Science.gov

Sample records for statistical forensic methodology

  1. Statistics in Practice Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    Lucy, David

    Statistics in Practice Forensic Science Dr. David Lucy d.lucy@lancaster.ac.uk Lancaster University Statistics in Practice ­ p.1/36 #12;Forensic Science Criminal evidence becoming increasingly "scientific in Practice ­ p.2/36 #12;Forensic Science Greater realisation that uncertainty is important has lead to

  2. Forensic Statistics: Ready for consumption?

    E-print Network

    Gill, Richard D.

    to develop (empirically calibrated) likelihood ratio (solve curse of dimension: empirical Bayes?, statistical of problems with the LR approach. Big challenges (both from legal and statistical point of view). Two- wayForensic Statistics: Ready for consumption? Richard Gill Mathematical Institute, Leiden University

  3. Statistical Tools for Digital Image Forensics

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    Statistical Tools for Digital Image Forensics A thesis submitted to the faculty in partial for Digital Image Forensics Alin C. Popescu A digitally altered image, often leaving no visual clues of having

  4. Natural Image Statistics for Digital Image Forensics

    E-print Network

    Natural Image Statistics for Digital Image Forensics A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial, for their endless love and support. #12;Abstract Natural Image Statistics for Digital Image Forensics Siwei Lyu We fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Computer Science by Siwei Lyu

  5. Statistical Tools for Forensic Analysis of Toolmarks

    SciTech Connect

    David Baldwin; Max Morris; Stan Bajic; Zhigang Zhou; James Kreiser

    2004-04-22

    Recovery and comparison of toolmarks, footprint impressions, and fractured surfaces connected to a crime scene are of great importance in forensic science. The purpose of this project is to provide statistical tools for the validation of the proposition that particular manufacturing processes produce marks on the work-product (or tool) that are substantially different from tool to tool. The approach to validation involves the collection of digital images of toolmarks produced by various tool manufacturing methods on produced work-products and the development of statistical methods for data reduction and analysis of the images. The developed statistical methods provide a means to objectively calculate a ''degree of association'' between matches of similarly produced toolmarks. The basis for statistical method development relies on ''discriminating criteria'' that examiners use to identify features and spatial relationships in their analysis of forensic samples. The developed data reduction algorithms utilize the same rules used by examiners for classification and association of toolmarks.

  6. Nuclear Forensic Inferences Using Iterative Multidimensional Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Robel, M; Kristo, M J; Heller, M A

    2009-06-09

    Nuclear forensics involves the analysis of interdicted nuclear material for specific material characteristics (referred to as 'signatures') that imply specific geographical locations, production processes, culprit intentions, etc. Predictive signatures rely on expert knowledge of physics, chemistry, and engineering to develop inferences from these material characteristics. Comparative signatures, on the other hand, rely on comparison of the material characteristics of the interdicted sample (the 'questioned sample' in FBI parlance) with those of a set of known samples. In the ideal case, the set of known samples would be a comprehensive nuclear forensics database, a database which does not currently exist. In fact, our ability to analyze interdicted samples and produce an extensive list of precise materials characteristics far exceeds our ability to interpret the results. Therefore, as we seek to develop the extensive databases necessary for nuclear forensics, we must also develop the methods necessary to produce the necessary inferences from comparison of our analytical results with these large, multidimensional sets of data. In the work reported here, we used a large, multidimensional dataset of results from quality control analyses of uranium ore concentrate (UOC, sometimes called 'yellowcake'). We have found that traditional multidimensional techniques, such as principal components analysis (PCA), are especially useful for understanding such datasets and drawing relevant conclusions. In particular, we have developed an iterative partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) procedure that has proven especially adept at identifying the production location of unknown UOC samples. By removing classes which fell far outside the initial decision boundary, and then rebuilding the PLS-DA model, we have consistently produced better and more definitive attributions than with a single pass classification approach. Performance of the iterative PLS-DA method compared favorably to that of classification and regression tree (CART) and k nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithms, with the best combination of accuracy and robustness, as tested by classifying samples measured independently in our laboratories against the vendor QC based reference set.

  7. Mixture Interpretation Invited Lecture for Towson University Forensic Statistics Course

    E-print Network

    Mixture Interpretation Invited Lecture for Towson University Forensic Statistics Course April 7, 2009 http://www.cstl.nist.gov/biotech/strbase/training.htm 1 Mixture Interpretation Mixture Categorization of Mixtures · Examples · Please ask questions! Mention of Mixtures in the July 2009 Revised

  8. Grant review of statistical methodology at BMRD

    E-print Network

    Carlin, Bradley P.

    Grant review of statistical methodology at BMRD Jeremy M G Taylor University of Michigan #12;Outline 1) Statistical methods grants at NIH 2) BMRD, miconceptions 3) Recent BMRD events 4) BMRD description update 5) The review process 6) Types of grants at BMRD 7) The review criteria 8) Tips on grant

  9. Higher-order Wavelet Statistics and their Application to Digital Forensics and Siwei Lyu

    E-print Network

    Lyu, Siwei

    Higher-order Wavelet Statistics and their Application to Digital Forensics Hany Farid and Siwei Lyu Abstract We describe a statistical model for natural images that is built upon a multi-scale wavelet decomposition. The model consists of first- and higher-order statis- tics that capture certain statistical

  10. In: IEEE Workshop on Statistical Analysis in Computer Vision (in conjunction with CVPR), 2003 Higher-order Wavelet Statistics and their Application to Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    Higher-order Wavelet Statistics and their Application to Digital Forensics Hany Farid and Siwei Lyu regularities of nat- ural images. We show how this model can be useful in several digital forensic applications- eral digital forensic applications, specifically in detect- ing various types of digital tampering. 2

  11. Methodological and statistical issues in pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Peters, Bas J M; Rodin, Andrei S; de Boer, Anthonius; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse

    2010-02-01

    Pharmacogenomics strives to explain the interindividual variability in response to drugs due to genetic variation. Although technological advances have provided us with relatively easy and cheap methods for genotyping, promises about personalised medicine have not yet met our high expectations. Successful results that have been achieved within the field of pharmacogenomics so far are, to name a few, HLA-B*5701 screening to avoid hypersensitivity to the antiretroviral abacavir, thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) genotyping to avoid thiopurine toxicity, and CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping for better dosing of the anticoagulant warfarin. However, few pharmacogenetic examples have made it into clinical practice in the treatment of complex diseases. Unfortunately, lack of reproducibility of results from observational studies involving many genes and diseases seems to be a common pattern in pharmacogenomic studies. In this article we address some of the methodological and statistical issues within study design, gene and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) selection and data analysis that should be considered in future pharmacogenomic research. First, we discuss some of the issues related to the design of epidemiological studies, specific to pharmacogenomic research. Second, we describe some of the pros and cons of a candidate gene approach (including gene and SNP selection) and a genome-wide scan approach. Finally, conventional as well as several innovative approaches to the analysis of large pharmacogenomic datasets are proposed that deal with the issues of multiple testing and systems biology in different ways. PMID:20487194

  12. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  13. The uniqueness of the human dentition as forensic evidence: a systematic review on the technological methodology.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ademir; Willems, Guy; Souza, Paulo Henrique Couto; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Thevissen, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    The uniqueness of human dentition is routinely approached as identification evidence in forensic odontology. Specifically in bitemark and human identification cases, positive identifications are obtained under the hypothesis that two individuals do not have the same dental features. The present study compiles methodological information from articles on the uniqueness of human dentition to support investigations into the mentioned hypothesis. In April 2014, three electronic library databases (SciELO®, MEDLINE®/PubMed®, and LILACS®) were systematically searched. In parallel, reference lists of relevant studies were also screened. From the obtained articles (n?=?1235), 13 full-text articles were considered eligible. They were examined according to the studied parameters: the sample size, the number of examined teeth, the registration technique for data collection, the methods for data analysis, and the study outcomes. Six combinations of studied data were detected: (1) dental shape, size, angulation, and position (n?=?1); (2) dental shape, size, and angulation (n?=?4); (3) dental shape and size (n?=?5); (4) dental angulation and position (n?=?2); (5) dental shape and angulation (n?=?1); and (6) dental shape (n?=?1). The sample size ranged between 10 and 1099 human dentitions. Ten articles examined the six anterior teeth, while three articles examined more teeth. Four articles exclusively addressed three-dimensional (3D) data registration, while six articles used two-dimensional (2D) imaging. In three articles, both imaging registrations were combined. Most articles (n?=?9) explored the data using landmark placement. The other articles (n?=?4) comprised digital comparison of superimposed dental contours. Although there were large methodological variations within the investigated articles, the uniqueness of human dentition remains unproved. PMID:25398633

  14. Assessment of the methodology for estimating ridge density in fingerprints and its forensic application.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Redomero, Esperanza; Rivaldería, Noemí; Alonso-Rodríguez, Concepción; Sánchez-Andrés, Ángeles

    2014-05-01

    In recent times, some studies have explored the forensic application of dermatoglyphic traits such as the epidermal ridge breadth or ridge density (RD) toward the inference of sex and population from fingerprints of unknown origin, as it has been demonstrated that there exist significant differences of fingerprints between sexes and between populations. Part of the population differences found between these studies could be of methodological nature, due both to the lack of standardisation in the position of the counting area, as well as to the differences in the method used for obtaining the fingerprint. Therefore, the aim of this study was to check whether there are differences between the RD of fingerprints depending on where the counting area is placed and how the fingerprints are obtained. Fingerprints of each finger were obtained from 102 adult Spanish subjects (50 females and 52 males), using two methods (plain and rolled). The ridge density of each fingerprint was assessed in five different areas of the dactylogram: two closer to the core area (one on the radial and the other on the ulnar side), two closer to the outermost area of each of the sides (radial and ulnar), and another one in the proximal region of the fingertip. Regardless of the method used and of the position of the counting area, thumbs and forefingers show a higher RD than middle, ring, and little fingers in both sexes, and females present a higher RD than males in all areas and fingers. In both males and females, RD values on the core region are higher than those on the outer region, irrespective of the technique of fingerprinting used (rolled or plain). Regardless of the sex and location of the count area (core or outer), the rolled fingerprints exhibit RD greater than that of the plain ones in both radial and proximal areas, whereas the trend is inverted in the ulnar area, where rolled fingerprints demonstrate RD lesser than that of the plain ones. Therefore, in order for the results of different studies to be comparable, it is necessary to standardise the position of the count area and to use the same method of obtaining the fingerprint, especially when involving a forensic application. PMID:24796949

  15. Specifying digital forensics: A forensics policy approach

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Carol Louise; Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we present an approach to digital forensics specification based on forensic policy definition. Our methodology borrows from computer security policy specification, which has accumulated a significant body of research over the past 30 years. We first define the process of specifying forensics properties through a forensics policy and then present an example application of the process. This approach lends itself to formal policy specification and verification, which would allow for more clarity and less ambiguity in the specification process

  16. New Statistical Methodology for Determining Cancer Clusters

    Cancer.gov

    The development of an innovative statistical technique that shows that women living in a broad stretch of the metropolitan northeastern United States, which includes Long Island, are slightly more likely to die from breast cancer than women in other parts of the Northeast.

  17. NISTIR 7617 Mobile Forensic

    E-print Network

    NISTIR 7617 Mobile Forensic Reference Materials: AMethodologyandReification WayneJansen AurélienDelaitre i #12;Mobile Forensic Reference Materials: A Methodology and Reification Wayne Jansen Aurélien of forensic tools. It describes an application and data set developed to populate identity modules

  18. Implementing statistical learning methods through Bayesian networks. Part 1: a guide to Bayesian parameter estimation using forensic science data.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, A; Taroni, F; Bozza, S

    2009-12-15

    As a thorough aggregation of probability and graph theory, Bayesian networks currently enjoy widespread interest as a means for studying factors that affect the coherent evaluation of scientific evidence in forensic science. Paper I of this series of papers intends to contribute to the discussion of Bayesian networks as a framework that is helpful for both illustrating and implementing statistical procedures that are commonly employed for the study of uncertainties (e.g. the estimation of unknown quantities). While the respective statistical procedures are widely described in literature, the primary aim of this paper is to offer an essentially non-technical introduction on how interested readers may use these analytical approaches--with the help of Bayesian networks--for processing their own forensic science data. Attention is mainly drawn to the structure and underlying rationale of a series of basic and context-independent network fragments that users may incorporate as building blocs while constructing larger inference models. As an example of how this may be done, the proposed concepts will be used in a second paper (Part II) for specifying graphical probability networks whose purpose is to assist forensic scientists in the evaluation of scientific evidence encountered in the context of forensic document examination (i.e. results of the analysis of black toners present on printed or copied documents). PMID:19833464

  19. Dental Evidence in Forensic Identification – An Overview, Methodology and Present Status

    PubMed Central

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Garg, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Forensic odontology is primarily concerned with the use of teeth and oral structures for identification in a legal context. Various forensic odontology techniques help in the identification of the human remains in incidents such as terrorists’ attacks, airplane, train and road accidents, fires, mass murders, and natural disasters such as tsunamis, earth quakes and floods, etc. (Disaster Victim Identification-DVI). Dental structures are the hardest and well protected structures in the body. These structures resist decomposition and high temperatures and are among the last ones to disintegrate after death. The principal basis of the dental identification lies in the fact that no two oral cavities are alike and the teeth are unique to an individual. The dental evidence of the deceased recovered from the scene of crime/occurrence is compared with the ante-mortem records for identification. Dental features such as tooth morphology, variations in shape and size, restorations, pathologies, missing tooth, wear patterns, crowding of the teeth, colour and position of the tooth, rotations and other peculiar dental anomalies give every individual a unique identity. In absence of ante-mortem dental records for comparison, the teeth can help in the determination of age, sex, race/ethnicity, habits, occupations, etc. which can give further clues regarding the identity of the individuals. This piece of writing gives an overview of dental evidence, its use in forensic identification and its limitations. PMID:26312096

  20. Dental Evidence in Forensic Identification - An Overview, Methodology and Present Status.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Garg, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Forensic odontology is primarily concerned with the use of teeth and oral structures for identification in a legal context. Various forensic odontology techniques help in the identification of the human remains in incidents such as terrorists' attacks, airplane, train and road accidents, fires, mass murders, and natural disasters such as tsunamis, earth quakes and floods, etc. (Disaster Victim Identification-DVI). Dental structures are the hardest and well protected structures in the body. These structures resist decomposition and high temperatures and are among the last ones to disintegrate after death. The principal basis of the dental identification lies in the fact that no two oral cavities are alike and the teeth are unique to an individual. The dental evidence of the deceased recovered from the scene of crime/occurrence is compared with the ante-mortem records for identification. Dental features such as tooth morphology, variations in shape and size, restorations, pathologies, missing tooth, wear patterns, crowding of the teeth, colour and position of the tooth, rotations and other peculiar dental anomalies give every individual a unique identity. In absence of ante-mortem dental records for comparison, the teeth can help in the determination of age, sex, race/ethnicity, habits, occupations, etc. which can give further clues regarding the identity of the individuals. This piece of writing gives an overview of dental evidence, its use in forensic identification and its limitations. PMID:26312096

  1. Statistical Methodologies to Integrate Experimental and Computational Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. A.; Johnson, R. T.; Montgomery, D. C.

    2008-01-01

    Development of advanced algorithms for simulating engine flow paths requires the integration of fundamental experiments with the validation of enhanced mathematical models. In this paper, we provide an overview of statistical methods to strategically and efficiently conduct experiments and computational model refinement. Moreover, the integration of experimental and computational research efforts is emphasized. With a statistical engineering perspective, scientific and engineering expertise is combined with statistical sciences to gain deeper insights into experimental phenomenon and code development performance; supporting the overall research objectives. The particular statistical methods discussed are design of experiments, response surface methodology, and uncertainty analysis and planning. Their application is illustrated with a coaxial free jet experiment and a turbulence model refinement investigation. Our goal is to provide an overview, focusing on concepts rather than practice, to demonstrate the benefits of using statistical methods in research and development, thereby encouraging their broader and more systematic application.

  2. FORENSIC SCIENCE About Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    Su, Xiao

    Fact Sheet FORENSIC SCIENCE About Forensic Science: The Forensic Science program at SJSU offers: The SJSU Forensic Science program delivers coursework and training to · Empowergraduatestobecomeagentsofchangetorecognize, document and report errors and injustices in the practice of forensic science and crime scene

  3. Establishing forensic search methodologies and geophysical surveying for the detection of clandestine graves in coastal beach environments.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Jamie K; Holland, Claire; Szkornik, Katie; Harrison, Mark

    2012-06-10

    A 2010 UK police search for a clandestine burial highlighted the need for more information and quantitative data to aid coastal beach searches. This study aimed to address this by establishing relevant forensic search methodologies to aid the search for clandestine coastal burial sites, using the North West English coastline as a search area. A set of parameters were established, including criteria such as tidal range, proximity to vehicular access points and distance from inhabited areas, which may inform forensic searches by prioritising likely locations of clandestine burials. Three prioritised coastal locations were subsequently identified: (1) coastal dunes at Formby, (2) coastal dunes and (3) beach foreshore at Southport, all sites part of the Liverpool City Region in the United Kingdom. At all locations, simulated clandestine graves were hand-dug by spades into which a naked adult-sized, metal-jointed fiberglass mannequin was buried at 0.5 m below ground level. Trial geophysical surveys were then undertaken with the aim of identifying the optimal geophysical instrumentation and technique to deploy in such environments. GPR data showed 450 MHz frequency antennae to be optimal, with significantly poor data obtained from the foreshore area due to saline seawater. Electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility surveys were successful in coastal environments in target detection (albeit not in non-vegetated sand dunes), with resistivity fixed-offset configurations deemed optimal. The latter survey successes may be due to the recent disturbed 'grave' rather than the target, which itself is of interest in terms of identifying the most recent clandestine burials. PMID:22285503

  4. Lay understanding of forensic statistics: Evaluation of random match probabilities, likelihood ratios, and verbal equivalents.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William C; Newman, Eryn J

    2015-08-01

    Forensic scientists have come under increasing pressure to quantify the strength of their evidence, but it is not clear which of several possible formats for presenting quantitative conclusions will be easiest for lay people, such as jurors, to understand. This experiment examined the way that people recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk (n = 541) responded to 2 types of forensic evidence--a DNA comparison and a shoeprint comparison--when an expert explained the strength of this evidence 3 different ways: using random match probabilities (RMPs), likelihood ratios (LRs), or verbal equivalents of likelihood ratios (VEs). We found that verdicts were sensitive to the strength of DNA evidence regardless of how the expert explained it, but verdicts were sensitive to the strength of shoeprint evidence only when the expert used RMPs. The weight given to DNA evidence was consistent with the predictions of a Bayesian network model that incorporated the perceived risk of a false match from 3 causes (coincidence, a laboratory error, and a frame-up), but shoeprint evidence was undervalued relative to the same Bayesian model. Fallacious interpretations of the expert's testimony (consistent with the source probability error and the defense attorney's fallacy) were common and were associated with the weight given to the evidence and verdicts. The findings indicate that perceptions of forensic science evidence are shaped by prior beliefs and expectations as well as expert testimony and consequently that the best way to characterize and explain forensic evidence may vary across forensic disciplines. PMID:25984887

  5. Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2013-02-01

    The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversary's task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

  6. A validation framework for microbial forensic methods based on statistical pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P

    2007-11-12

    This report discusses a general approach to validating microbial forensic methods that attempt to simultaneously distinguish among many hypotheses concerning the manufacture of a questioned biological agent sample. It focuses on the concrete example of determining growth medium from chemical or molecular properties of a bacterial agent to illustrate the concepts involved.

  7. New methodologies for top-down statistical modeling and optimization of integrated circuits 

    E-print Network

    Alexander, Daniel D.

    1996-01-01

    New methodologies intended to facilitate system level design and optimization are developed. Specifically, these methodologies allow: (1) development of system level models for the purpose of gathering statistical data on the performance of large...

  8. NCI: SBIR & STTR - Find Funding - Contracts - 279 Facilitating the Transfer of Statistical Methodology into Practice

    Cancer.gov

    The development of new statistical methodology represents a key component of biomedical research. For cutting-edge statistical methodology to be used by people other than the developer, accompanying user-friendly, robust software is necessary. Often the developer of the statistical methodology does not have the time, knowledge, or skills to convert research-quality code for calculation engines into professional-quality software to be used by the general medical research community.

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. 23, NO. 6, JUNE 2004 987 Computational Forensic Techniques for Intellectual

    E-print Network

    Wong, Jennifer L.

    2004 987 Computational Forensic Techniques for Intellectual Property Protection Jennifer L. Wong, Darko Kirovski, and Miodrag Potkonjak Abstract--Computational forensic engineering (CFE) aims to identify on watermarking content or designs, the generic CFE methodology analyzes the statistics of certain features

  10. Methodologies for statistical behavioral modeling and simulation of complex analog integrated circuits 

    E-print Network

    Swidzinski, Jan

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to develop efficient methodologies for statistical behavioral modeling of analog integrated circuits and apply them to practical problems. Through appropriate statistical modeling, the Design for Quality (DFQ...

  11. Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  12. DIGITAL FORENSICS USING LOCAL SIGNAL A Dissertation

    E-print Network

    Lyu, Siwei

    DIGITAL FORENSICS USING LOCAL SIGNAL STATISTICS by Xunyu Pan A Dissertation Submitted FORENSICS USING LOCAL SIGNAL STATISTICS by Xunyu Pan c Copyright 2011 #12;To my parents using local signal statistics to address two critical digital image forensic problems: (1) Region

  13. Forensic webwatch: Forensic computing.

    PubMed

    Bouhaidar, R

    2005-02-01

    With the rapid and continuous development of information technology, policing faces new challenges. As computer equipments are becoming cheaper and the internet more readily available, computer crime and criminal exploitation is on the increase. Investigating such crimes requires identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of digital evidence, the key elements of forensic computing. This is helped by the fact that Locard's principle is applicable to this branch of science as much as in other areas of forensic science. This webwatch considers the ever evolving area of Forensic Computing. PMID:15763691

  14. ITL BULLETIN FOR JUNE 2014 ITL FORENSIC SCIENCE PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    ITL BULLETIN FOR JUNE 2014 ITL FORENSIC SCIENCE PROGRAM Barbara Guttman, Software and Systems, and statistics, the ITL Forensic Science program advances the measurements and standards infrastructure for forensic science. ITL works with national and international stakeholders, other government agencies

  15. The Power of Teaching Activities: Statistical and Methodological Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Researchers rarely mention statistical power in "Teaching of Psychology" teaching activity studies. Insufficiently powered tests promote uncertainty in the decision to accept or reject the tested null hypothesis and influence the interpretation of results. We analyzed the a priori power of statistical tests from 197 teaching activity effectiveness…

  16. Embedding Forensic Capabilities into Networks: Addressing Inefficiencies in Digital Forensics Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deb A.

    2006-08-01

    A typical incident response pits technicians against networks that aren't prepared forensically. [1, 2] If practitioners do consider collecting network forensic data, they face a choice between expending extraordinary effort (time and money) collecting forensically sound data, or simply restoring the network as quickly as possible. In this context, the concept of organizational network forensic readiness has emerged. This paper proposes a methodology for "operationalizing" organizational network forensic readiness. The methodology, and the theoretical analysis that led to its development, are offered as a conceptual framework for thinking about more efficient, proactive approaches to digital forensics on networks.

  17. Methodological and Statistical Problems in Discerning Profile Reliability: Comment on Roffe and Bryant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.

    1979-01-01

    A variety of methodological and statistical problems in the Roffe and Bryant study of the McCarthy Scales' profile reliability are pointed out. Alternative procedures and more efficacious use of the Roffe and Bryant data are suggested. (Author)

  18. A statistical optimization methodology for practical integrated circuit design for quality and manufacturability 

    E-print Network

    Pastor, Curtis Lemay

    1997-01-01

    .This thesis addresses some of the problems encountered in Statistical Design of Analog Integrated Circuits (ICs). The objective is to develop a methodology to optimize an industrial operational amplifier (OpAmp) for improved performance and reduced...

  19. A PATTERN CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPONENT FORENSICS

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    A PATTERN CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPONENT FORENSICS Ashwin, College Park ABSTRACT Component forensics is an emerging methodology for forensic anal- ysis that aims a theoreti- cal foundation to examine the performance limits of component forensics. Using ideas from pattern

  20. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, P. G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

  1. Methodology for statistical analysis of SENCAR mouse skin assay data.

    PubMed Central

    Stober, J A

    1986-01-01

    Various response measures and statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data collected in the SENCAR mouse skin assay are examined. The characteristics of the tumor response data do not readily lend themselves to the classical methods for hypothesis testing. The advantages and limitations of conventional methods of analysis and methods recommended in the literature are discussed. Several alternative response measures that were developed specifically to answer the problems inherent in the data collected in the SENCAR bioassay system are described. These measures take into account animal survival, tumor multiplicity, and tumor regression. Statistical methods for the analysis of these measures to test for a positive dose response and a dose-response relationship are discussed. Sample data from representative initiation/promotion studies are used to compare the response measures and methods of analysis. PMID:3780632

  2. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 2, NO. 1, MARCH 2007 91 Nonintrusive Component Forensics of

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 2, NO. 1, MARCH 2007 91 Nonintrusive Component Forensics of Visual Sensors Using Output Images Ashwin Swaminathan, Student Member, IEEE, Min Wu manipulations. This paper introduces nonintrusive com- ponent forensics as a new methodology for the forensic

  4. Statistical methodologies for the control of dynamic remapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltz, J. H.; Nicol, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Following an initial mapping of a problem onto a multiprocessor machine or computer network, system performance often deteriorates with time. In order to maintain high performance, it may be necessary to remap the problem. The decision to remap must take into account measurements of performance deterioration, the cost of remapping, and the estimated benefits achieved by remapping. We examine the tradeoff between the costs and the benefits of remapping two qualitatively different kinds of problems. One problem assumes that performance deteriorates gradually, the other assumes that performance deteriorates suddenly. We consider a variety of policies for governing when to remap. In order to evaluate these policies, statistical models of problem behaviors are developed. Simulation results are presented which compare simple policies with computationally expensive optimal decision policies; these results demonstrate that for each problem type, the proposed simple policies are effective and robust.

  5. Some statistical treatments compatible with individual organism methodology1

    PubMed Central

    Revusky, Samuel H.

    1967-01-01

    Consider experimental treatments with consequences so irreversible that baseline performance cannot be recovered. The conventional method of assessing the effects of such treatments by statistical means involves separate experimental and control groups. An alternative proposed here is to administer the experimental treatment to each subject, one subject at a time and in a random order; whenever any subject receives the experimental treatment, those subjects which have not yet received it receive a control treatment. This procedure permits results significant at the one-tailed 0.05 level to be obtained with four subjects; if a two-group procedure evaluated by means of the U test is used, a minimum of six subjects is needed for the same significance level. More generally, the procedure permits equal sensitivity to any experimental effect with over 30% fewer subjects than a two-group procedure. Extensions of the basic method are made to a variety of levels of the experimental treatment and to treatments without irreversible effects, and limitations of the method are discussed. PMID:6056805

  6. Automatic brain tumor detection in MRI: methodology and statistical validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Islam, Mohammad A.; Shaik, Jahangheer; Parra, Carlos; Ogg, Robert

    2005-04-01

    Automated brain tumor segmentation and detection are immensely important in medical diagnostics because it provides information associated to anatomical structures as well as potential abnormal tissue necessary to delineate appropriate surgical planning. In this work, we propose a novel automated brain tumor segmentation technique based on multiresolution texture information that combines fractal Brownian motion (fBm) and wavelet multiresolution analysis. Our wavelet-fractal technique combines the excellent multiresolution localization property of wavelets to texture extraction of fractal. We prove the efficacy of our technique by successfully segmenting pediatric brain MR images (MRIs) from St. Jude Children"s Research Hospital. We use self-organizing map (SOM) as our clustering tool wherein we exploit both pixel intensity and multiresolution texture features to obtain segmented tumor. Our test results show that our technique successfully segments abnormal brain tissues in a set of T1 images. In the next step, we design a classifier using Feed-Forward (FF) neural network to statistically validate the presence of tumor in MRI using both the multiresolution texture and the pixel intensity features. We estimate the corresponding receiver operating curve (ROC) based on the findings of true positive fractions and false positive fractions estimated from our classifier at different threshold values. An ROC, which can be considered as a gold standard to prove the competence of a classifier, is obtained to ascertain the sensitivity and specificity of our classifier. We observe that at threshold 0.4 we achieve true positive value of 1.0 (100%) sacrificing only 0.16 (16%) false positive value for the set of 50 T1 MRI analyzed in this experiment.

  7. E-learning initiatives in forensic interpretation: report on experiences from current projects and outlook.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, A; Hicks, T; Voisard, R; Taroni, F; Champod, C; Aitken, C G G; Evett, I W

    2013-07-10

    This paper reports on the purpose, design, methodology and target audience of E-learning courses in forensic interpretation offered by the authors since 2010, including practical experiences made throughout the implementation period of this project. This initiative was motivated by the fact that reporting results of forensic examinations in a logically correct and scientifically rigorous way is a daily challenge for any forensic practitioner. Indeed, interpretation of raw data and communication of findings in both written and oral statements are topics where knowledge and applied skills are needed. Although most forensic scientists hold educational records in traditional sciences, only few actually followed full courses that focussed on interpretation issues. Such courses should include foundational principles and methodology - including elements of forensic statistics - for the evaluation of forensic data in a way that is tailored to meet the needs of the criminal justice system. In order to help bridge this gap, the authors' initiative seeks to offer educational opportunities that allow practitioners to acquire knowledge and competence in the current approaches to the evaluation and interpretation of forensic findings. These cover, among other aspects, probabilistic reasoning (including Bayesian networks and other methods of forensic statistics, tools and software), case pre-assessment, skills in the oral and written communication of uncertainty, and the development of independence and self-confidence to solve practical inference problems. E-learning was chosen as a general format because it helps to form a trans-institutional online-community of practitioners from varying forensic disciplines and workfield experience such as reporting officers, (chief) scientists, forensic coordinators, but also lawyers who all can interact directly from their personal workplaces without consideration of distances, travel expenses or time schedules. In the authors' experience, the proposed learning initiative supports participants in developing their expertise and skills in forensic interpretation, but also offers an opportunity for the associated institutions and the forensic community to reinforce the development of a harmonized view with regard to interpretation across forensic disciplines, laboratories and judicial systems. PMID:23122648

  8. The Statistical point of view of Quality: the Lean Six Sigma methodology.

    PubMed

    Bertolaccini, Luca; Viti, Andrea; Terzi, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Six Sigma and Lean are two quality improvement methodologies. The Lean Six Sigma methodology is applicable to repetitive procedures. Therefore, the use of this methodology in the health-care arena has focused mainly on areas of business operations, throughput, and case management and has focused on efficiency outcomes. After the revision of methodology, the paper presents a brief clinical example of the use of Lean Six Sigma as a quality improvement method in the reduction of the complications during and after lobectomies. Using Lean Six Sigma methodology, the multidisciplinary teams could identify multiple modifiable points across the surgical process. These process improvements could be applied to different surgical specialties and could result in a measurement, from statistical point of view, of the surgical quality. PMID:25973253

  9. The Statistical point of view of Quality: the Lean Six Sigma methodology

    PubMed Central

    Viti, Andrea; Terzi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Six Sigma and Lean are two quality improvement methodologies. The Lean Six Sigma methodology is applicable to repetitive procedures. Therefore, the use of this methodology in the health-care arena has focused mainly on areas of business operations, throughput, and case management and has focused on efficiency outcomes. After the revision of methodology, the paper presents a brief clinical example of the use of Lean Six Sigma as a quality improvement method in the reduction of the complications during and after lobectomies. Using Lean Six Sigma methodology, the multidisciplinary teams could identify multiple modifiable points across the surgical process. These process improvements could be applied to different surgical specialties and could result in a measurement, from statistical point of view, of the surgical quality. PMID:25973253

  10. Statistical shape analysis of tuber roots: a methodological case study on laser scanned

    E-print Network

    Rumpf, Martin

    Statistical shape analysis of tuber roots: a methodological case study on laser scanned sugar beets to the analysis of sugar beets of different cultivars. 1 Introduction For breeding and precision agriculture for larger samples of sugar beet of different cultivars. To whom correspondence should be addressed: Benedikt

  11. 1 Forensic Sciences FORENSIC SCIENCES

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    with an overview of the analytical methods, procedures, equipment and data used by forensic specialists. Coursework in Washington, D.C. provides students with opportunities to interact with federal, state and local agencies Education Center in Arlington, VA. A graduate certificate is offered in forensic investigations. GRADUATE

  12. Facial soft biometric features for forensic face recognition.

    PubMed

    Tome, Pedro; Vera-Rodriguez, Ruben; Fierrez, Julian; Ortega-Garcia, Javier

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a functional feature-based approach useful for real forensic caseworks, based on the shape, orientation and size of facial traits, which can be considered as a soft biometric approach. The motivation of this work is to provide a set of facial features, which can be understood by non-experts such as judges and support the work of forensic examiners who, in practice, carry out a thorough manual comparison of face images paying special attention to the similarities and differences in shape and size of various facial traits. This new approach constitutes a tool that automatically converts a set of facial landmarks to a set of features (shape and size) corresponding to facial regions of forensic value. These features are furthermore evaluated in a population to generate statistics to support forensic examiners. The proposed features can also be used as additional information that can improve the performance of traditional face recognition systems. These features follow the forensic methodology and are obtained in a continuous and discrete manner from raw images. A statistical analysis is also carried out to study the stability, discrimination power and correlation of the proposed facial features on two realistic databases: MORPH and ATVS Forensic DB. Finally, the performance of both continuous and discrete features is analyzed using different similarity measures. Experimental results show high discrimination power and good recognition performance, especially for continuous features. A final fusion of the best systems configurations achieves rank 10 match results of 100% for ATVS database and 75% for MORPH database demonstrating the benefits of using this information in practice. PMID:26454196

  13. The role of empirical Bayes methodology as a leading principle in modern medical statistics.

    PubMed

    van Houwelingen, Hans C

    2014-11-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the role of Empirical Bayes methodology in medical statistics in the last 50 years. It gives some background on the origin of the empirical Bayes approach and its link with the famous Stein estimator. The paper describes the application in four important areas in medical statistics: disease mapping, health care monitoring, meta-analysis, and multiple testing. It ends with a warning that the application of the outcome of an empirical Bayes analysis to the individual "subjects" is a delicate matter that should be handled with prudence and care. PMID:25205521

  14. Forensics Investigator

    MedlinePLUS

    ... used. When criminal cases come to trial, forensic science technicians often provide testimony as expert witnesses, testifying on specific laboratory findings by identifying and classifying substances, materials, and other evidence collected at the crime scene. ...

  15. Causes of death among detainees: a statistical study on the casework of the Forensic Medicine Institute in Cluj-Napoca during the period 2000–2014

    PubMed Central

    GHERMAN, CRISTIAN; CHIROBAN, OVIDIU

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims The detainees’ right to healthcare is granted by laws, in accordance with EU directives and recommendations to which our country has consented. Prison population is a particularly vulnerable and marginalized group characterized by mortality rates different from the general population. This study aims at providing a picture of the causes of death, quality of healthcare and measures needed to reduce the number of in-prison deaths, including legal medicine expertise in view of sentence postponement/interruption. Methods The present paper is based on the statistical analysis of in-prison deaths casework recorded at the Forensic Medicine Institute of Cluj-Napoca and provided by territorially subordinated counties forensic services. The data collected cover over 15 years (2000–2014), a period long enough for significant retrospective statistical analysis. Results The total number of deaths among the inmates was 113, the majority of male sex (110). Distribution by age groups shows a greater incidence among inmates aged 50 to 59 years (32 cases, 28.31%), followed by those in their 40s’ (30 cases, 26.54%) and 30s’ (25 cases, 22.12%). The most frequent pathological causes of death were cardiovascular (53 cases) followed by tumors (26 cases) and infectious diseases. A significant number of deaths were due to violent causes (14 cases-12,38%). Conclusions Special problems are raised by the high number of deaths among prisoners, especially at a young age, while the high frequency of violent deaths from self- or non-self-inflicted traumatic causes requires supervision, monitoring and continuous analysis. Despite recent improvements, healthcare in prisons still poses some problems, mainly regarding diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases, neurosurgery and cancer. PMID:26609263

  16. Forensic Science Certificate

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Forensic Science Certificate What do Forensic Scientists Do? Forensic scientists apply scientific. Is Forensic Science Right for Me? Students in forensic science have a strong interest in chemistry, biology and death investigators. The median annual wage of forensic science technicians (a common entry level job

  17. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 3, NO. 1, MARCH 2008 101 Digital Image Forensics via Intrinsic Fingerprints

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 3, NO. 1, MARCH 2008 101 Digital Image Forensics via Intrinsic Fingerprints Ashwin Swaminathan, Student Member, IEEE, Min Wu, Senior content can no longer be taken for granted. This paper introduces a new methodology for the forensic

  18. CPR methodology with new steady-state criterion and more accurate statistical treatment of channel bow

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, S.; Bieli, R.; Bergmann, U. C.

    2012-07-01

    An overview is given of existing CPR design criteria and the methods used in BWR reload analysis to evaluate the impact of channel bow on CPR margins. Potential weaknesses in today's methodologies are discussed. Westinghouse in collaboration with KKL and Axpo - operator and owner of the Leibstadt NPP - has developed an optimized CPR methodology based on a new criterion to protect against dryout during normal operation and with a more rigorous treatment of channel bow. The new steady-state criterion is expressed in terms of an upper limit of 0.01 for the dryout failure probability per year. This is considered a meaningful and appropriate criterion that can be directly related to the probabilistic criteria set-up for the analyses of Anticipated Operation Occurrences (AOOs) and accidents. In the Monte Carlo approach a statistical modeling of channel bow and an accurate evaluation of CPR response functions allow the associated CPR penalties to be included directly in the plant SLMCPR and OLMCPR in a best-estimate manner. In this way, the treatment of channel bow is equivalent to all other uncertainties affecting CPR. Emphasis is put on quantifying the statistical distribution of channel bow throughout the core using measurement data. The optimized CPR methodology has been implemented in the Westinghouse Monte Carlo code, McSLAP. The methodology improves the quality of dryout safety assessments by supplying more valuable information and better control of conservatisms in establishing operational limits for CPR. The methodology is demonstrated with application examples from the introduction at KKL. (authors)

  19. Helpful Resources on Forensic DNA Testing Butler, J.M. (2005) Forensic DNA Typing: Biology, Technology, and Genetics of STR Markers, 2nd

    E-print Network

    2005-01-01

    Helpful Resources on Forensic DNA Testing Textbooks: Butler, J.M. (2005) Forensic DNA Typing. Kobilinsky, L. et al. (2005) DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. Websites: http Institutes (ENFSI) with specific words used in forensic science (DNA, fingerprints, statistics, etc

  20. Inference from mitochondrial DNA data in forensic identification

    E-print Network

    Friedl, Herwig

    . and Evett, I. W. (1997) Bayesian analysis of DNA profiling data in forensic identification. J. R. StatisticInference from mitochondrial DNA data in forensic identification Paola Berchialla Department very small or degradated biological samples. A general problem in forensic identification arises when

  1. Statistical evaluation of metal fill widths for emulated metal fill in parasitic extraction methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J-Me, Teh; Noh, Norlaili Mohd.; Aziz, Zalina Abdul

    2015-05-01

    In the chip industry today, the key goal of a chip development organization is to develop and market chips within a short time frame to gain foothold on market share. This paper proposes a design flow around the area of parasitic extraction to improve the design cycle time. The proposed design flow utilizes the usage of metal fill emulation as opposed to the current flow which performs metal fill insertion directly. By replacing metal fill structures with an emulation methodology in earlier iterations of the design flow, this is targeted to help reduce runtime in fill insertion stage. Statistical design of experiments methodology utilizing the randomized complete block design was used to select an appropriate emulated metal fill width to improve emulation accuracy. The experiment was conducted on test cases of different sizes, ranging from 1000 gates to 21000 gates. The metal width was varied from 1 x minimum metal width to 6 x minimum metal width. Two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least significant difference test were used to analyze the interconnect net capacitance values of the different test cases. This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis for the 45 nm process technology. The recommended emulated metal fill width was found to be 4 x the minimum metal width.

  2. Weather Typing Statistical Downscaling with dsclim: Diagnostic methodology and configuration sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, C.; Albertus, G.

    2013-12-01

    The 8-km output of the statistical downscaling methodology dsclim has been used since a few years to perform impacts and adaptation studies in France. The dsclim method is resampling the Météo-France SAFRAN observation mesoscale analysis. Since then, the SAFRAN observation period has been extended from 1981-2005 to 1958-2012. At the same time, there are strong needs of cross-national impact studies, hence the required use of an European observation dataset in the methodology. In this context, a diagnostic package has been developed to properly evaluate the downscaling methodology and its performance: it enables to evaluate the sensitivity and the impacts of the changes in its configuration, taking also properly into account stochastic aspects. In this study we evaluated the impacts on the results with respect to the extension of the learning period from 1981-2005 to 1958-2012, as well as the comparison on the use of the EOBS dataset instead of SAFRAN, having the objective of running dsclim over a larger region within the EU FP7 SPECS project and the EU COST Action VALUE downscaling methods intercomparison. This study was funded by the EU project SPECS funded by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Research Programme under the grant agreement 243964.

  3. Forensic detection of noise addition in digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Gang; Zhao, Yao; Ni, Rongrong; Ou, Bo; Wang, Yongbin

    2014-03-01

    We proposed a technique to detect the global addition of noise to a digital image. As an anti-forensics tool, noise addition is typically used to disguise the visual traces of image tampering or to remove the statistical artifacts left behind by other operations. As such, the blind detection of noise addition has become imperative as well as beneficial to authenticate the image content and recover the image processing history, which is the goal of general forensics techniques. Specifically, the special image blocks, including constant and strip ones, are used to construct the features for identifying noise addition manipulation. The influence of noising on blockwise pixel value distribution is formulated and analyzed formally. The methodology of detectability recognition followed by binary decision is proposed to ensure the applicability and reliability of noising detection. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed noising detector.

  4. Demonstration of a software design and statistical analysis methodology with application to patient outcomes data sets

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Charles; Conners, Steve; Warren, Christopher; Miller, Robert; Court, Laurence; Popple, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With emergence of clinical outcomes databases as tools utilized routinely within institutions, comes need for software tools to support automated statistical analysis of these large data sets and intrainstitutional exchange from independent federated databases to support data pooling. In this paper, the authors present a design approach and analysis methodology that addresses both issues. Methods: A software application was constructed to automate analysis of patient outcomes data using a wide range of statistical metrics, by combining use of C#.Net and R code. The accuracy and speed of the code was evaluated using benchmark data sets. Results: The approach provides data needed to evaluate combinations of statistical measurements for ability to identify patterns of interest in the data. Through application of the tools to a benchmark data set for dose-response threshold and to SBRT lung data sets, an algorithm was developed that uses receiver operator characteristic curves to identify a threshold value and combines use of contingency tables, Fisher exact tests, Welch t-tests, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to filter the large data set to identify values demonstrating dose-response. Kullback-Leibler divergences were used to provide additional confirmation. Conclusions: The work demonstrates the viability of the design approach and the software tool for analysis of large data sets. PMID:24320426

  5. Forensic Science T. A. Brettell*

    E-print Network

    Forensic Science T. A. Brettell* Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Cedar Crest College journals: Journal of Forensic Sciences; Forensic Science International; Forensic Science International: Genetics; International Journal of Legal Medicine; Legal Medi- cine; Forensic Science Communications

  6. Forensic Science T. A. Brettell*

    E-print Network

    Forensic Science T. A. Brettell* Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Cedar Crest College journals: Journal of Forensic Sciences, Forensic Science International, International Journal of Legal Medicine, Legal Medicine, Forensic Science Review, Forensic Science Communica- tions, Analytical Chemistry

  7. Research Report No.249, Department of Statistical Science, University College London Date: December 2004

    E-print Network

    Lauritzen, Steffen

    Research Report No.249, Department of Statistical Science, University College London Date: December University of Oxford December 6, 2004 Abstract We present a statistical model and methodology for making of confounding biases. In particular, since the principal source of such family data is forensic laboratories

  8. Forensic geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

  9. COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM ­ Spring 2013 (T122) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Outline · Forensic Science (Forensics) ­ Classic (Analog) vs Digital Forensics · Branches of Digital Forensics · Digital Forensics vs Other Fields · Digital Evidences

  10. COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM - Fall 2012 (T121) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Outline · Forensic Science (Forensics) ­ Classic (Analog) vs Digital Forensics · Branches of Digital Forensics · Digital Forensics vs Other Fields · Digital Evidences · Computer

  11. Bayesian Integrated Microbial Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, Kristin H.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wunschel, David S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2008-06-01

    In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax letters, researchers have been exploring ways to predict the production environment of unknown source microorganisms. Different mass spectral techniques are being developed to characterize components of a microbe’s culture medium including water, carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions added, and the presence of agar. Individually, each technique has the potential to identify one or two ingredients in a culture medium recipe. However, by integrating data from multiple mass spectral techniques, a more complete characterization is possible. We present a Bayesian statistical approach to integrated microbial forensics and illustrate its application on spores grown in different culture media.

  12. ice | proceedings Forensic Engineering

    E-print Network

    Mottram, Toby

    ice | proceedings Forensic Engineering Volume 165 Issue FE4 November 2012 Forensic Engineering or economic damage. Research and practice papers are sought on traditional or modern forensic engineering, design and construction. Topics covered also include research and education best practice in forensic

  13. A Forensically Sound Adversary Model for Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an adversary model to facilitate forensic investigations of mobile devices (e.g. Android, iOS and Windows smartphones) that can be readily adapted to the latest mobile device technologies. This is essential given the ongoing and rapidly changing nature of mobile device technologies. An integral principle and significant constraint upon forensic practitioners is that of forensic soundness. Our adversary model specifically considers and integrates the constraints of forensic soundness on the adversary, in our case, a forensic practitioner. One construction of the adversary model is an evidence collection and analysis methodology for Android devices. Using the methodology with six popular cloud apps, we were successful in extracting various information of forensic interest in both the external and internal storage of the mobile device. PMID:26393812

  14. Forensic entomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

  15. A statistical comparison of protein and carbohydrate characterisation methodology applied on sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Julie; Vedrenne, Fabien; Denis, Cécile; Mottet, Alexis; Déléris, Stephane; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Cacho Rivero, Jesús Andrés

    2013-04-01

    Biochemical characterization of organic matter is becoming of key importance in wastewater treatment. The main objectives are to predict organic matter properties, such as granulation or flocculation, and hence treatment performance. Although standardized methods do exist for some organic molecules, such as volatile fatty acids or lipids, there are no standard methods to measure proteins and carbohydrates content, both biochemical families being the main components of sewage sludge. Consequently, the aim of the present work is to investigate the efficiency of several colorimetric methods to determine proteins and carbohydrates content as well as their compatibility with the sludge matrices. The different methods have been evaluated based on statistical criteria such as sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, rightness, and specificity using standard molecules such as Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), glucose, cellulose and a certified reference product. The Lowry and the Dubois methods have been shown to be the best compromise for the considered criteria after having been tested on sewage sludge samples obtained from different locations in a wastewater treatment plant. In average, the measured volatile fatty acids, lipids, proteins and carbohydrates contents represented 80 ± 7% (% volatile solids) of the organic matter. Proteins and carbohydrates represented in average 69 ± 3%. This study underlined that the choice of a relevant methodology is of great importance for organic matter measurement. PMID:23357791

  16. Source Camera Identification Issues: Forensic Features Selection and Yongjian Hu1,2

    E-print Network

    Li, Chang-Tsun

    proposed as steganalysis tools. Statistical image features were introduced for forensic image investigationSource Camera Identification Issues: Forensic Features Selection and Robustness Yongjian Hu1, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China 2 Department of Computer Science

  17. Integrating Cyber-Forensics into a Forensic Science Masters Programme

    E-print Network

    Overill, Richard E.

    Integrating Cyber-Forensics into a Forensic Science Masters Programme Richard E Overill Department This paper traces the development of the cyber-forensics content of the MSc in Forensic Science at King's College London. It identifies the key interfaces between cyber-forensics and traditional forensic science

  18. COE589: Digital Forensics Research in Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    COE589: Digital Forensics Research in Digital Forensics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM - Fall 2012 (T121? · Research Agenda for Digital Forensics · Future Research in Digital Forensics COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem 2 #12589 - Ahmad Almulhem 6 repeat hourglass model #12;Research in Digital Forensics · Digital forensics

  19. COE589: Digital Forensics Research in Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    COE589: Digital Forensics Research in Digital Forensics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM - Spring 2013 (T Forensics · Future Research in Digital Forensics · Re-Visit to Course Syllabus COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem 2 #12 hourglass model #12;Research in Digital Forensics · Digital forensics is largely practitioner-driven field

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF INPUT PATTERN FOR SEMI NON-INTRUSIVE COMPONENT FORENSICS OF DIGITAL CAMERAS

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    OPTIMIZATION OF INPUT PATTERN FOR SEMI NON-INTRUSIVE COMPONENT FORENSICS OF DIGITAL CAMERAS Ashwin, College Park ABSTRACT This paper considers the problem of semi non-intrusive component forensics; and introduce a forensic methodology to estimate the parameters of the color interpolation and white balancing

  1. Support for Computer Forensics Examination Planning with Domain Modeling: A Report of One Experiment Trial

    E-print Network

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    Support for Computer Forensics Examination Planning with Domain Modeling: A Report of One@cse.msstate.edu Abstract In any forensic investigation, planning and analysis activities are required in order to determine methods for computer forensics examination: a methodology that includes domain modeling and a more typical

  2. [Development of forensic medical expertise of sexual conditions in men].

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, O A

    2005-01-01

    The necessity of new methodological approaches in forensic medical examination of sexual male conditions are discussed basing on the analysis of questionnaire surveys of isolated groups of men and forensic medical examinations of male victims accused of sexual crimes. How to update expertise of sexual male conditions including investigations of anorectal and erectile dysfunctions in shown. PMID:16078542

  3. Bridging biometrics and forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa Ann

    2008-02-01

    This paper is a survey on biometrics and forensics, especially on the techniques and applications of face recognition in forensics. This paper describes the differences and connections between biometrics and forensics, and bridges each other by formulating the conditions when biometrics can be applied in forensics. Under these conditions, face recognition, as a non-intrusive and non-contact biometrics, is discussed in detail as an illustration of applying biometrics in forensics. The discussion on face recognition covers different approaches, feature extractions, and decision procedures. The advantages and limitations of biometrics in forensic applications are also addressed.

  4. Integrating Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  5. Evaluation of Statistical Methodologies Used in U. S. Army Ordnance and Explosive Work

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrouchov, G

    2000-02-14

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center (Huntsville, AL) to evaluate the mathematical basis of existing software tools used to assist the Army with the characterization of sites potentially contaminated with unexploded ordnance (UXO). These software tools are collectively known as SiteStats/GridStats. The first purpose of the software is to guide sampling of underground anomalies to estimate a site's UXO density. The second purpose is to delineate areas of homogeneous UXO density that can be used in the formulation of response actions. It was found that SiteStats/GridStats does adequately guide the sampling so that the UXO density estimator for a sector is unbiased. However, the software's techniques for delineation of homogeneous areas perform less well than visual inspection, which is frequently used to override the software in the overall sectorization methodology. The main problems with the software lie in the criteria used to detect nonhomogeneity and those used to recommend the number of homogeneous subareas. SiteStats/GridStats is not a decision-making tool in the classical sense. Although it does provide information to decision makers, it does not require a decision based on that information. SiteStats/GridStats provides information that is supplemented by visual inspections, land-use plans, and risk estimates prior to making any decisions. Although the sector UXO density estimator is unbiased regardless of UXO density variation within a sector, its variability increases with increased sector density variation. For this reason, the current practice of visual inspection of individual sampled grid densities (as provided by Site-Stats/GridStats) is necessary to ensure approximate homogeneity, particularly at sites with medium to high UXO density. Together with Site-Stats/GridStats override capabilities, this provides a sufficient mechanism for homogeneous sectorization and thus yields representative UXO density estimates. Objections raised by various parties to the use of a numerical ''discriminator'' in SiteStats/GridStats were likely because of the fact that the concerned statistical technique is customarily applied for a different purpose and because of poor documentation. The ''discriminator'', in Site-Stats/GridStats is a ''tuning parameter'' for the sampling process, and it affects the precision of the grid density estimates through changes in required sample size. It is recommended that sector characterization in terms of a map showing contour lines of constant UXO density with an expressed uncertainty or confidence level is a better basis for remediation decisions than a sector UXO density point estimate. A number of spatial density estimation techniques could be adapted to the UXO density estimation problem.

  6. Forensic Toxicology Certificate

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    of forensic science that is concerned with the study of toxic substances or poisons. Toxicology encompasses scientists and therefore will have a strong interest in the sciences and math. The work of a forensic.edu/cfs UWMilwLetSci For More Information: Center for Forensic Science 414-229-0510 cfs@uwm.edu This certificate

  7. By Diana Ha, Undergraduate, UNLV Diversity in Forensics

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    By Diana Ha, Undergraduate, UNLV Diversity in Forensics Since there is diversity forensic investigators, crime scene photographers, firearm and tool mark examiners, forensic accountants, forensic anthropologists, forensic artists, forensic biologists, forensic chemists, forensic document

  8. lthough forensic DNA testing is well established, experts sometimes disagree about the interpreta-

    E-print Network

    Mueller, Laurence D.

    A lthough forensic DNA testing is well established, experts sometimes disagree about the interpreta. THOMPSON, LAURENCE D. MUELLER, AND DAN E. KRANE 12 Forensic DNA Statistics: Still Controversial In Some Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM), a group of forensic scientists chosen by the FBI to propose

  9. Forensic Sketch Recognition: Matching Forensic Sketches to Mugshot Images

    E-print Network

    Forensic Sketch Recognition: Matching Forensic Sketches to Mugshot Images Presented by: Brendan Klare With: Anil Jain, and Zhifeng Li #12;Forensic sketches are drawn by a police artist based on verbal these high value targets Same Person Forensic Sketch Examples Forensic Sketches Mugshots #12;Current Method

  10. Forensic Science T. A. Brettell*

    E-print Network

    Forensic Science T. A. Brettell* Office of Forensic Sciences, New Jersey State Police, New Jersey Forensic Science and Technology Complex, 1200 Negron Road, Horizon Center, Hamilton, New Jersey 08691 J. M Sciences, Forensic Science International, International Journal of Legal Medicine, Legal Medicine, Forensic

  11. National Commission on Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    National Commission on Forensic Science NATIONAL COMMISSION ON FORENSIC SCIENCE VICE-CHAIRS NELSON Assistant to the Director for Forensic Science AMERICAN ACADEMY OF FORENSIC SCIENCE ANNUAL MEETING FEBRUARY 19, 2014 #12;National Commission on Forensic Science COMMISSION OVERVIEW: JOHN BUTLER #12;National

  12. Statistical Use in Clinical Studies: Is There Evidence of a Methodological Shift?

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Dali; Ma, Dihui; Li, Gaoming; Zhou, Liang; Xiao, Qin; Zhang, Yanqi; Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Hongru; Pettigrew, Julia Christine; Yi, Dong; Liu, Ling; Wu, Yazhou

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies indicate that the statistical education model and level in medical training fails to meet the demands of clinicians, especially when they want to understand published clinical research. We investigated how study designs and statistical methods in clinical studies have changed in the last twenty years, and we identified the current trends in study designs and statistical methods in clinical studies. Methods We reviewed 838 eligible clinical study articles that were published in 1990, 2000, and 2010 in four journals New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association and Nature Medicine. The study types, study designs, sample designs, data quality controls, statistical methods and statistical software were examined. Results Substantial changes occurred in the past twenty years. The majority of the studies focused on drug trials (61.6%, n = 516). In 1990, 2000, and 2010, there was an incremental increase in RCT studies (74.4%, 82.8%, and 84.0%, respectively, p = 0.013). Over time, there was increased attention on the details of selecting a sample and controlling bias, and there was a higher frequency of utilizing complex statistical methods. In 2010, the most common statistical methods were confidence interval for superiority and non-inferiority comparison (41.6%), survival analysis (28.5%), correction analysis for covariates (18.8%) and Logistic regression (15.3%). Conclusions These findings indicate that statistical measures in clinical studies are continuously developing and that the credibility of clinical study results is increasing. These findings provide information for future changes in statistical training in medical education. PMID:26448046

  13. A STATISTICAL MODELING METHODOLOGY FOR THE DETECTION, QUANTIFICATION, AND PREDICTION OF ECOLOGICAL THRESHOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study will provide a general methodology for integrating threshold information from multiple species ecological metrics, allow for prediction of changes of alternative stable states, and provide a risk assessment tool that can be applied to adaptive management. The integr...

  14. The Epistemology of Mathematical and Statistical Modeling: A Quiet Methodological Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2010-01-01

    A quiet methodological revolution, a modeling revolution, has occurred over the past several decades, almost without discussion. In contrast, the 20th century ended with contentious argument over the utility of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). The NHST controversy may have been at least partially irrelevant, because in certain ways the…

  15. STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE TYPES OF OUTCOMES IN NONLINEAR THRESHOLD MODELS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple outcomes are often measured on each experimental unit in toxicology experiments. These multiple observations typically imply the existence of correlation between endpoints, and a statistical analysis that incorporates it may result in improved inference. When both disc...

  16. Toward a general ontology for digital forensic disciplines.

    PubMed

    Karie, Nickson M; Venter, Hein S

    2014-09-01

    Ontologies are widely used in different disciplines as a technique for representing and reasoning about domain knowledge. However, despite the widespread ontology-related research activities and applications in different disciplines, the development of ontologies and ontology research activities is still wanting in digital forensics. This paper therefore presents the case for establishing an ontology for digital forensic disciplines. Such an ontology would enable better categorization of the digital forensic disciplines, as well as assist in the development of methodologies and specifications that can offer direction in different areas of digital forensics. This includes such areas as professional specialization, certifications, development of digital forensic tools, curricula, and educational materials. In addition, the ontology presented in this paper can be used, for example, to better organize the digital forensic domain knowledge and explicitly describe the discipline's semantics in a common way. Finally, this paper is meant to spark discussions and further research on an internationally agreed ontological distinction of the digital forensic disciplines. Digital forensic disciplines ontology is a novel approach toward organizing the digital forensic domain knowledge and constitutes the main contribution of this paper. PMID:24931294

  17. COMPONENT FORENSICS OF DIGITAL CAMERAS: A NON-INTRUSIVE APPROACH Ashwin Swaminathan, Min Wu and K. J. Ray Liu

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    COMPONENT FORENSICS OF DIGITAL CAMERAS: A NON-INTRUSIVE APPROACH Ashwin Swaminathan, Min Wu and K ABSTRACT This paper considers the problem of component forensics and proposes a methodology to identify forensic anal- ysis provide useful evidence for such applications as detect- ing technology infringement

  18. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  19. METHODOLOGY FOR PROJECTION OF OCCUPATIONAL TRENDS IN THE DENVER STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FISHMAN, LESLIE; AND OTHERS

    VARIOUS METHODS AVAILABLE FOR A PROJECTION OF OCCUPATIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF A STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA (SMSA) ARE REVIEWED, AS WELL AS THE DATA AVAILABLE TO IMPLEMENT THESE APPROACHES. TWO "NAIVE" MODELS ARE RECOMMENDED FOR USE AS BENCH MARKS AGAINST WHICH TO COMPARE MORE SOPHISTICATED APPROACHES--THE "NO CHANGE" MODEL AND A MODEL…

  20. Manipulating measurement scales in medical statistical analysis and data mining: A review of methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Marateb, Hamid Reza; Mansourian, Marjan; Adibi, Peyman; Farina, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Background: selecting the correct statistical test and data mining method depends highly on the measurement scale of data, type of variables, and purpose of the analysis. Different measurement scales are studied in details and statistical comparison, modeling, and data mining methods are studied based upon using several medical examples. We have presented two ordinal–variables clustering examples, as more challenging variable in analysis, using Wisconsin Breast Cancer Data (WBCD). Ordinal-to-Interval scale conversion example: a breast cancer database of nine 10-level ordinal variables for 683 patients was analyzed by two ordinal-scale clustering methods. The performance of the clustering methods was assessed by comparison with the gold standard groups of malignant and benign cases that had been identified by clinical tests. Results: the sensitivity and accuracy of the two clustering methods were 98% and 96%, respectively. Their specificity was comparable. Conclusion: by using appropriate clustering algorithm based on the measurement scale of the variables in the study, high performance is granted. Moreover, descriptive and inferential statistics in addition to modeling approach must be selected based on the scale of the variables. PMID:24672565

  1. DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It…

  2. FORENSIC SCIENCE The bachelor of science in forensic science at

    E-print Network

    FORENSIC SCIENCE The bachelor of science in forensic science at Wichita State University in forensic science at WSU. The academic resources (e.g., teaching, research, facilities) necessary investigations. Admission Freshman and transfer students declaring forensic science as a major will be assigned

  3. Making Forensic Attack Event/forensic Analysis as Simple

    E-print Network

    Peisert, Sean

    science can only answer part of it. · Forensic analysis is an art, but there are scientific componentsMaking Forensic Attack Event/forensic Analysis as Simple as Possible and No Simpler Sean Peisert to focus on non-binary (e.g., post mortem analysis). 5Tuesday, July 22, 2008 #12;What is forensic Analysis

  4. Trusted Internet Forensics: design of a network forensics appliance

    E-print Network

    Monga, Mattia

    1 Trusted Internet Forensics: design of a network forensics appliance extend abstract D. Bruschi M, rosti}@dico.unimi.it Abstract-- With the spreading of cyber-crime, computer foren- sics has emerged, Trusted Internet Forensics, a network appliance that collects data from the network for forensics purposes

  5. Forensic DNA testing.

    PubMed

    Weedn, V W; Roby, R K

    1993-05-01

    Forensic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) testing has revolutionized criminal investigations. Deoxyribonucleic acid testing is superseding traditional serologic testing due to its discriminatory power, universal application to biologic materials, and resistance to environmental insults, among other advantages. Its acceptance is becoming commonplace, and it is being put into widespread use. Forensic DNA testing technology and its application is continuing to evolve. PMID:8489337

  6. Forensic Science Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  7. Statistical and Methodological Considerations for the Interpretation of Intranasal Oxytocin Studies.

    PubMed

    Walum, Hasse; Waldman, Irwin D; Young, Larry J

    2016-02-01

    Over the last decade, oxytocin (OT) has received focus in numerous studies associating intranasal administration of this peptide with various aspects of human social behavior. These studies in humans are inspired by animal research, especially in rodents, showing that central manipulations of the OT system affect behavioral phenotypes related to social cognition, including parental behavior, social bonding, and individual recognition. Taken together, these studies in humans appear to provide compelling, but sometimes bewildering, evidence for the role of OT in influencing a vast array of complex social cognitive processes in humans. In this article, we investigate to what extent the human intranasal OT literature lends support to the hypothesis that intranasal OT consistently influences a wide spectrum of social behavior in humans. We do this by considering statistical features of studies within this field, including factors like statistical power, prestudy odds, and bias. Our conclusion is that intranasal OT studies are generally underpowered and that there is a high probability that most of the published intranasal OT findings do not represent true effects. Thus, the remarkable reports that intranasal OT influences a large number of human social behaviors should be viewed with healthy skepticism, and we make recommendations to improve the reliability of human OT studies in the future. PMID:26210057

  8. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan. PMID:26024984

  9. The use of geoscience methods for terrestrial forensic searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, J. K.; Ruffell, A.; Jervis, J. R.; Donnelly, L.; McKinley, J.; Hansen, J.; Morgan, R.; Pirrie, D.; Harrison, M.

    2012-08-01

    Geoscience methods are increasingly being utilised in criminal, environmental and humanitarian forensic investigations, and the use of such methods is supported by a growing body of experimental and theoretical research. Geoscience search techniques can complement traditional methodologies in the search for buried objects, including clandestine graves, weapons, explosives, drugs, illegal weapons, hazardous waste and vehicles. This paper details recent advances in search and detection methods, with case studies and reviews. Relevant examples are given, together with a generalised workflow for search and suggested detection technique(s) table. Forensic geoscience techniques are continuing to rapidly evolve to assist search investigators to detect hitherto difficult to locate forensic targets.

  10. FORENSIC TECHNIQUES FOR CELL PHONES

    E-print Network

    , is called mobile phone forensics. In general, forensic science is the application of scientific principles for legal, investigative, and public policy purposes. Digital forensic science refers to the preservation incidents. The science of recovering digital evidence from mobile phones, using forensically sound

  11. Recent NIST Forensic Science Efforts

    E-print Network

    Recent NIST Forensic Science Efforts John M. Butler Special Assistant to the Director for Forensic NISTOperatingUnits(OUs) #12;National Academies Report on Forensic Science · Released February 18, 2009 · Entitled "Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward" · 13 recommendations

  12. Topics in Forensic DNA Analysis &

    E-print Network

    Society of Forensic Genetics and serve as an Associate Editor for Forensic Science International: Genetics and Mathematical Sciences Honored Alumnus (2005), and the Scientific Prize of the International Society of Forensic science journal. Dr. Butler has been an invited speaker to numerous national and international forensic

  13. International Standards in Forensic DNA

    E-print Network

    and Technology NIST Fellow & Special Assistant to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science World Forensics Festival Seoul, Korea October 15, 2014 #12;Definition;International and Regional Coordination Efforts in Forensic Science 2004 1974 1995 2008 19862008 2004 1968 DNA

  14. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic

  15. [The concept of "forensic medicine"].

    PubMed

    Popov, V L

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the definition of forensic medicine and its evolution during the past 300 years is presented. The special character of forensic medicine, its subject-matter, scope of research, procedures, goals and targeted application of forensic medical knowledge are discussed. The original definition of the notion of "forensic medicine" is proposed. PMID:23888497

  16. ViSEN: methodology and software for visualization of statistical epistasis networks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ting; Chen, Yuanzhu; Kiralis, Jeff W; Moore, Jason H

    2013-04-01

    The nonlinear interaction effect among multiple genetic factors, i.e. epistasis, has been recognized as a key component in understanding the underlying genetic basis of complex human diseases and phenotypic traits. Due to the statistical and computational complexity, most epistasis studies are limited to interactions with an order of two. We developed ViSEN to analyze and visualize epistatic interactions of both two-way and three-way. ViSEN not only identifies strong interactions among pairs or trios of genetic attributes, but also provides a global interaction map that shows neighborhood and clustering structures. This visualized information could be very helpful to infer the underlying genetic architecture of complex diseases and to generate plausible hypotheses for further biological validations. ViSEN is implemented in Java and freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/visen/. PMID:23468157

  17. Statistical methodology used in analyses of data from DOE experimental animal studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.; Griffith, W.C.; Carnes, B.A.

    1995-07-01

    This document describes many of the statistical approaches that are being used to analyze data from life-span animal studies conducted under the Department of Energy experimental radiobiology program. The methods, which are intended to be as informative as possible for assessing human health risks, account for time-related factors and competing risks, and are reasonably comparable to methods used for analyzing data from human epidemiologic studies of persons exposed to radiation. The methods described in this report model the hazard, or age-specific risk, as a function of dose and other factors such as dose rate, age at risk, and time since exposure. Both models in which the radiation risk is expressed relative to the baseline risk and models in which this risk is expressed in absolute terms are formulated. Both parametric and non-parametric models for baseline risks are considered, and several dose-response functions are suggested. Tumors in animals are not always the cause of death but instead may be found incidentally to death from other causes. This report gives detailed attention to the context of observation of tumors, and emphasizes an approach that makes use of information provided by the pathologist on whether tumors are fatal or incidental. Special cases are those in which all tumors are observed in a fatal context or in which all tumors are observed in an incidental context. Maximum likelihood theory provides the basis for fitting the suggested models and for making statistical inferences regarding parameters of these models. Approaches in which observations are grouped by intervals of time and possibly other factors are emphasized. This approach is based on iteratively reweighted least squares and uses Poisson weights for tumors considered to be fatal and binomial weights for tumors considered to be incidental.

  18. STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING TRANSPORT PARAMETERS: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS TO ONE-DOMENSIONAL ADVECTIVE-DISPERSIVE SYSTEMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Brian J.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation nonlinear multiple-regression methodology for estimating parameters that characterize the transport of contaminants is developed and demonstrated. Finite difference containment transport simulation is combined with a nonlinear weighted least squares multiple-regression procedure. The technique provides optimal parameter estimates and gives statistics for assessing the reliability of these estimates under certain general assumptions about the distributions of the random measurement errors. Monte Carlo analysis is used to estimate parameter reliability for a hypothetical homogeneous soil column for which concentration data contain large random measurement errors. The value of data collected spatially versus data collected temporally was investigated for estimation of velocity, dispersion coefficient, effective porosity, first-order decay rate, and zero-order production. The use of spatial data gave estimates that were 2-3 times more reliable than estimates based on temporal data for all parameters except velocity. (Estimated author abstract) Refs.

  19. First Digit Law and Its Application to Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yun Q.

    Digital data forensics, which gathers evidence of data composition, origin, and history, is crucial in our digital world. Although this new research field is still in its infancy stage, it has started to attract increasing attention from the multimedia-security research community. This lecture addresses the first digit law and its applications to digital forensics. First, the Benford and generalized Benford laws, referred to as first digit law, are introduced. Then, the application of first digit law to detection of JPEG compression history for a given BMP image and detection of double JPEG compressions are presented. Finally, applying first digit law to detection of double MPEG video compressions is discussed. It is expected that the first digit law may play an active role in other task of digital forensics. The lesson learned is that statistical models play an important role in digital forensics and for a specific forensic task different models may provide different performance.

  20. Aitken, CGG. Zadora, G & Lucy, D. (2007) A Two-Level Model for Evidence Evaluation. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 52(2); 412-419.

    E-print Network

    Lucy, David

    2007-01-01

    of Forensic Sciences. 52(2); 412-419. A Two-Level Model for Evidence Evaluation Colin G.G. Aitken,1 Ph of Mathematics & Statistics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YF. KEYWORDS: forensic science, evidence for Forensic Statistics and Legal Rea- soning, The King's Buildings, The University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road

  1. Behavioural effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals on laboratory rodents: statistical methodologies and an application concerning developmental PCB exposure.

    PubMed

    Puopolo, M; Santucci, D; Chiarotti, F; Alleva, E

    1999-10-01

    Appropriate behavioural tests and adequate statistical tools may help to establish the ED properties of a given compound by pointing out the alterations of selected behavioural endpoints. Frequently, laboratory collected data consist of frequencies and/or durations of specific items, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique is performed to assess whether the investigated factors affect these behavioural endpoints. Moreover, when numerous aspects of behaviour are investigated simultaneously, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a multivariate technique, may be very useful to reduce the overwhelming number of correlated original variables to a few orthogonal artificial variables (factors). Continuous Time Markov Chain (CTMC) models may be applied to analyse the time structure of a behavioural pattern when data consist of sequences of events and the time points at which they occur. Moreover, the Cox Proportional Hazard Model, a methodology originally developed for the analysis of failure time data, may help to evidence the effects of a given treatment on behavioural sequences when the assumptions of CTMC models are not fully satisfied. Analyses on data from mice of the outbred CD-1 strain (controls in a study of toxicity and exposed to PCB during development) are presented as examples to show how adequate statistical analyses and appropriate behavioural tests may reveal relevant effect of treatments otherwise not easily detected. PMID:10467721

  2. Forecasting methodologies for Ganoderma spore concentration using combined statistical approaches and model evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sady?, Magdalena; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Kennedy, Roy

    2015-08-01

    High concentration levels of Ganoderma spp. spores were observed in Worcester, UK, during 2006-2010. These basidiospores are known to cause sensitization due to the allergen content and their small dimensions. This enables them to penetrate the lower part of the respiratory tract in humans. Establishment of a link between occurring symptoms of sensitization to Ganoderma spp. and other basidiospores is challenging due to lack of information regarding spore concentration in the air. Hence, aerobiological monitoring should be conducted, and if possible extended with the construction of forecast models. Daily mean concentration of allergenic Ganoderma spp. spores in the atmosphere of Worcester was measured using 7-day volumetric spore sampler through five consecutive years. The relationships between the presence of spores in the air and the weather parameters were examined. Forecast models were constructed for Ganoderma spp. spores using advanced statistical techniques, i.e. multivariate regression trees and artificial neural networks. Dew point temperature along with maximum temperature was the most important factor influencing the presence of spores in the air of Worcester. Based on these two major factors and several others of lesser importance, thresholds for certain levels of fungal spore concentration, i.e. low (0-49 s m-3), moderate (50-99 s m-3), high (100-149 s m-3) and very high (150 < n s m-3), could be designated. Despite some deviation in results obtained by artificial neural networks, authors have achieved a forecasting model, which was accurate (correlation between observed and predicted values varied from r s = 0.57 to r s = 0.68).

  3. Methodologies in forensic and decomposition microbiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culturable microorganisms represent only 0.1-1% of the total microbial diversity of the biosphere. This has severely restricted the ability of scientists to study the microbial biodiversity associated with the decomposition of ephemeral resources in the past. Innovations in technology are bringing...

  4. Russian forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lowe-Ponsford, F

    2000-01-01

    Two forensic psychiatric clinics visited on an exchange trip to Russia are described. The legal system for mentally disordered offenders in these institutions is also summarized, as is the training of psychiatrists in Russia. PMID:10689858

  5. Forensic speaker recognition

    E-print Network

    Bonstre, Jean-Francois

    Looking at the different points highlighted in this article, we affirm that forensic applications of speaker recognition should still be taken under a necessary need for caution. Disseminating this message remains one of ...

  6. Physics and forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.

    2001-12-15

    This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources.

  7. Computer Forensics Insider Problem

    E-print Network

    Peisert, Sean

    (Stoll) · "Evening with Berferd" (Cheswick) · Takedown (Shimomura/Gross) Lessons from Case Studies? 7 #12 immunology model · s-tide, Primary Response, pH Synthesizing Forensics and Intrusion Detection: Anomaly

  8. Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Cliff, John B.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-01-03

    Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special considerations for the forensic arena - quality control, sample integrity, etc. Mark Wilson (retired FBI): Western Carolina University Chapter 4. Physical signatures: Light and electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gravimetry etc. Joseph Michael, Sandia National Laboratory Chapter 5. Lipids: FAME, PLFA, steroids, LPS, etc. James Robertson, Federal Bureau of Investigation Chapter 6. Carbohydrates: Cell wall components, cytoplasm components, methods Alvin Fox, University of South Carolina School of Medicine David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 7. Peptides: Peptides, proteins, lipoproteins David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 8. Elemental content: CNOHPS (treated in passing), metals, prospective cell types John Cliff, International Atomic Energy Agency Chapter 9. Isotopic signatures: Stable isotopes C,N,H,O,S, 14C dating, potential for heavy elements. Helen Kreuzer-Martin, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Michaele Kashgarian, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Chapter 10. Extracellular signatures: Cellular debris, heme, agar, headspace, spent media, etc Karen Wahl, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 11. Data Reduction and Integrated Microbial Forensics: Statistical concepts, parametric and multivariate statistics, integrating signatures Kristin Jarman, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  9. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison. PMID:26126345

  10. Professionalism in Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Alastair D.; Konstadopoulou, Anastasia

    The paper seeks to address the need to consider issues regarding professionalism in computer forensics in order to allow the discipline to develop and to ensure the credibility of the discipline from the differing perspectives of practitioners, the criminal justice system and in the eyes of the public. There is a need to examine and develop professionalism in computer forensics in order to promote the discipline and maintain the credibility of the discipline.

  11. Forensic psychiatry in Britain.

    PubMed

    Beck, J C

    1995-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the criminal forensic mental health system in Great Britain, that is England and Wales. The report is based on the author's participant observation as a visiting consultant psychiatrist at a regional forensic facility in Manchester, England during early 1994. British law casts a net over a wider population of forensic patients than does U.S. law. There is a forensic care system in the British National Health Service that is parallel to and independent of the general psychiatric care system. The forensic system provides continuity of care from prison through maximum security hospitals to regional medium secure facilities, and finally, into the community. Community care is provided by psychiatrists and social workers and, if necessary, by psychiatric nurses. This system appears to provide effective treatment for persons with major mental disorders and histories of violence. Differences between Britain and the United States in philosophy of government, in law, and in forensic training and practice are discussed. The fundamental difference is a greater British belief in the capacity of government to act in the best interests of the individual. Current problems in the British health care system and plans to privatize some services are also discussed. PMID:8605409

  12. Transporting Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Dike, Charles C; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Young, John L

    2015-12-01

    Patients in a forensic psychiatric facility often require escorted transport to medical facilities for investigations or treatments of physical health ailments. Transporting these patients presents significant safety and custody challenges because of the nature of patients housed in forensic psychiatric facilities. A significant proportion of these patients may be transfers from the Department of Corrections (DOC) under legal mandates for psychiatric evaluation and treatment better provided in a hospital setting, and most of them will return to the DOC. Although departments of correction have protocols for escorting these potentially dangerous individuals, it is unclear whether receiving psychiatric hospitals have established procedures for maintaining the safety of others and custody of these individuals during transportation outside the hospital facility. The literature is sparse on precautions to be observed when transporting dangerous forensic psychiatric patients, including those with high escape risk. In this article, we describe one forensic inpatient facility's procedure for determining the appropriate level needed to transport these individuals outside of the forensic facility. We also describe the risk assessment procedure for determining level of transport. These are quality improvement measures resulting from a critical review of an incident of escape from the forensic facility several years ago. PMID:26668224

  13. FRNSC 514: Applied Forensic Science Time and Place: M 8:008:50 in 252 Ag Engineering

    E-print Network

    Hunter, David

    FRNSC 514: Applied Forensic Science Statistics Syllabus Time and Place: M 8:00­8:50 in 252 Ag of a project, due at the end of the semester, that tackles some statistical analy- sis related to forensic science. Since students might have their own statistical problems related to their master's research

  14. International Standards in Forensic DNA and

    E-print Network

    International Standards in Forensic DNA and Recent Forensic Science Activities in the United States to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science Qiagen 4th Investigator in Forensic Science ­ National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) ­ Organization of Scientific Area

  15. Exploring relationship between asthma and air pollution: a geospatial methodology using dasymetric mapping, GIS analysis, and spatial statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z.; Liebens, Johan; Rao, Ranga

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents methodology using dasymetric mapping from remotely sensed imagery, geographic information system (GIS), spatial analysis and spatial statistics to explore relationship between asthma and air pollution in the Pensacola metropolitan region of Florida. Health outcome indicators thought to be sensitive to increased exposure of airborne environmental hazards are mortality and morbidity rates for total population asthma patients. Environmental data for the time around the year 1999 include point source pollution sites and emissions, traffic count with emission estimates, and a Landsat ETM+ image. Standardized mortality/morbility ratios (SMRs) were used as dependent variables for the analysis. A centroid map was created from the zip code map with each centroid assigned the corresponding SMR values. Then spatial interpolation using the Kriging method was used to generate continuous SMR surfaces. An emission or point count based kernel density raster map was created from each of the air pollution maps. A raster layer 'greenness' was extracted using tasseled cap transformation from the Landsat ETM+ image. The dasymetric mapping technique was employed to limit the analysis and modeling to the area where human activities occur. The ETM+ image was classified into a thematic land use/cover map and the developed area extracted. A road network was combined with the developed area to generate a buffer (buffer distance=1.5 km). A random sample with enough number of points was generated across the study area and 505 points were found within the developed area and the buffer. Data values at these sample points were extracted and used for statistical modeling. Two spatial autoregressive models (spatial error and spatial lag) were fitted. Both models show relationship between the asthmas outcome indicators and air pollution (positive) and 'greenness' (negative).

  16. Assessment of Reliable Change Using 95% Credible Intervals for the Differences in Proportions: A Statistical Analysis for Case-Study Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unicomb, Rachael; Colyvas, Kim; Harrison, Elisabeth; Hewat, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Case-study methodology studying change is often used in the field of speech-language pathology, but it can be criticized for not being statistically robust. Yet with the heterogeneous nature of many communication disorders, case studies allow clinicians and researchers to closely observe and report on change. Such information is valuable…

  17. Forensic trace DNA: a review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

  18. Statistical Optimization of Ultraviolet Irradiate Conditions for Vitamin D2 Synthesis in Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Jie; Ahn, Byung-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum vitamin D2 synthesis conditions in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). Ultraviolet B (UV-B) was selected as the most efficient irradiation source for the preliminary experiment, in addition to the levels of three independent variables, which included ambient temperature (25–45°C), exposure time (40–120 min), and irradiation intensity (0.6–1.2 W/m2). The statistical analysis indicated that, for the range which was studied, irradiation intensity was the most critical factor that affected vitamin D2 synthesis in oyster mushrooms. Under optimal conditions (ambient temperature of 28.16°C, UV-B intensity of 1.14 W/m2, and exposure time of 94.28 min), the experimental vitamin D2 content of 239.67 µg/g (dry weight) was in very good agreement with the predicted value of 245.49 µg/g, which verified the practicability of this strategy. Compared to fresh mushrooms, the lyophilized mushroom powder can synthesize remarkably higher level of vitamin D2 (498.10 µg/g) within much shorter UV-B exposure time (10 min), and thus should receive attention from the food processing industry. PMID:24736742

  19. Toward a Multi-scale Phase Transition Kinetics Methodology: From Non-Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics to Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belof, Jonathan; Orlikowski, Daniel; Wu, Christine; McLaughlin, Keith

    2013-06-01

    Shock and ramp compression experiments are allowing us to probe condensed matter under extreme conditions where phase transitions and other non-equilibrium aspects can now be directly observed, but first principles simulation of kinetics remains a challenge. A multi-scale approach is presented here, with non-equilibrium statistical mechanical quantities calculated by molecular dynamics (MD) and then leveraged to inform a classical nucleation and growth kinetics model at the hydrodynamic scale. Of central interest is the free energy barrier for the formation of a critical nucleus, with direct NEMD presenting the challenge of relatively long timescales necessary to resolve nucleation. Rather than attempt to resolve the time-dependent nucleation sequence directly, the methodology derived here is built upon the non-equilibrium work theorem in order to bias the formation of a critical nucleus and thus construct the nucleation and growth rates. Having determined these kinetic terms from MD, a hydrodynamics implementation of Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) kinetics and metastabilty is applied to the dynamic compressive freezing of water and compared with recent ramp compression experiments [Dolan et al., Nature (2007)] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. The Future of Forensic DNA

    E-print Network

    and Technology Gaithersburg, Maryland United States of America The Paradigm Shift for UK Forensic Science and recent U.S. activities ­ National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) ­ Organization of Scientific Area on Forensic Science (SoFS) operated from July 2009 to Dec 2012 DOJ/NIST Partnership (announced Feb 2013) 1

  1. National Commission on Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    National Commission on Forensic Science Update John M. Butler, Ph.D. National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST Fellow & Special Assistant to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science SWGDAM Meeting Fredericksburg, VA January 15, 2015 #12;NCFS

  2. National Commission on Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    National Commission on Forensic Science A Federal Advisory Committee for the U.S. Department://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/100916 #12;Duties of the National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) per its Charter Duties include: 1 guidance concerning the intersection of forensic science and the courtroom; 4. To develop policy

  3. Forensics on a Shoestring Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

  4. Proceedings of Australian Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    Proceedings of The 5th Australian Digital Forensics Conference 3rd December 2007 Edith Cowan-7298-0646-4 #12;Table of Contents 1. Anti-Forensics and the Digital Investigator ................................... 8 3. The effectiveness of investigative tools for Secure Digital (SD) Memory Card forensics

  5. The Future of Forensic DNA

    E-print Network

    ­ Workshops on mixture interpretation and CE troubleshooting ­ Third edition of Forensic DNA Typing textbook (2009, 2011, & 2013) #12;INTERPRETATION John M. Butler Forensic DNA Typing Textbook 3rd Edition is ThreeThe Future of Forensic DNA John M. Butler, PhD National Institute of Standards and Technology

  6. Modeling senescence changes of the pubic symphysis in historic Italian populations: a comparison of the Rostock and forensic approaches to aging using transition analysis.

    PubMed

    Godde, Kanya; Hens, Samantha M

    2015-03-01

    Age-related anatomical changes to the surface of the pubic symphysis are well-documented in the literature. However, aligning these morphological changes with chronological age has proven problematic, often resulting in biased age estimates. Statistical modeling provides an avenue for forensic anthropologists and bioarchaeologists to increase the accuracy of traditional aging methods. Locating appropriate samples to use as a basis for modeling age estimations can be challenging due to differing sample age distributions and potentially varying patterns of senescence. We compared two approaches, Rostock and Forensic, coupled with a Bayesian methodology, to address these issues. Transition analysis was run specific to each method (which differ by sample selection). A Gompertz model was derived from an informative prior that yielded the mortality and senescence parameters for constructing highest posterior density ranges, i.e., coverages, which are analogous to age ranges. These age ranges were generated from both approaches and are presented as reference tables useful for historic male and female Italian samples. The age ranges produced from each approach were tested on an historic Italian sample, using cumulative binomial tests. These two approaches performed similarly, with the Forensic approach showing a slight advantage. However, the Forensic approach is unable to identify varying senescence patterns between populations, thus preference for one approach over the other will depend on research design. Finally, we demonstrate that while populations exhibit similar morphological changes with advancing age, there are no significant sex differences in these samples, and the timing of these changes varies from population to population. PMID:25407762

  7. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  8. Forensic Science Center

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.; Grant, P.M.

    1994-03-01

    Since 1991, the Laboratory's Forensic Science Center has focused a comprehensive range of analytical expertise on issues related to non proliferation, counterterrorism, and domestic law enforcement. During this short period, LLNL's singular combination of human and technological resources has made the Center among the best of its kind in the world. The Forensic Science Center houses a variety of state-of-the-art analytical tools ranging from gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers to ultratrace DNA detection techniques. The Center's multidisciplinary staff provides expertise in organic and inorganic analytical chemistry, nuclear science, biochemistry, and genetics useful for supporting law enforcement and for verifying compliance with international treaties and agreements.

  9. Exploring Trends in Forensic Odontology

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Ain, Tasneem S.; Sultan, Saima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Materials and Methods: Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. Results: A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. Results showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Conclusion: Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology. PMID:25654026

  10. Object-oriented Bayesian networks for complex forensic DNA profiling problems

    E-print Network

    Guillas, Serge

    such as Hugin 1 . Research report No. 256, Department of Statistical Science, University College London. DateObject-oriented Bayesian networks for complex forensic DNA profiling problems A. P. Dawid and forensic identification are currently conducted using DNA profiles, comprised of several highly polymorphic

  11. B.S. Degree, Option in Forensic Chemistry Course number and title Autumn Credits Spring Credits

    E-print Network

    Chu, Xi

    and Molecular Biology 4 - SOCI 2011S Criminology 3 - ANTH 286N Survey of Forensic Science - 3 General EducationB.S. Degree, Option in Forensic Chemistry First Year Course number and title Autumn Credits Spring Instrument Analysis - 4 CHMY 360 Applied Physical Chemistry 3 STAT 451/457 Statistical Methods 4 SOCI 221

  12. THE COST OF JPEG COMPRESSION ANTI-FORENSICS G. Valenzise, M. Tagliasacchi, S. Tubaro

    E-print Network

    Tagliasacchi, Marco

    THE COST OF JPEG COMPRESSION ANTI-FORENSICS G. Valenzise, M. Tagliasacchi, S. Tubaro Dipartimento by JPEG compression can be a valuable source of information for the forensic analyst. Recently, it has of the distortion on the image statistics in the DCT domain and on the quantization step used in JPEG compres- sion

  13. Mitigating Security Issues in the Internet of Things Mobility Forensics

    E-print Network

    Xie, Tao

    Mitigating Security Issues in the Internet of Things Mobility Forensics Keyonna Brown, Mohammad Nourreddine, Masooda Bashir Motivation Security Architecture of the Internet of Things Goals Methodology Future Work · The Internet of Things (IOT) is the notion that all objects and devices will be connected

  14. September 2006 FORENSIC TECHNIQUES

    E-print Network

    SECURITY INCIDENTS FORENSIC TECHNIQUES: HELPING ORGANIZATIONS IMPROVE THEIR RESPONSES TO INFORMATION SECURITY INCIDENTS Shirley Radack, EditorShirley Radack, Editor Computer Security DivisionComputer Security of science to the identification, collection, examination, and analysis of data in ways that preserve

  15. Forensic Applications of LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

    Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

  16. [PCR in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Coquoz, R

    1994-05-17

    PCR has brought important progress to forensic medicine. It has provided access to various effective, rapid and simple analytic techniques. It has distinctly increased the range of analyzable samples and comparably improved chances to identify a criminal. This had consequences for laboratories as well as police departments and even physicians that occasionally cooperate with legal agencies. PMID:7911590

  17. Statistical optimization of process parameters for lipase-catalyzed synthesis of triethanolamine-based esterquats using response surface methodology in 2-liter bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Basri, Mahiran; Kassim, Anuar; Abdullah, Dzulkefly Kuang; Abdollahi, Yadollah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Rezaee, Malahat

    2013-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed production of triethanolamine-based esterquat by esterification of oleic acid (OA) with triethanolamine (TEA) in n-hexane was performed in 2 L stirred-tank reactor. A set of experiments was designed by central composite design to process modeling and statistically evaluate the findings. Five independent process variables, including enzyme amount, reaction time, reaction temperature, substrates molar ratio of OA to TEA, and agitation speed, were studied under the given conditions designed by Design Expert software. Experimental data were examined for normality test before data processing stage and skewness and kurtosis indices were determined. The mathematical model developed was found to be adequate and statistically accurate to predict the optimum conversion of product. Response surface methodology with central composite design gave the best performance in this study, and the methodology as a whole has been proven to be adequate for the design and optimization of the enzymatic process. PMID:24324389

  18. Forensic Science WWW.UVA.NL/MFS

    E-print Network

    Koolen, Marijn

    Forensic Science WWW.UVA.NL/MFS Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies The field of forensic proportionally. Forensic Science students at the University of Amsterdam gain a broad understanding of forensic science together with a in-depth knowledge of a specific scientific discipline. THE MASTER FORENSIC

  19. Inter-Faculty Bachelor of Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    Inter-Faculty Bachelor of Forensic Science Forensic science is the study of evidence in criminal of Forensic Science allows you to focus on three major areas of forensic science by choosing a scientific is intended for students interested in the use of DNA and serology in forensic science. 2) The Chemistry

  20. COE589: Digital Forensics Overview and Logistics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    COE589: Digital Forensics Overview and Logistics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM - Fall 2012 (T121) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Digital Forensics · Forensic Science: Applying science for the purpose of law ­ solve crimes ­ dealing with weapons, blood, fingerprints, · Digital Forensics: Forensics in the digital

  1. COE589: Digital Forensics Overview and Logistics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    COE589: Digital Forensics Overview and Logistics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM ­ Spring 2013 (T122) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Digital Forensics · Forensic Science: Applying science for the purpose of law ­ solve crimes ­ dealing with weapons, blood, fingerprints, · Digital Forensics: Forensics in the digital

  2. Statistics

    Cancer.gov

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  3. Forensic Analysis of Phone Call Networks

    E-print Network

    Catanese, Salvatore; Fiumara, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    In the context of preventing and fighting crime, the analysis of mobile phone traffic, among actors of a criminal network, is helpful in order to reconstruct illegal activities on the base of the relationships connecting those specific individuals. Thus, forensic analysts and investigators require new advanced tools and techniques which allow them to manage these data in a meaningful and efficient way. In this paper we present LogAnalysis, a tool we developed to provide visual data representation and filtering, statistical analysis features and the possibility of a temporal analysis of mobile phone activities. Its adoption may help in unveiling the structure of a criminal network and the roles and dynamics of communications among its components. By using LogAnalysis, forensic investigators could deeply understand hierarchies within criminal organizations, for example discovering central members that provide connections among different sub-groups, etc. Moreover, by analyzing the temporal evolution of the conta...

  4. State-of-the-Art Forensic DNA

    E-print Network

    Marine Laboratory #12;National Academies Report on Forensic Science · Released February 18, 2009 · Entitled "Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward" · 13 recommendations provided to Congress · Recommends establishing a National Institute of Forensic Science (NIFS) · NIST

  5. Analytical and Radiochemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert Ernest; Dry, Donald E.; Kinman, William Scott; Podlesak, David; Tandon, Lav

    2015-05-26

    Information about nonproliferation nuclear forensics, activities in forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory, radio analytical work at LANL, radiochemical characterization capabilities, bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities, and future interests in forensics interactions.

  6. Towards Proactive Forensic Evidentiary Collection Clay Shields

    E-print Network

    Shields, Clay

    Towards Proactive Forensic Evidentiary Collection Clay Shields Department of Computer Science Georgetown University Washington, D.C., 20057 clay@cs.georgetown.edu Abstract Forensic investigations have

  7. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Manigandan, T.; Sumathy, C.; Elumalai, M.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.; Kannan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster. PMID:26015728

  8. A new anti-forensic scheme--hiding the single JPEG compression trace for digital image.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanjun; Gao, Tiegang; Sheng, Guorui; Fan, Li; Gao, Lin

    2015-01-01

    To prevent image forgeries, a number of forensic techniques for digital image have been developed that can detect an image's origin, trace its processing history, and can also locate the position of tampering. Especially, the statistical footprint left by JPEG compression operation can be a valuable source of information for the forensic analyst, and some image forensic algorithm have been raised based on the image statistics in the DCT domain. Recently, it has been shown that footprints can be removed by adding a suitable anti-forensic dithering signal to the image in the DCT domain, this results in invalid for some image forensic algorithms. In this paper, a novel anti-forensic algorithm is proposed, which is capable of concealing the quantization artifacts that left in the single JPEG compressed image. In the scheme, a chaos-based dither is added to an image's DCT coefficients to remove such artifacts. Effectiveness of both the scheme and the loss of image quality are evaluated through the experiments. The simulation results show that the proposed anti-forensic scheme can verify the reliability of the JPEG forensic tools. PMID:25442510

  9. Statistical Techniques Utilized in Analyzing PISA and TIMSS Data in Science Education from 1996 to 2013: A Methodological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Hung, Yi-Chen

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a methodological review of articles using the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) or Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) data published by the SSCI-indexed science education journals, such as the "International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education," the "International…

  10. Digital Forensics Using Local Signal Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Xunyu

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the Internet and the popularity of digital imaging devices, digital imagery has become our major information source. Meanwhile, the development of digital manipulation techniques employed by most image editing software brings new challenges to the credibility of photographic images as the definite records of events. We…

  11. Image processing in forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Oliver, W R

    1998-03-01

    Image processing applications in forensic pathology are becoming increasingly important. This article introduces basic concepts in image processing as applied to problems in forensic pathology in a non-mathematical context. Discussions of contrast enhancement, digital encoding, compression, deblurring, and other topics are presented. PMID:9523070

  12. World of Forensic Laboratory Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CAP), American Board of Forensic Toxicology, the National Forensic Science Technology Center (NSFTC), and American Society of Crime ... to ensure that it reflects the most current science. A review may not require any modifications to the article, so the two ... Compliance . Produced by

  13. FORENSIC ORNITHOLOGY Carla J. Dove

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    FORENSIC ORNITHOLOGY Carla J. Dove Division of Birds Smithsonian Institution Washington, DC 20560 to avian systematics, it has since been the basis for studies in AForensic Ornithology@ and ABird Strike Analysis@. Forensic ornithology seeks to identify birds from fragmentary feathers, bones, beaks, talons

  14. Impact of Genomics in Forensic DNA Testing

    E-print Network

    ;Presentation Outline · NIST background and role in forensic science · Brief history of forensic DNA · Methods) measurement calibration Margaret Kline #12;National Academies Report on Forensic Science · Released February 18, 2009 · Entitled "Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward" · 13

  15. National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS)

    E-print Network

    National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science 25th International Symposium on Human Identification Phoenix, AZ October 1, 2014 #12;Forensic Science Realignment · NAS report

  16. National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and

    E-print Network

    National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science NEAFS Plenary Session Hershey, PA November 5, 2014 #12;NCFS and OSAC: U.S. Efforts to Strengthen Forensic Science · National

  17. Forensic Science International: Genetics Journal Status Report

    E-print Network

    Forensic Science International: Genetics Journal Status Report John M. Butler Associate Editor ISFG.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA Titia Sijen Molecular Ogden & Linacre Wildlife forensic science: a review of genetic geographic origin assignment Maria Brión

  18. National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS)

    E-print Network

    National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC on Forensic Science #12;Forensic Science Realignment · NAS report ­ Feb 2009 · White House Subcommittee on Forensic Science (SoFS) ­ July 2009 to Dec 2012 · DOJ/NIST Partnership ­ NCFS (National Commission

  19. NISTIR 7516 Forensic Filtering of Cell

    E-print Network

    NISTIR 7516 Forensic Filtering of Cell Phone Protocols AurélienDelaitre WayneJansen #12;ii Forensic of Standards and Technology Interagency Report 42 pages (2008) iii #12;Abstract Phone managers are non-forensic managers are sometimes used by forensic investigators to recover data from a cell phone when no suitable

  20. Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

  1. COMPUTER FORENSICS IN THE CLASSROOM Chris Eagle

    E-print Network

    COMPUTER FORENSICS IN THE CLASSROOM Keynote Chris Eagle Naval Postgraduate School Digital forensics. The resulting demand for trained computer forensics analysts presents unique challenges to a computer science degree program. The computer forensics process is traditionally divided into five phases: preparation

  2. AUDIO FORENSICS FROM ACOUSTIC REVERBERATION Hafiz Malik

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    AUDIO FORENSICS FROM ACOUSTIC REVERBERATION Hafiz Malik Department of Electrical and Computer be used in a forensic and ballistic setting. Index Terms-- Audio Forensics 1. INTRODUCTION The past few years have seen significant advances in image forensics [1]. At the same time, techniques

  3. Forensics@NIST December 3, 2014

    E-print Network

    Forensics@NIST December 3, 2014 Katherine Butler Gettings, Ph.D. Applied Genetics Group, or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose. Forensic STR Sequence Diversity by sequence Forensic STR Sequence Diversity [GGAA]13 [GGAA]13 Forensic STR Sequence Diversity NIST Population

  4. Bio-forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Trewhella, J.

    2004-01-01

    Bioforensics presents significant technical challenges. Determining if an outbreak is natural or not, and then providing evidence to trace an outbreak to its origin is very complex. Los Alamos scientists pioneered research and development that has generated leading edge strain identification methods based on sequence data. Molecular characterization of environmental background samples enable development of highly specific pathogen signatures. Economic impacts of not knowing the relationships at the molecular level Many different kinds of data are needed for DNA-based bio-forensics.

  5. Statistical methodologies for tree-ring research to understand the climate-growth relationships over time and space

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Tree-Ring Database is a valuable resource for studying climate change and its effects on terrestrial ecosystems over time and space. We examine the statistical methods in current use in dendroclimatology and dendroecology to process the tree-ring data and make ...

  6. A Methodology for Determining Statistical Performance Compliance for Airborne Doppler Radar with Forward-Looking Turbulence Detection Capability. Second Corrected Copy Issued May 23, 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.; Buck, Bill K.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the research developed and presented in this document was to statistically assess turbulence hazard detection performance employing airborne pulse Doppler radar systems. The FAA certification methodology for forward looking airborne turbulence radars will require estimating the probabilities of missed and false hazard indications under operational conditions. Analytical approaches must be used due to the near impossibility of obtaining sufficient statistics experimentally. This report describes an end-to-end analytical technique for estimating these probabilities for Enhanced Turbulence (E-Turb) Radar systems under noise-limited conditions, for a variety of aircraft types, as defined in FAA TSO-C134. This technique provides for one means, but not the only means, by which an applicant can demonstrate compliance to the FAA directed ATDS Working Group performance requirements. Turbulence hazard algorithms were developed that derived predictive estimates of aircraft hazards from basic radar observables. These algorithms were designed to prevent false turbulence indications while accurately predicting areas of elevated turbulence risks to aircraft, passengers, and crew; and were successfully flight tested on a NASA B757-200 and a Delta Air Lines B737-800. Application of this defined methodology for calculating the probability of missed and false hazard indications taking into account the effect of the various algorithms used, is demonstrated for representative transport aircraft and radar performance characteristics.

  7. An innovative methodological approach in the frame of Marine Strategy Framework Directive: a statistical model based on ship detection SAR data for monitoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Pieralice, Francesca; Proietti, Raffaele; La Valle, Paola; Giorgi, Giordano; Mazzolena, Marco; Taramelli, Andrea; Nicoletti, Luisa

    2014-12-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) is focused on protection, preservation and restoration of the marine environment by achieving and maintaining Good Environmental Status (GES) by 2020. Within this context, this paper presents a methodological approach for a fast and repeatable monitoring that allows quantitative assessment of seabed abrasion pressure due to recreational boat anchoring. The methodology consists of two steps: a semi-automatic procedure based on an algorithm for the ship detection in SAR imagery and a statistical model to obtain maps of spatial and temporal distribution density of anchored boats. Ship detection processing has been performed on 36 ASAR VV-pol images of Liguria test site, for the three years 2008, 2009 and 2010. Starting from the pointwise distribution layer produced by ship detection in imagery, boats points have been subdivided into 4 areas where a constant distribution density has been assumed for the entire period 2008-2010. In the future, this methodology will be applied also to higher resolution data of Sentinel-1 mission, specifically designed for the operational needs of the European Programme Copernicus. PMID:25096752

  8. Uncertainty propagation in nuclear forensics.

    PubMed

    Pommé, S; Jerome, S M; Venchiarutti, C

    2014-07-01

    Uncertainty propagation formulae are presented for age dating in support of nuclear forensics. The age of radioactive material in this context refers to the time elapsed since a particular radionuclide was chemically separated from its decay product(s). The decay of the parent radionuclide and ingrowth of the daughter nuclide are governed by statistical decay laws. Mathematical equations allow calculation of the age of specific nuclear material through the atom ratio between parent and daughter nuclides, or through the activity ratio provided that the daughter nuclide is also unstable. The derivation of the uncertainty formulae of the age may present some difficulty to the user community and so the exact solutions, some approximations, a graphical representation and their interpretation are presented in this work. Typical nuclides of interest are actinides in the context of non-proliferation commitments. The uncertainty analysis is applied to a set of important parent-daughter pairs and the need for more precise half-life data is examined. PMID:24607529

  9. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG): Recommendations regarding the role of forensic

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 www.elsevier.com/locate/fsig Forensic Science InternReview DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG): Recommendations regarding the role of forensic genetics for disaster victim identification (DVI) M. Prinz a,*, A. Carracedo

  10. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  11. Statistical methodology and assessment of seismic event characterization capability. Final report, 2 June 1993-2 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, M.D.; Gray, H.L.; McCartor, G.D.

    1995-10-31

    This project has focused on developing and applying statistical methods to perform seismic event characterization/identification and on quantifying capabilities with regard to monitoring of a Comprehensive Test Ban. An automated procedure is described to categorize seismic events, based on multivariate analysis of features derived from seismic waveforms. Second, preliminary event identification results are presented for a seismic event which occurred on 5 January 1995 in the Southern Ural Mountains region. Third, various statistics are compiled regarding 1786 seismic events which occurred between 11 January 1995 and 12 February 1995 and were detected by a set of 30 GSETT-3 Alpha stations. Fourth, a fundamental problem is addressed of how to utilize multivariate discriminant data from a multistation network in order to optimize the power of the outlier test for fixed false alarm rate.

  12. [Research Progress on Forensic Entomotoxicology].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-jiang; Zhai, Xian-dun; Guan, Ling; Mo, Yao-nan

    2015-06-01

    Forensic entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies entomology, toxicology and other related studies to solve the poisoning cases. It has an obvious advantage in the investigation on poisoning death. Based on the expounding definition and research of entomotoxicology, this paper reviews research progress and application value in some aspects of forensic medicine, such as the effects of drugs/toxins on the growth and development of sarcosaphagous insects and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the drugs/toxins in the poisoned body tissue. PMID:26442378

  13. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  14. NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.

    2011-02-07

    The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

  15. Development of Statistical Process Control Methodology for an Environmentally Compliant Surface Cleaning Process in a Bonding Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Dale E.; Doan, Patrick A.; Boothe, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Bonding labs at both MSFC and the northern Utah production plant prepare bond test specimens which simulate or witness the production of NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The current process for preparing the bonding surfaces employs 1,1,1-trichloroethane vapor degreasing, which simulates the current RSRM process. Government regulations (e.g., the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act) have mandated a production phase-out of a number of ozone depleting compounds (ODC) including 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In order to comply with these regulations, the RSRM Program is qualifying a spray-in-air (SIA) precision cleaning process using Brulin 1990, an aqueous blend of surfactants. Accordingly, surface preparation prior to bonding process simulation test specimens must reflect the new production cleaning process. The Bonding Lab Statistical Process Control (SPC) program monitors the progress of the lab and its capabilities, as well as certifies the bonding technicians, by periodically preparing D6AC steel tensile adhesion panels with EA-91 3NA epoxy adhesive using a standardized process. SPC methods are then used to ensure the process is statistically in control, thus producing reliable data for bonding studies, and identify any problems which might develop. Since the specimen cleaning process is being changed, new SPC limits must be established. This report summarizes side-by-side testing of D6AC steel tensile adhesion witness panels and tapered double cantilevered beams (TDCBs) using both the current baseline vapor degreasing process and a lab-scale spray-in-air process. A Proceco 26 inches Typhoon dishwasher cleaned both tensile adhesion witness panels and TDCBs in a process which simulates the new production process. The tests were performed six times during 1995, subsequent statistical analysis of the data established new upper control limits (UCL) and lower control limits (LCL). The data also demonstrated that the new process was equivalent to the vapor degreasing process.

  16. Short communication DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic

    E-print Network

    Forensic Science Service, Birmingham, UK e Department of Forensic Molecular Biology, Erasmus University Science International 157 (2006) 187­197 § DNA Commission, International Society for Forensic GeneticsShort communication DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG

  17. A method for enhancement of background sounds in forensic

    E-print Network

    Maher, Robert C.

    A method for enhancement of background sounds in forensic audio recordings Robert C. Maher;Outline · Introduction ­ Audio forensic analysis ­ Adaptive interference cancelling ­ Sinusoidal modeling · Test implementation · Example processing · Conclusion #12;Audio Forensics · Audio Forensics

  18. Age Estimation in Forensic Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L.

    2010-01-01

    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955–1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 (14C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2 = 0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 1.0 ± 0.6 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 ± 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification. PMID:19965905

  19. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  20. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meetings AAFS 68th Annual Scientific Meeting — Las Vegas, Nevada 2016 Forensic Science Educational Conferences Non AAFS Sponsored ... Library AAFS 68th Annual Scientific Meeting — Las Vegas, Nevada 2016 Applicants for Membership and Promotion Resources Academy ...

  1. Forensic historiography: narratives and science.

    PubMed

    Drukteinis, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. PMID:25492068

  2. Issues in forensic voice.

    PubMed

    Hollien, Harry; Huntley Bahr, Ruth; Harnsberger, James D

    2014-03-01

    The following article provides a general review of an area that can be referred to as Forensic Voice. Its goals will be outlined and that discussion will be followed by a description of its major elements. Considered are (1) the processing and analysis of spoken utterances, (2) distorted speech, (3) enhancement of speech intelligibility (re: surveillance and other recordings), (4) transcripts, (5) authentication of recordings, (6) speaker identification, and (7) the detection of deception, intoxication, and emotions in speech. Stress in speech and the psychological stress evaluation systems (that some individuals attempt to use as lie detectors) also will be considered. Points of entry will be suggested for individuals with the kinds of backgrounds possessed by professionals already working in the voice area. PMID:24176301

  3. Improved Production of Sublancin 168 Biosynthesized by Bacillus subtilis 168 Using Chemometric Methodology and Statistical Experimental Designs

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shengyue; Li, Weili; Xin, Haiyun; Wang, Shan; Cao, Binyun

    2015-01-01

    Sublancin 168, as a distinct S-linked antimicrobial glycopeptide produced by Bacillus subtilis 168, is effective in killing specific microorganisms. However, the reported yield of sublancin 168 is at a low level of no more than 60?mg from 1?L fermentation culture of B. subtilis 168 by using the method in the literature. Thus optimization of fermentation condition for efficiently producing sublancin 168 is required. Here, Box-Behnken design was used to determine the optimal combination of three fermentation parameters, namely, corn powder, soybean meal, and temperature that were identified previously by Plackett-Burman design and the steepest ascent experiment. Subsequently, based on the response surface methodology, the quadratic regression model for optimally producing sublancin 168 was developed, and the optimal combination of culture parameters for maximum sublancin 168 production of 129.72?mg/L was determined as corn powder 28.49?g/L, soybean meal 22.99?g/L, and incubation temperature 30.8°C. The results showed that sublancin 168 production obtained experimentally was coincident with predicted value of 125.88?mg/L, and the developed model was proved to be adequate, and the aim of efficiently producing sublancin 168 was achieved. PMID:26339632

  4. Forensic hash for multimedia information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  5. Uniqueness in the forensic identification sciences--fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Page, Mark; Taylor, Jane; Blenkin, Matt

    2011-03-20

    Fingerprint analysts, firearms and toolmark examiners, and forensic odontologists often rely on the uniqueness proposition in order to support their theory of identification. However, much of the literature claiming to have proven uniqueness in the forensic identification sciences is methodologically weak, and suffers flaws that negate any such conclusion being drawn. The finding of uniqueness in any study appears to be an overstatement of the significance of its results, and in several instances, this claim is made despite contrary data being presented. The mathematical and philosophical viewpoint regarding this topic is that obtaining definitive proof of uniqueness is considered impossible by modern scientific methods. More importantly, there appears to be no logical reason to pursue such research, as commentators have established that uniqueness is not the essential requirement for forming forensic conclusions. The courts have also accepted this in several recent cases in the United States, and have dismissed the concept of uniqueness as irrelevant to the more fundamental question of the reliability of the forensic analysis. PMID:20832209

  6. A study of two unsupervised data driven statistical methodologies for detecting and classifying damages in structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibaduiza, D.-A.; Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Mujica, L. E.; Rodellar, J.; Fritzen, C.-P.

    2013-12-01

    This article is concerned with the practical use of Multiway Principal Component Analysis (MPCA), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Squared Prediction Error (SPE) measures and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) to detect and classify damages in mechanical structures. The formalism is based on a distributed piezoelectric active sensor network for the excitation and detection of structural dynamic responses. Statistical models are built using PCA when the structure is known to be healthy either directly from the dynamic responses or from wavelet coefficients at different scales representing Time-frequency information. Different damages on the tested structures are simulated by adding masses at different positions. The data from the structure in different states (damaged or not) are then projected into the different principal component models by each actuator in order to obtain the input feature vectors for a SOM from the scores and the SPE measures. An aircraft fuselage from an Airbus A320 and a multi-layered carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plate are used as examples to test the approaches. Results are presented, compared and discussed in order to determine their potential in structural health monitoring. These results showed that all the simulated damages were detectable and the selected features proved capable of separating all damage conditions from the undamaged state for both approaches.

  7. Statistical analysis of spectral data: a methodology for designing an intelligent monitoring system for the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chanjuan; van Netten, Jaap J; Klein, Marvin E; van Baal, Jeff G; Bus, Sicco A; van der Heijden, Ferdi

    2013-12-01

    Early detection of (pre-)signs of ulceration on a diabetic foot is valuable for clinical practice. Hyperspectral imaging is a promising technique for detection and classification of such (pre-)signs. However, the number of the spectral bands should be limited to avoid overfitting, which is critical for pixel classification with hyperspectral image data. The goal was to design a detector/classifier based on spectral imaging (SI) with a small number of optical bandpass filters. The performance and stability of the design were also investigated. The selection of the bandpass filters boils down to a feature selection problem. A dataset was built, containing reflectance spectra of 227 skin spots from 64 patients, measured with a spectrometer. Each skin spot was annotated manually by clinicians as "healthy" or a specific (pre-)sign of ulceration. Statistical analysis on the data set showed the number of required filters is between 3 and 7, depending on additional constraints on the filter set. The stability analysis revealed that shot noise was the most critical factor affecting the classification performance. It indicated that this impact could be avoided in future SI systems with a camera sensor whose saturation level is higher than 106, or by postimage processing. PMID:24337494

  8. Case based reasoning in criminal intelligence using forensic case data.

    PubMed

    Ribaux, O; Margot, P

    2003-01-01

    A model that is based on the knowledge of experienced investigators in the analysis of serial crime is suggested to bridge a gap between technology and methodology. Its purpose is to provide a solid methodology for the analysis of serial crimes that supports decision making in the deployment of resources, either by guiding proactive policing operations or helping the investigative process. Formalisation has helped to derive a computerised system that efficiently supports the reasoning processes in the analysis of serial crime. This novel approach fully integrates forensic science data. PMID:14509373

  9. Semantic Modelling of Digital Forensic Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahvedži?, Damir; Kechadi, Tahar

    The reporting of digital investigation results are traditionally carried out in prose and in a large investigation may require successive communication of findings between different parties. Popular forensic suites aid in the reporting process by storing provenance and positional data but do not automatically encode why the evidence is considered important. In this paper we introduce an evidence management methodology to encode the semantic information of evidence. A structured vocabulary of terms, ontology, is used to model the results in a logical and predefined manner. The descriptions are application independent and automatically organised. The encoded descriptions aim to help the investigation in the task of report writing and evidence communication and can be used in addition to existing evidence management techniques.

  10. Forensic Sciences Program Handbook Page 1 MASTERS OF FORENSIC SCIENCES PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    Forensic Sciences Program Handbook Page 1 MASTERS OF FORENSIC SCIENCES PROGRAM STUDENT HANDBOOK 2014-2015 #12;Forensic Sciences Program Handbook Page 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Overview of Requirements 3. Academic Advisors 4. Basic Plan for the Master's Degree 5. Forensic Sciences Program

  11. Anlisis Forense de la escritura 2014 Anlisis forense de la escritura

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Análisis Forense de la escritura 2014 Análisis forense de la escritura Información general El análisis forense de la escritura es una de las más importantes disciplinas de la Criminalística y tiene por.I.P.C. Interpol), revistas internacionales (Forensic Sciences) y aprobada en congresos internacionales- es una

  12. J.M. Butler Forensic DNA Typing workshop Segunda Reunin Internacional en Gentica Forense (Chiapas, Mexico)

    E-print Network

    J.M. Butler ­ Forensic DNA Typing workshop Segunda Reunión Internacional en Genética Forense ­ Butler, J.M., Buel, E., Crivellente, F., McCord, B.R. (2004) Forensic DNA typing by capillary and then MATCHING TO REFERENCE SAMPLE #12;J.M. Butler ­ Forensic DNA Typing workshop Segunda Reunión Internacional

  13. J.M. Butler Forensic DNA Typing workshop Segunda Reunin Internacional en Gentica Forense (Chiapas, Mexico)

    E-print Network

    J.M. Butler ­ Forensic DNA Typing workshop Segunda Reunión Internacional en Genética Forense ­ Butler, J.M., Buel, E., Crivellente, F., McCord, B.R. (2004) Forensic DNA typing by capillary (`short tandem repeat') y luego COMPARAR A MUESTRA DE REFERENCIA #12;J.M. Butler ­ Forensic DNA Typing

  14. A statistical methodology to derive the scaling law for the H-mode power threshold using a large multi-machine database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murari, A.; Lupelli, I.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Vega, J.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, a refined set of statistical techniques is developed and then applied to the problem of deriving the scaling law for the threshold power to access the H-mode of confinement in tokamaks. This statistical methodology is applied to the 2010 version of the ITPA International Global Threshold Data Base v6b(IGDBTHv6b). To increase the engineering and operative relevance of the results, only macroscopic physical quantities, measured in the vast majority of experiments, have been considered as candidate variables in the models. Different principled methods, such as agglomerative hierarchical variables clustering, without assumption about the functional form of the scaling, and nonlinear regression, are implemented to select the best subset of candidate independent variables and to improve the regression model accuracy. Two independent model selection criteria, based on the classical (Akaike information criterion) and Bayesian formalism (Bayesian information criterion), are then used to identify the most efficient scaling law from candidate models. The results derived from the full multi-machine database confirm the results of previous analysis but emphasize the importance of shaping quantities, elongation and triangularity. On the other hand, the scaling laws for the different machines and at different currents are different from each other at the level of confidence well above 95%, suggesting caution in the use of the global scaling laws for both interpretation and extrapolation purposes.

  15. Drawbacks in the scientification of forensic science.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, A; Curran, J

    2014-10-14

    This letter to the Editor comments on the article On the limitations of probability in conceptualizing pattern matches in forensic science by P. T. Jayaprakash (Forensic Science International, [10]). PMID:25459278

  16. Group contribution methodology based on the statistical associating fluid theory for heteronuclear molecules formed from Mie segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Vasileios; Lafitte, Thomas; Avendaño, Carlos; Adjiman, Claire S.; Jackson, George; Müller, Erich A.; Galindo, Amparo

    2014-02-01

    A generalization of the recent version of the statistical associating fluid theory for variable range Mie potentials [Lafitte et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 154504 (2013)] is formulated within the framework of a group contribution approach (SAFT-? Mie). Molecules are represented as comprising distinct functional (chemical) groups based on a fused heteronuclear molecular model, where the interactions between segments are described with the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jonesium) potential of variable attractive and repulsive range. A key feature of the new theory is the accurate description of the monomeric group-group interactions by application of a high-temperature perturbation expansion up to third order. The capabilities of the SAFT-? Mie approach are exemplified by studying the thermodynamic properties of two chemical families, the n-alkanes and the n-alkyl esters, by developing parameters for the methyl, methylene, and carboxylate functional groups (CH3, CH2, and COO). The approach is shown to describe accurately the fluid-phase behavior of the compounds considered with absolute average deviations of 1.20% and 0.42% for the vapor pressure and saturated liquid density, respectively, which represents a clear improvement over other existing SAFT-based group contribution approaches. The use of Mie potentials to describe the group-group interaction is shown to allow accurate simultaneous descriptions of the fluid-phase behavior and second-order thermodynamic derivative properties of the pure fluids based on a single set of group parameters. Furthermore, the application of the perturbation expansion to third order for the description of the reference monomeric fluid improves the predictions of the theory for the fluid-phase behavior of pure components in the near-critical region. The predictive capabilities of the approach stem from its formulation within a group-contribution formalism: predictions of the fluid-phase behavior and thermodynamic derivative properties of compounds not included in the development of group parameters are demonstrated. The performance of the theory is also critically assessed with predictions of the fluid-phase behavior (vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria) and excess thermodynamic properties of a variety of binary mixtures, including polymer solutions, where very good agreement with the experimental data is seen, without the need for adjustable mixture parameters.

  17. Group contribution methodology based on the statistical associating fluid theory for heteronuclear molecules formed from Mie segments

    SciTech Connect

    Papaioannou, Vasileios; Lafitte, Thomas; Adjiman, Claire S.; Jackson, George; Müller, Erich A.; Galindo, Amparo; Avendaño, Carlos; School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL

    2014-02-07

    A generalization of the recent version of the statistical associating fluid theory for variable range Mie potentials [Lafitte et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 154504 (2013)] is formulated within the framework of a group contribution approach (SAFT-? Mie). Molecules are represented as comprising distinct functional (chemical) groups based on a fused heteronuclear molecular model, where the interactions between segments are described with the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jonesium) potential of variable attractive and repulsive range. A key feature of the new theory is the accurate description of the monomeric group-group interactions by application of a high-temperature perturbation expansion up to third order. The capabilities of the SAFT-? Mie approach are exemplified by studying the thermodynamic properties of two chemical families, the n-alkanes and the n-alkyl esters, by developing parameters for the methyl, methylene, and carboxylate functional groups (CH{sub 3}, CH{sub 2}, and COO). The approach is shown to describe accurately the fluid-phase behavior of the compounds considered with absolute average deviations of 1.20% and 0.42% for the vapor pressure and saturated liquid density, respectively, which represents a clear improvement over other existing SAFT-based group contribution approaches. The use of Mie potentials to describe the group-group interaction is shown to allow accurate simultaneous descriptions of the fluid-phase behavior and second-order thermodynamic derivative properties of the pure fluids based on a single set of group parameters. Furthermore, the application of the perturbation expansion to third order for the description of the reference monomeric fluid improves the predictions of the theory for the fluid-phase behavior of pure components in the near-critical region. The predictive capabilities of the approach stem from its formulation within a group-contribution formalism: predictions of the fluid-phase behavior and thermodynamic derivative properties of compounds not included in the development of group parameters are demonstrated. The performance of the theory is also critically assessed with predictions of the fluid-phase behavior (vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria) and excess thermodynamic properties of a variety of binary mixtures, including polymer solutions, where very good agreement with the experimental data is seen, without the need for adjustable mixture parameters.

  18. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, Paul

    2003-02-17

    Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating procedures and training to meet these initial challenges so as minimize disturbance of the evidence. While epidemiology and forensics are similar sciences with similar goals when applied to biocrimes, forensics has additional and more stringent requirements. Maintaining a chain of custody on evidentiary samples is one example of an extra requirement imposed on an investigation of a biocrime. Another issue is the intent in microbial forensics to identify a bioattack organism in greatest detail. If possible, forensic investigations will strive to identify the precise strain and substrain, rather than just to the species level, which might be sufficient in an epidemiological investigation. Although multiple groups have developed lists of bioterrorism target pathogens, these lists are too narrow. An expansion of microorganisms relevant to food and water threats should be considered. Computerized networks should be established to track infectious disease outbreaks in real time. These systems could alert public health and agricultural officials to the existence of a potential bioattack earlier than simply waiting for a report of a suspicious cluster of similar patients. Once a biocrime is suspected, a wide variety of methods are available to identify the microorganism used in the bioattack and to analyze features that might lead to the source of the event. A multi-pronged approach to such an investigation may be preferable, using many available methods-ranging from genomics to sequencing to physiology to analysis of substances in the sample. Microbial forensics will be most effective if there is sufficient basic scientific information concerning microbial genetics, evolution, physiology, and ecology. Strain subtyping analysis will be difficult to interpret if we do not understand some of the basic evolutionary mechanisms and population diversity of pathogens. Phenotypic features associated with evidentiary pathogens also may provide investigative leads, but full exploitation of these features can only be accomplished if we understand basic principles that control microbial physiology. Finally

  19. Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

    Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

  20. Terminology and forensic gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Young, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The use of appropriate terminology is a fundamental aspect of forensic gait analysis. The language used in forensic gait analysis is an amalgam of that used in clinical practice, podiatric biomechanics and the wider field of biomechanics. The result can often be a lack of consistency in the language used, the definitions used and the clarity of the message given. Examples include the use of 'gait' and 'walking' as synonymous terms, confusion between 'step' and 'stride', the mixing of anatomical, positional and pathological descriptors, and inability to describe appropriately movements of major body segments such as the torso. The purpose of this paper is to share the well-established definitions of the fundamental parameters of gait, common to all professions, and advocate their use in forensic gait analysis to establish commonality. The paper provides guidance on the selection and use of appropriate terminology in the description of gait in the forensic context. This paper considers the established definitions of the terms commonly used, identifies those terms which have the potential to confuse readers, and suggests a framework of terminology which should be utilised in forensic gait analysis. PMID:26087876

  1. Forensic Pattern Recognition Anil K. Jain

    E-print Network

    Forensic Pattern Recognition Anil K. Jain Michigan State University September 1, 2015 http://biometrics.cse.msu.edu/ #12;Examples of Forensic Patterns Fingerprint Face Ballistic image (breech face impression) Scars, Marks, and Tattoos (SMT) #12;Forensic Pattern Recognition Systems Double-loop changed to left loop

  2. Women in Intercollegiate Forensics: Experiencing Otherness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstreet, Robert W.

    The intercollegiate forensics community appears less receptive to women than it is to men. Women report a variety of positive and negative gender-based experiences in intercollegiate forensics. Positive experiences tend to include women into the intercollegiate forensics community or to allow women to include others in the community. Negative…

  3. Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 89124

    E-print Network

    Miksik, Ivan

    1998-01-01

    Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 89­124 Advances in capillary electrophoresis a ,b , a c Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. PII S0379-0738(98)00011-5 #12;90 Z. Deyl et al. / Forensic Science by this technique. Because in forensic science we are nearly always faced with complex natural samples in the most

  4. National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and

    E-print Network

    National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC and Technology NIST Fellow & Special Assistant to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science GenomeID Forum Greenville, NC September 10, 2014 #12;Material Measurement

  5. forensics.uts.edu.au research themes

    E-print Network

    University of Technology, Sydney

    forensics.uts.edu.au research themes science science.uts.edu.au #12;ThE UNIVERSITy OF TEChNOLOgy, SyDNEy'S (UTS) centre for forensic science (cfs) IS A WORLD-LEADINg ACADEMIC AND RESEARCh g's state of the art forensic laboratories including appropriate security and separate search rooms. UTS:Science

  6. STRBase and Information Resources on Forensic DNA

    E-print Network

    of the technique · DNA is often referred to as the "gold standard" in forensic science because of the scientific Journal of Forensic Sciences DNA publications vs total articles 0 3 0 6 9 11 14 15 18 26 34 35 43 44 43 51/backissu.htm Forensic Science Publications #12;Applied Genetics >9,000 references gathered and cataloged in Reference

  7. Recent NIST Activities to Strengthen Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    Recent NIST Activities to Strengthen Forensic Science John M. Butler, Ph.D. NIST Fellow & Special Assistant to the Director for Forensic Science National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, Maryland Boston University Forensic Sciences Symposium Boston, MA April 10, 2015 #12;The World's Largest

  8. Brief Update National Commission on Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    Brief Update on the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Presentation (Orlando, FL) February 18, 2015 #12;NCFS and OSAC: U.S. Efforts to Strengthen Forensic Science · National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report issued in Feb 2009 · White House Subcommittee on Forensic Science

  9. Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic Service Whanau/family Booklet Bachelor of Arts Application Deadline: 13 February, Noon Project Description: The Canterbury Regional Forensic Service (http' and their families' journey through the Forensic Service. The data has already been transcribed but needs in

  10. Forensic Anthropology Center Department of Anthropology

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    Forensic Anthropology Center Department of Anthropology University of Tennessee 250 South Stadium: Field Methods in Forensic Anthropology Outdoor Recovery Human Identification Advanced Laboratory, and Publications can be found on our website at http://fac.utk.edu #12;The focus of forensic anthropology

  11. Experience with Engineering a Network Forensics System

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    Experience with Engineering a Network Forensics System Ahmad Almulhem and Issa Traore ISOT Research Lab University of Victoria, Canada {almulhem, itraore}@ece.uvic.ca Abstract. Network Forensics. In this paper, we briefly survey the state of the art in network forensics and report our experience

  12. Computer Forensics In Forensis Sean Peisert

    E-print Network

    Bishop, Matt

    Computer Forensics In Forensis Sean Peisert and Matt Bishop Department of Computer Science forensic systems, models, and terminology in very differ- ent ways. They often make incompatible, audit, and present forensic data. This is problematic, because these fields are related, and results

  13. Face Recognition: Some Challenges in Forensics

    E-print Network

    Face Recognition: Some Challenges in Forensics Anil K. Jain, Brendan Klare, and Unsang Park #12:Today: Automated Face Recognition #12;Forensic Face RecognitionForensic Face Recognition A t l f l f t A tool face databases that coverdatabases that cover majority of population #12;Progress in Face Recognition

  14. VIFM Review Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    in an organized way in Argentina. The Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team started the work in the early 980sVERITAS OMNIA VINCIT VIFM Review Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine Volume 6 Issue 1 April for the Forensic Anthropologist Involved in the Investigation of Mass Graves Aviation Medicine So you are going

  15. Forensics Web Services (FWS) AnoopSinghal

    E-print Network

    Forensics Web Services (FWS) AnoopSinghal MuratGunestas DumindaWijesekera NIST Interagency Report 7559 #12;Forensics Web Services (FWS) Anoop Singhal Murat Gunestas Duminda Wijesekera C O M P U T E R Report 7559 #12;FORENSIC WEB SERVICES ii Reports on Computer Systems Technology The Information

  16. Steganography forensics method for detecting least significant bit replacement attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Wei, Chengcheng; Han, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We present an image forensics method to detect least significant bit replacement steganography attack. The proposed method provides fine-grained forensics features by using the hierarchical structure that combines pixels correlation and bit-planes correlation. This is achieved via bit-plane decomposition and difference matrices between the least significant bit-plane and each one of the others. Generated forensics features provide the susceptibility (changeability) that will be drastically altered when the cover image is embedded with data to form a stego image. We developed a statistical model based on the forensics features and used least square support vector machine as a classifier to distinguish stego images from cover images. Experimental results show that the proposed method provides the following advantages. (1) The detection rate is noticeably higher than that of some existing methods. (2) It has the expected stability. (3) It is robust for content-preserving manipulations, such as JPEG compression, adding noise, filtering, etc. (4) The proposed method provides satisfactory generalization capability.

  17. Neurobiological Correlates in Forensic Assessment: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    van der Gronde, Toon; Kempes, Maaike; van El, Carla; Rinne, Thomas; Pieters, Toine

    2014-01-01

    Background With the increased knowledge of biological risk factors, interest in including this information in forensic assessments is growing. Currently, forensic assessments are predominantly focused on psychosocial factors. A better understanding of the neurobiology of violent criminal behaviour and biological risk factors could improve forensic assessments. Objective To provide an overview of the current evidence about biological risk factors that predispose people to antisocial and violent behaviour, and determine its usefulness in forensic assessment. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using articles from PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed published between 2000 and 2013. Results This review shows that much research on the relationship between genetic predisposition and neurobiological alterations with aggression is performed on psychiatric patients or normal populations. However, the number of studies comparing offenders is limited. There is still a great need to understand how genetic and neurobiological alterations and/or deficits are related to violent behaviour, specifically criminality. Most studies focus on only one of the genetic or neurobiological fields related to antisocial and/or violent behaviour. To reliably correlate the findings of these fields, a standardization of methodology is urgently needed. Conclusion Findings from the current review suggest that violent aggression, like all forms of human behaviour, both develops under specific genetic and environmental conditions, and requires interplay between these conditions. Violence should be considered as the end product of a chain of life events, during which risks accumulate and potentially reinforce each other, displaying or triggering a specific situation. This systematic review did not find evidence of predispositions or neurobiological alterations that solely explain antisocial or violent behaviour. With better designed studies, more correlation between diverse fields, and more standardisation, it might be possible to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Thus, we advocate maintaining the current case-by-case differentiated approach to evidence-based forensic assessment. PMID:25330208

  18. Statistical Michael D. Coble

    E-print Network

    Recommendations on Statistics February 23, 2000 Forensic Sci. Comm. 2(3); available on-line at http://www.fbi the mixture data under two (or more) alternative hypotheses; in its simplest form LR = 1/RMP a b c d P(E H2) P

  19. Statistics on Trial A. P. Dawid

    E-print Network

    Guillas, Serge

    excellent logical and statistical analysis has been developed by the UK Forensic Science Service, for both lawyers and statisticians. Some of these Research Report No.250, Department of Statistical ScienceStatistics on Trial A. P. Dawid University College London Although the concerns of Statistics

  20. Potential Applications of Scanning Probe Microscopy in Forensic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, G. S.; Watson, J. A.

    2007-04-01

    The forensic community utilises a myriad of techniques to investigate a wide range of materials, from paint flakes to DNA. The various microscopic techniques have provided some of the greatest contributions, e.g., FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared) microspectroscopy utilised in copy toner discrimination, multi-layer automobile paint fragment examination, etc, SEM-EDA (scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis) used to investigate glass fragments, fibers, and explosives, and SEM in microsampling for elemental analysis, just to name a few. This study demonstrates the ability of the Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) to analyse human fingerprints on surfaces utilising a step-and-scan feature, enabling analysis of a larger field-of-view. We also extend a line crossings study by incorporating height analysis and surface roughness measurements. The study demonstrates the potential for SPM techniques to be utilised for forensic analysis which could complement the more traditional methodologies used in such investigations.

  1. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

    2012-10-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  2. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature.

    PubMed

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B

    2015-01-01

    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int. PMID:26227138

  3. Forensic Evidence in Homicide Investigations and Prosecutions.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Tom; Regoeczi, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Even though forensic evidence is collected at virtually every homicide scene, only a few studies have examined its role in investigation and prosecution. This article adds to the literature by providing the results of a study of 294 homicide cases (315 victims) occurring in Cleveland, Ohio, between 2008 and 2011. Through a logistic regression on open versus closed cases, the collection of knives, administration of gunshot residue (GSR) kits, and clothing at the scene were positively and significantly related to case closures, while collection of ballistics evidence and DNA evidence were statistically significant in the opposite direction. With regard to analysis, the clearance rate for cases with probative results (i.e., matches or exclusions) was 63.1% compared to a closure rate of 56.3% for cases without probative results. However, only 23 cases had probative results prior to arrest compared to 128 cases with probative results after arrest. PMID:26174557

  4. Forensic seismology revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in contrast simple, comprising one or two cycles of large amplitude followed by a low-amplitude coda. Earthquake signals on the other hand were often complex with numerous arrivals of similar amplitude spread over 35 s or more. It therefore appeared that earthquakes could be recognised on complexity. Later however, complex explosion signals were observed which reduced the apparent effectiveness of complexity as a criterion for identifying earthquakes. Nevertheless, the AWE Group concluded that for many paths to teleseismic distances, Earth is transparent for P signals and this provides a window through which source differences will be most clearly seen. Much of the research by the Group has focused on understanding the influence of source type on P seismograms recorded at teleseismic distances. Consequently the paper concentrates on teleseismic methods of distinguishing between explosions and earthquakes. One of the most robust criteria for discriminating between earthquakes and explosions is the m b : M s criterion which compares the amplitudes of the SP P waves as measured by the body-wave magnitude m b, and the long-period (LP: ˜0.05 Hz) Rayleigh-wave amplitude as measured by the surface-wave magnitude M s; the P and Rayleigh waves being the main wave types used in forensic seismology. For a given M s, the m b for explosions is larger than for most earthquakes. The criterion is difficult to apply however, at low magnitude (say m b < 4.5) and there are exceptions—earthquakes that look like explosions. A difficulty with identification criteria developed in the early days of forensic seismology was that they were in the main empirical—it was not known why they appeared to work and if there were test sites or earthquakes where they would fail. Consequently the AWE Group in cooperation with the University of Cambridge used seismogram modelling to try and understand what controls complexity of SP P seismograms, and to put the m b : M s criterion on a theoretical basis. The results of this work show that the m b : M s criterion is robust because several factors con

  5. Forensic Loci Allele Database (FLAD): Automatically generated, permanent identifiers for sequenced forensic alleles.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, Christophe; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to predict if and when massively parallel sequencing of forensic STR loci will replace capillary electrophoresis as the new standard technology in forensic genetics. The main benefits of sequencing are increased multiplexing scales and SNP detection. There is not yet a consensus on how sequenced profiles should be reported. We present the Forensic Loci Allele Database (FLAD) service, made freely available on http://forensic.ugent.be/FLAD/. It offers permanent identifiers for sequenced forensic alleles (STR or SNP) and their microvariants for use in forensic allele nomenclature. Analogous to Genbank, its aim is to provide permanent identifiers for forensically relevant allele sequences. Researchers that are developing forensic sequencing kits or are performing population studies, can register on http://forensic.ugent.be/FLAD/ and add loci and allele sequences with a short and simple application interface (API). PMID:26456067

  6. Compulsory Education: Statistics, Methodology, Reforms and New Tendencies. Conference Papers for the 8th Session of the International Standing Conference for the History of Education (Parma, Italy, September 3-6, 1986). Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genovesi, Giovanni, Ed.

    This collection, the last of four volumes on the history of compulsory education among the nations of Europe and the western hemisphere, analyzes statistics, methodology, reforms, and new tendencies. Twelve of the document's 18 articles are written in English, 3 are written in French and 3 are in Italian. Summaries accompany most articles; three…

  7. A Skeleton Tells Its Own Story: Forensic Analyses of Skeletal Elements for the Science Classroom Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naples, Virginia L.; Breed, David; Miller, Jon S.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques of forensic anthropology and pathology can provide new information to increase student interest in studying the structural details of the human skeleton. We present a simplified methodology for assessing skeletal ethnicity, sex, age, and stature. An inexpensive method has been devised for constructing an osteometric board to allow…

  8. Particle Analysis in Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Bisbing, R E; Schneck, W M

    2006-07-01

    Microscopic trace evidence includes particles from many sources such as biologicals, soil, building materials, metals, explosives, gunshot residues, and cosmetics. The particles are identified by morphological analysis, microscopy, and chemical analysis. Their identity is confirmed by comparison with reference materials or other comparison samples. The probative value of particles of forensic interest depends on their nature and the circumstances of their presence. PMID:26247226

  9. Forensics: Enhancing Civic Literacy & Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Shawn F.

    2009-01-01

    Forensics--interpretation, speech, and debate--can and should be a meaningful part of every school's curriculum. To put it simply, the course of study, alongside cocurricular competition, promotes civic education and enhances the standard curriculum by helping students explore myriad topics from multiple angles and find the truth in each,…

  10. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  11. Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be…

  12. The Future of Forensic DNA

    E-print Network

    besides STRs for identity testing? ­ Phenotyping capabilities? ­ Next-generation DNA sequencing? #12;NIST ­ Expanded use of databases (e.g., familial searching) ­ Rapid DNA testing · More distant future ­ LociThe Future of Forensic DNA John M. Butler, PhD National Institute of Standards and Technology

  13. Poetic Interventions with Forensic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Art; Giovan, Marti

    1990-01-01

    Describes the use of poetry, music, and creative writing with forensic patients at a state mental health institute. Demonstrates that expressive interventions were helpful in group treatment by promoting verbalization, decision making, and the recognition of personal responsibility for incarceration. (SR)

  14. P.M. Vallone NIST Biometrics and Forensics Summit 2010

    E-print Network

    P.M. Vallone ­ NIST Biometrics and Forensics Summit 2010 March 30, 2010 http://www.cstl.nist.gov/biotech/strbase/NISTpub.htm 1 Forensic DNA Typing Biometrics & Forensics 2010 Annual Summit March 30, 2010 Dr. Peter M. Vallone · DNA as a Biometric Basics of Forensic DNA Testing #12;P.M. Vallone ­ NIST Biometrics and Forensics

  15. Recent Activities in the United States: National Commission on Forensic

    E-print Network

    Recent Activities in the United States: National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS and Technology NIST Fellow & Special Assistant to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science Asian Forensic Sciences Network World Forensics Festival Seoul, Korea October

  16. Literature Tracking NYC OCME Forensic Biology Continuing Education Seminar

    E-print Network

    http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/ current/backissu.htm Forensic Science Publications Journal of ForensicLiterature Tracking NYC OCME Forensic Biology Continuing Education Seminar March 25, 2009 http and Technology john.butler@nist.gov Topics and Techniques for Forensic DNA Analysis NYC OCME Dept of Forensic

  17. The Future of Forensic NIST Applied Genetics Group

    E-print Network

    and Technology Gaithersburg, Maryland John M. Butler CIB Forensic Science Center Training Seminar (Taipei, Taiwan of forensic DNA testing. Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology 3:200-205. #12;National Academies Report on Forensic Science · Released February 18, 2009 · Entitled "Strengthening Forensic Science in the United

  18. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option Catalog Year 2013-2014 Students Work CGS 5131 Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Forensics CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 Subtotal: Subtotal: Restricted Elective Set 1: Take 2 Computing

  19. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option Catalog Year 2009-2010 1 Students Work CGS 5131 Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Forensics CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 Subtotal: Subtotal: Restricted Elective Set 1: Take 2 Computing

  20. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option Catalog Year 2011-2012 1 Students Work CGS 5131 Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Forensics CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 Subtotal: Subtotal: Restricted Elective Set 1: Take 2 Computing

  1. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option Catalog Year 2012-2013 1 Students Work CGS 5131 Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Forensics CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 Subtotal: Subtotal: Restricted Elective Set 1: Take 2 Computing

  2. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option Catalog Year 2012-2013 Students Work CGS 5131 Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Forensics CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 Subtotal: Subtotal: Restricted Elective Set 1: Take 2 Computing

  3. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option Catalog Year 2014-2015 Students Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Forensics CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 Subtotal: Subtotal: Restricted Elective Set 1: Take 2 Computing

  4. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option Catalog Year 2010-2011 1 Students Work CGS 5131 Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Forensics CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 Subtotal: Subtotal: Restricted Elective Set 1: Take 2 Computing

  5. Use and usefulness of forensic archaeology and forensic anthropology in Great Britain 

    E-print Network

    Sinfield, Laura Nancy

    2014-11-28

    This thesis explores the extent to which forensic archaeology and forensic anthropology are utilised within Great Britain and to what extent they aid, or do not aid, medico-legal investigation of death. Chapter One ...

  6. Microanalytical Methods for Bio-Forensics Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, L N; Weber, P K; Grant, R P; Ghosal, S; Michael, J R

    2006-02-10

    Forensics investigations of bio-crime or bio-terrorism incidents require careful analysis of collected evidentiary material. Although the biological markers in the evidentiary material are important (e.g. genomic signatures, protein markers), the elemental make-up of the organisms themselves and the surrounding non-biological material is extremely useful for attributing a specific process and, perhaps, specific persons to the production of the biological agent. This talk will describe the coordinated use of microanalytical techniques such as SEM-EDX, STEM-EDX, and NanoSIMS for generating compositional signatures for bio-forensics investigations. These analytical techniques span length scales from the 50 {micro}m range to the 5nm range. The range of analytical sensitivities spans from {approx}.5wt% for EDX down to parts per billion for SIMS techniques. In addition, we will discuss the use of spectrum imaging techniques for rapidly extracting the key elemental signatures from large scale data sets. Spectrum imaging techniques combined with multivariate statistical analysis allow for the collection and interrogation or enormous quantities of data without pre-biasing the answer.[1] Spectrum imaging has been used successfully in EDX microanalysis[1] (both in the SEM and TEM) and TOF-SIMS[2]. In this study, a set of test biological agents, ?-irradiated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were examined using the aforementioned microanalytical techniques. The sample set included a number of processing conditions to gauge the ability of these techniques to identify the production methods of these simulated agents. Complementary but distinct forensic signatures were obtained by all three analytical techniques. Figure 1 shows two types of silicate particles observed among the spore material itself. At this length scale, the spores themselves cannot be resolved, but the presence of these silicates is key marker for distinguishing this production route. A STEM-EDX spectrum image from the same material does not show these large silicates but instead shows the segregation of elements such as sulfur and silicon to the extra-cellular material between spores, again a result of the specific process used to produce this simulated agent (Figure 2). NanoSIMS data from the same material also shows the segregation of Si in this preparation. The NanoSIMS data also displays and quantifies the distribution of elements such as fluorine at levels which were not detectable in the STEM-EDX measurements (Figure 3).

  7. [Forensic entomology and globalisation].

    PubMed

    Turchetto, M; Vanin, S

    2004-06-01

    The main aim of Forensic Entomology has always been, and is today, to establish the time of death (P.M.I.: Postmortem Period) or, more exactly, how long a carrion has been exposed in the environment. Most of the invertebrate fauna occurring on corpses consists of insects (mostly Diptera and Coleoptera). They are selectively attracted by the decomposing status of the carrion, and form complex communities or biocenosis within necrophagous or sarcophagous species and their predators, parasites and parasitoids, competing each one another. The rapid and continuos changes of the micro-ecosystem (the body), until its breakdown, does not permit the achievement of a steady state or an equilibrium in the animal communities. These continuous modifications give us the possibility to estimate when (and where) the death has occurred, by the identification of the species feeding on the corpse, the knowledge of their life history, and the length of each stage of their cycle at varying the temperature and the other abiotic factors, external to the carrion ecosystem. The P.M.I. today is still largely based on the tables of faunal succession on human cadavers recognised by Mégin in 1894, with few changes proposed by Authors from other countries. In the last years, however, it happens more and more often, that the natural communities are subverted by the presence of allocton species, which can compete, predate or parasite the most common local sarcophagous insects, modifying, this way, the succession waves and the trophic nets. The immission in the environment of foreign species may be voluntary or casual, but in any case is due to anthropic activities. The voluntary immission happens when some species, employed in the biological struggle against pest or dangerous insects, for pollination of allocton plants, or for other commercial utilities, are beyond man's control and swarm onto the environment; the casual spread is due to the globalisation phenomenon, that distributes the "little organisms" by chance, together with travellers, goods and food items. Together with human migratory flows, raw materials and vegetal foodstuffs travelling from Tropical developing Countries to the North of the world, also many tropical and subtropical insects can be carried out from their original lands. Eurioecious and polyphagous species, and species that evolved mechanisms (as diapausa or hibernation) to get over critical environmental conditions have the highest probability of survival. Saprophagous insects, and flies in particular, evolved such capabilities. The mortality of foreign species due to the difference of temperature and seasonally between tropical and temperate areas was, in the past, the most effective factor limiting the geographic propagation of insects. The ongoing global climate changes induce insect populations, now confined to the tropics, to most likely spread towards middle latitudes, where their specific competitors, predators and parasites, which regulate the population growth, are often absent. The lack of a biological control, the warming up of atmosphere temperature and the fall of the differences among seasons induce a more rapid development and an increased number of generations in new species, that often displace the autocton ones. This phenomenon is much more clear in little and simple ecosystems (such as carrion), mostly occur than in large and complex ecosystems, where many more components, vegetal organisms and phytophagous animals included, are present. To demonstrate how globalisation and climate changes are breaking the geographic barriers, we present some cases in which, during our entomoforensic investigations, performed mainly in North-eastern Italy, Neotropical, African and Asiatic necrophagous flies, beetles and wasp parasitoids have been collected, some of which rare or new for Italy or Paleartic Region. In particular, we report our studies on the american black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), that is showing a heavy competition with the local saprophagous species and is reaching

  8. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1992-07-01

    It may be useful to know if a meteorite was found at the site where it fell. For instance, the polymict ureilites North Haig and Nilpena were found 1100 km apart, yet are petrologically identical [1]. Could this distance represent transport from a single strewn field, or does it represent distinct fall sites? A meteorite may contain sufficient clues to suggest some characteristics of its fall site. If these inferences are inconsistent with the find site, one may infer that the meteorite has been transported. It will likely be impossible to determine the exact fall site of a transported meteorite. Data relevant to a meteorite's fall site may be intrinsic to the meteorite, or acquired at the site. For instance, an intrinsic property is terrestrial residence age (from abundances of cosmogenic radioisotopes and their decay products); a meteorite's terrestrial residence age must be the same or less than that of the surface on which it fell. After falling, a meteorite may acquire characteristic telltales of terrestrial geological, geochemical, and biological processes. These telltale clues may include products of chemical weathering, adhering geological materials, biological organisms living (or once living) on the meteorite, and biological materials adhering to (but never living on) the meteorite. The effects of chemical weathering, present in all but the freshest finds, range from slight rusting to extensive decomposition and veining The ages of weathering materials and veins, as with terrestrial residence ages above, must be less than the age of the fall surface. The mineralogy and chemistry, elemental and isotopic, of weathering materials will differ according to the mineralogy and composition of the meteorite, and the mineralogy, geochemistry, hydrology, and climate of the fall site. Weathering materials may also vary as climate changes and may vary among the microenvironments associated with a meteorite on the Earth's surface. Geological materials (rock, sediment, soil) adhering to a meteorite are samples of the actual physical environment in which the meteorite rested. Adhesion may derive from chemical cementation (incl. rust from the meteorite), biologic activity (incl. desert varnish?), or impact processes [2]. Given the wide diversity of geological materials and processes on the Earth, adhering geological materials may be useful forensic tools. For instance, fall in a volcanic terrane may be inconsistent with adhering sediments of clean quartz sand. Biologic matter on meteorites includes animal and vegetable matter mixed with the adhering geological materials, lichens and other plants growing in place, and purposefully attached animal matter (e.g. insect eggs). The most useful biological data may be provided by pollen, which can often be referred unambiguously to genera and species of plants. For example, sediments adhering to meteorites from the central Nullabor Plain (W. Australia) are different from sediments from the Plain's margin in S. Australia. Sediment on meteorites from the central Nullabor (e.g. Mundrabilla) lacks quartz sand and consists almost entirely of clay-sized particles, consistent with derivation from the local saprolitic soil. Sediment on meteorites from the eastern Nullabor (e.g. Hughes and Cook, S.A.) contains a significant fraction of quartz sand, 1/4- to 1/2-mm grains, probably blown from the Great Victoria Desert to the north and northwest. However, sedimentologic data alone may be misleading. For instance, sediments adhering to Nuevo Mercurio stones (H5; Zacatecas, Mexico) are clay-sized and lack coarser material. But sediment on Nuevo Mercurio (b), a ureilite found in the Nuevo Mercurio strewn field, consists of quartz sand and clay pellets, 1/4 to 1/2 mm diameter. Clearly, local environments may affect the character of sediment adhering to a meteorite, and careful detailed study may be required to determine whether a meteorite has been transported. I am grateful to R. Farrell and D. New for availability of samples. References: 1. Prinz et al. (1986) Lunar Planet. Sci. XVII, 681. [2] Koebe

  9. Identification using face regions: application and assessment in forensic scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tome, Pedro; Fierrez, Julian; Vera-Rodriguez, Ruben; Ramos, Daniel

    2013-12-10

    This paper reports an exhaustive analysis of the discriminative power of the different regions of the human face on various forensic scenarios. In practice, when forensic examiners compare two face images, they focus their attention not only on the overall similarity of the two faces. They carry out an exhaustive morphological comparison region by region (e.g., nose, mouth, eyebrows, etc.). In this scenario it is very important to know based on scientific methods to what extent each facial region can help in identifying a person. This knowledge obtained using quantitative and statical methods on given populations can then be used by the examiner to support or tune his observations. In order to generate such scientific knowledge useful for the expert, several methodologies are compared, such as manual and automatic facial landmarks extraction, different facial regions extractors, and various distances between the subject and the acquisition camera. Also, three scenarios of interest for forensics are considered comparing mugshot and Closed-Circuit TeleVision (CCTV) face images using MORPH and SCface databases. One of the findings is that depending of the acquisition distances, the discriminative power of the facial regions change, having in some cases better performance than the full face. PMID:24314504

  10. Special Publication 800-86 Guide to Integrating Forensic

    E-print Network

    Special Publication 800-86 Guide to Integrating Forensic Techniques into Incident ResponseDang #12;#12;Guide to Integrating Forensic Techniques into Incident Response Recommendations A. Jeffrey, Director #12;GUIDE TO INTEGRATING FORENSIC TECHNIQUES INTO INCIDENT RESPONSE Reports

  11. Review: domestic animal forensic genetics - biological evidence, genetic markers, analytical approaches and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kanthaswamy, S

    2015-10-01

    This review highlights the importance of domestic animal genetic evidence sources, genetic testing, markers and analytical approaches as well as the challenges this field is facing in view of the de facto 'gold standard' human DNA identification. Because of the genetic similarity between humans and domestic animals, genetic analysis of domestic animal hair, saliva, urine, blood and other biological material has generated vital investigative leads that have been admitted into a variety of court proceedings, including criminal and civil litigation. Information on validated short tandem repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and mitochondrial DNA markers and public access to genetic databases for forensic DNA analysis is becoming readily available. Although the fundamental aspects of animal forensic genetic testing may be reliable and acceptable, animal forensic testing still lacks the standardized testing protocols that human genetic profiling requires, probably because of the absence of monetary support from government agencies and the difficulty in promoting cooperation among competing laboratories. Moreover, there is a lack in consensus about how to best present the results and expert opinion to comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. This has been the single most persistent challenge ever since the earliest use of domestic animal forensic genetic testing in a criminal case in the mid-1990s. Crime laboratory accreditation ensures that genetic test results have the courts' confidence. Because accreditation requires significant commitments of effort, time and resources, the vast majority of animal forensic genetic laboratories are not accredited nor are their analysts certified forensic examiners. The relevance of domestic animal forensic genetics in the criminal justice system is undeniable. However, further improvements are needed in a wide range of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and control protocols for sample handling, evidence testing, statistical analysis and reporting that meet the rules of scientific acceptance, reliability and human forensic identification standards. PMID:26364867

  12. The 'relics of Joan of Arc': a forensic multidisciplinary analysis.

    PubMed

    Charlier, P; Poupon, J; Eb, A; De Mazancourt, P; Gilbert, T; Huynh-Charlier, I; Loublier, Y; Verhille, A M; Moulheirat, C; Patou-Mathis, M; Robbiola, L; Montagut, R; Masson, F; Etcheberry, A; Brun, L; Willerslev, E; de la Grandmaison, G Lorin; Durigon, M

    2010-01-30

    Archaeological remains can provide concrete cases, making it possible to develop, refine or validate medico-legal techniques. In the case of the so-called 'Joan of Arc's relics' (a group of bone and archaeological remains known as the 'Bottle of Chinon'), 14 specialists analysed the samples such as a cadaver X of carbonised aspect: forensic anthropologist, medical examiners, pathologists, geneticists, radiologist, biochemists, palynologists, zoologist and archaeologist. Materials, methods and results of this study are presented here. This study aims to offer an exploitable methodology for the modern medico-legal cases of small quantities of human bones of carbonised aspect. PMID:19913375

  13. The Non-Forensics After-Life of a Forensics Director.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolai, Michael T.

    A study investigated the personal and career choices that motivate an educator's departure from active involvement in forensics activities, and what trends, if any, exist concerning what former directors do in place of forensics. The study also investigated how forensics participation as a coach/director impacted on the individual, and what…

  14. Sex determination in forensic odontology: A review.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, K; Sharma, Subramanya; Sreeja, C; Pratima, D Bhavani; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology and it is very important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters crime investigations, and ethnic studies. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination. PMID:26538886

  15. Sex determination in forensic odontology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, K.; Sharma, Subramanya; Sreeja, C.; Pratima, D. Bhavani; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology and it is very important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters crime investigations, and ethnic studies. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination. PMID:26538886

  16. Statistical 3D Cranio-Facial Models Maxime Berar

    E-print Network

    Payan, Yohan

    Tronche France Yohan.Payan @imag.fr Abstract In forensic science, 3D cranio facail reconstruction is used or occulted data problem. Results are visually correct. 1. Introduction In forensic science, faceStatistical 3D Cranio-Facial Models Maxime Berar Laboratoire des images et des signaux, Saint

  17. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 7, NO. 4, AUGUST 2012 1315 Temporal Forensics and Anti-Forensics for Motion

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 7, NO. 4, AUGUST 2012 1315 Temporal Forensics and Anti-Forensics for Motion Compensated Video Matthew C. Stamm, Member, IEEE, W. Sabrina Lin can be altered, many digital forensic techniques have been developed to authenticate multimedia

  18. Neurobehavioral assessment in forensic practice

    PubMed Central

    Woods, George W.; Freedman, David; Greenspan, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing awareness among mental health practitioners that many mental disorders previously believed to be primarily behavioral in nature, reflecting character and environment, are actually grounded in brain mal-development or brain disorder. This growing awareness, influenced by the advent of new diagnostic procedures and measures, is also found among forensic practitioners. In this paper, we describe some of the elements involved in conducting a neurobehavioral assessment of cognitive functioning, particularly in capital cases, organizing this material in terms of the professional disciplines – social work, mitigation investigation, psychological, and medical – with which these methods are mainly identified. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of how to integrate the multiple areas of expertise to create an accurate understanding of the neurobehavioral functioning and capacity of the subject. This is the basis from which civil and criminal forensic opinions must emanate. PMID:23059206

  19. USE OF DNA TECHNOLOGY IN FORENSIC DENTISTRY

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; de Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira; de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    The established importance of Forensic Dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article presents a literature review referring to the main studies on Forensic Dentistry that involve the use of DNA for human identification, and makes an overview of the evolution of this technology in the last years, highlighting the importance of molecular biology in forensic sciences. PMID:19089123

  20. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting. PMID:24245688

  1. Forensic documentation of battered pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, D J

    1996-01-01

    Patients hurt during intimate partner abuse are crime victims who may seek legal relief and protection from one or more court systems. What the health care provider documents or does not document may have tremendous forensic implications; yet, most health care providers have received little formal training in clinical forensics. Being subpoenaed to court as a witness can trigger fear and anxiety. This article reviews the basic principles of clinical forensic documentation, evidence collection and preservation, forensic photography, and accurate wound identification, as well as tips on working with police and on testifying in court. PMID:8990719

  2. Evolution of forensic odontology: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Balachander, N.; Babu, N. Aravindha; Jimson, Sudha; Priyadharsini, C.; Masthan, K. M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology admits dentists’ participation or identification of the victim and assisting legal and criminal issues. It refers to the proper handling, examination, identification and evaluation of dental evidence. This article summarizes the evolution of forensic odontology that started right from Garden of Eden to the modern scenario in identification of the gang rape case which happened in the state capital. Forensic dentistry plays a significant role in identifying the victims of crime, deceased individuals through the examination of anatomical structures, dental appliances and dental restorations. PMID:26015703

  3. [Forensic chemistry as a pharmaceutical discipline].

    PubMed

    Salomatin, E M; Kalekin, R A

    2014-01-01

    The principal objectives and problems facing forensic chemistry expertise are considered. In addition, its development as a pharmaceutical discipline, its goals and practical tasks are discussed. PMID:25764870

  4. Classification of spent reactor fuel for nuclear forensics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew E; Turner, Phillip; Zimmerman, Colin; Goulermas, John Y

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of pattern recognition and machine learning techniques to determine the reactor type from which spent reactor fuel has originated. This has been done using the isotopic and elemental measurements of the sample and proves to be very useful in the field of nuclear forensics. Nuclear materials contain many variables (impurities and isotopes) that are very difficult to consider individually. A method that considers all material parameters simultaneously is advantageous. Currently the field of nuclear forensics focuses on the analysis of key material properties to determine details about the materials processing history, for example, utilizing known half-lives of isotopes can determine when the material was last processed (Stanley, F. E. J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 2012, 27, 1821; Varga, Z.; Wallenius, M.; Mayer, K.; Keegan, E.; Millet, S. Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 8327-8334). However, it has been demonstrated that multivariate statistical analysis of isotopic concentrations can complement these method and are able to make use of a greater level of information through dimensionality reduction techniques (Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J. J. Environ. Radioact. 2008, 99, 1789-1797; Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J.; Heller, M. A. Nuclear Forensic Inferences Using Iterative Multidimensional Statistics. In Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management 50th Annual Meeting, Tucson, AZ, July 2009; 12 pages; Nicolaou, G. J. Environ. Radioact. 2006, 86, 313-318; Pajo, L.; Mayer, K.; Koch, L. Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 2001, 371, 348-352). There has been some success in using such multidimensional statistical methods to determine details about the history of spent reactor fuel (Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J. J. Environ. Radioact. 2008, 99, 1789-1797). Here, we aim to expand on these findings by pursuing more robust dimensionality reduction techniques based on manifold embedding which are able to better capture the intrinsic data set information. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a number of classification algorithms to reliably determine the reactor type in which a spent fuel material has been irradiated. A number of these classification techniques are novel applications in nuclear forensics and expand on the existing knowledge in this field by creating a reliable and robust classification model. The results from this analysis show that our techniques have been very successful and further ascertain the excellent potential of these techniques in the field of nuclear forensics at least with regard to spent reactor fuel. PMID:24805973

  5. Forensic DNA profiling and database.

    PubMed

    Panneerchelvam, S; Norazmi, M N

    2003-07-01

    The incredible power of DNA technology as an identification tool had brought a tremendous change in crimnal justice . DNA data base is an information resource for the forensic DNA typing community with details on commonly used short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers. This article discusses the essential steps in compilation of COmbined DNA Index System (CODIS) on validated polymerase chain amplified STRs and their use in crime detection. PMID:23386793

  6. Forensic entomology: applications and limitations.

    PubMed

    Amendt, J; Richards, C S; Campobasso, C P; Zehner, R; Hall, M J R

    2011-12-01

    Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the corpse. In addition, toxicological and molecular examinations of these insects may help reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim, by associating a larva with its last meal, for example, in cases where insect evidence is left at a scene after human remains have been deliberately removed. Some fly species can develop not only on corpses but on living bodies too, causing myiasis. Analysis of larvae in such cases can demonstrate the period of neglect of humans or animals. Without the appropriate professional collection of insect evidence, an accurate and convincing presentation of such evidence in court will be hampered or even impossible. The present paper describes the principles and methods of forensic entomology and the optimal techniques for collecting insect evidence. PMID:21213072

  7. Forensic scatology: preliminary experimental study of the preparation and potential for identification of captive carnivore scat.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Rebecca J; Skinner, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Carnivore scats recovered from animal attack and/or scavenging contexts frequently contain forensic evidence such as human bone fragments. Forensic cases with carnivore involvement are increasingly prevalent, necessitating a methodology for the recovery and analysis of scat evidence. This study proposes a method for the safe preparation of carnivore scat, recovery of bone inclusions, and quantification and comparison of scat variables. Fourteen scats (lion, jaguar, lynx, wolf, and coyote) were prepared with sodium-acetate-formalin fixative; analytical variables included carnivore individual, species, body size, and taxonomic family. Scat variables, particularly bone fragment inclusions, were found to vary among carnivore individuals, families, species, and sizes. The methods in this study facilitate safe scat processing, the complete recovery of digested evidence, and the preliminary identification of involved animals. This research demonstrates that scat collected from forensic contexts can yield valuable information concerning both the victim and the carnivore involved. PMID:21923796

  8. The role of forensic anthropology in the examination of the Daegu subway disaster (2003, Korea).

    PubMed

    Park, Dae-Kyoon; Park, Kyung-Ho; Ko, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Yi-Suk; Chung, Nak-Eun; Ahn, Yong-Woo; Han, Seung-Ho

    2009-05-01

    Meticulous recovery of victims in the Daegu subway disaster was possible, because charred and fragmented victims were left in situ. Because bodies were piled one over another within the train, appropriate methodology during the recovery was critical to identifying the victims. The disaster area was thoroughly documented with notes, photographs, and schematic drawings of the various locations. The recovery team, comprising two medical examiners and one forensic anthropologist, decided when charred body parts and cremated bones were linked to the same individual based on the anatomy and forensic anthropological examination. Without these recovery procedures, it would not have been possible to efficiently harvest representative DNA sample from most of the victims' body parts. After the entire process of identification, 136 victims were positively identified, and six victims remained unidentified. This study supports the crucial role of forensic anthropologists in the recovery of victims, especially in fire scenes. PMID:19432735

  9. Students' conceptions of evidence during a university introductory forensic science course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeshion, Theodore Elliot

    Students' Conceptions of Science, Scientific Evidence, and Forensic Evidence during a University Introductory Forensic Science Course This study was designed to examine and understand what conceptions undergraduate students taking an introductory forensic science course had about scientific evidence. Because the relationships between the nature of science, the nature of evidence, and the nature of forensic evidence are not well understood in the science education literature, this study sought to understand how these concepts interact and affect students' understanding of scientific evidence. Four participants were purposefully selected for this study from among 89 students enrolled in two sections of an introductory forensic science course taught during the fall 2005 semester. Of the 89 students, 84 were criminal justice majors with minimal science background and five were chemistry majors with academic backgrounds in the natural and physical sciences. All 89 students completed a biographical data sheet and a pre-instruction Likert scale survey consisting of twenty questions relating to the nature of scientific evidence. An evaluation of these two documents resulted in a purposeful selection of four varied student participants, each of whom was interviewed three times throughout the semester about the nature of science, the nature of evidence, and the nature of forensic evidence. The same survey was administered to the participants again at the end of the semester-long course. This study examined students' assumptions, prior knowledge, their understanding of scientific inference, scientific theory, and methodology. Examination of the data found few differences with regard to how the criminal justice majors and the chemistry majors responded to interview questions about forensic evidence. There were qualitative differences, however, when the same participants answered interview questions relating to traditional scientific evidence. Furthermore, suggestions are offered for undergraduate science teachers, science teaching programs, and future research.

  10. The logical foundations of forensic science: towards reliable knowledge.

    PubMed

    Evett, Ian

    2015-08-01

    The generation of observations is a technical process and the advances that have been made in forensic science techniques over the last 50 years have been staggering. But science is about reasoning-about making sense from observations. For the forensic scientist, this is the challenge of interpreting a pattern of observations within the context of a legal trial. Here too, there have been major advances over recent years and there is a broad consensus among serious thinkers, both scientific and legal, that the logical framework is furnished by Bayesian inference (Aitken et al. Fundamentals of Probability and Statistical Evidence in Criminal Proceedings). This paper shows how the paradigm has matured, centred on the notion of the balanced scientist. Progress through the courts has not been always smooth and difficulties arising from recent judgments are discussed. Nevertheless, the future holds exciting prospects, in particular the opportunities for managing and calibrating the knowledge of the forensic scientists who assign the probabilities that are at the foundation of logical inference in the courtroom. PMID:26101288

  11. Forensic genetic analysis of bio-geographical ancestry.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Chris

    2015-09-01

    With the great strides made in the last ten years in the understanding of human population variation and the detailed characterization of the genome, it is now possible to identify sets of ancestry informative markers suitable for relatively small-scale PCR-based assays and use them to analyze the ancestry of an individual from forensic DNA. This review outlines some of the current understanding of past human population structure and how it may have influenced the complex distribution of contemporary human diversity. A simplified description of human diversity can provide a suitable basis for choosing the best ancestry-informative markers, which is important given the constraints of multiplex sizes in forensic DNA tests. It is also important to decide the level of geographic resolution that is realistic to ensure the balance between informativeness and an over-simplification of complex human diversity patterns. A detailed comparison is made of the most informative ancestry markers suitable for forensic use and assessments are made of the data analysis regimes that can provide statistical inferences of a DNA donor's bio-geographical ancestry. PMID:26013312

  12. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 46:358-368, 1990 DNA Fingerprinting for Forensic Identification: Potential Effects

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Joel E.

    Am. J. Hum. Genet. 46:358-368, 1990 DNA Fingerprinting for Forensic Identification: Potential Rockefeller University, New York Summary Some methods of statistical analysis of data on DNA fingerprinting if there is heterogeneity in gene frequencies between subpopulations. In the populations where DNA fingerprinting is used

  13. Forensic surface metrology: tool mark evidence.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Carol; McLaughlin, Patrick; Kuo, Loretta; Kammerman, Frani; Shenkin, Peter; Diaczuk, Peter; Petraco, Nicholas; Hamby, James; Petraco, Nicholas D K

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several decades, forensic examiners of impression evidence have come under scrutiny in the courtroom due to analysis methods that rely heavily on subjective morphological comparisons. Currently, there is no universally accepted system that generates numerical data to independently corroborate visual comparisons. Our research attempts to develop such a system for tool mark evidence, proposing a methodology that objectively evaluates the association of striated tool marks with the tools that generated them. In our study, 58 primer shear marks on 9?mm cartridge cases, fired from four Glock model 19 pistols, were collected using high-resolution white light confocal microscopy. The resulting three-dimensional surface topographies were filtered to extract all "waviness surfaces"-the essential "line" information that firearm and tool mark examiners view under a microscope. Extracted waviness profiles were processed with principal component analysis (PCA) for dimension reduction. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to make the profile-gun associations, and conformal prediction theory (CPT) for establishing confidence levels. At the 95% confidence level, CPT coupled with PCA-SVM yielded an empirical error rate of 3.5%. Complementary, bootstrap-based computations for estimated error rates were 0%, indicating that the error rate for the algorithmic procedure is likely to remain low on larger data sets. Finally, suggestions are made for practical courtroom application of CPT for assigning levels of confidence to SVM identifications of tool marks recorded with confocal microscopy. PMID:21710632

  14. Forensic analysis of explosions: Inverse calculation of the charge mass.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, M M; van Wees, R M M; Brouwer, S D; van der Jagt-Deutekom, M J; Verreault, J

    2015-07-01

    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU FP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estimate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage around an explosion. In this paper, inverse models are presented based on two frequently occurring and reliable sources of information: window breakage and building damage. The models have been verified by applying them to the Enschede firework disaster and the Khobar tower attack. Furthermore, a statistical method has been developed to combine the various types of data, in order to determine an overall charge mass distribution. In relatively open environments, like for the Enschede firework disaster, the models generate realistic charge masses that are consistent with values found in forensic literature. The spread predicted by the IEA tool is however larger than presented in the literature for these specific cases. This is also realistic due to the large inherent uncertainties in a forensic analysis. The IEA-models give a reasonable first order estimate of the charge mass in a densely built urban environment, such as for the Khobar tower attack. Due to blast shielding effects which are not taken into account in the IEA tool, this is usually an under prediction. To obtain more accurate predictions, the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations is advised. The TNO IEA tool gives unique possibilities to inversely calculate the TNT equivalent charge mass based on a large variety of explosion effects and observations. The IEA tool enables forensic analysts, also those who are not experts on explosion effects, to perform an analysis with a largely reduced effort. PMID:25933424

  15. Models for regionalizing economic data and their applications within the scope of forensic disaster analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Hanns-Maximilian; Wiens, rer. pol. Marcus, , Dr.; Schultmann, rer. pol. Frank, Prof. _., Dr.

    2015-04-01

    The impact of natural hazards on the economic system can be observed in many different regions all over the world. Once the local economic structure is hit by an event direct costs instantly occur. However, the disturbance on a local level (e.g. parts of city or industries along a river bank) might also cause monetary damages in other, indirectly affected sectors. If the impact of an event is strong, these damages are likely to cascade and spread even on an international scale (e.g. the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull and its impact on the automotive sector in Europe). In order to determine these special impacts, one has to gain insights into the directly hit economic structure before being able to calculate these side effects. Especially, regarding the development of a model used for near real-time forensic disaster analyses any simulation needs to be based on data that is rapidly available or easily to be computed. Therefore, we investigated commonly used or recently discussed methodologies for regionalizing economic data. Surprisingly, even for German federal states there is no official input-output data available that can be used, although it might provide detailed figures concerning economic interrelations between different industry sectors. In the case of highly developed countries, such as Germany, we focus on models for regionalizing nationwide input-output table which is usually available at the national statistical offices. However, when it comes to developing countries (e.g. South-East Asia) the data quality and availability is usually much poorer. In this case, other sources need to be found for the proper assessment of regional economic performance. We developed an indicator-based model that can fill this gap because of its flexibility regarding the level of aggregation and the composability of different input parameters. Our poster presentation brings up a literature review and a summary on potential models that seem to be useful for this specific task. Moreover, some sample data from our own applications for developed and developing countries are shown. The use of the different methodologies for the calculation of indirect losses in the field of forensic disaster analyses is also to be discussed. Finally, we give an outlook on the further utilization of these models aiming for the simulation of indirect losses.

  16. Forensic DNA Mixture Interpretation MAFS Workshop

    E-print Network

    Forensic DNA Mixture Interpretation MAFS Workshop Milwaukee, WI September 25, 2012 Mixture on Forensic Science Philosophy · If you want to be a technician, performing tests on requests, then just focus of the critiques, the issues of bias and the importance of ethics. The CAC News ­ 2nd Quarter 2012 ­ p. 6

  17. NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools

    E-print Network

    NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysisUpdate RickAyers WayneJansen LudovicMoenner AurelienDelaitre #12;iii NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis available for the purpose. iii #12;Abstract Cell phones and other handheld devices incorporating cell phone

  18. NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools

    E-print Network

    NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysis RickAyers WayneJansen NicolasCilleros RonanDaniellou #12;iii NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis Rick Ayers Wayne Interagency Report 187 pages (2005) iii #12;Abstract Cell phones and other handheld devices incorporating cell

  19. Human resources and their possible forensic meanings.

    PubMed

    Russo, Andrea; Urli?, Ivan; Kasum, Josip

    2015-09-01

    Forensics (forensic--before the Forum) means the application of knowledge from different scientific fields in order to define facts in judicial and/or administrative procedures. Nowadays forensics, besides this, finds its application even in different economic processes. For example, forensics enters the commercial areas of business intelligence and of different security areas. The European Commission recognized the importance of forensics, and underscored the importance of development of its scientific infrastructure in member States. We are witnessing the rise of various tragedies in economic and other kinds of processes. Undoubtedly, the world is increasingly exposed to various forms of threats whose occurrences regularly involve people. In this paper we are proposing the development of a new approach in the forensic assessment of the state of human resources. We are suggesting that in the focus should be the forensic approach in the psychological assessment of awareness of the individual and of the critical infrastructure sector operator (CISO) in determining the level of actual practical, rather than formal knowledge of an individual in a particular field of expertise, or in a specific scientific field, and possible forensic meanings. PMID:26417747

  20. Forensic Science International 94 (1998) 167181

    E-print Network

    Frey, Pascal

    1998-01-01

    Forensic Science International 94 (1998) 167­181 The application of volume deformation to three-0738(98)00066-8 #12;168 L.A. Nelson, S.D. Michael / Forensic Science International 94 (1998) 167­181 sufficient, 20133 Milan, Italy b Department of Computer Science, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park

  1. Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 185199

    E-print Network

    Miksik, Ivan

    1998-01-01

    Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 185­199 Nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis. Application-0738(98)00015-2 #12;186 M.S. Bellini et al. / Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 185­199 1. Introduction, Czech Republic c ´ ` ´Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Videoska 1083

  2. Suicide by drowning: A forensic challenge.

    PubMed

    Todt, Melanie; Ast, Friedrich; Wolff-Maras, Roman; Roesler, Birte; Germerott, Tanja

    2014-07-01

    In the case of suicidal drowning forensic examination is difficult, particularly with regard to differentiating between suicide, accident, homicide and natural death. Bondage and weighting with objects, putrescence and attendant lesions aggravate interpretation and investigation of postmortal forensic findings. In this respect, two cases of seemingly homicidal drowning with leg and arm bondage and weighting, to prevent resurfacing, are presented and discussed. PMID:24793320

  3. Liability Implications of Forensics Program Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Philip A.; Ward, Courtney E.

    Forensics program administration raises a number of troubling liability concerns. The potential liability exposure of forensics administrators may vastly exceed the litigation risks that arise as a result of ordinary teaching duties. Potential liability exposure may result from the failure of program directors to act in accordance with college or…

  4. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  5. Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

  6. Digital Video Forensics Submitted to the Faculty

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    Digital Video Forensics A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment;#12;Abstract We present new forensic tools that are capable of detecting traces of tampering in digital video without the use of watermarks or specialized hardware. These tools operate under the assumption that video

  7. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  8. Accreditation standards for undergraduate forensic science programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Marilyn Tebbs

    Undergraduate forensic science programs are experiencing unprecedented growth in numbers of programs offered and, as a result, student enrollments are increasing. Currently, however, these programs are not subject to professional specialized accreditation. This study sought to identify desirable student outcome measures for undergraduate forensic science programs that should be incorporated into such an accreditation process. To determine desirable student outcomes, three types of data were collected and analyzed. All the existing undergraduate forensic science programs in the United States were examined with regard to the input measures of degree requirements and curriculum content, and for the output measures of mission statements and student competencies. Accreditation procedures and guidelines for three other science-based disciplines, computer science, dietetics, and nursing, were examined to provide guidance on accreditation processes for forensic science education programs. Expert opinion on outcomes for program graduates was solicited from the major stakeholders of undergraduate forensic science programs-forensic science educators, crime laboratory directors, and recent graduates. Opinions were gathered by using a structured Internet-based survey; the total response rate was 48%. Examination of the existing undergraduate forensic science programs revealed that these programs do not use outcome measures. Of the accreditation processes for other science-based programs, nursing education provided the best model for forensic science education, due primarily to the balance between the generality and the specificity of the outcome measures. From the analysis of the questionnaire data, preliminary student outcomes, both general and discipline-specific, suitable for use in the accreditation of undergraduate forensic science programs were determined. The preliminary results were reviewed by a panel of experts and, based on their recommendations, the outcomes identified were revised and refined. The results of this study were used to identify student outcomes and to suggest accreditation standards and an accreditation process for undergraduate forensic science programs based on those outcomes.

  9. Some Challenges in Forensics: Facial Sketch, Latent Prints & SMT

    E-print Network

    human bias and sources of human error · Validate basis for evidence Forensics: Use of "trace evidenceSome Challenges in Forensics: Facial Sketch, Latent Prints & SMT Anil K. Jain Michigan State University http://biometrics.cse.msu.edu/ April 4, 2013 #12;Forensics and Biometrics Forensic Science

  10. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    Work CGS 5131 Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital: Take 1 Forensic Science & Legal Study Specialization Course, See the Grad Catalog for List CourseUCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option Catalog Year 2013-2014 Students

  11. UNDERSTANDING THE DISCRIMINATION POWER OF FACIAL REGIONS IN FORENSIC CASEWORK

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    of systems have obtained an in- creased emphasis is the forensic field [2, 3]. Forensic science analyses data reliable and available identification methods in forensic science, automatic face recognition technologyUNDERSTANDING THE DISCRIMINATION POWER OF FACIAL REGIONS IN FORENSIC CASEWORK Pedro Tomea , Luis Bl

  12. By Diana Ha, Undergraduate, UNLV The Forensics Community

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    and research. Examples of such journals are: The Open Forensic Science Journal (http://www.bentham.org/open/toforsj/) The Internet Journal of Forensic Science (http://www.ispub.com/journal/the_internet_journal_of_forensic_science.html) Forensic Science Communications (an open access journal from the FBI) (http

  13. Multidisciplinary--B.S. Forensic Science (2015-2016)

    E-print Network

    Bier, Martin

    Multidisciplinary--B.S. Forensic Science (2015-2016) 4/2015 FOUNDATIONS CURRICULUM REQUIREMENTS ADVISOR: #12;Multidisciplinary--B.S. Forensic Science (2015-2016) CORE (81 hrs) BIOLOGY (17 s.h.) BIOL) (consent of department) JUST 3020 Intro to Forensic Science (3) (consent of department) JUST 3022 Forensic

  14. Forensic Chemistry Option and Typical Schedule Fall Spring

    E-print Network

    Lawson, Catherine L.

    :160:491 Seminar (1.0 cr) 01:160:492 Forensic Science (3.0 cr) 01:202:351 Forensic Science (3.0 cr) 01 in Forensic Science and a laboratory in Instrumental analysis. The aim of the program is to ensureForensic Chemistry Option and Typical Schedule Fall Spring FIRST YEAR General Chemistry Lecture (4

  15. An Empirical Investigation of the Relevant Skills of Forensic Accountants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGabriele, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The author investigated whether views of the relevant skills of forensic accountants differ among forensic accounting practitioners, accounting academics, and users of forensic accounting services. Universities and colleges are currently considering adding forensic accounting courses to their curriculum. The results of the present study provide…

  16. Practice Parameter for Child and Adolescent Forensic Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This Parameter addresses the key concepts that differentiate the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents from a clinical assessment. There are ethical issues unique to the forensic evaluation, because the forensic evaluator's duty is to the person, court, or agency requesting the evaluation, rather than to the patient. The forensic

  17. FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION REPORTING USING AUTOMATIC SPEAKER RECOGNITION SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION REPORTING USING AUTOMATIC SPEAKER RECOGNITION SYSTEMS J. Gonzalez to the bayesian approach for evidence analysis and forensic reporting. This approach, firmly established in other forensic areas as fingerprint, DNA or fiber analysis, suits the needs of both the court and the forensic

  18. Digital forensics investigation framework that incorporate legal issues

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    FORZA Digital forensics investigation framework that incorporate legal issues Ricci S.C. Ieong #12;Presentation Outline 1. Introduction 2. Fundamental principle in digital forensics investigation procedures 3 framework 6. Future work #12;What is Digital Forensics? Introduction #12;#12;What is Digital Forensics

  19. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option Catalog Year 2010-2011 Required Institution For Department Use Only Transfer Classification Formal Course Work CGS 5131 Computer Forensics 1 CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 CHS 5503 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital

  20. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option Catalog Year 2009-2010 Required Institution For Department Use Only Transfer Classification Formal Course Work CGS 5131 Computer Forensics 1 CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 CHS 5503 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital

  1. Authentication of forensic DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

    2010-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system. PMID:20129467

  2. [New challenges in forensic psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Niveau, Gérard; Dang, Cécile

    2008-07-01

    The new Swiss criminal code and the recent evolution of evaluation methods have led to change in the three main areas of forensic psychiatry: criminal responsibility, credibility of child sexual abuse allegations, and dangerousness. The assessment of criminal responsibility requires the retrospective examination of the cognitive and volitive capacities of the accused. If needed, mandatory therapeutic propositions that conform to the new criminal code must be recommended. With regard to child sexual abuse allegations, the credibility of the allegations is analysed with specific scales, such as Statement Validity Analysis, interpreted in light of the current state of knowledge in child development and child psychiatry. PMID:18711972

  3. Forensic aspects of ocular injury.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M J; Parker, H

    2000-06-01

    A case of homicidal stabbing resulting in bilateral penetrating ocular injuries is described. The case is noteworthy in that it highlights an unusual mechanism of death in homicidal stabbing. Disturbances in heart rhythm including asystole can be ascribed to the so-called oculocardiac or trigeminocardiac reflex. Although this phenomenon is well known to ophthalmologists, neurosurgeons, and anesthetists, it is much less familiar to forensic pathologists. This is a potential mechanism of death worthy of consideration in cases of sudden unexpected death occurring in the context of facial injury. PMID:10871125

  4. Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Henry C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

  5. A perspective on errors, bias, and interpretation in the forensic sciences and direction for continuing advancement.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Bottrell, Maureen C; Bunch, Stephen G; Fram, Robert; Harrison, Diana; Meagher, Stephen; Oien, Cary T; Peterson, Peter E; Seiger, Danielle P; Smith, Michael B; Smrz, Melissa A; Soltis, Greg L; Stacey, Robert B

    2009-07-01

    The forensic sciences are under review more so than ever before. Such review is necessary and healthy and should be a continuous process. It identifies areas for improvement in quality practices and services. The issues surrounding error, i.e., measurement error, human error, contextual bias, and confirmatory bias, and interpretation are discussed. Infrastructure is already in place to support reliability. However, more definition and clarity of terms and interpretation would facilitate communication and understanding. Material improvement across the disciplines should be sought through national programs in education and training, focused on science, the scientific method, statistics, and ethics. To provide direction for advancing the forensic sciences a list of recommendations ranging from further documentation to new research and validation to education and to accreditation is provided for consideration. The list is a starting point for discussion that could foster further thought and input in developing an overarching strategic plan for enhancing the forensic sciences. PMID:19486241

  6. 492 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 5, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2010 Forensic Detection of Image Manipulation Using

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    492 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 5, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2010 Forensic for digital image forensic tech- niques capable of detecting image alterations and forged images. A number then propose forensic methods for detecting general forms globally and locally applied contrast enhancement

  7. Forensic Analysis of Compromised Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Directory Tree Analysis File Generator is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) script that simplifies and automates the collection of information for forensic analysis of compromised computer systems. During such an analysis, it is sometimes necessary to collect and analyze information about files on a specific directory tree. Directory Tree Analysis File Generator collects information of this type (except information about directories) and writes it to a text file. In particular, the script asks the user for the root of the directory tree to be processed, the name of the output file, and the number of subtree levels to process. The script then processes the directory tree and puts out the aforementioned text file. The format of the text file is designed to enable the submission of the file as input to a spreadsheet program, wherein the forensic analysis is performed. The analysis usually consists of sorting files and examination of such characteristics of files as ownership, time of creation, and time of most recent access, all of which characteristics are among the data included in the text file.

  8. Forensic Proteomics of Poxvirus Production

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Tulman, Edan; Engelmann, Heather E.; Clowers, Brian H.; Geary, Steven J.; Robinson, Aaron C.; Liao, Xiaofen

    2013-08-27

    The field of microbial forensics has recently sought to develop methods to discern biological signatures to indicate production methods for biological agents. Viral agents have received less attention to date. Their obligate propagation in living cells makes purification from cellular material a challenge. This leads to potential carryover of protein-rich signature of their production system. Here we have explored a proteomic analysis of Vaccinia virus as a model poxvirus system in which to compare samples of virus propagated in different cell lines and subjected to different purification schemes. The proteomic data sets indicated viral, host cell and culture medium proteins, and several layers of data analysis were applied to build confidence in the peptide identification and capture information on the taxonomic utility of each. The analysis showed clear shifts in protein profiles with virus purification, with successive gradient purification steps showing different levels of viral protein enrichment. Peptides from cellular proteins, including those present in purified virus preparations, provided signatures which enabled discrimination of cell line substrates, including distinguishing between cells derived from different primate species. The ability to discern multiple aspects of viral production demonstrates the potential value of proteomic analysis as tool for microbial forensics.

  9. Forensic Entomologists: An Evaluation of their Status

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences (2009) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists. PMID:24219583

  10. The relationship between cadaver, living and forensic stature: A review of current knowledge and a test using a sample of adult Portuguese males.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Marinho, Luísa; Albanese, John

    2016-01-01

    The use of cadaver length and forensic stature as a proxy for living standing height has not been scrutinized in detail. In this paper we present a brief review of the current knowledge on the relationship between cadaver, living and forensic stature; assess the magnitude and nature of the differences between these three measures of stature; and investigate the potential impact of these differences in forensic contexts. The study uses a sample of 84 males who were autopsied in 2008 at the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (Porto, Portugal), where stature data were collected from three different sources: cadaver stature was obtained from the corpse prior to autopsy, living stature was obtained from military conscription records and forensic stature was obtained from national citizenship identification card records. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and linear regression are used to analyze the data. The results show that cadaver stature is the highest measure, followed by forensic and by living stature, and the difference between cadaver and living stature is greater than expected (4.3cm). Results also show considerable individual variation in the differences between the three measures of stature and that differences decrease with stature, although only slightly. This study has shown that the difference between cadaver and living stature is greater than previously thought and suggests that previously reported correction factors are a minimum rather than a mean correction. Forensic stature is likely to be incorrectly estimated and can jeopardize identification if methods estimate living rather than forensic stature. PMID:26654866

  11. Abstract--In this paper, we propose a system-on-chip software hardware co-design methodology for a statistical coder. We use

    E-print Network

    Thinh, Le Minh

    performance and complexity analyses of the existing CABAC reference software, and thus the top-level CABAC software hardware architecture can be conceptualized. The design is aimed to strike a balance betweenAbstract--In this paper, we propose a system-on-chip software hardware co-design methodology

  12. Current issues in species identification for forensic science and the validity of using the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Norman, Janette; Robertson, James; Sarre, Stephen; Georges, Arthur

    2010-09-01

    Species identification techniques commonly utilized in Australian Forensic Science laboratories are gel immunodifussion antigen antibody reactions and hair comparison analysis. Both of these techniques have significant limitations and should be considered indicative opinion based tests. The Barcode of Life Initiative aims to sequence a section of DNA (~648 base pairs) for the Cytochrome Oxidase I mitochondrial gene (COI) in all living species on Earth, with the data generated being uploaded to the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) which can then be used for species identification. The COI gene therefore offers forensics scientists an opportunity to use the marker to analyze unknown samples and compare sequences generated in BOLD. Once sequences from enough species are on the database, it is anticipated that routine identification of an unknown species may be possible. However, most forensic laboratories are not yet suited to this type of analysis and do not have the expertise to fully interpret the implications of matches and non matches involving a poorly sampled taxa (for example where there are cryptic species) and in providing the required opinion evidence. Currently, the use of BOLD is limited by the number of relevant species held in the database and the quality assurance and regulation of sequences that are there. In this paper, the COI methodology and BOLD are tested on a selection of introduced and Australian mammals in a forensic environment as the first step necessary in the implementation of this approach in the Australian context. Our data indicates that the COI methodology performs well on distinct species but needs further exploration when identifying more closely related species. It is evident from our study that changes will be required to implement DNA based wildlife forensics using the BOLD approach for forensic applications and recommendations are made for the future adoption of this technology into forensic laboratories. PMID:20563888

  13. Concept Mapping for Digital Forensic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, April; Dampier, David

    Research in digital forensics has yet to focus on modeling case domain information involved in investigations. This paper shows how concept mapping can be used to create an excellent alternative to the popular checklist approach used in digital forensic investigations. Concept mapping offers several benefits, including creating replicable, reusable techniques, simplifying and guiding the investigative process, capturing and reusing specialized forensic knowledge, and supporting training and knowledge management activities. The paper also discusses how concept mapping can be used to integrate case-specific details throughout the investigative process.

  14. How to become involved in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Fixott, R H

    2001-04-01

    Applying the triad of education, professional organizations, and service, there are many ways to develop as a forensic odontologist. The ideal way to begin and develop is through a mentoring relationship with an experienced forensic odontologist. Most of the leading odontologists today--the second generation, so to speak--were mentored as they developed their careers. To refer back to the introduction, the commonality for this group is their dedication and commitment to the science and service of forensic odontology. References follow listing contact information for all the institutions and organizations mentioned in this article. PMID:11370462

  15. Use of Stable Isotopes in Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.

    2012-01-18

    The use of isotopic signatures for forensic analysis of biological materials is well-established, and the same general principles that apply to interpretation of stable isotope content of C, N, O, and H apply to the analysis of microorganisms. Heterotrophic microorganisms derive their isotopic content from their growth substrates, which are largely plant and animal products, and the water in their culture medium. Thus the isotope signatures of microbes are tied to their growth environment. The C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of spores have been demonstrated to constitute highly discriminating signatures for sample matching. They can rule out specific samples of media and/or water as possible production media, and can predict isotope ratio ranges of the culture media and water used to produce a given sample. These applications have been developed and tested through analyses of approximately 250 samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and over 500 samples of culture media, providing a strong statistical basis for data interpretation. A Bayesian statistical framework for integrating stable isotope data with other types of signatures derived from microorganisms has been able to characterize the culture medium used to produce spores of various Bacillus species, leveraging isotopic differences in different medium types and demonstrating the power of data integration for forensic investigations.

  16. Testing methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs.

  17. Enhancing forensic science with spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Camilla; Kazarian, Sergei G.

    2006-09-01

    This presentation outlines the research we are developing in the area of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging with the focus on materials of forensic interest. FTIR spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a powerful tool for characterisation of heterogeneous materials. FTIR imaging relies on the ability of the military-developed infrared array detector to simultaneously measure spectra from thousands of different locations in a sample. Recently developed application of FTIR imaging using an ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) mode has demonstrated the ability of this method to achieve spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of infrared light in air. Chemical visualisation with enhanced spatial resolution in micro-ATR mode broadens the range of materials studied with FTIR imaging with applications to pharmaceutical formulations or biological samples. Macro-ATR imaging has also been developed for chemical imaging analysis of large surface area samples and was applied to analyse the surface of human skin (e.g. finger), counterfeit tablets, textile materials (clothing), etc. This approach demonstrated the ability of this imaging method to detect trace materials attached to the surface of the skin. This may also prove as a valuable tool in detection of traces of explosives left or trapped on the surfaces of different materials. This FTIR imaging method is substantially superior to many of the other imaging methods due to inherent chemical specificity of infrared spectroscopy and fast acquisition times of this technique. Our preliminary data demonstrated that this methodology will provide the means to non-destructive detection method that could relate evidence to its source. This will be important in a wider crime prevention programme. In summary, intrinsic chemical specificity and enhanced visualising capability of FTIR spectroscopic imaging open a window of opportunities for counter-terrorism and crime-fighting, with applications ranging from analysis of trace evidence (e.g. in soil), tablets, drugs, fibres, tape explosives, biological samples to detection of gunshot residues and imaging of fingerprints.

  18. An Improved Forensic Science Information Search.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, J

    2015-01-01

    Although thousands of search engines and databases are available online, finding answers to specific forensic science questions can be a challenge even to experienced Internet users. Because there is no central repository for forensic science information, and because of the sheer number of disciplines under the forensic science umbrella, forensic scientists are often unable to locate material that is relevant to their needs. The author contends that using six publicly accessible search engines and databases can produce high-quality search results. The six resources are Google, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google Books, WorldCat, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Carefully selected keywords and keyword combinations, designating a keyword phrase so that the search engine will search on the phrase and not individual keywords, and prompting search engines to retrieve PDF files are among the techniques discussed. PMID:26227137

  19. Towards Privacy Preserving of Forensic DNA Databases 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Sanmin

    2012-02-14

    Protecting privacy of individuals is critical for forensic genetics. In a kinship/identity testing, related DNA profiles between user's query and the DNA database need to be extracted. However, unrelated profiles cannot be revealed to each other...

  20. Spectroscopic Sleuthing. An Introduction to Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, Vera; Cunniff, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a program in which students learn about spectroscopy and instrumentation to solve a chemical forensic mystery. Infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, refractometry, and chromatographic techniques were used. An example of a mystery case is included. (KR)

  1. Forensic veterinary pathology, today's situation and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Olsén, L; Gavier-Widén, D

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders. PMID:25013083

  2. [Substance use disorder. Forensic issues in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Toro Martínez, Esteban

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of the main legal issues in illegal drug traffic in Argentina. The penal law includes corrective punishment, educational activities and forced treatment. Forensic issues and legal controversies are discussed. PMID:18443668

  3. Scientific standards for studies in forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Peter M

    2007-01-17

    Forensic molecular genetics has evolved from a rapidly developing field with changing technologies into a highly recognized and generally accepted forensic science, leading to the establishment of national DNA databases with DNA profiles from suspects and convicted offenders. DNA evidence has taken a central role by carrying a significant weight for convictions, as well as by excluding innocent suspects early on in a criminal investigation. Due to this impact on the criminal justice system, guidelines for research in forensic genetics have been introduced already since many years. The most important issues regarding the selection and definition of typing systems both for paternity testing and for forensic identification, the criteria for technical and biostatistical validation, as well as the use of mitochondrial DNA analysis are summarized and discussed. PMID:16875790

  4. Development of a forensic evidence protection kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, Brian; Kelly, Roy

    1999-02-01

    A kit has been developed for the preservation of vital forensic evidence on a suspect following a serious assault, murder or other offense where contamination may occur. This also includes the handling of firearms, explosives and/or drugs.

  5. Network Forensics: Notions and Challenges Ahmad Almulhem

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    University of Petroleum and Minerals Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia Tel: +966-3-860-7554, Fax: +966-3-860-3059 E attacks ensuring similar future attacks are thwarted. Additionally, network forensics is essential

  6. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  7. Contemporary practice in forensic odontology

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shalini; Agnihotri, Archana; Chandra, Akhilesh; Gupta, Om Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Forensic odontology plays a major role in the identification of those individuals who cannot be identified visually or by other means. The unique nature of dental anatomy and placement of custom restorations ensure accuracy when the techniques are correctly employed. It is evident that identification of victims in accidents and natural calamities is of utmost importance and is a challenging task. The teeth may also be used as weapons and under certain circumstances; they may provide information regarding the identity of the biter. Dental professionals play a major role in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize malpractices, negligence, fraud child abuse and also, identify an individual. In this article, we will discuss such evolvement of the subject. PMID:25328306

  8. Lead isotope ratios for bullets, forensic evaluation in a Bayesian paradigm.

    PubMed

    Sjåstad, Knut-Endre; Lucy, David; Andersen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Forensic science is a discipline concerned with collection, examination and evaluation of physical evidence related to criminal cases. The results from the activities of the forensic scientist may ultimately be presented to the court in such a way that the triers of fact understand the implications of the data. Forensic science has been, and still is, driven by development of new technology, and in the last two decades evaluation of evidence based on logical reasoning and Bayesian statistic has reached some level of general acceptance within the forensic community. Tracing of lead fragments of unknown origin to a given source of ammunition is a task that might be of interest for the Court. Use of data from lead isotope ratios analysis interpreted within a Bayesian framework has shown to be suitable method to guide the Court to draw their conclusion for such task. In this work we have used isotopic composition of lead from small arms projectiles (cal. .22) and developed an approach based on Bayesian statistics and likelihood ratio calculation. The likelihood ratio is a single quantity that provides a measure of the value of evidence that can be used in the deliberation of the court. PMID:26695235

  9. Distributed forensics and incident response in the enterprise M.I. Cohen*, D. Bilby, G. Caronni

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    Distributed forensics and incident response in the enterprise M.I. Cohen*, D. Bilby, G. Caronni Google Inc, Switzerland Keywords: Remote forensics Live forensics Digital forensics Incident response Information security Malware Memory forensics Distributed computing a b s t r a c t Remote live forensics has

  10. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: A Legal Study Concerning the Forensic Sciences Personnel. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Oliver, Jr.

    The place and function of forensic sciences personnel in American criminal law and court procedure, and the criteria used by criminal trial judges and lawyers to assess the value of forensic sciences personnel were investigated. Federal, state, Virgin Island, and Puerto Rican laws were examined, and a search of the medical and legal literature…

  11. Midwest Forensics Resource Center Project Summary June 2005

    SciTech Connect

    David Baldwin

    2005-06-01

    The mission of the MFRC Research and Development Program, is to provide technological advances in forensic science for the benefit of our regional partners as well as the forensic community at large. Key areas of forensic science need are identified through our interactions with our Midwest partners and our R&D advisory group, as well as through our participation in national meetings in forensic science. Under the sponsorship of the National Institute of Justice, the MFRC solicits proposals for the development of practical and useful technology, instrumentation, and methodology that address needs in areas related to forensic science and its application to operational crime laboratories. The MFRC facilitates proposal development by working to establish partnerships between researchers and our regional partners. The MFRC administers a peer-review of the proposals and then funds the selected projects at a cost of approximately $55,000 each, with a 12-month period of performance. The process for selection of these projects includes the following steps: (1) drafting of a call for proposals by MFRC staff, (2) review of the draft call by members of the R&D advisory committee, (3) review and approval of the call by NIJ, (4) issuance of the call to ISU, Ames Laboratory, regional partners, and research organizations, (5) receipt of proposals, (6) review of proposals by R&D advisory committee, (7) ranking and selection by MFRC staff using advisory committee reviews, with concurrence by NIJ, (8) notification of proposers, (9) receipt and review of progress reports by MFRC, (10) receipt and review of final reports by MFRC, R&D advisory committee, and NIJ. The decision to fund any specific project is based upon a peer-reviewed call-for-proposal system administered by the MFRC. The reviewers are crime laboratory specialists and scientists who are asked to rate the proposals on four criteria areas including: (1) relevance to the mission of the MFRC, (2) technical approach and procedures, (3) capabilities, teaming, and leveraging, and (4) implementation plan. A successful proposal demonstrates knowledge of the background for the research and related work in the field and includes a research plan with a defined plan to implement the technology to benefit our partners at the crime laboratories. The project summaries are meant to demonstrate the range of research funded by the MFRC including chemistry, DNA, and patterned evidence. The project summaries describe the forensic need the projects serve as well as the benefits derived from the technology. The summaries provide a brief description of the technology and the accomplishments to date. In addition, the collaboration with regional partners and the status of the implementation of the technology are highlighted. These technical summaries represent the development and implementation of practical and useful technology for crime laboratories that the MFRC hopes to accomplish.

  12. Printer Profiling for Forensics and Ballistics Department of Computer Science

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    Printer Profiling for Forensics and Ballistics Eric Kee Department of Computer Science Dartmouth College Hanover, NH 03755 erickee@cs.dartmouth.edu Hany Farid Department of Computer Science Dartmouth Processing]: Miscellaneous General Terms Security Keywords Digital Tampering, Digital Forensics, Document

  13. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  14. Principles-Driven ForensicAnalysis Sean Peisert

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    -resolution forensics, abstraction shortcuts, race conditions NSPW 2005 Lake Arrowhead CA USA © 2006 ACM 1." -Sherlock Holmes, A Scandal in Bohemia, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1891) Forensic analysis is the process

  15. International Forensic Investigations and the Human Rights of Adam Rosenblatt

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    of Argentina's right-wing military junta. Snow assembled a group of young students into the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team, the first organization devoted exclusively to applying forensic expertise

  16. INSTITUTE FOR FORENSIC SCIENCE AT TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY: The Institute for Forensic Science at Texas Tech University (TTU) invites applications for a Postdoctoral

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    1 INSTITUTE FOR FORENSIC SCIENCE AT TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY: The Institute for Forensic Science at Texas Tech University (TTU) invites applications for a Postdoctoral Fellow in Forensic Science (req analysis, forensic software). This position may also contribute to the Masters of Science in Forensic

  17. FORENSICS VS. ANTI-FORENSICS: A DECISION AND GAME THEORETIC Matthew C. Stamm, W. Sabrina Lin, and K. J. Ray Liu

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    FORENSICS VS. ANTI-FORENSICS: A DECISION AND GAME THEORETIC FRAMEWORK Matthew C. Stamm, W. Sabrina of forensic techniques to verify the authenticity of digital multimedia files. Though many of these techniques by anti-forensic operations designed to hide evidence of forgery. In response, new forensic techniques

  18. Estimating JPEG2000 compression for image forensics using Benford's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadir, Ghulam; Zhao, Xi; Ho, Anthony T. S.

    2010-05-01

    With the tremendous growth and usage of digital images nowadays, the integrity and authenticity of digital content is becoming increasingly important, and a growing concern to many government and commercial sectors. Image Forensics, based on a passive statistical analysis of the image data only, is an alternative approach to the active embedding of data associated with Digital Watermarking. Benford's Law was first introduced to analyse the probability distribution of the 1st digit (1-9) numbers of natural data, and has since been applied to Accounting Forensics for detecting fraudulent income tax returns [9]. More recently, Benford's Law has been further applied to image processing and image forensics. For example, Fu et al. [5] proposed a Generalised Benford's Law technique for estimating the Quality Factor (QF) of JPEG compressed images. In our previous work, we proposed a framework incorporating the Generalised Benford's Law to accurately detect unknown JPEG compression rates of watermarked images in semi-fragile watermarking schemes. JPEG2000 (a relatively new image compression standard) offers higher compression rates and better image quality as compared to JPEG compression. In this paper, we propose the novel use of Benford's Law for estimating JPEG2000 compression for image forensics applications. By analysing the DWT coefficients and JPEG2000 compression on 1338 test images, the initial results indicate that the 1st digit probability of DWT coefficients follow the Benford's Law. The unknown JPEG2000 compression rates of the image can also be derived, and proved with the help of a divergence factor, which shows the deviation between the probabilities and Benford's Law. Based on 1338 test images, the mean divergence for DWT coefficients is approximately 0.0016, which is lower than DCT coefficients at 0.0034. However, the mean divergence for JPEG2000 images compression rate at 0.1 is 0.0108, which is much higher than uncompressed DWT coefficients. This result clearly indicates a presence of compression in the image. Moreover, we compare the results of 1st digit probability and divergence among JPEG2000 compression rates at 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.9. The initial results show that the expected difference among them could be used for further analysis to estimate the unknown JPEG2000 compression rates.

  19. Development of a forensic identity SNP panel for Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Augustinus, Daniel; Gahan, Michelle E; McNevin, Dennis

    2015-07-01

    Genetic markers included in forensic identity panels must exhibit Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium (HWE and LE). "Universal" panels designed for global use can fail these tests in regional jurisdictions exhibiting high levels of genetic differentiation such as the Indonesian archipelago. This is especially the case where a single DNA database is required for allele frequency estimates to calculate random match probabilities (RMPs) and associated likelihood ratios (LRs). A panel of 65 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a reduced set of 52 SNPs have been selected from 15 Indonesian subpopulations in the HUGO Pan Asian SNP database using a SNP selection strategy that could be applied to any panel of forensic identity markers. The strategy consists of four screening steps: (1) application of a G test for HWE; (2) ranking for high heterozygosity; (3) selection for LE; and (4) selection for low inbreeding depression. SNPs in our Indonesian panel perform well in comparison to some other universal SNP and short tandem repeat (STR) panels as measured by Fisher's exact test for HWE and LE and Wright's F statistics. PMID:25104323

  20. 974 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 4, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2009 Election Audits Using a Trinomial Bound

    E-print Network

    Stark, Philip B.

    974 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 4, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2009 Election by the National Science Foundation under Graduate Research Fellowship 2007058607. The associate editor are with the Department of Statistics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3860 USA. Digital Object Identifier 10

  1. Age estimation in forensic anthropology: quantification of observer error in phase versus component-based methods.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Natalie R; Ramirez Montes, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess observer error in phase versus component-based scoring systems used to develop age estimation methods in forensic anthropology. A method preferred by forensic anthropologists in the AAFS was selected for this evaluation (the Suchey-Brooks method for the pubic symphysis). The Suchey-Brooks descriptions were used to develop a corresponding component-based scoring system for comparison. Several commonly used reliability statistics (kappa, weighted kappa, and the intraclass correlation coefficient) were calculated to assess observer agreement between two observers and to evaluate the efficacy of each of these statistics for this study. The linear weighted kappa was determined to be the most suitable measure of observer agreement. The results show that a component-based system offers the possibility for more objective scoring than a phase system as long as the coding possibilities for each trait do not exceed three states of expression, each with as little overlap as possible. PMID:25389078

  2. Nuclear Forensics: A Holistic Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Luksic, Andrzej T.; Friese, Judah I.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Starner, Jason R.; Wacker, John F.

    2010-08-11

    Discussions of nuclear forensics are often restricted to work performed by radio-chemists measuring nuclear material attributes in the laboratory. However, this represents only one portion of the work required to answer critical questions. Laboratory analysis results in measurements that need to be evaluated. The results of those evaluations must be put into their proper context in order for them to be useful to others and often require merging those results with additional information. This may contribute to attribution, by virtue of inclusion or exclusion. Finally, the end product must be presented such that appropriate actions can be taken. This could include prosecution by law enforcement, policy initiatives on the part of legislative bodies, or military action in the case of nuclear attack (whether that attack is preempted or not). Using the discovery of a sample of plutonium during cleanup activities at Hanford in 2004, we will step through the process of discovery (representing an interdiction), initial field analysis, laboratory analysis, data evaluation and merging with additional data (similar to law enforcement and/or all source), thereby providing an example of an integrated approach.

  3. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  4. Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Dallas David

    Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

  5. Development of forensic assay signatures for ebolaviruses.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Doggett, Norman; Wren, Melinda; Burr, Tom; Fenimore, P W; Hatcher, Eneida L; Bruno, William J; Li, Po-E; Stubben, Chris; Wolinsky, Murray

    2015-03-01

    Ebolaviruses are a diverse group of RNA viruses comprising five different species, four of which cause fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. Because of their high infectivity and lethality, ebolaviruses are considered major biothreat agents. Although detection assays exist, no forensic assays are currently available. Here, we report the development of forensic assays that differentiate ebolaviruses. We performed phylogenetic analyses and identified canonical SNPs for all species, major clades and isolates. TaqMan-MGB allelic discrimination assays based on these SNPs were designed, screened against synthetic RNA templates, and validated against ebolavirus genomic RNAs. A total of 45 assays were validated to provide 100% coverage of the species and variants with additional resolution at the isolate level. These assays enabled accurate forensic analysis on 4 "unknown" ebolaviruses. Unknowns were correctly classified to species and variant. A goal of providing resolution below the isolate level was not successful. These high-resolution forensic assays allow rapid and accurate genotyping of ebolaviruses for forensic investigations. PMID:25677086

  6. Journal of Forensic Identification 60 / 61 (1), 2011

    E-print Network

    Yu, Chen

    ] and examinations may be subject to extra-examination biases [4­6]. Forensic comparative examinations are visuallyJournal of Forensic Identification 60 / 61 (1), 2011 1 Department of Psychological and Brain. #12;Journal of Forensic Identification 61 (1), 2011 \\ 61 Introduction Latent print examinations

  7. Use of NGS for forensic applications Mitochondrial whole genome analysis

    E-print Network

    Use of NGS for forensic applications · Mitochondrial whole genome analysis ­ Potential for improved within STRs identify `sub-alleles' · Forensically relevant SNPs: newer human identity applications-parallel/high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies provide the ability to directly sequence forensically relevant

  8. A MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR FORENSIC ANALYSIS Ovidiu Ghita1

    E-print Network

    Whelan, Paul F.

    A MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR FORENSIC ANALYSIS Ovidiu Ghita1 , René Gapert2 , Laura Monks1 , Jason Forensic Anthropology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, University College Dublin remains are analysed by forensic anthropologists in order to draw conclusions about the probable identity

  9. CRJ 311R: Forensic Science Number of Credits 3

    E-print Network

    CRJ 311R: Forensic Science Number of Credits 3 Instructor Breanne Jones Catalog Description/Materials Saferstein, Richard. Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science. 11th ed. Upper Saddle River will be able to · discuss the historical developments and landmarks of forensic science, including how

  10. MSIS 4243: Digital Forensic Analysis Spring Semester 2015

    E-print Network

    : Required: Digital Evidence and Computer Crime, Third Edition: Forensic Science, Computers, and the Internet understanding of the domain of digital forensic science. This class will be a blended mix of lecture and selfMSIS 4243: Digital Forensic Analysis Spring Semester 2015 Sections: MSIS 4243.001 M, 4:30 ­ 7

  11. 2nd International Workshop on Automated Forensic Handwriting

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Thomas C.

    increasing gap between the demands of Forensic Handwriting Experts (FHEs) and the computer science community examination systems to be directly applicable to the forensic cases. This is because the computer science science experts under one roof. The 2nd International Workshop and Tutorial on Automated Forensic

  12. The Effects of Forensics Training on Verbal Aggression and Argumentativeness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Kent R.; Dorff, Todd

    A study focused on the effects of forensic participation on two specific traits--argumentativeness and verbal aggression. Two hundred eighty-one high school forensic students participating at a large western forensic tournament in the beginning of the 1990 academic year completed D. A. Infante's Argumentative and Verbal Aggression Scales. Results…

  13. Computer Forensics: Is It the Next Hot IT Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Victor G.; Revels, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Digital Forensics is not just the recovery of data or information from computer systems and their networks. It is not a procedure that can be accomplished by software alone, and most important, it is not something that can be accomplished by other than a trained IT forensic professional. Digital Forensics is an emerging science and was developed…

  14. Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

  15. Setting Course: The Case for the Credentialing of Forensic Interviewers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Mike; Vieth, Victor I.; Campos, Hector M.

    2010-01-01

    The article provides a history of efforts to develop a credentialing or certification process for forensic interviewers and reviews the multitiered credentialing process offered by the National Association of Certified Child Forensic Interviewers. The authors argue the benefits of a credentialing process for forensic interviewers and respond to…

  16. Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    "Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics to…

  17. Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedic Sciences

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedic Sciences BANDO N. 1 of the Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedic Sciences Given the art. Law 24 of 30 of the Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedic Sciences on the 27.07.2011 sitting

  18. Investigating the Implications of Virtual Machine Introspection for Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Bishop, Matt

    Investigating the Implications of Virtual Machine Introspection for Digital Forensics Kara Nance bishop@cs.ucdavis.edu Abstract-- Researchers and practitioners in computer forensics currently must base. If the system is active, the kernel and programs used by the forensic investigators are likely to influence

  19. UNDETECTABLE IMAGE TAMPERING THROUGH JPEG COMPRESSION ANTI-FORENSICS

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    UNDETECTABLE IMAGE TAMPERING THROUGH JPEG COMPRESSION ANTI-FORENSICS Matthew C. Stamm, Steven K of Maryland, College Park ABSTRACT Recently, a number of digital image forensic techniques have been developed, they do not address the possibility that anti-forensic opera- tions may be designed and used to hide

  20. Automatically Creating Realistic Targets for Digital Forensics Investigation Frank Adelstein

    E-print Network

    Richard III, Golden G.

    Automatically Creating Realistic Targets for Digital Forensics Investigation Frank Adelstein ATC@cs.uno.edu Abstract The need for computer forensics educa- tion continues to grow, as digital evidence is present in computer forensics is hands-on, realistic laboratory assignments. Creating detailed, realistic lab

  1. Digital forensics research: The next 10 years Simson L. Garfinkel

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    Digital forensics research: The next 10 years Simson L. Garfinkel Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, USA Keywords: Forensics Human subjects research Corpora Real data corpus Realistic data a b s t r a c t Today's Golden Age of computer forensics is quickly coming to an end. Without a clear strategy

  2. 28 CFR 90.14 - Forensic medical examination payment requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forensic medical examination payment requirement...Women Formula Grant Program § 90.14 Forensic medical examination payment requirement...incurs the full out-of-pocket costs of forensic medical examinations for victims...

  3. Computer Forensics: Training and Education Robert F. Erbacher

    E-print Network

    Erbacher, Robert F.

    Computer Forensics: Training and Education Robert F. Erbacher Department of Computer Science, LI 67 is an outgrowth of Erbacher's panel presentation at the 2002 Computer Forensic Workshop held in Moscow, ID. The concept behind this paper is to provide a discussion of the needs within the computer forensics curriculum

  4. Forensics Examination of Volatile System Data Using Virtual Introspection

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    Forensics Examination of Volatile System Data Using Virtual Introspection Brian Hay Kara Nance}@uaf.edu ABSTRACT While static examination of computer systems is an important part of many digital forensics significant risks and challenges to forensic investigators as observation techniques are generally intrusive

  5. TCOM 4243: Information Technology Forensics Spring Semester 2015

    E-print Network

    TCOM 4243: Information Technology Forensics Spring Semester 2015 Sections: TCOM 5243.001 M, 4: Required: Digital Evidence and Computer Crime, Third Edition: Forensic Science, Computers, and the Internet, Eoghan Casey, ISBN 978-0123742681 (~ $40) Recommended Reading: Digital Forensics with Open Source Tools

  6. INFORMATION THEORETICAL LIMIT OF COMPRESSION FORENSICS Xiaoyu Chu1

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    INFORMATION THEORETICAL LIMIT OF COMPRESSION FORENSICS Xiaoyu Chu1 , Yan Chen2 , Matthew C. Stamm#3 Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA 3 mstamm@coe.drexel.edu ABSTRACT Multimedia forensics concerns on extracting forensic informa- tion from suspicious multimedia contents. This information

  7. FORENSIC CONNOISSEURSHIP, JACKSON POLLOCK, AND THE AUTHENTIC EYE

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Richard

    FORENSIC CONNOISSEURSHIP, JACKSON POLLOCK, AND THE AUTHENTIC EYE by Francis V. O'Connor, Ph shall proceed to some general #12;Forensic Connoisseurship, Pollock, & The Authentic Eye - F. V. O, the training of authentic eyes and forensic connoisseurs -- concluding with a final thought on the historicity

  8. ABI 3500 Studies Forensics@NIST December 7, 2010

    E-print Network

    ABI 3500 Studies Forensics@NIST December 7, 2010 http;//www.cstl.nist.gov/biotech/strbase/NISTpub.htm 1 ABI 3500 Studies Carolyn R. (Becky) Hill John M. Butler Forensics @ NIST December 7, 2010 by forensic DNA community ­ ABI 310 ABI 3100 ABI 3130xl ABI 3500 · Instrumentation and experience at NIST

  9. 28 CFR 90.14 - Forensic medical examination payment requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Forensic medical examination payment requirement...Women Formula Grant Program § 90.14 Forensic medical examination payment requirement...incurs the full out-of-pocket costs of forensic medical examinations for victims...

  10. Computational Forensics: Towards Hybrid-Intelligent Crime Investigation Katrin Franke

    E-print Network

    Computational Forensics: Towards Hybrid-Intelligent Crime Investigation Katrin Franke Norwegian become important tools for performing certain forensic functions. Yet, knowledge and intuition methods in forensics. The state of the art is described, some practical examples are given and a viewpoint

  11. 28 CFR 90.14 - Forensic medical examination payment requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Forensic medical examination payment requirement...Women Formula Grant Program § 90.14 Forensic medical examination payment requirement...incurs the full out-of-pocket costs of forensic medical examinations for victims...

  12. A COST-EFFECTIVE DIGITAL FORENSICS INVESTIGATION MODEL

    E-print Network

    Overill, Richard E.

    i #12;ii #12;Chapter 1 A COST-EFFECTIVE DIGITAL FORENSICS INVESTIGATION MODEL R.E. Overill, M. Kwan the perspective of a digital investigation, it is the duty of digital investigators or forensic examiners feasible or indeed neces- sary for forensic examiners to retrieve all the related digital traces

  13. Computer Forensics In Forensis # Sean Peisert + and Matt Bishop #

    E-print Network

    Bishop, Matt

    Computer Forensics In Forensis # Sean Peisert + and Matt Bishop # Department of Computer Science forensic systems, models, and terminology in very di#er­ ent ways. They often make incompatible assumptions, and present forensic data. This is problematic, because these fields are related, and results from one can

  14. Forensically Determining the Order of Signal Processing Operations

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    Forensically Determining the Order of Signal Processing Operations Matthew C. Stamm #1 , Xiaoyu ChuMaryland, College Park, MD, USA 2 cxygrace@umd . com, 3 kj rl iu@umd . edu Abstract-Currently, many forensic manipulated a signal. In this paper, we propose a new forensic detection framework that can be used determine

  15. Computer Forensics: Training and Education Robert F. Erbacher

    E-print Network

    Erbacher, Robert F.

    Computer Forensics: Training and Education Robert F. Erbacher Department of Computer Science Utah is an outgrowth of Erbacher's panel presentation at the 2002 Computer Forensic Workshop held in Moscow, ID. The concept behind this paper is to provide a discussion of the needs within the computer forensics curriculum

  16. Remarks on forensically interesting Sony Playstation 3 console features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugs, Gunnar; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals with forensically interesting features of the Sony Playstation 3 game console. The construction and the internal structure are analyzed more precisely. Interesting forensic features of the operating system and the file system are presented. Differences between a PS3 with and without jailbreak are introduced and possible forensic attempts when using an installed Linux are discussed.

  17. Boston University, Biomedical Forensic Sciences DNA Mixture Analysis Training Tool

    E-print Network

    Boston University, Biomedical Forensic Sciences DNA Mixture Analysis Training Tool NIJ Conference, 2012 Funded by: NIJ Forensic Science Training Development and Delivery Program NIJ Grant # 2008-DN-BX-K158, awarded to Biomedical Forensic Science Program at Boston University School of Medicine #12;DNA

  18. Digital Forensics: Defining a Research Agenda Department of Computer Science

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    Digital Forensics: Defining a Research Agenda Kara Nance Department of Computer Science University@cs.ucdavis.edu Abstract While many fields have well-defined research agendas, evolution of the field of digital forensics as the result of a research and development plan. In June, 2008 a group of digital forensics researchers

  19. Forensic DNA Testing: John M. Butler, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    1 Forensic DNA Testing: Beyond CSI John M. Butler, Ph.D. National Institute of Standards and Technology Rockville Science Center May 19, 2009 Unfortunately, current DNA testing cannot be performed Interest in Forensic DNA Typing · At the age of 15, I decided to pursue a career in forensic science

  20. Multidisciplinary--B.S. Forensic Science (2015-2016)

    E-print Network

    Bier, Martin

    Anthropology (3,1) (RP: Biology course or consent of instructor) ANTH 3026 Forensic Anthropology (3) (P: ANTHMultidisciplinary--B.S. Forensic Science (2015-2016) 4/2015 FOUNDATIONS CURRICULUM REQUIREMENTS ADVISOR: #12;Multidisciplinary--B.S. Forensic Science (2015-2016) CORE (81 hrs) BIOLOGY (17 s.h.) BIOL

  1. Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist

    PubMed Central

    Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D.; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C.; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public. PMID:23162478

  2. On compensation of mismatched recording conditions in the Bayesian approach for forensic automatic speaker recognition.

    PubMed

    Botti, F; Alexander, A; Drygajlo, A

    2004-12-01

    This paper deals with a procedure to compensate for mismatched recording conditions in forensic speaker recognition, using a statistical score normalization. Bayesian interpretation of the evidence in forensic automatic speaker recognition depends on three sets of recordings in order to perform forensic casework: reference (R) and control (C) recordings of the suspect, and a potential population database (P), as well as a questioned recording (QR) . The requirement of similar recording conditions between suspect control database (C) and the questioned recording (QR) is often not satisfied in real forensic cases. The aim of this paper is to investigate a procedure of normalization of scores, which is based on an adaptation of the Test-normalization (T-norm) [2] technique used in the speaker verification domain, to compensate for the mismatch. Polyphone IPSC-02 database and ASPIC (an automatic speaker recognition system developed by EPFL and IPS-UNIL in Lausanne, Switzerland) were used in order to test the normalization procedure. Experimental results for three different recording condition scenarios are presented using Tippett plots and the effect of the compensation on the evaluation of the strength of the evidence is discussed. PMID:15639552

  3. [Fatal skiing accidents: a forensic analysis taking the example of Salzburg].

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sebastian N; Keller, Thomas; Grove, Christina; Lochner, Stefanie; Monticelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The rising popularity of Alpine skiing in recent years has led to an increase of skiing accidents, some with fatal outcome. In this paper, all fatal skiing accidents from the autopsy material of the Institute of Forensic Medicine of the Paris Lodron University Salzburg were evaluated and compared with statistical data of the Alpine Police. In the wintertime of 2005/2006 until 2013/2014, 22 deadly skiing accidents were autopsied. The age of the male and female victims ranged between 12 and 71 years. The main cause of death was craniocerebral and chest trauma. A relevant blood alcohol concentration was detected in only one case. Together with trauma-biomechanical and technical experts, forensic medicine serves as a necessary clarification interface between the investigating authorities and the judiciary. Determining the cause and manner of death as well as reconstructing the accident is the main task of the forensic pathologist. The present study shows that in the county of Salzburg, only a small percentage of fatal skiing accidents is evaluated from a forensic and trauma-biomechanical point of view. Thus the possibilities of an interdisciplinary accident analysis are not always fully utilized. PMID:26419087

  4. Application of STR markers in wildlife forensic casework involving Australian black-cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus spp.).

    PubMed

    White, Nicole E; Dawson, Rick; Coghlan, Megan L; Tridico, Silvana R; Mawson, Peter R; Haile, James; Bunce, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Parrots and cockatoos are highly prized aviary birds and the demands for such species has fuelled their illegal trade and harvest from the wild. Here we report on three forensic case studies involving black-cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus spp.) endemic to Australia. These cases involve suspected poaching and illegal killing of endangered red- and white-tailed black-cockatoos. Through the prior development of 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci and population databases for white- and red-tailed black-cockatoos, the tools are available to conduct high-resolution paternity and individual identity testing. In one case, we matched a red-tailed black-cockatoo nestling to a tree hollow from which it was poached through the use of DNA from eggshell recovered from the nest. For the second case, we utilized our provenance population database (nest sites), and identified the kinship and geographic origin of a white-tailed black-cockatoo, which was illegally harvested from the wild. The third case determined the number individual white-tailed black-cockatoos allegedly shot at a fruit grower's orchard from body part remains. These genetic investigations highlight the significance and statistical confidence of DNA profiling and associated databases for endangered taxa, such as exotic birds. Our cockatoo population databases are the first of their kind in Australia, and demonstrate the efficacy of such approaches to identify such illegal activity. With a robust set of genetic markers and methodologies in place, we aim to broaden our population databases to include other cockatoo species of conservation concern. PMID:22101117

  5. Forensic terrestrial photogrammetry from a single image.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Aguilera, Diego; Gomez-Lahoz, Javier

    2009-11-01

    Forensic terrestrial photogrammetry is one of the most valuable and low-cost resources of spatial data available today. Due to the ephemeral crime scene characteristics, these photographs can often capture information that is never to be seen again. This paper presents a novelty approach for the documentation, analysis, and visualization of crime scenes for which only a single perspective image is available. The photogrammetric process consists of a few well-known steps in close-range photogrammetry: features extraction, vanishing points computation, camera self-calibration, 3D metric reconstruction, dimensional analysis, and interactive visualization. Likewise, the method incorporates a quality control of the different steps accomplished sequentially. As a result, several cases of study are presented in the experimental results section in order to test their viability. The full approach can be applied easily through the free software, sv3DVision, which has been evaluated by a number of police officers, forensic scientists, and forensic educators satisfactorily. PMID:19804526

  6. Topographies of forensic practice in Imperial Germany.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the topography and "cultural machinery" of forensic jurisdictions in Imperial Germany. It locates the sites at which boundary disputes between psychiatric and legal professionals arose and explores the strategies and practices that governed the division of expert labor between them. It argues that the over-determined paradigms of 'medicalization' and 'biologization' have lost much of their explanatory force and that historians need to refocus their attention on the institutional and administrative configuration of forensic practices in Germany. After first sketching the statutory context of those practices, the article explores how contentious jurisdictional negotiations pitted various administrative, financial, public security, and scientific interests against one another. The article also assesses the contested status of psychiatric expertise in the courtroom, as well as post-graduate forensic psychiatric training courses and joint professional organizations, which drew the two professional communities closer together and mediated their jurisdictional disputes. PMID:24125958

  7. Plant Pathogen Forensics: Capabilities, Needs, and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, J.; Bender, C.; Budowle, B.; Cobb, W. T.; Gold, S. E.; Ishimaru, C. A.; Luster, D.; Melcher, U.; Murch, R.; Scherm, H.; Seem, R. C.; Sherwood, J. L.; Sobral, B. W.; Tolin, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    A biological attack on U.S. crops, rangelands, or forests could reduce yield and quality, erode consumer confidence, affect economic health and the environment, and possibly impact human nutrition and international relations. Preparedness for a crop bioterror event requires a strong national security plan that includes steps for microbial forensics and criminal attribution. However, U.S. crop producers, consultants, and agricultural scientists have traditionally focused primarily on strategies for prevention and management of diseases introduced naturally or unintentionally rather than on responding appropriately to an intentional pathogen introduction. We assess currently available information, technologies, and resources that were developed originally to ensure plant health but also could be utilized for postintroduction plant pathogen forensics. Recommendations for prioritization of efforts and resource expenditures needed to enhance our plant pathogen forensics capabilities are presented. PMID:16760310

  8. Tools and techniques for Network Forensics

    E-print Network

    Meghanathan, Natarajan; Moore, Loretta A

    2010-01-01

    Network forensics deals with the capture, recording and analysis of network events in order to discover evidential information about the source of security attacks in a court of law. This paper discusses the different tools and techniques available to conduct network forensics. Some of the tools discussed include: eMailTrackerPro to identify the physical location of an email sender; Web Historian to find the duration of each visit and the files uploaded and downloaded from the visited website; packet sniffers like Etherea to capture and analyze the data exchanged among the different computers in the network. The second half of the paper presents a survey of different IP traceback techniques like packet marking that help a forensic investigator to identify the true sources of the attacking IP packets. We also discuss the use of Honeypots and Honeynets that gather intelligence about the enemy and the tools and tactics of network intruders.

  9. A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

    2010-08-11

    The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

  10. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Susmita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences. This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites. There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids. This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology. PMID:26604508

  11. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession. A Survey of Educational Offerings in the Forensic Sciences. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kenneth S.; And Others

    This survey of the educational offerings in the Forensic Sciences was initiated to identify institutions and agencies offering educational courses and/or programs in the forensic sciences and to evaluate the availability of these programs. The information gathered by surveying members of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences reveals that…

  12. Statistical relationship between surface PM10 concentration and aerosol optical depth over the Sahel as a function of weather type, using neural network methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahi, H.; Marticorena, B.; Thiria, S.; Chatenet, B.; Schmechtig, C.; Rajot, J. L.; Crepon, M.

    2013-12-01

    work aims at assessing the capability of passive remote-sensed measurements such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) to monitor the surface dust concentration during the dry season in the Sahel region (West Africa). We processed continuous measurements of AODs and surface concentrations for the period (2006-2010) in Banizoumbou (Niger) and Cinzana (Mali). In order to account for the influence of meteorological condition on the relationship between PM10 surface concentration and AOD, we decomposed the mesoscale meteorological fields surrounding the stations into five weather types having similar 3-dimensional atmospheric characteristics. This classification was obtained by a clustering method based on nonlinear artificial neural networks, the so-called self-organizing map. The weather types were identified by processing tridimensional fields of meridional and zonal winds and air temperature obtained from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output centered on each measurement station. Five similar weather types have been identified at the two stations. Three of them are associated with the Harmattan flux; the other two correspond to northward inflow of the monsoon flow at the beginning or the end of the dry season. An improved relationship has been found between the surface PM10 concentrations and the AOD by using a dedicated statistical relationship for each weather type. The performances of the statistical inversion computed on the test data sets show satisfactory skills for most of the classes, much better than a linear regression. This should permit the inversion of the mineral dust concentration from AODs derived from satellite observations over the Sahel.

  13. Elementary! A Nuclear Forensics Workshop Teaches Vital Skills to International Practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Cornelia P.; Minnema, Lindsay T.

    2014-04-01

    The article describes the Nuclear Forensics Workshop sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) and hosted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory October 28-November 8, 2013 in Richland,Washington. Twenty-six participants from 10 countries attended the workshop. Experts from from Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Pacific Northwest national laboratories collaborated with an internationally recognized cadre of experts from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and other U.S. agencies, IAEA, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the United Kingdom Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), and the European Union Joint Research Center Institute for Transuranium Elements, to train practitioners in basic methodologies of nuclear forensic examinations.

  14. Location tracking forensics on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Stefan; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    The spread of navigation devices has increased significantly over the last 10 years. With the help of the current development of even smaller navigation receiver units it is to navigate with almost any current smart phone. Modern navigation systems are no longer limited to satellite navigation, but use current techniques, e.g. WLAN localization. Due to the increased use of navigation devices their relevance to forensic investigations has risen rapidly. Because navigation, for example with navigation equipment and smartphones, have become common place these days, also the amount of saved navigation data has risen rapidly. All of these developments lead to a necessary forensic analysis of these devices. However, there are very few current procedures for investigating of navigation devices. Navigation data is forensically interesting because by the position of the devices in most cases the location and the traveled path of the owner can be reconstructed. In this work practices for forensic analysis of navigation devices are developed. Different devices will be analyzed and it is attempted, by means of forensic procedures to restore the traveled path of the mobile device. For analysis of the various devices different software and hardware is used. There will be presented common procedures for securing and testing of mobile devices. Further there will be represented the specials in the investigation of each device. The different classes considered are GPS handhelds, mobile navigation devices and smartphones. It will be attempted, wherever possible, to read all data of the device. The aim is to restore complete histories of the navigation data and to forensically study and analyze these data. This is realized by the usage of current forensic software e.g. TomTology or Oxygen Forensic Suite. It is also attempted to use free software whenever possible. Further alternative methods are used (e.g. rooting) to access locked data of the unit. To limit the practical work the data extraction is focused on the frequently used device sample of a specific class, as the procedure for many groups of devices can be similar. In the present work a Garmin Dakota 10, a TomTom GO 700, an iPhone 4 (iOS) and a Samsung Galaxy S Plus (Android) is used because they have a wide circulation.

  15. Simulation Detection in Handwritten Documents by Forensic Document Examiners.

    PubMed

    Kam, Moshe; Abichandani, Pramod; Hewett, Tom

    2015-07-01

    This study documents the results of a controlled experiment designed to quantify the abilities of forensic document examiners (FDEs) and laypersons to detect simulations in handwritten documents. Nineteen professional FDEs and 26 laypersons (typical of a jury pool) were asked to inspect test packages that contained six (6) known handwritten documents written by the same person and two (2) questioned handwritten documents. Each questioned document was either written by the person who wrote the known documents, or written by a different person who tried to simulate the writing of the person who wrote the known document. The error rates of the FDEs were smaller than those of the laypersons when detecting simulations in the questioned documents. Among other findings, the FDEs never labeled a questioned document that was written by the same person who wrote the known documents as "simulation." There was a significant statistical difference between the responses of the FDEs and layperson for documents without simulations. PMID:26190151

  16. Counter-forensics in machine learning based forgery detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Francesco; Poggi, Giovanni; Roli, Fabio; Sansone, Carlo; Verdoliva, Luisa

    2015-03-01

    With the powerful image editing tools available today, it is very easy to create forgeries without leaving visible traces. Boundaries between host image and forgery can be concealed, illumination changed, and so on, in a naive form of counter-forensics. For this reason, most modern techniques for forgery detection rely on the statistical distribution of micro-patterns, enhanced through high-level filtering, and summarized in some image descriptor used for the final classification. In this work we propose a strategy to modify the forged image at the level of micro-patterns to fool a state-of-the-art forgery detector. Then, we investigate on the effectiveness of the proposed strategy as a function of the level of knowledge on the forgery detection algorithm. Experiments show this approach to be quite effective especially if a good prior knowledge on the detector is available.

  17. Forensic Analysis of Venezuelan Elections during the Chávez Presidency

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Raúl; Hidalgo, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Hugo Chávez dominated the Venezuelan electoral landscape since his first presidential victory in 1998 until his death in 2013. Nobody doubts that he always received considerable voter support in the numerous elections held during his mandate. However, the integrity of the electoral system has come into question since the 2004 Presidential Recall Referendum. From then on, different sectors of society have systematically alleged electoral irregularities or biases in favor of the incumbent party. We have carried out a thorough forensic analysis of the national-level Venezuelan electoral processes held during the 1998–2012 period to assess these complaints. The second-digit Benford's law and two statistical models of vote distributions, recently introduced in the literature, are reviewed and used in our case study. In addition, we discuss a new method to detect irregular variations in the electoral roll. The outputs obtained from these election forensic tools are examined taking into account the substantive context of the elections and referenda under study. Thus, we reach two main conclusions. Firstly, all the tools uncover anomalous statistical patterns, which are consistent with election fraud from 2004 onwards. Although our results are not a concluding proof of fraud, they signal the Recall Referendum as a turning point in the integrity of the Venezuelan elections. Secondly, our analysis calls into question the reliability of the electoral register since 2004. In particular, we found irregular variations in the electoral roll that were decisive in winning the 50% majority in the 2004 Referendum and in the 2012 Presidential Elections. PMID:24971462

  18. Massively parallel sequencing of forensically relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms using TruSeq™ forensic amplicon.

    PubMed

    Warshauer, David H; Davis, Carey P; Holt, Cydne; Han, Yonmee; Walichiewicz, Paulina; Richardson, Tom; Stephens, Kathryn; Jager, Anne; King, Jonathan; Budowle, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The TruSeq™ Forensic Amplicon library preparation protocol, originally designed to attach sequencing adapters to chromatin-bound DNA for chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (TruSeq™ ChIP-Seq), was used here to attach adapters directly to amplicons containing markers of forensic interest. In this study, the TruSeq™ Forensic Amplicon library preparation protocol was used to detect 160 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including human identification SNPs (iSNPs), ancestry, and phenotypic SNPs (apSNPs) in 12 reference samples. Results were compared with those generated by a second laboratory using the same technique, as well as to those generated by whole genome sequencing (WGS). The genotype calls made using the TruSeq™ Forensic Amplicon library preparation protocol were highly concordant. The protocol described herein represents an effective and relatively sensitive means of preparing amplified nuclear DNA for massively parallel sequencing (MPS). PMID:25408291

  19. StatFund | Currently Funded Statistical Grants

    Cancer.gov

    This section links to statistical methodology grants that are in the Surveillance Research Program’s portfolio. There are other statistical methodology grants scattered around NCI and NIH; in particular, that National Institute for General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) and the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) have large statistical methodology portfolios.

  20. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA.

    PubMed

    Butler, John M

    2015-09-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. PMID:26164236

  1. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Butler, John M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. PMID:26164236

  2. Bridging The Gap: From Biometrics to Forensics

    E-print Network

    Bridging The Gap: From Biometrics to Forensics Anil K. Jain Michigan State University http://biometrics.cse.msu.edu February 2, 2015 1 #12;Outline 2 · Questions about identity · What is biometrics? · Why biometric recognition? · Automatic biometric recognition · Challenges · Bridging the gap #12;Bridging The Gap

  3. Automatic forensic face recognition from digital images.

    PubMed

    Peacock, C; Goode, A; Brett, A

    2004-01-01

    Digital image evidence is now widely available from criminal investigations and surveillance operations, often captured by security and surveillance CCTV. This has resulted in a growing demand from law enforcement agencies for automatic person-recognition based on image data. In forensic science, a fundamental requirement for such automatic face recognition is to evaluate the weight that can justifiably be attached to this recognition evidence in a scientific framework. This paper describes a pilot study carried out by the Forensic Science Service (UK) which explores the use of digital facial images in forensic investigation. For the purpose of the experiment a specific software package was chosen (Image Metrics Optasia). The paper does not describe the techniques used by the software to reach its decision of probabilistic matches to facial images, but accepts the output of the software as though it were a 'black box'. In this way, the paper lays a foundation for how face recognition systems can be compared in a forensic framework. The aim of the paper is to explore how reliably and under what conditions digital facial images can be presented in evidence. PMID:14964819

  4. Toward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    ad hoc, because applica- tions log it for debugging purposes (syslog) or because it "seems" important to help balance the usefulness of logged data against the practicality of performing both logging and auditing. Practical forensic analysis has traditionally traded off accuracy against the amount of data

  5. Forensic analysis of black coral (Order Antipatharia).

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Edgard O; Scanlan, Michael D; McClure, Pamela J; Baker, Barry W

    2012-03-10

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), discriminate analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and stereoscopic microscopy were used to separate black coral forensic evidence items from similarly appearing items manufactured from plastics, bovid keratin, and mangrove wood. In addition, novel observations were made of bromine and iodine relationships in black coral that have not been previously reported. PMID:21925814

  6. Prosecuting Assaultive Forensic and Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Kerri C.; Reddon, John R.; Chudleigh, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Inpatient assault of forensic and psychiatric staff is a complex and multifaceted issue. Hence, the consequences reported in the literature regarding prosecuting assaultive inpatients are quite variable. In this article, issues pertaining to the prosecution of violent inpatients are reviewed. Illustrative cases, challenges of prosecution,…

  7. Review of Forensic Tools for Smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahankhani, Hamid; Azam, Amir

    The technological capability of mobile devices in particular Smartphones makes their use of value to the criminal community as a data terminal in the facilitation of organised crime or terrorism. The effective targeting of these devices from criminal and security intelligence perspectives and subsequent detailed forensic examination of the targeted device will significantly enhance the evidence available to the law enforcement community. When phone devices are involved in crimes, forensic examiners require tools that allow the proper retrieval and prompt examination of information present on these devices. Smartphones that are compliant to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) standards, will maintains their identity and user's personal information on Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). Beside SIM cards, substantial amount of information is stored on device's internal memory and external memory modules. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the currently available forensic software tools that are developed to carry out forensic investigation of mobile devices and point to current weaknesses within this process.

  8. Online Database Coverage of Forensic Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Bonnie; Ifshin, Steven L.

    1984-01-01

    Online seaches of sample topics in the area of forensic medicine were conducted in the following life science databases: Biosis Previews, Excerpta Medica, Medline, Scisearch, and Chemical Abstracts Search. Search outputs analyzed according to criteria of recall, uniqueness, overlap, and utility reveal the need for a cross-database approach to…

  9. ADVANCED FORENSIC FORMAT: AN OPEN, EXTENSIBLE FORMAT

    E-print Network

    Malan, David J.

    . Malan, K. Dubec, C. Stevens and C. Pham Abstract This paper describes the Advanced Forensic Format (AFF). This paper also describes the Advanced Disk Imager (AImage), a new program for acquiring disk images for divorce. Police might raid a drug dealer's apartment and seize a computer that was used for contacting

  10. Perceptual expertise in forensic facial image comparison.

    PubMed

    White, David; Phillips, P Jonathon; Hahn, Carina A; Hill, Matthew; O'Toole, Alice J

    2015-09-01

    Forensic facial identification examiners are required to match the identity of faces in images that vary substantially, owing to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance. These identifications affect the course and outcome of criminal investigations and convictions. Despite calls for research on sources of human error in forensic examination, existing scientific knowledge of face matching accuracy is based, almost exclusively, on people without formal training. Here, we administered three challenging face matching tests to a group of forensic examiners with many years' experience of comparing face images for law enforcement and government agencies. Examiners outperformed untrained participants and computer algorithms, thereby providing the first evidence that these examiners are experts at this task. Notably, computationally fusing responses of multiple experts produced near-perfect performance. Results also revealed qualitative differences between expert and non-expert performance. First, examiners' superiority was greatest at longer exposure durations, suggestive of more entailed comparison in forensic examiners. Second, experts were less impaired by image inversion than non-expert students, contrasting with face memory studies that show larger face inversion effects in high performers. We conclude that expertise in matching identity across unfamiliar face images is supported by processes that differ qualitatively from those supporting memory for individual faces. PMID:26336174

  11. Developing Forensic Mental Healthcare in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Salize, Hans Joachim; Lavikainen, Juha; Seppänen, Allan; Gjocaj, Milazim

    2014-01-01

    In many economically struggling societies, forensic psychiatry is still in its initial developmental stages and thus forensic patients pose an ongoing challenge for the healthcare and juridical systems. In this article, we present the various issues and problems that arose when establishing the first forensic psychiatric institute in Kosovo – a country whose population has constantly been reported as suffering from a high psychiatric morbidity due to long-lasting traumatic experiences during the war of 1999. The implementation of a new forensic psychiatric institute in the developing mental healthcare system of Kosovo, still characterized by considerable shortages, required substantial effort on various levels. On the policy and financial level, it was made possible by a clear intent and coordinated commitment of all responsible national stakeholders and authorities, such as the Ministries of Health and Justice, and by the financial contribution of the European Commission. Most decisive in terms of the success of the project was capacity building in human resources, i.e., the recruitment and training of motivated staff. Training included essential clinical and theoretical issues as well as clearly defined standard operation procedures, guidelines, and checklists to aid daily routine work and the management of challenging situations. PMID:24779004

  12. Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Alease

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)

  13. J Forensic Sci, May 2005, Vol. 50, No. 3 Paper ID JFS2004181

    E-print Network

    . KEYWORDS: forensic science, forensic biology, forensic casework, deoxyribonucleic acid extraction, QiagenJ Forensic Sci, May 2005, Vol. 50, No. 3 Paper ID JFS2004181 Available online at: www Automated Instrument for DNA Extraction in Forensic Casework ABSTRACT: The Qiagen BioRobot EZ1 is a small

  14. Three Certificate Programs in Sponsored by the UWM Center for Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Three Certificate Programs in Sponsored by the UWM Center for Forensic Science www Investigation Forensic Toxicology Forensic Science Forensic Science #12;POLICE LINE DO Have you ever thought? The skills you acquire in Forensic Science Programs can be used at modern day crime scenes or anthropological

  15. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) 0706M Nonthesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) ­ 0706M Nonthesis Option Catalog Year 2011 Forensics 1 CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 CHS 5503 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Forensics Subtotal: Subtotal: Restricted Elective Set 1: Take 2 Computing Specialization Courses

  16. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Non-Thesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Non-Thesis Option Catalog Year 2014-2015 Students Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Forensics CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 Subtotal: Subtotal: Restricted Elective Set 1: Take 2 Computing

  17. CONCEALABILITY-RATE-DISTORTION TRADEOFF IN IMAGE COMPRESSION ANTI-FORENSICS

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    CONCEALABILITY-RATE-DISTORTION TRADEOFF IN IMAGE COMPRESSION ANTI-FORENSICS Xiaoyu Chu, Matthew C of techniques to forensically detect forgeries have been developed. Meanwhile, anti-forensic operations have been de- veloped to defeat forensic techniques. When anti-forensics is ap- plied, a forger must balance

  18. A generalized Benford's law for JPEG coefficients and its applications in image forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dongdong; Shi, Yun Q.; Su, Wei

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, a novel statistical model based on Benford's law for the probability distributions of the first digits of the block-DCT and quantized JPEG coefficients is presented. A parametric logarithmic law, i.e., the generalized Benford's law, is formulated. Furthermore, some potential applications of this model in image forensics are discussed in this paper, which include the detection of JPEG compression for images in bitmap format, the estimation of JPEG compression Qfactor for JPEG compressed bitmap image, and the detection of double compressed JPEG image. The results of our extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed statistical model.

  19. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-08-01

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. PMID:26101280

  20. A study of composite restorations as a tool in forensic identification

    PubMed Central

    Hemasathya, Bahavathi Ananthan; Balagopal, Sundaresan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Comparing ante-mortem and post-mortem dental data is a principal method of identification in forensic odontology. Radiographic images of amalgam have been used in dental forensics for identification due to their unique appearance. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether radio-opaque composite restorations have a potential for identification in forensic odontology. Materials and Methods: Thirty typodont mandibular first molar teeth were prepared with Class-II (proximo-occlusal) cavities and restored with a radio-opaque composite (Tetric N-Ceram). Two sets of standardized radiographs were taken from the 30 teeth, keeping the radiological parameters constant. One set of these 30 radiographs was named as SET 1. Ten randomly chosen radiographs from the other set and two other radiographs of Class-II composite restorations in typodont teeth constituted SET 2. Thirty dentally trained examiners were asked to match the 12 radiographic images of SET 2 with those of SET 1. Results: The results show that 15 examiners were able to correctly match all the 12 images. Statistical analysis was done using kappa statistical test. Conclusion: This study shows that, if the post-mortem radiographs are accurate duplicates of ante-mortem radiographs of composite restorations, then the shape of the composite restoration is unique and can be used for identification. PMID:23960413

  1. The role of university-based forensic clinics.

    PubMed

    Heilbrun, Kirk; Kelley, Sharon Messenheimer; Koller, Julie Present; Giallella, Christy; Peterson, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    As forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology have grown and matured, the range of specialized services provided by each has expanded. In addition to traditional services such as forensic mental health assessments in criminal, family, and civil contexts, forensic specialists are now involved in delivering services in the community that include (in the criminal justice context) assessment for diversion into specialized probation or problem-solving courts, rehabilitation needs upon reentry (including specialized parole), and risk assessment for particular populations such as sexual offenders. Specialized forensic treatment services include those provided to clients under the jurisdiction of problem-solving courts or parole/probation. Similar specialized assessment and treatment services may be provided for juveniles. The nature of such service needs underscores the importance of the university-based forensic clinic as one source of specialized forensic services in the community. Such clinics are based in universities, directed by supervising faculty, and offer services provided in part by forensic trainees (psychiatric residents and forensic fellows; psychology doctoral students, interns, and post-doctoral fellows). The structure and operations of such clinics are described, with different models provided. Implications for specialized training, forensic practice, and research are discussed. PMID:23631922

  2. Strengthen forensic entomology in court--the need for data exploration and the validation of a generalised additive mixed model.

    PubMed

    Baqué, Michèle; Amendt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Developmental data of juvenile blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are typically used to calculate the age of immature stages found on or around a corpse and thus to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval (PMI(min)). However, many of those data sets don't take into account that immature blow flies grow in a non-linear fashion. Linear models do not supply a sufficient reliability on age estimates and may even lead to an erroneous determination of the PMI(min). According to the Daubert standard and the need for improvements in forensic science, new statistic tools like smoothing methods and mixed models allow the modelling of non-linear relationships and expand the field of statistical analyses. The present study introduces into the background and application of these statistical techniques by analysing a model which describes the development of the forensically important blow fly Calliphora vicina at different temperatures. The comparison of three statistical methods (linear regression, generalised additive modelling and generalised additive mixed modelling) clearly demonstrates that only the latter provided regression parameters that reflect the data adequately. We focus explicitly on both the exploration of the data--to assure their quality and to show the importance of checking it carefully prior to conducting the statistical tests--and the validation of the resulting models. Hence, we present a common method for evaluating and testing forensic entomological data sets by using for the first time generalised additive mixed models. PMID:22370995

  3. Chain of evidence generation for contrast enhancement in digital image forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Messina, Giuseppe; Strano, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The quality of the images obtained by digital cameras has improved a lot since digital cameras early days. Unfortunately, it is not unusual in image forensics to find wrongly exposed pictures. This is mainly due to obsolete techniques or old technologies, but also due to backlight conditions. To extrapolate some invisible details a stretching of the image contrast is obviously required. The forensics rules to produce evidences require a complete documentation of the processing steps, enabling the replication of the entire process. The automation of enhancement techniques is thus quite difficult and needs to be carefully documented. This work presents an automatic procedure to find contrast enhancement settings, allowing both image correction and automatic scripting generation. The technique is based on a preprocessing step which extracts the features of the image and selects correction parameters. The parameters are thus saved through a JavaScript code that is used in the second step of the approach to correct the image. The generated script is Adobe Photoshop compliant (which is largely used in image forensics analysis) thus permitting the replication of the enhancement steps. Experiments on a dataset of images are also reported showing the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  4. 78 FR 12355 - Notice of Establishment of the National Commission on Forensic Science and Solicitation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...Establishment of the National Commission on Forensic Science and Solicitation of Applications...establishing the National Commission on Forensic Science. This notice establishes criteria...establishing the National Commission on Forensic Science (``Commission'')....

  5. 78 FR 40737 - Notification of Deletion of System of Records; Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ...Records; Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics & Training, National Enforcement Investigations...Center, Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics & Training at (303) 462-9051 or Tammy...Center, Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics & Training at (303) 462-9054,...

  6. 78 FR 12355 - Notice of Establishment of the National Commission on Forensic Science and Solicitation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... of Establishment of the National Commission on Forensic Science and Solicitation of Applications for... General will be establishing the National Commission on Forensic Science. This notice establishes criteria... experts; (c) developing proposed guidance concerning the intersection of forensic science and...

  7. Forensic analysis of social networking applications on mobile devices Noora Al Mutawa, Ibrahim Baggili, Andrew Marrington*

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    Forensic analysis of social networking applications on mobile devices Noora Al Mutawa, Ibrahim Baggili, Andrew Marrington* Advanced Cyber Forensics Research Laboratory, Zayed University, PO Box 19282, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Keywords: Mobile device forensics Social networking iPhone Android

  8. Forensic Anthropology Population Data Facial reconstruction: Soft tissue thickness values for South African black females

    E-print Network

    Frey, Pascal

    Forensic Anthropology Population Data Facial reconstruction: Soft tissue thickness values for South African black females D. Cavanagh, M. Steyn * Forensic Anthropology Research Centre, Department of Anatomy identification CT scan measurements Soft tissue thickness Population-specificity Forensic Anthropology Population

  9. SAPIENZA UNIVERSITY OF ROME DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMICAL, HISTOLOGICAL, FORENSIC MEDICINE AND ORTHOPEDIC

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    1 SAPIENZA ­ UNIVERSITY OF ROME DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMICAL, HISTOLOGICAL, FORENSIC MEDICINE of the Department Council of the Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedic position ("assegno di ricerca") at the Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine

  10. 28 CFR 115.121 - Evidence protocol and forensic medical examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Evidence protocol and forensic medical examinations. 115.121 ...§ 115.121 Evidence protocol and forensic medical examinations. (a...National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations,...

  11. Trace Analytical Techniques for Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, J.E.

    1999-04-28

    Over the history of the Savannah River Site, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has developed high sensitivity analytical capabilities in support of the Site's Environmental Monitoring Program and nuclear material protection process. Many of these techniques are applicable to the developing need for nuclear forensic analysis capabilities. Radiological and critically control procedures are in place at the SRTC, as well as clean room practices, to minimize the potential for a radiological evidentiary sample to contaminate personnel and the facility, as well as to minimize contaminating the sample thus rendering it useless by law enforcement agencies. Some of the trace analytical techniques available at the SRTC include ultra-low-level gamma and alpha spectrometry, high-sensitivity thermal ionization mass spectrometry, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and trace organic analyses. These techniques have been tested during a planned domestic smuggling exercise and in the analysis of an unknown sample.In the event of an interdiction involving the illegal use or movement of radioactive material by U.S. law enforcement agencies (local, state or federal) forensic analyses will be used in developing and building a legal case against the perpetrators. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a former nuclear production site currently conducting nuclear material stabilization missions, located in Aiken South Carolina, has a long history of performing trace analytical analyses for environmental monitoring. Many of these techniques are also applicable to nuclear forensic analyses. A summary of the trace analytical techniques used at the SRTC, which are applicable to Nuclear Forensics, is presented in this paper.Contamination control, of facilities and personnel involved in the analytical analyses, as well as preventing contamination of the sample, is a unique challenge for nuclear forensic analyses. A discussion of sample handling and contamination control procedures is included in this paper. Some of the applicable analytical techniques available at the SRTC for nuclear forensic analyses include: ultra-low-level gamma and alpha spectroscopy, high-sensitivity thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and trace organic analyses. Results from analyses of special nuclear material (SNM) standards, materials from nuclear smuggling exercises, and materials of unknown origin will be presented.

  12. [The use of emission spectrum analysis in the forensic medical expertise of gunshot wounds (experimental research)].

    PubMed

    Makarenko, T F; Luzanova, I S; Chirkova, O G

    1999-01-01

    Presents the methodology of experimental shots from various guns (n = 11) by common cartridges and of emission spectral analysis (ESA) which was used to study the regularities in deposition of "gunshot metals" at the site of gunshot injuries and to detect the characteristic differences in shooting with and without obstacles. Effects of some factors on deposition of metal components of gunshot products at the site of gunshot injuries are studied: type of gun, shell (with/without coating or semicoated), presence of obstacles, distance, and order of the shot. Results of studies are presented for some guns, which may be useful in forensic medical expert evaluations by means of ESA. PMID:10224918

  13. 1050 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 6, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2011 Anti-Forensics of Digital Image Compression

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    1050 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 6, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2011 Anti-Forensics of forensic techniques have been developed to verify the authen- ticity of digital images. Amongst the most compression fingerprints. Little consideration has been given, however, to anti-forensic techniques capable

  14. J.M. Butler Forensic DNA Keynote Address for College of County Prosecutors Association of New Jersey

    E-print Network

    ://www.state.nj.us/njsp/divorg/invest/dna-lab.html New Jersey State Police Office of Forensic Sciences Forensic ScienceForensic Science Computer Forensics: Computer Forensic Tool Testing (CFFT) Write Block for Forensic Sciences susan.ballou@nist.gov 301-975-8750 SRM 2461 Standard Casing In development #12;J

  15. Design and evaluation of a bioreactor with application to forensic burial environments.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Melissa A; Weisensee, Katherine E; Mikhailova, Elena A; Harman, Melinda K

    2015-12-01

    Existing forensic taphonomic methods lack specificity in estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in the period following active decomposition. New methods, such as the use of citrate concentration in bone, are currently being considered; however, determining the applicability of these methods in differing environmental contexts is challenging. This research aims to design a forensic bioreactor that can account for environmental factors known to impact decomposition, specifically temperature, moisture, physical damage from animals, burial depth, soil pH, and organic matter content. These forensically relevant environmental variables were characterized in a soil science context. The resulting metrics were soil temperature regime, soil moisture regime, slope, texture, soil horizon, cation exchange capacity, soil pH, and organic matter content. Bioreactor chambers were constructed using sterilized thin-walled polystyrene boxes housed in calibrated temperature units. Gravesoil was represented using mineral soil (Ultisols), and organic soil proxy for Histosols, horticulture mix. Gravesoil depth was determined using mineral soil horizons A and Bt2 to simulate surface scatter and shallow grave burial respectively. A total of fourteen different environmental conditions were created and controlled successfully over a 90-day experiment. These results demonstrate successful implementation and control of forensic bioreactor simulating precise environments in a single research location, rather than site-specific testing occurring in different geographic regions. Bone sections were grossly assessed for weathering characteristics, which revealed notable differences related to exposure to different temperature regimes and soil types. Over the short 90-day duration of this experiment, changes in weathering characteristics were more evident across the different temperature regimes rather than the soil types. Using this methodology, bioreactor systems can be created to replicate many different clandestine burial contexts, which will allow for the more rapid understanding of environmental effects on skeletal remains. PMID:26476697

  16. Alleged biological father incest: a forensic approach.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Vânia; Jardim, Patrícia; Taveira, Francisco; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo J; Magalhães, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Paternal incest is one of the most serious forms of intrafamilial sexual abuse with clinical, social, and legal relevance. A retrospective study was performed, based on forensic reports and judicial decisions of alleged cases of biological paternal incest of victims under 18 years old (n = 215) from 2003 to 2008. Results highlight that in a relevant number of cases: victims were female; the abuse begun at an early age with reiteration; the alleged perpetrator presented a history of sexual crimes against children; sexual practices were physically poorly intrusive, which associated with a forensic medical evaluation performed more than 72 h after the abuse, explain partially the absence of physical injuries or other evidence-these last aspects are different from extrafamilial cases. In conclusion, observations about paternal incest are likely to exacerbate the psychosocial consequences of the abuse and may explain the difficulty and delay in detect and disclose these cases. Few cases were legally prosecuted and convicted. PMID:24180349

  17. Combination of Face Regions in Forensic Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tome, Pedro; Fierrez, Julian; Vera-Rodriguez, Ruben; Ortega-Garcia, Javier

    2015-07-01

    This article presents an experimental analysis of the combination of different regions of the human face on various forensic scenarios to generate scientific knowledge useful for the forensic experts. Three scenarios of interest at different distances are considered comparing mugshot and CCTV face images using MORPH and SC face databases. One of the main findings is that inner facial regions combine better in mugshot and close CCTV scenarios and outer facial regions combine better in far CCTV scenarios. This means, that depending of the acquisition distance, the discriminative power of the facial regions change, having in some cases better performance than the full face. This effect can be exploited by considering the fusion of facial regions which results in a very significant improvement of the discriminative performance compared to just using the full face. PMID:26189995

  18. [Forensic aspects of gunshot suicides in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Meyer, Harald J; Kraus, Sybille

    2013-12-01

    Suicidal gunshot wounds are a common appearance in forensic casework. The main task of the coroner lies in the detection of typical pathomorphological correlates, thus differentiating between homicide, suicide and accident. Apart from characteristic bloodstain patterns on the gun and shooting hand, the localisation of the entrance wound and the position of the weapon, additional details such as family background or medical history are important aspects of forensic investigation. An uncommon choice of weaponry and its unusual morphological manifestation often complicate the examination and reconstruction of such cases. Furthermore, due to social stigmatisation, the possibility of secondary changes by relatives at the crime scene should be considered. In addition to autopsy findings, a careful crime scene investigation and bloodstain pattern analysis, a ballistic reconstruction can be an essential tool to gain knowledge of the shooting distance and position of the gun. PMID:23857247

  19. Videoconferencing and forensic mental health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Danny H; Chapman, Murray; Mullen, Paul E

    2008-01-01

    Videoconferencing is in common use in Australian forensic mental health services. It provides opportunities to link remote prisons, courts, and psychiatric clinics with distant specialist services, and enables a range of activities including assessment, treatment and feedback, expert testimony, education, and inter-service planning. These functions are acceptable to patients and clinicians, and in Australia videoconferencing minimizes disruption to small services and their patients, who might otherwise face lengthy journeys. In particular, marginalized patient groups, including indigenous people and prisoners, may receive better services. The evidence base supports use of videoconferencing despite a number of practical, legal, and clinical issues that may reduce its effectiveness compared with face-to-face assessments. Videoconferencing technologies are critical to effective forensic mental health services in Australia. PMID:18548513

  20. Spectroscopic analysis of bones for forensic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofanelli, Mirko; Pardini, Lorenzo; Borrini, Matteo; Bartoli, Fulvio; Bacci, Alessandra; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Pitzalis, Emanuela; Mascherpa, Marco Carlo; Legnaioli, Stefano; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Pagnotta, Stefano; de Holanda Cavalcanti, Gildo; Lezzerini, Marco; Palleschi, Vincenzo

    2014-09-01

    The elemental analysis of human bones can give information about the dietary habits of the deceased, especially in the last years of their lives, which can be useful for forensic studies. The most important requirement that must be satisfied for this kind of analysis is that the concentrations of analyzed elements are the same as ante mortem. In this work, a set of bones was analyzed using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and validated using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), in order to compare those two techniques and to investigate the effect of possible alterations in the elemental concentrations' proportion resulting from the treatment usually applied for preparing the bones for traditional forensic analysis. The possibility that elemental concentrations' changes would occur after accidental or intentional burning of the bones was also studied.

  1. Forensic science: the truth is out there

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Lynne D.

    2002-06-01

    Criminalistics, one of the many sub-divisions of forensic science, is an applied science in which items of evidence are analyzed to provide investigative information and scientific evidence to be used in courts of law. Laboratories associated with governmental public agencies are typically involved in criminal cases as opposed to civil cases, and those types of cases that fall within the jurisdiction of the particular agency. Common analytical divisions within criminalistics laboratories include blood alcohol testing, toxicology, narcotics, questioned documents, biology, firearms, latent fingerprints, physical and trace evidence sections. Specialized field investigative services may be provided in the areas of clandestine drug laboratories and major crimes (firearms, biology, trace, arson/explosives). Forensic science best practice requires the use of non-destructive testing whenever reasonably possible. Several technically difficult situations (bodies and evidence encased in cement and metal) are presented as a challenge to audience.

  2. Founding editorial--forensics and TheScientificWorld.

    PubMed

    Rowe, W

    2001-10-30

    At the beginning of a new millennium it seems a good idea to stop for a moment and take stock of the current state of forensic science. As a field of scientific research and scientific application, forensic science is a little more than a century old. Forensic science may be said to have begun in 1887 with the simultaneous publication of A. Conan Doyle's A Study in Scarlet and Hans Gross's Handbuch f1/4r Untersuchungsrichter. Conan Doyle's novel introduced to the world the character of Sherlock Holmes, whose literary career would popularize the use of physical evidence in criminal investigations. Gross's manual for examining magistrates suggests ways in which the expertise of chemists, biologists, geologists, and other natural scientists could contribute to investigations. Gross's book was translated into a number of languages and went through various updated editions during the course of the century. The intervening century saw the development and application of fingerprinting, firearm and tool mark identification, forensic chemistry, forensic biology, forensic toxicology, forensic odontology, forensic pathology, and forensic engineering. Increasingly, the judicial systems of the industrial nations of the world have come to rely upon the expertise of scientists in a variety of disciplines. In most advanced countries, virtually all criminal prosecutions now involve the presentation of scientific testimony. This has had the beneficial effect of diminishing the reliance of courts on eyewitness testimony and defendant confessions. PMID:12805857

  3. Are UK undergraduate Forensic Science degrees fit for purpose?

    PubMed

    Welsh, Charles; Hannis, Marc

    2011-09-01

    In October 2009 Skills for Justice published the social research paper 'Fit for purpose?: Research into the provision of Forensic Science degree programmes in UK Higher Education Institutions.' The research engaged employers representing 95% of UK Forensic Science providers and 79% of UK universities offering Forensic Science or Crime Scene degree programmes. In addition to this, the research collected the views of 430 students studying these degrees. In 2008 there were approximately 9000 people working in the Forensic Science sector in the UK. The research found that the numbers of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees in the UK have more than doubled since 2002-03, from 2191 in to 5664 in 2007-08. Over the same period there were twice as many females as males studying for these degrees. The research concluded that Forensic Science degree programmes offered by UK universities were of a good quality and they provided the student with a positive learning experience but the content was not relevant for Forensic Science employers. This echoed similar research by the former Government Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills on graduates from wider science, technology, engineering and mathematics degree programmes. The research also found that 75% of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees expected to have a career in the Forensic Science sector, meaning that ensuring these courses are relevant for employers is a key challenge for universities. This paper reflects on the original research and discusses the implications in light of recent government policy. PMID:21889111

  4. Forensic epidemiology: a method for investigating and quantifying specific causation.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Steven A; Freeman, Michael D

    2014-06-01

    The field of forensic epidemiology was initially introduced as a systematic approach to the investigation of acts of bioterrorism. In recent years, however, the applications of forensic epidemiology have expanded greatly, covering a wide range of medicolegal issues routinely encountered in both criminal and civil court settings. Forensic epidemiology provides a method of evaluating causation in groups and individuals based in the application of the Hill Criteria, with conclusions given in terms of relative or comparative risk, or as a Probability of Causation. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief overview of the methods and applications of forensic epidemiology. PMID:24272789

  5. [Development of forensic psychiatry in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Milovanovi?, Srdjan; Jovanovi?, Aleksandar; Jasovi?-Gasi?, Miroslava; Ilankovi?, Nikola; Dunji?, Dusan; Laki?, Aneta; Djuki?-Dejanovi?, Slavica; Nenadovi?, Milutin; Randjelovi?, Dragisa; Milovanovi?, Dimitrije

    2013-01-01

    The development of legislation in the field of mental health in our region is linked with the emergence and development of the oldest psychiatric hospitals in Serbia.The principle that the mentally ill who committed a criminal offense need to be placed in a psychiatric hospital instead of a prison was introduced at the same time as in the most developed European countries. The founders of the Serbian forensic psychiatry, Dr. Jovan Dani?, Dr.Vojislav Suboti? Jr. and Dr. Dusan Suboti?, were all trained at the first Serbian Psychiatric Hospital ("Home for the Unsound of Mind") that was founded in 1861 in the part of Belgrade called Guberevac. Their successors were psychiatric enthusiasts Prof. Dr.Vladimir F.Vuji? and Prof. Dr. Laza Stanojevi?. A formal establishment of the School of Medicine of Belgrade, with acquirement of new experience and positive shifts within this field, based on the general act of the University in 1932, led to the formation of the Council of the School of Medicine, which, as a collective body passed expert opinions. Thus, the first Forensic Medicine Committee of the School of Medicine was formed and started its activities in 1931 when Forensic Medicine Committee Regulations were accepted. After the World War II prominent educators in the field of mental health, and who particularly contributed to further development of forensic psychiatry in Serbia were Prof. Dr. Uros Jeki?, Prof Dr. Dusan Jevti?, Dr. Stevan Jovanovi?, Prof. Dr. Borislav Kapamadzija, Prof. Dr. Maksim Sterni?, Prof. Dr. Josif Vesel and Prof. Dr. Dimitrije Milovanovi?. PMID:23858819

  6. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations. PMID:21337957

  7. Advancing the science of forensic data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Timothy S.

    2002-07-01

    Many individual elements comprise a typical forensics process. Collecting evidence, analyzing it, and using results to draw conclusions are all mutually distinct endeavors. Different physical locations and personnel are involved, juxtaposed against an acute need for security and data integrity. Using digital technologies and the Internet's ubiquity, these diverse elements can be conjoined using digital data as the common element. This result is a new data management process that can be applied to serve all elements of the community. The first step is recognition of a forensics lifecycle. Evidence gathering, analysis, storage, and use in legal proceedings are actually just distinct parts of a single end-to-end process, and thus, it is hypothesized that a single data system that can also accommodate each constituent phase using common network and security protocols. This paper introduces the idea of web-based Central Data Repository. Its cornerstone is anywhere, anytime Internet upload, viewing, and report distribution. Archives exist indefinitely after being created, and high-strength security and encryption protect data and ensure subsequent case file additions do not violate chain-of-custody or other handling provisions. Several legal precedents have been established for using digital information in courts of law, and in fact, effective prosecution of cyber crimes absolutely relies on its use. An example is a US Department of Agriculture division's use of digital images to back up its inspection process, with pictures and information retained on secure servers to enforce the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act. Forensics is a cumulative process. Secure, web-based data management solutions, such as the Central Data Repository postulated here, can support each process step. Logically marrying digital technologies with Internet accessibility should help nurture a thought process to explore alternatives that make forensics data accessible to authorized individuals, whenever and wherever they need it.

  8. Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2005-11-04

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of nuclear terrorism; it also supports the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its investigative mission to prevent and respond to nuclear terrorism. Development of the capability involves two major elements: (1) the ability to collect evidence and make forensic measurements, and (2) the ability to interpret the forensic data. The Program leverages the existing capability throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory complex in a way that meets the requirements of the FBI and other government users. At the same time the capability is being developed, the Program also conducts investigations for a variety of sponsors using the current capability. The combination of operations and R&D in one program helps to ensure a strong linkage between the needs of the user community and the scientific development.

  9. [Application of DNA polymorphism to forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Misawa, S

    1994-06-01

    Recent recombinant DNA technology has provided some novel and powerful methods for forensic science application. Human genomic DNA can be analyzed directly for individual identification and paternity testing on the basis of variations in its sequence. The analysis of DNA isolated from forensic biological evidence provides valuable information relating to the identification of the source of the sample. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) testing, using a combination of single locus probe (SLP) that vary highly among individuals, produces a DNA fingerprint or profile. The PCR method using STR (microsatellite) and mitochondrial DNA analysis (mtDNA) is suitable for examination of the forensic biological samples (bloodstains, hairs, seminal stains, bones, tooth). For sex identification of bloodstains, bleached skeletons and teeth, Southern blot hybridization with Y-chromosome specific probe (pHY10; 3.4 kb) and PCR amplifying with sex chromosome specific fragments, can be used. Mitochondrial DNA RFLPs and 9-bp deletion type of mtDNA may suggest the characteristics of the human races. For the purpose of resolving the genetic basis of human uniqueness, we reported the isolation of human-specific sequences using the technique of genome subtraction (HS5, 2282 bp). PMID:7914244

  10. Molecular forensic science of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxides materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, process history, or transport of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science required to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensics science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  11. Bayesian calibration for forensic age estimation.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Luigi; Skrami, Edlira; Gesuita, Rosaria; Cameriere, Roberto

    2015-05-10

    Forensic medicine is increasingly called upon to assess the age of individuals. Forensic age estimation is mostly required in relation to illegal immigration and identification of bodies or skeletal remains. A variety of age estimation methods are based on dental samples and use of regression models, where the age of an individual is predicted by morphological tooth changes that take place over time. From the medico-legal point of view, regression models, with age as the dependent random variable entail that age tends to be overestimated in the young and underestimated in the old. To overcome this bias, we describe a new full Bayesian calibration method (asymmetric Laplace Bayesian calibration) for forensic age estimation that uses asymmetric Laplace distribution as the probability model. The method was compared with three existing approaches (two Bayesian and a classical method) using simulated data. Although its accuracy was comparable with that of the other methods, the asymmetric Laplace Bayesian calibration appears to be significantly more reliable and robust in case of misspecification of the probability model. The proposed method was also applied to a real dataset of values of the pulp chamber of the right lower premolar measured on x-ray scans of individuals of known age. PMID:25645903

  12. Supportive housing and forensic patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Salem, Leila; Crocker, Anne G; Charette, Yanick; Seto, Michael C; Nicholls, Tonia L; Côté, Gilles

    2015-06-01

    In Canada, Review Boards are mandated to evaluate individuals found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD) on an annual basis and render 1 of 3 dispositions: (a) custody, (b) conditional discharge, or (c) absolute discharge. To promote social reintegration, conditional discharge can be ordered with the condition to live in supportive housing. However, NCRMD accused face great barriers to housing access as a result of the stigma associated with the forensic label. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of housing in the clinical and criminal trajectories of forensic patients as they reintegrate into the community. Data for this study were extracted from a national study of individuals found NCRMD in Canada (Crocker, Nicholls, Seto, Côté, et al., in press). The present study focuses on a random sample of NCRMD accused in the province of Québec, who were under a conditional discharge disposition during the study period (n = 837). Controlling for sociodemographic, clinical, and criminal variables, survival analysis showed that individuals placed in independent housing following a conditional discharge from the Review Board were 2.5 times more likely to commit a new offense, nearly 3 times more likely to commit an offense against a person, and 1.4 times more likely to be readmitted for psychiatric treatment compared with individuals residing in supportive housing. These results point to the influence housing can have on the trajectories of forensic patients, above and beyond a range of clinical, criminological, and sociodemographic factors. PMID:25365472

  13. Forensic Facial Reconstruction: The Final Frontier

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vineeta; Vij, Hitesh; Vij, Ruchieka; Tyagi, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    Forensic facial reconstruction can be used to identify unknown human remains when other techniques fail. Through this article, we attempt to review the different methods of facial reconstruction reported in literature. There are several techniques of doing facial reconstruction, which vary from two dimensional drawings to three dimensional clay models. With the advancement in 3D technology, a rapid, efficient and cost effective computerized 3D forensic facial reconstruction method has been developed which has brought down the degree of error previously encountered. There are several methods of manual facial reconstruction but the combination Manchester method has been reported to be the best and most accurate method for the positive recognition of an individual. Recognition allows the involved government agencies to make a list of suspected victims’. This list can then be narrowed down and a positive identification may be given by the more conventional method of forensic medicine. Facial reconstruction allows visual identification by the individual’s family and associates to become easy and more definite. PMID:26501035

  14. DNA methylation and application in forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Kader, Farzeen; Ghai, Meenu

    2015-04-01

    DNA methylation of cytosine residues is a stable epigenetic alteration, beginning as early as foetal development in the uterus and continuously evolving throughout life. DNA methylation as well as other epigenetic modifications such as chromatin remodelling and histone modifications are indispensable in mammalian development. Methylation is to a large extent influenced by the ageing process, diets and lifestyle choices. Our understanding of this crucial modification may even contribute to the treatment and prevention of age-related illnesses in the very near future. Genome-wide methylation analysis using high throughput DNA technologies has discovered numerous differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) which differ in levels of methylation in various cell types and tissues. TDMRs have been useful in various applications, particularly medicine and forensic sciences. Forensic scientists are constantly seeking exciting and novel methods to aid in the reconstruction of crime scenes, and the analysis of tDMRs represents a new and reliable technique to identify biological fluids and tissues found at the scene of a violent act. Not only has research been able to unequivocally identify various fluids and tissues, but methods to determine the sex, age and phenotype of donors has been developed. New tDMRs in genes are being searched for consistently to serve as novel markers in forensic DNA analysis. PMID:25732744

  15. Advances in forensic DNA quantification: a review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steven B; McCord, Bruce; Buel, Eric

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses upon a critical step in forensic biology: detection and quantification of human DNA from biological samples. Determination of the quantity and quality of human DNA extracted from biological evidence is important for several reasons. Firstly, depending on the source and extraction method, the quality (purity and length), and quantity of the resultant DNA extract can vary greatly. This affects the downstream method as the quantity of input DNA and its relative length can determine which genotyping procedure to use-standard short-tandem repeat (STR) typing, mini-STR typing or mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Secondly, because it is important in forensic analysis to preserve as much of the evidence as possible for retesting, it is important to determine the total DNA amount available prior to utilizing any destructive analytical method. Lastly, results from initial quantitative and qualitative evaluations permit a more informed interpretation of downstream analytical results. Newer quantitative techniques involving real-time PCR can reveal the presence of degraded DNA and PCR inhibitors, that provide potential reasons for poor genotyping results and may indicate methods to use for downstream typing success. In general, the more information available, the easier it is to interpret and process the sample resulting in a higher likelihood of successful DNA typing. The history of the development of quantitative methods has involved two main goals-improving precision of the analysis and increasing the information content of the result. This review covers advances in forensic DNA quantification methods and recent developments in RNA quantification. PMID:25088961

  16. Forensic pharmacovigilance: Newer dimension of pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Sewal, Rakesh K; Saini, Vikas K; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-08-01

    Drug safety for the patients is of paramount importance for a medical professional. Pharmacovigilance attempts to ensure the safety of patients by keeping a close vigil on the pattern of adverse events secondary to drug use. Number of medicolegal cases is at rise since last few years. Forensic sciences and pharmacovigilance need to work hand in hand to unlock the mystery of many criminal and civil proceedings. Pharmacovigilance offers its wide scope in forensic sciences by putting forward its expertise on adverse profile of drugs which may be instrumental in solving the cases and bringing the justice forth. It may range from as simple affairs as defining the adverse drug reaction on one hand to putting expert advice in critical criminal cases on the other one. Pharmacovigilance experts have to abide by the ethics of the practice while executing their duties as expert else it may tarnish the justice and loosen its dependability. As a budding discipline of science, it is confronted with several hurdles and challenges which include reluctance of medical professionals for being involved in court proceedings, extrapolations of facts and data and variations in law across the globe etc. These challenges and hurdles call the medical fraternity come forward to work towards the momentous application of pharmacovigilance in the forensic sciences. Evidence based practice e.g. testing the biological samples for the presence of drugs may prove to be pivotal in the success of this collaboration of sciences. PMID:26165669

  17. Emergence of forensic podiatry--A novel sub-discipline of forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; DiMaggio, John A

    2015-10-01

    "Forensic podiatry is defined as the application of sound and researched podiatric knowledge and experience in forensic investigations; to show the association of an individual with a scene of crime, or to answer any other legal question concerned with the foot or footwear that requires knowledge of the functioning foot". Forensic podiatrists can contribute to forensic identification by associating the pedal evidence with the criminal or crime scene. The most common pedal evidence collected from the crime scene is in the form of footprints, shoeprints and their tracks and trails. Forensic podiatrists can establish identity of the individuals from the footprints in many ways. The analysis of bare footprints involves the identification based on the individualistic features like flat footedness, ridges, humps, creases, an extra toe, missing toe, corns, cuts, cracks, pits, deformities, and various features of the toe and heel region. All these individualistic features can link the criminal with the crime. In addition to these, parameters of body size like stature and body weight as well as sex can also be estimated by using anthropometric methods. If a series of footprints are recovered from the crime scene, then parameters of the gait analysis such as stride/step length and general movement of the criminal can be traced. Apart from these, a newly established biometric parameter of the footprints i.e. footprint ridge density can also be evaluated for personal identification. Careful analysis of the footprint ridge density can give an idea about the sex of the criminal whose footprints are recovered at the scene which can further help to reduce the burden of the investigating officer as the investigations then may be directed toward either a male suspect or a female suspect accordingly. This paper highlights various aspects of Forensic Podiatry and discusses the different methods of personal identification related to pedal evidence. PMID:26163192

  18. Error rates in forensic DNA analysis: definition, numbers, impact and communication.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Ate; Sjerps, Marjan; Quak, Astrid

    2014-09-01

    Forensic DNA casework is currently regarded as one of the most important types of forensic evidence, and important decisions in intelligence and justice are based on it. However, errors occasionally occur and may have very serious consequences. In other domains, error rates have been defined and published. The forensic domain is lagging behind concerning this transparency for various reasons. In this paper we provide definitions and observed frequencies for different types of errors at the Human Biological Traces Department of the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) over the years 2008-2012. Furthermore, we assess their actual and potential impact and describe how the NFI deals with the communication of these numbers to the legal justice system. We conclude that the observed relative frequency of quality failures is comparable to studies from clinical laboratories and genetic testing centres. Furthermore, this frequency is constant over the five-year study period. The most common causes of failures related to the laboratory process were contamination and human error. Most human errors could be corrected, whereas gross contamination in crime samples often resulted in irreversible consequences. Hence this type of contamination is identified as the most significant source of error. Of the known contamination incidents, most were detected by the NFI quality control system before the report was issued to the authorities, and thus did not lead to flawed decisions like false convictions. However in a very limited number of cases crucial errors were detected after the report was issued, sometimes with severe consequences. Many of these errors were made in the post-analytical phase. The error rates reported in this paper are useful for quality improvement and benchmarking, and contribute to an open research culture that promotes public trust. However, they are irrelevant in the context of a particular case. Here case-specific probabilities of undetected errors are needed. These should be reported, separately from the match probability, when requested by the court or when there are internal or external indications for error. It should also be made clear that there are various other issues to consider, like DNA transfer. Forensic statistical models, in particular Bayesian networks, may be useful to take the various uncertainties into account and demonstrate their effects on the evidential value of the forensic DNA results. PMID:24905336

  19. NanoSIMS analysis of Bacillus spores for forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P K; Davisson, M L; Velsko, S P

    2010-02-23

    The threat associated with the potential use of radiological, nuclear, chemical and biological materials in terrorist acts has resulted in new fields of forensic science requiring the application of state-of-the-science analytical techniques. Since the anthrax letter attacks in the United States in the fall of 2001, there has been increased interest in physical and chemical characterization of bacterial spores. While molecular methods are powerful tools for identifying genetic differences, other methods may be able to differentiate genetically identical samples based on physical and chemical properties, as well as provide complimentary information, such as methods of production and approximate date of production. Microanalysis has the potential to contribute significantly to microbial forensics. Bacillus spores are highly structured, consisting of a core, cortex, coat, and in some species, an exosporium. This structure provides a template for constraining elemental abundance differences at the nanometer scale. The primary controls on the distribution of major elements in spores are likely structural and physiological. For example, P and Ca are known to be abundant in the spore core because that is where P-rich nucleic acids and Cadipicolinic acid are located, respectively. Trace elements are known to bind to the spore coat but the controls on these elements are less well understood. Elemental distributions and abundances may be directly related to spore production, purification and stabilization methodologies, which are of particular interest for forensic investigation. To this end, we are developing a high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry method using a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 to study the distribution and abundance of trace elements in bacterial spores. In this presentation we will review and compare methods for preparing and analyzing samples, as well as review results on the distribution and abundance of elements in bacterial spores. We use NanoSIMS to directly image samples as well as depth profile samples. The directly imaged samples are sectioned to present a flat surface for analysis. We use focused ion beam (FIB) milling to top-cut individual spores to create flat surfaces for NanoSIMS analysis. Depth profiling can be used on whole spores, which are consumed in the process of analysis. The two methods generate comparable results, with the expected distribution of P and Ca. Ca-compatible elements, such as Mg and Mn, are found to follow the distribution of Ca. The distribution of other elements will be discussed. We envision the first application of this methodology will be to sample matching for trace samples. Towards this end, we are generating a baseline data set for samples produced by multiple laboratories. Preliminary results suggest that this method provides significant probative value for identifying samples produced by the same method in the same laboratory, as well as coming from the same initial production run. The results of this study will be presented.

  20. Caring potentials in the shadows of power, correction, and discipline - Forensic psychiatric care in the light of the work of Michel Foucault.

    PubMed

    Hörberg, Ulrica; Dahlberg, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on contemporary forensic psychiatric care through a philosophical examination of the empirical results from two lifeworld phenomenological studies from the perspective of patients and carers, by using the French philosopher Michel Foucault's historical-philosophical work. Both empirical studies were conducted in a forensic psychiatric setting. The essential results of the two empirical studies were reexamined in a phenomenological meaning analysis to form a new general structure in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. This general structure shows how the caring on the forensic psychiatric wards appears to be contradictory, in that it is characterized by an unreflective (non-)caring attitude and contributes to an inconsistent and insecure existence. The caring appears to have a corrective approach and thus lacks a clear caring structure, a basic caring approach that patients in forensic psychiatric services have a great need of. To gain a greater understanding of forensic psychiatric caring, the new empirical results were further examined in the light of Foucault's historical-philosophical work. The philosophical examination is presented in terms of the three meaning constituents: Caring as correction and discipline, The existence of power, and Structures and culture in care. The philosophical examination illustrates new meaning nuances of the corrective and disciplinary nature of forensic psychiatric care, its power, and how this is materialized in caring, and what this does to the patients. The examination reveals embedded difficulties in forensic psychiatric care and highlights a need to revisit the aim of such care. PMID:26319100

  1. Caring potentials in the shadows of power, correction, and discipline—Forensic psychiatric care in the light of the work of Michel Foucault

    PubMed Central

    Hörberg, Ulrica; Dahlberg, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on contemporary forensic psychiatric care through a philosophical examination of the empirical results from two lifeworld phenomenological studies from the perspective of patients and carers, by using the French philosopher Michel Foucault's historical–philosophical work. Both empirical studies were conducted in a forensic psychiatric setting. The essential results of the two empirical studies were reexamined in a phenomenological meaning analysis to form a new general structure in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. This general structure shows how the caring on the forensic psychiatric wards appears to be contradictory, in that it is characterized by an unreflective (non-)caring attitude and contributes to an inconsistent and insecure existence. The caring appears to have a corrective approach and thus lacks a clear caring structure, a basic caring approach that patients in forensic psychiatric services have a great need of. To gain a greater understanding of forensic psychiatric caring, the new empirical results were further examined in the light of Foucault's historical–philosophical work. The philosophical examination is presented in terms of the three meaning constituents: Caring as correction and discipline, The existence of power, and Structures and culture in care. The philosophical examination illustrates new meaning nuances of the corrective and disciplinary nature of forensic psychiatric care, its power, and how this is materialized in caring, and what this does to the patients. The examination reveals embedded difficulties in forensic psychiatric care and highlights a need to revisit the aim of such care. PMID:26319100

  2. Femoral subtrochanteric shape variation in Albania: implications for use in forensic applications.

    PubMed

    McIlvaine, B K; Schepartz, L A

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates temporal trends in femoral subtrochanteric shape in Albanian skeletal material to evaluate levels of platymeria in a set of populations with European ancestry. Although flattening of the diaphysis in the subtrochanteric region has been associated with individuals of Native American and Asian ancestry, high levels of platymeria may not be unique to those groups. The forensic utility of Gilbert and Gill's (Skeletal Attribution of Race: Methods for Forensic Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, 1990) method for identifying ancestry from femoral subtrochanteric shape is examined using non-American skeletons of European ancestry. Femoral subtrochanteric anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters for Albanian skeletons from Apollonia (n=117) and Lofkënd (n=50) are assessed for temporal trends and then compared with published data using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests. High degrees of subtrochanteric flattening are identified in the Albanian samples and statistically significant temporal trends of decreasing platymeria are documented. Although recent publications suggest that subtrochanteric shape is less effective in identifying ancestry then was initially proposed, forensic anthropologists still commonly use femoral subtrochanteric shape to determine ancestry among skeletonized remains. This paper's findings support the assertion that proximal femoral morphology is functionally related, and more likely to be influenced by biomechanical adaptation and body proportions than genetic constraints. PMID:25500529

  3. Bacterial Population Genetics in a Forensic Context

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P

    2009-11-02

    This report addresses the recent Department of Homeland Security (DHS) call for a Phase I study to (1) assess gaps in the forensically relevant knowledge about the population genetics of eight bacterial agents of concern, (2) formulate a technical roadmap to address those gaps, and (3) identify new bioinformatics tools that would be necessary to analyze and interpret population genetic data in a forensic context. The eight organisms that were studied are B. anthracis, Y. pestis, F. tularensis, Brucella spp., E. coli O157/H7, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, and C. botulinum. Our study focused on the use of bacterial population genetics by forensic investigators to test hypotheses about the possible provenance of an agent that was used in a crime or act of terrorism. Just as human population genetics underpins the calculations of match probabilities for human DNA evidence, bacterial population genetics determines the level of support that microbial DNA evidence provides for or against certain well-defined hypotheses about the origins of an infecting strain. Our key findings are: (1) Bacterial population genetics is critical for answering certain types of questions in a probabilistic manner, akin (but not identical) to 'match probabilities' in DNA forensics. (2) A basic theoretical framework for calculating likelihood ratios or posterior probabilities for forensic hypotheses based on microbial genetic comparisons has been formulated. This 'inference-on-networks' framework has deep but simple connections to the population genetics of mtDNA and Y-STRs in human DNA forensics. (3) The 'phylogeographic' approach to identifying microbial sources is not an adequate basis for understanding bacterial population genetics in a forensic context, and has limited utility, even for generating 'leads' with respect to strain origin. (4) A collection of genotyped isolates obtained opportunistically from international locations augmented by phylogenetic representations of relatedness will not and enzootic outbreaks noted through international outbreak surveillance systems, and 'representative' genetic sequences from each outbreak. (5) Interpretation of genetic comparisons between an attack strain and reference strains requires a model for the network structure of maintenance foci, enzootic outbreaks, and human outbreaks of that disease, coupled with estimates of mutational rate constants. Validation of the model requires a set of sequences from exemplary outbreaks and laboratory data on mutation rates during animal passage. The necessary number of isolates in each validation set is determined by disease transmission network theory, and is based on the 'network diameter' of the outbreak. (6) The 8 bacteria in this study can be classified into 4 categories based on the complexity of the transmission network structure of their natural maintenance foci and their outbreaks, both enzootic and zoonotic. (7) For B. anthracis, Y. pestis, E. coli O157, and Brucella melitensis, and their primary natural animal hosts, most of the fundamental parameters needed for modeling genetic change within natural host or human transmission networks have been determined or can be estimated from existing field and laboratory studies. (8) For Burkholderia mallei, plausible approaches to transmission network models exist, but much of the fundamental parameterization does not. In addition, a validated high-resolution typing system for characterizing genetic change within outbreaks or foci has not yet been demonstrated, although a candidate system exists. (9) For Francisella tularensis, the increased complexity of the transmission network and unresolved questions about maintenance and transmission suggest that it will be more complex and difficult to develop useful models based on currently available data. (10) For Burkholderia pseudomallei and Clostridium botulinum, the transmission and maintenance networks involve complex soil communities and metapopulations about which very little is known. It is not clear that these pathogens can be brought into the in

  4. Use of seismic pavement analyzer in forensic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Deren; Nazarian, Soheil; Baker, Mark R.

    1999-02-01

    Seismic nondestructive testing technology as used for pavement evaluation has been incorporated in two devices: the Seismic Pavement Analyzer (SPA) and the Portable Seismic Pavement Analyzer (PSPA). A few short-term projects were conducted to learn when and where the use of seismic methods is feasible. The usefulness of the test methods involved in the SPA and PSPA has been to some extent evaluated. In their present states, the SPA and PSPA seem to be emerging as valuable tools in forensic studies and the day-to-day operations of state highway agencies. The devices have been useful in understanding some of the complex mechanisms encountered in a few projects. More experience is needed to fully understand the potential and weaknesses of the devices, and further development of their software is needed. This paper presents a summary of efforts put forth to improve the SPA and PSPA for their incorporation into the activities of the highway community in maintenance, rehabilitation and construction of pavements. Several case studies that demonstrate the usefulness and shortcomings of the two devices and the methodology involved in them are presented.

  5. Forensic identification: the Island Problem and its generalisations

    E-print Network

    Meester, Ronald

    Forensic identification: the Island Problem and its generalisations Klaas Slooten and Ronald Meester April 26, 2010 Abstract In forensics it is a classical problem to determine, when a suspect individuals. We then generalize the solution to deal with heterogeneous populations, biased search procedures

  6. Current and future directions of DNA in wildlife forensic science.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca N; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Linacre, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Wildlife forensic science may not have attained the profile of human identification, yet the scale of criminal activity related to wildlife is extensive by any measure. Service delivery in the arena of wildlife forensic science is often ad hoc, unco-ordinated and unregulated, yet many of those currently dedicated to wildlife conservation and the protection of endangered species are striving to ensure that the highest standards are met. The genetic markers and software used to evaluate data in wildlife forensic science are more varied than those in human forensic identification and are rarely standardised between species. The time and resources required to characterise and validate each genetic maker is considerable and in some cases prohibitive. Further, issues are regularly encountered in the construction of allelic databases and allelic ladders; essential in human identification studies, but also applicable to wildlife criminal investigations. Accreditation and certification are essential in human identification and are currently being strived for in the forensic wildlife community. Examples are provided as to how best practice can be demonstrated in all areas of wildlife crime analysis and ensure that this field of forensic science gains and maintains the respect it deserves. This review is aimed at those conducting human identification to illustrate how research concepts in wildlife forensic science can be used in the criminal justice system, as well as describing the real importance of this type of forensic analysis. PMID:24680123

  7. [Research progress on the phenotype informative SNP in forensic science].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xuan; Hu, Qing-Qing; Ma, Hong-Du; Huang, Dai-Xin

    2014-10-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) refers to the single base sequence variation in specific location of the human genome. Phenotype informative SNP has gradually become one of the research hot spots in forensic science. In this paper, the forensic research situation and application prospect of phenotype informative SNP in the characteristics of hair, eye and skin color, height, and facial feature are reviewed. PMID:25735077

  8. Automated Analysis for Digital Forensic Science: Semantic Integrity Checking

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    Automated Analysis for Digital Forensic Science: Semantic Integrity Checking Tye Stallard and Karl Levitt Department of Computer Science University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA- puter forensic analysts attempting to determine the relevant causes and effects are forced to perform

  9. Partners in Crime: Integrating Forensic Science and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Forensic science lends itself to many academic areas. Aside from the science itself, writing plays a major role in the investigation process as well as in the courtroom. It is paramount that students learn how to write proficiently when recording results or writing evaluations and reports, just as forensic scientists do. This can also be done…

  10. Sensor Defects in Digital Image Forensic Jessica Fridrich

    E-print Network

    Fridrich, Jessica

    Chapter 1 Sensor Defects in Digital Image Forensic Jessica Fridrich Just as human fingerprints potential. Then, specific problems are formulated as tasks involving detection or matching of defects or skin blemishes can be used for forensic pur- poses, imperfections of digital imaging sensors can serve

  11. DNA Fingerprinting Using PCR: A Practical Forensic Science Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hyun-Jung; Ahn, Jung Hoon; Ko, Minsu

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a forensic science simulation programme applicable for use in colleges. Students were asked to find a putative suspect by DNA fingerprinting using a simple protocol developed in this study. DNA samples were obtained from a hair root and a drop of blood, common sources of DNA in forensic science. The DNA fingerprinting protocol…

  12. Fear and Loathing in Forensics: The View from Postmodern Suburbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, B. Keith

    This report attempts to construct a postmodern framework to provide for an analysis of Intercollegiate Forensics. It isolates the major theoretical constructs of postmodernism, applies them to Intercollegiate Forensics, and draws conclusions. The paper maintains that linguistic-based postmodernism consists of four theoretical areas: (1)…

  13. Plants & Perpetrators: Forensic Investigation in the Botany Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amy E.

    2006-01-01

    Applying botanical knowledge to a simulated forensic investigation provides inquiry-based and problem-based learning in the botany classroom. This paper details one such forensic investigation in which students use what they have learned about plant morphology and anatomy to analyze evidence and solve a murder mystery. (Contains 1 table.)

  14. Victims Deserve More: The Building of a Forensics Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lili K.

    2007-01-01

    Because victims deserve more, The American Academy of Applied Forensics at Central Piedmont Community College was created to link cutting-edge forensics research to its field applications. It does this by enhancing the knowledge, skill, and ability levels of crime scene investigators, thereby increasing the likelihood that truth will be revealed…

  15. Cross-Cultural Issues in Forensic Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layde, Joseph B.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Forensic psychiatry was officially recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties in the 1990's. In 1994, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) gave its first written examination to certify forensic psychiatrists. In 1996, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) began…

  16. A Term Project for a Course on Computer Forensics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Warren

    2006-01-01

    The typical approach to creating an examination disk for exercises and projects in a course on computer forensics is for the instructor to populate a piece of media with evidence to be retrieved. While such an approach supports the simple use of forensic tools, in many cases the use of an instructor-developed examination disk avoids utilizing some…

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Forensic DNA databasesEthical and legal

    E-print Network

    Noble, William Stafford

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Forensic DNA databases­Ethical and legal standards: A global review H.M. Wallace a; Human rights; Ethics; Quality assurance; Data protection Abstract Background: The Forensic Genetics to prevent miscarriages of justice; (3) ongoing debate regarding the appropriate safeguards for DNA

  18. Mixture Interpretation Forensics@NIST December 6, 2010

    E-print Network

    Mixture Interpretation Forensics@NIST December 6, 2010 http;//www.cstl.nist.gov/biotech/strbase/NISTpub.htm 1 Mixture Interpretation Michael D. Coble John M. Butler Forensics @ NIST December 6, 2010 ­ Gaithersburg, MD April 14, 2005 "If you show 10 colleagues a mixture, you will probably end up with 10

  19. Four years full-time Forensic Clinical Psychology Doctorate

    E-print Network

    Miall, Chris

    Four years full-time Forensic Clinical Psychology Doctorate School of Psychology There is an increasing need in prisons, forensic mental health and community settings for psychologists to be able psychological practice at doctoral level nThe qualification confers a dual qualification: British Psychological

  20. Technical note Forensic application of the affymetrix human mitochondrial

    E-print Network

    Technical note Forensic application of the affymetrix human mitochondrial resequencing array§ P, sequencing regions of the mitochondrial genome is performed when insufficient genomic DNA is present of the Affymetrix GeneChip Mitochondrial Resequencing Array (version 2.0) for forensic applications. # 2007 Elsevier