Quant; Pieter Trapman


Forensic archaeology as mortuary anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that forensic anthropology is more than just physical anthropology, but should incorporate several subdisciplinary perspectives into a framework of mortuary anthropology. The advantage of this holistic approach is to provide context for the primary roles of physical anthropologists; identification of victims, and assessing manner of death. Mortuary anthropology provides information on processes of disposal and site formation,

William A. Lovis



Towards Proactive Forensic Evidentiary Collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic investigations have traditionally relied on data that exists as a by-product of normal operating system and application operation on a system following an incident. We propose a research agenda targeted at expanding the information available to an investigator in computing environments in which software can be installed on the target systems ahead of any incident. In these cases, information

Clay Shields



Resolution in forensic microbial genotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resolution is a key parameter for differentiating among the large number of strain typing methods that could be applied to pathogens involved in bioterror events or biocrimes. In this report we develop a first-principles analysis of strain typing resolution using a simple mathematical model to provide a basis for the rational design of microbial typing systems for forensic applications. We




Authentication of forensic DNA samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that

Dan Frumkin; Adam Wasserstrom; Ariane Davidson; Arnon Grafit



Forensics: Enhancing Civic Literacy & Democracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Forensics--interpretation, speech, and debate--can and should be a meaningful part of every school's curriculum. To put it simply, the course of study, alongside cocurricular competition, promotes civic education and enhances the standard curriculum by helping students explore myriad topics from multiple angles and find the truth in each,…

Briscoe, Shawn F.



Forensic applications of mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human mitochondrial DNA has become a useful tool in forensic investigations. Its polymorphic nature and maternal inheritance are characteristics that have, combined with its sequence information, enabled investigators to identify missing persons, war casualties and individuals involved in mass disasters and criminal cases. Various screening procedures have been developed to reduce the need to sequence samples that do not match,

John M Butler; Barbara C Levin



Forensic nursing research: how far we've come  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature and problems of forensic nursing research are presented and discussed. The background to and current state of forensic nursing research are described. Some differences between the nature of forensic psychiatric, psychological and forensic nursing research are identified. Forensic psychiatric research deals primarily with drug treatments and psychological research deals with specific therapies often referred to as ‘talking therapies’,

Alyson Kettles; Helen Walker



Forensic anthropology in Latin America.  


Forensic anthropology has been one of the fastest growing medico-legal disciplines both in its contribution to the practical needs of the legal system and research accomplishments. New anthropological standards were developed to apply to a specific population of a region. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a large sample of anthropological forensic cases and to review pertinent literature that deals with anthropological standards developed for the population of the continent of Central and South America. Using Uruguay as an example, there was not a single office or anthropologist assigned to analyze human skeletal remains in Uruguay. In 1991 the Laboratorio de Antropología Forense at the Morgue Judicial of Montevideo was created. A total of 189 forensic anthropological cases (276 individuals) were analyzed since this date. Twenty six percent of cases involving human remains were positively identified. The majority came from the Departamento de Montevideo, the largest population district of the country. Most of the cases fell into the 60 to 69 years old age range (35%). Females represented 32% of the total. Since the establishment of the laboratory, the number of forensic cases increased considerably from 20 in 1991 to 40 in 1997. The case studies were accompanied with skull-photo superimposition and facial reconstruction when no other evidence for positive identification was available. This service provided by the laboratory was quickly known to coroners, law enforcement agencies, and other legal authorities and thus utilized not only in Uruguay but also in several other countries in the continent. Because of the obvious need for an anthropologist, there are now university programs to provide forensic anthropological education. Yet, research has lagged behind considerably. Deficiencies are obvious in basic osteological standards of estimating age, calculating stature, determining sex and assessing race that can be applied to populations of the continent. Regional standards are also needed to estimate postmortem interval, to identify culture specific causes of trauma and other forensic phenomena. Some of these can be remedied if there is a database where the available literature is stored and osteometric information is shared. PMID:10759068

I?can, M Y; Olivera, H E



A Skeleton Tells Its Own Story: Forensic Analyses of Skeletal Elements for the Science Classroom Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The techniques of forensic anthropology and pathology can provide new information to increase student interest in studying the structural details of the human skeleton. We present a simplified methodology for assessing skeletal ethnicity, sex, age, and stature. An inexpensive method has been devised for constructing an osteometric board to allow…

Naples, Virginia L.; Breed, David; Miller, Jon S.



Developing a one-semester course in forensic chemical science for university undergraduates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to research, develop and validate a one-semester course for the general education of university undergraduates in forensic chemical education. The course outline was developed using the research and development (R&D) methodology recommended by Gall, Borg, and Gall, (2003) and Dick and Carey, (2001) through a three step developmental cycle. Information was gathered and analyzed

Roberta Sue Salem



Further validation of a multiplex STR system for use in routine forensic identity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymerase chain reaction- (PCR) based short tandem repeat (STR) system has recently been developed for use in routine forensic identity testing [1]. The methodology involves the simultaneous amplification of alleles at four loci on different chromosomes, followed by the fluorescent detection of products using an automated DNA sequencer. The adoption of this technology into operational casework offers several advantages

Julia F. Andersen; M. J. Greenhalgh; H. R. Butler; S. R. Kilpatrick; R. C. Piercy; H. S. Myhill; J. C. Wright; R. Hallett; B. H. Parkin



Residential end-use load-shape estimation. Volume 1. Methodology and results of statistical disaggregation from whole-house metered loads. Final report  

SciTech Connect

End-use load shapes are important for the development of improved load forecasting techniques, analysis of load management and costing/rate making. A methodology for estimating end-use load shapes using hourly whole-house metered load data, household demographic survey data, and weather data (temperature) is presented. Although the focus of the project was on the residential sector, the techniques developed can also be applied to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the present approach, the coupling of lifestyle and weather in load demand is clearly modeled. Weather-independent load is modeled with Fourier-like terms (sine and cosine functions) and dummy variables, and weather-dependent load is represented by a thermodynamics-based nonlinear dynamic model exhibiting heat build-up effect, thermostat set-point variation, and appliance saturation. Automatic data pre-processing is incorporated to eliminate anomalous data using pattern recognition techniques. The overall methodology provides an effective means for end-use load shape modeling. In particular, the effect of weather on electricity demand, which concerns power system forecasters and planners, is accurately represented.

Usoro, P.B.; Schick, I.C.



A model for data analysis of microRNA expression in forensic body fluid identification.  


MicroRNAs (miRNAs, 18-25 bases in length) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNA expression patterns, including presence and relative abundance of particular miRNA species, provide cell- and tissue-specific information that can be used for body fluid identification. Recently, two published studies reported that a number of body fluid-specific miRNAs had been identified. However, the results were inconsistent when different technology platforms and statistical methods were applied. To further study the role of miRNAs in identification of body fluids, this study sets out to develop an accurate and reliable model for data analysis of miRNA expression. To that end, the relative expression levels of three miRNAs were studied using the mirVana™ miRNA Isolation Kit, high-specificity stem-loop reverse transcription (RT) and high-sensitivity hydrolysis probes (TaqMan) quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in forensically relevant biological fluids, including venous blood, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood, semen and saliva. Accurate quantification of miRNAs requires not only a highly sensitive and specific detection platform for experiment operation, but also a reproducible methodology with an adequate model for data analysis. In our study, the efficiency-calibrated model that incorporated the impact of the quantification cycle (Cq) values and PCR efficiencies of target and reference genes was developed to calculate the relative expression ratio of miRNAs in forensically relevant body fluids. Our results showed that venous blood was distinguished from other body fluids according to the relative expression ratio of miR16 using as little as 50pg of total RNA, while the expression level of miR658 was unstable and that of miR205 was nonspecific among different body fluids. Collectively, the findings may constitute a basis for future miRNA-based research on body fluid identification and show miRNAs as a promising biomarker in forensic identification of body fluids. PMID:21903498

Wang, Zheng; Luo, Haibo; Pan, Xiongfei; Liao, Miao; Hou, Yiping



Microanalytical Methods for Bio-Forensics Investigations  

SciTech Connect

Forensics investigations of bio-crime or bio-terrorism incidents require careful analysis of collected evidentiary material. Although the biological markers in the evidentiary material are important (e.g. genomic signatures, protein markers), the elemental make-up of the organisms themselves and the surrounding non-biological material is extremely useful for attributing a specific process and, perhaps, specific persons to the production of the biological agent. This talk will describe the coordinated use of microanalytical techniques such as SEM-EDX, STEM-EDX, and NanoSIMS for generating compositional signatures for bio-forensics investigations. These analytical techniques span length scales from the 50 {micro}m range to the 5nm range. The range of analytical sensitivities spans from {approx}.5wt% for EDX down to parts per billion for SIMS techniques. In addition, we will discuss the use of spectrum imaging techniques for rapidly extracting the key elemental signatures from large scale data sets. Spectrum imaging techniques combined with multivariate statistical analysis allow for the collection and interrogation or enormous quantities of data without pre-biasing the answer.[1] Spectrum imaging has been used successfully in EDX microanalysis[1] (both in the SEM and TEM) and TOF-SIMS[2]. In this study, a set of test biological agents, ?-irradiated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were examined using the aforementioned microanalytical techniques. The sample set included a number of processing conditions to gauge the ability of these techniques to identify the production methods of these simulated agents. Complementary but distinct forensic signatures were obtained by all three analytical techniques. Figure 1 shows two types of silicate particles observed among the spore material itself. At this length scale, the spores themselves cannot be resolved, but the presence of these silicates is key marker for distinguishing this production route. A STEM-EDX spectrum image from the same material does not show these large silicates but instead shows the segregation of elements such as sulfur and silicon to the extra-cellular material between spores, again a result of the specific process used to produce this simulated agent (Figure 2). NanoSIMS data from the same material also shows the segregation of Si in this preparation. The NanoSIMS data also displays and quantifies the distribution of elements such as fluorine at levels which were not detectable in the STEM-EDX measurements (Figure 3).

Brewer, L N; Weber, P K; Grant, R P; Ghosal, S; Michael, J R



[Forensic entomology and globalisation].  


The main aim of Forensic Entomology has always been, and is today, to establish the time of death (P.M.I.: Postmortem Period) or, more exactly, how long a carrion has been exposed in the environment. Most of the invertebrate fauna occurring on corpses consists of insects (mostly Diptera and Coleoptera). They are selectively attracted by the decomposing status of the carrion, and form complex communities or biocenosis within necrophagous or sarcophagous species and their predators, parasites and parasitoids, competing each one another. The rapid and continuos changes of the micro-ecosystem (the body), until its breakdown, does not permit the achievement of a steady state or an equilibrium in the animal communities. These continuous modifications give us the possibility to estimate when (and where) the death has occurred, by the identification of the species feeding on the corpse, the knowledge of their life history, and the length of each stage of their cycle at varying the temperature and the other abiotic factors, external to the carrion ecosystem. The P.M.I. today is still largely based on the tables of faunal succession on human cadavers recognised by Mégin in 1894, with few changes proposed by Authors from other countries. In the last years, however, it happens more and more often, that the natural communities are subverted by the presence of allocton species, which can compete, predate or parasite the most common local sarcophagous insects, modifying, this way, the succession waves and the trophic nets. The immission in the environment of foreign species may be voluntary or casual, but in any case is due to anthropic activities. The voluntary immission happens when some species, employed in the biological struggle against pest or dangerous insects, for pollination of allocton plants, or for other commercial utilities, are beyond man's control and swarm onto the environment; the casual spread is due to the globalisation phenomenon, that distributes the "little organisms" by chance, together with travellers, goods and food items. Together with human migratory flows, raw materials and vegetal foodstuffs travelling from Tropical developing Countries to the North of the world, also many tropical and subtropical insects can be carried out from their original lands. Eurioecious and polyphagous species, and species that evolved mechanisms (as diapausa or hibernation) to get over critical environmental conditions have the highest probability of survival. Saprophagous insects, and flies in particular, evolved such capabilities. The mortality of foreign species due to the difference of temperature and seasonally between tropical and temperate areas was, in the past, the most effective factor limiting the geographic propagation of insects. The ongoing global climate changes induce insect populations, now confined to the tropics, to most likely spread towards middle latitudes, where their specific competitors, predators and parasites, which regulate the population growth, are often absent. The lack of a biological control, the warming up of atmosphere temperature and the fall of the differences among seasons induce a more rapid development and an increased number of generations in new species, that often displace the autocton ones. This phenomenon is much more clear in little and simple ecosystems (such as carrion), mostly occur than in large and complex ecosystems, where many more components, vegetal organisms and phytophagous animals included, are present. To demonstrate how globalisation and climate changes are breaking the geographic barriers, we present some cases in which, during our entomoforensic investigations, performed mainly in North-eastern Italy, Neotropical, African and Asiatic necrophagous flies, beetles and wasp parasitoids have been collected, some of which rare or new for Italy or Paleartic Region. In particular, we report our studies on the american black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), that is showing a heavy competition with the local saprophagous species and is reaching

Turchetto, M; Vanin, S



Crime Scene Intelligence: An Experiment in Forensic Entomology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LT Albert Cruz's forensic entomology/explosive (E2) scientific project proved to be cutting edge and groundbreaking science in the forensic community. His thorough research and original analysis included a newly found forensic/intelligence analytical tool...

A. M. Cruz



The 'relics of Joan of Arc': a forensic multidisciplinary analysis.  


Archaeological remains can provide concrete cases, making it possible to develop, refine or validate medico-legal techniques. In the case of the so-called 'Joan of Arc's relics' (a group of bone and archaeological remains known as the 'Bottle of Chinon'), 14 specialists analysed the samples such as a cadaver X of carbonised aspect: forensic anthropologist, medical examiners, pathologists, geneticists, radiologist, biochemists, palynologists, zoologist and archaeologist. Materials, methods and results of this study are presented here. This study aims to offer an exploitable methodology for the modern medico-legal cases of small quantities of human bones of carbonised aspect. PMID:19913375

Charlier, P; Poupon, J; Eb, A; De Mazancourt, P; Gilbert, T; Huynh-Charlier, I; Loublier, Y; Verhille, A M; Moulheirat, C; Patou-Mathis, M; Robbiola, L; Montagut, R; Masson, F; Etcheberry, A; Brun, L; Willerslev, E; de la Grandmaison, G Lorin; Durigon, M



The Non-Forensics After-Life of a Forensics Director.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study investigated the personal and career choices that motivate an educator's departure from active involvement in forensics activities, and what trends, if any, exist concerning what former directors do in place of forensics. The study also investigated how forensics participation as a coach/director impacted on the individual, and what…

Nicolai, Michael T.


The contribution of forensic science to crime analysis and investigation: Forensic intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate in forensic science concentrates on issues such as standardisation, accreditation and de-contextualisation, in a legal and economical context, in order to ensure the scientific objectivity and efficiency that must guide the process of collecting, analysing, interpreting and reporting forensic evidence. At the same time, it is recognised that forensic case data is still poorly integrated into the investigation

Olivier Ribaux; Simon J. Walsh; Pierre Margot



Introduction to Forensic Engineering and Accident Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief introduction to, and general overview of, the field of forensic engineering\\u000a and accident reconstruction. Forensic engineering is defined as the application of engineering principles to the purposes\\u000a of the law. Qualified forensic engineers are individuals formally educated in one, or more, engineering disciplines that utilize\\u000a their knowledge and skills to

Scott D. Batterman; Steven C. Batterman


Neurobehavioral assessment in forensic practice.  


There is a growing awareness among mental health practitioners that many mental disorders previously believed to be primarily behavioral in nature, reflecting character and environment, are actually grounded in brain mal-development or brain disorder. This growing awareness, influenced by the advent of new diagnostic procedures and measures, is also found among forensic practitioners. In this paper, we describe some of the elements involved in conducting a neurobehavioral assessment of cognitive functioning, particularly in capital cases, organizing this material in terms of the professional disciplines - social work, mitigation investigation, psychological, and medical - with which these methods are mainly identified. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of how to integrate the multiple areas of expertise to create an accurate understanding of the neurobehavioral functioning and capacity of the subject. This is the basis from which civil and criminal forensic opinions must emanate. PMID:23059206

Woods, George W; Freedman, David; Greenspan, Stephen



Research data sharing: Lessons from forensic genetics.  


In this study, we present an empirical assessment of the extent and way in which data are shared in forensic genetic papers. The analysis is based on the scrutiny of datasets published between 2008 and 2011. The elevated sharing rate of forensic genetic datasets (86.06%), is discussed in relation to: (i) the editorial policies of the two main journals in the field (Forensic Science International: Genetics and International Journal of Legal Medicine); (ii) the cooperative efforts to develop common standards and achieve full reproducibility of genotyping techniques in the forensic genetic community. PMID:23972948

Anagnostou, P; Capocasa, M; Milia, N; Bisol, G Destro



Frequently cited journals in forensic psychology.  


Works cited in six forensic psychology journals published 2008-2010 were counted to identify the most frequently cited journals. The sample of works cited (N = 21,776) was not a definitive ranked list of important journals in forensic psychology, but was large enough to indicate high-impact journals. The list of frequently cited publications included more general psychiatry and psychology journals than titles specific to forensic psychology. The implications of the proportion of general versus specific titles for collections supporting research in forensic psychology were discussed. PMID:22489393

Black, Steve



Forensic Chemistry\\/Controlled Substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides an overview of the operation of the forensic chemistry section, specifically, as applied to the analysis\\u000a of controlled substances. The first section walks the reader through the generic analytical process. The next section discusses\\u000a the different types of examination performed during the analysis of controlled substances, including botanical examinations,\\u000a wet chemical examinations, and instrumental examinations. The third

Donnell Christian


Body fluid identification in forensics.  


Determination of the type and origin of the body fluids found at a crime scene can give important insights into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numerous types of body fluid identification methods have been developed, such as chemical tests, immunological tests, protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods and microscopy. However, these conventional body fluid identification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carried out for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of a molecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling or DNA methylation detection has been recently proposed to supplant conventional body fluid identification methods. Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) which are specific to forensically relevant body fluids have been identified, and their specificities and sensitivities have been tested using various samples. In this review, we provide an overview of the present knowledge and the most recent developments in forensic body fluid identification and discuss its possible practical application to forensic casework. PMID:23101507

An, Ja Hyun; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young



Statistical modeling and optimization of alkaline protease production from a newly isolated alkalophilic Bacillus species BGS using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm.  


A new hyperactive alkalophilic bacterial strain (Bacillus sp. BGS) was isolated from samples collected from soil that received the effluent of a milk processing industry located in Madurai, Tamilnadu, India, and this bacterial strain was used for the production of alkaline protease. Four out of eight variables, such as molasses, peptone, pH, and inoculum size, have been identified through Plackett-Burman (PB) design and used for the alkaline protease production. These significant variables were further optimized through a hybrid system of response surface methodology (RSM) followed by genetic algorithm (GA). The optimal combination of media components and culture conditions for maximal protease production was found to be 16.827 g/L of peptone, 1.128% (v/v) of molasses, pH value of 11, and 2% (v/v) of inoculum size. A 6.36-fold increase in protease production was achieved through the RSM-GA hybrid system. The protease activity increased significantly with an optimized medium (2,992.75 U/mL) as opposed to an unoptimized basal medium (470.35 U/mL). PMID:23379276

Moorthy, Innasi Muthu Ganesh; Baskar, Rajoo



The use of insects in forensic investigations: An overview on the scope of forensic entomology.  


Forensic entomology is the study of insects/arthropods in criminal investigation. Right from the early stages insects are attracted to the decomposing body and may lay eggs in it. By studying the insect population and the developing larval stages, forensic scientists can estimate the postmortem index, any change in position of the corpse as well as the cause of death. Forensic odontologists are called upon more frequently to collaborate in criminal investigations and hence should be aware of the possibilities that forensic entomology have to offer and use it as an adjunct to the conventional means of forensic investigation. PMID:22408328

Joseph, Isaac; Mathew, Deepu G; Sathyan, Pradeesh; Vargheese, Geetha



The role of forensic anthropology in the examination of the Daegu subway disaster (2003, Korea).  


Meticulous recovery of victims in the Daegu subway disaster was possible, because charred and fragmented victims were left in situ. Because bodies were piled one over another within the train, appropriate methodology during the recovery was critical to identifying the victims. The disaster area was thoroughly documented with notes, photographs, and schematic drawings of the various locations. The recovery team, comprising two medical examiners and one forensic anthropologist, decided when charred body parts and cremated bones were linked to the same individual based on the anatomy and forensic anthropological examination. Without these recovery procedures, it would not have been possible to efficiently harvest representative DNA sample from most of the victims' body parts. After the entire process of identification, 136 victims were positively identified, and six victims remained unidentified. This study supports the crucial role of forensic anthropologists in the recovery of victims, especially in fire scenes. PMID:19432735

Park, Dae-Kyoon; Park, Kyung-Ho; Ko, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Yi-Suk; Chung, Nak-Eun; Ahn, Yong-Woo; Han, Seung-Ho



Forensic scatology: preliminary experimental study of the preparation and potential for identification of captive carnivore scat.  


Carnivore scats recovered from animal attack and/or scavenging contexts frequently contain forensic evidence such as human bone fragments. Forensic cases with carnivore involvement are increasingly prevalent, necessitating a methodology for the recovery and analysis of scat evidence. This study proposes a method for the safe preparation of carnivore scat, recovery of bone inclusions, and quantification and comparison of scat variables. Fourteen scats (lion, jaguar, lynx, wolf, and coyote) were prepared with sodium-acetate-formalin fixative; analytical variables included carnivore individual, species, body size, and taxonomic family. Scat variables, particularly bone fragment inclusions, were found to vary among carnivore individuals, families, species, and sizes. The methods in this study facilitate safe scat processing, the complete recovery of digested evidence, and the preliminary identification of involved animals. This research demonstrates that scat collected from forensic contexts can yield valuable information concerning both the victim and the carnivore involved. PMID:21923796

Gilmour, Rebecca J; Skinner, Mark F



A Simple Cost-Effective Framework for iPhone Forensic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apple iPhone has made significant impact on the society both as a handheld computing device and as a cellular phone. Due to the unique hardware system as well as storage structure, iPhone has already attracted the forensic community in digital investigation of the device. Currently available commercial products and methodologies for iPhone forensics are somewhat expensive, complex and often require additional hardware for analysis. Some products are not robust and often fail to extract optimal evidence without modifying the iPhone firmware which makes the analysis questionable in legal platforms. In this paper, we present a simple and inexpensive framework (iFF) for iPhone forensic analysis. Through experimental results using real device, we have shown the effectiveness of this framework in extracting digital evidence from an iPhone.

Husain, Mohammad Iftekhar; Baggili, Ibrahim; Sridhar, Ramalingam


Forensic audio watermark detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital audio watermarking detection is often computational complex and requires at least as much audio information as required to embed a complete watermark. In some applications, especially real-time monitoring, this is an important drawback. The reason for this is the usage of sync sequences at the beginning of the watermark, allowing a decision about the presence only if at least the sync has been found and retrieved. We propose an alternative method for detecting the presence of a watermark. Based on the knowledge of the secret key used for embedding, we create a mark for all potential marking stages and then use a sliding window to test a given audio file on the presence of statistical characteristics caused by embedding. In this way we can detect a watermark in less than 1 second of audio.

Steinebach, Martin; Zmudzinski, Sascha; Petrautzki, Dirk



Students' conceptions of evidence during a university introductory forensic science course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' Conceptions of Science, Scientific Evidence, and Forensic Evidence during a University Introductory Forensic Science Course This study was designed to examine and understand what conceptions undergraduate students taking an introductory forensic science course had about scientific evidence. Because the relationships between the nature of science, the nature of evidence, and the nature of forensic evidence are not well understood in the science education literature, this study sought to understand how these concepts interact and affect students' understanding of scientific evidence. Four participants were purposefully selected for this study from among 89 students enrolled in two sections of an introductory forensic science course taught during the fall 2005 semester. Of the 89 students, 84 were criminal justice majors with minimal science background and five were chemistry majors with academic backgrounds in the natural and physical sciences. All 89 students completed a biographical data sheet and a pre-instruction Likert scale survey consisting of twenty questions relating to the nature of scientific evidence. An evaluation of these two documents resulted in a purposeful selection of four varied student participants, each of whom was interviewed three times throughout the semester about the nature of science, the nature of evidence, and the nature of forensic evidence. The same survey was administered to the participants again at the end of the semester-long course. This study examined students' assumptions, prior knowledge, their understanding of scientific inference, scientific theory, and methodology. Examination of the data found few differences with regard to how the criminal justice majors and the chemistry majors responded to interview questions about forensic evidence. There were qualitative differences, however, when the same participants answered interview questions relating to traditional scientific evidence. Furthermore, suggestions are offered for undergraduate science teachers, science teaching programs, and future research.

Yeshion, Theodore Elliot


A generalized Benford's law for JPEG coefficients and its applications in image forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel statistical model based on Benford's law for the probability distributions of the first digits of the block-DCT and quantized JPEG coefficients is presented. A parametric logarithmic law, i.e., the generalized Benford's law, is formulated. Furthermore, some potential applications of this model in image forensics are discussed in this paper, which include the detection of JPEG

Dongdong Fu; Yun Q. Shi; Wei Su



Practical relevance of pattern uniqueness in forensic science.  


Uniqueness being unprovable, it has recently been argued that individualization in forensic science is irrelevant and, probability, as applied for DNA profiles, should be applied for all identifications. Critiques against uniqueness have omitted physical matching, a realistic and tangible individualization that supports uniqueness. Describing case examples illustrating pattern matches including physical matching, it is indicated that individualizations are practically relevant for forensic science as they establish facts on a definitive basis providing firm leads benefitting criminal investigation. As a tenet of forensic identification, uniqueness forms a fundamental paradigm relevant for individualization. Evidence on the indeterministic and stochastic causal pathways of characteristics in patterns available in the related fields of science sufficiently supports the proposition of uniqueness. Characteristics involved in physical matching and matching achieved in patterned evidence existing in the state of nature are not events amenable for counting; instead these are ensemble of visible units occupying the entire pattern area stretching the probability of re-occurrence of a verisimilitude pattern into infinity offering epistemic support to uniqueness. Observational methods are as respectable as instrumental or statistical methods since they are capable of generating results that are tangible and obviously valid as in physical matching. Applying the probabilistic interpretation used for DNA profiles to the other patterns would be unbefitting since these two are disparate, the causal pathways of the events, the loci, in the manipulated DNA profiles being determinable. While uniqueness enables individualizations, it does not vouch for eliminating errors. Instead of dismissing uniqueness and individualization, accepting errors as human or system failures and seeking remedial measures would benefit forensic science practice and criminal investigation. PMID:23849815

Jayaprakash, Paul T




Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTThis paper delineates the specialty field of forensic industrial organization (IO) as the application of theoretical and empirical industrial organization economics in the legal process of competition law enforcement. Four stages of that process that can benefit from forensic IO techniques are distinguished: detection and investigation; case development; decision-making and litigation; and remedies, sanctions, and damages. We survey the use

Maarten Pieter Schinkel



Training, Certification, and Regulation of Forensic Evaluators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic evaluators play a crucial role in criminal cases in which the defendant appears to have a mental disability. Historically, state laws restricted eligibility to perform forensic evaluations to physicians or psychiatrists. These restrictions had loosened by the time of G. Farkas' (1997) survey of states. According to the research underlying this case study, all but six states allow psychologists

Lynda E. Frost; Rebecca L. de Camara; Tara R. Earl



Identification of Legal Issues for Computer Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of computers into every aspect of modern society has been accompanied by the rise of E-crime. the processes and techniques employed by the field of computer forensics offer huge potential for the extraction and presentation of electronic evidence in a court of law. This article analyzes the legal issues that currently or could potentially impact the computer forensics

Angela Brungs; Rodger Jamieson



A Lessons Learned Repository for Computer Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Law Enforcement community possesses a large, but informal, community memory with respect to digital forensics. Large, because the experiences of every forensics technician and investigator contribute to the whole. Informal because there is seldom an explicit mechanism for disseminating this wisdom except \\

Warren Harrison; George Heuston; Mark Morrissey; David Aucsmith; Sarah Mocas; Steve Russelle



Policies to Enhance Computer and Network Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet is growing explosively, as is thenumber of crimes committed against or using computers. As aresponse to the growth of computer crime, the field of Computerand Network Forensics emerged. Computer forensics is the artof discovering and retrieving information about a crime in such away to make it admissible in court. It is after-the-fact in that theonly preventative capability of

Alec Yasinsac; Yanet Manzano



Anti-Forensics and the Digital Investigator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewed generically, anti-forensics (AF) is that set of tactics and measures taken by someone who wants to thwart the digital investigation process. This paper describes some of the many AF tools and methods, under the broad classifications of data hiding, artefact wiping, trail obfuscation, and attacks on the forensics tools themselves. The concept of AF is neither new nor solely

Gary C. Kessler



Weaving ontologies to support digital forensic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous challenges currently face digital forensic analysis. Although a variety of techniques and tools exist to assist with the analysis of digital evidence, they inadequately address key problems. We consider the applicability and usefulness of weaving ontologies to address some of these problems. We introduce an ontological approach leading to future development of an automated digital forensic analysis tool.

Allyson M. Hoss; Doris L. Carver



Welcome to Forensic science, medicine, and pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does the forensic scientific community require a new journal? Do we not have enough already? Well the answer from my point of view is of course, “yes,” we do need a new journal and “no” we do not have too many already. I hope in this short editorial to outline why Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology (also known as FSMP)

Guy N. Rutty



Forensic Science in a Human Rights Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic services, founded upon good science and best practice, provide an inherent safeguard for human rights. Moreover, practitioners are well placed to uphold fundamental and longstanding rights such as ‘the right to a fair hearing’. Our ability to embrace other emerging rights, however, is less clear. The increasing ambit and remit of forensic science is a cause of increasing social,

Sarah Donnelly



Forensic Science in Transition: Critical Leadership Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our nation needs strong forensic leaders. National leaders are needed to champion reforms recommended by the National Research Council and Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community (2009). Leaders are also needed in laboratories to address difficult challenges in the context of resource limitations and constraints that hamper progress toward important goals. Business tools, strategies, and tactics

Wendy S. Becker; W. Mark Dale; Edward J. Pavur Jr



Fingerprint identification software for forensic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fingerprint identification is broadly established as one of the most reliable identification methods for forensic and non-forensic applications. Nevertheless, due to growth in volume of fingerprint databases, performance requirements, and speed limitations of the manual process, Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) are extensively needed. This paper describes the design and implementation of a cost-effective AFIS system that operates in four

Ziad Abu-Faraj; A. Abdallah; K. Chebaklo; E. Khoukaz



Forensic odontology, part 1. Dental identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This series is based upon fact, experience, and some personal views of the author and gives a brief glimpse of forensic odontological issues with regard to the identification of human remains (to include mass fatality incidents), biting injuries and child abuse. The aim of the first paper is to give the reader greater understanding of the role of the forensic

J. Hinchliffe



Digital Forensics Tools: The Next Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital forensics investigators have access to a wide variety of tools, both commercial and open source, which assist in the preservation and analysis of digital evidence. Unfortunately, most current digital forensics tools fall short in several ways. First, they are unable to cope with the ever-increasing storage capacity of target devices. As these storage capacities creep into hundreds of gigabytes

Golden G. Richard III


Nuclear Forensics for High School Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an education module on nuclear forensics, designed for high school science classrooms. The lessons include a mix of hands-on activities, computer simulations, and written exercises. Students are presented with realistic scenarios designed to develop their knowledge of nuclear science and its application to nuclear forensics. A two-day teacher workshop offered at Hope College attracted 20 teachers. They were

Catherine Mader; Heide Doss; Monica Plisch; Drew Isola; Kathy Mirakovitz



Forensic evidence: Materializing bodies, materializing crimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an ethnographic study of fingerprint and DNA evidence practices in the Swedish judicial system, this article analyses the materialization of forensic evidence. It argues that forensic evidence, while popularly understood as firmly rooted in materiality, is inseparably technoscientific and cultural. Its roots in the material world are entangled threads of matter, technoscience and culture that produce particular bodily

Corinna Kruse



Fast identification algorithms for forensic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a novel fast search algorithm is proposed that is designed to offer improved performance in terms of identification accuracy whilst maintaining acceptable speed for forensic applications involving biometrics and Physically Unclonable Functions. A framework for forensic applications is presented, followed by a review of optimal and existing fast algorithms. We show why the new algorithm has the

Fokko Beekhof; Sviatoslav Voloshynovskiy; Oleksiy Koval; Taras Holotyak



Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special

John B. Cliff; Helen W. Kreuzer; Christopher J. Ehrhardt; David S. Wunschel



Introduction to Forensic Medicine and Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this chapter is to explain what legal medicine is (from its background to the present), and forensic pathology\\u000a in particular — what its objectives are, what forensic doctors do, and when, why, how, and for whom. Furthermore, the author\\u000a aims to identify their main difficulties and expectancies.


Health Considerations for Forensic Professionals: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing crime rates and global security crises have necessitated the employment of forensic techniques for tackling such situations. Crime scene investigation forms an essential part of forensic science protocol, which involves collection and examination of the physical evidences present in various forms (chemical, biological and physical) and their subsequent examination in the laboratory. Interaction of the crime scene investigating personnel

Pooja Malik; Gagandeep Singh



Neurotoxin Exposure and MMPI Forensic Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) has been widely used as an objective personality test, in addition to being used in forensic assessments, especially involving claims of physical or emotional damage. It now appears that questions must be raised concerning the MMPI's forensic implications given the advent of new disease…

Storm, Heidi A.


Scientific standards for studies in forensic genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic molecular genetics has evolved from a rapidly developing field with changing technologies into a highly recognized and generally accepted forensic science, leading to the establishment of national DNA databases with DNA profiles from suspects and convicted offenders. DNA evidence has taken a central role by carrying a significant weight for convictions, as well as by excluding innocent suspects early

Peter M. Schneider



Laser capture microdissection for forensic DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a unique tool for precise separation of target cells from forensic mixtures. Cells isolated by LCM can subsequently be used for the generation of pure DNA profiles. Although mainly used in sexual assault cases, LCM offers tremendous advantages for many different forensic applications.

Mado Vandewoestyne; Dieter Deforce


Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of…

Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat



Investigating the Worldwide Popularity of Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of forensic science has increased dramatically over the past decade throughout the United States. However, has this popularity spread to other countries around the world and to what extent? In the United States, there are numerous television shows focusing on the law and crime scene analysis, including “CSI,” “Law and Order,” “24,” “Crossing Jordan,” and “Forensic Files,” just

Heather Stankiewicz



A proposal for training in forensic psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Documents the need for specialized training in forensic psychology. Several areas of specialty training are identified, and concrete and hypothetical examples are used to document the kinds of problems that emerge when mental health professionals without specialized training practice in the forensic area. Such specialties include legal tests and concepts, proper assessment, familiarity with relevant literature, and courtroom orientation. A

Norman G. Poythress



Commentary: forensic evaluation of military personnel.  


Forensic psychiatric evaluations of military personnel in civil litigation are reportedly infrequent. One such case involved former prisoners of war after Operation Desert Storm. These evaluations presented many challenges to the evaluators with regard to resources and time limitations. Discussion of these issues is relevant to forensic evaluations generally. PMID:19767497

Wettstein, Robert M



A Proposal for Training in Forensic Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Graduate programs are lagging behind in developing courses to prepare psychologists to function with expertise in forensic (law-related) matters. Paradoxically, the courts are now finding increasing use for the forensic psychologist, while current journals express wide skepticism about the quality of available expertise. (Author/RLV)|

Poythress, Norman G., Jr.



Accreditation standards for undergraduate forensic science programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate forensic science programs are experiencing unprecedented growth in numbers of programs offered and, as a result, student enrollments are increasing. Currently, however, these programs are not subject to professional specialized accreditation. This study sought to identify desirable student outcome measures for undergraduate forensic science programs that should be incorporated into such an accreditation process. To determine desirable student outcomes, three types of data were collected and analyzed. All the existing undergraduate forensic science programs in the United States were examined with regard to the input measures of degree requirements and curriculum content, and for the output measures of mission statements and student competencies. Accreditation procedures and guidelines for three other science-based disciplines, computer science, dietetics, and nursing, were examined to provide guidance on accreditation processes for forensic science education programs. Expert opinion on outcomes for program graduates was solicited from the major stakeholders of undergraduate forensic science programs-forensic science educators, crime laboratory directors, and recent graduates. Opinions were gathered by using a structured Internet-based survey; the total response rate was 48%. Examination of the existing undergraduate forensic science programs revealed that these programs do not use outcome measures. Of the accreditation processes for other science-based programs, nursing education provided the best model for forensic science education, due primarily to the balance between the generality and the specificity of the outcome measures. From the analysis of the questionnaire data, preliminary student outcomes, both general and discipline-specific, suitable for use in the accreditation of undergraduate forensic science programs were determined. The preliminary results were reviewed by a panel of experts and, based on their recommendations, the outcomes identified were revised and refined. The results of this study were used to identify student outcomes and to suggest accreditation standards and an accreditation process for undergraduate forensic science programs based on those outcomes.

Miller, Marilyn Tebbs


Unifying Computer Forensics Modeling Approaches: A Software Engineering Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an effort to introduce formalism into computer forensics, researchers have presented various modeling techniques for planning, analysis, and documentation of forensics activities. These modeling techniques provide representations of various forensics subjects such as investigative processes, chain of events, and evidence tests. From a software engineering perspective, it seems that several of these computer forensics modeling approaches may be unified

A. Chris Bogen; David A. Dampier



Third Party Application Forensics on Apple Mobile Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensics on mobile devices is not new. Law enforcement and academia have been performing forensics on mobile devices for the past several years. Forensics on mobile third party applications is new. There have been third party applications on mobile devices before today, but none that provided the number of applications available in the iTunes app store. Mobile forensic software tools

Alex Levinson; Bill Stackpole; Daryl Johnson



Forensic identification reporting using automatic speaker recognition systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how any speaker recognition system can be adapted to provide its results according to the Bayesian approach for evidence analysis and forensic reporting. This approach, firmly established in other forensic areas as fingerprint, DNA or fiber analysis, suits the needs of both the court and the forensic scientist. We show the inadequacy of the classical approach to forensic

J. Gonzalez-Rodriguez; J. Fierrez-Aguilar; J. Ortega-Garcia



Setting course: the case for the credentialing of forensic interviewers.  


The article provides a history of efforts to develop a credentialing or certification process for forensic interviewers and reviews the multitiered credentialing process offered by the National Association of Certified Child Forensic Interviewers. The authors argue the benefits of a credentialing process for forensic interviewers and respond to the arguments commonly made against the credentialing of forensic interviewers. PMID:21113836

Haney, Mike; Vieth, Victor I; Campos, Hector M



Continuing education programme — Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing requirement of the courts for forensic experts to engage in ongoing education, a continuing education programme (CEP) was developed in the field of clinical forensic medicine at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in 1996. This programme has been described and was initially established to provide a means of education for the contracted forensic medical officers who

John A. M Gall



Standardizing the Construction of a Digital Forensics Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the increasing problems of cybercrime, digital forensics-related issues have become more and more important and serious. Digital forensics often involves the preservation, identification, extraction, documentation and interpretation of digital data. The construction of a forensics laboratory should include the objective of establishment, organization, responsibility, accreditation procedure, personnel qualification, training, equipment, forensics procedure, document management, and so on. Another

Patrick S. Chen; Lawrence M. F. Tsai; Ying-chieh Chen; George Yee



Practice Parameter for Child and Adolescent Forensic Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Parameter addresses the key concepts that differentiate the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents from a clinical assessment. There are ethical issues unique to the forensic evaluation, because the forensic evaluator's duty is to the person, court, or agency requesting the evaluation, rather than to the patient. The forensic

Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011



An Empirical Investigation of the Relevant Skills of Forensic Accountants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author investigated whether views of the relevant skills of forensic accountants differ among forensic accounting practitioners, accounting academics, and users of forensic accounting services. Universities and colleges are currently considering adding forensic accounting courses to their curriculum. The results of the present study provide…

DiGabriele, James A.



[Incest--forensic genetic approach].  


The paper presents intimate relationships between biologically and legally close relatives, complicated in the social, culture and religion perspective. (art. 201 of the Penal Code), but it chiefly addresses problems associated with giving opinion on the fatherhood towards the incestuous child. The report calls for a broader interest in this issue from expert witnesses in forensic genetics, as well as encourages them to publish examples taken from their own professional experience that may unquestionably be helpful to other practitioners in this field and above all will lead to extending educational methods related to widely understood DNA analysis in giving an opinion on arguable fatherhood. PMID:23424940

Raczek, Ewa


Toward an evolutionary forensic psychology.  


Most theories of crime have not explored intensively biological and especially evolutionary explanations for criminal behavior. Ellis presents a valuable new perspective that proposes that attention to physiological mechanisms shaped by evolutionary forces can provide insights into the causes of crime and sex differences in the patterns of crime. We discuss other theories and research relevant to Ellis' theory. We also propose that an evolutionary psychological perspective of crime will help to invigorate research and lead to a better understanding of criminality. An integrated evolutionary forensic psychology will help to explain sources of conflict between individuals, situations in which conflict leads to victimization, and victim defenses and coping mechanisms. PMID:17019829

Duntley, Joshua D; Shackelford, Todd K


Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)|

Lee, Henry C.



The use of grain size distribution analysis of sediments and soils in forensic enquiry.  


The use of grain size distribution analysis in forensic enquiry was investigated with reference to four forensic case studies which contained the type of sample restraints and limitations often encountered in criminal case work. The problems of the comparison of trace and bulk samples are outlined and the need for multiple sample analysis is highlighted. It was found that the problems of soil analysis, particularly when the soil was recovered from anthropogenic sources, focused on the lack of identification of pre-, syn- and post-forensic event mixing of materials, thus obscuring the recognition of false-negative or false-positive exclusions between samples. It was found that grain size distribution analysis was a useful descriptive tool but it was concluded that if it were to be used in any other manner the derived results should be treated with great caution. The statistical analyses of these data did not improve the quality of the interpretation of the results. PMID:18051034

Morgan, R M; Bull, P A



The Forensic Science Assessment Test (FSAT): A Potential Tool for the Academic Assessment of Forensic Science Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic science college and university education, like college education in general, needs assessment tools to ensure the accountability and continued improvement of academic programs. Both forensic science educators and practitioners have vested interests in the successful student outcomes of forensic science programs and the need for rigorous high quality academic programs. The Forensic Science Assessment Test (FSAT) may provide a

Lawrence A. Presley; Michael Haas; Lawrence Quarino



Forensic proteomics of poxvirus production.  


The field of microbial forensics has recently sought to develop methods to discern biological signatures to indicate production methods for biological agents. Viral agents have received less attention to date. Their obligate propagation in living cells makes purification from cellular material a challenge. This leads to potential carryover of protein-rich signatures of their production system. Here we have explored a proteomic analysis of vaccinia virus as a model poxvirus system in which to compare samples of virus propagated in different cell lines and subjected to different purification schemes. The proteomic data sets indicated viral, host cell and culture medium proteins. Several layers of data analysis were applied to build confidence in the peptide identification and capture information on the taxonomic utility of each. The analysis showed clear shifts in protein profiles with virus purification, with successive gradient purification steps showing different levels of viral protein enrichment. Peptides from cellular proteins, including those present in purified virus preparations, provided signatures which enabled discrimination of cell line substrates, including distinguishing between cells derived from different primate species. The ability to discern multiple aspects of viral production demonstrates the potential value of proteomic analysis as tool for microbial forensics. PMID:23979794

Wunschel, David; Tulman, Edan; Engelmann, Heather; Clowers, Brian H; Geary, Steven; Robinson, Aaron; Liao, Xiaofen



Using Ground-Penetrating Radar to Locate Clandestine Graves of Homicide VictimsForming Forensic Archaeology Partnerships With Law Enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has become an important forensic archaeology tool used by law enforcement agencies to search for buried bodies of homicide victims. However, these agencies most often secure outside consultants to perform searches because of equipment expense and the specialized training required to operate the equipment and interpret results. This article provides a thorough discussion of GPR methodology and

John J. Schultz



Identification of the first reported Lapita cremation in the Pacific Islands using archaeological, forensic and contemporary burning evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burnt human remains excavated from a scoop feature from a cemetery at Teouma, Vanuatu in the western Pacific (?2850 BP) were examined to assess the nature of the deposit. Possible scenarios explaining the reason the bone was burnt and interred were assessed using osteological signatures taken from archaeological, experimental, and forensic studies. The methodology of the study included recording color

Rachel M. Scott; Hallie R. Buckley; Matthew Spriggs; Frédérique Valentin; Stuart Bedford



Modeling Forensic Evidence Systems Using Design Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an overview of the application of design science research to the tactical management of forensic evidence processing. The opening discussion addresses the application of design science techniques to specific socio-technical information systems research in regard to processing forensic evidence. The discussion then presents the current problems faced by those dealing with evidence and a conceptual meta-model for a unified approach to forensic evidence is developed. Any practical application of the suggested model would be predominantly law enforcement driven; evaluation of sections of the model has been carried out by law enforcement participants in several international jurisdictions.

Armstrong, Colin; Armstrong, Helen


Sampling flies or sampling flaws? Experimental design and inference strength in forensic entomology.  


Forensic entomology is an inferential science because postmortem interval estimates are based on the extrapolation of results obtained in field or laboratory settings. Although enormous gains in scientific understanding and methodological practice have been made in forensic entomology over the last few decades, a majority of the field studies we reviewed do not meet the standards for inference, which are 1) adequate replication, 2) independence of experimental units, and 3) experimental conditions that capture a representative range of natural variability. Using a mock case-study approach, we identify design flaws in field and lab experiments and suggest methodological solutions for increasing inference strength that can inform future casework. Suggestions for improving data reporting in future field studies are also proposed. PMID:22308765

Michaud, J-P; Schoenly, Kenneth G; Moreau, G



Use of Stable Isotopes in Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

The use of isotopic signatures for forensic analysis of biological materials is well-established, and the same general principles that apply to interpretation of stable isotope content of C, N, O, and H apply to the analysis of microorganisms. Heterotrophic microorganisms derive their isotopic content from their growth substrates, which are largely plant and animal products, and the water in their culture medium. Thus the isotope signatures of microbes are tied to their growth environment. The C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of spores have been demonstrated to constitute highly discriminating signatures for sample matching. They can rule out specific samples of media and/or water as possible production media, and can predict isotope ratio ranges of the culture media and water used to produce a given sample. These applications have been developed and tested through analyses of approximately 250 samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and over 500 samples of culture media, providing a strong statistical basis for data interpretation. A Bayesian statistical framework for integrating stable isotope data with other types of signatures derived from microorganisms has been able to characterize the culture medium used to produce spores of various Bacillus species, leveraging isotopic differences in different medium types and demonstrating the power of data integration for forensic investigations.

Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.



Research Note Statistical Methodology for Pathogen Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of the present study was to discuss the application of the McNemar test to the comparison of proportions in dependent samples. Data were analyzed from studies conducted to verify the suitability of replacing a conventional method with a new one for identifying the presence of Salmonella. It is shown that, in most situations, the McNemar test does



Bacterial Deposition of Gold on Hair: Archeological, Forensic and Toxicological Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTrace metal analyses in hair are used in archeological, forensic and toxicological investigations as proxies for metabolic processes. We show metallophilic bacteria mediating the deposition of gold (Au), used as tracer for microbial activity in hair post mortem after burial, affecting results of such analyses.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHuman hair was incubated for up to six months in auriferous soils, in natural soil

Genevieve Phillips; Frank Reith; Clifford Qualls; Abdul-Mehdi Ali; Mike Spilde; Otto Appenzeller; Niyaz Ahmed



Chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization of soils from the Curitiba Metropolitan Region for forensic purpose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to propose a soil characterization methodology for forensic use, based on physical (textural and spectroscopic analyses), chemical (extractions with hydrofluoric acid, ammonium oxalate, sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate and NaOH solution) and mineralogical (thermal analyses and X-ray diffraction) analyses. The study was carried out in the State of Paraná, Brazil, in three neighborhoods of Curitiba city and

Vander F. Melo; Leila C. Barbar; Patrício G. P. Zamora; Carlos E. Schaefer; Gilcélia A. Cordeiro



[The use of the polymerase chain reaction in the forensic medical study of hairs].  


In order to detect polymorphic DNA sequences in the bulbs of single human hairs, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used. Specific hypervariable regions of ApoB gene, D1S80 locus, and sex-specific sequences of X/Y chromosomes were amplified. The amount of DNA isolated from single hair bulbs was measured by fluorometry. Methodological aspects of using PCR for forensic medical examinations of single hairs are discussed. PMID:8669058

Puchkov, G F; Kukhar'kov, Iu V; Korban, V V; Borovko, S R


First Responders Guide to Computer Forensics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handbook is for technical staff members charged with administering and securing information systems and networks. It targets a critical training gap in the fields of information security, computer forensics, and incident response: performing basic fo...

C. Sullivan C. Waits J. Branson R. Nolan



Taphonomic mycota: fungi with forensic potential.  


Forensic archaeologists and criminal investigators employ many different techniques for the location, recovery, and analysis of clandestine graves. Many of these techniques are based upon the premise that a grave is an anomaly and therefore differs physically, biologically, or chemically from its surroundings. The work reviewed in this communication demonstrates how and why field mycology might provide a further tool towards the investigation of scenes of crime concealed in forest ecosystems. The fruiting structures of certain fungi, the ammonia and the postputrefaction fungi, have been recorded repeatedly in association with decomposed mammalian cadavers in disparate regions of the world. The ecology and physiology of these fungi are reviewed briefly with a view to their potential as a forensic tool. This application of mycology is at an interface with forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy and may provide a means to detect graves and has the potential to estimate postburial interval. PMID:12570221

Carter, David O; Tibbett, Mark



[Forensic medicine and the overlap with pathology].  


Forensic medicine incorporates research, teaching and professional service. In the routine practice this encompasses interdisciplinary cooperation with physicians, natural scientists and the legal profession. Lectures in forensic medicine include the correct performance of an external examination of corpses, which every physician must be capable of, just as medical questions and the evidential documentation of injuries. Clinical forensic medicine encompasses the examination and documentation of living victims of physical and/or sexual violence. For further training to become a specialist for forensic medicine it is mandatory to undertake a 6-month training period in pathology. Fatalities with an unclear or unnatural manner of death must be registered with the police. On suspicion of third party involvement the public prosecutor will request a legal autopsy, which is carried out and documented by two physicians in accordance with the penal code. Imaging procedures are standard for an autopsy. Extensive samples are taken for additional testing, such as toxicological and molecular biological investigations. PMID:20424845

Riepert, T



Management Planning for Forensic Science Laboratories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents methods for determining optimal forensic science service for any catchment area, given its criminal justice organizationa and crime pattern. Using original systems studies and a resurvey of the 106 laboratories listed in the John Jay C...

E. S. Krendel R. M. Dummer L. R. Freifelder



Spectroscopic Sleuthing. An Introduction to Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is a program in which students learn about spectroscopy and instrumentation to solve a chemical forensic mystery. Infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, refractometry, and chromatographic techniques were used. An example of a mystery case is included. (KR)|

Zdravkovich, Vera; Cunniff, Patricia A.



Bacterial Population Genetics in a Forensic Context.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses the recent Department of Homeland Security (DHS) call for a Phase I study to (1) assess gaps in the forensically relevant knowledge about the population genetics of eight bacterial agents of concern, (2) formulate a technical roadmap...

S. P. Velsko



Role of forensic pathologists in mass disasters.  


The forensic pathologist has always had a central role in the identification of the dead in every day practice, in accidents, and in disasters involving hundreds or thousands of victims. This role has changed in recent years, as advances in forensic odontology, genetics and anthropology have improved the chances of identifying victims beyond recognition. According to the Interpol DVI Guide, fingerprints, dental examination and DNA are the primary identifiers, and this has given new emphasis to the role of the forensic pathologist as the leader of a multidisciplinary team of experts in a disaster situation, based on his or her qualifications and the experience gained from doing the same work in the everyday situation of an institute of forensic medicine. PMID:22160735

Schuliar, Yves; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis



Forensic Medicine: An Aid to Criminal Investigation  

PubMed Central

Forensic medicine is medicine as applied to the problems of the law. The origins of both are hidden in the mists of antiquity, dating from the beginnings of family and tribal life. Recorded human history goes back for 6000 years. Sumeria, Babylon and Egypt all contributed to the development of forensic medicine. Imhotep was probably the first real medicolegal expert. Hippocrates, the Greek physician, and Galen, the Roman, made considerable contributions. Little advance was made during the millenium of the Dark Ages. But Renaissance medicine gave this branch of medicine an impetus in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and in the twentieth, interest in forensic medicine is worldwide. The physician, the coroner, the pathologist, the medical specialist and the forensic laboratory contribute to the investigation of crimes against the person, and to the solution of such problems as identification, untoward deaths, apparent drowning and many others.

Deadman, William J.





Forensic medicine is medicine as applied to the problems of the law. The origins of both are hidden in the mists of antiquity, dating from the beginnings of family and tribal life. Recorded human history goes back for 6000 years. Sumeria, Babylon and Egypt all contributed to the development of forensic medicine. Imhotep was probably the first real medicolegal expert. Hippocrates, the Greek physician, and Galen, the Roman, made considerable contributions. Little advance was made during the millenium of the Dark Ages. But Renaissance medicine gave this branch of medicine an impetus in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and in the twentieth, interest in forensic medicine is worldwide. The physician, the coroner, the pathologist, the medical specialist and the forensic laboratory contribute to the investigation of crimes against the person, and to the solution of such problems as identification, untoward deaths, apparent drowning and many others. PMID:14269437




Cybersex with minors: forensic implications.  


This paper is designed to assist forensic psychiatrists/psychologists who evaluate adults who commit sexual crimes against children on the Internet. The typical offender is an adult male who logs onto the Internet and enters a chat room in which children congregate. Unbeknownst to the offender, undercover police officers are posing as minors in the chat rooms. The undercover officer (pretend kid) and offender engage in increasingly explicit, sexual conversation; the offender may transmit erotic photographs to the undercover officer and/or arrange to meet at a motel in order to have sexual intercourse. The authors will discuss the relevant legal, clinical, and ethical aspects of examining these offenders, and describe specific cases that the author (2) evaluated. PMID:11714151

Jaffe, M E; Sharma, K K



Toxicological evidence in forensic pharmacology.  


Laboratory evidence of the presence and concentration of a drug in a person who has come to harm is often helpful in forensic pharmacology, and may be crucial. However, its value depends on two critical interpretations by the expert. First, the expert must make a careful analysis of the relationship between the results as measured in the sample and the drug in the patient at the time that harm occurred. That is especially difficult with post-mortem samples. Secondly, the expert must syntheses the laboratory information with the available clinical history and clinical or pathological findings. Even in the most favourable circumstances, when the sample is correctly obtained, identified, and analyzed, it can be hard to say that beyond reasonable doubt a given concentration had a given effect. PMID:22436255

Ferner, R E



Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.




Acepromazine pharmacokinetics: a forensic perspective.  


Acepromazine (ACP) is a useful therapeutic drug, but is a prohibited substance in competition horses. The illicit use of ACP is difficult to detect due to its rapid metabolism, so this study investigated the ACP metabolite 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)promazine sulphoxide (HEPS) as a potential forensic marker. Acepromazine maleate, equivalent to 30mg of ACP, was given IV to 12 racing-bred geldings. Blood and urine were collected for 7days post-administration and analysed for ACP and HEPS by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Acepromazine was quantifiable in plasma for up to 3h with little reaching the urine unmodified. Similar to previous studies, there was wide variation in the distribution and metabolism of ACP. The metabolite HEPS was quantifiable for up to 24h in plasma and 144h in urine. The metabolism of ACP to HEPS was fast and erratic, so the early phase of the HEPS emergence could not be modelled directly, but was assumed to be similar to the rate of disappearance of ACP. However, the relationship between peak plasma HEPS and the y-intercept of the kinetic model was strong (P=0.001, r(2)=0.72), allowing accurate determination of the formation pharmacokinetics of HEPS. Due to its rapid metabolism, testing of forensic samples for the parent drug is redundant with IV administration. The relatively long half-life of HEPS and its stable behaviour beyond the initial phase make it a valuable indicator of ACP use, and by determining the urine-to-plasma concentration ratios for HEPS, the approximate dose of ACP administration may be estimated. PMID:22534188

Schneiders, Fiona I; Noble, Glenys K; Boston, Raymond C; Dunstan, Anthony J; Sillence, Martin N; McKinney, Andrew R



Best Practices for Microbiological Methodology Executive ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... detection limit of a qualitative method, the ... when using molecular based methodology in a ... supports long established methodologies for statistical ... More results from


Forensic Automatic Speaker Classification in the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new paradigm for forensic science has been encouraged in the last years, motivated by the recently reopened debate about\\u000a the infallibility of some classical forensic disciplines and the controversy about the admissibility of evidence in courts.\\u000a Standardization of procedures, proficiency testing, transparency in the scientific evaluation of the evidence and testability\\u000a of the system and protocols are emphasized in

Joaquin Gonzalez-rodriguez; Daniel Ramos-castro



Ethical Issues in Forensic and Prison Psychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Starting with an account of the dual-role dilemma in forensic psychiatry several ethical issues regarding expert witness duties\\u000a including risk assessment as well as forensic psychiatric treatment situations are dealt with. Ethical challenges within prison\\u000a psychiatry especially refer to the principle of equivalence, consent to treatment, compulsory treatment, confidentiality and\\u000a research. Ethical in-depth analyses of some of the situations in

Norbert Konrad; Birgit Völlm


Ned Kelly tattoos – Origins and forensic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tattoos depicting Ned Kelly, a 19th-century Australian bushranger (outlaw) are occasionally encountered in the contemporary Australian population at forensic autopsy. To determine the characteristics of decedents with such tattoos, twenty cases were identified in the autopsy files at Forensic Science SA. All of the decedents were white males (100%) with an age range of 20–67yrs (average 37yrs). Seventeen of the

Roger W. Byard



HIV legal precedent useful for microbial forensics.  


The field of microbial forensics was formalized because of the need for attribution in events where a bioweapon has been used. Microbial forensics has its origins in traditional forensics, microbiology, and epidemiology. Microbial forensics can be defined as a scientific discipline dedicated to analyzing evidence for attribution purposes from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, hoax, or inadvertent microorganism/toxin release. This is a very challenging task, since there are myriad microorganisms that can pose a threat, and analytical methods need to be used reliably. The Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics (SWGMGF) has addressed some quality assurance and control issues, and particularly validation criteria (focusing on preliminary validation) due to the dynamic nature of evolving investigations. Unique identification of a microorganism may never be possible. Yet, qualitative and/or quantitative assessments of the evidence can be made. One approach to provide direction on gaps in the microbial forensics effort is to perform an end-to-end retrospective analysis of past cases. As an example, the case of a gastroenterologist who was accused of second degree attempted murder of his paramour using HIV as the weapon was reviewed. The scientific evaluation involves epidemiology, molecular biology, phylogenetics, and legal deliberations. PMID:16100753

Budowle, Bruce; Harmon, Rockne



Computer Forensics Education - the Open Source Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter we discuss the application of the open source software tools in computer forensics education at tertiary level. We argue that open source tools are more suitable than commercial tools, as they provide the opportunity for students to gain in-depth understanding and appreciation of the computer forensic process as opposed to familiarity with one software product, however complex and multi-functional. With the access to all source programs the students become more than just the consumers of the tools as future forensic investigators. They can also examine the code, understand the relationship between the binary images and relevant data structures, and in the process gain necessary background to become the future creators of new and improved forensic software tools. As a case study we present an advanced subject, Computer Forensics Workshop, which we designed for the Bachelor's degree in computer science at the University of Western Sydney. We based all laboratory work and the main take-home project in this subject on open source software tools. We found that without exception more than one suitable tool can be found to cover each topic in the curriculum adequately. We argue that this approach prepares students better for forensic field work, as they gain confidence to use a variety of tools, not just a single product they are familiar with.

Huebner, Ewa; Bem, Derek; Cheung, Hon


Forensic Examination Using a Nondestructive Evaluation Method for Surface Metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to describe the use of a new technique of optical profilometry in a nondestructive, non-contact fashion for the comparison of two metallic surfaces, one hard and one soft. When brought in contact with one another, the harder material (i.e. the tool) will impress its surface roughness onto the softer. It is understood that the resulting set of impressions left from a tool tip act in a manner similar to a photographic negative, in that it leaves a reverse, or negative impression on the surface of a plate. If properly inverted and reversed, measurements from the softer material should be identical to the harder indenting object with regard to surface texture and roughness. This assumption is inherent in the area of forensics, where bullets, cartridge cases, and toolmarked surfaces from crime scenes are compared to similar marks made under controlled conditions in the forensic laboratory. This paper will examine the methodology used to compare two surfaces for similarities and dissimilarities, and comment on the applicability of this technique to other studies.

Eisenmann, David J.; Chumbley, L. Scott



Forensic Botany: Using Plant Evidence to Aid in Forensic Death Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic botany is still an under-utilized resource in forensic casework, although it has been used on occasion. It is an area of specialty science that could include traditional botanical classification of spe- cies, DNA, or materials evidence (trace and transfer evidence), crime mapping or geo-sourcing, all de- pendent on the specific case application under consideration. Critical to the evaluation of

Heather Miller Coyle; Cheng-Lung Lee; W en-Yu Lin; Timothy M. Palmbach


Research and Training in Forensic Psychology: National Survey of Forensic Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was sent to the 103 directors of public forensic facilities in the United States. Responses were received from 68, a response rate of 66%. Information on the facilities' involvement in training and research in forensic psychology was obtained. A number of facilities reported involvement in psychology training at different levels; graduate practicum (43%) and predoctoral internship (41%) were

Kirk S. Heilbrun; Lawrence V. Annis



Forensic drug intelligence: an important tool in law enforcement.  


Organised criminality is a great concern for national/international security. The demonstration of complex crimes is increasingly dependant on knowledge distributed within law-enforcement agencies and scientific disciplines. This separation of knowledge creates difficulties in reconstructing and prosecuting such crimes. Basic interdisciplinary research in drug intelligence combined with crime analysis, forensic intelligence, and traditional law enforcement investigation is leading to important advances in crime investigation support. Laboratory results constitute one highly dependable source of information that is both reliable and testable. Their operational use can support investigation and even provide undetected connections or organisation of structure. The foremost difficulties encountered by drug analysts are not principally of a chemical or analytical nature, but methodologies to extract parameters or features that are deemed to be crucial for handling and contextualising drug profiling data. An organised memory has been developed in order to provide accurate, timely, useful and meaningful information for linking spatially and temporally distinct events on a national and international level (including cross-border phenomena). Literature has already pointed out that forensic case data are amenable for use in an intelligence perspective if data and knowledge of specialised actors are appropriately organised, shared and processed. As a particular form of forensic case data, the authors' research focuses on parameters obtained through the systematic physical and chemical profiling of samples of illicit drugs. The procedure is used to infer and characterise links between samples that originate from the same and different seizures. The discussion will not, however, focus on how samples are actually analysed and compared as substantial literature on this topic already exists. Rather, attention is primarily drawn to an active and close collaboration between magistrates, forensic scientists, law enforcement investigators and crime analysts from different institutions with the aim of generating, using and validating relevant profiling case data as integral part of investigative and crime analysis processes. Original advances are highlighted through experiences from criminal investigations of offences related to the unlawful importation, exportation, supply and possession of illicit drugs. PMID:16872770

Esseiva, Pierrre; Ioset, Sylvain; Anglada, Frédéric; Gasté, Laëtitia; Ribaux, Olivier; Margot, Pierre; Gallusser, Alain; Biedermann, Alex; Specht, Yves; Ottinger, Edmond



[Role of forensic medicine and forensic psychiatry in solving the problem of organized crime].  


Term--organized crime is not satisfactorily defined todate neither in forensic sciences, nor in lexical formulations. It is necessary to come to grips with the criminalistic and social pathological meaning of three terms--individual crime, grouped and organized crime as well as participation of forensic sciences including forensic medicine on solving problems of organized crime. Forensic medicine and forensic psychology can help to solve this acute problem of present development of social life. It can help in criminalistic expertize and insider activity in profiliation of perpetrators and victims. Mainly it will be about searching and improving of methodical approaches in solving of incriminated cases and its analysis for investigative organs and courts. Important asset in this problem must be also preventive portion in preclusion of criminality. PMID:11269022

Kokavec, M; Dobrotka, G



Forensic odontology in India, an oral pathologist's perspective  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Oral pathologists have major responsibilities in the development of forensic science. We conducted a survey to evaluate the degree of involvement of oral pathologists in forensic investigations in India and the difficulties faced by them. Materials and Methods: Data was collected during 2007–2009 by means of a questionnaire survey among qualified oral pathologists related to confidence in handling forensic cases, knowledge and awareness, training in forensic odontology, practical exposure to forensic cases, and difficulties faced. Results: A total of 120 oral pathologists responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 28% expressed confidence in handling forensic cases, 7% had been exposed to formal training in forensic odontology, and 6% had handled forensic cases earlier. Only two participants said that they were part of the forensic team in their respective cities. Forty-eight percent of the participants said that they read forensic journals regularly. Conclusion: Oral pathologists are generally not very confident about handling forensic cases mainly because of inadequate formal training in the field of forensic dentistry, inadequate exposure to the subject, minimal importance given to the subject in the undergraduate and postgraduate curriculum, and no practical exposure to forensic cases.

Shetty, Pushparaja; Raviprakash, A



Midwest Forensics Resource Center Project Summary June 2005  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the MFRC Research and Development Program, is to provide technological advances in forensic science for the benefit of our regional partners as well as the forensic community at large. Key areas of forensic science need are identified through our interactions with our Midwest partners and our R&D advisory group, as well as through our participation in national meetings in forensic science. Under the sponsorship of the National Institute of Justice, the MFRC solicits proposals for the development of practical and useful technology, instrumentation, and methodology that address needs in areas related to forensic science and its application to operational crime laboratories. The MFRC facilitates proposal development by working to establish partnerships between researchers and our regional partners. The MFRC administers a peer-review of the proposals and then funds the selected projects at a cost of approximately $55,000 each, with a 12-month period of performance. The process for selection of these projects includes the following steps: (1) drafting of a call for proposals by MFRC staff, (2) review of the draft call by members of the R&D advisory committee, (3) review and approval of the call by NIJ, (4) issuance of the call to ISU, Ames Laboratory, regional partners, and research organizations, (5) receipt of proposals, (6) review of proposals by R&D advisory committee, (7) ranking and selection by MFRC staff using advisory committee reviews, with concurrence by NIJ, (8) notification of proposers, (9) receipt and review of progress reports by MFRC, (10) receipt and review of final reports by MFRC, R&D advisory committee, and NIJ. The decision to fund any specific project is based upon a peer-reviewed call-for-proposal system administered by the MFRC. The reviewers are crime laboratory specialists and scientists who are asked to rate the proposals on four criteria areas including: (1) relevance to the mission of the MFRC, (2) technical approach and procedures, (3) capabilities, teaming, and leveraging, and (4) implementation plan. A successful proposal demonstrates knowledge of the background for the research and related work in the field and includes a research plan with a defined plan to implement the technology to benefit our partners at the crime laboratories. The project summaries are meant to demonstrate the range of research funded by the MFRC including chemistry, DNA, and patterned evidence. The project summaries describe the forensic need the projects serve as well as the benefits derived from the technology. The summaries provide a brief description of the technology and the accomplishments to date. In addition, the collaboration with regional partners and the status of the implementation of the technology are highlighted. These technical summaries represent the development and implementation of practical and useful technology for crime laboratories that the MFRC hopes to accomplish.

David Baldwin



Methodological foundations of systems methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In social systems science generally, and in management science particularly, recent developments in the variety of types of specific problem-solving methodologies (under the rubric of “hard” and “soft” systems approaches) have given an impetus to a line of inquiry, as well as debate on the nature of those methodologies. On the one hand, there has been the view that what

John C. Oliga



[Forensic medical estimation of gunshot fractures of the flat bones].  


The principal characteristics of the investigations into the mechanisms of gunshot injuries are considered. The general and peculiar features of gunshot fractures and the pathological processes underlying them are discussed. The theory of bullet impact effect put forward by the Russian surgeons in the late XIXth century is verified. The explanation is proposed for the physical nature of direct and side impacts and the phenomenon of a temporary oscillating cavity from the standpoint of the theory of bullet impact effect. The new forensic medical criteria for the gunshot origin of an injury have been developed that allow the gunshot distance and the geometric characteristics of the bullet to be determined. A methodological basis for the determination of the long-range gunshot distance has been created. The results of the present study may be of interest for criminal lawyers and military specialists. PMID:22567957

Dubrovin, I A; Dubrovina, I A


SI-FI (Synthesizing Information from Forensic Investigations).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort describes a trusted mechanism for sharing computer forensics evidence among forensic examiners and others associated with determination of causes for Cyber Space Events. The process employed is described, as well as the unique solution identif...

G. Hosmer G. Gordon C. Siedsma J. Hosmer



Creating Realistic Corpora for Security and Forensic Education.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present work on the design, implementation, distribution, and use of realistic forensic datasets to support digital forensics and security education. We describe in particular the 'M57-Patents' scenario a multi-modal corpus consisting of hard drive ima...

A. Russell C. A. Lee D. Dittrich K. Woods S. Garfinkel



Benefits of multidatabase searching: a forensic case study.  


The research base for topics in forensic psychology is multidisciplinary. This paper highlights the critical importance of conducting multidatabase searches to obtain a comprehensive literature review of forensic topics. PMID:12841461

Piotrowski, Chris; Perdue, Bob



Maintaining dental records: Are we ready for forensic needs?  

PubMed Central

Context: Dental remains are usually the last to get destroyed among body parts after death. They may be useful for personal identification in cases of mass disasters and decomposed unidentified bodies. Dental records may help in the identification of suspects in criminal investigations and in medicolegal cases. Maintenance of dental records is legally mandatory in most of the European and American countries. Unfortunately, the law is not very clear in India, and the awareness is very poor. Aims: To assess the awareness regarding the dental record maintenance among dentists in Rajasthan, to deduce the quality of average dental records kept by them and to evaluate the potential use of their maintained records, in any of forensic or medicolegal cases. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 dental practitioners of different cities in Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, which was responded by the study population in the course of a telephonic interview. The questionnaire addressed on the mode of maintaining dental records in their regular practice. Statistical Analysis Used: The data so gathered were subjected for descriptive analysis. Results: As for knowledge or awareness about maintaining dental records, surprisingly a very low percentile (about 38%) of surveyed dentists maintained records. Sixty-two percent of the dentists were maintaining no records at all. Conclusion: Nonmaintenance or poor quality of records maintained indicates that the dentists in Rajasthan are not prepared for any kind of forensic and medicolegal need if it arises.

Astekar, Madhusudan; Saawarn, Swati; Ramesh, Gayathri; Saawarn, Nisheeth



The role of micro-computed tomography in forensic investigations.  


The use of micro-CT within forensic practice remains an emerging technology, principally due to its current limited availability to forensic practitioners. This review provides those with little or no previous experience of the potential roles of micro-CT in forensic practice with an illustrated overview of the technology, and the areas of practice in which micro-CT can potentially be applied to enhance forensic investigations. PMID:23153801

Rutty, G N; Brough, A; Biggs, M J P; Robinson, C; Lawes, S D A; Hainsworth, S V



Nuclear Forensics: A Holistic Overview  

SciTech Connect

Discussions of nuclear forensics are often restricted to work performed by radio-chemists measuring nuclear material attributes in the laboratory. However, this represents only one portion of the work required to answer critical questions. Laboratory analysis results in measurements that need to be evaluated. The results of those evaluations must be put into their proper context in order for them to be useful to others and often require merging those results with additional information. This may contribute to attribution, by virtue of inclusion or exclusion. Finally, the end product must be presented such that appropriate actions can be taken. This could include prosecution by law enforcement, policy initiatives on the part of legislative bodies, or military action in the case of nuclear attack (whether that attack is preempted or not). Using the discovery of a sample of plutonium during cleanup activities at Hanford in 2004, we will step through the process of discovery (representing an interdiction), initial field analysis, laboratory analysis, data evaluation and merging with additional data (similar to law enforcement and/or all source), thereby providing an example of an integrated approach.

Luksic, Andrzej T.; Friese, Judah I.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Starner, Jason R.; Wacker, John F.



Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view.  


The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster. PMID:23087581

Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth



Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view  

PubMed Central

The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster.

Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth



Introducing forensic health services research.  


Financial fraud and abuse are rampant within our healthcare system. Recent estimates suggest that $68 to $234 billion is lost to fraud annually. Despite numerous efforts, current strategies have met with limited success in preventing and remediating this practice. Why have we not been better able to tackle this problem? Current strategies aimed at preventing healthcare fraud and abuse fail to appreciate the spectrum that lies between clinically appropriate care and fraudulent practice. This oversight is critical, as what may be fitting treatment in one setting may just as easily be fraudulent in another. Therefore, in order to untangle the web of fraud and abuse, novel techniques and engagement of physicians who best understand these nuances are necessary. In this commentary, we introduce "forensic health services research," an extension of this scientific discipline that can best identify wasteful and fraudulent expenditure. The use of health services research in this fashion is not only synergistic with ongoing efforts, but greatly enhances current approaches. Despite the promise of this endeavor, important policy changes are needed to nurture this novel niche. We review these challenges and outline a path to move forward using this platform. PMID:23448117

McMahon, Laurence F; Chopra, Vineet



[Infanticide. Social and forensic aspects].  


Infanticides are not specifically classified in German criminal records. Thus, the number of infanticides varies depending on different sources of information. Reports from expert witnesses (n=48, 1980-2007) from the German regions around Munich and Rostock were analyzed retrospectively in order to identify sociodemographic, clinical and forensic characteristics of child murders. In 87.5% of the cases the victims were the natural children of which 25 were younger than 1 year old. Female offenders outnumbered male offenders by 3:1 and on average females were 8 years younger than males (26.5 years for females and 34.2 years for males). The motives included unwanted pregnancy/child, altruistic deeds, acute psychoses, child abuse (sexual abuse, neglect or negligence), drug or alcohol abuse, sadistic punishment of the child and revenge on partners. In 27 cases a restricted or exemption from criminal responsibility was acknowledged. About one third of the offenders consulted a physician before the crime. For an improvement in primary prevention, support networks should be integrated and sensitized to the problem. PMID:20617427

Bätje, C; Schläfke, D; Nedopil, N; Hässler, F



Postmortem forensic toxicology of trazodone.  


Trazodone is a popular antidepressant medication that has been available for approximately 30 years. It has a reputation as a safe drug with relatively few reported fatalities attributed solely to it. We review the pharmacology and forensic toxicology of trazodone and report toxicology and cause and manner of death in a series of 37 deaths in which trazodone was detected. Although the normal upper therapeutic blood concentration for trazodone is about 2 mg/L, fatalities are rarely attributed solely to it at blood concentrations below 9 mg/L. Considering the pharmacology of the drug, potential interactions between other drugs with serotonin reuptake properties need to be considered, as does the increased susceptibility to the toxic effects in patients with pre-existing heart disease. In the cases reviewed, none were attributed solely to trazodone, although trazodone was frequently present together with other serotonergic drugs, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors like fluoxetine and sertraline. Ten cases had blood trazodone concentrations above 2 mg/L. Of these cases, trazodone played a primary role in the death of three subjects, with blood concentrations all greater than 9 mg/L. We confirm the conclusions of others that trazodone is a relatively safe drug except in massive overdose, although its toxicity may be influenced by the presence of other drugs and underlying pathophysiology. PMID:10914583

Goeringer, K E; Raymon, L; Logan, B K



Role of the forensic psychiatric nurse.  


Abstract The article clarifies the role of the forensic psychiatric nurse (FPN) and challenges interchangeable terms confusing forensic and correctional nursing. It addresses the varied venues where the FPN may assess the patient (victim or perpetrator) and gather evidence that may influence conviction, sentencing, recidivism, treatment, and prevention. In depth knowledge of medical and psychiatric nursing as well as the criminal justice system is germane to competent advanced practice forensic nursing. An analogy is drawn between the forensic assessment for risk of violence which is commonly performed by psychiatric nurses in Emergency Departments and the collection and preservation of evidence by medical nurses in Emergency Departments. Both instances require evidence-based techniques and a familiarity with forensic procedures and are often performed by nurses who are not specifically trained in these areas. A case analysis demonstrates the value of an in depth and broad assessment of victim and perpetrator. Evidence based training and the application of structured clinical judgment used in the evaluation of victims and perpetrators make it possible for the FNP to provide expert testimony and to make recommendations for treatment. PMID:19222692

Lyons, Tamsen



Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.  


Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil. PMID:17352063

Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J


Forensic Analysis using Geological and Geochemical Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the globalisation of legal (and illegal) trade there is an increasing demand for techniques which can verify the geographical origin and transfer routes of many legal and illegal commodities and products. Although geological techniques have been used in forensic investigations since the emergence of forensics as a science in the late eighteen hundreds, the last decade has seen a marked increase in geo-scientists initiating concept studies using the latest analytical techniques, including studying natural abundance isotope variations, micro analysis with laser ablation ICPMS and geochemical mapping. Most of the concept studies have shown a good potential but uptake by the law enforcement and legal community has been limited due to concerns about the admissibility of the new methods. As an introduction to the UGU2009 session "Forensic Provenancing using Geological and Geochemical Techniques" I will give an overview of the state of the art of forensic geology and the issues that concern the admissibility of geological forensic evidence. I will use examples from the NITECRIME and FIRMS networks, the EU TRACE project and other projects and literature to illustrate the important issues at hand.

Hoogewerff, J.



Mobile Phone Forensics Tool Testing: A Database Driven Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Daubert process used in the admissibility of evidence contains major guidelines applied in assessing forensic procedures, two of which are testing and error rates. The Digital Forensic Science (DFS) community is growing and the error rates for the forensic tools need to be continuously re-evaluated as the technology changes. This becomes more difficult in the case of mobile phone

Ibrahim M. Baggili; Richard Mislan; Marcus Rogers



28 CFR 90.14 - Forensic medical examination payment requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forensic medical examination payment requirement...Women Formula Grant Program § 90.14 Forensic medical examination payment requirement...incurs the full out-of-pocket costs of forensic medical examinations for victims...



28 CFR 90.14 - Forensic medical examination payment requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Forensic medical examination payment requirement...Women Formula Grant Program § 90.14 Forensic medical examination payment requirement...incurs the full out-of-pocket costs of forensic medical examinations for victims...



The Green Revolution: Botanical Contributions to Forensics and Drug Enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic botany encompasses many sub-disciplines, including plant anatomy, plant ecology, plant systematics, plant molecular biology, palynology, and limnology. Although the field of forensic botany has been recognized since the mid-1900's, the use of trace plant material as physical evidence in criminal casework is still novel. A review of pub- lished forensic casework that used plant evidence is presented here. Cases

Heather Miller Coyle; Carll Ladd; Timothy Palmbach; Henry C. Lee



Review The development and practice of forensic podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic podiatry a small, but potentially useful specialty using clinical podiatric knowledge for the purpose of person identification. The practice of forensic podiatry began in the early 1970s in Canada and the UK, although supportive research commenced later in the 1990s. Techniques of forensic podiatry include identification from podiatry records, the human footprint, footwear, and the analysis of gait forms

Wesley Vernon


Computer Forensics: An Essential Ingredient for Cyber Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer forensics uses computer investigation and analysis techniques to collect evidence regarding what happened on a computer that is admissible in a court of law. Computer forensics requires a well- balanced combination of technical skills, legal acumen, and ethical conduct. Computer forensics specialists use powerful software tools to uncover data to be sorted through, and then must figure out the

Richard Bassett; Linda Bass; Paul O'Brien


Knowledge discovery and experience modeling in computer forensics media analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is presented to identify research goals for the modeling of experiences, lessons learned, and knowledge discovered during the analysis of digital evidence in a forensic investigation. Additionally this paper suggests how such models might be used to facilitate automated computer forensics media analysis tools. The scope of this paper, with respect to computer forensics, is limited to the

A. Chris Bogen; David A. Dampier




Microsoft Academic Search

Most computer forensics experts are well-versed in basic computer hardware technology, operating systems, common software applications, and computer forensics tools. And while many have rudimentary knowledge about the Internet and simple network-lookup tools, they are not trained in the analysis of network communication protocols and the use of packet sniffers. This paper describes digital forensics applications for network analysis and

Gary C. Kessler; Matt Fasulo


A Common Scheme for Evaluation of Forensic Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a first common evaluation scheme for forensic software. Therefore, we investigate potential attacks on forensic software to derive preliminary attacker models. We use the Federal Rules of Evidence and the Daubert Challenge of the US jurisdiction to investigate the legal fundamentals for forensic software and to show tendencies for other countries. Furthermore, current approaches for the validation and

Mario Hildebrandt; Stefan Kiltz; Jana Dittmann



Research on Legal Procedural Functions of Forensic Accounting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its emergence in America, forensic accounting has become an utmost concern of scholars in different countries. Since the introduction of forensic accounting into China in the late 1990s, most scholars have done research on forensic accounting from the perspective of accounting, but few of them have done it from multiple perspectives like legal science. On the basis of localizing

Dong Renzhou



Forensic science in Australia – Can we learn from international reports?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of international reports, including the National Academies (NAS) report from the USA, have highlighted shortcomings in wide-ranging aspects of forensic science. The reports not only target service delivery issues but also the fundamental underpinnings of forensic science with respect to its knowledge base. How does forensic science in Australia compare? What would the reports say if the studies

Alastair Ross



The role of forensic geoscience in wildlife crime detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in both automation and precision in the analysis of geological materials has had significant impact upon forensic investigations in the last 10 years. There is however, a fundamental philosophical difference between forensic and geological enquiry. This paper presents the results of forensic geoscientific investigations of three cases of wildlife crime. Two cases involve the analysis of soils recovered

Ruth M. Morgan; Patricia Wiltshire; Adrian Parker; Peter A. Bull



28 CFR 90.14 - Forensic medical examination payment requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forensic medical examination payment requirement...Women Formula Grant Program § 90.14 Forensic medical examination payment requirement...incurs the full out-of-pocket costs of forensic medical examinations for victims...



Applications of capillary electrophoresis in forensic analytical chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade, capillary-electrophoresis (CE) techniques have been demonstrated to offer promising, effective and economic approaches for the separation of a large variety of substances, including those encountered in forensic analysis. Reliable, automated CE instruments have become commercially available and have advanced methods in forensic sciences. This article reviews applications of CE in the field of forensic analytical chemistry,

C. Cruces-Blanco; A. M. García-Campaña



Facing Victims: Forensics, Visual Technologies, and Sexual Assault Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes a particular legal-medical artifact: the photos of wounds and injuries collected by forensic nurses who work with sexual assault victim-patients. I show how forensic expertise draws on multiple medical practices and adapts these practices with the goal of preserving the integrity of the evidence collection processes. In particular, forensic nurse examiners practice a rigid regime of draping

Sameena Mulla



A survey of forensic characterization methods for physical devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes methods for forensic characterization of physical devices. This is important in verifying the trust and authenticity of data and the device that created it. Current forensic identification techniques for digital cameras, printers, and RF devices are presented. It is also shown how these techniques can fit into a general forensic characterization framework, which can be generalized for

Nitin Khanna; Aravind K. Mikkilineni; Anthony F. Martone; Gazi N. Ali; George T.-C. Chiu; Jan P. Allebach; Edward J. Delp



A survey of forensic characterization methods for physical devices5  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes methods for forensic characterization of physical devices. This is important in verifying the trust and authenticity of data and the device that created it. Current forensic identification techniques for digital cameras, printers, and RF devices are presented. It is also shown how these techniques can fit into a general forensic charac- terization framework, which can be generalized

Nitin Khanna; Aravind K. Mikkilineni; Anthony F. Martone; Gazi N. Ali; Jan P. Allebach; Edward J. Delp



Microsoft Academic Search

The methods, techniques, and reliability of the forensic sciences in general, and the pattern identification disciplines in particular, have faced significant scrutiny in recent years. Critics have attacked the scientific basis for the assumptions and claims made by forensic scientists both in and out of the courtroom. Defenders have emphasized courts' long-standing acceptance of forensic science evidence, the relative dearth

Jonathan Koehler; Jennifer L. Mnookin; Simon A. Cole; Barry A. J. Fisher; Itiel E. Dror; Max Houck; Kieth Inman; David H. Kaye; Glenn Langenburg; D. Michel Risinger; Norah Rudin; Jay Siegel



A model process for forensic mental health screening and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an operational definition and a model process for forensic mental health examinations developed on the bases of field research, reviews of literature and other documentary materials, and a survey of forensic mental health programs. Forensic mental health screening and evaluation is defined as the process conducted by mental health personnel, at the direction of criminal justice authorities,

Ingo Keilitzt



Significant genetic correlations among Caucasians at forensic DNA loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the effect of population differentiation on the forensic use of DNA profiles has been the subject of controversy for some years now, the debate has largely failed to focus on the genetical questions directly relevant to the forensic context. We re-analyse two published data sets and find that they convey much the same message for forensic inference, in contrast




Forensic DNA analysis in Europe: current situation and standardization efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present position in Europe concerning DNA profiling in forensics is described including the methods and genetic systems currently used in casework in the European forensic laboratories. The need for standards and the type of standards required for forensic DNA analysis are explained. Standardization efforts in Europe as well as the results of the standardization groups are described.

Angel Carracedo; Mar??a Sol Rodriguez-Calvo; Carmela Pestoni; Mar??a Victoria Lareu; Susana Bellas; Antonio Salas; Francisco Barros



Human tandem repeat sequences in forensic DNA typing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been 20 years since the first development of DNA fingerprinting and the start of forensic DNA typing. Ever since, human tandem repeat DNA sequences have been the main targets for forensic DNA analysis. These repeat sequences are classified into minisatellites (or VNTRs) and microsatellites (or STRs). In this brief review, we discuss the historical and current forensic applications

Keiji Tamaki; Alec J. Jeffreys



Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.



Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics to…

Shmaefsky, Brian R.



Setting Course: The Case for the Credentialing of Forensic Interviewers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article provides a history of efforts to develop a credentialing or certification process for forensic interviewers and reviews the multitiered credentialing process offered by the National Association of Certified Child Forensic Interviewers. The authors argue the benefits of a credentialing process for forensic interviewers and respond to…

Haney, Mike; Vieth, Victor I.; Campos, Hector M.



Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist  

PubMed Central

The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public.

Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D.; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C.; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy



Forensic science, genetics and wildlife biology: getting the right mix for a wildlife DNA forensics lab.  


Wildlife DNA forensics is receiving increasing coverage in the popular press and has begun to appear in the scientific literature in relation to several different fields. Recognized as an applied subject, it rests on top of very diverse scientific pillars ranging from biochemistry through to evolutionary genetics, all embedded within the context of modern forensic science. This breadth of scope, combined with typically limited resources, has often left wildlife DNA forensics hanging precariously between human DNA forensics and academics keen to seek novel applications for biological research. How best to bridge this gap is a matter for regular debate among the relatively few full-time practitioners in the field. The decisions involved in establishing forensic genetic services to investigate wildlife crime can be complex, particularly where crimes involve a wide range of species and evidential questions. This paper examines some of the issues relevant to setting up a wildlife DNA forensics laboratory based on experiences of working in this area over the past 7 years. It includes a discussion of various models for operating individual laboratories as well as options for organizing forensic testing at higher national and international levels. PMID:20593251

Ogden, Rob



Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist.  


The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public. PMID:23162478

Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy



Academic procrastination and statistics anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistics anxiety, which is experienced by as many as 80% of graduate students, has been found to debilitate performance in statistics and research methodology courses. As such, it is likely that statistics anxiety is, in part, responsible for many students delaying enrollment in these courses for as long as possible. Moreover, it is possible that, once enrolled in these courses,

Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie



On compensation of mismatched recording conditions in the Bayesian approach for forensic automatic speaker recognition.  


This paper deals with a procedure to compensate for mismatched recording conditions in forensic speaker recognition, using a statistical score normalization. Bayesian interpretation of the evidence in forensic automatic speaker recognition depends on three sets of recordings in order to perform forensic casework: reference (R) and control (C) recordings of the suspect, and a potential population database (P), as well as a questioned recording (QR) . The requirement of similar recording conditions between suspect control database (C) and the questioned recording (QR) is often not satisfied in real forensic cases. The aim of this paper is to investigate a procedure of normalization of scores, which is based on an adaptation of the Test-normalization (T-norm) [2] technique used in the speaker verification domain, to compensate for the mismatch. Polyphone IPSC-02 database and ASPIC (an automatic speaker recognition system developed by EPFL and IPS-UNIL in Lausanne, Switzerland) were used in order to test the normalization procedure. Experimental results for three different recording condition scenarios are presented using Tippett plots and the effect of the compensation on the evaluation of the strength of the evidence is discussed. PMID:15639552

Botti, F; Alexander, A; Drygajlo, A



The relationship between the detection of acquisitive crime by forensic science and drug-dependent offenders.  


Drug- and nondrug-related acquisitive crime offences such as burglary, theft, and motor vehicle theft, were compared to assess whether drug abusers were more likely to be apprehended via forensic science techniques. Data were all acquisitive offences committed over a 6-year period within a police force area in England. Drug-dependent offenders committed a wider range of offence types than nondependent offenders, and they were significantly more likely to be detected via their DNA or fingerprints (p < 0.01). A logistic regression (n > 14,000) revealed a number of predictors that influence the detection of the crime by forensic techniques. The results indicate that a number of these predictors are of statistical significance; the most significant of these being drug use by the offender with sex, ethnicity, and employment status also being relevant. Age of the offender and number of offences committed were found not to be significant. Of the four hypotheses considered to explain this, the most likely was thought to be the physical and mental impact of drug use on crime scene behavior. Consideration is given to the disciplines of forensic science and forensic psychology working closely together to distinguish factors that influence crime scene behavior. PMID:17645745

Bond, John W; Sheridan, Lorraine




SciTech Connect

The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael



Nuclear Forensics for High School Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed an education module on nuclear forensics, designed for high school science classrooms. The lessons include a mix of hands-on activities, computer simulations, and written exercises. Students are presented with realistic scenarios designed to develop their knowledge of nuclear science and its application to nuclear forensics. A two-day teacher workshop offered at Hope College attracted 20 teachers. They were loaned kits to implement activities with their students, and each teacher spent 3-7 days on the lessons. All who reported back said they would do it again and would share the lessons with colleagues. Many said that access to equipment and ready-made lessons enabled them to expand what they taught about nuclear science and introduce nuclear forensics. A few teachers invited guest speakers to their classroom, which provided an excellent opportunity to share career information with students.

Mader, Catherine; Doss, Heide; Plisch, Monica; Isola, Drew; Mirakovitz, Kathy



Planning, writing, and editing forensic psychiatric reports.  


Forensic psychiatric reports are often the final product of a psychiatrist's work in a particular case because most cases do not go to trial but instead are settled through negotiation or plea bargaining. This article addresses the planning, writing, and editing of forensic reports. Planning a report requires thorough data gathering, and thoughtful organization of the report into specific subheadings. Throughout the report there should be a clear separation of factual data from professional opinions. Ten pitfalls of report writing are identified. The most important part of the forensic report is the opinion section. The evidence for the opinion should begin with the strongest points and the reasons supporting the opinion should be completely explained. Finally, ethical issues are addressed. PMID:23040708

Resnick, Phillip J; Soliman, Sherif



The potential for the use of personal computers in clinical forensic medicine.  


This paper describes the use of a personal computer in clinical forensic medicine. It shows how a database can be easily created, updated for each new case by unqualified personnel, and then used to provide statistical data with a minimum resource input, without the need for great computer expertise. Databases will only recognise exactly identical abbreviations. Once created they can cross-reference data and provide individually tailored statistics. Registration with the Data Protection Agency is required in the UK in order to hold personal information on file. The results of 2201 cases entered on the database of one forensic physician show high levels of drug and alcohol abuse co-existing with unemployment and homelessness. 53% of individuals brought to police stations as a place of safety (under Section 136 of the Mental Health Act 1983) were in need of admission to a psychiatric hospital. 12% of those individuals were of no fixed abode. The potential for a national database linking forensic physicians on a national basis, pooling their data thereby creating a powerful statistical tool is clear. PMID:16371282

Moore, M R; Moore, S R



An Architecture for SCADA Network Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems are widely used in industrial control and automation. Modern SCADA protocols often employ TCP/IP to transport sensor data and control signals. Meanwhile, corporate IT infrastructures are interconnecting with previously isolated SCADA networks. The use of TCP/IP as a carrier protocol and the interconnection of IT and SCADA networks raise serious security issues. This paper describes an architecture for SCADA network forensics. In addition to supporting forensic investigations of SCADA network incidents, the architecture incorporates mechanisms for monitoring process behavior, analyzing trends and optimizing plant performance.

Kilpatrick, Tim; Gonzalez, Jesus; Chandia, Rodrigo; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet


Computer-aided forensics: metal object detection.  


Recently, forensic investigators1 have started using diagnostic radiology devices (MRI, CT) to acquire image data from cadavers. This new technology, called the virtual autopsy, has the potential to provide a low cost, non-invasive alternative or supplement to conventional autopsies. New image processing techniques are being developed to highlight forensically relevant information in the images. One such technique is the detection and characterization of metal objects embedded in the cadaver. Analysis of this information across a population with similar causes of death can lead to developing improved safety and protection devices with a corresponding reduction in deaths. PMID:16404054

Kelliher, Timothy; Leue, Bill; Lorensen, Bill; Lauric, Alexandra



Magnetic scanner for forensic examination of audiotapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of a new Magnetic Media Imaging Instrument (MMII) as applied to the forensic investigation of audio tapes is reported. The MMII is an instrument that produces a 2D image of the magnetic fields on a segment of tape up to 5 cm long, with a resolution of about 3 microns. The dynamic range exceeds 40 dB. This allows the visualization of important characteristics such as stop marks with much greater detail than is possible with conventional means such as ferrofluids. Results of tests representing typical forensic examinations are presented.

Read, Michael E.; Schwarz, Willi G.; Malsawma, Lex; Wallace, Robert B.; Ryan, James



Forensic Data Recovery from Flash Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Current forensic tools for examination,of embedded systems,like mobile,phones,and,PDA’s mostly,perform,data extraction on,a logical level and,do,not consider,the type,of storage media,during,data analysis. This paper,suggests a low level approach,for the forensic examination,of flash memories,and describes three low-level data acquisition methods,for making,full memory,copies of flash memory,devices. Results are presented,of a file system study in which USB memory,sticks from 45 different make,and models,were used. For different

Marcel Breeuwsma; Martien de Jongh; Coert Klaver; Ronald van der Knijff; Mark Roeloffs



Empathy in forensic evaluations: a systematic reconsideration.  


This paper reexamines the Shuman seminal paper arguing against empathic behaviors in forensic evaluations. Shuman concluded that empathy by examiners seduces evaluees into believing a therapeutic relationship exists. We reconsider empathy as an element of rapport and a helpful supplement in a successful assessment. Actively avoiding empathy could lead to cold and callous examiner self-presentation, which may in turn produce biased and negative results. In this paper we assert that ethical forensic professionals may use moderate empathy during an assessment. Examiners should consider it not as a component of subjectivity and pseudotherapy, but rather as a potentially useful tool for effective assessments. PMID:23188692

Brodsky, Stanley L; Wilson, Jennifer Kelly



A Small Scale Digital Device Forensics ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Small Scale Digital Device Forensics (SSDDF) is a relatively new,and rapidly changing,field of study which is in dire need of direction. Specifically, the devices and their corresponding forensic processes and,procedures,are vague,and in a perpetual state of uncertainty. The purpose,of this paper,was,to develop an ontological to provide,law enforcement,with the appropriate knowledge,regarding,the devices found,in the SSDD domain. Additionally, this ontology can be

David Christopher Harrill; Richard P. Mislan



Developing a one-semester course in forensic chemical science for university undergraduates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to research, develop and validate a one-semester course for the general education of university undergraduates in forensic chemical education. The course outline was developed using the research and development (R&D) methodology recommended by Gall, Borg, and Gall, (2003) and Dick and Carey, (2001) through a three step developmental cycle. Information was gathered and analyzed through review of literature and proof of concept interviews, laying the foundation for the framework of the course outline. A preliminary course outline was developed after a needs assessment showed need for such a course. Professors expert in the area of forensic science participated in the first field test of the course. Their feedback was recorded, and the course was revised for a main field test. Potential users of the guide served as readers for the main field test and offered more feedback to improve the course.

Salem, Roberta Sue


Q methodology in social work research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines Q methodology as an empirical method for use in social work research. Q methodology applies statistical analysis to the qualitative study of human subjectivity such as attitudes, beliefs, feelings and opinions. Q methodology is effective for obtaining data from small samples, and it offers respondents a concise and valid way of expressing their viewpoints with minimal researcher

I. T. Ellingsen; I. Størksen; P. Stephens



Application of DNA-based methods in forensic entomology.  


A forensic entomological investigation can benefit from a variety of widely practiced molecular genotyping methods. The most commonly used is DNA-based specimen identification. Other applications include the identification of insect gut contents and the characterization of the population genetic structure of a forensically important insect species. The proper application of these procedures demands that the analyst be technically expert. However, one must also be aware of the extensive list of standards and expectations that many legal systems have developed for forensic DNA analysis. We summarize the DNA techniques that are currently used in, or have been proposed for, forensic entomology and review established genetic analyses from other scientific fields that address questions similar to those in forensic entomology. We describe how accepted standards for forensic DNA practice and method validation are likely to apply to insect evidence used in a death or other forensic entomological investigation. PMID:17685848

Wells, Jeffrey D; Stevens, Jamie R



Child abduction murder: the impact of forensic evidence on solvability.  


This study examined 733 child abduction murders (CAMs) occurring from 1968 to 2002 to explore the influence of forensic evidence on case solvability in CAM investigations. It was hypothesized that the presence of forensic evidence connecting the offender to the crime would enhance case solvability in murder investigations of abducted children. This study examined the impact of CAM of different types of forensic evidence and the impact of the summed total of forensic evidence items on case solvability by controlling for victim age, victim race, victim gender, and victim-offender relationship. Time and distance theoretical predictors were also included. Binomial logistic regression models were used to determine whether forensic evidence was a critical solvability factor in murder investigations of abducted children. This research indicated that, while forensic evidence increased case solvability, the impact of forensic evidence on solvability was not as important as other solvability factors examined. PMID:22103801

Brown, Katherine M; Keppel, Robert D



Forensic science, genetics and wildlife biology: getting the right mix for a wildlife DNA forensics lab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlife DNA forensics is receiving increasing coverage in the popular press and has begun to appear in the scientific literature\\u000a in relation to several different fields. Recognized as an applied subject, it rests on top of very diverse scientific pillars\\u000a ranging from biochemistry through to evolutionary genetics, all embedded within the context of modern forensic science. This\\u000a breadth of scope,

Rob Ogden



Cancer Statistics  


... Rates Continue to Drop SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2010 Did You Know? Video Series Cancer Statistics ... and survival from the SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2010. Play Pause Volume Up Volume Down Mute ...


Cybercrime forensic system in cloud computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cloud is a virtual computing environment that provides applications, platforms and software support as services. The applications are extended over the Internet domain to the cloud service provider (CSP) with greater flexibility and availability at lower cost. Unfortunately, the cloud computing service also provides a better environment for criminals and increases the difficulties of cybercrime forensics. In this paper,




Insects of forensic significance in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records from forensic expertises and trappings with beef baits conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina (34°36?S), show that the dominating species are widespread ones (Calliphora vicina and Phaenicia sericata), with different behaviour in each large latitudinal zone. It is suggested that the range of the yearly photoperiod variation has an influence in the behaviour of the blowflies, making up for differences

A. Oliva



Overcoming Impediments to Cell Phone Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell phones are an emerging but rapidly growing area of computer forensics. While cell phones are becoming more like desktop computers functionally, their organization and operation are quite different in certain areas. For example, most cell phones do not contain a hard drive and rely instead on flash memory for persistent storage. Cell phones are also designed more as special-

Wayne Jansen; Aurélien Delaitre; Ludovic Moenner



Alexithymia in Dutch violent forensic psychiatric outpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until now alexithymia has not been investigated in Dutch low-educated offenders who are known for their violent behaviour. We therefore investigated a sample of aggressive forensic psychiatric outpatients, who are characterized by emotional dysregulation in conflict situations. For that purpose we used a Dutch questionnaire, the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ; Vorst & Bermond, 2001), which we also administered in a

R. H. J. Hornsveld; F. W. Kraaimaat



Law Enforcement, Forensics and Mobile Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the end of 2004, the GSM Association reported that over 600 networks in more than 200 countries were serving more than 1.2 billion users (1). This extraordinary devel- opment of inexpensive and flexible mobile communications is also a source of new security challenges. This paper briefly lists the forensic challenges raised by handsets and overviews the handset analysis techniques

Vanessa Gratzer; David Naccache; David Znaty



Computer Forensics - What Is It Good For?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer forensic examiners need to combine art and science to produce the highest valued electronic data content. The wide variety of document types, tremendous volume of dissimilar media, operating systems, programs, and compaction and encryption algorithms all present daunting tasks for the examiner to efficiently organize, process, and filter. The art involves how to get to the core documents, the

Ronald E. Kaplan



Towards Automating Analysis in Computer Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In the recent past, the number of attacks on computer systems that are moti- vated by profit has increased significantly, and such “cybercrime” is expected to dominate the threat landscape in the future. With criminal acts becoming more common in computer related incidents, the need for Computer Forensic experts to provide admissible evidence for these crimes also rises. Since

Bastian Schwittay



Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in computer internetworking and continued increases in Internet usage have been accompanied by a continued increase in the inc idence of computer related crime. At the same time, the number of sources of potential evide nce in any particular computer forensic investigation has grown considerably, as evidence o f the occurrence of relevant events can potentially be drawn

Bradley Schatz; George Moha; Andrew Clark


Computer Forensic Analysis in a Virtual Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the potential role of virtual environments in the analysis phase of computer forensics investigations. General concepts of virtual environments and software tools are presented and discussed. Further we identify the limitations of virtual environments leading to the conclusion that this method can not be considered to be a replacement for conventional techniques of computer evidence

Derek Bem; Ewa Huebner



Computer Forensics in the Global Enterprise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in cyber-crime has created the need for security technologies that are always one step ahead of the criminal. Computer forensics and incident response solutions allow a corporation to self-regulate and investigate their infrastructure with a significantly increased level of assurance; identifying the root cause of an incident and verifying the integrity of critical information. Many countries have enacted

Melisa Bleasdale; Scott Mann; John Patzakis



Computer Forensics Field Triage Process Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proliferation of digital based evidence, the need for the timely identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence is becoming more crucial. In many investigations critical information is required while at the scene or within a short period of time - measured in hours as opposed to days. The traditional cyber forensics approach of seizing a system(s)\\/media, transporting it

Marcus K. Rogers; James Goldman; Rick Mislan; Timothy Wedge; Steve Debrota



Forensic Filtering of Cell Phone Protocols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phone managers are non-forensic software tools designed to carry out a range of tasks for the user, such as reading and updating the contents of a phone, using one or more of the communications protocols supported by the phone. Phone managers are sometime...

A. Delaitre W. Jansen



Forensic patients--who is watching them?  


Does your hospital security department have the right and/or responsibility for checking out the qualifications and practices of private contractors hired by law enforcement to guard forensic patients? In this article, the author explains why you should. PMID:22970623

White, John M



The Wrongful Conviction of Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of claims that faulty forensic science is a leading cause of wrongful convictions. This sentiment has been reported at length by major news outlets across the United States. It has also been a matter of great concern to a group of activists in what is known as the innocence network

John M. Collins; Jay Jarvis



Trial by Science: A Forensic Extravaganza  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This intriguing crime-solving activity for middle level students demonstrates some of the basics of forensic science; including the analysis of fingerprints, hair, fiber, and soil evidence. The realism of the scenario is enhanced by recruiting adult volunteers to serve as suspects that can be questioned and tried by students through the process of scientific inquiry.

Hunt, Vanessa



DoD Forensic Science Committee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Instruction, issued under the authority of DoD Directive 5106.1, establishes the DoD Forensic Science Committee as a joint DoD committee under the provisions of DoD Directive 5105.18 (hereafter referred to as 'the Committee'); assigns responsibilitie...

B. McVay



Using Structural Equation Modeling With Forensic Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its many advantages, structural equation modeling (SEM) has been used with increasing frequency in behavioral science, and it is a set of techniques that can be useful in analyzing forensic research data. Issues in SEM, including theory, estimation method, sample size and data requirements, identification, and fit indices are discussed. Using a sample of data from men arrested

Jeffrey C. Meehan; Gregory L. Stuart



Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)|

Bruce, Alease



ForNet: A Distributed Forensics Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces ForNet, a distributed network logging mecha- nism to aid digital forensics over wide area networks. We describe the need for such a system, review related work, present the architecture of the system, and discuss key research issues.

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram; Nasir D. Memon; Anubhav Savant; Hervé Brönnimann



A Critical (Legal) View of Forensic Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic Computing is a relatively new academic discipline that in its current form seems very much geared towards the production of professionals who are likely to be active in law enforcement. It is generally predicated on the idea that computers can be misused for criminal purposes and such activities need to be prosecuted. For such prosecution technical expertise in computer

Bernd Carsten Stahl


The application of microchemistry in forensic chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The application, then, of microchemistry in the field of forensic chemistry is unlimited. The identification of blood and body fluids, paint, hairs and fibers, narcotics and drugs, glass fragments, soil, the examination of dust, stains, explosives, metals, chemical accelerants used in arson cases, the examination of powder for firearms, the search for powder residues remaining on clothing or in

Livio L. Vagnina



A Forensic Approach to Consumer Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a forensic-oriented, college-level course in consumer chemistry. Includes course goals, topical outline, and list of chemical ingredients in consumer products useful for student research projects. The first section of the course focuses on mathematics since students in introductory courses may fear doing the most rudimentary…

Berger, Selman A.



Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of

D K Smith; S Niemeyer



A Forensic Camp for Talented Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the North West Region of New South Wales, a project was initiated in 1993 to address the lack of resources allocated to the talented science student. A four-day residential camp resulted, which was held in Armidale. The foci for the program were the scientific procedures and concepts involved in the practice of forensic science. (Author)|

Levins, Lesley; Levins, Martin



Image Source Coding Forensics via Intrinsic Fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this digital era, digital multimedia contents are often trans- mitted over networks without any protection. This raises serious security concerns since the receivers\\/subscribers do not know what processes have been applied to multimedia data, and neither do they know whether this copy comes from a trusted source. Therefore, it is critical to provide forensic tools to identify the history

W. Sabrina Lin; Steven Tjoa; H. Vicky Zhao; K. J. Ray Liu



Advanced Digital Forensic and Steganalysis Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author developed and advanced a new class of digital forensic techniques to verify origin and integrity of digital imagery based on systematic artifacts of imaging sensors called photo-response non-uniformity (PRNU), which is caused by slight variatio...

J. Fridrich



Chinese Drywall—Environmental Forensic Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic science will face one of its greatest challenges in dealing with the host of issues created by allegedly defective, Chinese drywall (CDW) in legislative, regulatory, and judicial forums. Many have already likened the impending controversies to the monumental asbestos crisis and related proceedings. CDWs are building materials (gypsum) imported in the United States from China in large amounts throughout

Ioana G. Petrisor; Allan Kanner



Magnetic scanner for forensic examination of audiotapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a new Magnetic Media Imaging Instrument (MMII) as applied to the forensic investigation of audio tapes is reported. The MMII is an instrument that produces a 2D image of the magnetic fields on a segment of tape up to 5 cm long, with a resolution of about 3 microns. The dynamic range exceeds 40 dB. This allows

Michael E. Read; Willi G. Schwarz; Lex Malsawma; Robert B. Wallace; James Ryan



A forensic application of PIXE analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PIXE measurements were performed on various calcareous materials including identified bone residues, human cremains, and samples of disputed origin. In a forensic application, the elemental analysis suggests that the origin of a sample suspectly classified as human cremains can tentatively be identified as a mixture of sandy soil and dolomitic limestone. .

Kravchenko, I. I.; Dunnam, F. E.; van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Warren, M. W.; Falsetti, A. B.



Forensic analysis of black coral (Order Antipatharia).  


Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), discriminate analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and stereoscopic microscopy were used to separate black coral forensic evidence items from similarly appearing items manufactured from plastics, bovid keratin, and mangrove wood. In addition, novel observations were made of bromine and iodine relationships in black coral that have not been previously reported. PMID:21925814

Espinoza, Edgard O; Scanlan, Michael D; McClure, Pamela J; Baker, Barry W



Forensics and the GSM Mobile Telephone System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GSM system has become the most popular system for mobile communication in the world. Criminals commonly use GSM phones, and it is therefore a need for forensic investigators to understand which evidence can be obtained from the GSM system. This paper briefly explains the basics of the GSM system. Evidence items that can be obtained from the Mobile Equipment,

Svein Yngvar Willassen



Sharp force injuries in “clinical” forensic medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, the forensic evaluation of sharp force injuries in living and dead individuals follows the same morphologic principles. Still, there are some special features of sharp force injuries in the clinical context, which have to be considered as examination findings on the living are interpreted to differentiate between accidental origin, self-infliction or homicidal assault. These include the frequency and

Ulrike Schmidt



The Outpatient Forensic Substance Abuse Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the reliability and validity of an instrument that is clinically useful for assessment of risk factors among chemically dependent populations in an outpatient forensic setting. It is reliable, both across time and internally, and demonstrates a high degree of user acceptance. There is good agreement between client scores and independent assessment of the same characteristics. Continued examination

James M. Cianciulli



A Forensic Approach to Consumer Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a forensic-oriented, college-level course in consumer chemistry. Includes course goals, topical outline, and list of chemical ingredients in consumer products useful for student research projects. The first section of the course focuses on mathematics since students in introductory courses may fear doing the most rudimentary mathematical…

Berger, Selman A.



Online Database Coverage of Forensic Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online seaches of sample topics in the area of forensic medicine were conducted in the following life science databases: Biosis Previews, Excerpta Medica, Medline, Scisearch, and Chemical Abstracts Search. Search outputs analyzed according to criteria of recall, uniqueness, overlap, and utility reveal the need for a cross-database approach to…

Snow, Bonnie; Ifshin, Steven L.



Chromatographic Techniques in Forensic Chemical Examinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some aspects of the use of chromatographic analytical techniques in the forensic chemical examination of materials, substances, and products were considered. The detection and subsequent expert examination of various materials (psychoactive drugs, explosives, gunshot residues, etc.) was exemplified. It was demonstrated that the effectiveness and validity of the evidential matter of expert examinations can be provided by tdeveloping a uniform

I. M. Fitsev; V. K. Blokhin; G. K. Budnikov



Sexual assault examinations and forensic medical samples.  


Recent studies and a review in the United States have identified that tens of thousands of used but untested sexual assault examination kits containing medical examination specimens are to be found in police station evidence rooms, forensic science laboratories, hospitals and rape crisis centres. A 2007 survey undertaken by the National Institute of Justice in the United States explored some of the reasons why forensic specimens are not tested by forensic science laboratories. Many of these relate to lack of knowledge on the part of investigators as to how scientific information can assist the investigation process, even if not used subsequently at trial. Cost factors and laboratory casework overload were also identified as significant. For the medical practitioner, the lack of testing poses issues that include quality management of the forensic medical examination and informed consent in a setting requiring the balancing of public and private benefits for the examinee. Limiting scientific testing, even with intelligence-led triaging of sample testing, could have an adverse effect on both prosecution and defence decision-making and ultimately could adversely affect trial outcomes. PMID:21988007

Ranson, David



Bacterial Population Genetics in a Forensic Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report addresses the recent Department of Homeland Security (DHS) call for a Phase I study to (1) assess gaps in the forensically relevant knowledge about the population genetics of eight bacterial agents of concern, (2) formulate a technical roadmap to address those gaps, and (3) identify new bioinformatics tools that would be necessary to analyze and interpret population genetic




Computer Forensics in Japan: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many national studies on computer forensics have been reported in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia, except Japan. As one of the economic powers in the world and the only Asian country represented in the G8, Japan has been playing a critical role in Asia as well as in the world in fighting against the cyber crime and

Jigang Liu; Tetsutaro Uehara



Basic issues in forensic DNA typing  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA analysis has become the standard method in forensic stain typing (termed DNA profiling). In contrast to conventional serological methods, any human tissue or body fluid can be analysed by DNA profiling as long as it contains nucleated cells. The majority of genetic systems studied at the DNA level are derived from “non-coding” portions from the human genome, and are

Peter M Schneider



Interpretation of Complex Forensic DNA Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic evidentiary samples routinely contain DNA from multiple contributors. The interpretation of these mixtures can be a challenging task for the DNA scientist. Several approaches are discussed (no calculation- qualitative state- ment; probability of exclusion; likelihood ratio estimates; presumptive genotype assignment based on peak heights), which have been employed to assess the significance of an inclusion\\/match when DNA mixtures have

Carll Ladd; Henry C. Lee; Nicholas Yang; Frederick R. Bieber



Microsoft Academic Search

rapid STR typing. STR typing has been demonstrated on glass(1-3) and plastic(4, 5) microchip devices. However, sample preparation (DNA extraction and PCR) must still be done off chip. We are currently developing an integrated microfluidic system that integrates all of the necessary processing steps of forensic DNA STR marker analysis and performs them automatically. In this paper we report the

Jason Y. Liu; Allison Phayre; Qihuo Wei; Moria Nagy; Mark Richards; Sameer Venugopal; Ravi Gupta; Ralf Lenigk; Jianing Yang; Jian Gu; Chia-Fu Chou; Frederic Zenhausern


Values in forensic and correctional psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the practice of forensic and correctional psychology has been understood in relation to certain sets of values that have been articulated in codes of ethical practice or organisational mission statements, there has been little consideration of how the values of offenders can inform the rehabilitative process. In this paper the criminogenic nature of values is discussed and how these

Andrew Day; Sharon Casey



Forensic quest for age determination of bloodstains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bloodstains at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigators. They can be used for DNA-profiling for verifying the suspect's identity or for pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the crime. However, until now, using bloodstains to determine the time elapsed since the crime was committed is still not possible. From a criminalistic point of

Rolf H. Bremmer; Karla G. de Bruin; Martin J. C. van Gemert; Ton G. van Leeuwen; Maurice C. G. Aalders


The Forensic Use of DNA Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of DNA profiling in the criminal justice system is an important issue facing Australian courts and criminal investigators today. The technology is changing rapidly and several new techniques are becoming available. Increasingly, legal advisers are required to come to grips with this kind of scientific evidence. DNA profiling has been described as a powerful breakthrough in forensic science

Patricia Weiser Easteal; Simon Easteal


New Digital Forensics Investigation Procedure Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we presented a new digital forensics investigation procedure model which is as follows: investigation preparation, classifying cyber crime and deciding investigation priority, investigating damaged (victim) digital crime scene, criminal profiling consultant and analysis, tracking suspects, investigating injurer digital crime scene, summoning suspect, additional investigation, writing criminal profiling, writing report.

Yong-Dal Shin; Cyber Police



Multi-Database Searching in Forensic Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traditional library skills have been augmented since the introduction of online computerized database services. Because of the complexity of the field, forensic psychology can benefit enormously from the application of comprehensive bibliographic search strategies. The study reported here demonstrated the bibliographic results obtained when a…

Piotrowski, Chris; Perdue, Robert W.


Preliminary suggested readings in forensic psychology.  


ABBP Diplomates in forensic psychology were surveyed to identify lists of "suggested readings" for their field. The return rate was 28% of 162 total Diplomates. Four of 117 books and five of 56 journals met the inclusion criterion of being endorsed by > or = 25% of the respondents. The present survey provides a preliminary reading guide for undergraduate and graduate students. PMID:12841440

Ryan, Joseph J; Fletcher, Jessica



Robust Correctness Testing for Digital Forensic Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous work, the authors presented a theoretical lower bound on the required number of testing runs for performance testing of digital forensic tools. We also demonstrated a practical method of testing showing how to tolerate both measurement and random errors in order to achieve results close to this bound. In this paper, we extend the previous work to the situation of correctness testing.

Pan, Lei; Batten, Lynn M.


Kicking to death — forensic and criminological aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 36,274 forensic autopsies was performed in Berlin, between 1980 and 1987, including 152 cases (0.42%) in which death had been caused by blunt violence due to kicking. Data were collected on both victims and offenders, postmortem findings, causes of death and the way violence had been perpetrated. The greater part of victims and offenders had been males

H. Strauch; I. Wirth; Uta Taymoorian; G. Geserick



[From medicolegal toxicology to forensic toxicology].  


The importance of forensic toxicology has been increasing until now, because of the increasing numbers of toxic substances and poisoning incidents. In Japan, a special translational word "houi-chudoku-gaku" has been used for the forensic toxicology especially in the field of legal medicine. The Japanese word, however, does not seem appropriate for translation of forensic toxicology, because it covers medicine, pharmacy and police sciences interdisciplinary. In 1980, Emeritus Prof. Hidetoshi Yoshimura created an appropriate word "hochudoku-gaku" for translation of forensic toxicology. In 1982, Prof. Yoshimura and his friends established the Japanese Association of Forensic Toxicology, consisting of people from legal medicine, pharmacy and police institutes. This Association enabled lively discussions among different fields and greatly contributed to advances of forensic toxicology in Japan. We started studies of forensic toxicology using gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS) in 1979. Until now, we delt with solid-phase extraction (1987-1994), surface ionization GC (1989-1997), negative ion chemical ionization MS (1981-now), solid-phase microextraction (1994-now), cryogenic oven trapping GC (1997-now), surface ionization organic MS (1998-now) and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem MS (1998-now). In this review, the author presents some details of solid-phase microextraction, negative ion chemical ionization MS, cryogenic oven trapping GC and surface ionization organic MS. Unprecedented poisoning terrorism by use of sarin took place in Matsumoto and Tokyo in 1994 and 1995, respectively. On July 25, 1998, a curry poisoning incident using arsenious acid occurred in Wakayama, resulting in the death of 4 people and injury of 63 people. Since then, more than 30 imitative poisoning cases have been reported by mass communication within 1 year. In spite of the above continuing poisoning cases, almost no effective measures have been taken by the administration of our country and local governments. Many serious problems concerning poisoning and drug abuse are accumulating in Japan. In this review, the problems are also made manifest, and some proposals are presented to solve the problems. PMID:11218750

Suzuki, O




Microsoft Academic Search

Isotope and molecular organic geochemistry have played an important role in the development of forensic methodologies for the identification of oil spills in the marine environment (Kaplan et al., 1997). Here we explore a similar analytical approach for fingerprinting motor oil spills from traffic accidents. In most car crushes, aliquots from motor oil spills can be recovered from the road



Impurity Profiling of a Chemical Weapon Precursor for Possible Forensic Signatures by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography\\/Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present the feasibility of using analytical chemical and chemometric methodologies to reveal and exploit the organic impurity profiles from commercial dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) samples to illustrate the type of forensic information that may be obtained from chemical-attack evidence. Using DMMP as a model compound for a toxicant that may be used in a chemical attack, we

Jamin C. Hoggard; Jon H. Wahl; Robert E. Synovec; Gary M. Mong; Carlos G. Fraga



Forensic analysis of print using digital image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this investigation is to establish whether it is possible to produce a practical forensic tool that can identify the production sources of printed text from different digital print engines. The identification of print using an automated machine system is important because although expert observers can be employed for this task, there are cases when they make mistakes or do not possess the required knowledge. Therefore the development of an automated print identification system is under consideration. It is envisaged that the system will be useful in solving criminal cases involving the analysis of fraudulent replication of official documents, threatening letters and the counterfeiting of consumer products. The methodology used in this investigation employed a digital image analysis system and specially developed software to measure the shape characteristics of text characters. The information about the shapes of the text characters can be stored in a database along with the corresponding data about the print engines that produced them. A database search engine can then be used to classify text characters of unknown origin. The paper will report on the methodology and techniques used in the investigation and the latest experimental results for the project.

Tchan, Jack



Drugs in nails: physiology, pharmacokinetics and forensic toxicology.  


In recent years, drug analysis in keratinised matrices, such as hair and nails, has received considerable attention because of several advantages over drug testing methodologies employing body fluids, such as urine or serum. For example, keratinic matrices, such as finger- and toenails, can accumulate drugs during long term exposure. Drugs are incorporated into nails by a double mechanism: (i) deposition into the root of the growing nail via the blood flow in the nail matrix; and (ii) incorporation via the nail bed during growth from the lunula to the beginning of the free margin. Together, these account for a wide retrospective window of drug detection. Nails can provide a good forensic matrix for the detection of drugs of abuse. Indeed, the international literature has reported the use of nail analysis in postmortem detection of drugs of abuse, drug testing in the workplace and drug screening to detect prenatal exposure, even though further studies are needed for correct interpretation of the data obtained. Another application of drug analysis in nails consists of the possibility of detecting the presence of an antimycotic at the site of action during antifungal therapy for patients with onychomycosis. When available, this evidence has permitted drug treatment of a shorter duration and reduced toxicity. However, so far the potential of drug monitoring in nails still lacks harmonisation and validation of analytical methodologies and a better comprehension of the possible correlation between drug concentrations in the matrix and period of exposure. PMID:10709775

Palmeri, A; Pichini, S; Pacifici, R; Zuccaro, P; Lopez, A



A study of composite restorations as a tool in forensic identification  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Comparing ante-mortem and post-mortem dental data is a principal method of identification in forensic odontology. Radiographic images of amalgam have been used in dental forensics for identification due to their unique appearance. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether radio-opaque composite restorations have a potential for identification in forensic odontology. Materials and Methods: Thirty typodont mandibular first molar teeth were prepared with Class-II (proximo-occlusal) cavities and restored with a radio-opaque composite (Tetric N-Ceram). Two sets of standardized radiographs were taken from the 30 teeth, keeping the radiological parameters constant. One set of these 30 radiographs was named as SET 1. Ten randomly chosen radiographs from the other set and two other radiographs of Class-II composite restorations in typodont teeth constituted SET 2. Thirty dentally trained examiners were asked to match the 12 radiographic images of SET 2 with those of SET 1. Results: The results show that 15 examiners were able to correctly match all the 12 images. Statistical analysis was done using kappa statistical test. Conclusion: This study shows that, if the post-mortem radiographs are accurate duplicates of ante-mortem radiographs of composite restorations, then the shape of the composite restoration is unique and can be used for identification.

Hemasathya, Bahavathi Ananthan; Balagopal, Sundaresan



The role of university-based forensic clinics.  


As forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology have grown and matured, the range of specialized services provided by each has expanded. In addition to traditional services such as forensic mental health assessments in criminal, family, and civil contexts, forensic specialists are now involved in delivering services in the community that include (in the criminal justice context) assessment for diversion into specialized probation or problem-solving courts, rehabilitation needs upon reentry (including specialized parole), and risk assessment for particular populations such as sexual offenders. Specialized forensic treatment services include those provided to clients under the jurisdiction of problem-solving courts or parole/probation. Similar specialized assessment and treatment services may be provided for juveniles. The nature of such service needs underscores the importance of the university-based forensic clinic as one source of specialized forensic services in the community. Such clinics are based in universities, directed by supervising faculty, and offer services provided in part by forensic trainees (psychiatric residents and forensic fellows; psychology doctoral students, interns, and post-doctoral fellows). The structure and operations of such clinics are described, with different models provided. Implications for specialized training, forensic practice, and research are discussed. PMID:23631922

Heilbrun, Kirk; Kelley, Sharon Messenheimer; Koller, Julie Present; Giallella, Christy; Peterson, Lindsey



Considerations for Ship Design and Forensics Based Upon Modern Advances in Nonlinear Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My recent activities for Nonlinear Waves Research Corporation have lead to a number of new advances in ocean surface waves that have been applied to the reanalysis and forensics of sunken ships. The methods are based upon progress in the physical understanding of ocean waves and have required a number of breakthroughs requiring applications of algebraic geometry, topology and differential geometry. This work has provided a number of new tools for the forecasting/hindcasting of wind waves (including the prediction of rogue waves), for the deterministic simulation of ocean waves (including both the Type I and Type II instabilities) and for the statistical behavior of ocean waves. These approaches have lead to procedures for the determination of the design wave for ships and for the forensics of sunken ships in past storms. I give examples of how these approaches have been applied.

Osborne, Alfred



Statistical Inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An important application of probability theory is the use of statistics in science, in particular classical statistics as\\u000a devised by Fisher and Neyman and Pearson. Good introductions to this type of statistics are provided in (Barnett, 1999) and\\u000a in (Mood et al., 1974). We should emphasize that classical statistics is not an uncontroversial tool for reasoning statistically,\\u000a and that it

Rolf Haenni; Jan-Willem Romeijn; Gregory Wheeler; Jon Williamson


Final Reports Submitted Under Forensic DNA Backlog Reduction Program Fiscal Year 2010 Awards .  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of NIJ's FY 2010 Forensic DNA Backlog Reduction Program is to assist eligible States and units of local government to reduce forensic DNA sample turnaround time, increase the throughput of public DNA laboratories, and reduce DNA forensic casework...



Trace Analytical Techniques for Nuclear Forensics  

SciTech Connect

Over the history of the Savannah River Site, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has developed high sensitivity analytical capabilities in support of the Site's Environmental Monitoring Program and nuclear material protection process. Many of these techniques are applicable to the developing need for nuclear forensic analysis capabilities. Radiological and critically control procedures are in place at the SRTC, as well as clean room practices, to minimize the potential for a radiological evidentiary sample to contaminate personnel and the facility, as well as to minimize contaminating the sample thus rendering it useless by law enforcement agencies. Some of the trace analytical techniques available at the SRTC include ultra-low-level gamma and alpha spectrometry, high-sensitivity thermal ionization mass spectrometry, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and trace organic analyses. These techniques have been tested during a planned domestic smuggling exercise and in the analysis of an unknown sample.In the event of an interdiction involving the illegal use or movement of radioactive material by U.S. law enforcement agencies (local, state or federal) forensic analyses will be used in developing and building a legal case against the perpetrators. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a former nuclear production site currently conducting nuclear material stabilization missions, located in Aiken South Carolina, has a long history of performing trace analytical analyses for environmental monitoring. Many of these techniques are also applicable to nuclear forensic analyses. A summary of the trace analytical techniques used at the SRTC, which are applicable to Nuclear Forensics, is presented in this paper.Contamination control, of facilities and personnel involved in the analytical analyses, as well as preventing contamination of the sample, is a unique challenge for nuclear forensic analyses. A discussion of sample handling and contamination control procedures is included in this paper. Some of the applicable analytical techniques available at the SRTC for nuclear forensic analyses include: ultra-low-level gamma and alpha spectroscopy, high-sensitivity thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and trace organic analyses. Results from analyses of special nuclear material (SNM) standards, materials from nuclear smuggling exercises, and materials of unknown origin will be presented.

Halverson, J.E.



Chain of evidence generation for contrast enhancement in digital image forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of the images obtained by digital cameras has improved a lot since digital cameras early days. Unfortunately, it is not unusual in image forensics to find wrongly exposed pictures. This is mainly due to obsolete techniques or old technologies, but also due to backlight conditions. To extrapolate some invisible details a stretching of the image contrast is obviously required. The forensics rules to produce evidences require a complete documentation of the processing steps, enabling the replication of the entire process. The automation of enhancement techniques is thus quite difficult and needs to be carefully documented. This work presents an automatic procedure to find contrast enhancement settings, allowing both image correction and automatic scripting generation. The technique is based on a preprocessing step which extracts the features of the image and selects correction parameters. The parameters are thus saved through a JavaScript code that is used in the second step of the approach to correct the image. The generated script is Adobe Photoshop compliant (which is largely used in image forensics analysis) thus permitting the replication of the enhancement steps. Experiments on a dataset of images are also reported showing the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

Battiato, Sebastiano; Messina, Giuseppe; Strano, Daniela



Practice parameter for child and adolescent forensic evaluations.  


This Parameter addresses the key concepts that differentiate the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents from a clinical assessment. There are ethical issues unique to the forensic evaluation, because the forensic evaluator's duty is to the person, court, or agency requesting the evaluation, rather than to the patient. The forensic evaluator clarifies the legal questions to be answered and structures the evaluation to address those issues. The forensic examination may include a review of collateral information, interviews and other assessments of the child or adolescent, and interviews with other relevant informants. The principles in this Parameter suggest the general approach to the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents and are relevant to delinquency, child custody, child maltreatment, personal injury, and other court-ordered and noncourt-ordered evaluations. PMID:22115153

Kraus, Louis J; Thomas, Christopher R; Bukstein, Oscar G; Walter, Heather J; Benson, R Scott; Chrisman, Allan; Farchione, Tiffany R; Hamilton, John; Keable, Helene; Kinlan, Joan; Schoettle, Ulrich; Siegel, Matthew; Stock, Saundra; Ptakowski, Kristin Kroeger; Medicus, Jennifer



Advances in forensic toxicology for establishing causality between Great Lakes epizootics and specific persistent toxic chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Populations of fish, wildlife, and humans in the Great Lakes basin have been injured during this century by exposures to organochlorine pollutants such as PCBs and dioxin. The evidence presented by scientists working on these outbreaks of chemically induced disease has been received with skepticism among officials, who have expressed a desire for a proven cause and effect before further costly regulatory and remedial action is taken. Scientists have adapted epidemiological criteria to infer causal relationships between the injury and exposures to specific chemicals. These forensic statements are different from traditional toxicological statements about potential effects. There is a priority need to institutionalize this methodology within governments to complement established risk assessment techniques.

Gilbertson, M. [International Joint Commission, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)



Forensic science and criminal justice: An analysis of curricular models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multi-disciplinary field of forensic science frequently finds its academic home within criminal justice programs. After\\u000a examining the reasons for this academic linkage, an analysis of criminal justice curricular models and courses was undertaken\\u000a to assess their applicability to forensic science education and careers. The authors concluded that the relationship between\\u000a criminal justice and forensic science can be mutually beneficial;

Charles A. Lindquist; Frederick P. Smith



[Polish forensic entomology--the past, present and future perspectives].  


Forensic medicine increasingly more often benefits from the achievements of other biological sciences, which may be used in post mortem investigation. One of them is forensic entomology--the science based on the knowledge about biology of insects preying on cadavers. The objective of this article is to present the history of Polish forensic entomology, its present state and possibilities and directions of further development. PMID:21180109

Skowronek, Rafa?; Chowaniec, Czes?aw


Anti-Forensics with Steganographic Data Embedding in Digital Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-forensics investigates and extracts confidential information from electronic products; in other words, the anti- forensics indicates that evidences in those products are imper- ceptible and undetected. This work presents an anti-forensic steganography method that can embed and extract messages from images. Highlight of exploiting modification direction (HoEMD) and adaptive EMD (AdEMD) methods use the module operation and take into account

Hung-Min Sun; Chi-Yao Weng; Chin-Feng Lee; Cheng-Hsing Yang



Historical development of expertise in forensic chemical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of forensic chemical analysis shows a development from the mere quotation of a concentration value to an expert\\u000a opinion which helps to explain manifold circumstances of the case under consideration. The development of forensic expertises\\u000a on chemical problems connected to forensic medicine reveals two essential stages: 1. A period, when sensual perceptions were\\u000a the only means of investigation

W. Vycudilik



Using Simulation in Statistics Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides examples of the use of computer simulation to help beginners develop a grasp for difficult statistical concepts. The implementation of this teaching methodology is discussed and analysis of simulation output through use of standard statistical software packages is illustrated. (Author/MBR)|

Dambolena, Ismael G.