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1

Quantitative structure朼ctivity relationship (QSAR) methodology in forensic toxicology: Modeling postmortem redistribution of structurally diverse drugs using multivariate statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postmortem redistribution (PMR) constitutes a multifaceted process, which renders the analytical results of drug concentrations inaccurate to be interpreted by forensic toxicologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether quantitative structure朼ctivity relationship (QSAR) methodology could serve as an effective tool to estimate the ability of drugs to redistribute across tissue barriers during postmortem period on the basis

Costas Giaginis; Anna Tsantili-Kakoulidou; Stamatios Theocharis

2009-01-01

2

Statistics in Practice Forensic Science  

E-print Network

". 路 Greater use of trace evidence (paint/glass/fibres). 路 DNA revolution. The rise of DNA was coincident Statistics in Practice 颅 p.1/36 #12;Forensic Science Criminal evidence becoming increasingly "scientific: 路 Trace evidence (glass/paint/fibres) being treated statistically. 路 More evidence types: 路 common

Lucy, David

3

Methodology, Measurement, and Statistics  

NSF Publications Database

... federal statistical agencies for competitive survey and statistical methodology proposals.) Proposal ... models that cross traditional disciplinary boundaries, including research on statistical methodology ...

4

Non-Parametric Statistical Techniques for Computational Forensic Engineering  

E-print Network

Abstract Computational forensic engineering is the process of identification of the tool or algorithmNon-Parametric Statistical Techniques for Computational Forensic Engineering Jennifer Lee Wong. We introduce a new Relative Generic Forensic Engineering (RGFE) technique that has several advantages

Wong, Jennifer L.

5

Statistical Tools for Forensic Analysis of Toolmarks  

SciTech Connect

Recovery and comparison of toolmarks, footprint impressions, and fractured surfaces connected to a crime scene are of great importance in forensic science. The purpose of this project is to provide statistical tools for the validation of the proposition that particular manufacturing processes produce marks on the work-product (or tool) that are substantially different from tool to tool. The approach to validation involves the collection of digital images of toolmarks produced by various tool manufacturing methods on produced work-products and the development of statistical methods for data reduction and analysis of the images. The developed statistical methods provide a means to objectively calculate a ''degree of association'' between matches of similarly produced toolmarks. The basis for statistical method development relies on ''discriminating criteria'' that examiners use to identify features and spatial relationships in their analysis of forensic samples. The developed data reduction algorithms utilize the same rules used by examiners for classification and association of toolmarks.

David Baldwin; Max Morris; Stan Bajic; Zhigang Zhou; James Kreiser

2004-04-22

6

A forensic methodology for countering computer crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that the moves by police and consultancy firms to successfully enforce recent computer misuse legislation requires the bringing together of investigative, legal, courtroom and computing skills in an extension of forensic science. The term suggested for this new discipline is computer forensics'.

Philip A. Collier; B. J. Spaul

1992-01-01

7

Modern statistical models for forensic fingerprint examinations: a critical review.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, the development of statistical models in support of forensic fingerprint identification has been the subject of increasing research attention, spurned on recently by commentators who claim that the scientific basis for fingerprint identification has not been adequately demonstrated. Such models are increasingly seen as useful tools in support of the fingerprint identification process within or in addition to the ACE-V framework. This paper provides a critical review of recent statistical models from both a practical and theoretical perspective. This includes analysis of models of two different methodologies: Probability of Random Correspondence (PRC) models that focus on calculating probabilities of the occurrence of fingerprint configurations for a given population, and Likelihood Ratio (LR) models which use analysis of corresponding features of fingerprints to derive a likelihood value representing the evidential weighting for a potential source. PMID:24053874

Abraham, Joshua; Champod, Christophe; Lennard, Chris; Roux, Claude

2013-10-10

8

Nuclear Forensic Inferences Using Iterative Multidimensional Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear forensics involves the analysis of interdicted nuclear material for specific material characteristics (referred to as 'signatures') that imply specific geographical locations, production processes, culprit intentions, etc. Predictive signatures rely on expert knowledge of physics, chemistry, and engineering to develop inferences from these material characteristics. Comparative signatures, on the other hand, rely on comparison of the material characteristics of the

M Robel; M J Kristo; M A Heller

2009-01-01

9

Nuclear Forensic Inferences Using Iterative Multidimensional Statistics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear forensics involves the analysis of interdicted nuclear material for specific material characteristics (referred to as 'signatures') that imply specific geographical locations, production processes, culprit intentions, etc. Predictive signatures rely on expert knowledge of physics, chemistry, and engineering to develop inferences from these material characteristics. Comparative signatures, on the other hand, rely on comparison of the material characteristics of the interdicted sample (the 'questioned sample' in FBI parlance) with those of a set of known samples. In the ideal case, the set of known samples would be a comprehensive nuclear forensics database, a database which does not currently exist. In fact, our ability to analyze interdicted samples and produce an extensive list of precise materials characteristics far exceeds our ability to interpret the results. Therefore, as we seek to develop the extensive databases necessary for nuclear forensics, we must also develop the methods necessary to produce the necessary inferences from comparison of our analytical results with these large, multidimensional sets of data. In the work reported here, we used a large, multidimensional dataset of results from quality control analyses of uranium ore concentrate (UOC, sometimes called 'yellowcake'). We have found that traditional multidimensional techniques, such as principal components analysis (PCA), are especially useful for understanding such datasets and drawing relevant conclusions. In particular, we have developed an iterative partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) procedure that has proven especially adept at identifying the production location of unknown UOC samples. By removing classes which fell far outside the initial decision boundary, and then rebuilding the PLS-DA model, we have consistently produced better and more definitive attributions than with a single pass classification approach. Performance of the iterative PLS-DA method compared favorably to that of classification and regression tree (CART) and k nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithms, with the best combination of accuracy and robustness, as tested by classifying samples measured independently in our laboratories against the vendor QC based reference set.

Robel, M; Kristo, M J; Heller, M A

2009-06-09

10

THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF APPLICATION OF TEETH IN FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY CENTER, TEHRAN, IRAN, 1980-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This retrospective study investigated cases in Tehran Forensic Odontology Center, which have been solved by using teeth as the main proof. Methodology: Two hundred forty eight files in archives of Tehran forensic odonotology center during years 1980 to 2000 were reviewed and the data collected from each file. Results: It shows that only 12 cases (4.8%) used the forensic

Amir Deebaei; Hadi Fathi Moghaddam; Parivash Delkhosh

11

Forensic Detection of Image Tampering Using Intrinsic Statistical Fingerprints in Histograms  

E-print Network

Forensic Detection of Image Tampering Using Intrinsic Statistical Fingerprints in Histograms by detecting the unique statistical fingerprints that certain image altering operations leave behind be verified. As a result, the field of digital image forensics has been born. One of the primary goals

Liu, K. J. Ray

12

Forensic Detection of Image Manipulation Using Statistical Intrinsic Fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the use of digital images has increased, so has the means and the incentive to create digital image forgeries. Accordingly, there is a great need for digital image forensic tech- niques capable of detecting image alterations and forged images. A number of image processing operations, such as histogram equalization or gamma correction, are equivalent to pixel value mappings. In

Matthew C. Stamm; K. J. Ray Liu

2010-01-01

13

Image Forensics of Digital Cameras by Analysing Image Variations using Statistical Process Control  

E-print Network

Image Forensics of Digital Cameras by Analysing Image Variations using Statistical Process Control the novel use of Statistical Process Control (SPC) as a tool for identifying anomalies in digital cameras to deduce the cause of inconsistency in the device's image acquisition process. This could ultimately lead

Doran, Simon J.

14

Escape from Psychiatrization: A Statistical Analysis of Referrals to a Forensic Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors offer a pertinent review of statistical studies concerning the psychiatric disorders in jail populations and present their statistical analysis of a group of 272 mentally ill inmates seen for competency evaluation at the Milwaukee County Mental Health Forensic Unit during a period of three years. The mentally ill pseudo-offenders have been divided by type of offense and typology

George B. Palermo; Edward J. Gumz; Maurice B. Smith; Frank J. Liska

1992-01-01

15

On the use of IRMS in forensic science: proposals for a methodological approach.  

PubMed

The flourishing number of publications on the use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) in forensic science denotes the enthusiasm and the attraction generated by this technology. IRMS has demonstrated its potential to distinguish chemically identical compounds coming from different sources. Despite the numerous applications of IRMS to a wide range of forensic materials, its implementation in a forensic framework is less straightforward than it appears. In addition, each laboratory has developed its own strategy of analysis on calibration, sequence design, standards utilisation and data treatment without a clear consensus. Through the experience acquired from research undertaken in different forensic fields, we propose a methodological framework of the whole process using IRMS methods. We emphasize the importance of considering isotopic results as part of a whole approach, when applying this technology to a particular forensic issue. The process is divided into six different steps, which should be considered for a thoughtful and relevant application. The dissection of this process into fundamental steps, further detailed, enables a better understanding of the essential, though not exhaustive, factors that have to be considered in order to obtain results of quality and sufficiently robust to proceed to retrospective analyses or interlaboratory comparisons. PMID:21775081

Gentile, Natacha; Besson, Luc; Pazos, Diego; Del閙ont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre

2011-10-10

16

[Heroin seized in France. Statistical data from National database of Forensic Laboratories].  

PubMed

This article aims at exploiting the statistical data of the qualitative and quantitative analyses of heroin circulating in France over more than 20 years. This information, systematically recorded by the Forensic Laboratories from Institut national de police scientifique is a good source of knowledge of this product at both the chemical and sanitary levels (street level, wholesalers, imports, etc.). PMID:20434601

Dujourdy, L; Besacier, F

2010-03-01

17

Elemental fingerprinting of soils using ICP-MS and multivariate statistics: a study for and by forensic chemistry majors.  

PubMed

Students in an instrumental analysis course with a forensic emphasis were presented with a mock scenario in which soil was collected from a murder suspect's car mat, from the crime scene, from adjacent areas, and from more distant locations. Students were then asked to conduct a comparative analysis using the soil's elemental distribution fingerprints. The soil was collected from Lafayette County, Mississippi, USA and categorized as sandy loam. Eight student groups determined twenty-two elements (Li, Be, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Cs, Ba, Pb, U) in seven samples of soil and one sample of sediment by microwave-assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Data were combined and evaluated using multivariate statistical analyses. All eight student groups correctly classified their unknown among the different locations. Students learn, however, that whereas their results suggest that the elemental fingerprinting approach can be used to distinguish soils from different land-use areas and geographic locations, applying the methodology in forensic investigations is more complicated and has potential pitfalls. Overall, the inquiry-based pedagogy enthused the students and provided learning opportunities in analytical chemistry, including sample preparation, ICP-MS, figures-of-merit, and multivariate statistics. PMID:24314499

Reidy, Lorlyn; Bu, Kaixuan; Godfrey, Murrell; Cizdziel, James V

2013-12-10

18

STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR EXPLORING ELEVATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN PRECIPITATION CHEMISTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

A statistical methodology for exploring the relationships between elevation and precipitation chemistry is outlined and illustrated. he methodology utilizes maximum likelihood estimates and likelihood ratio tests with contour ellipses of assumed bivariate lognormal distributions ...

19

Statistical methods to assess the reliability of measurements in the procedures for forensic age estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In forensic science, anthropology, and archaeology, several techniques have been developed to estimate chronological age in\\u000a both children and adults, using the relationship between age and morphological changes in the structure of teeth. Before implementing\\u000a a statistical model to describe age as a function of the measured morphological variables, the reliability of the measurements\\u000a of these variables must be evaluated

L. Ferrante; R. Cameriere

2009-01-01

20

Statistical Association Criteria in Forensic Psychiatry-A criminological evaluation of casuistry  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Identification of potential shared primary psychoprophylaxis and crime prevention is measured by analyzing the rate of commitments for patients杝ubjects to forensic examination. Material and method. The statistic trial is a retrospective, document朾ased study. The statistical lot consists of 770 initial examination reports performed and completed during the whole year 2007, primarily analyzed in order to summarize the data within the National Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bucharest, Romania (INML), with one of the group variables being 憄articularities of the psychiatric patient history, containing the items forensic onset, 慶ommitments within the last year prior to the examination and 慳bsence of commitments within the last year prior to the examination. The method used was the Kendall bivariate correlation. For this study, the authors separately analyze only the two items regarding commitments by other correlation alternatives and by modern, elaborate statistical analyses, i.e. recording of the standard case study variables, Kendall bivariate correlation, cross tabulation, factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Results. The results are varied, from theoretically presumed clinical nosography (such as schizophrenia or manic depression), to non杙resumed (conduct disorders) or unexpected behavioral acts, and therefore difficult to interpret. Conclusions. One took into consideration the features of the batch as well as the results of the previous standard correlation of the whole statistical lot. The authors emphasize the role of medical security measures that are actually applied in the therapeutic management in general and in risk and second offence management in particular, as well as the role of forensic psychiatric examinations in the detection of certain aspects related to the monitoring of mental patients. PMID:21505571

Gheorghiu, V; Buda, O; Popescu, I; Trandafir, MS

2011-01-01

21

Blood species identification for forensic purposes using Raman spectroscopy combined with advanced statistical analysis.  

PubMed

Forensic analysis has become one of the most growing areas of analytical chemistry in recent years. The ability to determine the species of origin of a body fluid sample is a very important and crucial part of a forensic investigation. We introduce here a new technique which utilizes a modern analytical method based on the combination of Raman spectroscopy and advanced statistics to analyze the composition of blood traces from different species. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy (NIR) was used to analyze multiple dry samples of human, canine, and feline blood for the ultimate application to forensic species identification. All of the spectra were combined into a single data matrix, and the number of principle components that described the system was determined using multiple statistical methods such as significant factor analysis (SFA), principle component analysis (PCA), and several cross-validation methods. Of the six principle components that were determined to be present, the first three, which contributed over 90% to the spectral data of the system, were used to form a three-dimensional scores plot that clearly showed significant separation between the three groups of species. Ellipsoids representing a 99% confidence interval surrounding each species group showed no overlap. This technique using Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive and quick and can potentially be performed at the scene of a crime. PMID:19670872

Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

2009-09-15

22

Statistical analyses to support forensic interpretation for a new ten-locus STR profiling system.  

PubMed

A new ten-locus STR (short tandem repeat) profiling system was recently introduced into casework by the Forensic Science Service (FSS) and statistical analyses are described here based on data collected using this new system for the three major racial groups of the UK: Caucasian. Afro-Caribbean and Asian (of Indo-Pakistani descent). Allele distributions are compared and the FSS position with regard to routine significance testing of DNA frequency databases is discussed. An investigation of match probability calculations is carried out and the consequent analyses are shown to provide support for proposed changes in how the FSS reports DNA results when very small match probabilities are involved. PMID:11296886

Foreman, L A; Evett, I W

2001-01-01

23

New Statistical Methodology for Determining Cancer Clusters  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Martin Kulldorff, while at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Bethesda, Md., and colleagues developed an innovative statistical technique that shows that women living in a broad stretch of the metropolitan northeastern United States, which includes Long Island, are slightly more likely to die from breast cancer than women in other parts of the Northeast.

24

Statistical and Methodological Considerations in Exercise Genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The field of exercise genomics is growing at an amazing rate. New technologies such as genotyping chips used for genome-wide\\u000a association studies (GWAS) have expanded the tools that can be used to uncover the effect genetic variants have on exercise\\u000a performance and health and fitness-related phenotypes. The statistical methods for analyzing data from these new technologies\\u000a are still being cultivated

Heather Gordish-Dressman; Joseph M. Devaney

25

STP Textbook Chapter 4: The Methodology of Statistical Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We develop the basic methodology of statistical mechanics and provide a microscopic foundation for the concepts of temperature and entropy. We use computer simulations will be to explore these concepts. These simulations can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan

2008-05-28

26

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

1973-01-01

27

Implementing statistical learning methods through Bayesian networks. Part 1: A guide to Bayesian parameter estimation using forensic science data  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a thorough aggregation of probability and graph theory, Bayesian networks currently enjoy widespread interest as a means for studying factors that affect the coherent evaluation of scientific evidence in forensic science. Paper I of this series of papers intends to contribute to the discussion of Bayesian networks as a framework that is helpful for both illustrating and implementing statistical

A. Biedermann; F. Taroni; S. Bozza

2009-01-01

28

Assessment of the methodology for estimating ridge density in fingerprints and its forensic application.  

PubMed

In recent times, some studies have explored the forensic application of dermatoglyphic traits such as the epidermal ridge breadth or ridge density (RD) toward the inference of sex and population from fingerprints of unknown origin, as it has been demonstrated that there exist significant differences of fingerprints between sexes and between populations. Part of the population differences found between these studies could be of methodological nature, due both to the lack of standardisation in the position of the counting area, as well as to the differences in the method used for obtaining the fingerprint. Therefore, the aim of this study was to check whether there are differences between the RD of fingerprints depending on where the counting area is placed and how the fingerprints are obtained. Fingerprints of each finger were obtained from 102 adult Spanish subjects (50 females and 52 males), using two methods (plain and rolled). The ridge density of each fingerprint was assessed in five different areas of the dactylogram: two closer to the core area (one on the radial and the other on the ulnar side), two closer to the outermost area of each of the sides (radial and ulnar), and another one in the proximal region of the fingertip. Regardless of the method used and of the position of the counting area, thumbs and forefingers show a higher RD than middle, ring, and little fingers in both sexes, and females present a higher RD than males in all areas and fingers. In both males and females, RD values on the core region are higher than those on the outer region, irrespective of the technique of fingerprinting used (rolled or plain). Regardless of the sex and location of the count area (core or outer), the rolled fingerprints exhibit RD greater than that of the plain ones in both radial and proximal areas, whereas the trend is inverted in the ulnar area, where rolled fingerprints demonstrate RD lesser than that of the plain ones. Therefore, in order for the results of different studies to be comparable, it is necessary to standardise the position of the count area and to use the same method of obtaining the fingerprint, especially when involving a forensic application. PMID:24796949

Guti閞rez-Redomero, Esperanza; Rivalder韆, Noem; Alonso-Rodr韌uez, Concepci髇; S醤chez-Andr閟, 羘geles

2014-05-01

29

Forensic Science and Information Technology at NIST  

E-print Network

Forensic Science and Information Technology at NIST Martin Herman Information Technology Laboratory, mathematics, and statistics. 路 Cloud Computing 路 Complex Systems 路 Forensic Science 路 Health Information in Forensic Science Advance measurements and standards infrastructure for forensics through information

Perkins, Richard A.

30

Statistical Methodologies to Integrate Experimental and Computational Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of advanced algorithms for simulating engine flow paths requires the integration of fundamental experiments with the validation of enhanced mathematical models. In this paper, we provide an overview of statistical methods to strategically and efficiently conduct experiments and computational model refinement. Moreover, the integration of experimental and computational research efforts is emphasized. With a statistical engineering perspective, scientific and engineering expertise is combined with statistical sciences to gain deeper insights into experimental phenomenon and code development performance; supporting the overall research objectives. The particular statistical methods discussed are design of experiments, response surface methodology, and uncertainty analysis and planning. Their application is illustrated with a coaxial free jet experiment and a turbulence model refinement investigation. Our goal is to provide an overview, focusing on concepts rather than practice, to demonstrate the benefits of using statistical methods in research and development, thereby encouraging their broader and more systematic application.

Parker, P. A.; Johnson, R. T.; Montgomery, D. C.

2008-01-01

31

Implementing statistical learning methods through Bayesian networks. Part 1: a guide to Bayesian parameter estimation using forensic science data.  

PubMed

As a thorough aggregation of probability and graph theory, Bayesian networks currently enjoy widespread interest as a means for studying factors that affect the coherent evaluation of scientific evidence in forensic science. Paper I of this series of papers intends to contribute to the discussion of Bayesian networks as a framework that is helpful for both illustrating and implementing statistical procedures that are commonly employed for the study of uncertainties (e.g. the estimation of unknown quantities). While the respective statistical procedures are widely described in literature, the primary aim of this paper is to offer an essentially non-technical introduction on how interested readers may use these analytical approaches--with the help of Bayesian networks--for processing their own forensic science data. Attention is mainly drawn to the structure and underlying rationale of a series of basic and context-independent network fragments that users may incorporate as building blocs while constructing larger inference models. As an example of how this may be done, the proposed concepts will be used in a second paper (Part II) for specifying graphical probability networks whose purpose is to assist forensic scientists in the evaluation of scientific evidence encountered in the context of forensic document examination (i.e. results of the analysis of black toners present on printed or copied documents). PMID:19833464

Biedermann, A; Taroni, F; Bozza, S

2009-12-15

32

A statistical methodology for deriving reservoir properties from seismic data  

SciTech Connect

The use of seismic data to better constrain the reservoir model between wells has become an important goal for seismic interpretation. The authors propose a methodology for deriving soft geologic information from seismic data and discuss its application through a case study in offshore Congo. The methodology combines seismic facies analysis and statistical calibration techniques applied to seismic attributes characterizing the traces at the reservoir level. They built statistical relationships between seismic attributes and reservoir properties from a calibration population consisting of wells and their adjacent traces. The correlation studies are based on the canonical correlation analysis technique, while the statistical model comes from a multivariate regression between the canonical seismic variables and the reservoir properties, whenever they ar predictable. In the case study, they predicted estimates and associated uncertainties on the lithofacies thicknesses cumulated over the reservoir interval from the seismic information. They carried out a seismic facies identification and compared the geological prediction results in the cases of a calibration on the whole data set and a calibration done independently on the traces (and wells) related to each seismic facies. The later approach produces a significant improvement in the geological estimation from the seismic information, mainly because the large scale geological variations (and associated seismic ones) over the field can be accounted for.

Fournier, F.; Derain, J.F. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)] [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1995-09-01

33

A Hierarchical Statistic Methodology for Advanced Memory System Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Advances in technology have resulted in a widening of the gap between computing speed and memory access time. Data access time has become increasingly important for computer system design. Various hierarchical memory architectures have been developed. The performance of these advanced memory systems, however, varies with applications and problem sizes. How to reach an optimal cost/performance design eludes researchers still. In this study, the authors introduce an evaluation methodology for advanced memory systems. This methodology is based on statistical factorial analysis and performance scalability analysis. It is two fold: it first determines the impact of memory systems and application programs toward overall performance; it also identifies the bottleneck in a memory hierarchy and provides cost/performance comparisons via scalability analysis. Different memory systems can be compared in terms of mean performance or scalability over a range of codes and problem sizes. Experimental testing has been performed extensively on the Department of Energy's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) machines and benchmarks available at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to validate this newly proposed methodology. Experimental and analytical results show this methodology is simple and effective. It is a practical tool for memory system evaluation and design. Its extension to general architectural evaluation and parallel computer systems are possible and should be further explored.

Sun, X.-J.; He, D.; Cameron, K.W.; Luo, Y.

1999-04-12

34

Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part II: association of adulterated samples to S. divinorum.  

PubMed

Salvia divinorum is a plant material that is of forensic interest due to the hallucinogenic nature of the active ingredient, salvinorin A. In this study, S. divinorum was extracted and spiked onto four different plant materials (S. divinorum, Salvia officinalis, Cannabis sativa, and Nicotiana tabacum) to simulate an adulterated sample that might be encountered in a forensic laboratory. The adulterated samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting total ion chromatograms were subjected to a series of pretreatment procedures that were used to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. The data were then analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) to investigate association of the adulterated extracts to unadulterated S. divinorum. While association was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot, additional procedures including Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores to provide a statistical evaluation of the association observed. The advantages and limitations of each statistical procedure in a forensic context were compared and are presented herein. PMID:22160202

Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

2012-01-01

35

Statistical process control for hospitals: methodology, user education, and challenges.  

PubMed

The health care industry is slowly embracing the use of statistical process control (SPC) to monitor and study causes of variation in health care processes. While the statistics and principles underlying the use of SPC are relatively straightforward, there is a need to be cognizant of the perils that await the user who is not well versed in the key concepts of SPC. This article introduces the theory behind SPC methodology, describes successful tactics for educating users, and discusses the challenges associated with encouraging adoption of SPC among health care professionals. To illustrate these benefits and challenges, this article references the National Hospital Quality Measures, presents critical elements of SPC curricula, and draws examples from hospitals that have successfully embedded SPC into their overall approach to performance assessment and improvement. PMID:17627215

Matthes, Nikolas; Ogunbo, Samuel; Pennington, Gaither; Wood, Nell; Hart, Marilyn K; Hart, Robert F

2007-01-01

36

Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.  

SciTech Connect

The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversary's task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

2013-02-01

37

A validation framework for microbial forensic methods based on statistical pattern recognition  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses a general approach to validating microbial forensic methods that attempt to simultaneously distinguish among many hypotheses concerning the manufacture of a questioned biological agent sample. It focuses on the concrete example of determining growth medium from chemical or molecular properties of a bacterial agent to illustrate the concepts involved.

Velsko, S P

2007-11-12

38

A complete passive blind image copy-move forensics scheme based on compound statistics features.  

PubMed

Since most sensor pattern noise based image copy-move forensics methods require a known reference sensor pattern noise, it generally results in non-blinded passive forensics, which significantly confines the application circumstances. In view of this, a novel passive-blind image copy-move forensics scheme is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a color image is transformed into a grayscale one, and wavelet transform based de-noising filter is used to extract the sensor pattern noise, then the variance of the pattern noise, the signal noise ratio between the de-noised image and the pattern noise, the information entropy and the average energy gradient of the original grayscale image are chosen as features, non-overlapping sliding window operations are done to the images to divide them into different sub-blocks. Finally, the tampered areas are detected by analyzing the correlation of the features between the sub-blocks and the whole image. Experimental results and analysis show that the proposed scheme is completely passive-blind, has a good detection rate, and is robust against JPEG compression, noise, rotation, scaling and blurring. PMID:21726968

Peng, Fei; Nie, Yun-ying; Long, Min

2011-10-10

39

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Find Funding - Contracts - 279 Facilitating the Transfer of Statistical Methodology into Practice  

Cancer.gov

The development of new statistical methodology represents a key component of biomedical research. For cutting-edge statistical methodology to be used by people other than the developer, accompanying user-friendly, robust software is necessary. Often the developer of the statistical methodology does not have the time, knowledge, or skills to convert research-quality code for calculation engines into professional-quality software to be used by the general medical research community.

40

Forensic odontology: an overview.  

PubMed

This article is an overview of the field of forensic odontology, highlighting historical cases, with an emphasis on California cases, and briefly discussing some of the current techniques and issues in the field. As with all fields of dentistry, forensic odontology is adapting to new methodologies, changes in techniques, research findings and legal issues. Today's dentist who works in the forensic arena must face and understand these changes and advancements. PMID:25080766

Spencer, Duane E

2014-06-01

41

Methodology for statistical analysis of SENCAR mouse skin assay data.  

PubMed Central

Various response measures and statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data collected in the SENCAR mouse skin assay are examined. The characteristics of the tumor response data do not readily lend themselves to the classical methods for hypothesis testing. The advantages and limitations of conventional methods of analysis and methods recommended in the literature are discussed. Several alternative response measures that were developed specifically to answer the problems inherent in the data collected in the SENCAR bioassay system are described. These measures take into account animal survival, tumor multiplicity, and tumor regression. Statistical methods for the analysis of these measures to test for a positive dose response and a dose-response relationship are discussed. Sample data from representative initiation/promotion studies are used to compare the response measures and methods of analysis. PMID:3780632

Stober, J A

1986-01-01

42

A statistical optimization methodology for practical integrated circuit design for quality and manufacturability  

E-print Network

variability based upon a statistical device model which expresses individual MOSFET behavior as a function of random process variables or noise parameters. The adopted methodology should be general enough to accommodate other complex analog circuits. However...

Pastor, Curtis Lemay

2012-06-07

43

Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

1989-01-01

44

Statistical methodologies for the control of dynamic remapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following an initial mapping of a problem onto a multiprocessor machine or computer network, system performance often deteriorates with time. In order to maintain high performance, it may be necessary to remap the problem. The decision to remap must take into account measurements of performance deterioration, the cost of remapping, and the estimated benefits achieved by remapping. We examine the tradeoff between the costs and the benefits of remapping two qualitatively different kinds of problems. One problem assumes that performance deteriorates gradually, the other assumes that performance deteriorates suddenly. We consider a variety of policies for governing when to remap. In order to evaluate these policies, statistical models of problem behaviors are developed. Simulation results are presented which compare simple policies with computationally expensive optimal decision policies; these results demonstrate that for each problem type, the proposed simple policies are effective and robust.

Saltz, J. H.; Nicol, D. M.

1986-01-01

45

Statistical Methodology 3 (2006) 116 www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet  

E-print Network

Statistical Methodology 3 (2006) 1颅16 www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet Error tolerant model Higuchib,1, Takao Gotoa, Satoru Miyanoa a Human Genome Center, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan b Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 4

Higuchi, Tomoyuki

46

Statistical methodological issues in mapping historical schistosomiasis survey data.  

PubMed

For schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases for which resources for control are still limited, model-based maps are needed for prioritising spatial targeting of control interventions and surveillance of control programmes. Bayesian geostatistical modelling has been widely and effectively used to generate smooth empirical risk maps. In this paper, we review important issues related to the modelling of schistosomiasis risk, including Bayesian computation of large datasets, heterogeneity of historical survey data, stationary and isotropy assumptions and novel approaches for Bayesian geostatistical variable selection. We provide an example of advanced Bayesian geostatistical variable selection based on historical prevalence data of Schistosoma mansoni in C魌e d'Ivoire. We include a "parameter expanded normal mixture of inverse-gamma" prior for the regression coefficients, which in turn allows selection of blocks of covariates, particularly categorical variables. The implemented Bayesian geostatistical variable selection provided a rigorous approach for the selection of predictors within a Bayesian geostatistical framework, identified the most important predictors of S. mansoni infection risk and led to a more parsimonious model compared to traditional selection approaches that ignore the spatial structure in the data. In conclusion, statistical advances in Bayesian geostatistical modelling offer unique opportunities to account for important inherent characteristics of the Schistosoma infection, and hence Bayesian geostatistical models can guide the spatial targeting of control interventions. PMID:23648217

Chammartin, Fr閐閞ique; H黵limann, Eveline; Raso, Giovanna; N'Goran, Eli閦er K; Utzinger, J黵g; Vounatsou, Penelope

2013-11-01

47

Automatic brain tumor detection in MRI: methodology and statistical validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated brain tumor segmentation and detection are immensely important in medical diagnostics because it provides information associated to anatomical structures as well as potential abnormal tissue necessary to delineate appropriate surgical planning. In this work, we propose a novel automated brain tumor segmentation technique based on multiresolution texture information that combines fractal Brownian motion (fBm) and wavelet multiresolution analysis. Our wavelet-fractal technique combines the excellent multiresolution localization property of wavelets to texture extraction of fractal. We prove the efficacy of our technique by successfully segmenting pediatric brain MR images (MRIs) from St. Jude Children"s Research Hospital. We use self-organizing map (SOM) as our clustering tool wherein we exploit both pixel intensity and multiresolution texture features to obtain segmented tumor. Our test results show that our technique successfully segments abnormal brain tissues in a set of T1 images. In the next step, we design a classifier using Feed-Forward (FF) neural network to statistically validate the presence of tumor in MRI using both the multiresolution texture and the pixel intensity features. We estimate the corresponding receiver operating curve (ROC) based on the findings of true positive fractions and false positive fractions estimated from our classifier at different threshold values. An ROC, which can be considered as a gold standard to prove the competence of a classifier, is obtained to ascertain the sensitivity and specificity of our classifier. We observe that at threshold 0.4 we achieve true positive value of 1.0 (100%) sacrificing only 0.16 (16%) false positive value for the set of 50 T1 MRI analyzed in this experiment.

Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Islam, Mohammad A.; Shaik, Jahangheer; Parra, Carlos; Ogg, Robert

2005-04-01

48

A generic statistical methodology to predict the maximum pit depth of a localized corrosion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a new methodology to predict accurately the maximum pit depth related to a localized corrosion process. It combines two statistical methods: the Generalized Lambda Distribution (GLD), to determine a model of distribution fitting with the experimental frequency distribution of depths, and the Computer Based Bootstrap Method (CBBM), to generate simulated distributions equivalent to the experimental one. In

A. Jarrah; M. Bigerelle; G. Guillemot; D. Najjar; A. Iost; J.-M. Nianga

2011-01-01

49

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

Cobb, P. G. W.

1973-01-01

50

Formalizing Computer Forensics Process with UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces modeling methodologies to computer forensics to provide formalism and structured approach to computer\\u000a forensics activities. It studies how to use UML diagrams to model and visualize various aspects of a computer forensics system.\\u000a It first applies UML to model the basic components of a computer forensic process and their relationships. It then uses UML\\u000a to further visualize

Chun Ruan; Ewa Huebner

2009-01-01

51

When is Digital Evidence Forensically Sound?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensically sound is a term used extensively in the digital forensics community to qualify and, in some cases, to justify\\u000a the use of a particular forensic technology or methodology. Indeed, many practitioners use the term when describing the capabilities\\u000a of a particular piece of software or when describing a particular forensic analysis approach. Such a wide application of the\\u000a term

Rodney Mckemmish

2008-01-01

52

Forensic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

Bell, Suzanne

2009-07-01

53

The role of empirical Bayes methodology as a leading principle in modern medical statistics.  

PubMed

This paper reviews and discusses the role of Empirical Bayes methodology in medical statistics in the last 50 years. It gives some background on the origin of the empirical Bayes approach and its link with the famous Stein estimator. The paper describes the application in four important areas in medical statistics: disease mapping, health care monitoring, meta-analysis, and multiple testing. It ends with a warning that the application of the outcome of an empirical Bayes analysis to the individual "subjects" is a delicate matter that should be handled with prudence and care. PMID:25205521

van Houwelingen, Hans C

2014-11-01

54

Promises and challenges of pharmacogenetics: an overview of study design, methodological and statistical issues  

PubMed Central

Pharmacogenetics is the study of inherited variation in drug response. The goal of pharmacogenetics is to develop novel ways of maximizing drug efficacy and minimizing toxicity for individual patients. Personalized medicine has the potential to allow for a patient's genetic information to predict optimal dosage for a drug with a narrow therapeutic index, to select the most appropriate pharmacological agent for a given patient and to develop cost-effective treatments. Although there is supporting evidence in favour of pharmacogenetics, its adoption in clinical practice has been slow because of sometimes conflicting findings among studies. This failure to replicate findings may result from a lack of high-quality pharmacogenetic studies, as well as unresolved methodological and statistical issues. The objective of this review is to discuss the benefits of incorporating pharmacogenetics into clinical practice. We will also address outstanding methodological and statistical issues that may lead to heterogeneity among reported pharmacogenetic studies and how they may be addressed. PMID:24175062

Ross, Stephanie; Anand, Sonia S; Joseph, Philip; Pare, Guillaume

2012-01-01

55

Introduction to Forensic Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The academic roots of modern forensic anthropology can be traced back to contributions of Europeans, beginning in the 18th\\u000a century. In particular, Jean-Joseph Sue, Matthieu-Joseph-Bonaventure Orfila, Paul Broca, Paul Topinard, 閠ienne Rollet, Leonce\\u000a Manouvrier, and Karl Pearson published research on the methodology of stature estimation and related topics.

Douglas H. Ubelaker

56

CPR methodology with new steady-state criterion and more accurate statistical treatment of channel bow  

SciTech Connect

An overview is given of existing CPR design criteria and the methods used in BWR reload analysis to evaluate the impact of channel bow on CPR margins. Potential weaknesses in today's methodologies are discussed. Westinghouse in collaboration with KKL and Axpo - operator and owner of the Leibstadt NPP - has developed an optimized CPR methodology based on a new criterion to protect against dryout during normal operation and with a more rigorous treatment of channel bow. The new steady-state criterion is expressed in terms of an upper limit of 0.01 for the dryout failure probability per year. This is considered a meaningful and appropriate criterion that can be directly related to the probabilistic criteria set-up for the analyses of Anticipated Operation Occurrences (AOOs) and accidents. In the Monte Carlo approach a statistical modeling of channel bow and an accurate evaluation of CPR response functions allow the associated CPR penalties to be included directly in the plant SLMCPR and OLMCPR in a best-estimate manner. In this way, the treatment of channel bow is equivalent to all other uncertainties affecting CPR. Emphasis is put on quantifying the statistical distribution of channel bow throughout the core using measurement data. The optimized CPR methodology has been implemented in the Westinghouse Monte Carlo code, McSLAP. The methodology improves the quality of dryout safety assessments by supplying more valuable information and better control of conservatisms in establishing operational limits for CPR. The methodology is demonstrated with application examples from the introduction at KKL. (authors)

Baumgartner, S. [Axpo AG, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Bieli, R. [Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt AG, CH-5325 Leibstadt (Switzerland); Bergmann, U. C. [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, SE-721 63 Vaesteraas (Sweden)

2012-07-01

57

On Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods inspired by Tsallis statistics: Methodology, optimization, and application to atomic clusters  

E-print Network

On Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods inspired by Tsallis statistics: Methodology a generalized statistical distribution derived from a modification of the Gibbs颅Shannon entropy proposed of the phase space may result in distinct time averages. Statistical theories of chemical sys- tems are often

Straub, John E.

58

New advances in methodology for statistical tests useful in geostatistical studies  

SciTech Connect

Methodology for statistical procedures to perform tests of hypothesis pertaining to various aspects of geostatistical investigations has been slow in developing. The correlated nature of the data precludes most classical tests and makes the design of new tests difficult. Recent studies have led to modifications of the classical t test which allow for the intercorrelation. In addition, results for certain nonparametric tests have been obtained. The conclusions of these studies provide a variety of new tools for the geostatistician in deciding questions on significant differences and magnitudes.

Borgman, L.E.

1988-05-01

59

[Forensic radiology].  

PubMed

Forensic radiology includes both clinical and postmortem forensic radiology. Clinical forensic radiology deals with imaging of healthy people from a legal point of view, such as for determining age or to prove and document injuries in victims of crime. Postmortem forensic radiology deals with the application of modern radiological methods in order to optimise post-mortem diagnosis. X-ray examination has for decades been routinely used in postmortem diagnosis. Newer developments include the application of postmortem computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging; these are the methods with the greatest information potential but also with the greatest deviations from diagnostics in living persons. Application of radiological methods for securing evidence in criminal procedures is still in its infancy. Radiologists' technical understanding and forensic doctors' knowledge of postmortem changes in a corpse must be synergised. PMID:18815765

Stein, K M; Gr黱berg, K

2009-01-01

60

Forensic Web Watch Forensic Podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search for forensic podiatry sites on the Internet revealed thousands of 慼its, of which very few were of any educational merit. Following extensive sifting of these addresses, it was found that only a few of the associations for human identification included any information on forensic podiatry methods. The search was also made difficult by many websites failing to make

T Brown; G. N Rutty

2003-01-01

61

Forensic discrimination of photocopy and printer toners. III. Multivariate statistics applied to scanning electron microscopy and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Copy toner samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy with X-ray dispersive analysis (SEM-EDX) and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Principal component and cluster analysis of SEM data for 166 copy toner samples established 13 statistically different subgroups, with the presence or absence of a ferrite base being a major division. When toners were compared for which both SEM and reflection-absorption infrared spectral data were available, 41% of the samples could be assigned to specific manufacturers. Py-GC/MS on poly(styrene:acrylate)-based toners produced eight peaks relevant to toner differentiation. One third of the toners clustered in a small group that contained five statistically different subgroups. Of the 57 toners for which both Py-GC/MS and SEM data were available, 31 could be differentiated using the combined analytical results. The synergy of the complementary information provided by Py-GC/MS and SEM narrows matching possibilities for forensic investigations involving copied or laser printed documents. PMID:12879190

Egan, William J; Galipo, Randolph C; Kochanowski, Brian K; Morgan, Stephen L; Bartick, Edward G; Miller, Mark L; Ward, Dennis C; Mothershead, Robert F

2003-08-01

62

Forensic Toxicology Certificate  

E-print Network

Forensic Toxicology Certificate What is Forensic Toxicology? Forensic toxicology is a discipline of forensic science that is concerned with the study of toxic substances or poisons. Toxicology encompasses methods and procedures from many disciplines, including chemistry, biochemistry, epidemiology

Saldin, Dilano

63

Forensic Medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Summary of forensic medicine; Life reactions; Necrosis and necrotic phenomena; Causes of death and violent deaths; Mechanical injuries; Poisoning and tests for poisons; Mechanical suffocation; Injury and death from burns and scalds; Electrocutio...

1969-01-01

64

Forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations,\\u000a in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine,\\u000a in road and work-place safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly\\u000a targeted

Olaf H. Drummer

65

Forensic Science Certificate  

E-print Network

. Is Forensic Science Right for Me? Students in forensic science have a strong interest in chemistry, biologyForensic Science Certificate What do Forensic Scientists Do? Forensic scientists apply scientific conclusions about a crime based on the evidence. Some forensic scientists work in laboratories, while others

Saldin, Dilano

66

An Examination of Digital Forensic Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law enforcement is in a perpetual race with criminals in the application of digital technologies, and requires the development of tools to systematically search digital devices for pertinent evidence. Another part of this race, and perhaps more crucial, is the development of a methodology in digital forensics that encompasses the forensic analysis of all genres of digital crime scene investigations.

Mark Reith; Clint Carr; Gregg H. Gunsch

2002-01-01

67

Investigating the implications of virtual forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer Forensic process consists of Preparation, Acquisition, Preservation, Examination and Analysis, and Reporting. With the booming of the virtualization technology and the popularity of virtual machines for end users to deal with daily works, the probability of using virtual machines for malicious purposes keeps increasing. In this paper we propose a methodology by using virtual forensics for malware analysis and

Harshit Sharma; Nitish Sabharwal

2012-01-01

68

Analysing forensic processes: Taking time into account  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of forensic psychology concerns sequences of behaviours or events. In this paper, we review some recent efforts to examine forensic issues as sequences, discuss some of the contemporary methodologies involved, and highlight some of the lessons that emerge from this research. Specifically, we show: (i) how research on public violence has benefited from studying incidents as patterns

Paul J. Taylor; Karen Jacques; Ellen Giebels; Mark Levine; Rachel Best; Jan Winter; Gina Rossi; Julia Fossi; Louise Falshaw

2008-01-01

69

Integration initiatives for forensic services  

PubMed Central

Poorly implemented mental health reform policies are often given as reasons for the growth in demands for forensic psychiatric services and the steady increase of mental patients in prison systems. However, in this paper, additional reasons are advanced to explain the growth of forensic psychiatry, such as an expansion in the types of "psychiatric defences" in courts of law; public concerns about violent behaviour attributed to the mentally ill; the community management of paraphilias, especially pedophilia; the development of risk assessment methodologies and the halo of super-specialization. The net result of these developments is that patients who receive a label of "forensic" enter into a mental health ghetto with little connectivity or integration with the general mental health system. The forensic label increases the stigma and decreases opportunities for reintegration and full social recovery. The paper provides guidelines to reverse these trends. PMID:16946932

ARBOLEDA-FLOREZ, JULIO

2003-01-01

70

Forensic DNA-typing technologies: a review.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling in 1985, forensic genetics has experienced a continuous technical revolution, both in the type of DNA markers used and in the methodologies or its detection. Highly informative and robust DNA-typing systems have been developed that have proven to be very effective in the individualization of biological material of human origin. DNA analysis has become the standard method in forensic genetics used by laboratories for the majority of forensic genetic expertise and especially in criminal forensic casework (stain analysis and hairs) and identification. PMID:15570096

Carracedo, Angel; S醤chez-Diz, Paula

2005-01-01

71

Review of the contemporary literature on how children report sexual abuse to others: Findings, methodological issues, and implications for forensic interviewers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods used during forensic interviews with children are driven by beliefs about how children recall and report child sexual abuse (CSA) to others. Summit (1983) proposed a theory (Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome) contending that, due to the specific traumatic characteristics of CSA, children will often delay disclosing abuse or altogether fail to disclose during childhood, deny abuse when asked,

Kamala London; Maggie Bruck; Daniel B. Wright; Stephen J. Ceci

2008-01-01

72

ITL BULLETIN FOR JUNE 2014 ITL FORENSIC SCIENCE PROGRAM  

E-print Network

.S. Department of Commerce Digital forensics is the process used to acquire, preserve, analyze, and reportITL BULLETIN FOR JUNE 2014 ITL FORENSIC SCIENCE PROGRAM Barbara Guttman, Software and Systems, and statistics, the ITL Forensic Science program advances the measurements and standards infrastructure

73

A statistical comparison of protein and carbohydrate characterisation methodology applied on sewage sludge samples.  

PubMed

Biochemical characterization of organic matter is becoming of key importance in wastewater treatment. The main objectives are to predict organic matter properties, such as granulation or flocculation, and hence treatment performance. Although standardized methods do exist for some organic molecules, such as volatile fatty acids or lipids, there are no standard methods to measure proteins and carbohydrates content, both biochemical families being the main components of sewage sludge. Consequently, the aim of the present work is to investigate the efficiency of several colorimetric methods to determine proteins and carbohydrates content as well as their compatibility with the sludge matrices. The different methods have been evaluated based on statistical criteria such as sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, rightness, and specificity using standard molecules such as Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), glucose, cellulose and a certified reference product. The Lowry and the Dubois methods have been shown to be the best compromise for the considered criteria after having been tested on sewage sludge samples obtained from different locations in a wastewater treatment plant. In average, the measured volatile fatty acids, lipids, proteins and carbohydrates contents represented 80 7% (% volatile solids) of the organic matter. Proteins and carbohydrates represented in average 69 3%. This study underlined that the choice of a relevant methodology is of great importance for organic matter measurement. PMID:23357791

Jimenez, Julie; Vedrenne, Fabien; Denis, C閏ile; Mottet, Alexis; D閘閞is, Stephane; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Cacho Rivero, Jes鷖 Andr閟

2013-04-01

74

492 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 5, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2010 Forensic Detection of Image Manipulation Using  

E-print Network

492 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 5, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2010 Forensic Detection of Image Manipulation Using Statistical Intrinsic Fingerprints Matthew C. Stamm, Student Member for digital image forensic tech- niques capable of detecting image alterations and forged images. A number

Liu, K. J. Ray

75

The near real time statistical asset priority driven (nrtsapd) risk assessment methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NRTSAPD Risk Assessment methodology offers two key advantages over other risk assessments. The first advantage is that the NRTSAPD risk assessment methodology provides management with a simple, quick, and easy to use risk assessment methodology based on an organizational mission critical asset priority. The second advantage of using this NRTSAPD risk assessment is to integrate several organizational databases such

Charles Pak

2008-01-01

76

Forensic Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this AHS Capstone project, the aim was to explore issues in the identification and interpretation of human bones: sex, age, stature, ancestry, pathology, and anomalies. The reconstruction of individuals and their lifestyles and role of forensic anthropology in mass fatalities were focus of this social behavioral analysis as well.

Christina Cary

2008-01-01

77

Forensic entomology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques,

Jens Amendt; Roman Krettek; Richard Zehner

2004-01-01

78

Database forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the user or surface level, most Database Management System (DBMS) are similar. Most databases contain multiple tables, a standardized query language, primary key, foreign key, referential integrity, and metadata. With regard to physical file structures, concurrency mechanisms, security mechanisms, query optimization and datawarehouse techniques, databases may be radically different from each other. Most Forensic tools are too time consuming

Mario A. M. Guimaraes; Richard Austin; Huwida Said

2010-01-01

79

METHODOLOGY FOR THE CALCULATION OF THE MEDIAN IN THE SETU Office of Planning and Quality Statistics Unit  

E-print Network

METHODOLOGY FOR THE CALCULATION OF THE MEDIAN IN THE SETU REPORTS Office of Planning and Quality 颅 Statistics Unit 1 Dr Clare Hourigan 11 March 2011 The SETU (Student Evaluation, in the unit evaluation static reports published on the Office of Planning and Quality website1

Albrecht, David

80

Forensic detection of noise addition in digital images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed a technique to detect the global addition of noise to a digital image. As an anti-forensics tool, noise addition is typically used to disguise the visual traces of image tampering or to remove the statistical artifacts left behind by other operations. As such, the blind detection of noise addition has become imperative as well as beneficial to authenticate the image content and recover the image processing history, which is the goal of general forensics techniques. Specifically, the special image blocks, including constant and strip ones, are used to construct the features for identifying noise addition manipulation. The influence of noising on blockwise pixel value distribution is formulated and analyzed formally. The methodology of detectability recognition followed by binary decision is proposed to ensure the applicability and reliability of noising detection. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed noising detector.

Cao, Gang; Zhao, Yao; Ni, Rongrong; Ou, Bo; Wang, Yongbin

2014-03-01

81

FORENSIC SCIENCE About Forensic Science  

E-print Network

SATor760ACT -FroshEligibilityIndex(OutofState):3502SATor842ACT -TransferStudents:2.60orabove;FS11:justicestudies.sjsu.edu/degrees/b-s-forensic-science/ San Jos茅 State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex,sexualorientation,maritalstatus,pregnancy,age,disability,disabledveteran'sorVietnam veteran

Su, Xiao

82

Chemical profiling of different hashish seizures by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and statistical methodology: a case report.  

PubMed

Limited information is available regarding the methodology required to characterize hashish seizures for assessing the presence or the absence of a chemical link between two seizures. This casework report presents the methodology applied for assessing that two different police seizures were coming from the same block before this latter one was split. The chemical signature was extracted using GC-MS analysis and the implemented methodology consists in a study of intra- and inter-variability distributions based on the measurement of the chemical profiles similarity using a number of hashish seizures and the calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficient. Different statistical scenarios (i.e., a combination of data pretreatment techniques and selection of target compounds) were tested to find the most discriminating one. Seven compounds showing high discrimination capabilities were selected on which a specific statistical data pretreatment was applied. Based on the results, the statistical model built for comparing the hashish seizures leads to low error rates. Therefore, the implemented methodology is suitable for the chemical profiling of hashish seizures. PMID:24008198

Cadola, Liv; Bros閡s, Julian; Esseiva, Pierre

2013-10-10

83

Xbox Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsoft's Xbox game console is little more than a low-end personal computer; with a small amount of effort it can be modified to run additional operating systems, enabling it to store gigabytes worth of non-game-related files in addition to allowing it to run various computer services. Little has been published, however, on the proper forensic procedures to determine whether an

Paul K. Burke; Philip Craiger

2006-01-01

84

Forensic Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Technology is rapidly changing the speed and manner in which people interact with each other and with the world. As technology\\u000a helps criminals to operate more easily and quickly across borders, so law enforcement capability must continuously improve\\u000a to keep one step ahead. Computer forensics has become a specialized and accepted investigative technique with its own tools\\u000a and legal precedents

Xiang Li; Jennifer Seberry

2003-01-01

85

Molecular Forensics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can we establish the origin of an infection by looking at DNA? In the 1990芒侣s, suspicion that HIV in several individuals could be linked to a local dentist was investigated. We will take a closer look at sequence data from this dentist and other HIV positive individuals including patients who believed they were exposed to HIV during dental procedures. * examine viral DNA sequence data as forensic evidence

Sam Donovan (University of Pittsburgh;Biology)

2006-05-20

86

Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator抯 view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

B鰄me, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

87

Forensic Inference from DNA Fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discovery of hypervariable regions of the human genome provides scientists with an important new tool for forensic inference. The DNA data obtained from these hypervariable regions have been dubbed DNA fingerprints. Despite the potential power of DNA fingerprints, their use has been fraught with controversy, deriving in part from a lack of statistical methods to summarize the information

B. Devlin; Neil Risch; Kathryn Roeder

1992-01-01

88

Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics梞icrobial forensics梙as been created, which is focused

Bruce Budowle; Randall Murch; Ranajit Chakraborty

2005-01-01

89

Bayesian Integrated Microbial Forensics  

SciTech Connect

In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax letters, researchers have been exploring ways to predict the production environment of unknown source microorganisms. Different mass spectral techniques are being developed to characterize components of a microbe抯 culture medium including water, carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions added, and the presence of agar. Individually, each technique has the potential to identify one or two ingredients in a culture medium recipe. However, by integrating data from multiple mass spectral techniques, a more complete characterization is possible. We present a Bayesian statistical approach to integrated microbial forensics and illustrate its application on spores grown in different culture media.

Jarman, Kristin H.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wunschel, David S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.

2008-06-01

90

Forensic Science: Best Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All about forensic science Forensic Science for High School Do you watch CSI? You should look at related Web site! How about this one? FORENSIC SCIENCE and have a look at what the Scout Report has to say: Court TV: Forensic Files And don\\'t forget about CSI CSI: The TV Show ...

M., Marcia

2007-03-08

91

Careers with Forensic Biology  

E-print Network

/Examiner Fingerprint Expert Toxicologist Biomedical Scientist Department of Forensic Medical Science (forensicCareers with Forensic Biology www.twitter.com/mmu_careers www.facebook.com/MMUCareersandEmployability Careers & Employability Service www.mmu.ac.uk/careers/guides #12;2 08/12 Careers with Forensic Biology

92

Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.  

PubMed

For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to the patient. Forensic treatment service effectiveness appears to be associated with individual case management and approach including psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and occupational therapy in order to achieve optimal rehabilitation, prevention of recidivism and stability in social functioning of the patient in the community. PMID:19794370

Palijan, Tija Zarkovi?; Muzini?, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

2009-09-01

93

An Interview with David Rindskopf: A Leading Voice on Teaching Statistics and Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with David Rindskopf, a Distinguished Professor of Educational Psychology and Psychology at the City University of New York Graduate Center, where he has taught since 1979. His research and teaching are in the area of applied statistics, measurement, and research design. He is a fellow of the American Statistical

Bembenutty, Hefer

2011-01-01

94

Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*  

PubMed Central

This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2009-01-01

95

Forensic entomology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

96

Forensic entomology.  

PubMed

Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect. PMID:14991142

Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

2004-02-01

97

Series on Statistical Application and Methodology on the Use of Confidence Intervals as Probability Intervals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The practice of using statistical confidence intervals as probability intervals in studies of system uncertainties is examined. In several examples, most of which relate to system reliability analysis, it is shown that this practice can lead to intervals ...

R. G. Easterling

1976-01-01

98

STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE TYPES OF OUTCOMES IN NONLINEAR THRESHOLD MODELS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple outcomes are often measured on each experimental unit in toxicology experiments. These multiple observations typically imply the existence of correlation between endpoints, and a statistical analysis that incorporates it may result in improved inference. When both disc...

99

Application of statistical experimental methodology to optimize bioremediation of n-alkanes in aquatic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for removal of n-alkanes from crude oil contaminated seawater samples in batch reactors. Erlenmeyer flasks were used as bioreactors; each containing 250mL dispersed crude oil contaminated seawater, indigenous acclimatized microorganism and different amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus based on central composite design (CCD). Samples were extracted and analyzed

Mohammad Ali Zahed; Hamidi Abdul Aziz; Leila Mohajeri; Soraya Mohajeri; Shamsul Rahman Mohamed Kutty; Mohamed Hasnain Isa

2010-01-01

100

Deciphering the complex: methodological overview of statistical models to derive OMICS-based biomarkers.  

PubMed

Recent technological advances in molecular biology have given rise to numerous large-scale datasets whose analysis imposes serious methodological challenges mainly relating to the size and complex structure of the data. Considerable experience in analyzing such data has been gained over the past decade, mainly in genetics, from the Genome-Wide Association Study era, and more recently in transcriptomics and metabolomics. Building upon the corresponding literature, we provide here a nontechnical overview of well-established methods used to analyze OMICS data within three main types of regression-based approaches: univariate models including multiple testing correction strategies, dimension reduction techniques, and variable selection models. Our methodological description focuses on methods for which ready-to-use implementations are available. We describe the main underlying assumptions, the main features, and advantages and limitations of each of the models. This descriptive summary constitutes a useful tool for driving methodological choices while analyzing OMICS data, especially in environmental epidemiology, where the emergence of the exposome concept clearly calls for unified methods to analyze marginally and jointly complex exposure and OMICS datasets. PMID:23918146

Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Campanella, Gianluca; Jombart, Thibaut; Bottolo, Leonardo; Portengen, Lutzen; Vineis, Paolo; Liquet, Benoit; Vermeulen, Roel C H

2013-08-01

101

Error and its meaning in forensic science.  

PubMed

The discussion of "error" has gained momentum in forensic science in the wake of the Daubert guidelines and has intensified with the National Academy of Sciences' Report. Error has many different meanings, and too often, forensic practitioners themselves as well as the courts misunderstand scientific error and statistical error rates, often confusing them with practitioner error (or mistakes). Here, we present an overview of these concepts as they pertain to forensic science applications, discussing the difference between practitioner error (including mistakes), instrument error, statistical error, and method error. We urge forensic practitioners to ensure that potential sources of error and method limitations are understood and clearly communicated and advocate that the legal community be informed regarding the differences between interobserver errors, uncertainty, variation, and mistakes. PMID:24111751

Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M; Ousley, Stephen D; Houck, Max M

2014-01-01

102

Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special nuclear materials and with a description of several actual case studies conducted at Livermore.

Hutcheon, I. D.; Grant, P. M.; Moody, K. J.

103

Grant Title: METHODOLOGY, MEASUREMENT, AND STATISTICS Funding Opportunity Number: NSF 12-510.  

E-print Network

-510. Agency/Department: National Science Foundation; Directorate for Social, Behavioral & Economic Sciences, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences that supports the development of innovative analytical and statistical in theory, and have potential utility for multiple fields within the social and behavioral sciences. As part

Farritor, Shane

104

Analysis of a large fMRI cohort: Statistical and methodological issues for group analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of group fMRI studies is to relate contrasts of tasks or stimuli to regional brain activity increases. These studies typically involve 10 to 16 subjects. The average regional activity statistical significance is assessed using the subject to subject variability of the effect (random effects analyses). Because of the relatively small number of subjects included, the sensitivity and reliability

Bertrand Thirion; Philippe Pinel; S閎astien M閞iaux; Alexis Roche; Stanislas Dehaene; Jean-Baptiste Poline

2007-01-01

105

Analysis of fMRI data sampled from Large Populations: Statistical and Methodological Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Validating the association between brain activity, as measured in functional MRI, with a combination or a contrast of tasks is usually performed by replicating an experiment in a small group of subjects, and by assessing the presence of a statistically significant average ef-

Bertrand Thirion; Philippe Pinel; Sebastien Meriaux; Alexis Roche; Stanislas Dehaene; Jean-Baptiste Poline

2007-01-01

106

Methodological Artifacts in Moderated Multiple Regression and Their Effects on Statistical Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to examine the degree to which the statistical power of moderated multiple regression (MMR) to detect the effects of a dichotomous moderator variable was affected by the main and interactive effects of (a) predictor variable range restriction, (b) total sample size, (c) sample sizes for 2 moderator variable-based subgroups, (d) predictor variable intercorrelation, and (e)

Herman Aguinis; Eugene F Stone-Romero

1997-01-01

107

The Incremental Validity of Psychological Testing and Assessment: Conceptual, Methodological, and Statistical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been insufficient effort in most areas of applied psychology to evaluate incremental validity. To further this kind of validity research, the authors examined applicable research designs, including those to assess the incremental validity of test instruments, of test-informed clinical inferences, and of newly developed measures. The authors also considered key statistical and measurement issues that can influence incremental

John Hunsley; Gregory J. Meyer

2003-01-01

108

Counter hack: Creating a context for a cyber forensics course  

Microsoft Academic Search

A typical hacker follows the ldquohacker methodologyrdquo by going through the following distinct phases: Footprinting, Probing, Gaining Access, Escalating Privileges, Exploiting, Covering Tracks and Installing Backdoors. This hacker methodology is used to direct the overall forensic process. Many of these phases leave artifacts that can be examined by a forensic investigator to piece together an incident. We designed a cyber

Lori L. DeLooze

2008-01-01

109

Manipulating measurement scales in medical statistical analysis and data mining: A review of methodologies  

PubMed Central

Background: selecting the correct statistical test and data mining method depends highly on the measurement scale of data, type of variables, and purpose of the analysis. Different measurement scales are studied in details and statistical comparison, modeling, and data mining methods are studied based upon using several medical examples. We have presented two ordinal杤ariables clustering examples, as more challenging variable in analysis, using Wisconsin Breast Cancer Data (WBCD). Ordinal-to-Interval scale conversion example: a breast cancer database of nine 10-level ordinal variables for 683 patients was analyzed by two ordinal-scale clustering methods. The performance of the clustering methods was assessed by comparison with the gold standard groups of malignant and benign cases that had been identified by clinical tests. Results: the sensitivity and accuracy of the two clustering methods were 98% and 96%, respectively. Their specificity was comparable. Conclusion: by using appropriate clustering algorithm based on the measurement scale of the variables in the study, high performance is granted. Moreover, descriptive and inferential statistics in addition to modeling approach must be selected based on the scale of the variables. PMID:24672565

Marateb, Hamid Reza; Mansourian, Marjan; Adibi, Peyman; Farina, Dario

2014-01-01

110

Statistical investigation of Kluyveromyces lactis cells permeabilization with ethanol by response surface methodology  

PubMed Central

The aim of our study was to select the optimal operating conditions to permeabilize Kluyveromyces lactis cells using ethanol as a solvent as an alternative to cell disruption and extraction. Cell permeabilization was carried out by a non-mechanical method consisting of chemical treatment with ethanol, and the results were expressed as ?-galactosidase activity. Experiments were conducted under different conditions of ethanol concentration, treatment time and temperature according to a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), and the collected results were then worked out by response surface methodology (RSM). Cell permeabilization was improved by an increase in ethanol concentration and simultaneous decreases in the incubation temperature and treatment time. Such an approach allowed us to identify an optimal range of the independent variables within which the ?-galactosidase activity was optimized. A maximum permeabilization of 2,816 mmol L?1 oNP min?1 g?1 was obtained by treating cells with 75.0% v/v of ethanol at 20.0 癈 for 15.0 min. The proposed methodology resulted to be effective and suited for K. lactis cells permeabilization at a lab-scale and promises to be of possible interest for future applications mainly in the food industry. PMID:24688494

de Faria, Janaina T.; Rocha, Pollyana F.; Converti, Attilio; Passos, Flavia M.L.; Minim, Luis A.; Sampaio, Fabio C.

2013-01-01

111

Integrating Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

2000-01-01

112

Modeling Network Forensics Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network forensics is a new approach to network security. However, this field is not very clear to new researchers and practitioners. In this paper, we discuss network forensics behavior systematically from both the technical view and legal view. The goal of this discussion is to outline the formalization and standardization of network forensics behavior. To our knowledge, this is the

Wei Ren

2006-01-01

113

Introduction to Forensic Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Course Objectives: This course provides a broad overview of forensic anthropology, an applied field of biological anthropology that seeks to recover, identify, and evaluate human skeletal remains within a medico-legal context. In this course, students will learn: to identify the bones of the human skeleton; recovery techniques and initial treatment of forensic material; the techniques used by forensic anthropologists to

P. James Macaluso

2008-01-01

114

Forensic Automatic Speaker Recognition  

E-print Network

considered "the golden standard of forensic identification" Fingerprint experts have long claimed: "Absolute1 Forensic Automatic Speaker Recognition: Fiction or Science? Joaquin Gonzalez-Rodriguez ATVS identification problem Influence of "classical" forensic identification This talk is: NOT a tutorial on Speaker

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

115

Forensic entomology in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project Forensic Entomology was started in Frankfurt\\/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is

Jens Amendt; Roman Krettek; Constanze Niess; Richard Zehner; Hansj黵gen Bratzke

2000-01-01

116

ViSEN: methodology and software for visualization of statistical epistasis networks.  

PubMed

The nonlinear interaction effect among multiple genetic factors, i.e. epistasis, has been recognized as a key component in understanding the underlying genetic basis of complex human diseases and phenotypic traits. Due to the statistical and computational complexity, most epistasis studies are limited to interactions with an order of two. We developed ViSEN to analyze and visualize epistatic interactions of both two-way and three-way. ViSEN not only identifies strong interactions among pairs or trios of genetic attributes, but also provides a global interaction map that shows neighborhood and clustering structures. This visualized information could be very helpful to infer the underlying genetic architecture of complex diseases and to generate plausible hypotheses for further biological validations. ViSEN is implemented in Java and freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/visen/. PMID:23468157

Hu, Ting; Chen, Yuanzhu; Kiralis, Jeff W; Moore, Jason H

2013-04-01

117

Statistical methodology used in analyses of data from DOE experimental animal studies  

SciTech Connect

This document describes many of the statistical approaches that are being used to analyze data from life-span animal studies conducted under the Department of Energy experimental radiobiology program. The methods, which are intended to be as informative as possible for assessing human health risks, account for time-related factors and competing risks, and are reasonably comparable to methods used for analyzing data from human epidemiologic studies of persons exposed to radiation. The methods described in this report model the hazard, or age-specific risk, as a function of dose and other factors such as dose rate, age at risk, and time since exposure. Both models in which the radiation risk is expressed relative to the baseline risk and models in which this risk is expressed in absolute terms are formulated. Both parametric and non-parametric models for baseline risks are considered, and several dose-response functions are suggested. Tumors in animals are not always the cause of death but instead may be found incidentally to death from other causes. This report gives detailed attention to the context of observation of tumors, and emphasizes an approach that makes use of information provided by the pathologist on whether tumors are fatal or incidental. Special cases are those in which all tumors are observed in a fatal context or in which all tumors are observed in an incidental context. Maximum likelihood theory provides the basis for fitting the suggested models and for making statistical inferences regarding parameters of these models. Approaches in which observations are grouped by intervals of time and possibly other factors are emphasized. This approach is based on iteratively reweighted least squares and uses Poisson weights for tumors considered to be fatal and binomial weights for tumors considered to be incidental.

Gilbert, E.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Griffith, W.C.; Carnes, B.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-07-01

118

Centre for Forensic Science Centre for Forensic Science  

E-print Network

chemistry 锟 BSc Forensic Biology 锟 Scientific and Law Enforcement training 锟 Professional bodies PracticeCentre for Forensic Science #12;Centre for Forensic Science 锟 First program in UK and now in itsKie #12;Education, Research & Practice 锟 MSc/PgDip Forensic Science 锟 BSc/MChem Forensic & Analytical

Mottram, Nigel

119

Temporal Forensics and Anti-Forensics for Motion Compensated Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the ease with which digital information can be altered, many digital forensic techniques have been developed to authenticate multimedia content. Similarly, a number of anti-forensic operations have recently been designed to make digital forgeries undetectable by forensic techniques. However, like the digital manipulations they are designed to hide, many anti-forensic operations leave behind their own forensically detectable traces.

Matthew C. Stamm; W. Sabrina Lin; K. J. Ray Liu

2012-01-01

120

Comparing the growth and effectiveness of forensic DNA databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic DNA databases have altered the landscape of the criminal justice system and re-shaped the field of forensic science. Whilst there has been widespread commentary regarding the legal and socio-political basis of DNA databases, there remains a lack of meaningful empirical assessment of database performance and effectiveness. In this research DNA database growth and effectiveness has been assessed statistically from

Simon J. Walsh; John S. Buckleton; Olivier Ribaux; Claude Roux; Tony Raymond

2008-01-01

121

STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING TRANSPORT PARAMETERS: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS TO ONE-DOMENSIONAL ADVECTIVE-DISPERSIVE SYSTEMS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A simulation nonlinear multiple-regression methodology for estimating parameters that characterize the transport of contaminants is developed and demonstrated. Finite difference containment transport simulation is combined with a nonlinear weighted least squares multiple-regression procedure. The technique provides optimal parameter estimates and gives statistics for assessing the reliability of these estimates under certain general assumptions about the distributions of the random measurement errors. Monte Carlo analysis is used to estimate parameter reliability for a hypothetical homogeneous soil column for which concentration data contain large random measurement errors. The value of data collected spatially versus data collected temporally was investigated for estimation of velocity, dispersion coefficient, effective porosity, first-order decay rate, and zero-order production. The use of spatial data gave estimates that were 2-3 times more reliable than estimates based on temporal data for all parameters except velocity. (Estimated author abstract) Refs.

Wagner, Brian, J.; Gorelick, Steven, M.

1986-01-01

122

Survey of Forensic Service Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government-funded studies, to date, have focused on forensic science within the laboratory setting. Recent studies have suggested that there is a significant amount of forensic services that take place outside of the forensic laboratories. There has been a lack of research that quantifies and benchmarks forensic services performed outside of the traditional forensic laboratories. This study, funded through the West

Randall A. Childs; Tom S. Witt; Kanybek Nur-tegin

2009-01-01

123

Analysis of multiple-cycle data from couples undergoing in vitro fertilization: Methodologic issues and statistical approaches  

PubMed Central

The number of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles in the U.S. increased from fewer than 46,000 in 1995 to more than 120,000 in 2005. IVF and other assisted reproductive technology (ART) data are routinely collected and used to identify outcome predictors. However, researchers do not always make full use of the data due to its complexity. Design approaches have included restriction to first-cycle attempts only, which reduces power and identifies effects only of those factors associated with initial success. Many statistical techniques have been utilized or proposed for analysis of IVF data, ranging from simple t-tests to sophisticated models designed specifically for IVF. We apply several of these methods to data from a prospective cohort of 2687 couples undergoing ART from 1994 through 2003. Results across methods are compared and the appropriateness of the various methods is discussed with the intent to illustrate methodologic validity. We observed a remarkable similarity of coefficient estimates across models. However, each method for dealing with multiple cycle data relies on assumptions that may or may not be expected to hold in a given IVF study. The robustness and reported magnitude of effect for individual predictors of IVF success may be inflated or attenuated due to violation of statistical assumptions, and should always be critically interpreted. Given that risk factors associated with IVF success may also advance our understanding of the physiologic processes underlying conception, implantation, and gestation, the application of valid methods to these complex data is critical. PMID:21558857

Missmer, Stacey A.; Pearson, Kimberly R.; Ryan, Louise M.; Meeker, John D.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Hauser, Russ

2012-01-01

124

Toward a general ontology for digital forensic disciplines.  

PubMed

Ontologies are widely used in different disciplines as a technique for representing and reasoning about domain knowledge. However, despite the widespread ontology-related research activities and applications in different disciplines, the development of ontologies and ontology research activities is still wanting in digital forensics. This paper therefore presents the case for establishing an ontology for digital forensic disciplines. Such an ontology would enable better categorization of the digital forensic disciplines, as well as assist in the development of methodologies and specifications that can offer direction in different areas of digital forensics. This includes such areas as professional specialization, certifications, development of digital forensic tools, curricula, and educational materials. In addition, the ontology presented in this paper can be used, for example, to better organize the digital forensic domain knowledge and explicitly describe the discipline's semantics in a common way. Finally, this paper is meant to spark discussions and further research on an internationally agreed ontological distinction of the digital forensic disciplines. Digital forensic disciplines ontology is a novel approach toward organizing the digital forensic domain knowledge and constitutes the main contribution of this paper. PMID:24931294

Karie, Nickson M; Venter, Hein S

2014-09-01

125

Applying Traditional Forensic Taxonomy to Digital Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early digital forensic examinations were conducted in toto every file on the storage media was examined along with the entire file system structure. However, this is no longer practical\\u000a as operating systems have become extremely complex and storage capacities are growing geometrically. Examiners now perform\\u000a targeted examinations using forensic tools and databases of known files, selecting specific files and

Mark Pollitt

2008-01-01

126

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

127

GSM Cell Site Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cell site forensics is a new and growing area of digital forensics, enabling investigators to verify a mobile phone subscriber抯\\u000a location at specific times. This paper focuses on cell site forensics in GSM networks. In particular, it discusses current\\u000a methods utilizing call detail records generated from telephone switches that provide information about cellular calls and\\u000a text messages, and the cellular

Christopher Swenson; Tyler Moore; Sujeet Shenoi

2006-01-01

128

PCR in forensic genetics.  

PubMed

Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics. PMID:19290877

Morling, Niels

2009-04-01

129

Exploring relationship between asthma and air pollution: a geospatial methodology using dasymetric mapping, GIS analysis, and spatial statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents methodology using dasymetric mapping from remotely sensed imagery, geographic information system (GIS), spatial analysis and spatial statistics to explore relationship between asthma and air pollution in the Pensacola metropolitan region of Florida. Health outcome indicators thought to be sensitive to increased exposure of airborne environmental hazards are mortality and morbidity rates for total population asthma patients. Environmental data for the time around the year 1999 include point source pollution sites and emissions, traffic count with emission estimates, and a Landsat ETM+ image. Standardized mortality/morbility ratios (SMRs) were used as dependent variables for the analysis. A centroid map was created from the zip code map with each centroid assigned the corresponding SMR values. Then spatial interpolation using the Kriging method was used to generate continuous SMR surfaces. An emission or point count based kernel density raster map was created from each of the air pollution maps. A raster layer 'greenness' was extracted using tasseled cap transformation from the Landsat ETM+ image. The dasymetric mapping technique was employed to limit the analysis and modeling to the area where human activities occur. The ETM+ image was classified into a thematic land use/cover map and the developed area extracted. A road network was combined with the developed area to generate a buffer (buffer distance=1.5 km). A random sample with enough number of points was generated across the study area and 505 points were found within the developed area and the buffer. Data values at these sample points were extracted and used for statistical modeling. Two spatial autoregressive models (spatial error and spatial lag) were fitted. Both models show relationship between the asthmas outcome indicators and air pollution (positive) and 'greenness' (negative).

Hu, Z.; Liebens, Johan; Rao, Ranga

2007-06-01

130

Estimating the probability of allelic drop-out of STR alleles in forensic genetics.  

PubMed

In crime cases with available DNA evidence, the amount of DNA is often sparse due to the setting of the crime. In such cases, allelic drop-out of one or more true alleles in STR typing is possible. We present a statistical model for estimating the per locus and overall probability of allelic drop-out using the results of all STR loci in the case sample as reference. The methodology of logistic regression is appropriate for this analysis, and we demonstrate how to incorporate this in a forensic genetic framework. PMID:19647706

Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Morling, Niels

2009-09-01

131

Statistical Optimization of Ultraviolet Irradiate Conditions for Vitamin D2 Synthesis in Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Using Response Surface Methodology  

PubMed Central

Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum vitamin D2 synthesis conditions in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). Ultraviolet B (UV-B) was selected as the most efficient irradiation source for the preliminary experiment, in addition to the levels of three independent variables, which included ambient temperature (2545癈), exposure time (40120 min), and irradiation intensity (0.61.2 W/m2). The statistical analysis indicated that, for the range which was studied, irradiation intensity was the most critical factor that affected vitamin D2 synthesis in oyster mushrooms. Under optimal conditions (ambient temperature of 28.16癈, UV-B intensity of 1.14 W/m2, and exposure time of 94.28 min), the experimental vitamin D2 content of 239.67 礸/g (dry weight) was in very good agreement with the predicted value of 245.49 礸/g, which verified the practicability of this strategy. Compared to fresh mushrooms, the lyophilized mushroom powder can synthesize remarkably higher level of vitamin D2 (498.10 礸/g) within much shorter UV-B exposure time (10 min), and thus should receive attention from the food processing industry. PMID:24736742

Wu, Wei-Jie; Ahn, Byung-Yong

2014-01-01

132

Statistical optimization of ultraviolet irradiate conditions for vitamin D? synthesis in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum vitamin D2 synthesis conditions in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). Ultraviolet B (UV-B) was selected as the most efficient irradiation source for the preliminary experiment, in addition to the levels of three independent variables, which included ambient temperature (25-45癈), exposure time (40-120 min), and irradiation intensity (0.6-1.2 W/m2). The statistical analysis indicated that, for the range which was studied, irradiation intensity was the most critical factor that affected vitamin D2 synthesis in oyster mushrooms. Under optimal conditions (ambient temperature of 28.16癈, UV-B intensity of 1.14 W/m2, and exposure time of 94.28 min), the experimental vitamin D2 content of 239.67 礸/g (dry weight) was in very good agreement with the predicted value of 245.49 礸/g, which verified the practicability of this strategy. Compared to fresh mushrooms, the lyophilized mushroom powder can synthesize remarkably higher level of vitamin D2 (498.10 礸/g) within much shorter UV-B exposure time (10 min), and thus should receive attention from the food processing industry. PMID:24736742

Wu, Wei-Jie; Ahn, Byung-Yong

2014-01-01

133

Biosensors in forensic analysis. A review.  

PubMed

Forensic analysis is an important branch of modern Analytical Chemistry with many legal and socially relevant implications. Biosensors can play an important role as efficient tools in this field considering their well known advantages of sensitivity, selectivity, easy functioning, affordability and capability of miniaturization and automation. This article reviews the latest advances in the use of biosensors for forensic analysis. The different methodologies for the transduction of the produced biological events are considered and the applications to forensic toxicological analysis, classified by the nature of the target analytes, as well as those related with chemical and biological weapons critically commented. The article provides several Tables where the more relevant analytical characteristics of the selected reported methods are gathered. PMID:24746348

Y狁ez-Sede駉, P; Ag, L; Villalonga, R; Pingarr髇, J M

2014-05-01

134

Making Forensic Attack Event/forensic Analysis as Simple  

E-print Network

? 路 forensic analysis is the process of answering the questions: 路 How did an event take place? 路 WhatMaking Forensic Attack Event/forensic Analysis as Simple as Possible and No Simpler Sean Peisert to focus on non-binary (e.g., post mortem analysis). 5Tuesday, July 22, 2008 #12;What is forensic Analysis

Peisert, Sean

135

Developing Ideas through Forensics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If forensic activity is to contribute to student growth and development, careful attention must be given to training and experience in developing ideas. Borrowing from the time-honored premise of invention, forensics educators should highlight argument construction as a foundation in speechwriting practices. Some of the essential premises or

Derryberry, Bob R.

136

Complexity in Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic Science is an end-to-end process beginning at the scene and finishing in court. There are many opportunities for quality failures along the way. To limit the focus to the validity and robustness of the actual tests does not support the contribution of forensic science to the criminal justice system and risks compromising it. A particularly critical aspect of the

Stan Brown; Sheila Willis

2010-01-01

137

Forensic geology exhumed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term ``forensic'' is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as ``pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and

Joseph Didier Martinez

1991-01-01

138

School COMSC Forensics, Trust & Identity  

E-print Network

processes in place to forensically deal with the incident. The aim of this module is to introduceSchool COMSC Forensics, Trust & Identity Every organization will eventually deal with cyber forensic techniques investigation using open-source forensics tools. Module Code CMT204 External Subject

Martin, Ralph R.

139

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis  

E-print Network

is Forensic Analysis? Forensic analysis is the process of answering the questions: How did an event take place Approaches Solutions Intended for Non-Forensic Purposes Syslog Process Accounting IDS Alerts Ad Hoc SolutionsToward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert (UC San Diego) Matt Bishop (UC Davis) Sid Karin

Peisert, Sean

140

National Academy of Forensic Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Academy of Forensic Engineers provides a short definition of forensic engineering here. After reading through the definition, click the "Menu" link at the bottom of the page to access the site's main menu. From here, you can find more information on the National Academy of Forensic Engineers, and forensic engineering in general.

2008-04-07

141

Lecture Notes On Forensic Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers lecture notes relating to an introductory survey course on forensic science. It is designed to provide a comprehensive understanding and analysis of technical and legal issues involving forensic techniques. The lectures, focus on traditional subjects relating to the services of crime laboratories,but also deals with allied subjects,including forensic psychiatry, forensic pathology, and social science.

O'Connor, Tom

2011-07-14

142

The use of geoscience methods for terrestrial forensic searches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoscience methods are increasingly being utilised in criminal, environmental and humanitarian forensic investigations, and the use of such methods is supported by a growing body of experimental and theoretical research. Geoscience search techniques can complement traditional methodologies in the search for buried objects, including clandestine graves, weapons, explosives, drugs, illegal weapons, hazardous waste and vehicles. This paper details recent advances in search and detection methods, with case studies and reviews. Relevant examples are given, together with a generalised workflow for search and suggested detection technique(s) table. Forensic geoscience techniques are continuing to rapidly evolve to assist search investigators to detect hitherto difficult to locate forensic targets.

Pringle, J. K.; Ruffell, A.; Jervis, J. R.; Donnelly, L.; McKinley, J.; Hansen, J.; Morgan, R.; Pirrie, D.; Harrison, M.

2012-08-01

143

Adapting the cultural formulation for clinical assessments in forensic psychiatry.  

PubMed

Even as forensic psychiatrists have increasingly contemplated the role of culture in forensic psychiatry, practical cultural evaluations remain an under-theorized area with scant research. Older conceptions of cultural competence may risk stereotyping the evaluee on the basis of perceived group characteristics. This article offers a revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV) Outline for Cultural Formulation for use in forensic psychiatry by adjusting its formal guidelines with recommendations from the forensic mental health literature. As a person-centered method of conducting the interview, the Cultural Formulation probes cultural explanations of identity, illness, social support, functioning, and interaction with the medical and legal systems. In line with other psychiatric subspecialties, future research in forensic psychiatry can examine the extent to which the Cultural Formulation helps trainees with cultural competence, reconfigures diagnosis and treatment, and alters legal outcomes such as length of sentence. PMID:22396348

Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

2012-01-01

144

The imported forensic expert  

SciTech Connect

A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

Larson, C.P.

1980-09-01

145

Computer Forensics Insider Problem  

E-print Network

Tools: Coroner's Toolkit, Sebek, SATAN, others 路 Stallard: Automated Analysis for Digital Forensic application and kernel syslog data 路 TCP Wrapper, Tripwire 路 COPS, SATAN, nessus 路 Coroner's Toolkit, Sleuth

Peisert, Sean

146

Physics and forensics  

SciTech Connect

This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources.

Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.

2001-12-15

147

Forensic speaker recognition  

E-print Network

Looking at the different points highlighted in this article, we affirm that forensic applications of speaker recognition should still be taken under a necessary need for caution. Disseminating this message remains one of ...

Bonstre, Jean-Francois

148

Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics  

SciTech Connect

Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special considerations for the forensic arena - quality control, sample integrity, etc. Mark Wilson (retired FBI): Western Carolina University Chapter 4. Physical signatures: Light and electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gravimetry etc. Joseph Michael, Sandia National Laboratory Chapter 5. Lipids: FAME, PLFA, steroids, LPS, etc. James Robertson, Federal Bureau of Investigation Chapter 6. Carbohydrates: Cell wall components, cytoplasm components, methods Alvin Fox, University of South Carolina School of Medicine David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 7. Peptides: Peptides, proteins, lipoproteins David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 8. Elemental content: CNOHPS (treated in passing), metals, prospective cell types John Cliff, International Atomic Energy Agency Chapter 9. Isotopic signatures: Stable isotopes C,N,H,O,S, 14C dating, potential for heavy elements. Helen Kreuzer-Martin, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Michaele Kashgarian, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Chapter 10. Extracellular signatures: Cellular debris, heme, agar, headspace, spent media, etc Karen Wahl, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 11. Data Reduction and Integrated Microbial Forensics: Statistical concepts, parametric and multivariate statistics, integrating signatures Kristin Jarman, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Cliff, John B.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Wunschel, David S.

2012-01-03

149

Statistical methodology for the evaluation of vaccine efficacy in a phase III multi-centre trial of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African children  

PubMed Central

Background There has been much debate about the appropriate statistical methodology for the evaluation of malaria field studies and the challenges in interpreting data arising from these trials. Methods The present paper describes, for a pivotal phase III efficacy of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine, the methods of the statistical analysis and the rationale for their selection. The methods used to estimate efficacy of the primary course of vaccination, and of a booster dose, in preventing clinical episodes of uncomplicated and severe malaria, and to determine the duration of protection, are described. The interpretation of various measures of efficacy in terms of the potential public health impact of the vaccine is discussed. Conclusions The methodology selected to analyse the clinical trial must be scientifically sound, acceptable to regulatory authorities and meaningful to those responsible for malaria control and public health policy. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00866619 PMID:21816030

2011-01-01

150

Forensic Data Carving  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a File or data carving is a term used in the field of Cyber forensics. Cyber forensics is the process of acquisition, authentication,\\u000a analysis and documentation of evidence extracted from and\\/or contained in a computer system, computer network and digital\\u000a media. Extracting data (file) out of undifferentiated blocks (raw data) is called as carving. Identifying and recovering files\\u000a based on analysis

Digambar Povar; V. K. Bhadran

2010-01-01

151

Mac OS X Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes procedures for conducting forensic examinations of Apple Macs running Mac OS X. The target disk mode\\u000a is used to create a forensic duplicate of a Mac hard drive and preview it. Procedures are discussed for recovering evidence\\u000a from allocated space, unallocated space, slack space and virtual memory. Furthermore, procedures are described for recovering\\u000a trace evidence from Mac

Philip Craiger; Paul Burke

2006-01-01

152

Statistical analysis of biomechanical properties of the adult skull and age-related structural changes by sex in a Japanese forensic sample.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to investigate the biomechanical properties of the adult human skull and the structural changes that occur with age in both sexes. The heads of 94 Japanese cadavers (54 male cadavers, 40 female cadavers) autopsied in our department were used in this research. A total of 376 cranial samples, four from each skull, were collected. Sample fracture load was measured by a bending test. A statistically significant negative correlation between the sample fracture load and cadaver age was found. This indicates that the stiffness of cranial bones in Japanese individuals decreases with age, and the risk of skull fracture thus probably increases with age. Prior to the bending test, the sample mass, the sample thickness, the ratio of the sample thickness to cadaver stature (ST/CS), and the sample density were measured and calculated. Significant negative correlations between cadaver age and sample thickness, ST/CS, and the sample density were observed only among the female samples. Computerized tomographic (CT) images of 358 cranial samples were available. The computed tomography value (CT value) of cancellous bone which refers to a quantitative scale for describing radiodensity, cancellous bone thickness and cortical bone thickness were measured and calculated. Significant negative correlation between cadaver age and the CT value or cortical bone thickness was observed only among the female samples. These findings suggest that the skull is substantially affected by decreased bone metabolism resulting from osteoporosis. Therefore, osteoporosis prevention and treatment may increase cranial stiffness and reinforce the skull structure, leading to a decrease in the risk of skull fractures. PMID:24183343

Torimitsu, Suguru; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Takano, Tachio; Koizumi, Yoshinori; Makino, Yohsuke; Yajima, Daisuke; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Inokuchi, Go; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Otsuka, Katsura; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Odo, Yuriko; Iwase, Hirotaro

2014-01-01

153

Curriculum and course materials for a forensic DNA biology course.  

PubMed

The Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) requires accredited programs offer a "coherent curriculum" to ensure each student gains a "thorough grounding of the natural卻ciences." Part of this curriculum includes completion of a minimum of 15 semester-hours forensic science coursework, nine of which can involve a class in forensic DNA biology. Departments that have obtained or are pursuing FEPAC accreditation can meet this requirement by offering a stand-alone forensic DNA biology course; however, materials necessary to instruct students are often homegrown and not standardized; in addition, until recently, the community lacked commercially available books, lab manuals, and teaching materials, and many of the best pedagogical resources were scattered across various peer-reviewed journals. The curriculum discussed below is an attempt to synthesize this disparate information, and although certainly not the only acceptable methodology, the below discussion represents "a way" for synthesizing and aggregating this information into a cohesive, comprehensive whole. PMID:24591042

Elkins, Kelly M

2014-01-01

154

Forensic Management Academy Spring 2011 Tentative Schedule Forensic Management Academy  

E-print Network

Forensic Management Academy 颅 Spring 2011 Tentative Schedule Forensic Management Academy Spring:30 颅 11:30 Session VI Fundamentals of Budgeting Paul Speaker 8:30 颅 11:30 Session IX Process Improvement:00 Tour Forensic Program Facilities 4:30 颅 7:30 Session VIII Conflict Management Joyce Heames7:00 Free

Mohaghegh, Shahab

155

FORENSIC SCIENCE The bachelor of science in forensic science at  

E-print Network

FORENSIC SCIENCE The bachelor of science in forensic science at Wichita State University is designed to meet an increasing demand for trained forensic scientists and technicians. No other university an interdisciplinary major in biological sciences, chemistry, anthropology, psychology and criminal justice

156

Forensic trace DNA: a review.  

PubMed

DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

van Oorschot, Roland Ah; Ballantyne, Kaye N; Mitchell, R John

2010-01-01

157

Forensic trace DNA: a review  

PubMed Central

DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

2010-01-01

158

Principles-Driven Forensic Analysis  

E-print Network

than assembly to the forensic process. A ?rst-order step forhacking, phreaking) Forensic analysis is the process offorensic mechanisms would have revealed nothing about the exploit, because no new processes

Peisert, Sean; Bishop, Matt; Karin, Sidney; Marzullo, Keith

2005-01-01

159

Distinguishing between forensic science and forensic pseudoscience: testing of validity and reliability, and approaches to forensic voice comparison.  

PubMed

In this paper it is argued that one should not attempt to directly assess whether a forensic analysis technique is scientifically acceptable. Rather one should first specify what one considers to be appropriate principles governing acceptable practice, then consider any particular approach in light of those principles. This paper focuses on one principle: the validity and reliability of an approach should be empirically tested under conditions reflecting those of the case under investigation using test data drawn from the relevant population. Versions of this principle have been key elements in several reports on forensic science, including forensic voice comparison, published over the last four-and-a-half decades. The aural-spectrographic approach to forensic voice comparison (also known as "voiceprint" or "voicegram" examination) and the currently widely practiced auditory-acoustic-phonetic approach are considered in light of this principle (these two approaches do not appear to be mutually exclusive). Approaches based on data, quantitative measurements, and statistical models are also considered in light of this principle. PMID:24796954

Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

2014-05-01

160

A Methodological Review of Statistical Methods for Handling Multilevel Non-Nested Longitudinal Data in Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As applications of multilevel modelling in educational research increase, researchers realize that multilevel data collected in many educational settings are often not purely nested. The most common multilevel non-nested data structure is one that involves student mobility in longitudinal studies. This article provides a methodological review of

Sun, Shuyan; Pan, Wei

2014-01-01

161

Forensic psychiatry in Singapore.  

PubMed

Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted. PMID:23857802

Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd

2013-12-01

162

Modeling the network forensics behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network forensics is a new coming approach to the network security. However, this field is not very clear to the new researchers. In this paper, we discuss the network forensics behaviors systematically from both the technical view and legal view. The goal of discussion is to outline the formalization and standardization of the network forensics behaviors. To our knowledge, this

Wei Ren; Hai Jin

2005-01-01

163

Cyber Forensics: Issues and Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter introduces the concept of cyber forensics, digital evidence, and computer forensic process. Cyber forensics is defined as the application of computer science to laws to process and analyze digital evidence, to reconstruct a crime, and to provide links among the offender, the victim and the crime scene. Basically Digital evidence includes all digital data, which can be

Jau-Hwang Wang

164

FORENSIC TECHNIQUES FOR CELL PHONES  

E-print Network

June 2007 FORENSIC TECHNIQUES FOR CELL PHONES FORENSIC TECHNIQUES FOR CELL PHONES Shirley Radack cell phones are widely used for both personal and professional applications, the technology of cell forensics usually do not cover cell phones, especially those with advanced capabilities. The digital

165

InnoDB Database Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whenever data is being processed, there are many places where parts of the data are temporarily stored; thus forensic analysis can reveal past activities, create a (partial) timeline and recover deleted data. While this fact is well known for computer forensics, multiple forensic tools exist to analyze data and the systematic analysis of database systems has only recently begun. This

Peter Fruhwirt; Marcus Huber; Martin Mulazzani; Edgar R. Weippl

2010-01-01

166

Forensic Psychiatry in Iran  

PubMed Central

In Iran, department of forensic psychiatry is one of the special units of Legal Medicine Organization concerned with individuals who demonstrate psychological and psychiatric problems. The duties of forensic psychiatrists in the department are, performing psychiatric examinations and determining mental competence of two major groups of referrals: Individuals who are involved in a legal problem related to civil law and individuals who are involved in criminal responsibility and/or forbearance of punishment such as offenders and prisoners. One of the worries of the Iran jurisdiction system is the absence of a secure mental hospital devoted to the irresponsible mentally ill criminals. In fact, there is no forensic inpatient unit available in the country. PMID:24644492

Saberi, Seyed Mehdi; Mirsepassi, Gholam Reza

2013-01-01

167

Nuclear forensics: attributing the source of spent fuel used in an RDD event  

E-print Network

. Spent fuel is one of the most dangerous possible radiological sources for an RDD. In this work, a forensics methodology was developed and implemented to attribute spent fuel to a source reactor. The specific attributes determined are the spent fuel...

Scott, Mark Robert

2005-08-29

168

Digital Forensics Using Local Signal Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rapid growth of the Internet and the popularity of digital imaging devices, digital imagery has become our major information source. Meanwhile, the development of digital manipulation techniques employed by most image editing software brings new challenges to the credibility of photographic images as the definite records of events. We

Pan, Xunyu

2011-01-01

169

Optimization of medium composition for keratinase production on feather by Bacillus licheniformis RG1 using statistical methods involving response surface methodology.  

PubMed

A 3.5-fold increase in keratinase production by Bacillus licheniformis RG1 was achieved by using statistical methods involving Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. Eight variables were screened using Plackett-Burman design. Of these, glucose, peptone and glutathione were found to affect the response signal positively, whereas CaCl(2) had a negative effect. Further interaction of these factors, along with phosphate and incubation time, was studied using response surface methodology. An optimum keratinase production of 1295 units/mg dry weight was obtained with the following medium composition: 1% glucose, 1% peptone, 1% phosphate, 0.05% glutathione, 0.5% feather and 2% inoculum under shaking at 250 rev./min with an incubation period of 72 h at 37 degrees C. Keratinase production was found to be a function of biomass and maximum production occurred during the stationary phase. PMID:14871173

Ramnani, Priya; Gupta, Rani

2004-10-01

170

Handbook of Forensic Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious about the procedures used in documenting a crime scene and gathering evidence? Look no further than the official handbook of the FBI Laboratory, "one of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world." The full text of the handbook may be read online in HTML format, divided by chapter. Topics discussed include guidelines for conducting a crime scene search, crime scene safety, guidelines for various types of evidence, and how to pack and ship evidence, among others. Also included at the site are links to the full text of the journal, Forensic Science Communications and to the official sites of the FBI Lab and Library.

1999-01-01

171

Handbook of Forensic Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious about the procedures used in documenting a crime scene and gathering evidence? Look no further than the official handbook of the FBI Laboratory, "one of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world." The full text of the handbook may be read online in HTML format, divided by chapter. Topics discussed include guidelines for conducting a crime scene search, crime scene safety, guidelines for various types of evidence, and how to pack and ship evidence, among others. Also included at the site are links to the full text of the journal, Forensic Science Communications and to the official sites of the FBI Lab and Library.

2005-11-01

172

Forensic Science Center  

SciTech Connect

Since 1991, the Laboratory's Forensic Science Center has focused a comprehensive range of analytical expertise on issues related to non proliferation, counterterrorism, and domestic law enforcement. During this short period, LLNL's singular combination of human and technological resources has made the Center among the best of its kind in the world. The Forensic Science Center houses a variety of state-of-the-art analytical tools ranging from gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers to ultratrace DNA detection techniques. The Center's multidisciplinary staff provides expertise in organic and inorganic analytical chemistry, nuclear science, biochemistry, and genetics useful for supporting law enforcement and for verifying compliance with international treaties and agreements.

Andresen, B.; Grant, P.M.

1994-03-01

173

Developmental Integrative BiologyForensic Science A complement of specialized resources, equipment, and talent guides forensic  

E-print Network

, chemistry, biochemistry, forensic microscopy, and anthropology Advanced laboratory technologies offer high, Director of the UNT Forensic Science Program; and Professor of Chemistry: analytical chemistry; and electroanalytical chemistry Richard Ernest, Director of the Alliance Forensics Laboratory: forensic microscopy

Tarau, Paul

174

Blurriness in Live Forensics: An Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Live Forensics discipline aims at answering basic questions related to a digital crime, which usually involves a computer-based system. The investigation should be carried out with the very goal to establish which processes were running, when they were started and by whom, what specific activities those processes were doing and the state of active network connections. Besides, a set of tools needs to be launched on the running system by altering, as a consequence of the Locard抯 exchange principle [2], the system抯 memory. All the methodologies for the live forensics field proposed until now have a basic, albeit important, weakness, which is the inability to quantify the perturbation, or blurriness, of the system抯 memory of the investigated computer. This is the very last goal of this paper: to provide a set of guidelines which can be effectively used for measuring the uncertainty of the collected volatile memory on a live system being investigated.

Savoldi, Antonio; Gubian, Paolo

175

Statistical and methodological issues in the analysis of complex sample survey data: Practical guidance for trauma researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard methods for the analysis of survey data assume that the data arise from a simple random sample of the target population. In practice, analysts of survey data sets collected from nationally representative probability samples often pay little attention to important properties of the survey data. Standard statistical software procedures do not allow analysts to take these properties of survey

Brady T. West

2008-01-01

176

Statistical methodologies for tree-ring research to understand the climate-growth relationships over time and space  

EPA Science Inventory

The International Tree-Ring Database is a valuable resource for studying climate change and its effects on terrestrial ecosystems over time and space. We examine the statistical methods in current use in dendroclimatology and dendroecology to process the tree-ring data and make ...

177

Virtual Tour of a Forensic Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour of a forensic laboratory has three floors. Each floor has a number of rooms devoted to a particular forensic specialty. Each room has a slide show of forensic scientists performing their work. All rooms have a video explanation detailing the forensic specialty being visited. Some rooms also have videos of forensic scientists demonstrating analytical techniques.

2012-09-28

178

COE589: Digital Forensics Overview and Logistics  

E-print Network

颅 solve crimes 颅 dealing with weapons, blood, fingerprints, 路 Digital Forensics: Forensics in the digitalCOE589: Digital Forensics Overview and Logistics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM - Fall 2012 (T121) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Digital ForensicsForensic Science: Applying science for the purpose of law

Almulhem, Ahmad

179

COE589: Digital Forensics Overview and Logistics  

E-print Network

颅 solve crimes 颅 dealing with weapons, blood, fingerprints, 路 Digital Forensics: Forensics in the digitalCOE589: Digital Forensics Overview and Logistics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM 颅 Spring 2013 (T122) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Digital ForensicsForensic Science: Applying science for the purpose of law

Almulhem, Ahmad

180

Evaluating traditional Chinese medicine using modern clinical trial design and statistical methodology: application to a randomized controlled acupuncture trial.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in China and other Asian counties for thousands of years, is increasingly utilized in Western countries. However, due to inherent differences in how Western medicine and this ancient modality are practiced, employing the so-called Western medicine-based gold standard research methods to evaluate TCM is challenging. This paper is a discussion of the obstacles inherent in the design and statistical analysis of clinical trials of TCM. It is based on our experience in designing and conducting a randomized controlled clinical trial of acupuncture for post-operative dental pain control in which acupuncture was shown to be statistically and significantly better than placebo in lengthening the median survival time to rescue drug. We demonstrate here that PH assumptions in the common Cox model did not hold in that trial and that TCM trials warrant more thoughtful modeling and more sophisticated models of statistical analysis. TCM study design entails all the challenges encountered in trials of drugs, devices, and surgical procedures in the Western medicine. We present possible solutions to some but leave many issues unresolved. PMID:21344469

Lao, Lixing; Huang, Yi; Feng, Chiguang; Berman, Brian M; Tan, Ming T

2012-03-30

181

Changing Concepts in Forensics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses five theoretical concepts in general and two theoretical models in particular that are involved in forensics. The five concepts are: (1) causation, an inquiry into the reasons for ongoing processes or problems; (2) inherency, the division of a universe into its necessary features and its accidental features; (3) presumption, a

Zarefsky, David

182

Forensic speaker recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looking at the different points highlighted in this article, we affirm that forensic applications of speaker recognition should still be taken under a necessary need for caution. Disseminating this message remains one of the most important responsibilities of speaker recognition researchers.

Joseph P. Campbell; Wade Shen; William M. Campbell; Reva Schwartz; Jean-Fran鏾is Bonastre; Driss Matrouf

2009-01-01

183

Issues in Computer Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Computer forensics is a new and fast growing field that involves carefully collecting and examining electronic evidence that not only assesses the damage,to a computer as a result of an electronic attack, but also to recover lost information from such a system to prosecute a criminal. With the growing importance of computer security today and the seriousness of cyber

Sonia Bui

184

Beliefs About Forensic Hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beliefs people hold about hypnosis have an impact on the behavior of a witness who is hypnotized and on juries who hear these witnesses and weigh hypnotically influenced testimony. Students in Experiment 1 and registered voters from the community in Experiment 2 responded to questions about forensic hypnosis. Over 70% of the students as compared to about 50% of

Leanne Wilson; Edith Greene; Elizabeth F. Loftus

1986-01-01

185

Forensic medicine in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

In this paper, we discuss the current medico-legal practice and future plan to improve the medico-legal service of Bangladesh which is rooted in the remnants of British medical jurisprudence. It includes clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. In Bangladesh all unnatural deaths are to be reported at the nearest police station and an appointed police officer should visit the scene of crime for investigation and to arrange postmortem if required. The forensic services of the country are delivered partly by academic staffs of Government Medical Colleges and the rest by the Civil Surgeons. Sometimes, residential medical officers in the district hospitals perform the medico-legal work. Most of them have no forensic qualifications except a long exposure in the medico-legal field. Currently academic and professional postgraduate courses are available. The chemical examiner's laboratory is situated at Dhaka with the facility of quantitative tests only. The Government of Bangladesh is trying to standardize the existing system. A Workshop on medico-legal services has been organized regularly by The Medico-legal Society of Bangladesh. A DNA profiling laboratory at the Dhaka Medical College is in the process of being set up. Such progress will be a milestone in the development of the medico-legal service in Bangladesh. However, with a few exceptions, teaching and training facilities are still lacking. PMID:12935633

Islam, Muhammad Nurul; Islam, Mohammed Nasimul

2003-03-01

186

Manual of Forensic Odontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edited by C Michael Bowers and Gary L Belt. American Society of Forensic Odontology, Colorado Springs, third edition, 1996; 376 pp. soft cover; US$79.00 plus US$6.00 for handling direct from PO Box 669, Colorado Springs CO 80901-0669; ISBN 0 9650223 4 X.

Christopher Griffiths

1997-01-01

187

Advanced Text Searching of Electronic Information Related to Forensic Discovery  

E-print Network

Acceptance Page i Abstract ii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Justi cation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3 Methodology... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3.1 Sources of \\Electronic Information" . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3.2 Search Capabilities in Leading Forensic Software . . . . . . 7 1.3.3 Tests Conducted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.4 Signi cance...

Haenchen, Steven L.

2009-12-07

188

Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

1988-01-01

189

Development of Statistical Process Control Methodology for an Environmentally Compliant Surface Cleaning Process in a Bonding Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bonding labs at both MSFC and the northern Utah production plant prepare bond test specimens which simulate or witness the production of NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The current process for preparing the bonding surfaces employs 1,1,1-trichloroethane vapor degreasing, which simulates the current RSRM process. Government regulations (e.g., the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act) have mandated a production phase-out of a number of ozone depleting compounds (ODC) including 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In order to comply with these regulations, the RSRM Program is qualifying a spray-in-air (SIA) precision cleaning process using Brulin 1990, an aqueous blend of surfactants. Accordingly, surface preparation prior to bonding process simulation test specimens must reflect the new production cleaning process. The Bonding Lab Statistical Process Control (SPC) program monitors the progress of the lab and its capabilities, as well as certifies the bonding technicians, by periodically preparing D6AC steel tensile adhesion panels with EA-91 3NA epoxy adhesive using a standardized process. SPC methods are then used to ensure the process is statistically in control, thus producing reliable data for bonding studies, and identify any problems which might develop. Since the specimen cleaning process is being changed, new SPC limits must be established. This report summarizes side-by-side testing of D6AC steel tensile adhesion witness panels and tapered double cantilevered beams (TDCBs) using both the current baseline vapor degreasing process and a lab-scale spray-in-air process. A Proceco 26 inches Typhoon dishwasher cleaned both tensile adhesion witness panels and TDCBs in a process which simulates the new production process. The tests were performed six times during 1995, subsequent statistical analysis of the data established new upper control limits (UCL) and lower control limits (LCL). The data also demonstrated that the new process was equivalent to the vapor degreasing process.

Hutchens, Dale E.; Doan, Patrick A.; Boothe, Richard E.

1997-01-01

190

Forensic Analysis of Phone Call Networks  

E-print Network

In the context of preventing and fighting crime, the analysis of mobile phone traffic, among actors of a criminal network, is helpful in order to reconstruct illegal activities on the base of the relationships connecting those specific individuals. Thus, forensic analysts and investigators require new advanced tools and techniques which allow them to manage these data in a meaningful and efficient way. In this paper we present LogAnalysis, a tool we developed to provide visual data representation and filtering, statistical analysis features and the possibility of a temporal analysis of mobile phone activities. Its adoption may help in unveiling the structure of a criminal network and the roles and dynamics of communications among its components. By using LogAnalysis, forensic investigators could deeply understand hierarchies within criminal organizations, for example discovering central members that provide connections among different sub-groups, etc. Moreover, by analyzing the temporal evolution of the conta...

Catanese, Salvatore; Fiumara, Giacomo

2013-01-01

191

Controversies in pediatric forensic pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric forensic pathology is an emerging medical subspecialty that spans the area between pediatric and forensic pathology.\\u000a Advances in both of these fields have increased the sophistication of diagnoses, with overlap of disorders that might present\\u000a to either the pediatric or forensic pathologist, adding further layers of complexity. Not surprisingly, therefore, there are\\u000a important ethical and medical controversies in pediatric

Henry F. Krous; Roger W. Byard

2005-01-01

192

Biological Science Initative- Forensic Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides middle and high school teachers and students with concepts and techniques of forensic evidence analysis commonly employed in forensic laboratories. This site contains a series of laboratory exercises that can be downloaded for use in middle and high school settings. Experiments are designed to teach students basic principles and methods of forensic science and to motivate the teaching of science in the classroom. Experiments are designed to teach laboratory and data-collection techniques.

2011-06-09

193

Statistical methodology for the detection of small changes in distances by EXAFS: application to the antimalarial ruthenoquine.  

PubMed

Antimalarial compounds ruthenoquine and methylruthenoquine were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy both in solid state and in solution, in normal (aqueous or CH(2)Cl(2) solutions) and oxidative (aqueous solution with H(2)O(2), either equimolar or in large excess) conditions, to detect small changes in the coordination sphere of the ruthenium atom. Since changes in the EXAFS spectra of these compounds are quite subtle, a complete procedure was developed to assess the different sources of uncertainties in fitted structural parameters, including the use of multivariate statistic methods for simultaneous comparison of edge energy correction ?E(0) and distances, which can take into account the very strong correlation between these two parameters. Factors limiting the precision of distance determination depend on the recording mode. In transmission mode, the main source of uncertainty is the data reduction process, whereas in fluorescence mode, experimental noise is the main source of variability in the fitted parameters. However, it was shown that the effects of data reduction are systematic and almost identical for all compounds; hence, they can be ignored when comparing distances. Consequently, for both fluorescence and transmission recorded spectra, experimental noise is the limiting factor for distance comparisons, which leads to the use of statistical methods for comparing distances. Univariate methods, focusing on the distance only, are shown to be less powerful in detecting changes in distances than bivariate methods making a simultaneous comparison of ?E(0) and distances. This bivariate comparison can be done either by using the Hotelling's T(2) test or by using a graphical comparison of Monte Carlo simulation results. We have shown that using these methods allows for the detection of very subtle changes in distances. When applied to ruthenoquine compounds, it suggests that the implication of the nonbinding doublet of the aminoquine nitrogen in either protonation or methylation enhances the tilt of the two cyclopentadienyls. It also suggests that ruthenoquine and methylruthenoquine are, at least partially, oxidized in the presence of H(2)O(2), with a small decrease in the Ru-C bond length and increase in the edge energy. PMID:22607521

Curis, Emmanuel; Dubar, Faustine; Nicolis, Ioannis; B閚azeth, Simone; Biot, Christophe

2012-06-14

194

Investigating forensic nursing.  

PubMed

Forensic nurses are making a positive impact in our society today. They are reaching out to aid victims of violence by not only attending to their injuries and emotional distress, but also by identifying, collecting, and preserving vital evidence that will be needed to assist their patients to seek justice through the legal system. Misinterpretation or failure to properly obtain evidence may result in a miscarriage of justice. Helping victims obtain validation of their injustice is crucial to their healing process and may be of critical importance in the effort to avoid further victimization. Forensic nurses work with victims of child abuse, elder abuse, domestic violence, sexual assault, and persons involved with violence or imminent death. This area includes psychiatric specialists who intervene not only with victims but also with perpetrators of violent and/or sexual acts. PMID:7564065

Barton, S

1995-01-01

195

Statistical analysis of spectral data: a methodology for designing an intelligent monitoring system for the diabetic foot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection of (pre-)signs of ulceration on a diabetic foot is valuable for clinical practice. Hyperspectral imaging is a promising technique for detection and classification of such (pre-)signs. However, the number of the spectral bands should be limited to avoid overfitting, which is critical for pixel classification with hyperspectral image data. The goal was to design a detector/classifier based on spectral imaging (SI) with a small number of optical bandpass filters. The performance and stability of the design were also investigated. The selection of the bandpass filters boils down to a feature selection problem. A dataset was built, containing reflectance spectra of 227 skin spots from 64 patients, measured with a spectrometer. Each skin spot was annotated manually by clinicians as "healthy" or a specific (pre-)sign of ulceration. Statistical analysis on the data set showed the number of required filters is between 3 and 7, depending on additional constraints on the filter set. The stability analysis revealed that shot noise was the most critical factor affecting the classification performance. It indicated that this impact could be avoided in future SI systems with a camera sensor whose saturation level is higher than 106, or by postimage processing.

Liu, Chanjuan; van Netten, Jaap J.; Klein, Marvin E.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Bus, Sicco A.; van der Heijden, Ferdi

2013-12-01

196

Wildlife Ecotoxicology: Forensic Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This introductory chapter provides an overview of the book and some discussion of the emergent themes. The nature of forensic\\u000a ecotoxicology is considered, and a definition proposed. We reflect on the experiences of some authors in trying to translate\\u000a scientific evidence of toxicant effects into regulatory or non-regulatory action. We further examine the problem of bias in\\u000a data interpretation, and

John E. Elliott; Christine A. Bishop; Christy A. Morrissey

197

Introduction to Forensic Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic anthropology is the application of biological anthropology principals and knowledge of the human skeleton to medicolegal\\u000a casework. The specialized skill set brought by the anthropologist to the crime scene insures a comprehensive recognition of\\u000a human remains, proper documentation of the scene, and identification and collection of potentially associated evidence. An\\u000a understanding of decomposition patterns, taphonomic processes, and thermal alteration

Jennifer C. Love; Michelle D. Hamilton

198

Forensic Evaluation of Juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Grisso, T. (1998). Forensic evaluation of juveniles. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press. ISBN 156887037X, 9781568870373\\u000aPublisher summary: In recent years, juvenile courts and juvenile attorneys have come to rely heavily on mental health professionals for evaluations of youths in delinquency cases. Evaluation questions include the youth's competence to stand trial, competence to waive Miranda rights prior to giving a

Thomas Grisso

1998-01-01

199

Commentary: forensic psychotherapy.  

PubMed

Yakeley and Adshead present a broad view of the increasing influence of psychodynamically informed thought and practice on the British criminal justice system, adumbrating a model they call forensic psychotherapy. They explore such topics as mitigating factors, influences on recidivism, and psychotherapy with incarcerated inmates. While I am sympathetic with their overall aims, I outline some theoretical and practical difficulties in attempting to wed two very different systems of thought and the limitations that these difficulties impose. PMID:23503175

Altshul, Victor A

2013-01-01

200

RNA in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA analysis offers insight into diseases and mechanisms leading to death and could develop into a valuable tool for diagnosis of the cause of death in forensic pathology. Other possible applications include the determination of the age of wounds and injuries and of the post-mortem interval. The molecular identification of body fluids by analysis of cell-specific mRNA expression already represents

M. Bauer

2007-01-01

201

Conferences Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

Integrity http://ori.hhs.gov/education/products/plagiarism/ 1 of 2 6/16/11 12:34 PM #12;U.S. DepartmentSearch ORI Sections About ORI Assurance Conferences Forensic Tools Handling Misconduct a s t u p d a t e d o n D e c e m b e r 6 , 2 0 0 9 Legal Disclaimer / Accessibility Office of Research

Feschotte, Cedric

202

Forensic Data Carving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

File or data carving is a term used in the field of Cyber forensics. Cyber forensics is the process of acquisition, authentication, analysis and documentation of evidence extracted from and/or contained in a computer system, computer network and digital media. Extracting data (file) out of undifferentiated blocks (raw data) is called as carving. Identifying and recovering files based on analysis of file formats is known as file carving. In Cyber Forensics, carving is a helpful technique in finding hidden or deleted files from digital media. A file can be hidden in areas like lost clusters, unallocated clusters and slack space of the disk or digital media. To use this method of extraction, a file should have a standard file signature called a file header (start of the file). A search is performed to locate the file header and continued until the file footer (end of the file) is reached. The data between these two points will be extracted and analyzed to validate the file. The extraction algorithm uses different methods of carving depending on the file formats.

Povar, Digambar; Bhadran, V. K.

203

Parricide: a forensic approach.  

PubMed

Parricide is the act of murdering one's father (patricide), mother (matricide) or other close relative, but usually not children (infanticide). It is a rare event and little information is available on this topic. This study aims to increase knowledge about this phenomenon, promoting the timely detection of problematic cases and avoiding fatalities. A retrospective study based on the autopsy reports of parricide victims performed by the North Services of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal between 2003 and 2011, as well as on the judicial outcome of each case, was performed. Seven cases of parricide were found, corresponding to 1.7% of all the homicides undergoing forensic evaluated. Victims and perpetrators were typically males. The assaults occurred all at home, in the presence of witnesses, and the perpetrator remained at the scene after the crime. The main alleged reasons were untreated psychiatric illness and financial conflicts in the cases of adult parricide, and attempts to protect the mother from intimate partner violence in younger ones. The judicial outcomes ranged from acquittal for nonimputability to conviction for murder, manslaughter or involuntary manslaughter. This study was carried out on a forensic sample and it is useful to implement strategies to prevent parricide. PMID:24485411

Dantas, Soraia; Santos, Agostinho; Dias, Isabel; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalh鉫s, Teresa

2014-02-01

204

Forensic web watch 4.  

PubMed

Finding dedicated sites on the World Wide Web (WWW) touching upon issues related to the autopsy which could be of use to forensic practitioners is, as with other areas of forensic medicine and science, a time-consuming task. Unfortunately, one has to wade through lists related to 'Alien autopsy' sites and even 'Furby autopsy' sites that are generated by the most commonly used web search engines, which have been featured in earlier web reviews. Numerous sites containing large archives of autopsy photographs are available on the web. However, many of these sites represent the darker side of the WWW as they are often presented purely for titillation. Unfortunately, one can equate these sites to the modern-day version of the Victorian 'freak show'--Typically, these sites ask for your Visa card number to view their contents, and several have links to pornography sites; one even links to a Satanist site. Luckily a few of these sites do now require age confirmation codes. As many of these sites show autopsy photographs from real cases one has to ask how these were obtained and who is placing them on the WWW. This review does not list any of these sites for obvious reasons, but it does draw the reader's attention to sites touching upon issues related to autopsies which forensic practitioners may wish to visit or use. PMID:15274989

Lumb, P; Rutty, G N

2000-06-01

205

Tattoos: forensic considerations.  

PubMed

Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations. PMID:23846907

Byard, Roger W

2013-12-01

206

Group contribution methodology based on the statistical associating fluid theory for heteronuclear molecules formed from Mie segments.  

PubMed

A generalization of the recent version of the statistical associating fluid theory for variable range Mie potentials [Lafitte et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 154504 (2013)] is formulated within the framework of a group contribution approach (SAFT-? Mie). Molecules are represented as comprising distinct functional (chemical) groups based on a fused heteronuclear molecular model, where the interactions between segments are described with the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jonesium) potential of variable attractive and repulsive range. A key feature of the new theory is the accurate description of the monomeric group-group interactions by application of a high-temperature perturbation expansion up to third order. The capabilities of the SAFT-? Mie approach are exemplified by studying the thermodynamic properties of two chemical families, the n-alkanes and the n-alkyl esters, by developing parameters for the methyl, methylene, and carboxylate functional groups (CH3, CH2, and COO). The approach is shown to describe accurately the fluid-phase behavior of the compounds considered with absolute average deviations of 1.20% and 0.42% for the vapor pressure and saturated liquid density, respectively, which represents a clear improvement over other existing SAFT-based group contribution approaches. The use of Mie potentials to describe the group-group interaction is shown to allow accurate simultaneous descriptions of the fluid-phase behavior and second-order thermodynamic derivative properties of the pure fluids based on a single set of group parameters. Furthermore, the application of the perturbation expansion to third order for the description of the reference monomeric fluid improves the predictions of the theory for the fluid-phase behavior of pure components in the near-critical region. The predictive capabilities of the approach stem from its formulation within a group-contribution formalism: predictions of the fluid-phase behavior and thermodynamic derivative properties of compounds not included in the development of group parameters are demonstrated. The performance of the theory is also critically assessed with predictions of the fluid-phase behavior (vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria) and excess thermodynamic properties of a variety of binary mixtures, including polymer solutions, where very good agreement with the experimental data is seen, without the need for adjustable mixture parameters. PMID:24511922

Papaioannou, Vasileios; Lafitte, Thomas; Avenda駉, Carlos; Adjiman, Claire S; Jackson, George; M黮ler, Erich A; Galindo, Amparo

2014-02-01

207

Computational Forensics: Towards Hybrid-Intelligent Crime Investigation Katrin Franke  

E-print Network

Computational Forensics: Towards Hybrid-Intelligent Crime Investigation Katrin Franke Norwegian procedures for crime investigation, prosecution and the enforcement of law. Computer-based methods have also, mathematical, statistical and computer science methods have found extensive application in devel- oping new

208

Four Faculty Positions Applied Statistics & Computational Statistics  

E-print Network

Four Faculty Positions Applied Statistics & Computational Statistics The Department of Statistics at the Assistant Professor rank. Two positions are open in the area of Applied Statistics, with a focus on the development of statistical methodology and statistical consulting. The other two positions are open

Shepp, Larry

209

A statistical methodology to derive the scaling law for the H-mode power threshold using a large multi-machine database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a refined set of statistical techniques is developed and then applied to the problem of deriving the scaling law for the threshold power to access the H-mode of confinement in tokamaks. This statistical methodology is applied to the 2010 version of the ITPA International Global Threshold Data Base v6b(IGDBTHv6b). To increase the engineering and operative relevance of the results, only macroscopic physical quantities, measured in the vast majority of experiments, have been considered as candidate variables in the models. Different principled methods, such as agglomerative hierarchical variables clustering, without assumption about the functional form of the scaling, and nonlinear regression, are implemented to select the best subset of candidate independent variables and to improve the regression model accuracy. Two independent model selection criteria, based on the classical (Akaike information criterion) and Bayesian formalism (Bayesian information criterion), are then used to identify the most efficient scaling law from candidate models. The results derived from the full multi-machine database confirm the results of previous analysis but emphasize the importance of shaping quantities, elongation and triangularity. On the other hand, the scaling laws for the different machines and at different currents are different from each other at the level of confidence well above 95%, suggesting caution in the use of the global scaling laws for both interpretation and extrapolation purposes.

Murari, A.; Lupelli, I.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Vega, J.

2012-06-01

210

Pediatric Forensic Pathology in Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric forensic pathology is an area of medicine that has only received attention relatively recently as a subspecialization of forensic pathology dealing with cases involving children, i.e., it is the study of diseases and injuries of children with subsequent medicolegal interpretation of findings for police and the courts. Unfortunately, the mere naming of an area of medicine does not automatically

Roger W. Byard; Henry F. Krous

2004-01-01

211

NISTIR 7100 PDA Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7100 PDA Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysis RickAyers WayneJansen #12;ii NISTIR 7100 C O M P U T E R S E C U R I T Y PDA Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis Rick Ayers Wayne Jansen. Individuals can store and process personal and sensitive information independently of a desktop or notebook

212

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis  

E-print Network

1893) Forensic analysis is the process of understanding, re-forensic model to its conclusion are not yet known, but in the next section, we outline the processforensic analysts determine the appropriate trade-o?s. Conversely, a reversal of the translation process

Peisert, Sean; Bishop, Matt; Karin, Sidney; Marzullo, Keith

2007-01-01

213

Forensic anthropology in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic anthropology has been one of the fastest growing medico杔egal disciplines both in its contribution to the practical needs of the legal system and research accomplishments. New anthropological standards were developed to apply to a specific population of a region. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a large sample of anthropological forensic cases and to review pertinent literature

M Ya?ar ??can; Horacio Elbio Solla Olivera

2000-01-01

214

Measuring Heterogeneity in Forensic Databases  

E-print Network

Measuring Heterogeneity in Forensic Databases Using Hierarchical Bayes Models: Computational Method in Forensic Databases Using Hierarchical Bayes Models''. It supplies details of the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique employed. Some Key Words: DNA fingerprint, Gibbs Sampling, Markov Chain Monte Carlo. 1 #12; From

215

Forensic Practice: Pride and Prejudice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of forensic psychology and psychiatry has evolved rapidly and our research instruments and experts command growing respect among both the scientific community and lay audiences. We have, however, focused almost exclusively on assessment rather than treatment and, in doing this, have fostered the perception that most forensic clients are not amenable to treatment. The author discusses the role

Jay Adams

2003-01-01

216

Oxygen isotopic measurements by secondary ion mass spectrometry in uranium oxide microparticles: a nuclear forensic diagnostic.  

PubMed

To exploit oxygen isotopic measurement by SIMS as a diagnostic tool in nuclear forensics, the magnitude and reproducibility of 0-isotope instrumental mass discrimination for O-isotope standards in the SIMS laboratory at the Institute for Transuranium Elements has been evaluated. Tests for matrix-dependent discrimination effects on three different O-isotope standards with substantially different matrix compositions have been performed. The results were checked by an interlaboratory comparison of O-isotope discrimination with those obtained in the SIMS laboratory at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on two standards. The results from the two laboratories are in very good agreement, indicating statistically indistinguishable instrumental mass discrimination factors for 180/160 ratios on the Cameca 6f and 3f, when the analyses are performed under the experimental conditions described. The 2sigma(mean) uncertainties of these factors are in the range of 0.3-0.9%. In accordance with the tested methodology, 0-isotope compositions were measured in three particulate uranium oxide samples of nuclear forensics interest. PMID:12498207

Tamborini, G; Phinney, D; Blidstein, O; Betti, M

2002-12-01

217

An introduction to computer forensics.  

PubMed

This paper provides an introduction to the discipline of Computer Forensics. With computers being involved in an increasing number, and type, of crimes the trace data left on electronic media can play a vital part in the legal process. To ensure acceptance by the courts, accepted processes and procedures have to be adopted and demonstrated which are not dissimilar to the issues surrounding traditional forensic investigations. This paper provides a straightforward overview of the three steps involved in the examination of digital media: Acquisition of data. Investigation of evidence. Reporting and presentation of evidence. Although many of the traditional readers of Medicine, Science and the Law are those involved in the biological aspects of forensics, I believe that both disciplines can learn from each other, with electronic evidence being more readily sought and considered by the legal community and the long, tried and tested scientific methods of the forensic community being shared and adopted by the computer forensic world. PMID:16909643

Furneaux, Nick

2006-07-01

218

Modeling Computer Forensics Process from Workflow Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similar with software process, computer forensics process is also a complex process. There have been a lot of modeling technologies for planning, analyzing and documentation of computer forensics activities. Different from software process, the step order of forensics process is very important. Skipping any step or interchanging one step may lead to the illegality of the whole forensics process, so

WANG Zheng; YU Miao

219

Digital forensics research: The next 10 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today抯 Golden Age of computer forensics is quickly coming to an end. Without a clear strategy for enabling research efforts that build upon one another, forensic research will fall behind the market, tools will become increasingly obsolete, and law enforcement, military and other users of computer forensics products will be unable to rely on the results of forensic analysis. This

Simson L. Garfinkel

2010-01-01

220

Forensic Computing Xiang Li and Jennifer Seberry  

E-print Network

forensic software is also widely used during the whole process of computer forensic investigation processing. 1.2 Requirements for computer forensics Nowadays more and more criminals have been shiftingForensic Computing Xiang Li and Jennifer Seberry #3; Abstract Technology is rapidly changing

Seberry, Jennifer

221

Global Forensic Science Collaboration: Standards and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on a presentation (Lucas 2011) by the author at a session organized by the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) at the International Association of Forensic Sciences Meeting in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, on September 16, 2011. The title of the session was 揋lobal Research: The Forensic Science Edge. The 揼lobal nature of AAFS, forensic science, and

Douglas M. Lucas

2011-01-01

222

Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science.  

PubMed

This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and na飗e, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. PMID:23021588

Cole, Simon A

2013-03-01

223

Forensic Science: Middle School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This resource guide for middle school educators provides background content knowledge, lessons and activities, career information, and ideas for integrating forensics topics and concepts into existing units commonly taught in middle level science - for example, nature of science, methods of science, biology, engineering or genetics units. One section shows the alignment of resources to the National Science Education Standards.

Lefever, Mary

2009-07-01

224

Forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Before the routine use of DNA profiling, blood typing was an important forensic tool. However, blood typing was not very discriminating. For example, roughly 30% of the United States population has type A-positive blood. Therefore, if A-positive blood were found at a crime scene, it could have come from 30% of the population. DNA profiling has a much better ability for discrimination. Forensic laboratories no longer routinely determine blood type. If blood is found at a crime scene, DNA profiling is performed. From Jeffrey's discovery of DNA fingerprinting to the development of PCR of STRs to the formation of DNA databases, our knowledge of DNA and DNA profiling have expanded greatly. Also, the applications for which we use DNA profiling have increased. DNA profiling is not just used for criminal case work, but it has expanded to encompass paternity testing, disaster victim identification, monitoring bone marrow transplants, detecting fetal cells in a mother's blood, tracing human history, and a multitude of other areas. The future of DNA profiling looks expansive with the development of newer instrumentation and techniques. PMID:22693781

McDonald, Jessica; Lehman, Donald C

2012-01-01

225

Statistics and the Law The Case of the Nonchalant Nurse  

E-print Network

on the basis of 路 Statements by witnesses 路 Forensic (toxicological) evidence but statistical analysis of data 路 Statements of witnesses 路 Toxicological evidence 路 Statistical argument and concludes that 8 (attempted

Gill, Richard D.

226

NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

Nichols, T.

2011-02-07

227

Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

Gaensslen, Robert E.

2002-01-01

228

Statistical Laboratory & Department of Statistics  

E-print Network

will coordinate the teaching of the first two courses in business statistics. The undergraduate program continues and statistical methodology in the nutritional sciences. We were also very pleased to secure a permanent lecturer reviewing achievements of the past seven years and planning for the future. A written report was submitted

229

Handwriting Classification in Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers systems for the classification of handwriting features, discusses computer storage of information about handwriting features, and summarizes recent studies that give an idea of the range of forensic handwriting research. (GT)

Ansell, Michael

1979-01-01

230

UT Knoxville: Forensic Anthropology Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Consider this: A hunter finds what she believes is a human skull deep in the woods. She calls the police. Who do the police call? A forensic anthropologist, of course, who comes to the site and examines the skull to determine whether the skull is, indeed, human, whether it is male or female, and how old the person was upon death. The Forensic Anthropology Center at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville trains forensic anthropologists for just this sort of work. Start with the homepage, where you can read up on the department, started in 1987 by Dr. William M. Bass. Next, follow a quick link to What is Forensic Anthropology? for an informative overview of the field. Also of interest, are the Short Courses, News, and, for those feeling philanthropic, Body Donation sections of the site.

231

Issues in forensic voice.  

PubMed

The following article provides a general review of an area that can be referred to as Forensic Voice. Its goals will be outlined and that discussion will be followed by a description of its major elements. Considered are (1) the processing and analysis of spoken utterances, (2) distorted speech, (3) enhancement of speech intelligibility (re: surveillance and other recordings), (4) transcripts, (5) authentication of recordings, (6) speaker identification, and (7) the detection of deception, intoxication, and emotions in speech. Stress in speech and the psychological stress evaluation systems (that some individuals attempt to use as lie detectors) also will be considered. Points of entry will be suggested for individuals with the kinds of backgrounds possessed by professionals already working in the voice area. PMID:24176301

Hollien, Harry; Huntley Bahr, Ruth; Harnsberger, James D

2014-03-01

232

Forensic Analysis of Xbox Consoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsoft抯 Xbox game console can be modified to run additional operating systems, enabling it to store gigabytes of non-game\\u000a related files and run various computer services. Little has been published, however, on procedures for determining whether\\u000a or not an Xbox console has been modified, for creating a forensic duplicate, and for conducting a forensic investigation.\\u000a Given the growing popularity of

Paul Burke; Philip Craiger

2007-01-01

233

Forensic entomology: applications and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main\\u000a application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the\\u000a age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the\\u000a corpse. In

J. AmendtC; C. S. Richards; C. P. Campobasso; R. Zehner; M. J. R. Hall

234

Forensic hash for multimedia information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

2010-01-01

235

Forensic document analysis using scanning microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authentication and identification of the source of a printed document(s) can be important in forensic investigations involving a wide range of fraudulent materials, including counterfeit currency, travel and identity documents, business and personal checks, money orders, prescription labels, travelers checks, medical records, financial documents and threatening correspondence. The physical and chemical characterization of document materials - including paper, writing inks and printed media - is becoming increasingly relevant for law enforcement agencies, with the availability of a wide variety of sophisticated commercial printers and copiers which are capable of producing fraudulent documents of extremely high print quality, rendering these difficult to distinguish from genuine documents. This paper describes various applications and analytical methodologies using scanning electron miscoscopy/energy dispersive (x-ray) spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and related technologies for the characterization of fraudulent documents, and illustrates how their morphological and chemical profiles can be compared to (1) authenticate and (2) link forensic documents with a common source(s) in their production history.

Shaffer, Douglas K.

2009-05-01

236

Process Forensics: A Pilot Study on the Use of Checkpointing Technology in Computer Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to introduce a new area of computer forensics: process forensics. Process forensics involves extracting information from a process's address space for the purpose of finding digital evidence pertaining to a computer crime. The challenge of this sub-field is that the address space of a given process is usually lost long before the forensic investigator

Mark Foster; Joseph N. Wilson

2004-01-01

237

UC Davis Forensic Science Graduate Program Proposed curriculum changes to the MS Degree in Forensic Science  

E-print Network

chemistry/toxicology Microscopy and material analysis Forensic biology Pattern evidence Graduate level1 UC Davis Forensic Science Graduate Program Proposed curriculum changes to the MS Degree in Forensic Science (Graduate Council approved June 21, 2007) Background The Graduate Forensic Science M

Ullrich, Paul

238

Forensic Science International 94 (1998) 167181  

E-print Network

Forensic Science International 94 (1998) 167颅181 The application of volume deformation to three-0738(98)00066-8 #12;168 L.A. Nelson, S.D. Michael / Forensic Science International 94 (1998) 167颅181 sufficient

Frey, Pascal

239

Extending a context model for microphone forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we extend an existing context model for statistical pattern recognition based microphone forensics by: first, generating a generalized model for this process and second, using this general model to construct a complex new application scenario model for microphone forensic investigations on the detection of playback recordings (a.k.a. replays, re-recordings, double-recordings). Thereby, we build the theoretical basis for answering the question whether an audio recording was made to record a playback or natural sound. The results of our investigations on the research question of playback detection imply that it is possible with our approach on our evaluation set of six microphones. If the recorded sound is not modified prior to playback, we achieve in our tests 89.00% positive indications on the correct two microphones involved. If the sound is post-processed (here, by normalization) this figure decreases (in our normalization example to 36.00%, while another 50.67% of the tests still indicate two microphones, of which one has actually not been involved in the recording and playback recording process).

Kraetzer, Christian; Qian, Kun; Dittmann, Jana

2012-03-01

240

Online Acquisition of Digital Forensic Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing the ability to any law enforcement officer to remotely transfer an image from any suspect computer directly to a\\u000a forensic laboratory for analysis, can only help to greatly reduce the time wasted by forensic investigators in conducting\\u000a on-site collection of computer equipment. RAFT (Remote Acquisition Forensic Tool) is a system designed to facilitate forensic\\u000a investigators by remotely gathering digital

Mark Scanlon; Mohand-Tahar Kechadi

2009-01-01

241

Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating procedures and training to meet these initial challenges so as minimize disturbance of the evidence. While epidemiology and forensics are similar sciences with similar goals when applied to biocrimes, forensics has additional and more stringent requirements. Maintaining a chain of custody on evidentiary samples is one example of an extra requirement imposed on an investigation of a biocrime. Another issue is the intent in microbial forensics to identify a bioattack organism in greatest detail. If possible, forensic investigations will strive to identify the precise strain and substrain, rather than just to the species level, which might be sufficient in an epidemiological investigation. Although multiple groups have developed lists of bioterrorism target pathogens, these lists are too narrow. An expansion of microorganisms relevant to food and water threats should be considered. Computerized networks should be established to track infectious disease outbreaks in real time. These systems could alert public health and agricultural officials to the existence of a potential bioattack earlier than simply waiting for a report of a suspicious cluster of similar patients. Once a biocrime is suspected, a wide variety of methods are available to identify the microorganism used in the bioattack and to analyze features that might lead to the source of the event. A multi-pronged approach to such an investigation may be preferable, using many available methods-ranging from genomics to sequencing to physiology to analysis of substances in the sample. Microbial forensics will be most effective if there is sufficient basic scientific information concerning microbial genetics, evolution, physiology, and ecology. Strain subtyping analysis will be difficult to interpret if we do not understand some of the basic evolutionary mechanisms and population diversity of pathogens. Phenotypic features associated with evidentiary pathogens also may provide investigative leads, but full exploitation of these features can only be accomplished if we understand basic principles that control microbial physiology. Finally

Keim, Paul

2003-02-17

242

Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

243

Forensic importance of aspiration.  

PubMed

The problems of assessment of aspiration (foreign bodies, stomach contents, food material) in forensic practical work are well-known, especially if 'suffocation due to aspiration' is considered to be the cause of death (or a concurrent cause of death). In the last 4 years (1998-2001) in the Department of Legal Medicine of the Free University, Berlin, 14 deaths with massive aspirations were investigated. The lethal aspiration cases consisted of seven men and five women between 55 and 91 years old, as well as two children (boy 6 years and girl 19 months old). All but one of the victims had severe neurological alterations (dementia, apoplexia, sequelae of head injuries). In six cases the victims died during or a short time after a meal; they had been fed by the nursing staff, a family member or another caregiver. The witness statements pertaining to clinical symptoms or the course of events ranged from 'no symptoms' to intensive cyanosis, congestion and no clear reactions of distress. PMID:12935619

Bockholdt, Britta; Ehrlich, Edwin; Maxeiner, Helmut

2003-03-01

244

The development and practice of forensic podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic podiatry a small, but potentially useful specialty using clinical podiatric knowledge for the purpose of person identification. The practice of forensic podiatry began in the early 1970s in Canada and the UK, although supportive research commenced later in the 1990s. Techniques of forensic podiatry include identification from podiatry records, the human footprint, footwear, and the analysis of gait forms

Wesley Vernon

2006-01-01

245

Hashing integrity in mobile phone forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hashing is the standard method used by the forensic community to both verify the integrity of recovered evidence and to compare two files to determine if they are duplicates. Forensic software designed to analyze mobile phones also implements these methods, but there is speculation regarding how effective their implementations are. Currently, the forensic software communicates with the phone in a

Shira Dankner

2008-01-01

246

Research on the clients of network forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, as the high speed development of Internet, there are more and more information, some of them are false information. Law enforcement is difficult, but the network forensics method is not only cumbersome, but also not easily admissible in the court. This paper based on the requirement of the network electronic forensics, put forward the network electronic forensics process

Jiang Du; Shuai Gong

2011-01-01

247

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic  

E-print Network

with role of forensic services and interview processes. 路 Familiarisation with original booklet publishedProject Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic Service Whanau/family Booklet Bachelor of Arts Application Deadline: 1 February, 2012 Project Description: The Canterbury Regional Forensic Service (http

Hickman, Mark

248

Analysis for Key Technology of Computer Forensic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic evidence is a sort of new style evidence. To improve the probative value of electronic evidence, the paper analysis computer forensic process and key technology, provided the rule of computer forensic, data acquire method and the requirement of forensic device.

Jin Bo; Tao Mingming

249

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic  

E-print Network

with role of forensic services and interview processes. Familiarisation with original booklet publishedProject Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic Service Whanau/family Booklet Bachelor of Arts Application Deadline: 13 February, Noon Project Description: The Canterbury Regional Forensic Service (http

Hickman, Mark

250

Visual Network Forensic Techniques and Processes  

E-print Network

Visual Network Forensic Techniques and Processes Robert F. Erbacher, Member IEEE, Kim Christiansen. It is the forensic process that will aid identification of what occurred and how. With the explosion in numbers to the forensic process, and the process through which they will be effectively applied. Keywords

Erbacher, Robert F.

251

Computer Forensics Guidance Model with Cases Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work present brief reports on the summarization of the application of the previously published comprehensive digital forensics process model and the forensic teams responsibilities to two real world computer forensic cases. Moreover, the information flow between each step and each phase in the model is discussed and elaborated in the form of flow chart diagrams, which are then applied

Sherif Hazem Noureldin; Sherif Hashem; Salma Abdalla

2011-01-01

252

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert  

E-print Network

) Forensic analysis is the process of understanding, re-creating, and analyzing arbitrary events that haveToward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert Matt Bishop Sidney Karin Keith Marzullo Abstract The existing solutions in the field of computer forensics are largely ad hoc. This paper discusses the need

Bishop, Matt

253

NCSU Forensic Science Symposium December 6, 2011  

E-print Network

:00 Welcome 9:15 The Future of Forensic Human DNA Analysis: From Disaster Response to Crime Scene Processing4th NCSU Forensic Science Symposium December 6, 2011 Convocation Room, College of Textiles, NCSU Dr. Rhonda Roby Associate Professor Department of Forensic and Investigative Genetics University

Langerhans, Brian

254

Inter-Faculty Bachelor of Forensic Science  

E-print Network

is intended for students interested in the use of DNA and serology in forensic science. 2) The Chemistry 路 Biological Diversity 路 Cell Biology 路 Introduction to Forensic Science 路 General Chemistry I 路 General Chemistry II 路 Differential Calculus 路 Integral Calculus #12;Bachelor of Forensic Science We look forward

255

Chem 439: Forensic Chemistry Spring 2014  

E-print Network

Chem 439: Forensic Chemistry Spring 2014 Lecture Meeting 4:00-4:50 PM, Monday, Neckers 328 Laboratory Meetings 12:00-6:00 PM, Thursday, Neckers 409 Textbook Forensic Chemistry, 1st edition, Suzanne Bell (Prentice Hall, 2006) or Forensic Chemistry, 2nd edition, Suzanne Bell (Prentice Hall, 2012

Nickrent, Daniel L.

256

Inter-Faculty Bachelor of Forensic Science  

E-print Network

is intended for students interested in the use of DNA and serology in forensic science. 2) The Chemistry 锟 Biological Diversity 锟 Cell Biology 锟 Introduction to Forensic Science 锟 General Chemistry I 锟 General Chemistry II 锟 Differential Calculus 锟 Integral Calculus #12;Bachelor of Forensic Science We look forward

257

Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

1985-01-01

258

The Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit  

E-print Network

The Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit Head: Prof. Dr. M. Osterheider 3rd Summer Conference Research in Forensic Psychiatry Regensburg, Germany May 31 - June 2, 2007 #12;3 3rdSummerConference Dear in Forensic Psychiatry. With renowned keynote speakers from Germany and the USA and with several highly

Schubart, Christoph

259

Summer Conference: Research in Forensic Psychiatry  

E-print Network

1st Summer Conference: Research in Forensic Psychiatry The University of Regensburg Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit Head: Prof. Dr. med. Michael Osterheider Universit盲tsstrasse 84 D-93053 Conference: Research in Forensic Psychiatry in Regensburg. The conference schedule comprises nearly fifty

Schubart, Christoph

260

Using environmental forensic microscopy in exposure science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental forensic microscopy investigations are based on the methods and procedures developed in the fields of criminal forensics, industrial hygiene and environmental monitoring. Using a variety of microscopes and techniques, the environmental forensic scientist attempts to reconstruct the sources and the extent of exposure based on the physical evidence left behind after particles are exchanged between an individual and the

James R Millette; Richard S Brown; Whitney B Hill

2008-01-01

261

6 Forensic Security and the Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction to forensic security Historical overview of forensic sciences In ancient Rome, a forum was a public place where important governmental debates were held. Sometimes it was a town square or even a marketplace. Gradually, the forum also became a sort of public 'courthouse,' where various trials of importance to the citizenry were held. Etymologically, the word forensic may be

Daniel B. Kennedy

262

The Tiled Bitmap Forensic Analysis Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tampering of a database can be detected through the use of cryptographically-strong hash func- tions. Subsequently-applied forensic analysis algorithms can help determine when, what, and perhaps ultimately who and why. This paper presents a novel forensic analysis algorithm, the Tiled Bitmap Algorithm, which is more efficient than prior forensic analysis algorithms. It introduces the notion of a candidate set (all

Kyriacos E. Pavlou; Richard T. Snodgrass

2010-01-01

263

STRBase and Information Resources on Forensic DNA  

E-print Network

Applied Genetics STRBase and Information Resources on Forensic DNA John M. Butler NIST Fellow & Applied Genetics Group Leader Forensics@NIST 2012 Meeting Gaithersburg, MD November 28, 2012 #12;Applied of the technique 路 DNA is often referred to as the "gold standard" in forensic science because of the scientific

Perkins, Richard A.

264

Zoology 4053, Sec. 050 Forensic Entomology  

E-print Network

Zoology 4053, Sec. 050 Forensic Entomology University of Oklahoma Biological Station May 2012 TA: TBA email: TBA Course Description Forensic Entomology is the application of entomological will explore the use of insects in the science of Forensic Entomology and its impact on death scene

Oklahoma, University of

265

Computer Forensics Tool National Institute of Standards  

E-print Network

Computer Forensics Tool Testing Jim Lyle National Institute of Standards and Technology #12;November 30, 2012 Forensics@NIST 2012 2 Disclaimer Certain trade names and company products are mentioned the best available for the purpose. #12;November 30, 2012 Forensics@NIST 2012 4 Overview Mostly high level

Perkins, Richard A.

266

Women in Intercollegiate Forensics: Experiencing Otherness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intercollegiate forensics community appears less receptive to women than it is to men. Women report a variety of positive and negative gender-based experiences in intercollegiate forensics. Positive experiences tend to include women into the intercollegiate forensics community or to allow women to include others in the community. Negative

Greenstreet, Robert W.

267

The history of forensic odontology in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major role of forensic odontology is to identify an unknown body by means of dental evidence. This method provides a positive identification. The importance of forensic odontology was especially recognized through the identification of the victims of the JAL crash in 1985. With this as a start, police dental surgeon system and Japanese Society of Forensic Odontology were founded

Kazuo Suzuki

1996-01-01

268

Common statistical tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent survey by BeGole of four major orthodontic journals revealed that76% of the original and scientific articles published in 1997 incorporated statistical procedures in their methodologies. To evaluate the information presented in these scientific articles, the clinician needs to have an understanding of the statistical techniques used in them. Although a number of the statistical methodologies were complex, requiring

Rose D. Sheats; V. Shane Pankratz

2002-01-01

269

Neurobiological Correlates in Forensic Assessment: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background With the increased knowledge of biological risk factors, interest in including this information in forensic assessments is growing. Currently, forensic assessments are predominantly focused on psychosocial factors. A better understanding of the neurobiology of violent criminal behaviour and biological risk factors could improve forensic assessments. Objective To provide an overview of the current evidence about biological risk factors that predispose people to antisocial and violent behaviour, and determine its usefulness in forensic assessment. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using articles from PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed published between 2000 and 2013. Results This review shows that much research on the relationship between genetic predisposition and neurobiological alterations with aggression is performed on psychiatric patients or normal populations. However, the number of studies comparing offenders is limited. There is still a great need to understand how genetic and neurobiological alterations and/or deficits are related to violent behaviour, specifically criminality. Most studies focus on only one of the genetic or neurobiological fields related to antisocial and/or violent behaviour. To reliably correlate the findings of these fields, a standardization of methodology is urgently needed. Conclusion Findings from the current review suggest that violent aggression, like all forms of human behaviour, both develops under specific genetic and environmental conditions, and requires interplay between these conditions. Violence should be considered as the end product of a chain of life events, during which risks accumulate and potentially reinforce each other, displaying or triggering a specific situation. This systematic review did not find evidence of predispositions or neurobiological alterations that solely explain antisocial or violent behaviour. With better designed studies, more correlation between diverse fields, and more standardisation, it might be possible to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Thus, we advocate maintaining the current case-by-case differentiated approach to evidence-based forensic assessment. PMID:25330208

van der Gronde, Toon; Kempes, Maaike; van El, Carla; Rinne, Thomas; Pieters, Toine

2014-01-01

270

Dynamic Electronic Forensics Based on Plug-in  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Considering the characteristics of judicial forensics as well as diversity types of network forensics, this paper proposed\\u000a a forensic framework based on XML and plug-in technology. The framework maintains scalability of forensic analysis and ensures\\u000a the stability of forensic process simultaneity. Specified host forensics and hacker intrusion forensics were implemented to\\u000a proof the validity of the framework.

Yong Li; Wenqi Wang

271

High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

2012-10-01

272

The Clinician and Forensic Medicine  

PubMed Central

Although it is an intrinsic part of all medical practice forensic medicine often is either unrecognized as such or is consciously or subconsciously evaded. The failure to apply some rather basic and simple forensic principles that only the physician is capable of doing may result in problems to the patient ranging from frustration to near catastrophe. For physicians who are reasonably well equipped to understand the legal system, the successful conclusion of a legal case, including, sometimes, an appearance in court, can be stimulating and interesting. PMID:4733272

Root, Irving; Scott, Wayne

1973-01-01

273

Forensic odontology in the disaster victim identification process.  

PubMed

Disaster victim identification (DVI) is an intensive and demanding task involving specialists from various disciplines. The forensic dentist is one of the key persons who plays an important role in the DVI human identification process. In recent years, many disaster incidents have occurred that challenged the DVI team with various kinds of difficulties related to disaster management and unique situations in each disaster. New technologies have been developed to make the working process faster and more effective and the different DVI protocols have been evaluated and improved. The aim of this article is to collate all information regarding diagnostic tools and methodologies pertaining to forensic odontological DVI, both current and future. It can be concluded that lessons learned from previous disaster incidents have helped to optimize working protocols and to develop new tools that can be applied in future DVI operation. The working procedures have been greatly improved by newly developed technologies. PMID:23000806

Pittayapat, P; Jacobs, R; De Valck, E; Vandermeulen, D; Willems, G

2012-07-01

274

Potential Applications of Scanning Probe Microscopy in Forensic Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forensic community utilises a myriad of techniques to investigate a wide range of materials, from paint flakes to DNA. The various microscopic techniques have provided some of the greatest contributions, e.g., FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared) microspectroscopy utilised in copy toner discrimination, multi-layer automobile paint fragment examination, etc, SEM-EDA (scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis) used to investigate glass fragments, fibers, and explosives, and SEM in microsampling for elemental analysis, just to name a few. This study demonstrates the ability of the Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) to analyse human fingerprints on surfaces utilising a step-and-scan feature, enabling analysis of a larger field-of-view. We also extend a line crossings study by incorporating height analysis and surface roughness measurements. The study demonstrates the potential for SPM techniques to be utilised for forensic analysis which could complement the more traditional methodologies used in such investigations.

Watson, G. S.; Watson, J. A.

2007-04-01

275

Forensic seismology revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests梩hat is in forensic seismology梙ave been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: 1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves梩he most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions梬ere in contrast simple, comprising one or two cycles of large amplitude followed by a low-amplitude coda. Earthquake signals on the other hand were often complex with numerous arrivals of similar amplitude spread over 35 s or more. It therefore appeared that earthquakes could be recognised on complexity. Later however, complex explosion signals were observed which reduced the apparent effectiveness of complexity as a criterion for identifying earthquakes. Nevertheless, the AWE Group concluded that for many paths to teleseismic distances, Earth is transparent for P signals and this provides a window through which source differences will be most clearly seen. Much of the research by the Group has focused on understanding the influence of source type on P seismograms recorded at teleseismic distances. Consequently the paper concentrates on teleseismic methods of distinguishing between explosions and earthquakes. One of the most robust criteria for discriminating between earthquakes and explosions is the m b : M s criterion which compares the amplitudes of the SP P waves as measured by the body-wave magnitude m b, and the long-period (LP: 0.05 Hz) Rayleigh-wave amplitude as measured by the surface-wave magnitude M s; the P and Rayleigh waves being the main wave types used in forensic seismology. For a given M s, the m b for explosions is larger than for most earthquakes. The criterion is difficult to apply however, at low magnitude (say m b < 4.5) and there are exceptions梕arthquakes that look like explosions. A difficulty with identification criteria developed in the early days of forensic seismology was that they were in the main empirical梚t was not known why they appeared to work and if there were test sites or earthquakes where they would fail. Consequently the AWE Group in cooperation with the University of Cambridge used seismogram modelling to try and understand what controls complexity of SP P seismograms, and to put the m b : M s criterion on a theoretical basis. The results of this work show that the m b : M s criterion is robust because several factors con

Douglas, A.

2007-01-01

276

ISFG: recommendations regarding the use of non-human (animal) DNA in forensic genetic investigations.  

PubMed

The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only. PMID:21106449

Linacre, A; Gusm鉶, L; Hecht, W; Hellmann, A P; Mayr, W R; Parson, W; Prinz, M; Schneider, P M; Morling, N

2011-11-01

277

Development, Delivery and Dynamics of a Digital Forensics Subject  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital forensics is a newly developed subject offered at Charles Sturt University (CSU). This subject serves as one of the core subjects for Master of Information Systems Security (Digital Forensics stream) course. The subject covers the legislative, regulatory, and technical aspects of digital forensics. The modules provide students detailed knowledge on digital forensics legislations, digital crime, forensics processes and procedures,

Tanveer A. Zia

2010-01-01

278

Assessing vaccine efficacy for the prevention of acute otitis media by pneumococcal vaccination in children: A methodological overview of statistical practice in randomized controlled clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common bacterial infectious disease among children. Vaccination is proposed to prevent otitis and several clinical trials were performed to assess the efficacy of pneumococcal vaccines. The way vaccine efficacy is analysed varies among trials. However, the clinical meaning of an estimate of vaccine effect and its statistical test depends on the applied statistical

Antje Jahn-Eimermacher; Jean-Baptist du Prel; Heinz-Josef Schmitt

2007-01-01

279

"Android Forensics: Simplifying Cell Phone  

E-print Network

"Android Forensics: Simplifying Cell Phone Examinations" Jeff Lessard, Gary Kessler 2010 Presented, to be exact. It's taken 16 years to pass 1 billion. Smart phone users #12;5 Smart phone users #12;6 Android.com, there were 300 million Android devices in use as of February 28, 2012 #12;7 路 an open-sourced operating

Almulhem, Ahmad

280

The Registry of Forensic Pathology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of the Registry of Forensic Pathology since its origin in 1958 is discussed, and an analysis of various factors involved in nearly 900 cases is given. Information concerning the contribution of cases as well as the selection, diagnostic co...

C. J. Stahl

1968-01-01

281

Forensics for Korean cell phone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell phone forensics to acquire and analyze data in the cellular phone is nowadays being used in a national investigation organization and a private company. In order to collect cellular phone flash memory data, we have two methods. First method is a logical approach which acquires files and directories from the file system of the cell phone flash memory. Secondly,

Keonwoo Kim; Dowon Hong; Kyoil Chung

2008-01-01

282

Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be

Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

2014-01-01

283

The ADSL Router Forensics Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2010 the number of threats targeting ADSL routers is continually increasing. New and emergent threats have been developed to bypass authentication processes and obtain admin privileges directly to the device. As a result many malicious attempts are being made to alter the configuration data and make the device subsequently vulnerable. This paper discusses the non-invasive digital forensics approach into

Patryk Szewczyk

2010-01-01

284

Forensic applications of signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights some problems encountered by forensic signal processing experts in the area of speech and video processing. We have demonstrated that there is a need for speech, video, and other signal processing experts within the IEEE community to work together to provide standardized guidelines to court systems around the world to assist them in dealing with this complex

J. Tibbitts; Yibin Lu

2009-01-01

285

Non-Forensic Odontological Biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

While techniques such as biometric face recognition observe facial landmarks and local texture for identification and verification, temporal variability and long term impact of aging reduce recognition accuracy considerably. Facial bone and moreover dental structures, are, however, both exposed directly and much less variable and are routinely used in forensic applications. We propose to use novel optical and ultrasound signal

Stephen D. Wolthusen; Christoph Busch

2009-01-01

286

Master's Degree in Digital Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law enforcement agents at the local, state, and Federal levels have informed us of backlogs of computer-related crime cases ranging from 18 months to three years. The primary cause of these backlogs is the lack of educated and trained personnel to serve as digital forensics examiners. In response to this need, the University of Central Florida has created a Masters

Philip Craiger; Lucille Ponte; Carrie Morgan Whitcomb; Mark Pollitt; Ronald Eaglin

2007-01-01

287

Forensic entomology and climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology establishes the postmortem interval (PMI) by studying cadaveric fauna. The PMI today is still largely based on tables of insect succession on human cadavers compiled in the late 19th- or mid-20th centuries. In the last few years, however, the gradual warming of the climate has been changing faunal communities by favouring the presence of thermophilous species. To demonstrate

Margherita Turchetto; Stefano Vanin

2004-01-01

288

Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a

Keim

2003-01-01

289

International forensic automotive paint database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current,

Gregory A. Bishea; Joe L. Buckle; Scott G. Ryland

1999-01-01

290

Forensic analysis of database tampering  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Mechanisms now exist that detect tampering of a database, through the use of cryptographically-strong hash functions. This paper addresses the next problem, that of determin- ing who, when, and what, by providing a systematic means of performing forensic analysis after such tampering,has been uncovered. We introduce a schematic representation termed a 揷orruption diagram that aids in intrusion in- vestigation.

Kyriacos E. Pavlou; Richard T. Snodgrass

2008-01-01

291

Forensic analysis of database tampering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms now exist that detect tampering of a database, through the use of cryptographically-strong hash functions. This paper addresses the next problem, that of determin- ing who, when, and what, by providing a systematic means of performing forensic analysis after such tampering has been uncovered. We introduce a schematic representation termed a \\

Kyriacos Pavlou; Richard T. Snodgrass

2006-01-01

292

LEGAL CHALLENGES FACING FORENSIC AUDITING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic or security auditing is not simply related to the detection of fraud and corruption within an organisation. While the control of internal threats still plays a fundamental role in any auditing policy, external threats exist that can jeopardise the integrity of computer systems and information within an organisation. Internal threats can include employee fraud, mismanagement and corruption, while external

Adrian C. van Wyk

293

A Skeleton Tells Its Own Story: Forensic Analyses of Skeletal Elements for the Science Classroom Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The techniques of forensic anthropology and pathology can provide new information to increase student interest in studying the structural details of the human skeleton. We present a simplified methodology for assessing skeletal ethnicity, sex, age, and stature. An inexpensive method has been devised for constructing an osteometric board to allow

Naples, Virginia L.; Breed, David; Miller, Jon S.

2010-01-01

294

Further validation of a multiplex STR system for use in routine forensic identity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymerase chain reaction- (PCR) based short tandem repeat (STR) system has recently been developed for use in routine forensic identity testing [1]. The methodology involves the simultaneous amplification of alleles at four loci on different chromosomes, followed by the fluorescent detection of products using an automated DNA sequencer. The adoption of this technology into operational casework offers several advantages

Julia F. Andersen; M. J. Greenhalgh; H. R. Butler; S. R. Kilpatrick; R. C. Piercy; H. S. Myhill; J. C. Wright; R. Hallett; B. H. Parkin

1996-01-01

295

On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community.  

PubMed

In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today. PMID:24630329

van Asten, Arian C

2014-03-01

296

Microanalytical Methods for Bio-Forensics Investigations  

SciTech Connect

Forensics investigations of bio-crime or bio-terrorism incidents require careful analysis of collected evidentiary material. Although the biological markers in the evidentiary material are important (e.g. genomic signatures, protein markers), the elemental make-up of the organisms themselves and the surrounding non-biological material is extremely useful for attributing a specific process and, perhaps, specific persons to the production of the biological agent. This talk will describe the coordinated use of microanalytical techniques such as SEM-EDX, STEM-EDX, and NanoSIMS for generating compositional signatures for bio-forensics investigations. These analytical techniques span length scales from the 50 {micro}m range to the 5nm range. The range of analytical sensitivities spans from {approx}.5wt% for EDX down to parts per billion for SIMS techniques. In addition, we will discuss the use of spectrum imaging techniques for rapidly extracting the key elemental signatures from large scale data sets. Spectrum imaging techniques combined with multivariate statistical analysis allow for the collection and interrogation or enormous quantities of data without pre-biasing the answer.[1] Spectrum imaging has been used successfully in EDX microanalysis[1] (both in the SEM and TEM) and TOF-SIMS[2]. In this study, a set of test biological agents, ?-irradiated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were examined using the aforementioned microanalytical techniques. The sample set included a number of processing conditions to gauge the ability of these techniques to identify the production methods of these simulated agents. Complementary but distinct forensic signatures were obtained by all three analytical techniques. Figure 1 shows two types of silicate particles observed among the spore material itself. At this length scale, the spores themselves cannot be resolved, but the presence of these silicates is key marker for distinguishing this production route. A STEM-EDX spectrum image from the same material does not show these large silicates but instead shows the segregation of elements such as sulfur and silicon to the extra-cellular material between spores, again a result of the specific process used to produce this simulated agent (Figure 2). NanoSIMS data from the same material also shows the segregation of Si in this preparation. The NanoSIMS data also displays and quantifies the distribution of elements such as fluorine at levels which were not detectable in the STEM-EDX measurements (Figure 3).

Brewer, L N; Weber, P K; Grant, R P; Ghosal, S; Michael, J R

2006-02-10

297

Identification using face regions: application and assessment in forensic scenarios.  

PubMed

This paper reports an exhaustive analysis of the discriminative power of the different regions of the human face on various forensic scenarios. In practice, when forensic examiners compare two face images, they focus their attention not only on the overall similarity of the two faces. They carry out an exhaustive morphological comparison region by region (e.g., nose, mouth, eyebrows, etc.). In this scenario it is very important to know based on scientific methods to what extent each facial region can help in identifying a person. This knowledge obtained using quantitative and statical methods on given populations can then be used by the examiner to support or tune his observations. In order to generate such scientific knowledge useful for the expert, several methodologies are compared, such as manual and automatic facial landmarks extraction, different facial regions extractors, and various distances between the subject and the acquisition camera. Also, three scenarios of interest for forensics are considered comparing mugshot and Closed-Circuit TeleVision (CCTV) face images using MORPH and SCface databases. One of the findings is that depending of the acquisition distances, the discriminative power of the facial regions change, having in some cases better performance than the full face. PMID:24314504

Tome, Pedro; Fierrez, Julian; Vera-Rodriguez, Ruben; Ramos, Daniel

2013-12-10

298

Detecting content adaptive scaling of images for forensic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Content-aware resizing methods have recently been developed, among which, seam-carving has achieved the most widespread use. Seam-carving's versatility enables deliberate object removal and benign image resizing, in which perceptually important content is preserved. Both types of modifications compromise the utility and validity of the modified images as evidence in legal and journalistic applications. It is therefore desirable that image forensic techniques detect the presence of seam-carving. In this paper we address detection of seam-carving for forensic purposes. As in other forensic applications, we pose the problem of seam-carving detection as the problem of classifying a test image in either of two classes: a) seam-carved or b) non-seam-carved. We adopt a pattern recognition approach in which a set of features is extracted from the test image and then a Support Vector Machine based classifier, trained over a set of images, is utilized to estimate which of the two classes the test image lies in. Based on our study of the seam-carving algorithm, we propose a set of intuitively motivated features for the detection of seam-carving. Our methodology for detection of seam-carving is then evaluated over a test database of images. We demonstrate that the proposed method provides the capability for detecting seam-carving with high accuracy. For images which have been reduced 30% by benign seam-carving, our method provides a classification accuracy of 91%.

Fillion, Claude; Sharma, Gaurav

2010-01-01

299

Spring Break Course in Florida! Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic sci-  

E-print Network

Spring Break Course in Florida! Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic sci- ence utilizing the science of forensic en- tomology through daily laboratory and field ac- tivities. We also interact: pathology, an- thropology, botany, toxicology, and wildlife/ veterinary science. This program takes place on

300

The contribution of forensic science to crime analysis and investigation: Forensic intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate in forensic science concentrates on issues such as standardisation, accreditation and de-contextualisation, in a legal and economical context, in order to ensure the scientific objectivity and efficiency that must guide the process of collecting, analysing, interpreting and reporting forensic evidence. At the same time, it is recognised that forensic case data is still poorly integrated into the investigation

Olivier Ribaux; Simon J. Walsh; Pierre Margot

2006-01-01

301

The Forensic Widow: Reflections on Living with and Assisting a Forensic Director.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of unique challenges face the spouse of a forensic educator, including the possibility of becoming a forensic widow/widower. The job of a forensics coach is all-encompassing and requires endless hours of dedication, drive, and driving. Trying to keep up on all of the required duties is very time consuming and leaves little time for

Jensen, Gina

302

A Control Framework for Digital Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper introduces a control framework for digital forensics. It proposes a taxonomy for control objectives, categorized\\u000a within the phases of the digital forensic process: planning and preparation, incident response, investigation and juridical\\/evidentiary.\\u000a Using the taxonomy as a basis, a digital forensic reference framework, consisting of control groupings, control objectives\\u000a and detailed control objectives, is defined. The control framework is

Sebastiaan H. Von Solms; Cecil Louwrens; Colette Reekie; Talania Grobler

2006-01-01

303

Client-side Skype forensics: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. In the present study, a client-side Skype forensics is performed. It is designed to explain which kind of user data are stored on a computer and which tools allow the extraction of those data for a forensic investigation. There are described both methods - a manual analysis and an analysis with (mainly) open source tools, respectively.

Mei遪er, Tina; Kr鰃er, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2013-03-01

304

The Utility of Coleoptera in Forensic Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic entomology is a developing field of forensic science, so there are many avenues to investigate. These avenues include\\u000a novel directions that have never been addressed, as well as more critical and rigorous research into areas which have already\\u000a been explored. Most research in forensic entomology has focused on flies, and beetles (Coleoptera) have been at best under-emphasized.\\u000a A good

John M. Midgley; Cameron S. Richards; Martin H. Villet

305

American Board of Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Robert Hall of the University of Missouri-Columbia has taken a rather unsavory subfield of entomology and compiled an interesting and comprehensive collection of information. From this site we learn that forensic entomology is the science of using insect evidence to reveal circumstances of interest to the law, often related to a crime. Such key information as time of death, whether a body was moved, and the conditions under which a body was kept can be revealed by examination of the organisms found on a corpse and their stage of development. Scientists and criminal investigators have utilized such information for well over one hundred years, but the field has only recently gained widespread use. Sections cover history, case studies, the profession, and a list of members of the American Board of Forensic Entomology.

Hall, Robert D.

306

Neurobehavioral assessment in forensic practice  

PubMed Central

There is a growing awareness among mental health practitioners that many mental disorders previously believed to be primarily behavioral in nature, reflecting character and environment, are actually grounded in brain mal-development or brain disorder. This growing awareness, influenced by the advent of new diagnostic procedures and measures, is also found among forensic practitioners. In this paper, we describe some of the elements involved in conducting a neurobehavioral assessment of cognitive functioning, particularly in capital cases, organizing this material in terms of the professional disciplines social work, mitigation investigation, psychological, and medical with which these methods are mainly identified. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of how to integrate the multiple areas of expertise to create an accurate understanding of the neurobehavioral functioning and capacity of the subject. This is the basis from which civil and criminal forensic opinions must emanate. PMID:23059206

Woods, George W.; Freedman, David; Greenspan, Stephen

2013-01-01

307

The forensic aspects of sexual violence.  

PubMed

Complainants of sexual assault may disclose to different agencies, the police and health professionals being the most likely. It is possible for certain evidence types to be collected before a clinical forensic assessment takes place that do not require the need for a Forensic Medical Practitioner. If the time frames after the incident and the nature of assault warrant the need for a forensic medical examination of either a complainant or a suspect, this should only be conducted by doctors and nurses who have received relevant, up-to-date specialist theoretical and practical training. Clear evidence shows that few other criminal offences require as extensive an examination and collection of forensic evidence as that of a sexual assault. The forensic evidence in a case may identify an assailant, eliminate a nominated suspect(s), and assist in the prosecution of a case. The elements of forensic medical examination, reviewed in this chapter, are those that are the most varied across jurisdictions around the world currently. Key focus points of this chapter are considerations for early evidence collection, utilising dedicated medical examination facilities for sample collection, contamination issues associated with evidence collection and certain practical aspects of forensic sampling methods which have evolved given results identified by Forensic Scientists processing evidential samples in sexual assault cases, Some of the problems encountered by the forensic science provider will also be discussed. PMID:23062592

Newton, Mary

2013-02-01

308

DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future  

PubMed Central

DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting. PMID:24245688

2013-01-01

309

STATISTICAL METHODS STATISTICAL METHODS  

E-print Network

STATISTICAL METHODS 1 STATISTICAL METHODS Arnaud Delorme, Swartz Center for Computational@salk.edu. Keywords: statistical methods, inference, models, clinical, software, bootstrap, resampling, PCA, ICA Abstract: Statistics represents that body of methods by which characteristics of a population are inferred

Delorme, Arnaud

310

Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

311

A Virtual Digital Forensics Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the concept of a virtual digital forensic laboratory, which incorporates networked examination and storage\\u000a machines, secure communications, multi-factor authentication, role-based access control, and case management and digital asset\\u000a management systems. Laboratory activities such as the examination, storage and presentation of digital evidence can be geographically\\u000a distributed and accessed over a network by users with the appropriate credentials.

Philip Craiger; Paul Burke; Christopher Marberry; Mark Pollitt

2008-01-01

312

Child neglect and forensic entomology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Close co-operation between forensic scientists, medico-legal doctors, and police forces made it possible to estimate not only the post-mortem interval but also the time since a child was neglected. On the skin surface under the diaper (anal-genital area), third instar larvae of the false stable fly Muscina stabulans FALL蒒, and the lesser house fly Fannia canicularis L. were found. F.

Mark Benecke; R黡iger Lessig

2001-01-01

313

Audit Log for Forensic Photography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

314

Forensic DNA profiling and database.  

PubMed

The incredible power of DNA technology as an identification tool had brought a tremendous change in crimnal justice . DNA data base is an information resource for the forensic DNA typing community with details on commonly used short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers. This article discusses the essential steps in compilation of COmbined DNA Index System (CODIS) on validated polymerase chain amplified STRs and their use in crime detection. PMID:23386793

Panneerchelvam, S; Norazmi, M N

2003-07-01

315

Forensic DNA Profiling and Database  

PubMed Central

The incredible power of DNA technology as an identification tool had brought a tremendous change in crimnal justice . DNA data base is an information resource for the forensic DNA typing community with details on commonly used short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers. This article discusses the essential steps in compilation of COmbined DNA Index System (CODIS) on validated polymerase chain amplified STRs and their use in crime detection. PMID:23386793

Panneerchelvam, S.; Norazmi, M.N.

2003-01-01

316

Body fluid identification in forensics.  

PubMed

Determination of the type and origin of the body fluids found at a crime scene can give important insights into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numerous types of body fluid identification methods have been developed, such as chemical tests, immunological tests, protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods and microscopy. However, these conventional body fluid identification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carried out for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of a molecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling or DNA methylation detection has been recently proposed to supplant conventional body fluid identification methods. Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) which are specific to forensically relevant body fluids have been identified, and their specificities and sensitivities have been tested using various samples. In this review, we provide an overview of the present knowledge and the most recent developments in forensic body fluid identification and discuss its possible practical application to forensic casework. PMID:23101507

An, Ja Hyun; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

2012-10-01

317

A Research Methodology for Future Summative Evaluation Studies: Incorporating the Component of Multiple Sets of Matched Samples into the Statistical Control Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summative evaluations have often been undertaken to determine the impact of educational programs on student academic achievement employing a quasi-experimental design. The summative finding is expected to be less misleading if a statistical model is performed on a dataset including a sound matched sample as a control group. This is because an

Li, Yuan H.; Modarresi, Shahpar; Yang, Yu N.

2006-01-01

318

A Simple Cost-Effective Framework for iPhone Forensic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apple iPhone has made significant impact on the society both as a handheld computing device and as a cellular phone. Due to the unique hardware system as well as storage structure, iPhone has already attracted the forensic community in digital investigation of the device. Currently available commercial products and methodologies for iPhone forensics are somewhat expensive, complex and often require additional hardware for analysis. Some products are not robust and often fail to extract optimal evidence without modifying the iPhone firmware which makes the analysis questionable in legal platforms. In this paper, we present a simple and inexpensive framework (iFF) for iPhone forensic analysis. Through experimental results using real device, we have shown the effectiveness of this framework in extracting digital evidence from an iPhone.

Husain, Mohammad Iftekhar; Baggili, Ibrahim; Sridhar, Ramalingam

319

Research issues in forensic pathology: a survey of academic institutions employing forensic pathologists.  

PubMed

In an effort to characterize research efforts in forensic pathology, a questionnaire was sent to a representative of each of the 14 academic medical centers that employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Responses were received from all 14 (100%) of the institutions queried, representing a total of 39 forensic pathology faculty positions; 21 positions were tenure track and 18 positions were clinical or other tracks. Of the 39 positions, 25 positions (64%) at 10 institutions required some degree of research or scholarly output. Of the 25 forensic pathologists with a research imperative, only 3 (12%) were principal investigators or co-investigators on funded forensic pathology-based projects. The major limitation cited by respondents on the performance of forensic pathology research was the lack of protected time from service responsibilities. Fellowship training in forensic pathology was available at 6 of the 14 respondent institutions. Of these institutions, 4 (67%) had a research requirement for trainees, and 4 (67%) provided research training. In conclusion, very few US medical schools currently employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Of these, only a small number of institutions prioritize research by these faculty members. Scant federal funds are available to support research in forensic pathology. Few forensic pathology fellowship programs provide research training. To achieve a robust research agenda in forensic pathology that is sufficient to support the needs of the criminal justice and public health systems will require a paradigm shift in the medicolegal death investigative system and investment by federal agencies. PMID:15138925

Nolte, Kurt B

2004-05-01

320

Forensic experience of Saudi nurses; an emerging need for forensic qualifications.  

PubMed

Forensic nursing was recognized as a nursing subspecialty after the perceived need for forensic nurses to bring about their nursing duties while at the same time helping legal authorities to deliver justice. With the increased rate of cases that are presenting to the forensic centers in Saudi Arabia, there was a need for the presence of nurses to work side by side to physicians. This study was aimed at determining the forensic qualifications of nurses working in emergency departments in the area of Dammam and their knowledge about principles of forensic nursing. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to registered nurses who are working in Emergency departments of secondary hospitals in the area of Dammam. Questions included knowledge, awareness and attitude toward forensic nursing. A total of 96 participants responded to the questionnaire with females representing 78% (n: 75). Diploma was the highest earned nursing degree in 95% (n: 91) of participants. Only 33% (n: 32) were aware of the term forensic nursing and the majority of the respondents gave invalid or didn't know the answers to knowledge questions. A total of 77% (n: 74) agreed that they are not adequately trained for handling forensic cases. Saudi nurses need forensic education. The presence of qualified forensic nurses would help delivering optimal forensic services and would assist in bringing justice. PMID:25287793

Alsaif, Dalia M; Alfaraidy, Maram; Alsowayigh, Kholoud; Alhusain, Awal; Almadani, Osama M

2014-10-01

321

Practical relevance of pattern uniqueness in forensic science.  

PubMed

Uniqueness being unprovable, it has recently been argued that individualization in forensic science is irrelevant and, probability, as applied for DNA profiles, should be applied for all identifications. Critiques against uniqueness have omitted physical matching, a realistic and tangible individualization that supports uniqueness. Describing case examples illustrating pattern matches including physical matching, it is indicated that individualizations are practically relevant for forensic science as they establish facts on a definitive basis providing firm leads benefitting criminal investigation. As a tenet of forensic identification, uniqueness forms a fundamental paradigm relevant for individualization. Evidence on the indeterministic and stochastic causal pathways of characteristics in patterns available in the related fields of science sufficiently supports the proposition of uniqueness. Characteristics involved in physical matching and matching achieved in patterned evidence existing in the state of nature are not events amenable for counting; instead these are ensemble of visible units occupying the entire pattern area stretching the probability of re-occurrence of a verisimilitude pattern into infinity offering epistemic support to uniqueness. Observational methods are as respectable as instrumental or statistical methods since they are capable of generating results that are tangible and obviously valid as in physical matching. Applying the probabilistic interpretation used for DNA profiles to the other patterns would be unbefitting since these two are disparate, the causal pathways of the events, the loci, in the manipulated DNA profiles being determinable. While uniqueness enables individualizations, it does not vouch for eliminating errors. Instead of dismissing uniqueness and individualization, accepting errors as human or system failures and seeking remedial measures would benefit forensic science practice and criminal investigation. PMID:23849815

Jayaprakash, Paul T

2013-09-10

322

Introduction to Forensic Medicine and Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this chapter is to explain what legal medicine is (from its background to the present), and forensic pathology\\u000a in particular what its objectives are, what forensic doctors do, and when, why, how, and for whom. Furthermore, the author\\u000a aims to identify their main difficulties and expectancies.

323

Commentary: forensic evaluation of military personnel.  

PubMed

Forensic psychiatric evaluations of military personnel in civil litigation are reportedly infrequent. One such case involved former prisoners of war after Operation Desert Storm. These evaluations presented many challenges to the evaluators with regard to resources and time limitations. Discussion of these issues is relevant to forensic evaluations generally. PMID:19767497

Wettstein, Robert M

2009-01-01

324

Validating Tools for Cell Phone Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As mobile devices grow in popularity and ubiquity in everyday life, they are often involved in digital crimes and digital investigation as well. Cell phones, for instance, are becoming a media or tool in criminal cases and corporate investigation. Cellular phone forensics is therefore important for law enforcement and private investigators. Cell phone forensics aims at acquiring and analyzing data

Neil Bhadsavle; Ju An Wang

325

Visual Network Forensic Techniques and Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network forensics is the critical next step in the analysis of network attacks, intrusions, and misuses. It is the forensic process that will aid identification of what occurred and how. With the explosion in numbers and types of attacks it is critical that new techniques be developed to aid in the analysis of said attacks. For instance, with the recent

Robert F. Erbacher; Kim Christiansen; Amanda Sundberg

326

Forensic Human Factors: Examining The Ladbroke  

E-print Network

Forensic Human Factors: Examining The Ladbroke Grove Rail Crash in the UK Professor Neville A remains, however improbable, must be the truth? " #12;Forensic Human Factors 颅 the application process. We must design our technologies for the way in which people actually behave, not the way we would

Levi, Ran

327

Is There an Ideal Forensic Process?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of digital forensic exploration is vitally important to the outcome of an investigation. Uncontestable and irrefutable evidence is required for legal purposes and this is underpinned by robust investigative process. This paper is a preliminary enquiry into digital forensic process models specifically for the purpose of education. It identifies the various stakeholders and multiple process models available. It

Patricia A. H. Williams

2008-01-01

328

eDiscovery versus Computer Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of this article are similar to a chapter in an upcoming book by Steve Hailey and Mike Chapman, for which the author of this article will be a contributing author. This new book on computer forensics will be about the forensics process and will contain excellent guidelines for both professionals and laypersons to help them understand the right

David R. Matthews

2010-01-01

329

NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysis RickAyers WayneJansen NicolasCilleros RonanDaniellou #12;iii NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis Rick Ayers Wayne applications, store and process personal and sensitive information independently of a desktop or notebook

330

NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysisUpdate RickAyers WayneJansen LudovicMoenner AurelienDelaitre #12;iii NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis and process personal and sensitive information independently of a desktop or notebook computer, and optionally

331

Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 185199  

E-print Network

Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 185颅199 Nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis. Application, Italy b 麓Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6-0738(98)00015-2 #12;186 M.S. Bellini et al. / Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 185颅199 1. Introduction

Miksik, Ivan

332

The Thin Blue Line-Forensic Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site draws on, and brings together, many scientific disciplines-identification of hairs and fibers, forensic psychology, DNA testing, photography, bloodstain pattern analysis, and computer forensics- that contribute to the integrated analysis of a crime and the physical evidence left at a crime scene.

2012-11-15

333

forensics.uts.edu.au research themes  

E-print Network

) > Fire investigation and analysis > Illicit drugs > Toxicology > DNA profiling > Forensic anatomyforensics.uts.edu.au research themes science science.uts.edu.au #12;ThE UNIVERSITy OF TEChNOLOgy, SyDNEy'S (UTS) centre for forensic science (cfs) IS A WORLD-LEADINg ACADEMIC AND RESEARCh g

University of Technology, Sydney

334

Fingerprint identification software for forensic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fingerprint identification is broadly established as one of the most reliable identification methods for forensic and non-forensic applications. Nevertheless, due to growth in volume of fingerprint databases, performance requirements, and speed limitations of the manual process, Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) are extensively needed. This paper describes the design and implementation of a cost-effective AFIS system that operates in four

Ziad Abu-Faraj; A. Abdallah; K. Chebaklo; E. Khoukaz

2000-01-01

335

Forensic analysis of magnetic stripe skimmer devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

At SKL, the number of skimmer cases has increased since 2009. Hence it is important to have a good workflow for the forensic analysis. A successful multidisciplinary collaboration has been developed between DNA, fingerprints and IT forensics. Members of staff from these disciplines perform an initial examination deciding about which parts of the skimmers that are to be analysed for

C. Dufva; J. Bengtsson; M. Svensson; A. Nilsson

336

Forensic Journal, Volume VI, January 1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While covering various English language forensics activities in Japan, this special journal issue is heavily devoted to debate. The 22 articles in the journal are divided into five sections as follows: (1) general information on the Japan English Forensics Association (JEFA); (2) debate, including reports on debate tournaments around the world, a

Forensic Journal, 1984

1984-01-01

337

Forensic odontology, part 1. Dental identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This series is based upon fact, experience, and some personal views of the author and gives a brief glimpse of forensic odontological issues with regard to the identification of human remains (to include mass fatality incidents), biting injuries and child abuse. The aim of the first paper is to give the reader greater understanding of the role of the forensic

J. Hinchliffe

2011-01-01

338

Forensic Science Staffing: Creating a Working Formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key issue facing forensic labs is 搕he classic economic problem梙ow to allocate limited resources with increasing demand for services, while maintaining high quality standards (Speaker 2009). Employees are the biggest expense and most valuable resource that forensic labs possess, thus the question arises as to how to maximize human resource functions to best allocate resources through personnel. As the

Joyce Thompson Heames; Jon Timothy Heames

2011-01-01

339

Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 89124  

E-print Network

Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 89颅124 Advances in capillary electrophoresis a ,b , a c Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. PII S0379-0738(98)00011-5 #12;90 Z. Deyl et al. / Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 89颅124 Fig. 1. Schematic drawing of capillary electrophoresis instrumentation. Upon

Miksik, Ivan

340

Forensic Science in Transition: Critical Leadership Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our nation needs strong forensic leaders. National leaders are needed to champion reforms recommended by the National Research Council and Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community (2009). Leaders are also needed in laboratories to address difficult challenges in the context of resource limitations and constraints that hamper progress toward important goals. Business tools, strategies, and tactics

Wendy S. Becker; W. Mark Dale; Edward J. Pavur Jr

2010-01-01

341

Welcome to Forensic science, medicine, and pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does the forensic scientific community require a new journal? Do we not have enough already? Well the answer from my point of view is of course, 搚es, we do need a new journal and 搉o we do not have too many already. I hope in this short editorial to outline why Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology (also known as FSMP)

Guy N. Rutty

2005-01-01

342

Forensic veterinary medicine: a rapidly evolving discipline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic veterinary medicine is of increasing importance. Legal and other cases in which a veterinary input is likely to be\\u000a required include those relating to unexpected death of animals, welfare, abuse, and breaches of conservation law. The principles\\u000a of investigation closely follow those used in human forensic medicine, but there are some important differences.

John E. Cooper; Margaret E. Cooper

2008-01-01

343

Medication, Schizophrenia and the Forensic Multidisciplinary Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the issues involved in the treatment with antipsychotic medication of forensic patients with schizophrenia. Poor compliance with medication may lead to a worsening of positive psychotic symptoms and increase the risk of re-offending. Nurses and other members of the forensic multidisciplinary team spend long periods of time with patients and may form close therapeutic alliances with them.

Jean Stubbs; Camilla Haw

2001-01-01

344

Forensic Analysis of Database Tampering Kyriacos Pavlou  

E-print Network

Forensic Analysis of Database Tampering Kyriacos Pavlou Department of Computer Science University of a database, through the use of cryptographically-strong hash functions. This paper addresses the next problem, that of determin- ing who, when, and what, by providing a systematic means of performing forensic analysis after

Snodgrass, Richard T.

345

On metadata context in Database Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Database Forensics is an important topic that has received hardly any research at- tention. This paper starts from the premise that this lack of research is due to the inherent complexity of databases that is not fully understood in a forensic context yet. The paper considers the relevant dierences between file systems and databases and then transfers concepts of File

Martin S. Olivier

2009-01-01

346

The Trouble with American Forensic Psychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic psychiatry is a subspecialty with training programs and board recognition. The cornerstone of the field is expert testimony on subjects ranging from criminal responsibility to work stress to malpractice. In the adversary system, however, the impartial expert may well be a myth. By not paying enough attention to the problems of being truly objective in court, forensic psychiatrists encourage

Edward M. Colbach

1997-01-01

347

American Forensic Psychiatry in the Eighties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In these litigious days every large American city has one or more psychiatrists who devote much of their time to forensic issues. I am one of these people, in solo private practice in Portland, Oregon. What is a forensic psychiatrist? What do I do? What special problems and challenges does my work present? What have I learned about the American

Edward M. Colbach

1985-01-01

348

Psychological Assessment of Forensic Psychiatric Outpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1960s decrease in long-term residential mental health care resulted in former psychiatric patients being admitted to correctional and forensic psychiatric facilities. Although psychologists face challenges in managing and treating this displaced population, assessment data plays a pivotal role in the determination of appropriate aftercare for the mentally ill parolee. This article discusses the assessment protocol utilized by the Forensic

Ron J. Nieberding; J. Tatum Moore; Anna P. Dematatis

2002-01-01

349

Challenges to Developing Forensic Assertive Community Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited information currently exists about forensic assertive community treatment (FACT) and how it serves persons with mental illness involved with the criminal justice system. This study screened 28 forensic mental health programs to identify 12 FACT teams for site visits about their consumers, their interface with the criminal justice system, and implementation and sustainability challenges. Site visit findings were reviewed

GARY S. CUDDEBACK; JOSEPH P. MORRISSEY; KAREN J. CUSACK; PIPER S. MEYER

2009-01-01

350

Developing and Utilizing Style through Forensics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Style is a crucial component of success in competitive forensics, whether debate or individual events, and one of the greatest benefits students get from participating in such events is the opportunity to develop a sense of style. In keeping with the classical canons of rhetoric, style (as it relates to forensics) can be limited to a consideration

Harte, Thomas B.

351

Guidelines in forensic odontology: legal aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The task of the forensic dentist is ruled by an obligation to be diligent and prudent. If guidelines should exist which are recognised by the dental forensic community, they will probably be used to judge his work, even if guidelines are only considered as recommendations. The questions to be answered are: who issued these guidelines and are they conform to

Y. Vermylen

2006-01-01

352

Investigating the Worldwide Popularity of Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of forensic science has increased dramatically over the past decade throughout the United States. However, has this popularity spread to other countries around the world and to what extent? In the United States, there are numerous television shows focusing on the law and crime scene analysis, including 揅SI, 揕aw and Order, 24, 揅rossing Jordan, and Forensic Files, just

Heather Stankiewicz

2007-01-01

353

Three Certificate Programs in Sponsored by the UWM Center for Forensic Science  

E-print Network

Investigation Forensic Toxicology Forensic Science Forensic Science #12;POLICE LINE DO Have you ever thought of forensics: death investigation, forensic science, or forensic toxicology. Each plays a pivotal role it reveal about what happened at the scene? Forensic Toxicology. It's the science of toxic substances

Saldin, Dilano

354

Ion mobility spectrometry evaluation of cocaine occupational exposure in forensic laboratories.  

PubMed

An approach, based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been developed for the control of cocaine in air of the breathing zone of operators, in laboratory surfaces and in nasal mucus of employees to evaluate cocaine exposure in a forensic laboratory. The analytical methodology has been validated in terms of accuracy, precision and limits of detection and results obtained were statistically comparable with those obtained by liquid chromatography. Cocaine concentration in laboratory air increases from 100 35 ng m(-3) of a normal day to 10,000 ng m(-3) during the manipulation of cocaine seizures. The occupational exposure limit (OEL) for cocaine has not been established which difficult the evaluation of the health effects of continuous exposition to very small doses of cocaine. Cocaine was also found in almost all the analyzed sample surfaces and also was found in nasal mucus of the police officers that were present during the manipulation of cocaine seizures without using a face mask. In summary, cocaine concentrations could present a health hazard to the employees and therefore warrants remediation and some modifications of the manipulation operations have been proposed. PMID:25159406

Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel; Alcal, Manel; Blanco, Marcelo; Perez-Alfonso, Clara; Galipienso, Nieves

2014-12-01

355

Issues and opportunities: the application of the numerical likelihood ratio framework to forensic speaker comparison.  

PubMed

Across forensic speech science, the likelihood ratio (LR) is increasingly becoming accepted as the logically and legally correct framework for the expression of expert conclusions. However, there remain a number of theoretical and practical shortcomings in the procedures applied for computing LRs based on speech evidence. In this paper we review how the LR is currently applied to speaker comparison evidence and outline three specific areas which deserve further investigation: namely statistical modelling, issues relating to the relevant population and the combination of LRs from correlated parameters. We then consider future directions for confronting these issues and discuss the implications for forensic comparison evidence more generally. PMID:25002047

Gold, Erica; Hughes, Vincent

2014-07-01

356

Digital forensics research: The next 10 years Simson L. Garfinkel  

E-print Network

, modular approaches for data representation and forensic processing. 陋 2010 Digital Forensic Research in forensic research, tools, and process over the past decade have been very successful and many in leadershipDigital forensics research: The next 10 years Simson L. Garfinkel Naval Postgraduate School

Almulhem, Ahmad

357

Standardizing the Construction of a Digital Forensics Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the increasing problems of cybercrime, digital forensics-related issues have become more and more important and serious. Digital forensics often involves the preservation, identification, extraction, documentation and interpretation of digital data. The construction of a forensics laboratory should include the objective of establishment, organization, responsibility, accreditation procedure, personnel qualification, training, equipment, forensics procedure, document management, and so on. Another

Patrick S. Chen; Lawrence M. F. Tsai; Ying-chieh Chen; George Yee

2005-01-01

358

A method for enhancement of background sounds in forensic  

E-print Network

路 Test implementation 路 Example processing 路 Conclusion #12;Audio Forensics 路 Audio ForensicsA method for enhancement of background sounds in forensic audio recordings Robert C. Maher;Outline 路 Introduction 颅 Audio forensic analysis 颅 Adaptive interference cancelling 颅 Sinusoidal modeling

Maher, Robert C.

359

Identification in forensic anthropology: Its relation to genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within forensic activity, whenever identification is a problem, it is generalized that DNA analysis is the solution. However, it is well known both by forensic pathologists and anthropologists that, apart form the immense potentiality of this technique, there are many situations where the classical forensic anthropology examination is still useful and irreplaceable. Through the presentation of two forensic routine cases

Eug閚ia Cunha; Jo鉶 Pinheiro; Duarte Nuno Vieira

2006-01-01

360

ONE FACULTY POSITIONS IN ANALYTICAL, FORENSIC CHEMISTRY OR TOXICOLOGY  

E-print Network

ONE FACULTY POSITIONS IN ANALYTICAL, FORENSIC CHEMISTRY OR TOXICOLOGY The Department of Chemistry and our FEPAC- accredited Forensics Chemistry Program. A primary focus on forensics research should, or microfluidics/field deployable systems. The successful candidate will contribute to teaching forensic chemistry

Linsley, Braddock K.

361

FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION REPORTING USING AUTOMATIC SPEAKER RECOGNITION SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

forensic areas as fingerprint, DNA or fiber analysis, suits the needs of both the court and the forensicFORENSIC IDENTIFICATION REPORTING USING AUTOMATIC SPEAKER RECOGNITION SYSTEMS J. Gonzalez to the bayesian approach for evidence analysis and forensic reporting. This approach, firmly established in other

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

362

UNDERSTANDING THE DISCRIMINATION POWER OF FACIAL REGIONS IN FORENSIC CASEWORK  

E-print Network

confidence under the legal system. While DNA and fingerprint forensic identification are two of the mostUNDERSTANDING THE DISCRIMINATION POWER OF FACIAL REGIONS IN FORENSIC CASEWORK Pedro Tomea , Luis Bl extraction for forensic applications. Forensic examiners compare different fa- cial areas of face images

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

363

Accreditation standards for undergraduate forensic science programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate forensic science programs are experiencing unprecedented growth in numbers of programs offered and, as a result, student enrollments are increasing. Currently, however, these programs are not subject to professional specialized accreditation. This study sought to identify desirable student outcome measures for undergraduate forensic science programs that should be incorporated into such an accreditation process. To determine desirable student outcomes, three types of data were collected and analyzed. All the existing undergraduate forensic science programs in the United States were examined with regard to the input measures of degree requirements and curriculum content, and for the output measures of mission statements and student competencies. Accreditation procedures and guidelines for three other science-based disciplines, computer science, dietetics, and nursing, were examined to provide guidance on accreditation processes for forensic science education programs. Expert opinion on outcomes for program graduates was solicited from the major stakeholders of undergraduate forensic science programs-forensic science educators, crime laboratory directors, and recent graduates. Opinions were gathered by using a structured Internet-based survey; the total response rate was 48%. Examination of the existing undergraduate forensic science programs revealed that these programs do not use outcome measures. Of the accreditation processes for other science-based programs, nursing education provided the best model for forensic science education, due primarily to the balance between the generality and the specificity of the outcome measures. From the analysis of the questionnaire data, preliminary student outcomes, both general and discipline-specific, suitable for use in the accreditation of undergraduate forensic science programs were determined. The preliminary results were reviewed by a panel of experts and, based on their recommendations, the outcomes identified were revised and refined. The results of this study were used to identify student outcomes and to suggest accreditation standards and an accreditation process for undergraduate forensic science programs based on those outcomes.

Miller, Marilyn Tebbs

364

Examination of mobile phones in a university forensic lab environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to show forensic investigation methods for mobile phones to students in a university forensic lab environment. Students have to learn the usefulness of forensic procedures to ensure evidence collection, evidence preservation, forensic analysis, and reporting. Open source tools as well as commercial forensic tools for forensic investigation of modern mobile (smart) phones are used. It is demonstrated how important data stored in the mobile device are investigated. Different scenarios of investigations are presented that are well-suited for forensics lab work in university.

Luttenberger, Silas; Kr鰃er, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2011-06-01

365

[Incest--forensic genetic approach].  

PubMed

The paper presents intimate relationships between biologically and legally close relatives, complicated in the social, culture and religion perspective. (art. 201 of the Penal Code), but it chiefly addresses problems associated with giving opinion on the fatherhood towards the incestuous child. The report calls for a broader interest in this issue from expert witnesses in forensic genetics, as well as encourages them to publish examples taken from their own professional experience that may unquestionably be helpful to other practitioners in this field and above all will lead to extending educational methods related to widely understood DNA analysis in giving an opinion on arguable fatherhood. PMID:23424940

Raczek, Ewa

2012-01-01

366

International forensic automotive paint database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current, validated, searchable, automotive paint database that is used to identify make(s), model(s), and year(s) of questioned paint samples in hit-and-run fatalities and other associated investigations involving automotive paint.

Bishea, Gregory A.; Buckle, Joe L.; Ryland, Scott G.

1999-02-01

367

Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

Lee, Henry C.

1980-01-01

368

The Forensic Science Assessment Test (FSAT): A Potential Tool for the Academic Assessment of Forensic Science Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic science college and university education, like college education in general, needs assessment tools to ensure the accountability and continued improvement of academic programs. Both forensic science educators and practitioners have vested interests in the successful student outcomes of forensic science programs and the need for rigorous high quality academic programs. The Forensic Science Assessment Test (FSAT) may provide a

Lawrence A. Presley; Michael Haas; Lawrence Quarino

2009-01-01

369

Statistical relationship between surface PM10 concentration and aerosol optical depth over the Sahel as a function of weather type, using neural network methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

work aims at assessing the capability of passive remote-sensed measurements such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) to monitor the surface dust concentration during the dry season in the Sahel region (West Africa). We processed continuous measurements of AODs and surface concentrations for the period (2006-2010) in Banizoumbou (Niger) and Cinzana (Mali). In order to account for the influence of meteorological condition on the relationship between PM10 surface concentration and AOD, we decomposed the mesoscale meteorological fields surrounding the stations into five weather types having similar 3-dimensional atmospheric characteristics. This classification was obtained by a clustering method based on nonlinear artificial neural networks, the so-called self-organizing map. The weather types were identified by processing tridimensional fields of meridional and zonal winds and air temperature obtained from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output centered on each measurement station. Five similar weather types have been identified at the two stations. Three of them are associated with the Harmattan flux; the other two correspond to northward inflow of the monsoon flow at the beginning or the end of the dry season. An improved relationship has been found between the surface PM10 concentrations and the AOD by using a dedicated statistical relationship for each weather type. The performances of the statistical inversion computed on the test data sets show satisfactory skills for most of the classes, much better than a linear regression. This should permit the inversion of the mineral dust concentration from AODs derived from satellite observations over the Sahel.

Yahi, H.; Marticorena, B.; Thiria, S.; Chatenet, B.; Schmechtig, C.; Rajot, J. L.; Crepon, M.

2013-12-01

370

Signature authentication by forensic document examiners.  

PubMed

We report on the first controlled study comparing the abilities of forensic document examiners (FDEs) and laypersons in the area of signature examination. Laypersons and professional FDEs were given the same signature-authentication/simulation-detection task. They compared six known signatures generated by the same person with six unknown signatures. No a priori knowledge of the distribution of genuine and nongenuine signatures in the unknown signature set was available to test-takers. Three different monetary incentive schemes were implemented to motivate the laypersons. We provide two major findings: (i) the data provided by FDEs and by laypersons in our tests were significantly different (namely, the hypothesis that there is no difference between the assessments provided by FDEs and laypersons about genuineness and nongenuineness of signatures was rejected); and (ii) the error rates exhibited by the FDEs were much smaller than those of the laypersons. In addition, we found no statistically significant differences between the data sets obtained from laypersons who received different monetary incentives. The most pronounced differences in error rates appeared when nongenuine signatures were declared authentic (Type I error) and when authentic signatures were declared nongenuine (Type II error). Type I error was made by FDEs in 0.49% of the cases, but laypersons made it in 6.47% of the cases. Type II error was made by FDEs in 7.05% of the cases, but laypersons made it in 26.1% of the cases. PMID:11451071

Kam, M; Gummadidala, K; Fielding, G; Conn, R

2001-07-01

371

Forensic handwriting examiners' expertise for signature comparison.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the performance of forensic document examiners (FDEs) in a signature comparison task that was designed to address the issue of expertise. The opinions of FDEs regarding 150 genuine and simulated questioned signatures were compared with a control group of non-examiners' opinions. On the question of expertise, results showed that FDEs were statistically better than the control group at accurately determining the genuineness or non-genuineness of questioned signatures. The FDE group made errors (by calling a genuine signature simulated or by calling a simulated signature genuine) in 3.4% of their opinions while 19.3% of the control group's opinions were erroneous. The FDE group gave significantly more inconclusive opinions than the control group. Analysis of FDEs' responses showed that more correct opinions were expressed regarding simulated signatures and more inconclusive opinions were made on genuine signatures. Further, when the complexity of a signature was taken into account, FDEs made more correct opinions on high complexity signatures than on signatures of lower complexity. There was a wide range of skill amongst FDEs and no significant relationship was found between the number of years FDEs had been practicing and their correct, inconclusive and error rates. PMID:12353558

Sita, Jodi; Found, Bryan; Rogers, Douglas K

2002-09-01

372

Electron microscopy and forensic practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron microanalysis in forensic practice ranks among basic applications used in investigation of traces (latents, stains, etc.) from crime scenes. Applying electron microscope allows for rapid screening and receiving initial information for a wide range of traces. SEM with EDS/WDS makes it possible to observe topography surface and morphology samples and examination of chemical components. Physical laboratory of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague use SEM especially for examination of inorganic samples, rarely for biology and other material. Recently, possibilities of electron microscopy have been extended considerably using dual systems with focused ion beam. These systems are applied mainly in study of inner micro and nanoparticles , thin layers (intersecting lines in graphical forensic examinations, analysis of layers of functional glass, etc.), study of alloys microdefects, creating 3D particles and aggregates models, etc. Automated mineralogical analyses are a great asset to analysis of mineral phases, particularly soils, similarly it holds for cathode luminescence, predominantly colour one and precise quantitative measurement of their spectral characteristics. Among latest innovations that are becoming to appear also at ordinary laboratories are TOF - SIMS systems and micro Raman spectroscopy with a resolution comparable to EDS/WDS analysis (capable of achieving similar level as through EDS/WDS analysis).

Kotrl, Marek; Turkov, Ivana

2013-05-01

373

Forensic Proteomics of Poxvirus Production  

SciTech Connect

The field of microbial forensics has recently sought to develop methods to discern biological signatures to indicate production methods for biological agents. Viral agents have received less attention to date. Their obligate propagation in living cells makes purification from cellular material a challenge. This leads to potential carryover of protein-rich signature of their production system. Here we have explored a proteomic analysis of Vaccinia virus as a model poxvirus system in which to compare samples of virus propagated in different cell lines and subjected to different purification schemes. The proteomic data sets indicated viral, host cell and culture medium proteins, and several layers of data analysis were applied to build confidence in the peptide identification and capture information on the taxonomic utility of each. The analysis showed clear shifts in protein profiles with virus purification, with successive gradient purification steps showing different levels of viral protein enrichment. Peptides from cellular proteins, including those present in purified virus preparations, provided signatures which enabled discrimination of cell line substrates, including distinguishing between cells derived from different primate species. The ability to discern multiple aspects of viral production demonstrates the potential value of proteomic analysis as tool for microbial forensics.

Wunschel, David S.; Tulman, Edan; Engelmann, Heather E.; Clowers, Brian H.; Geary, Steven J.; Robinson, Aaron C.; Liao, Xiaofen

2013-08-27

374

Neuroimaging techniques in modern forensic psychiatry.  

PubMed

Applied neuroscientific knowledge such as brain neuroimaging has widespread application in the medical diagnostic and treatment areas. Neuroscientific progress such as cognitive neuroscience has strong implications in specific medical fields such as forensic psychiatry. Significant progress in forensic psychiatry has affected the practice of law, in which an understanding of the complex relationship among mind, brain, and behavior is becoming necessary. Forensic psychiatry is concerned with the relationship between psychiatric abnormalities and legal violations and crimes. Due to the lack of available biological criteria, assessment, evaluation and therapy in forensic psychiatry have so far been restricted to psychosocial and mental criteria of offender personality. Recent advances in nuclear radiology such as brain imaging techniques (fMRI, DT-MRI, PET SPECT) allow a closer approach to the neural correlates of personality, moral judgments and decision-making. Introduction of neurobiological criteria (based on advanced neuroimaging techniques) in the field of forensic psychiatry and establishing the rules to what extent such biological criteria will be more reliable choice in evaluating mentally ill offenders would be of fundamental value in the modern forensic psychiatry. Psychosocial and subjective criteria in forensic evaluation will be more accomplished by biopsychosocial and objective criteria. Advances in the neuroimaging techniques bring specificity to the problems underlying the application of neuroscience to criminal law. PMID:21305744

Radeljak, Sanja; Zarkovi?-Palijan, Tija; Kovacevi?, Drazen; Marinovi?, Dunja; Hero, Elizabeta Dadi?

2010-04-01

375

History of forensic medicine in Turkey.  

PubMed

Turkey has a short history of forensic medicine compared to the developed countries. Sultan Mahmud II established the first medical school of the Ottoman Empire named as Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane to provide health services to the army in 1839 [Gok S. Tomorrow, today and yesterday of the forensic medicine. 1st ed. Istanbul: Temel printing office; 1995]. It is also accepted as an important milestone of both medical education and forensic medicine in Turkey [Gok S and Ozen C. History and organization of forensic. 1st ed. Istanbul: Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School Publications; 1982]. The first lecturer of forensic medicine at Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane was Dr. Charles Ambroise Bernard (C.A.). and he was also the first to perform autopsy in the history of Ottoman Empire [Gok, 1995]. Approximately 40 years after the first forensic medicine lecture in 1879, the Department of Medical Jurisprudence was established as a division of Zabita Tababet-i Adliye (Law Enforcement Office) in Istanbul [Sehsuvaro?lu and Ozen. History and development of forensic medicine in the world and in our country. Mag Istanbul Univ Med Fac 1974;36(60)]. This paper documents the first two cases of autopsies performed in Turkey with the original papers from the National Library. PMID:19152790

Oguz, Polat; Cem, Uysal

2009-05-01

376

Forensic Entomologists: An Evaluation of their Status  

PubMed Central

The National Academy of Sciences (2009) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists. PMID:24219583

Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian

2013-01-01

377

Modeling Forensic Evidence Systems Using Design Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an overview of the application of design science research to the tactical management of forensic evidence processing. The opening discussion addresses the application of design science techniques to specific socio-technical information systems research in regard to processing forensic evidence. The discussion then presents the current problems faced by those dealing with evidence and a conceptual meta-model for a unified approach to forensic evidence is developed. Any practical application of the suggested model would be predominantly law enforcement driven; evaluation of sections of the model has been carried out by law enforcement participants in several international jurisdictions.

Armstrong, Colin; Armstrong, Helen

378

Open Source Live Distributions for Computer Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current distributions of open source forensic software provide digital investigators with a large set of heterogeneous tools. Their use is not always focused on the target and requires high technical expertise. We present a new GNU/Linux live distribution, named CAINE (Computer Aided INvestigative Environment) that contains a collection of tools wrapped up into a user friendly environment. The CAINE forensic framework introduces novel important features, aimed at filling the interoperability gap across different forensic tools. Moreover, it provides a homogeneous graphical interface that drives digital investigators during the acquisition and analysis of electronic evidence, and it offers a semi-automatic mechanism for the creation of the final report.

Giustini, Giancarlo; Andreolini, Mauro; Colajanni, Michele

379

How to become involved in forensic odontology.  

PubMed

Applying the triad of education, professional organizations, and service, there are many ways to develop as a forensic odontologist. The ideal way to begin and develop is through a mentoring relationship with an experienced forensic odontologist. Most of the leading odontologists today--the second generation, so to speak--were mentored as they developed their careers. To refer back to the introduction, the commonality for this group is their dedication and commitment to the science and service of forensic odontology. References follow listing contact information for all the institutions and organizations mentioned in this article. PMID:11370462

Fixott, R H

2001-04-01

380

Forensic implications of the foot and ankle.  

PubMed

To clinicians, forensic medicine and the foot and ankle complex may appear to have little connection. However, if decomposed, burned, fragmented, or skeletonized human remains are recovered, the foot and ankle can provide information leading to identification and incident analysis. Furthermore, analysis of data collected at accidents can lead to safety modifications. This article reviews common elements of forensic medicine applied to the foot and ankle in 2 areas: establishing positive identification by using radiographic comparisons and analyzing aviation incidents. An understanding of these cases will enhance clinicians' awareness of the potential forensic value of the foot and ankle. PMID:12907933

Rich, Jeremy; Dean, Dorothy E; Cheung, Yvonne Y

2003-01-01

381

Use of Stable Isotopes in Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

The use of isotopic signatures for forensic analysis of biological materials is well-established, and the same general principles that apply to interpretation of stable isotope content of C, N, O, and H apply to the analysis of microorganisms. Heterotrophic microorganisms derive their isotopic content from their growth substrates, which are largely plant and animal products, and the water in their culture medium. Thus the isotope signatures of microbes are tied to their growth environment. The C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of spores have been demonstrated to constitute highly discriminating signatures for sample matching. They can rule out specific samples of media and/or water as possible production media, and can predict isotope ratio ranges of the culture media and water used to produce a given sample. These applications have been developed and tested through analyses of approximately 250 samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and over 500 samples of culture media, providing a strong statistical basis for data interpretation. A Bayesian statistical framework for integrating stable isotope data with other types of signatures derived from microorganisms has been able to characterize the culture medium used to produce spores of various Bacillus species, leveraging isotopic differences in different medium types and demonstrating the power of data integration for forensic investigations.

Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.

2012-01-18

382

Testing methodologies  

SciTech Connect

Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs.

Bender, M.A.

1990-01-01

383

Strategic Research Direc.ons in Forensic Science & Informa.on  

E-print Network

ons * Fingerprints, Palmprints & Footprints (Exemplars & latent prints) * Forensic Markups Forensics Projects in ITL 路 Forensic Human Iden6ty 颅 Fingerprints (latent & Strategic Research Direc.ons in Forensic Science & Informa.on Technology

Perkins, Richard A.

384

Forensic Medicine Teaching Programs--A Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Deals with forensic pathology. Introduces Milton Helpern, Chief Medical Examiner of New York City, who discusses causes and investigations of various types of death, and, in some programs, legal requirements and laws applying to specific situations. Also ...

1994-01-01

385

Spectroscopic Sleuthing. An Introduction to Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a program in which students learn about spectroscopy and instrumentation to solve a chemical forensic mystery. Infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, refractometry, and chromatographic techniques were used. An example of a mystery case is included. (KR)

Zdravkovich, Vera; Cunniff, Patricia A.

1991-01-01

386

Role of dental expert in forensic odontology  

PubMed Central

Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709

Verma, Anoop K.; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

2014-01-01

387

Towards Privacy Preserving of Forensic DNA Databases  

E-print Network

Protecting privacy of individuals is critical for forensic genetics. In a kinship/identity testing, related DNA profiles between user's query and the DNA database need to be extracted. However, unrelated profiles cannot be revealed to each other...

Liu, Sanmin

2012-02-14

388

Hashing and Data Fingerprinting in Digital Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hashing is a primary, yet under appreciated, tool in digital forensic investigations. Recent R&D has demonstrated that, with clever design, we can construct robust fingerprinting and similarity hashes that can significantly speed up an investigation.

Vassil Roussev

2009-01-01

389

Role of forensic pathologists in mass disasters.  

PubMed

The forensic pathologist has always had a central role in the identification of the dead in every day practice, in accidents, and in disasters involving hundreds or thousands of victims. This role has changed in recent years, as advances in forensic odontology, genetics and anthropology have improved the chances of identifying victims beyond recognition. According to the Interpol DVI Guide, fingerprints, dental examination and DNA are the primary identifiers, and this has given new emphasis to the role of the forensic pathologist as the leader of a multidisciplinary team of experts in a disaster situation, based on his or her qualifications and the experience gained from doing the same work in the everyday situation of an institute of forensic medicine. PMID:22160735

Schuliar, Yves; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis

2012-06-01

390

Forensic veterinary pathology, today's situation and perspectives.  

PubMed

To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders. PMID:25013083

Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Ols閚, L; Gavier-Wid閚, D

2014-11-01

391

Development of a forensic evidence protection kit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A kit has been developed for the preservation of vital forensic evidence on a suspect following a serious assault, murder or other offense where contamination may occur. This also includes the handling of firearms, explosives and/or drugs.

Acton, Brian; Kelly, Roy

1999-02-01

392

Role of dental expert in forensic odontology.  

PubMed

Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709

Verma, Anoop K; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

2014-01-01

393

Meet Your Specialist 1 Forensic Entomology 1  

E-print Network

of forensic entomology they participated in "The Black Bear Murder Mystery", a four day lesson culminating. With this in mind, Collier County 4-H is focused on increasing opportunities for activity in our community

Jawitz, James W.

394

Contemporary practice in forensic odontology  

PubMed Central

Forensic odontology plays a major role in the identification of those individuals who cannot be identified visually or by other means. The unique nature of dental anatomy and placement of custom restorations ensure accuracy when the techniques are correctly employed. It is evident that identification of victims in accidents and natural calamities is of utmost importance and is a challenging task. The teeth may also be used as weapons and under certain circumstances; they may provide information regarding the identity of the biter. Dental professionals play a major role in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize malpractices, negligence, fraud child abuse and also, identify an individual. In this article, we will discuss such evolvement of the subject. PMID:25328306

Gupta, Shalini; Agnihotri, Archana; Chandra, Akhilesh; Gupta, Om Prakash

2014-01-01

395

Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

1999-10-12

396

Contemporary practice in forensic odontology.  

PubMed

Forensic odontology plays a major role in the identification of those individuals who cannot be identified visually or by other means. The unique nature of dental anatomy and placement of custom restorations ensure accuracy when the techniques are correctly employed. It is evident that identification of victims in accidents and natural calamities is of utmost importance and is a challenging task. The teeth may also be used as weapons and under certain circumstances; they may provide information regarding the identity of the biter. Dental professionals play a major role in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize malpractices, negligence, fraud child abuse and also, identify an individual. In this article, we will discuss such evolvement of the subject. PMID:25328306

Gupta, Shalini; Agnihotri, Archana; Chandra, Akhilesh; Gupta, Om Prakash

2014-05-01

397

Enhancing forensic science with spectroscopic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation outlines the research we are developing in the area of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging with the focus on materials of forensic interest. FTIR spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a powerful tool for characterisation of heterogeneous materials. FTIR imaging relies on the ability of the military-developed infrared array detector to simultaneously measure spectra from thousands of different locations in a sample. Recently developed application of FTIR imaging using an ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) mode has demonstrated the ability of this method to achieve spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of infrared light in air. Chemical visualisation with enhanced spatial resolution in micro-ATR mode broadens the range of materials studied with FTIR imaging with applications to pharmaceutical formulations or biological samples. Macro-ATR imaging has also been developed for chemical imaging analysis of large surface area samples and was applied to analyse the surface of human skin (e.g. finger), counterfeit tablets, textile materials (clothing), etc. This approach demonstrated the ability of this imaging method to detect trace materials attached to the surface of the skin. This may also prove as a valuable tool in detection of traces of explosives left or trapped on the surfaces of different materials. This FTIR imaging method is substantially superior to many of the other imaging methods due to inherent chemical specificity of infrared spectroscopy and fast acquisition times of this technique. Our preliminary data demonstrated that this methodology will provide the means to non-destructive detection method that could relate evidence to its source. This will be important in a wider crime prevention programme. In summary, intrinsic chemical specificity and enhanced visualising capability of FTIR spectroscopic imaging open a window of opportunities for counter-terrorism and crime-fighting, with applications ranging from analysis of trace evidence (e.g. in soil), tablets, drugs, fibres, tape explosives, biological samples to detection of gunshot residues and imaging of fingerprints.

Ricci, Camilla; Kazarian, Sergei G.

2006-09-01

398

Data Exploration Interface for Digital Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast capacity growth of cheap storage devices presents an ever-growing problem of scale for digital forensic investigations. One aspect of scale problem in the forensic process is the need for new approaches to visually presenting and analyzing large amounts of data. Current generation of tools universally employ three basic GUI components梩rees, tables, and viewers梩o present all relevant information. This

VARUN DONTULA

2011-01-01

399

Computer Forensics Education the Open Source Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we discuss the application of the open source software tools in computer forensics education at tertiary level.\\u000a We argue that open source tools are more suitable than commercial tools, as they provide the opportunity for students to gain\\u000a in-depth understanding and appreciation of the computer forensic process as opposed to familiarity with one software product,\\u000a however complex

Ewa Huebner; Derek Bem; Hon Cheung

2010-01-01

400

Remote Forensic Analysis of Process Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic analysis can help maintain the security of process control systems: identifying the root cause of a system compromise\\u000a or failure is useful for mitigating current and future threats. However, forensic analysis of control systems is complicated\\u000a by three factors. First, live analysis must not impact the performance and functionality of a control system. Second, the\\u000a analysis should be performed

Regis Friend Cassidy; Adrian Chavez; Jason Trent; Jorge Urrea

2007-01-01

401

Writer Identification Method Based on Forensic Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Police corps have been extensively used Forensic techniques to perform criminal identification. One of these techniques is\\u000a questioned document examination. Forensic document examiners can identify individuals in big populations using a classification\\u000a of the forms of manuscript characters, i.e. a handwriting formulation. This paper presents a method that defines a handwriting\\u000a formulation that allows high identification accuracy minimizing the amount

Marino Tapiador; Juan A. Sig黣nza

2004-01-01

402

Computer Forensics Education - the Open Source Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter we discuss the application of the open source software tools in computer forensics education at tertiary level. We argue that open source tools are more suitable than commercial tools, as they provide the opportunity for students to gain in-depth understanding and appreciation of the computer forensic process as opposed to familiarity with one software product, however complex and multi-functional. With the access to all source programs the students become more than just the consumers of the tools as future forensic investigators. They can also examine the code, understand the relationship between the binary images and relevant data structures, and in the process gain necessary background to become the future creators of new and improved forensic software tools. As a case study we present an advanced subject, Computer Forensics Workshop, which we designed for the Bachelor's degree in computer science at the University of Western Sydney. We based all laboratory work and the main take-home project in this subject on open source software tools. We found that without exception more than one suitable tool can be found to cover each topic in the curriculum adequately. We argue that this approach prepares students better for forensic field work, as they gain confidence to use a variety of tools, not just a single product they are familiar with.

Huebner, Ewa; Bem, Derek; Cheung, Hon

403

Forensic Examination Using a Nondestructive Evaluation Method for Surface Metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to describe the use of a new technique of optical profilometry in a nondestructive, non-contact fashion for the comparison of two metallic surfaces, one hard and one soft. When brought in contact with one another, the harder material (i.e. the tool) will impress its surface roughness onto the softer. It is understood that the resulting set of impressions left from a tool tip act in a manner similar to a photographic negative, in that it leaves a reverse, or negative impression on the surface of a plate. If properly inverted and reversed, measurements from the softer material should be identical to the harder indenting object with regard to surface texture and roughness. This assumption is inherent in the area of forensics, where bullets, cartridge cases, and toolmarked surfaces from crime scenes are compared to similar marks made under controlled conditions in the forensic laboratory. This paper will examine the methodology used to compare two surfaces for similarities and dissimilarities, and comment on the applicability of this technique to other studies.

Eisenmann, David J.; Chumbley, L. Scott

2009-03-01

404

Computer Forensics: you can hide but you canComputer Forensics: you can hide but you can''t deletet delete Dr. Nazli Hardy, 2009Reference: Computer Forensics: Principles and Practice  

E-print Network

1 Computer Forensics: you can hide but you canComputer Forensics: you can hide but you can''t deletet delete Dr. Nazli Hardy, 2009Reference: Computer Forensics: Principles and Practice Volonino Anzaldua Godwin Computer Forensics April 10, 2009 Presentation for Dr. Maria Schiza's Forensics class

Hardy, Christopher R.

405

Digital forensics on the cheap: teaching forensics using open source tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital forensics capability is a critical function in any information security program but the cost of the necessary technology and tools can be a barrier to its presentation in the undergraduate curriculum. This paper discusses how Open Source tools can be used to provide students with a realistic introduction to and experience in the digital forensics process.

Richard D. Austin

2007-01-01

406

Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: A Legal Study Concerning the Forensic Sciences Personnel. Volume III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The place and function of forensic sciences personnel in American criminal law and court procedure, and the criteria used by criminal trial judges and lawyers to assess the value of forensic sciences personnel were investigated. Federal, state, Virgin Island, and Puerto Rican laws were examined, and a search of the medical and legal literature

Schroeder, Oliver, Jr.

407

Forensic Botany: Using Plant Evidence to Aid in Forensic Death Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic botany is still an under-utilized resource in forensic casework, although it has been used on occasion. It is an area of specialty science that could include traditional botanical classification of spe- cies, DNA, or materials evidence (trace and transfer evidence), crime mapping or geo-sourcing, all de- pendent on the specific case application under consideration. Critical to the evaluation of

Heather Miller Coyle; Cheng-Lung Lee; W en-Yu Lin; Timothy M. Palmbach

408

The forensic entomologist in the context of the forensic pathologist抯 role  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adequate death investigation requires the combined efforts and cooperation of experts in different disciplines: crime scene technicians, death investigators, forensic pathologists, anthropologists, entomologists, other medical and non-medical professionals. These front-line experts play a crucial role in every death investigation process. The forensic pathologist normally has the legal authority to take charge of the dead body at a death scene

Carlo Pietro Campobasso; Francesco Introna

2001-01-01

409

Midwest Forensics Resource Center Project Summary June 2005  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the MFRC Research and Development Program, is to provide technological advances in forensic science for the benefit of our regional partners as well as the forensic community at large. Key areas of forensic science need are identified through our interactions with our Midwest partners and our R&D advisory group, as well as through our participation in national meetings in forensic science. Under the sponsorship of the National Institute of Justice, the MFRC solicits proposals for the development of practical and useful technology, instrumentation, and methodology that address needs in areas related to forensic science and its application to operational crime laboratories. The MFRC facilitates proposal development by working to establish partnerships between researchers and our regional partners. The MFRC administers a peer-review of the proposals and then funds the selected projects at a cost of approximately $55,000 each, with a 12-month period of performance. The process for selection of these projects includes the following steps: (1) drafting of a call for proposals by MFRC staff, (2) review of the draft call by members of the R&D advisory committee, (3) review and approval of the call by NIJ, (4) issuance of the call to ISU, Ames Laboratory, regional partners, and research organizations, (5) receipt of proposals, (6) review of proposals by R&D advisory committee, (7) ranking and selection by MFRC staff using advisory committee reviews, with concurrence by NIJ, (8) notification of proposers, (9) receipt and review of progress reports by MFRC, (10) receipt and review of final reports by MFRC, R&D advisory committee, and NIJ. The decision to fund any specific project is based upon a peer-reviewed call-for-proposal system administered by the MFRC. The reviewers are crime laboratory specialists and scientists who are asked to rate the proposals on four criteria areas including: (1) relevance to the mission of the MFRC, (2) technical approach and procedures, (3) capabilities, teaming, and leveraging, and (4) implementation plan. A successful proposal demonstrates knowledge of the background for the research and related work in the field and includes a research plan with a defined plan to implement the technology to benefit our partners at the crime laboratories. The project summaries are meant to demonstrate the range of research funded by the MFRC including chemistry, DNA, and patterned evidence. The project summaries describe the forensic need the projects serve as well as the benefits derived from the technology. The summaries provide a brief description of the technology and the accomplishments to date. In addition, the collaboration with regional partners and the status of the implementation of the technology are highlighted. These technical summaries represent the development and implementation of practical and useful technology for crime laboratories that the MFRC hopes to accomplish.

David Baldwin

2005-06-01

410

Statistical Science Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains links in several statistical categories, including other meta-sites (catalogs), universities, statistics departments, software, journals, data sets, methodology, conferences, and teaching, among others. It has an Australian flavor, but is international in scope. Gordon K. Smyth, Research scientist and mathematician, maintains this site.

1998-01-01

411

Medical studies and training duration for forensic pathologists in Germany.  

PubMed

This article gives a short overview of medical education in Germany. The legal basis and organization of the medical studies program as well as the course in forensic medicine and the training duration for forensic pathologists are described. PMID:12935530

Bockholdt, B; Rothschild, M A; Ehrlich, E; Maxeiner, H; Schneider, V

2001-06-01

412

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Regional Computer Forensics Laboratories (RCFL) Program provided critical digital forensics expertise, services, and training to thousands of law enforcement officers and hundreds of agencies nationwide during Fiscal Year 2010 (FY10). This year's achi...

2010-01-01

413

Forensic Analysis of Database Tampering Kyriacos E. Pavlou  

E-print Network

Forensic Analysis of Database Tampering Kyriacos E. Pavlou and Richard T. Snodgrass University- able databases, even by insiders. One approach is tamper detection via cryptographic hashing ultimately who did the tampering, via forensic analysis. We present four successively more sophisticated

Snodgrass, Richard T.

414

Validation of a frequency database for four STR loci for use in casework in the Strathclyde Police Forensic Science Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data for four STR loci have been collected from 400 samples taken from complainers and suspects encountered in casework at the Strathclyde Police Forensic Science Laboratory (SPFSL). This paper describes statistical testing which demonstrates that its use will provide operationally robust procedures. Comparisons made with data collected from other British samples confirmed no practical differences between the different frequency distributions.

L. D. Lee; M. Fairley; J. A. Lambert; I. W. Evett

1996-01-01

415

Maintaining dental records: Are we ready for forensic needs?  

PubMed Central

Context: Dental remains are usually the last to get destroyed among body parts after death. They may be useful for personal identification in cases of mass disasters and decomposed unidentified bodies. Dental records may help in the identification of suspects in criminal investigations and in medicolegal cases. Maintenance of dental records is legally mandatory in most of the European and American countries. Unfortunately, the law is not very clear in India, and the awareness is very poor. Aims: To assess the awareness regarding the dental record maintenance among dentists in Rajasthan, to deduce the quality of average dental records kept by them and to evaluate the potential use of their maintained records, in any of forensic or medicolegal cases. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 dental practitioners of different cities in Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, which was responded by the study population in the course of a telephonic interview. The questionnaire addressed on the mode of maintaining dental records in their regular practice. Statistical Analysis Used: The data so gathered were subjected for descriptive analysis. Results: As for knowledge or awareness about maintaining dental records, surprisingly a very low percentile (about 38%) of surveyed dentists maintained records. Sixty-two percent of the dentists were maintaining no records at all. Conclusion: Nonmaintenance or poor quality of records maintained indicates that the dentists in Rajasthan are not prepared for any kind of forensic and medicolegal need if it arises. PMID:22408320

Astekar, Madhusudan; Saawarn, Swati; Ramesh, Gayathri; Saawarn, Nisheeth

2011-01-01

416

Grant review of statistical methodology at BMRD  

E-print Network

(biomedical computing, informatics) 颅 ACE (AIDS) 颅 Others #12;Misconceptions about BMRD 路 BMRD is "tough think that "their" study sections are the "toughest," but toughness is irrelevant #12;Misconceptions becoming more common 颅 new 12 page limit for R01 Research Strategy (Significance, Innovation, Approach

Carlin, Bradley P.

417

Cancerous tissues in forensic genetic analysis.  

PubMed

Microsatellites or short tandem repeats (STRs) markers are important tools for mapping disease-causing genes by linkage, for performing investigations in forensic medicine, for population genetic studies and for studying genetic modifications in tumors. In forensic applications neoplastic tissues can be used as a source of genetic information for personal identification or paternity testing when no other specimen is available. Cancer tissues can show microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) also for the STRs used in the forensic field. In this study, we screened 56 sporadic gastrointestinal carcinomas in order to provide further data for the evaluation of the incidence of allelic alterations for 15 STR loci and the suitability of using cancerous tissues in forensic applications. Sixty-six percent of the cancerous tissues were found to possess allelic alterations of the microsatellites analyzed with a high incidence of MSI-L (microsatellite instability low) when compared to the corresponding normal tissue. The most frequently altered loci were D18S51, VWA, and FGA. From a forensic perspective, great care must be taken in evaluating the DNA typing results obtained from cancerous tissue samples. PMID:18294056

Pelotti, Susi; Ceccardi, Stefania; Al, Milena; Lugaresi, Federica; Trane, Rachele; Falconi, Mirella; Bini, Carla; Cicognani, Alberto

2007-01-01

418

Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

Reilly, Dallas David

419

Nuclear Forensics: A Holistic Overview  

SciTech Connect

Discussions of nuclear forensics are often restricted to work performed by radio-chemists measuring nuclear material attributes in the laboratory. However, this represents only one portion of the work required to answer critical questions. Laboratory analysis results in measurements that need to be evaluated. The results of those evaluations must be put into their proper context in order for them to be useful to others and often require merging those results with additional information. This may contribute to attribution, by virtue of inclusion or exclusion. Finally, the end product must be presented such that appropriate actions can be taken. This could include prosecution by law enforcement, policy initiatives on the part of legislative bodies, or military action in the case of nuclear attack (whether that attack is preempted or not). Using the discovery of a sample of plutonium during cleanup activities at Hanford in 2004, we will step through the process of discovery (representing an interdiction), initial field analysis, laboratory analysis, data evaluation and merging with additional data (similar to law enforcement and/or all source), thereby providing an example of an integrated approach.

Luksic, Andrzej T.; Friese, Judah I.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Starner, Jason R.; Wacker, John F.

2010-08-11

420

Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view  

PubMed Central

The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster. PMID:23087581

Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth

2012-01-01

421

Review The development and practice of forensic podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic podiatry a small, but potentially useful specialty using clinical podiatric knowledge for the purpose of person identification. The practice of forensic podiatry began in the early 1970s in Canada and the UK, although supportive research commenced later in the 1990s. Techniques of forensic podiatry include identification from podiatry records, the human footprint, footwear, and the analysis of gait forms

Wesley Vernon

422

Computational Forensics: Towards Hybrid-Intelligent Crime Investigation  

E-print Network

Computational Forensics: Towards Hybrid-Intelligent Crime Investigation Katrin Franke and Sargur on Computational Forensics, Manchester, England, August 30, 2007 #12;Computational Forensics: Towards Hybrid-Intelligent Crime Investigation Katrin Franke Norwegian Information Security Laboratory, Gj酶vik University College

423

Computer Forensics: An Essential Ingredient for Cyber Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer forensics uses computer investigation and analysis techniques to collect evidence regarding what happened on a computer that is admissible in a court of law. Computer forensics requires a well- balanced combination of technical skills, legal acumen, and ethical conduct. Computer forensics specialists use powerful software tools to uncover data to be sorted through, and then must figure out the

Richard Bassett; Linda Bass; Paul O'Brien

424

Change during forensic treatment in psychopathic versus nonpsychopathic offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychopathy in forensic psychiatric patients and other criminal offenders is associated with higher criminal recidivism rates. Moreover, many forensic mental health professionals believe that psychopaths are not amenable to treatment. The present study examines whether patients with psychopathy demonstrate change during forensic psychiatric treatment. Seventy-four personality disordered offenders who had been convicted for serious violence were rated on the the

Farid Chakhssi; Corine de Ruiter; David Bernstein

2010-01-01

425

A Quantitative Approach to Triaging in Mobile Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic study of mobile devices is a relatively new field, dating from the early 2000s. The proliferation of phones (particularly smart phones) on the consumer market has caused a growing demand for forensic examination of the devices, which could not be met by existing Computer Forensics techniques. As a matter of fact, Law enforcement are much more likely to encounter

Fabio Marturana; Gianluigi Me; Rosamaria Berte; Simone Tacconi

2011-01-01

426

CASE REPORT Three-Dimensional Computer Visualization of Forensic  

E-print Network

- atory directions, processes, and results within forensic pathology investigations. Key Words: computerCASE REPORT Three-Dimensional Computer Visualization of Forensic Pathology Data Jack March, BA in US courtrooms, it is only recently that forensic computer animations have become an increas- ingly

Schofield, Damian

427

Computer Forensics: Training and Education Robert F. Erbacher  

E-print Network

this prior knowledge can be used to improve the curriculum development process for computer forensics as many and processes can we achieve a level similar to that of the other forensic sciences. In develoComputer Forensics: Training and Education Robert F. Erbacher Department of Computer Science, LI 67

Erbacher, Robert F.

428

Forensic ScienceInternational 74 (1995) 155-165  

E-print Network

ELSEVIER Forensic ScienceInternational 74 (1995) 155-165 Forensic SCience The computer-aided facial Research Institute of Police Science, Tokyo 102, Japan bFirst Forensic Science Division, National Research process. The sys- tem, which consists of the image processing unit for skull morphometry and the image

Frey, Pascal

429

Memory Forensics: Review of Acquisition and Analysis Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents an overview of the most common memory forensics techniques used in the acquisition and analysis of a system's volatile memory. Memory forensics rose from obscurity in 2005 in response to a challenge issued by the Digital Forensics R...

G. Osbourne

2013-01-01

430

Challenge Paper: Validation of Forensic Techniques for Criminal Prosecution  

E-print Network

, and validatable? Is the analysis process following accepted forensic analysis requirements? When presented integrated with the process of designing and evaluating developed forensic techniques and the networks themselves. This derives from the work by Erbacher et al. [1] in which a proposed digital forensic process

Erbacher, Robert F.

431

Quaternary privacy-levels preservation in computer forensics investigation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privacy preservation and computer forensics investigation are two contradictory information security directions. The privacy preservation principle stress on utmost protection of users privacy as privacy is a right, whereas computer forensics investigation attempts to unearth user data for possible digital evidences hidden within them. Although, a number of research efforts have been directed towards privacy preservation during forensics investigation process

Waleed Halboob; Muhammad Abulaish; Khaled S. Alghathbar

2011-01-01

432

17 MODELING FORENSIC EVIDENCE SYSTEMS USING DESIGN SCIENCE  

E-print Network

-technical information systems research in regard to processing forensic evidence. The discussion then presents17 MODELING FORENSIC EVIDENCE SYSTEMS USING DESIGN SCIENCE Colin Armstrong Helen Armstrong School an overview of the application of design science research to the tactical management of forensic evidence

Paris-Sud XI, Universit茅 de

433

The Future of Forensic and Crime Scene Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the views expressed by UK forensic science users and providers during the Centre for Forensic Investigation's 1 day conference 慣he Future of Forensic and Crime Scene Science and is set in the context of the changing national agenda and likely advances in current and future technology.It begins by examining the success of the Home

Julie Mennell; Ian Shaw

2006-01-01

434

Biometric and Forensic Aspects of Digital Document Processing  

E-print Network

Biometric and Forensic Aspects of Digital Document Processing Sargur N. Srihari, Chen Huang, Harish and in forensics, e.g., to authenticate docu- ments, as evidence to establish crime or innocence, etc. The individuality of handwriting and signatures is the basis for their relevance to authenti- cation and forensics

435

A Common Scheme for Evaluation of Forensic Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a first common evaluation scheme for forensic software. Therefore, we investigate potential attacks on forensic software to derive preliminary attacker models. We use the Federal Rules of Evidence and the Daubert Challenge of the US jurisdiction to investigate the legal fundamentals for forensic software and to show tendencies for other countries. Furthermore, current approaches for the validation and

Mario Hildebrandt; Stefan Kiltz; Jana Dittmann

2011-01-01

436

Forensically Determining the Order of Signal Processing Operations  

E-print Network

Forensically Determining the Order of Signal Processing Operations Matthew C. Stamm #1 , Xiaoyu Chu to identify the use of specific image processing operations and manipulations. These forensic techniques work's processing history. In this paper, we present a framework for forensically deter mining t

Liu, K. J. Ray

437

Biografo: An Integrated Tool for Forensic Writer Identification  

E-print Network

designed to help forensic examiners along the complete identification process: from the data acquisitionBiografo: An Integrated Tool for Forensic Writer Identification Javier Galbally, Santiago Gonzalez of a practical integrated tool for writer identification in forensic scenarios is presented. The tool has been

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

438

Relative Generic Computational Forensic Jennifer L. Wong and Miodrag Potkonjak  

E-print Network

University of California, Los Angeles Abstract. Computational forensic engineering is the process of identiRelative Generic Computational Forensic Techniques Jennifer L. Wong and Miodrag Potkonjak the structural properties of the out- put. We introduce a new Relative Generic Forensic Engineering (RGFE

Potkonjak, Miodrag

439

BLOCK SIZE FORENSIC ANALYSIS IN DIGITAL IMAGES Steven Tjoa  

E-print Network

to processing. An important first step to forensic analysis is the detection and estimation of block processing@ece.ualberta.ca. To even begin forensic analysis for digital images, we must first address the presence of block processingBLOCK SIZE FORENSIC ANALYSIS IN DIGITAL IMAGES Steven Tjoa , W. Sabrina Lin , H. Vicky Zhao , and K

Liu, K. J. Ray

440

Quality Assurance as Pedagogy for Academic Forensic Anthropology Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surety-based quality assurance program is the hallmark of an efficient and reliable forensic laboratory, as well as a basic requirement for accreditation and\\/or certification. Most forensic laboratories are staffed by professional scientists who have completed their education and training. However, many, if not most, forensic anthropology laboratories are placed in academic institutions in which graduate education is a primary

Michael W. Warren; Traci Van Deest; Kristina Ballard

2011-01-01

441

A Strategy for Improving Forensic Anthropology Research Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent discussions about future developments of forensic anthropology have inspired this proposal about how small forensic anthropology programs may increase research capacity by utilizing a collaborative research protocol and establishing a deeded body program. Forensic anthropologists would benefit from developing collaborative research groups and protocols, such as that illustrated by the integrative measurement protocol produced by the Bones and Behavior

Phoebe R. Stubblefield

2011-01-01

442

Application Guidelines Master of Science in Forensic Sciences  

E-print Network

forensic toxicology/trace evidence (chemistry or biochemistry) Options available for professionalsApplication Guidelines Master of Science in Forensic Sciences OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR HEALTH SCIENCES Updated 2/13/2014 OSU School of Forensic Sciences 1111 West 17th Street, Tulsa, OK 74107

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

443

Synchrotron radiation identified human chemical fingerprints a novel forensic approach  

E-print Network

a forensic analysis of the fingerprint chemistry, or to identify the latent prints of pre-pubescent childrenSynchrotron radiation identified human chemical fingerprints 颅 a novel forensic approach T with the goal of developing an advanced forensic technique to identify complicated partial latent prints

444

IMAGE SOURCE CODING FORENSICS VIA INTRINSIC FINGERPRINTS W. Sabrina Lin  

E-print Network

IMAGE SOURCE CODING FORENSICS VIA INTRINSIC FINGERPRINTS W. Sabrina Lin , Steve Tjoa ,H. Vicky Zhao the intrinsic fingerprints as trace of evidences, we construct an image source coding forensic system they know whether this copy comes from a trusted source. Therefore, it is critical to provide forensic tools

Liu, K. J. Ray

445

Sensor Defects in Digital Image Forensic Jessica Fridrich  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Sensor Defects in Digital Image Forensic Jessica Fridrich Just as human fingerprints or skin blemishes can be used for forensic pur- poses, imperfections of digital imaging sensors can serve as unique identifiers in numerous forensic applications, such as matching an image to a specific camera

Fridrich, Jessica

446

Forensic science in Australia Can we learn from international reports?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of international reports, including the National Academies (NAS) report from the USA, have highlighted shortcomings in wide-ranging aspects of forensic science. The reports not only target service delivery issues but also the fundamental underpinnings of forensic science with respect to its knowledge base. How does forensic science in Australia compare? What would the reports say if the studies

Alastair Ross

2011-01-01

447

Accessibility and Order: Crossing Borders in Child Abuse Forensic Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicians write child abuse forensic reports for nonphysicians. We examined 73 forensic reports from a Canadian children's hospital for recurrent strategies geared toward making medical information accessible to nonmedical users; we also interviewed four report writers and five readers. These reports featured unique forensic inserts in addition to headings, lists, and parentheses, which are typical of physician letters for patients.

Marlee M. Spafford; Catherine F. Schryer; Lorelei Lingard; Marcellina Mian

2010-01-01

448

Crime Scene Genetics: Transforming Forensic Science through Molecular Technologies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Advances in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) technology over the past 25 years have led to spectacularly precise forensic identification techniques, although some applications have also unleashed controversies regarding genetic privacy. Current molecular forensic work is pushing these technologies even further by analyzing extremely damaged DNA and by introducing RNA (ribonucleic acid) techniques to forensics.

Melissa Lee Phillips (Freelance Science Writer;)

2008-06-01

449

Threats to Privacy in the Forensic Analysis of Database Systems  

E-print Network

Threats to Privacy in the Forensic Analysis of Database Systems Patrick Stahlberg, Gerome Miklau of data stored in database systems. This data can be recovered by forensic analysis, and it poses a threat to forensic analysis. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.2.4 [Systems]: Relational Databases; H.2

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

450

Validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory for Forensic Assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is a relatively newself-report inventory that has become popular in correctional and forensic settings. The utility of thePAI for forensic assessments was investigated in a sample of 127 adult male forensic psychiatric patients. Theoretically relevant PAI scales and subscales were used as predictors of criterion variables of violence, lifetime diagnosis of psychosis, and lifetime diagnosis

Kevin S. Douglas; Stephen D. Hart; P. Randall Kropp

2001-01-01

451

Remarks on forensically interesting Sony Playstation 3 console features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with forensically interesting features of the Sony Playstation 3 game console. The construction and the internal structure are analyzed more precisely. Interesting forensic features of the operating system and the file system are presented. Differences between a PS3 with and without jailbreak are introduced and possible forensic attempts when using an installed Linux are discussed.

Daugs, Gunnar; Kr鰃er, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2012-02-01

452

Accountability and psychiatric disorders: How do forensic psychiatric professionals think?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swedish penal law does not exculpate on the grounds of diminished accountability; persons judged to suffer from severe mental disorder are sentenced to forensic psychiatric care instead of prison. Re-introduction of accountability as a condition for legal responsibility has been advocated, not least by forensic psychiatric professionals. To investigate how professionals in forensic psychiatry would assess degree of accountability based

Pontus H鰃lund; Sten Levander; Henrik Anckars鋞er; Susanna Radovic

2009-01-01

453

Subject-based Semantic Document Clustering for Digital Forensic Investigations  

E-print Network

Subject-based Semantic Document Clustering for Digital Forensic Investigations Gaby G. Dagher computers has created a demand for special forensic tools that allow investigators to look for evidence by the forensic process at S^uret麓e du Qu麓ebec (SQ), the Qu麓ebec provincial police, we propose a new subject

Fung, Benjamin C. M.

454

Significant genetic correlations among Caucasians at forensic DNA loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the effect of population differentiation on the forensic use of DNA profiles has been the subject of controversy for some years now, the debate has largely failed to focus on the genetical questions directly relevant to the forensic context. We re-analyse two published data sets and find that they convey much the same message for forensic inference, in contrast

DAVID J. BALDING; RICHARD A. NICHOLS

1997-01-01

455

Automated method for the removal of unwanted nonperiodic patterns from forensic images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is the removal of distracting background patterns from forensic evidence so that the evidence is rendered more visible. An example is the image of a finger print on a non-periodic background. The method involves registering the image with a control image of the background pattern that we seek to remove. A statistical comparison of the registered images identifies the latent mark.

Capel, David; Zisserman, Andrew; Bramble, Simon K.; Compton, David

1999-02-01

456

Forensic sciences and forensic odontology: issues for dental hygienists and therapists.  

PubMed

The scientific literature contains very little about the role of the dental hygienist/therapist in the specific areas of forensic investigations and collection of evidence. The authors examine how the contribution of a highly qualified dental hygienist can be particularly helpful during human forensic identification operations and non-accidental traumas like domestic violence, child abuse, neglect and bitemarks. Forensic dental identification of human remains is a highly complex multidisciplinary challenge. It requires the involvement of several professionals who are expert in forensic science. Among these, one or more adequately trained dental hygienists could be involved. Dental hygienists/therapists may also be asked to record cutaneous lesions in two different situations. The first may be the dental office where she/he may detect oval, elliptic, or semicircular lesions on the skin of the uncovered neck, shoulder and arms of a patient. The second is the crime scene or the morgue (if one is involved), which may require a visit by the forensic odontologist called by the medical examiner or the coroner to perform an odontological autopsy. The purpose of our study is to highlight procedures that should be followed by the dental hygienist/therapist in collecting forensic information in the above-mentioned scenarios. As a valuable resource, the authors recommend training of dental hygienists in the area of forensic sciences, with particular attention to information technology and photography. PMID:19145795

Nuzzolese, E; Lepore, M M; Cukovic-Bagic, I; Montagna, F; Di Vella, G

2008-12-01

457

Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist  

PubMed Central

The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public. PMID:23162478

Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D.; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C.; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

2012-01-01

458

Forensic science, genetics and wildlife biology: getting the right mix for a wildlife DNA forensics lab.  

PubMed

Wildlife DNA forensics is receiving increasing coverage in the popular press and has begun to appear in the scientific literature in relation to several different fields. Recognized as an applied subject, it rests on top of very diverse scientific pillars ranging from biochemistry through to evolutionary genetics, all embedded within the context of modern forensic science. This breadth of scope, combined with typically limited resources, has often left wildlife DNA forensics hanging precariously between human DNA forensics and academics keen to seek novel applications for biological research. How best to bridge this gap is a matter for regular debate among the relatively few full-time practitioners in the field. The decisions involved in establishing forensic genetic services to investigate wildlife crime can be complex, particularly where crimes involve a wide range of species and evidential questions. This paper examines some of the issues relevant to setting up a wildlife DNA forensics laboratory based on experiences of working in this area over the past 7 years. It includes a discussion of various models for operating individual laboratories as well as options for organizing forensic testing at higher national and international levels. PMID:20593251

Ogden, Rob

2010-09-01

459

Methodological Gravitism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author presents the case of the exchange marriage system to delineate a model of methodological gravitism. Such a model is not a deviation from or alteration to the existing qualitative research approaches. I have adopted culturally specific methodology to investigate spouse selection in line with the Grounded Theory Method. This

Zaman, Muhammad

2011-01-01

460

Validation of a frequency database for four STR loci for use in casework in the Strathclyde Police Forensic Science Laboratory.  

PubMed

Data for four STR loci have been collected from 400 samples taken from complainers and suspects encountered in casework at the Strathclyde Police Forensic Science Laboratory (SPFSL). This paper describes statistical testing which demonstrates that its use will provide operationally robust procedures. Comparisons made with data collected from other British samples confirmed no practical differences between the different frequency distributions. This work provides further confirmation of the reliability of the so-called "product rule' in estimating the frequency of multilocus genotypes in British forensic casework. PMID:8635772

Lee, L D; Fairley, M; Lambert, J A; Evett, I W

1996-05-17

461

Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession. A Survey of Educational Offerings in the Forensic Sciences. Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of the educational offerings in the Forensic Sciences was initiated to identify institutions and agencies offering educational courses and/or programs in the forensic sciences and to evaluate the availability of these programs. The information gathered by surveying members of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences reveals that

Field, Kenneth S.; And Others

462

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 3, NO. 1, MARCH 2008 101 Digital Image Forensics via Intrinsic Fingerprints  

E-print Network

Image Forensics via Intrinsic Fingerprints Ashwin Swaminathan, Student Member, IEEE, Min Wu, Senior-acquisition foren- sics, intrinsic fingerprints, nonintrusive image forensics, steganal- ysis, tampering detectionIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 3, NO. 1, MARCH 2008 101 Digital

Liu, K. J. Ray

463

1456 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 8, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2013 Robust Median Filtering Forensics Using an  

E-print Network

Object Identifier 10.1109/TIFS.2013.2273394 ations. By identifying these fingerprints, a forensic1456 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 8, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2013 Robust Median Filtering Forensics Using an Autoregressive Model Xiangui Kang, Member, IEEE, Matthew C. Stamm

Liu, K. J. Ray

464

forensic dentistryA look at forensic dentistry Part 1: The role of teeth in the determination of human identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic dentistry can be defined in many ways. One of the more elegant definitions is simply that forensic dentistry represents the overlap between the dental and the legal professions. This two-part series presents the field of forensic dentistry by outlining two of the major aspects of the profession: human identification and bite marks. This first paper examines the use of

I A Pretty; D Sweet

2001-01-01

465

Applying Machine Trust Models to Forensic Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital forensics involves the identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of electronic evidence for use in legal proceedings. In the presence of contradictory evidence, forensic investigators need a means to determine which evidence can be trusted. This is particularly true in a trust model environment where computerised agents may make trust-based decisions that influence interactions within the system. This paper focuses on the analysis of evidence in trust-based environments and the determination of the degree to which evidence can be trusted. The trust model proposed in this work may be implemented in a tool for conducting trust-based forensic investigations. The model takes into account the trust environment and parameters that influence interactions in a computer network being investigated. Also, it allows for crimes to be reenacted to create more substantial evidentiary proof.

Wojcik, Marika; Venter, Hein; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin

466

Plant Pathogen Forensics: Capabilities, Needs, and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

A biological attack on U.S. crops, rangelands, or forests could reduce yield and quality, erode consumer confidence, affect economic health and the environment, and possibly impact human nutrition and international relations. Preparedness for a crop bioterror event requires a strong national security plan that includes steps for microbial forensics and criminal attribution. However, U.S. crop producers, consultants, and agricultural scientists have traditionally focused primarily on strategies for prevention and management of diseases introduced naturally or unintentionally rather than on responding appropriately to an intentional pathogen introduction. We assess currently available information, technologies, and resources that were developed originally to ensure plant health but also could be utilized for postintroduction plant pathogen forensics. Recommendations for prioritization of efforts and resource expenditures needed to enhance our plant pathogen forensics capabilities are presented. PMID:16760310

Fletcher, J.; Bender, C.; Budowle, B.; Cobb, W. T.; Gold, S. E.; Ishimaru, C. A.; Luster, D.; Melcher, U.; Murch, R.; Scherm, H.; Seem, R. C.; Sherwood, J. L.; Sobral, B. W.; Tolin, S. A.

2006-01-01

467

Tools and techniques for Network Forensics  

E-print Network

Network forensics deals with the capture, recording and analysis of network events in order to discover evidential information about the source of security attacks in a court of law. This paper discusses the different tools and techniques available to conduct network forensics. Some of the tools discussed include: eMailTrackerPro to identify the physical location of an email sender; Web Historian to find the duration of each visit and the files uploaded and downloaded from the visited website; packet sniffers like Etherea to capture and analyze the data exchanged among the different computers in the network. The second half of the paper presents a survey of different IP traceback techniques like packet marking that help a forensic investigator to identify the true sources of the attacking IP packets. We also discuss the use of Honeypots and Honeynets that gather intelligence about the enemy and the tools and tactics of network intruders.

Meghanathan, Natarajan; Moore, Loretta A

2010-01-01

468

Usefulness: forensic photo documentation after sexual assault.  

PubMed

The forensic medical legal evaluation following sexual assault establishes evidence for law enforcement's investigation and criminal prosecution by the legal system. The sexual assault nurse examiner performs the forensic evaluation and uses digital photography to document physical injuries after sexual assault. Photographs have varying degrees of usefulness, but for a photograph to be useful, it must exhibit technical elements for the viewer. There was no tool available to evaluate the usefulness of digital photographs taken during forensic evaluation of genital injuries after sexual assault. The Photo Documentation Image Quality Scoring System (PDIQSS) tool was developed to rate photographic technical elements for usefulness. Using this tool, three experts on two separate occasions evaluated a series of digital photographs taken following sexual assault. The PDIQSS tool predicted usefulness in digital photography of female genital injuries following sexual assault when measured in all dimensions. PMID:21317696

Ernst, E J; Speck, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J

2011-01-01

469

Women's rights in Pakistan: a forensic perspective.  

PubMed

Pakistan is a large and an important West Asian country which came into being in the name of Islam and therefore Islamic tenets remain the core of its constitution. The laws of the state have to conform to Islamic law so that they can have a positive impact on the society. Unfortunately, in Pakistan today not all men enjoy the rights and facilities to which they are entitled and women are doubly disadvantaged by poverty and gender. With their own political agendas, various governments have promulgated laws which affect the society in various ways. The laws which directly influence women's rights merit mention, as women comprise more than 50% of the population of Pakistan and are still kept on the sidelines by the male dominant society. The Muslim Family Law Ordinance, 1961, and the Hudood Ordinance, 1979 were both promulgated by military dictators with different visions. The former codified the rights of women bestowed by Islamic law; the latter repealed laws for sexual offences according to the injunctions of Islam and had a negative impact. Both laws need the assistance of forensic medicine as age estimation and medical examinations are necessary if they are to be followed in the right perspective. However, a legal need for an examination by an expert in forensic medicine is sadly lacking in both laws. This has happened due to lack of training of forensic physicians and therefore a lack of research in important areas of forensic medicine in the country. This paper examines these laws and the interaction they have with forensic medicine and proposes that the laws need revision in accordance with modern science, incorporating forensic sciences as well as the injunctions of Islam. PMID:12741660

Hadi, Sibte

2003-04-01

470

A Small Scale Digital Device Forensics ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract桽mall Scale Digital Device Forensics (SSDDF) is a relatively new,and rapidly changing,field of study which is in dire need of direction. Specifically, the devices and their corresponding forensic processes and,procedures,are vague,and in a perpetual state of uncertainty. The purpose,of this paper,was,to develop an ontological to provide,law enforcement,with the appropriate knowledge,regarding,the devices found,in the SSDD domain. Additionally, this ontology can be

David Christopher Harrill; Richard P. Mislan

2007-01-01

471

Location tracking forensics on mobile devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spread of navigation devices has increased significantly over the last 10 years. With the help of the current development of even smaller navigation receiver units it is to navigate with almost any current smart phone. Modern navigation systems are no longer limited to satellite navigation, but use current techniques, e.g. WLAN localization. Due to the increased use of navigation devices their relevance to forensic investigations has risen rapidly. Because navigation, for example with navigation equipment and smartphones, have become common place these days, also the amount of saved navigation data has risen rapidly. All of these developments lead to a necessary forensic analysis of these devices. However, there are very few current procedures for investigating of navigation devices. Navigation data is forensically interesting because by the position of the devices in most cases the location and the traveled path of the owner can be reconstructed. In this work practices for forensic analysis of navigation devices are developed. Different devices will be analyzed and it is attempted, by means of forensic procedures to restore the traveled path of the mobile device. For analysis of the various devices different software and hardware is used. There will be presented common procedures for securing and testing of mobile devices. Further there will be represented the specials in the investigation of each device. The different classes considered are GPS handhelds, mobile navigation devices and smartphones. It will be attempted, wherever possible, to read all data of the device. The aim is to restore complete histories of the navigation data and to forensically study and analyze these data. This is realized by the usage of current forensic software e.g. TomTology or Oxygen Forensic Suite. It is also attempted to use free software whenever possible. Further alternative methods are used (e.g. rooting) to access locked data of the unit. To limit the practical work the data extraction is focused on the frequently used device sample of a specific class, as the procedure for many groups of devices can be similar. In the present work a Garmin Dakota 10, a TomTom GO 700, an iPhone 4 (iOS) and a Samsung Galaxy S Plus (Android) is used because they have a wide circulation.

Sack, Stefan; Kr鰃er, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2013-03-01

472

[Metabonomics and its perspective on forensic medicine].  

PubMed

Metabolomics is a new study, which use chromatography, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques on the cells, organs and other body fluids and metabolites in samples were isolated, purified and testing, re-use bioinformatics tools on the obtained data are analyzed to obtain one or a set of biomarker information. Based on analysis of the literatures in recent years, metabolomics was summarized from history, concept, advantage, methods, application, difficulties and challenges, journals and books, websites, and its application in forensic medicine was forecasted. As a new branch of global system biology, metabonomics developed rapidly, and its perspective on forensic medicine was feasible and very optimistic. PMID:21287744

Zhang, Gao-Qin; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Da-Ming; Liu, Yao

2010-10-01

473

Developing a one-semester course in forensic chemical science for university undergraduates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to research, develop and validate a one-semester course for the general education of university undergraduates in forensic chemical education. The course outline was developed using the research and development (R&D) methodology recommended by Gall, Borg, and Gall, (2003) and Dick and Carey, (2001) through a three step developmental cycle. Information was gathered and analyzed through review of literature and proof of concept interviews, laying the foundation for the framework of the course outline. A preliminary course outline was developed after a needs assessment showed need for such a course. Professors expert in the area of forensic science participated in the first field test of the course. Their feedback was recorded, and the course was revised for a main field test. Potential users of the guide served as readers for the main field test and offered more feedback to improve the course.

Salem, Roberta Sue

474

[Forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks].  

PubMed

As an important component of judicial expertise, forensic science is broad and highly specialized. With development of network technology, increasement of information resources, and improvement of people's legal consciousness, forensic scientists encounter many new problems, and have been required to meet higher evidentiary standards in litigation. In view of this, evidence-based concept should be established in forensic medicine. We should find the most suitable method in forensic science field and other related area to solve specific problems in the evidence-based mode. Evidence-based practice can solve the problems in legal medical field, and it will play a great role in promoting the progress and development of forensic science. This article reviews the basic theory of evidence-based medicine and its effect, way, method, and evaluation in the forensic medicine in order to discuss the application value of forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks. PMID:24665620

Qiu, Yun-Liang; Peng, Ming-Qi

2013-12-01

475

Developing the Recruiting/Public Relations Potential of the Forensic Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recruiting strategies for a forensic program may be improved by cooperation between the admissions office and the forensic coach, by using various types of recruiting efforts, and by publicizing the forensic program. Recruiting efforts include: (1) creating pamphlets on the forensic program; (2) having college forensic students judge at high

Twohy, Kevin M.

476

From Manual Cyber Attacks Forensic to  

E-print Network

. Naturally, security administrators have deployed new sensors and services to monitor cyber attacks, block and security systems have increased from human readable information to very large databases where millionsFrom Manual Cyber Attacks Forensic to Automatic Characterization of Attackers' Profiles J. Briffaut

Paris-Sud XI, Universit茅 de

477

Commentary: on research and forensic patients' capacity.  

PubMed

The author agrees that McDermott and colleagues present evidence that may support and ethically facilitate clinical research in the forensic population. Such research is sorely needed if we are to better understand and find new ways to help this population. PMID:16186192

Lamb, H Richard

2005-01-01

478

Forensic molecular pathology of violent deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

In forensic pathology, while classical morphology remains a core procedure to investigate deaths, a spectrum of ancillary procedures has been developed and incorporated to detail the pathology. Among them, postmortem biochemistry is important to investigate the systemic pathophysiological changes involved in the dying process that cannot be detected by morphology. In addition, recent advances in molecular biology have provided a

Hitoshi Maeda; Bao-li Zhu; Takaki Ishikawa; Tomomi Michiue

2010-01-01

479

Advancing the science of forensic data management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many individual elements comprise a typical forensics process. Collecting evidence, analyzing it, and using results to draw conclusions are all mutually distinct endeavors. Different physical locations and personnel are involved, juxtaposed against an acute need for security and data integrity. Using digital technologies and the Internet's ubiquity, these diverse elements can be conjoined using digital data as the common element.

Timothy S. Naughton

2002-01-01

480

Computer Forensics Field Triage Process Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proliferation of digital based evidence, the need for the timely identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence is becoming more crucial. In many investigations critical information is required while at the scene or within a short period of time - measured in hours as opposed to days. The traditional cyber forensics approach of seizing a system(s)\\/media, transporting it

Marcus K. Rogers; James Goldman; Rick Mislan; Timothy Wedge; Steve Debrota

2006-01-01

481

FIPE: a forensic image-processing environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the `Image and Signal Processing' section at the INCC\\/NICC is to develop their own software tools in image processing. This paper gives an overview of the image processing environment that has been developed for about two years in the section. Above all, the main idea of FIPE (Forensic Image Processing Environment) is to build an user- friendly

Thai Quan Huynh-Thu; Yves Lardinois

1999-01-01

482

Digital Forensics Analysis of Spectral Estimation Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message. In today抯 world, it is widely used in order to secure the information. Since digital forensics aims to detect, recover and examine the digital evidence and steganography is a method for

Tolga Mataracioglu; Unal Tatar

2010-01-01

483

Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)

Bruce, Alease

2001-01-01

484

Forensic anthropology of sex and body size  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of sex and estimation of stature are among the important aspect of forensic anthropology. These characteristics display population specific variation and therefore, need further attention for major populations of the world. The aim of this special issue is to bring together scientific papers dealing with new anthropological techniques and knowledge about populations that are least known. The present

Mehmet Ya?ar ??can

2005-01-01

485

Enhancing forensic science with spectroscopic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation outlines the research we are developing in the area of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging with the focus on materials of forensic interest. FTIR spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a powerful tool for characterisation of heterogeneous materials. FTIR imaging relies on the ability of the military-developed infrared array detector to simultaneously measure spectra from thousands of

Camilla Ricci; Sergei G. Kazarian

2006-01-01

486

Digital Forensic Readiness: Are We There Yet?  

E-print Network

, the majority of organizations should have already prepared both business continuity and incident response plans should be capable of preparing a plan on how to effectively address both interests: business continuity.co.za Abstract--Digital Forensic Readiness is defined as the pre- incident plan that deals with an organization

Li, Chang-Tsun

487

Forensic Accounting: Older Than You Think  

Microsoft Academic Search

A form of forensic accounting can be traced back to an 1817 court decision involving a bank- rupt estate. A young Scottish accountant issued a circular advertising his expertise in arbitra- tion support in 1824, and in the late 1800's and early 1900's articles began to appear dis- cussing expert witnessing, evidence arbitration, and awards. Maurice E. Peloubet, a partner

D. Larry Crumbley

488

Trial by Science: A Forensic Extravaganza  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This intriguing crime-solving activity for middle level students demonstrates some of the basics of forensic science; including the analysis of fingerprints, hair, fiber, and soil evidence. The realism of the scenario is enhanced by recruiting adult volunteers to serve as suspects that can be questioned and tried by students through the process of scientific inquiry.

Hunt, Vanessa

2004-05-01

489

Scalable Multimedia Fingerprinting Forensics with Side Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital fingerprinting uniquely labels each distributed copy with user's ID and provides a proactive means to track the dis- tribution of multimedia. Multi-user collusion is a powerful attack against digital fingerprinting, in which a group of attackers col- lectively mount attacks to remove the embedded identification in- formation. To resist such multi-user collusion and support multi- media forensics, this paper

Wan-yi Sabrina Lin; H. Vicky Zhao; K. J. R. Ray liu

2006-01-01

490

Psychological Test Use in Criminal Forensic Evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors surveyed forensic psychologists and psychiatrists (about 80% of whom were board certified) regarding their use of psychological testing in evaluations for competence to stand trial (CST; n = 102) and criminal responsibility (CR; n = 96), as well as their opinions about the importance of psychological testing for these evaluations. Psychological testing was perceived as either essential or

Randy Borum; Thomas Grisso

1995-01-01

491

Automatic forensic face recognition from digital images.  

PubMed

Digital image evidence is now widely available from criminal investigations and surveillance operations, often captured by security and surveillance CCTV. This has resulted in a growing demand from law enforcement agencies for automatic person-recognition based on image data. In forensic science, a fundamental requirement for such automatic face recognition is to evaluate the weight that can justifiably be attached to this recognition evidence in a scientific framework. This paper describes a pilot study carried out by the Forensic Science Service (UK) which explores the use of digital facial images in forensic investigation. For the purpose of the experiment a specific software package was chosen (Image Metrics Optasia). The paper does not describe the techniques used by the software to reach its decision of probabilistic matches to facial images, but accepts the output of the software as though it were a 'black box'. In this way, the paper lays a foundation for how face recognition systems can be compared in a forensic framework. The aim of the paper is to explore how reliably and under what conditions digital facial images can be presented in evidence. PMID:14964819

Peacock, C; Goode, A; Brett, A

2004-01-01

492

Detecting Deceit: Fraud and the Forensic Accountant  

Microsoft Academic Search

With various types of fraud and white-collar crime cases on the rise, an ever-present need to combat and prevent fraud exists. In order to advise business on key precautions and to seek out and investigate fraud, a specialized industry has materialized. Forensic Accounting, a discipline that encompasses accounting, auditing, and investigation represents one of the fastest growing areas in professional

Jessica Rubin

2005-01-01

493

Developing forensic mental healthcare in kosovo.  

PubMed

In many economically struggling societies, forensic psychiatry is still in its initial developmental stages and thus forensic patients pose an ongoing challenge for the healthcare and juridical systems. In this article, we present the various issues and problems that arose when establishing the first forensic psychiatric institute in Kosovo - a country whose population has constantly been reported as suffering from a high psychiatric morbidity due to long-lasting traumatic experiences during the war of 1999. The implementation of a new forensic psychiatric institute in the developing mental healthcare system of Kosovo, still characterized by considerable shortages, required substantial effort on various levels. On the policy and financial level, it was made possible by a clear intent and coordinated commitment of all responsible national stakeholders and authorities, such as the Ministries of Health and Justice, and by the financial contribution of the European Commission. Most decisive in terms of the success of the project was capacity building in human resources, i.e., the recruitment and training of motivated staff. Training included essential clinical and theoretical issues as well as clearly defined standard operation procedures, guidelines, and checklists to aid daily routine work and the management of challenging situations. PMID:24779004

Salize, Hans Joachim; Lavikainen, Juha; Sepp鋘en, Allan; Gjocaj, Milazim

2014-01-01

494

Sobre alguns aspectes contraposats en fon鑤ica forense  

Microsoft Academic Search

El que entenem aqu per fon鑤ica forense compr鑞 dos objectius jur韉ics i judicials separats per unes perspectives metodol騡iques molt, encara que no totalment, diferents. Es tracta del que anomeno d抲na manera gen鑢ica la 慶omparaci de marques i la 慽dentificaci de veu. El primer treballa per establir si dues o m閟 expressions utilitzades per distingir uns mateixos productes o serveis poden

Ramon Cerd Mass

2008-01-01

495

Overcoming Impediments to Cell Phone Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell phones are an emerging but rapidly growing area of computer forensics. While cell phones are becoming more like desktop computers functionally, their organization and operation are quite different in certain areas. For example, most cell phones do not contain a hard drive and rely instead on flash memory for persistent storage. Cell phones are also designed more as special-

Wayne Jansen; Aur閘ien Delaitre; Ludovic Moenner

2008-01-01

496

The Wrongful Conviction of Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of claims that faulty forensic science is a leading cause of wrongful convictions. This sentiment has been reported at length by major news outlets across the United States. It has also been a matter of great concern to a group of activists in what is known as the innocence network

John M. Collins; Jay Jarvis

2009-01-01

497

Fire sales forensics: measuring endogenous risk  

E-print Network

Fire sales forensics: measuring endogenous risk Rama Cont & Lakshithe Wagalath May 12, 2012 Abstract We propose a tractable framework for quantifying the impact of fire sales on the volatility and correlations of asset returns in a multi-asset setting. Our results enable to quantify the impact of fire sales

Paris-Sud XI, Universit茅 de

498

Bone finds: a challenge to forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presented here is based on 176 forensic dental reports compiled between 1993 and 2001. The bulk of the research took place in 1997, when major construction at Potsdamer Platz and Lehrter Bahnhof in central Berlin required the excavation of considerable quantities of earth. As building proceeded here, at 慐urope's biggest construction site, it revealed not only a large

Melanie Ganswindt; Edwin Ehrlich; Peter Klostermann; Wolf-Gunther Troike; Volkmar Schneider

2003-01-01

499

Martin Hall Lecture on Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Martin Hall, of the entomology department at the Natural History Museum in London, lectures on forensic entomology. He covers maggot behavior, the blow fly life cycle, how blow flies find a body and how to collect maggots. Requires QuickTime or Windows Media Player.

0002-11-30

500

Multi-Database Searching in Forensic Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional library skills have been augmented since the introduction of online computerized database services. Because of the complexity of the field, forensic psychology can benefit enormously from the application of comprehensive bibliographic search strategies. The study reported here demonstrated the bibliographic results obtained when a

Piotrowski, Chris; Perdue, Robert W.