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1

Statistics in Practice Forensic Science  

E-print Network

Statistics in Practice Forensic Science Dr. David Lucy d.lucy@lancaster.ac.uk Lancaster University Statistics in Practice ­ p.1/36 #12;Forensic Science Criminal evidence becoming increasingly "scientific in Practice ­ p.2/36 #12;Forensic Science Greater realisation that uncertainty is important has lead to

Lucy, David

2

Natural Image Statistics for Digital Image Forensics  

E-print Network

these image statistics to the traditional art authentication for forgery detection and identificationNatural Image Statistics for Digital Image Forensics A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial, for their endless love and support. #12;Abstract Natural Image Statistics for Digital Image Forensics Siwei Lyu We

Lyu, Siwei

3

Statistical Tools for Forensic Analysis of Toolmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery and comparison of toolmarks, footprint impressions, and fractured surfaces connected to a crime scene are of great importance in forensic science. The purpose of this project is to provide statistical tools for the validation of the proposition that particular manufacturing processes produce marks on the work-product (or tool) that are substantially different from tool to tool. The approach to

David Baldwin; Max Morris; Stan Bajic; Zhigang Zhou; James Kreiser

2004-01-01

4

Statistical Tools for Forensic Analysis of Toolmarks  

SciTech Connect

Recovery and comparison of toolmarks, footprint impressions, and fractured surfaces connected to a crime scene are of great importance in forensic science. The purpose of this project is to provide statistical tools for the validation of the proposition that particular manufacturing processes produce marks on the work-product (or tool) that are substantially different from tool to tool. The approach to validation involves the collection of digital images of toolmarks produced by various tool manufacturing methods on produced work-products and the development of statistical methods for data reduction and analysis of the images. The developed statistical methods provide a means to objectively calculate a ''degree of association'' between matches of similarly produced toolmarks. The basis for statistical method development relies on ''discriminating criteria'' that examiners use to identify features and spatial relationships in their analysis of forensic samples. The developed data reduction algorithms utilize the same rules used by examiners for classification and association of toolmarks.

David Baldwin; Max Morris; Stan Bajic; Zhigang Zhou; James Kreiser

2004-04-22

5

Statistical Tools for Digital Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digitally altered photograph, often leaving no visual clues of having been tampered with, can be indistinguishable from an authentic photograph. As a result, photographs no longer hold the unique stature as a denitive recording of events. We describe several statistical techniques for detecting traces of digital tampering in the absence of any digital watermark or signature. In particular, we

Alin C. Popescu; Hany Farid

2004-01-01

6

Nuclear Forensic Inferences Using Iterative Multidimensional Statistics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear forensics involves the analysis of interdicted nuclear material for specific material characteristics (referred to as 'signatures') that imply specific geographical locations, production processes, culprit intentions, etc. Predictive signatures rely on expert knowledge of physics, chemistry, and engineering to develop inferences from these material characteristics. Comparative signatures, on the other hand, rely on comparison of the material characteristics of the interdicted sample (the 'questioned sample' in FBI parlance) with those of a set of known samples. In the ideal case, the set of known samples would be a comprehensive nuclear forensics database, a database which does not currently exist. In fact, our ability to analyze interdicted samples and produce an extensive list of precise materials characteristics far exceeds our ability to interpret the results. Therefore, as we seek to develop the extensive databases necessary for nuclear forensics, we must also develop the methods necessary to produce the necessary inferences from comparison of our analytical results with these large, multidimensional sets of data. In the work reported here, we used a large, multidimensional dataset of results from quality control analyses of uranium ore concentrate (UOC, sometimes called 'yellowcake'). We have found that traditional multidimensional techniques, such as principal components analysis (PCA), are especially useful for understanding such datasets and drawing relevant conclusions. In particular, we have developed an iterative partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) procedure that has proven especially adept at identifying the production location of unknown UOC samples. By removing classes which fell far outside the initial decision boundary, and then rebuilding the PLS-DA model, we have consistently produced better and more definitive attributions than with a single pass classification approach. Performance of the iterative PLS-DA method compared favorably to that of classification and regression tree (CART) and k nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithms, with the best combination of accuracy and robustness, as tested by classifying samples measured independently in our laboratories against the vendor QC based reference set.

Robel, M; Kristo, M J; Heller, M A

2009-06-09

7

THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF APPLICATION OF TEETH IN FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY CENTER, TEHRAN, IRAN, 1980-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This retrospective study investigated cases in Tehran Forensic Odontology Center, which have been solved by using teeth as the main proof. Methodology: Two hundred forty eight files in archives of Tehran forensic odonotology center during years 1980 to 2000 were reviewed and the data collected from each file. Results: It shows that only 12 cases (4.8%) used the forensic

Amir Deebaei; Hadi Fathi Moghaddam; Parivash Delkhosh

8

SNPs in forensic genetics: a review on SNP typing methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing interest in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing in the forensic field, not only for the usefulness of SNPs for defining Y chromosome or mtDNA haplogroups or for analyzing the geographical origin of samples, but also for the potential applications of autosomal SNPs. The interest of forensic researchers in autosomal SNPs has been attracted due to the

Beatriz Sobrino; Mara Brin; Angel Carracedo

2005-01-01

9

Forensic Detection of Image Tampering Using Intrinsic Statistical Fingerprints in Histograms  

E-print Network

noise. Image forgery detection techniques have been proposed which operate by locating inconsistenciesForensic Detection of Image Tampering Using Intrinsic Statistical Fingerprints in Histograms by detecting the unique statistical fingerprints that certain image altering operations leave behind

Liu, K. J. Ray

10

Nuclear Forensics: A Methodology Applicable to Nuclear Security and to Non-Proliferation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Security aims at the prevention and detection of and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material. Nuclear Forensics is a key element of nuclear security. Nuclear Forensics is defined as a methodology that aims at re-establishing the history of nuclear material of unknown origin. It is based on indicators that arise from known relationships between material characteristics and process history. Thus, nuclear forensics analysis includes the characterization of the material and correlation with production history. To this end, we can make use of parameters such as the isotopic composition of the nuclear material and accompanying elements, chemical impurities, macroscopic appearance and microstructure of the material. In the present paper, we discuss the opportunities for attribution of nuclear material offered by nuclear forensics as well as its limitations. Particular attention will be given to the role of nuclear reactions. Such reactions include the radioactive decay of the nuclear material, but also reactions with neutrons. When uranium (of natural composition) is exposed to neutrons, plutonium is formed, as well as 236U. We will illustrate the methodology using the example of a piece of uranium metal that dates back to the German nuclear program in the 1940's. A combination of different analytical techniques and model calculations enables a nuclear forensics interpretation, thus correlating the material characteristics with the production history.

Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.; Ltzenkirchen, K.; Galy, J.; Varga, Z.; Erdmann, N.; Buda, R.; Kratz, J.-V.; Trautmann, N.; Fifield, K.

2011-09-01

11

On the use of IRMS in forensic science: proposals for a methodological approach.  

PubMed

The flourishing number of publications on the use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) in forensic science denotes the enthusiasm and the attraction generated by this technology. IRMS has demonstrated its potential to distinguish chemically identical compounds coming from different sources. Despite the numerous applications of IRMS to a wide range of forensic materials, its implementation in a forensic framework is less straightforward than it appears. In addition, each laboratory has developed its own strategy of analysis on calibration, sequence design, standards utilisation and data treatment without a clear consensus. Through the experience acquired from research undertaken in different forensic fields, we propose a methodological framework of the whole process using IRMS methods. We emphasize the importance of considering isotopic results as part of a whole approach, when applying this technology to a particular forensic issue. The process is divided into six different steps, which should be considered for a thoughtful and relevant application. The dissection of this process into fundamental steps, further detailed, enables a better understanding of the essential, though not exhaustive, factors that have to be considered in order to obtain results of quality and sufficiently robust to proceed to retrospective analyses or interlaboratory comparisons. PMID:21775081

Gentile, Natacha; Besson, Luc; Pazos, Diego; Delmont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre

2011-10-10

12

Higher-order Wavelet Statistics and their Application to Digital Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a statistical model for natural images that is built upon a multi-scale wavelet decomposition. The model consists of first- and higher-order statistics that capture certain statistical regularities of natural images. We show how this model can be useful in several digital forensic applications, specifically in detecting various types of digital tampering.

Hany Faridy; Siwei Lyu

2003-01-01

13

Elemental fingerprinting of soils using ICP-MS and multivariate statistics: a study for and by forensic chemistry majors.  

PubMed

Students in an instrumental analysis course with a forensic emphasis were presented with a mock scenario in which soil was collected from a murder suspect's car mat, from the crime scene, from adjacent areas, and from more distant locations. Students were then asked to conduct a comparative analysis using the soil's elemental distribution fingerprints. The soil was collected from Lafayette County, Mississippi, USA and categorized as sandy loam. Eight student groups determined twenty-two elements (Li, Be, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Cs, Ba, Pb, U) in seven samples of soil and one sample of sediment by microwave-assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Data were combined and evaluated using multivariate statistical analyses. All eight student groups correctly classified their unknown among the different locations. Students learn, however, that whereas their results suggest that the elemental fingerprinting approach can be used to distinguish soils from different land-use areas and geographic locations, applying the methodology in forensic investigations is more complicated and has potential pitfalls. Overall, the inquiry-based pedagogy enthused the students and provided learning opportunities in analytical chemistry, including sample preparation, ICP-MS, figures-of-merit, and multivariate statistics. PMID:24314499

Reidy, Lorlyn; Bu, Kaixuan; Godfrey, Murrell; Cizdziel, James V

2013-12-10

14

On the use of IRMS in forensic science: Proposals for a methodological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flourishing number of publications on the use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) in forensic science denotes the enthusiasm and the attraction generated by this technology. IRMS has demonstrated its potential to distinguish chemically identical compounds coming from different sources. Despite the numerous applications of IRMS to a wide range of forensic materials, its implementation in a forensic framework

Natacha Gentile; Luc Besson; Diego Pazos; Olivier Delmont; Pierre Esseiva

2011-01-01

15

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

1973-01-01

16

Statistical analyses to support forensic interpretation for a new ten-locus STR profiling system.  

PubMed

A new ten-locus STR (short tandem repeat) profiling system was recently introduced into casework by the Forensic Science Service (FSS) and statistical analyses are described here based on data collected using this new system for the three major racial groups of the UK: Caucasian. Afro-Caribbean and Asian (of Indo-Pakistani descent). Allele distributions are compared and the FSS position with regard to routine significance testing of DNA frequency databases is discussed. An investigation of match probability calculations is carried out and the consequent analyses are shown to provide support for proposed changes in how the FSS reports DNA results when very small match probabilities are involved. PMID:11296886

Foreman, L A; Evett, I W

2001-01-01

17

Statistical Extreme Value Analysis Methodological improvements  

E-print Network

-tailed Frechet distribution ( > 0) Asymptotic theory says that the distribution of block maxima (or minima Statistical extreme value theory The Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution: F(x) = exp - 1 + x - µ -1 the bounded Weibull distribution ( distribution ( = 0), and heavy

Paciorek, Chris

18

Statistical and Methodological Considerations in Exercise Genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The field of exercise genomics is growing at an amazing rate. New technologies such as genotyping chips used for genome-wide\\u000a association studies (GWAS) have expanded the tools that can be used to uncover the effect genetic variants have on exercise\\u000a performance and health and fitness-related phenotypes. The statistical methods for analyzing data from these new technologies\\u000a are still being cultivated

Heather Gordish-Dressman; Joseph M. Devaney

19

A review of the methodological aspects of aspartic acid racemization analysis for use in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate age determination of adult cadavers and human remains is a key requirement in forensic practice. The current morphological methods lack accuracy and precision, require specialist training and are costly. The use of aspartic acid racemization (AAR) in human dentine provides a simple, cost-effective solution and the method can achieve accuracies of 3 years at best. Currently, there are differences

E. R Waite; M. J Collins; S Ritz-Timme; H-W Schutz; C Cattaneo; H. I. M Borrman

1999-01-01

20

Genetic identification of horse mackerel and related species in seafood products by means of forensically informative nucleotide sequencing methodology.  

PubMed

In the present study, a methodology based on the amplification of a fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome b and subsequent phylogenetic analysis (FINS: forensically informative nucleotide sequencing) to genetically identify horse mackerels have been developed. This methodology makes possible the identification of more than 20 species belonging to the families Carangidae, Mullidae, and Scombridae. The main novelty of this work lies in the longest number of different horse mackerel species included and in the applicability of the developed methods to all kinds of processed products that can be found by consumers in markets around the world, including those that have undergone intensive processes of transformation, as for instance canned foods. Finally, the methods were applied to 15 commercial samples, all of them canned products. Therefore, these methods are useful for checking the fulfillment of labeling regulations for horse mackerels and horse mackerel products, verifying the correct traceability in commercial trade, and fisheries control. PMID:21332203

Lago, Ftima C; Herrero, Beatriz; Vieites, Juan M; Espieira, Montserrat

2011-03-23

21

NISTIR 7617 Mobile Forensic  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7617 Mobile Forensic Reference Materials: AMethodologyandReification WayneJansen AurélienDelaitre i #12;Mobile Forensic Reference Materials: A Methodology and Reification Wayne Jansen Aurélien of forensic tools. It describes an application and data set developed to populate identity modules

22

Implementing statistical learning methods through Bayesian networks. Part 1: a guide to Bayesian parameter estimation using forensic science data.  

PubMed

As a thorough aggregation of probability and graph theory, Bayesian networks currently enjoy widespread interest as a means for studying factors that affect the coherent evaluation of scientific evidence in forensic science. Paper I of this series of papers intends to contribute to the discussion of Bayesian networks as a framework that is helpful for both illustrating and implementing statistical procedures that are commonly employed for the study of uncertainties (e.g. the estimation of unknown quantities). While the respective statistical procedures are widely described in literature, the primary aim of this paper is to offer an essentially non-technical introduction on how interested readers may use these analytical approaches--with the help of Bayesian networks--for processing their own forensic science data. Attention is mainly drawn to the structure and underlying rationale of a series of basic and context-independent network fragments that users may incorporate as building blocs while constructing larger inference models. As an example of how this may be done, the proposed concepts will be used in a second paper (Part II) for specifying graphical probability networks whose purpose is to assist forensic scientists in the evaluation of scientific evidence encountered in the context of forensic document examination (i.e. results of the analysis of black toners present on printed or copied documents). PMID:19833464

Biedermann, A; Taroni, F; Bozza, S

2009-12-15

23

Grant Title: METHODOLOGY, MEASUREMENT, AND STATISTICS Funding Opportunity Number: NSF 12-510.  

E-print Network

Grant Title: METHODOLOGY, MEASUREMENT, AND STATISTICS Funding Opportunity Number: NSF 12; Division of Social and Economic Sciences. Area of Research: Proposals that are methodologically innovative: The Methodology, Measurement, and Statistics (MMS) Program is an interdisciplinary program in the Social

Farritor, Shane

24

Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part I: discrimination from related Salvia species.  

PubMed

Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic herb that is internationally regulated. In this study, salvinorin A, the active compound in S. divinorum, was extracted from S. divinorum plant leaves using a 5-min extraction with dichloromethane. Four additional Salvia species (Salvia officinalis, Salvia guaranitica, Salvia splendens, and Salvia nemorosa) were extracted using this procedure, and all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Differentiation of S. divinorum from other Salvia species was successful based on visual assessment of the resulting chromatograms. To provide a more objective comparison, the total ion chromatograms (TICs) were subjected to principal components analysis (PCA). Prior to PCA, the TICs were subjected to a series of data pretreatment procedures to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. Successful discrimination of S. divinorum from the other four Salvia species was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot. To provide a numerical assessment of the discrimination, a series of statistical procedures such as Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores. The statistical procedures were then compared to determine the advantages and disadvantages for forensic applications. PMID:22038586

Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

2012-01-01

25

Forensic odontology: an overview.  

PubMed

This article is an overview of the field of forensic odontology, highlighting historical cases, with an emphasis on California cases, and briefly discussing some of the current techniques and issues in the field. As with all fields of dentistry, forensic odontology is adapting to new methodologies, changes in techniques, research findings and legal issues. Today's dentist who works in the forensic arena must face and understand these changes and advancements. PMID:25080766

Spencer, Duane E

2014-06-01

26

Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.  

SciTech Connect

The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversary's task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

2013-02-01

27

A validation framework for microbial forensic methods based on statistical pattern recognition  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses a general approach to validating microbial forensic methods that attempt to simultaneously distinguish among many hypotheses concerning the manufacture of a questioned biological agent sample. It focuses on the concrete example of determining growth medium from chemical or molecular properties of a bacterial agent to illustrate the concepts involved.

Velsko, S P

2007-11-12

28

A new statistical methodology predicting chip failure probability considering electromigration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research thesis, we present a new approach to analyze chip reliability subject to electromigration (EM) whose fundamental causes and EM phenomenon happened in different materials are presented in this thesis. This new approach utilizes the statistical nature of EM failure in order to assess overall EM risk. It includes within-die temperature variations from the chip's temperature map extracted by an Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tool to estimate the failure probability of a design. Both the power estimation and thermal analysis are performed in the EDA flow. We first used the traditional EM approach to analyze the design with a single temperature across the entire chip that involves 6 metal and 5 via layers. Next, we used the same traditional approach but with a realistic temperature map. The traditional EM analysis approach and that coupled with a temperature map and the comparison between the results of considering and not considering temperature map are presented in in this research. A comparison between these two results confirms that using a temperature map yields a less pessimistic estimation of the chip's EM risk. Finally, we employed the statistical methodology we developed considering a temperature map and different use-condition voltages and frequencies to estimate the overall failure probability of the chip. The statistical model established considers the scaling work with the usage of traditional Black equation and four major conditions. The statistical result comparisons are within our expectations. The results of this statistical analysis confirm that the chip level failure probability is higher i) at higher use-condition frequencies for all use-condition voltages, and ii) when a single temperature instead of a temperature map across the chip is considered. In this thesis, I start with an overall review on current design types, common flows, and necessary verifications and reliability checking steps used in this IC design industry. Furthermore, the important concepts about "Scripting Automation" which is used in all the integration of using diversified EDA tools in this research work are also described in detail with several examples and my completed coding works are also put in the appendix for your reference. Hopefully, this construction of my thesis will give readers a thorough understanding about my research work from the automation of EDA tools to the statistical data generation, from the nature of EM to the statistical model construction, and the comparisons among the traditional EM analysis and the statistical EM analysis approaches.

Sun, Ted

29

1 Forensic Sciences FORENSIC SCIENCES  

E-print Network

1 Forensic Sciences FORENSIC SCIENCES As part of the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences' natural, mathematical and biomedical sciences programs, the forensic sciences program provides of the results. The Master of Forensic Sciences program offers the following concentrations: forensic chemistry

Vertes, Akos

30

FORENSIC SCIENCE About Forensic Science  

E-print Network

Fact Sheet FORENSIC SCIENCE About Forensic Science: The Forensic Science program at SJSU offers: The SJSU Forensic Science program delivers coursework and training to · Empowergraduatestobecomeagentsofchangetorecognize, document and report errors and injustices in the practice of forensic science and crime scene

Su, Xiao

31

Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

1989-01-01

32

Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A succinct but clear introduction to forensic entomology with an emphasis on the role of the forensic investigator. Covers life cycles, protocols, information to collect at the scene. Also provides links to other forensic entomology websites and resources.

0002-11-30

33

The Power of Teaching Activities: Statistical and Methodological Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers rarely mention statistical power in "Teaching of Psychology" teaching activity studies. Insufficiently powered tests promote uncertainty in the decision to accept or reject the tested null hypothesis and influence the interpretation of results. We analyzed the a priori power of statistical tests from 197 teaching activity effectiveness

Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob

2009-01-01

34

Embedding Forensic Capabilities into Networks: Addressing Inefficiencies in Digital Forensics Investigations  

SciTech Connect

A typical incident response pits technicians against networks that aren't prepared forensically. [1, 2] If practitioners do consider collecting network forensic data, they face a choice between expending extraordinary effort (time and money) collecting forensically sound data, or simply restoring the network as quickly as possible. In this context, the concept of organizational network forensic readiness has emerged. This paper proposes a methodology for "operationalizing" organizational network forensic readiness. The methodology, and the theoretical analysis that led to its development, are offered as a conceptual framework for thinking about more efficient, proactive approaches to digital forensics on networks.

Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deb A.

2006-08-01

35

Comparative forensic soil analysis of New Jersey state parks using a combination of simple techniques with multivariate statistics.  

PubMed

This study has shown that the combination of simple techniques with the use of multivariate statistics offers the potential for the comparative analysis of soil samples. Five samples were obtained from each of twelve state parks across New Jersey in both the summer and fall seasons. Each sample was examined using particle-size distribution, pH analysis in both water and 1 M CaCl2 , and a loss on ignition technique. Data from each of the techniques were combined, and principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) were used for multivariate data transformation. Samples from different locations could be visually differentiated from one another using these multivariate plots. Hold-one-out cross-validation analysis showed error rates as low as 3.33%. Ten blind study samples were analyzed resulting in no misclassifications using Mahalanobis distance calculations and visual examinations of multivariate plots. Seasonal variation was minimal between corresponding samples, suggesting potential success in forensic applications. PMID:24502530

Bonetti, Jennifer; Quarino, Lawrence

2014-05-01

36

Statistical Tools for Digital Forensics Alin C. Popescu and Hany Farid  

E-print Network

to manipulate and alter digital images. In addition, digital forgeries, often leaving no visual clues of having of an image. Consider, for example, the creation of a digital forgery that shows a pair of famous movie stars statistical techniques for detecting traces of digital tampering in the absence of any digital watermark

Farid, Hany

37

Modeling and Optimization of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells using Statistical Design of Experiment Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are difficult to model due to their complex nonlinear multivariate nature. This paper describes the development of a DMFC system model, which incorporates an optimization approach, based on statistical design of experiment (DoE) methodology. It is demonstrated through experimentation with a DMFC setup that DoE provides a very efficient methodology to obtain a model for

Martin Ordonez; M. Tariq Iqbal; John E. Quaicoe; Leonard M. Lye

2006-01-01

38

Cocaine profiling for strategic intelligence, a cross-border project between France and Switzerland: part II. Validation of the statistical methodology for the profiling of cocaine.  

PubMed

Harmonisation and optimization of analytical and statistical methodologies were carried out between two forensic laboratories (Lausanne, Switzerland and Lyon, France) in order to provide drug intelligence for cross-border cocaine seizures. Part I dealt with the optimization of the analytical method and its robustness. This second part investigates statistical methodologies that will provide reliable comparison of cocaine seizures analysed on two different gas chromatographs interfaced with a flame ionisation detectors (GC-FIDs) in two distinct laboratories. Sixty-six statistical combinations (ten data pre-treatments followed by six different distance measurements and correlation coefficients) were applied. One pre-treatment (N+S: area of each peak is divided by its standard deviation calculated from the whole data set) followed by the Cosine or Pearson correlation coefficients were found to be the best statistical compromise for optimal discrimination of linked and non-linked samples. The centralisation of the analyses in one single laboratory is not a required condition anymore to compare samples seized in different countries. This allows collaboration, but also, jurisdictional control over data. PMID:18272309

Lociciro, S; Esseiva, P; Hayoz, P; Dujourdy, L; Besacier, F; Margot, P

2008-05-20

39

Methodological difficulties of conducting agroecological studies from a statistical perspective  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Statistical methods for analysing agroecological data might not be able to help agroecologists to solve all of the current problems concerning crop and animal husbandry, but such methods could well help agroecologists to assess, tackle, and resolve several agroecological issues in a more reliable an...

40

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

Cobb, P. G. W.

1973-01-01

41

Forensics Investigator  

MedlinePLUS

... and if anything is expected to increase in demand. Forensic investigators will always be needed to back up the efforts of other law enforcement officials. Working Conditions & Context Forensic science technicians ...

42

Methodological, measurement, and statistical issues in research on sport injury prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, methodological, measurement and statistical issues regarding research in sport injury prediction are discussed. Particular attention is paid to how future research might be conducted (i.e., research design), the measurement of physical and psychological constructs (e.g., injury, life stress), and different approaches concerning statistical analyses of prospective data. In summary, recommendations concerning future research are offered. including: obtaining

Trent A. Petrie; David L. Falkstein

1998-01-01

43

Forensic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

Bell, Suzanne

2009-07-01

44

Introduction to Forensic Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The academic roots of modern forensic anthropology can be traced back to contributions of Europeans, beginning in the 18th\\u000a century. In particular, Jean-Joseph Sue, Matthieu-Joseph-Bonaventure Orfila, Paul Broca, Paul Topinard, tienne Rollet, Leonce\\u000a Manouvrier, and Karl Pearson published research on the methodology of stature estimation and related topics.

Douglas H. Ubelaker

45

Automatic brain tumor detection in MRI: methodology and statistical validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated brain tumor segmentation and detection are immensely important in medical diagnostics because it provides information associated to anatomical structures as well as potential abnormal tissue necessary to delineate appropriate surgical planning. In this work, we propose a novel automated brain tumor segmentation technique based on multiresolution texture information that combines fractal Brownian motion (fBm) and wavelet multiresolution analysis. Our wavelet-fractal technique combines the excellent multiresolution localization property of wavelets to texture extraction of fractal. We prove the efficacy of our technique by successfully segmenting pediatric brain MR images (MRIs) from St. Jude Children"s Research Hospital. We use self-organizing map (SOM) as our clustering tool wherein we exploit both pixel intensity and multiresolution texture features to obtain segmented tumor. Our test results show that our technique successfully segments abnormal brain tissues in a set of T1 images. In the next step, we design a classifier using Feed-Forward (FF) neural network to statistically validate the presence of tumor in MRI using both the multiresolution texture and the pixel intensity features. We estimate the corresponding receiver operating curve (ROC) based on the findings of true positive fractions and false positive fractions estimated from our classifier at different threshold values. An ROC, which can be considered as a gold standard to prove the competence of a classifier, is obtained to ascertain the sensitivity and specificity of our classifier. We observe that at threshold 0.4 we achieve true positive value of 1.0 (100%) sacrificing only 0.16 (16%) false positive value for the set of 50 T1 MRI analyzed in this experiment.

Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Islam, Mohammad A.; Shaik, Jahangheer; Parra, Carlos; Ogg, Robert

2005-04-01

46

New perspectives in forensic anthropology.  

PubMed

A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field. PMID:19003882

Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A

2008-01-01

47

E-learning initiatives in forensic interpretation: report on experiences from current projects and outlook.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the purpose, design, methodology and target audience of E-learning courses in forensic interpretation offered by the authors since 2010, including practical experiences made throughout the implementation period of this project. This initiative was motivated by the fact that reporting results of forensic examinations in a logically correct and scientifically rigorous way is a daily challenge for any forensic practitioner. Indeed, interpretation of raw data and communication of findings in both written and oral statements are topics where knowledge and applied skills are needed. Although most forensic scientists hold educational records in traditional sciences, only few actually followed full courses that focussed on interpretation issues. Such courses should include foundational principles and methodology - including elements of forensic statistics - for the evaluation of forensic data in a way that is tailored to meet the needs of the criminal justice system. In order to help bridge this gap, the authors' initiative seeks to offer educational opportunities that allow practitioners to acquire knowledge and competence in the current approaches to the evaluation and interpretation of forensic findings. These cover, among other aspects, probabilistic reasoning (including Bayesian networks and other methods of forensic statistics, tools and software), case pre-assessment, skills in the oral and written communication of uncertainty, and the development of independence and self-confidence to solve practical inference problems. E-learning was chosen as a general format because it helps to form a trans-institutional online-community of practitioners from varying forensic disciplines and workfield experience such as reporting officers, (chief) scientists, forensic coordinators, but also lawyers who all can interact directly from their personal workplaces without consideration of distances, travel expenses or time schedules. In the authors' experience, the proposed learning initiative supports participants in developing their expertise and skills in forensic interpretation, but also offers an opportunity for the associated institutions and the forensic community to reinforce the development of a harmonized view with regard to interpretation across forensic disciplines, laboratories and judicial systems. PMID:23122648

Biedermann, A; Hicks, T; Voisard, R; Taroni, F; Champod, C; Aitken, C G G; Evett, I W

2013-07-10

48

Forensic Toxicology Certificate  

E-print Network

Forensic Toxicology Certificate What is Forensic Toxicology? Forensic toxicology is a discipline of forensic science that is concerned with the study of toxic substances or poisons. Toxicology encompasses. Students of forensic toxicology obtain knowledge about the absorption, distribution, and elimination

Saldin, Dilano

49

Computer-assisted systems for forensic pathology and forensic toxicology.  

PubMed

A computer software, RttsBASE (RB), was developed for all forensic pathology units in Sweden and introduced in 1992. Simultaneously, a corresponding software, ToxBASE (TB), was developed for the Department of Forensic Toxicology, where all forensic toxicology in Sweden is managed. Both of the databases were created using dBASE IV, and the programming was carried out according to specifications from the staff at the forensic toxicology and forensic pathology units. since the development or RB and TB was coordinated, the systems can run together smoothly. The purpose of both systems was to automate the offices and to enable compilation of detailed statistics. Installation of Novell Netware and ISDN-connections (Integrated Service Digital Network) has enabled rapid communication between the units and easy compilation of nationwide statistics of forensic pathology and forensic toxicology. the systems offer a wide spectrum of reports and include a simple module for evaluation of the importance of the forensic efforts for th whole death investigation. The configuration of the softwares has also enabled processing of a large amount of related toxicological and autopsy data that in turn has yielded a base for compilation of toxicology interpretation lists. This article includes a summary of the features of the software and a discussion of its benefits and limitations. PMID:15637819

Druid, H; Holmgren, P; Lwenhielm, P

1996-09-01

50

Statistical Methodology 3 (2006) 116 www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet  

E-print Network

Statistical Methodology 3 (2006) 1­16 www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet Error tolerant model biological databases, there are still errors and missing facts due to experimental problems and human errors in biological databases. However, due to experimental problems and human errors, databases are still incomplete

Higuchi, Tomoyuki

51

Analysis of fMRI data sampled from Large Populations: Statistical and Methodological Issues  

E-print Network

Analysis of fMRI data sampled from Large Populations: Statistical and Methodological Issues that is present in their datasets across subjects. In particular, this high degree of variability dramatically). Analysing the variability that arises between different datasets is not straightforward, since

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

Forensics Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography lists and discusses 28 books on forensics, debate, argumentation, discussion, and public speaking. The books cover various topics in oral communication for secondary and college level study. (CH)

Walsh, Grace

53

Forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations,\\u000a in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine,\\u000a in road and work-place safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly\\u000a targeted

Olaf H. Drummer

54

An Examination of Digital Forensic Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law enforcement is in a perpetual race with criminals in the application of digital technologies, and requires the development of tools to systematically search digital devices for pertinent evidence. Another part of this race, and perhaps more crucial, is the development of a methodology in digital forensics that encompasses the forensic analysis of all genres of digital crime scene investigations.

Mark Reith; Clint Carr; Gregg H. Gunsch

2002-01-01

55

Forensic Science Certificate  

E-print Network

Forensic Science Certificate What do Forensic Scientists Do? Forensic scientists apply scientific. Is Forensic Science Right for Me? Students in forensic science have a strong interest in chemistry, biology and death investigators. The median annual wage of forensic science technicians (a common entry level job

Saldin, Dilano

56

CPR methodology with new steady-state criterion and more accurate statistical treatment of channel bow  

SciTech Connect

An overview is given of existing CPR design criteria and the methods used in BWR reload analysis to evaluate the impact of channel bow on CPR margins. Potential weaknesses in today's methodologies are discussed. Westinghouse in collaboration with KKL and Axpo - operator and owner of the Leibstadt NPP - has developed an optimized CPR methodology based on a new criterion to protect against dryout during normal operation and with a more rigorous treatment of channel bow. The new steady-state criterion is expressed in terms of an upper limit of 0.01 for the dryout failure probability per year. This is considered a meaningful and appropriate criterion that can be directly related to the probabilistic criteria set-up for the analyses of Anticipated Operation Occurrences (AOOs) and accidents. In the Monte Carlo approach a statistical modeling of channel bow and an accurate evaluation of CPR response functions allow the associated CPR penalties to be included directly in the plant SLMCPR and OLMCPR in a best-estimate manner. In this way, the treatment of channel bow is equivalent to all other uncertainties affecting CPR. Emphasis is put on quantifying the statistical distribution of channel bow throughout the core using measurement data. The optimized CPR methodology has been implemented in the Westinghouse Monte Carlo code, McSLAP. The methodology improves the quality of dryout safety assessments by supplying more valuable information and better control of conservatisms in establishing operational limits for CPR. The methodology is demonstrated with application examples from the introduction at KKL. (authors)

Baumgartner, S. [Axpo AG, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Bieli, R. [Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt AG, CH-5325 Leibstadt (Switzerland); Bergmann, U. C. [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, SE-721 63 Vaesteraas (Sweden)

2012-07-01

57

Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics.  

PubMed

We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. PMID:20430544

Ruffell, Alastair

2010-10-10

58

Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation.  

PubMed

Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10-50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at "Level III", e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at "Level I"). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (425%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (183%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3-4kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single-family and multi-family house areas), the individual percentage composition of food waste, paper, and glass was significantly different between the housing types. This indicates that housing type is a critical stratification parameter. Separating food leftovers from food packaging during manual sorting of the sampled waste did not have significant influence on the proportions of food waste and packaging materials, indicating that this step may not be required. PMID:25483613

Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Gtze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

2015-02-01

59

New advances in methodology for statistical tests useful in geostatistical studies  

SciTech Connect

Methodology for statistical procedures to perform tests of hypothesis pertaining to various aspects of geostatistical investigations has been slow in developing. The correlated nature of the data precludes most classical tests and makes the design of new tests difficult. Recent studies have led to modifications of the classical t test which allow for the intercorrelation. In addition, results for certain nonparametric tests have been obtained. The conclusions of these studies provide a variety of new tools for the geostatistician in deciding questions on significant differences and magnitudes.

Borgman, L.E.

1988-05-01

60

Forensic Science and Information Technology at NIST  

E-print Network

Identity ­ Latent fingerprints ­ Face recognition ­ Speaker recognition ­ Palm prints, plantars (footprints Security · Math · Networking · Statistics · Software · Usability · Information Access #12;ITL Role) ­ Iris recognition, DNA, tattoos ­ Dental records, bite marks · Digital Forensics ­ Computer forensics

Perkins, Richard A.

61

Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special

I. D. Hutcheon; P. M. Grant; K. J. Moody

2011-01-01

62

Forensic science A true science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the US jurisprudence of the 1993 Daubert hearing requires judges to question not only the methodology behind, but also the principles governing, a body of knowledge to qualify it as scientific, can forensic science, based on Locard's and Kirk's Principles, pretend to this higher status in the courtroom? Moving away from the disputable American legal debate, this historical and

Frank Crispino; Olivier Ribaux; Max Houck; Pierre Margot

2011-01-01

63

Visual culture in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary Western culture increasingly uses visual images as a method of communicating ideas, meaning and concepts. The reliance on visual information has dramatically increased with the evolution of newer imaging technologies. Images play a critical role within the media, advertising, popular culture, personal memories, medical science and forensic science. This paper will discuss relationships between methodologies used in visual culture

Glenn Porter

2007-01-01

64

Forensic entomology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques,

Jens Amendt; Roman Krettek; Richard Zehner

2004-01-01

65

Forensic Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this AHS Capstone project, the aim was to explore issues in the identification and interpretation of human bones: sex, age, stature, ancestry, pathology, and anomalies. The reconstruction of individuals and their lifestyles and role of forensic anthropology in mass fatalities were focus of this social behavioral analysis as well.

Christina Cary

2008-01-01

66

Forensic detection of noise addition in digital images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed a technique to detect the global addition of noise to a digital image. As an anti-forensics tool, noise addition is typically used to disguise the visual traces of image tampering or to remove the statistical artifacts left behind by other operations. As such, the blind detection of noise addition has become imperative as well as beneficial to authenticate the image content and recover the image processing history, which is the goal of general forensics techniques. Specifically, the special image blocks, including constant and strip ones, are used to construct the features for identifying noise addition manipulation. The influence of noising on blockwise pixel value distribution is formulated and analyzed formally. The methodology of detectability recognition followed by binary decision is proposed to ensure the applicability and reliability of noising detection. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed noising detector.

Cao, Gang; Zhao, Yao; Ni, Rongrong; Ou, Bo; Wang, Yongbin

2014-03-01

67

Demonstration of a software design and statistical analysis methodology with application to patient outcomes data sets  

PubMed Central

Purpose: With emergence of clinical outcomes databases as tools utilized routinely within institutions, comes need for software tools to support automated statistical analysis of these large data sets and intrainstitutional exchange from independent federated databases to support data pooling. In this paper, the authors present a design approach and analysis methodology that addresses both issues. Methods: A software application was constructed to automate analysis of patient outcomes data using a wide range of statistical metrics, by combining use of C#.Net and R code. The accuracy and speed of the code was evaluated using benchmark data sets. Results: The approach provides data needed to evaluate combinations of statistical measurements for ability to identify patterns of interest in the data. Through application of the tools to a benchmark data set for dose-response threshold and to SBRT lung data sets, an algorithm was developed that uses receiver operator characteristic curves to identify a threshold value and combines use of contingency tables, Fisher exact tests, Welch t-tests, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to filter the large data set to identify values demonstrating dose-response. Kullback-Leibler divergences were used to provide additional confirmation. Conclusions: The work demonstrates the viability of the design approach and the software tool for analysis of large data sets. PMID:24320426

Mayo, Charles; Conners, Steve; Warren, Christopher; Miller, Robert; Court, Laurence; Popple, Richard

2013-01-01

68

September 2006 FORENSIC TECHNIQUES  

E-print Network

September 2006 FORENSIC TECHNIQUES: HELPING ORGANIZATIONS IMPROVE THEIR RESPONSES TO INFORMATION SECURITY INCIDENTS FORENSIC TECHNIQUES: HELPING ORGANIZATIONS IMPROVE THEIR RESPONSES TO INFORMATION and Technology National Institute of Standards and Technology Digital forensic techniques involve the application

69

[Forensic psychiatry].  

PubMed

Forensic psychiatry is an important part of psychiatry which is especially in public view. This paper summarizes the judicial framework and basic principles in testimony concerning criminal responsibility and criminal prognosis. An interdisciplinary work group has established minimal standards for both these topics, which are also described. They comprise a good example in psychiatry and law for developing quality assurance in this important field. PMID:18696034

Habermeyer, E

2009-01-01

70

Forensic geomorphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

2014-02-01

71

Integrating Cyber-Forensics into a Forensic Science Masters Programme  

E-print Network

by the Department of Forensic Science and Drug Monitoring. This modular, interdisciplinary MSc programme the basic ICT #12;literacy and competency that would be expected from a modern UK Bachelors programme, Canada and the USA also feature significantly in the intake statistics. As a modular, interdisciplinary

Overill, Richard E.

72

Careers with Forensic Biology  

E-print Network

/Examiner Fingerprint Expert Toxicologist Biomedical Scientist Department of Forensic Medical Science (forensic scientists was the Forensic Science Service (FSS), which ceased to exist in March 2012. They provided include: forensic science units within local police forces, such as the Metropolitan Police Specialist

73

Forensic Science: Best Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All about forensic science Forensic Science for High School Do you watch CSI? You should look at related Web site! How about this one? FORENSIC SCIENCE and have a look at what the Scout Report has to say: Court TV: Forensic Files And don\\'t forget about CSI CSI: The TV Show ...

M., Marcia

2007-03-08

74

ice | proceedings Forensic Engineering  

E-print Network

ice | proceedings Forensic Engineering Volume 165 Issue FE4 November 2012 Forensic Engineering or economic damage. Research and practice papers are sought on traditional or modern forensic engineering, design and construction. Topics covered also include research and education best practice in forensic

Mottram, Toby

75

Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*  

PubMed Central

This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2009-01-01

76

Forensic entomology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

77

On Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods inspired by Tsallis statistics: Methodology, optimization, and application to atomic clusters  

E-print Network

On Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods inspired by Tsallis statistics: Methodology Generalized Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics algorithms which provide enhanced sampling of the phase space is made with standard Metropolis Monte Carlo and the J-walking algorithm of Franz, Freeman and Doll

Straub, John E.

78

Submitted to Environmental and Ecological Statistics A Methodology for Assessing Departure of Current Plant Communities from Historical  

E-print Network

Submitted to Environmental and Ecological Statistics 1 A Methodology for Assessing Departure of this strategy is the assessment of departure of current plant communities from historical conditions across Federal lands. Assessing departure is a difficult problem because of very limited spatial coverage of data

Steele, Brian

79

Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special nuclear materials and with a description of several actual case studies conducted at Livermore.

Hutcheon, I. D.; Grant, P. M.; Moody, K. J.

80

COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics  

E-print Network

(T122) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Outline · Forensic Science (Forensics) ­ Classic (Analog) vs Almulhem 2 #12;Forensics Science Forensics (noun): Latin meaning public, forum, discussion Forensic science (forensics) is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal

Almulhem, Ahmad

81

COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics  

E-print Network

121) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Outline · Forensic Science (Forensics) ­ Classic (Analog) vs Digital #12;Forensics Science Forensics (noun): Latin meaning public, forum, discussion Forensic science (forensics) is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal

Almulhem, Ahmad

82

Error and its meaning in forensic science.  

PubMed

The discussion of "error" has gained momentum in forensic science in the wake of the Daubert guidelines and has intensified with the National Academy of Sciences' Report. Error has many different meanings, and too often, forensic practitioners themselves as well as the courts misunderstand scientific error and statistical error rates, often confusing them with practitioner error (or mistakes). Here, we present an overview of these concepts as they pertain to forensic science applications, discussing the difference between practitioner error (including mistakes), instrument error, statistical error, and method error. We urge forensic practitioners to ensure that potential sources of error and method limitations are understood and clearly communicated and advocate that the legal community be informed regarding the differences between interobserver errors, uncertainty, variation, and mistakes. PMID:24111751

Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M; Ousley, Stephen D; Houck, Max M

2014-01-01

83

Chemical profiling of different hashish seizures by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and statistical methodology: a case report.  

PubMed

Limited information is available regarding the methodology required to characterize hashish seizures for assessing the presence or the absence of a chemical link between two seizures. This casework report presents the methodology applied for assessing that two different police seizures were coming from the same block before this latter one was split. The chemical signature was extracted using GC-MS analysis and the implemented methodology consists in a study of intra- and inter-variability distributions based on the measurement of the chemical profiles similarity using a number of hashish seizures and the calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficient. Different statistical scenarios (i.e., a combination of data pretreatment techniques and selection of target compounds) were tested to find the most discriminating one. Seven compounds showing high discrimination capabilities were selected on which a specific statistical data pretreatment was applied. Based on the results, the statistical model built for comparing the hashish seizures leads to low error rates. Therefore, the implemented methodology is suitable for the chemical profiling of hashish seizures. PMID:24008198

Cadola, Liv; Brosus, Julian; Esseiva, Pierre

2013-10-10

84

Leaders in cloud computing and digital forensics from the  

E-print Network

12 Leaders in cloud computing and digital forensics from the government, private, and academic sectors Architects, researchers and implementers of cloud computing and mobility technologies The New Frontiers in Forensic Science Rapid advances in cloud computing require new methodologies for performing

Bentz, Dale P.

85

Integrating Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

2000-01-01

86

Computer Forensics Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of science and education to computer-related crime forensics is still largely limited to law enforcement organizations. Building a suitable workforce development program could support the rapidly growing field of computer and network forensics.

Alec Yasinsac; Robert F. Erbacher; Donald G. Marks; Mark Pollitt; Peter M. Sommer

2003-01-01

87

Content-Based Information Retrieval from Forensic Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In forensic science, the number of image databases is growing rapidly. For this reason, it is necessary to have a proper procedure for searching in these images databases based on content. The use of image databases results in more solved crimes; furthermore, statistical information can be obtained for forensic identification. \\u000aThis thesis investigates the applicability of image-matching algorithms in forensic

Z. J. M. H. Geradts

2002-01-01

88

Projections of Education Statistics to 1992-93. Methodological Report with Detailed Projection Tables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the techniques and assumptions used by the National Center for Education Statistics to prepare the statistical projections used in the center's reports, and it presents many of the resulting projections in tabular form. The report covers projections in key areas of educational statistics, including enrollments, high school

Gerald, Debra E.

89

Forensic entomology in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project Forensic Entomology was started in Frankfurt\\/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is

Jens Amendt; Roman Krettek; Constanze Niess; Richard Zehner; Hansjrgen Bratzke

2000-01-01

90

Introduction to Forensic Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Course Objectives: This course provides a broad overview of forensic anthropology, an applied field of biological anthropology that seeks to recover, identify, and evaluate human skeletal remains within a medico-legal context. In this course, students will learn: to identify the bones of the human skeleton; recovery techniques and initial treatment of forensic material; the techniques used by forensic anthropologists to

P. James Macaluso

2008-01-01

91

Elder Abuse Forensic Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elder abuse forensic centers present a new model of multidisciplinary collaboration on elder abuse cases. The clients of a forensic center are Adult Protective Services (APS), law enforcement, and the Long-term Care Ombudsman. Centers take the basic multidisciplinary team model and add a geriatrician and a psychologist. Additionally, forensic center team members make home visits with APS and others for

Diana Cafaro Schneider; Laura Mosqueda; Erika Falk; George J. Huba

2010-01-01

92

Research methodology in dentistry: Part II The relevance of statistics in research  

PubMed Central

The lifeline of original research depends on adept statistical analysis. However, there have been reports of statistical misconduct in studies that could arise from the inadequate understanding of the fundamental of statistics. There have been several reports on this across medical and dental literature. This article aims at encouraging the reader to approach statistics from its logic rather than its theoretical perspective. The article also provides information on statistical misuse in the Journal of Conservative Dentistry between the years 2008 and 2011 PMID:22876003

Krithikadatta, Jogikalmat; Valarmathi, Srinivasan

2012-01-01

93

Centre for Forensic Science Centre for Forensic Science  

E-print Network

Centre for Forensic Science #12;Centre for Forensic Science · First program in UK and now in itsKie #12;Education, Research & Practice · MSc/PgDip Forensic Science · BSc/MChem Forensic & Analytical Education Research #12;MSc Forensic Science #12;Semester 1 · Lectures and labs to provide grounding in field

Mottram, Nigel

94

Forensic evaluations in psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Forensic psychiatry is an important subspecialty of psychiatry. Forensic psychiatrists play an important role in the society in assisting the judiciary in many complicated cases. In India, forensic psychiatry work is undertaken mostly by the general psychiatrists. Forensic psychiatric assessments are often associated with an element of anxiety or fear for a young psychiatrist. The present paper aims at familiarizing the readers with forensic evaluation in various situations so that they are able to carry out the assessments in real-life situations comfortably. Various steps of forensic assessment in different situations are discussed in the background of real-life cases. Assessment areas include criminal responsibility, fitness to plead, issue of guardianship, assessment of mental status, testamentary capacity and others. The paper gives some general guidelines on forensic psychiatric assessment in practical situations in our country. The readers are advised to refer to the standard textbooks and the Indian law for further details. PMID:24459315

Chadda, R. K.

2013-01-01

95

Bayesian networks for evaluation of evidence from forensic entomology.  

PubMed

In the aftermath of a CBRN incident, there is an urgent need to reconstruct events in order to bring the perpetrators to court and to take preventive actions for the future. The challenge is to discriminate, based on available information, between alternative scenarios. Forensic interpretation is used to evaluate to what extent results from the forensic investigation favor the prosecutors' or the defendants' arguments, using the framework of Bayesian hypothesis testing. Recently, several new scientific disciplines have been used in a forensic context. In the AniBioThreat project, the framework was applied to veterinary forensic pathology, tracing of pathogenic microorganisms, and forensic entomology. Forensic entomology is an important tool for estimating the postmortem interval in, for example, homicide investigations as a complement to more traditional methods. In this article we demonstrate the applicability of the Bayesian framework for evaluating entomological evidence in a forensic investigation through the analysis of a hypothetical scenario involving suspect movement of carcasses from a clandestine laboratory. Probabilities of different findings under the alternative hypotheses were estimated using a combination of statistical analysis of data, expert knowledge, and simulation, and entomological findings are used to update the beliefs about the prosecutors' and defendants' hypotheses and to calculate the value of evidence. The Bayesian framework proved useful for evaluating complex hypotheses using findings from several insect species, accounting for uncertainty about development rate, temperature, and precolonization. The applicability of the forensic statistic approach to evaluating forensic results from a CBRN incident is discussed. PMID:23971824

Andersson, M Gunnar; Sundstrm, Anders; Lindstrm, Anders

2013-09-01

96

Survey of Forensic Service Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government-funded studies, to date, have focused on forensic science within the laboratory setting. Recent studies have suggested that there is a significant amount of forensic services that take place outside of the forensic laboratories. There has been a lack of research that quantifies and benchmarks forensic services performed outside of the traditional forensic laboratories. This study, funded through the West

Randall A. Childs; Tom S. Witt; Kanybek Nur-tegin

2009-01-01

97

The Epistemology of Mathematical and Statistical Modeling: A Quiet Methodological Revolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quiet methodological revolution, a modeling revolution, has occurred over the past several decades, almost without discussion. In contrast, the 20th century ended with contentious argument over the utility of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). The NHST controversy may have been at least partially irrelevant, because in certain ways the

Rodgers, Joseph Lee

2010-01-01

98

Toward a general ontology for digital forensic disciplines.  

PubMed

Ontologies are widely used in different disciplines as a technique for representing and reasoning about domain knowledge. However, despite the widespread ontology-related research activities and applications in different disciplines, the development of ontologies and ontology research activities is still wanting in digital forensics. This paper therefore presents the case for establishing an ontology for digital forensic disciplines. Such an ontology would enable better categorization of the digital forensic disciplines, as well as assist in the development of methodologies and specifications that can offer direction in different areas of digital forensics. This includes such areas as professional specialization, certifications, development of digital forensic tools, curricula, and educational materials. In addition, the ontology presented in this paper can be used, for example, to better organize the digital forensic domain knowledge and explicitly describe the discipline's semantics in a common way. Finally, this paper is meant to spark discussions and further research on an internationally agreed ontological distinction of the digital forensic disciplines. Digital forensic disciplines ontology is a novel approach toward organizing the digital forensic domain knowledge and constitutes the main contribution of this paper. PMID:24931294

Karie, Nickson M; Venter, Hein S

2014-09-01

99

World of Forensic Laboratory Testing  

MedlinePLUS

... Was this page helpful? Overview | Forensic Pathology | Forensic Toxicology | Genetic Tests and DNA Typing | Testing in Cases ... Michael Jackson died in 2009, results of Forensic Toxicology tests on his brain tissue took almost a ...

100

Ask a Forensic Artist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How exactly does one become a forensic artist? It is not easy, and this website provides some rather direct and frank advice about the profession. The Ask a Forensic Artist (AAFA) site is well organized, and first-time visitors should make a beeline for the "FAQ" section. Here they will find answers to questions like "What is 'Forensic Art'?" and "What training is available in Forensic Art?" The remaining sections include "Careers", "Gallery", "Artist Interviews" and the thematic "Categories" area on the right-hand side of the page. The "Artist Interviews" includes profiles with forensic artists working in many fields of law enforcement. The "Gallery" features a few samples of forensic art, and the "Careers" area includes some basic information for those who wish to get started in the field. The site is rounded out by a list of career-related sites and helpful blogs.

101

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

102

Computational Forensics: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive abilities of human expertise modeled using computational methods offer several new possibilities for the forensic\\u000a sciences. They include three areas: providing tools for use by the forensic examiner, establishing a scientific basis for\\u000a the expertise, and providing an alternate opinion on a case. This paper gives a brief overview of computational forensics\\u000a with a focus on those disciplines that

Katrin Franke; Sargur N. Srihari

2008-01-01

103

Overview of Audio Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Audio forensics applies the tools and techniques of audio engineering and digital signal processing to study audio data as\\u000a part of a legal proceeding or an official investigation of some kind. This chapter summarizes the principal audio forensic\\u000a tasks, including authentication, enhancement, and interpretation. The chapter explains the relevant procedural and historical\\u000a background, presents several examples of audio forensic applications,

Robert C. Maher

2010-01-01

104

Court TV: Forensic Files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This companion Web site to the Court TV series _Forensic Files_ offers a virtual forensics lab where visitors can learn more about the different techniques experts use to "put together the pieces of the crime puzzle." Each room of the virtual 3-story lab is dedicated to a different forensic technique, including DNA evidence, bite marks, blood splatter, time of death, and more. Each room offers an explanatory video presentation, as well as an annotated slide show or video of forensics scientists at work.

105

Elder abuse forensic centers.  

PubMed

Elder abuse forensic centers present a new model of multidisciplinary collaboration on elder abuse cases. The "clients" of a forensic center are Adult Protective Services (APS), law enforcement, and the Long-term Care Ombudsman. Centers take the basic multidisciplinary team model and add a geriatrician and a psychologist. Additionally, forensic center team members make home visits with APS and others for the purposes of conducting psychological or medical evaluations, lessening the burden of multiple interviews for the alleged abuse victims, and gathering evidence for possible prosecution. The challenges and successes of the four California forensic center teams are discussed. PMID:20711913

Schneider, Diana Cafaro; Mosqueda, Laura; Falk, Erika; Huba, George J

2010-07-01

106

Framework forensic examination computer systems.  

E-print Network

??This thesis discusses the features and requirements of a computationally intelligent computer forensic system. By introducing a novel concept, "Case-Relevance", a computationally intelligent forensic framework (more)

Gong, Ruibin.

2008-01-01

107

Reconsiderations on evaluating methodology of repellent effects: validation of indices and statistical analyses.  

PubMed

Many pest repellents are in household use, and a variety of procedures, indices, and statistical tests have been used to examine their effectiveness. However, the effect of action mechanism on these indices has not been adequately discussed. In addition, the interreplication variance of data have not been taken into account in some cases. This study considered the validity of tests used to evaluate repellents and proposed methods to statistically evaluate them. First, various repellents with different mechanisms of action were virtually assumed, and their repelling processes were formulated as differential equations. Numerical and analytical analyses of the formulae revealed that, in some action mechanisms, the indices could be altered by parameters other than the repellent effect and that the indices should be used only for repellents of a specific mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of an actual repellent, by using two different experimental designs and the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were evaluated. This demonstrated that the evaluated effectiveness could vary with experimental design and suggested that the design should reflect the situation in which repellents are actually used. Therefore, statistical methods to quantify the effectiveness of repellents are proposed herein and applied to the results of the above-mentioned experiments. Particular emphasis was placed on the importance of incorporating the interreplication variance in statistical models and estimating confidence intervals. Finally, the validity and limitations of evaluation using indices of repellents' effects, and the identification of important criteria that should be considered when assessing the effects of repellents also are discussed. PMID:19886465

Takakura, Koh-Ichi

2009-10-01

108

A new methodology for generating and combining statistical forecasting models to enhance competitive event prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forecasting methods are routinely employed to predict the outcome of competitive events (CEs) and to shed light on the factors that influence participants winning prospects (e.g., in sports events, political elections). Combining statistical models forecasts, shown to be highly successful in other settings, has been neglected in CE prediction. Two particular difficulties arise when developing model-based composite forecasts of CE

Stefan Lessmann; Ming-Chien Sung; Johnnie E. V. Johnson; Tiejun Ma

2012-01-01

109

Matched case-control studies: a review of reported statistical methodology  

PubMed Central

Background Case-control studies are a common and efficient means of studying rare diseases or illnesses with long latency periods. Matching of cases and controls is frequently employed to control the effects of known potential confounding variables. The analysis of matched data requires specific statistical methods. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of published, peer-reviewed matched case-control studies that used statistical methods appropriate for matched data. Using a comprehensive set of search criteria we identified 37 matched case-control studies for detailed analysis. Results Among these 37 articles, only 16 studies were analyzed with proper statistical techniques (43%). Studies that were properly analyzed were more likely to have included case patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease compared to those that did not use proper statistics (10/16 or 63%, versus 5/21 or 24%, P = 0.02). They were also more likely to have matched multiple controls for each case (14/16 or 88%, versus 13/21 or 62%, P = 0.08). In addition, studies with properly analyzed data were more likely to have been published in a journal with an impact factor listed in the top 100 according to the Journal Citation Reports index (12/16 or 69%, versus 1/21 or 5%, P ? 0.0001). Conclusion The findings of this study raise concern that the majority of matched case-control studies report results that are derived from improper statistical analyses. This may lead to errors in estimating the relationship between a disease and exposure, as well as the incorrect adaptation of emerging medical literature. PMID:22570570

Niven, Daniel J; Berthiaume, Luc R; Fick, Gordon H; Laupland, Kevin B

2012-01-01

110

Statistical investigation of Kluyveromyces lactis cells permeabilization with ethanol by response surface methodology  

PubMed Central

The aim of our study was to select the optimal operating conditions to permeabilize Kluyveromyces lactis cells using ethanol as a solvent as an alternative to cell disruption and extraction. Cell permeabilization was carried out by a non-mechanical method consisting of chemical treatment with ethanol, and the results were expressed as ?-galactosidase activity. Experiments were conducted under different conditions of ethanol concentration, treatment time and temperature according to a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), and the collected results were then worked out by response surface methodology (RSM). Cell permeabilization was improved by an increase in ethanol concentration and simultaneous decreases in the incubation temperature and treatment time. Such an approach allowed us to identify an optimal range of the independent variables within which the ?-galactosidase activity was optimized. A maximum permeabilization of 2,816 mmol L?1 oNP min?1 g?1 was obtained by treating cells with 75.0% v/v of ethanol at 20.0 C for 15.0 min. The proposed methodology resulted to be effective and suited for K. lactis cells permeabilization at a lab-scale and promises to be of possible interest for future applications mainly in the food industry. PMID:24688494

de Faria, Janana T.; Rocha, Pollyana F.; Converti, Attilio; Passos, Flvia M.L.; Minim, Luis A.; Sampaio, Fbio C.

2013-01-01

111

Manipulating measurement scales in medical statistical analysis and data mining: A review of methodologies  

PubMed Central

Background: selecting the correct statistical test and data mining method depends highly on the measurement scale of data, type of variables, and purpose of the analysis. Different measurement scales are studied in details and statistical comparison, modeling, and data mining methods are studied based upon using several medical examples. We have presented two ordinalvariables clustering examples, as more challenging variable in analysis, using Wisconsin Breast Cancer Data (WBCD). Ordinal-to-Interval scale conversion example: a breast cancer database of nine 10-level ordinal variables for 683 patients was analyzed by two ordinal-scale clustering methods. The performance of the clustering methods was assessed by comparison with the gold standard groups of malignant and benign cases that had been identified by clinical tests. Results: the sensitivity and accuracy of the two clustering methods were 98% and 96%, respectively. Their specificity was comparable. Conclusion: by using appropriate clustering algorithm based on the measurement scale of the variables in the study, high performance is granted. Moreover, descriptive and inferential statistics in addition to modeling approach must be selected based on the scale of the variables. PMID:24672565

Marateb, Hamid Reza; Mansourian, Marjan; Adibi, Peyman; Farina, Dario

2014-01-01

112

DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It

Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

2008-01-01

113

Making Forensic Attack Event/forensic Analysis as Simple  

E-print Network

science can only answer part of it. · Forensic analysis is an art, but there are scientific componentsMaking Forensic Attack Event/forensic Analysis as Simple as Possible and No Simpler Sean Peisert to focus on non-binary (e.g., post mortem analysis). 5Tuesday, July 22, 2008 #12;What is forensic Analysis

Peisert, Sean

114

FORENSIC SCIENCE The bachelor of science in forensic science at  

E-print Network

FORENSIC SCIENCE The bachelor of science in forensic science at Wichita State University in forensic science at WSU. The academic resources (e.g., teaching, research, facilities) necessary investigations. Admission Freshman and transfer students declaring forensic science as a major will be assigned

115

Forensic Science Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career

Tech Directions, 2010

2010-01-01

116

Audio forensic examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of audio forensics involves many topics familiar to the general audio digital signal processing (DSP) community, such as speech recognition, talker identification, and signal quality enhancement. There is potentially much to be gained by applying modern DSP theory to problems of interest to the forensics community, and this article is written to give the DSP audience some insight

Robert C. Maher

2009-01-01

117

Multimedia Forensics and Security  

E-print Network

of Computer Science at the University of Warwick (UK), editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Digital Crime and Forensics (IJDCF)and associate editor of the International Journal of Applied Systemic StudiesMultimedia Forensics and Security Edited by: Chang-Tsun Li, University of Warwick, UK 13-digit ISBN

Autrusseau, Florent

118

Complexity in Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic Science is an end-to-end process beginning at the scene and finishing in court. There are many opportunities for quality failures along the way. To limit the focus to the validity and robustness of the actual tests does not support the contribution of forensic science to the criminal justice system and risks compromising it. A particularly critical aspect of the

Stan Brown; Sheila Willis

2010-01-01

119

Forensic video image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic video image analysis is a new scientific tool for perpetrator enhancement and identification in poorly recorded crime scene situations. Forensic video image analysis is emerging technology for law enforcement, industrial security and surveillance addressing the following problems often found in these poor quality video recorded incidences.

Edwards, Thomas R.

1997-02-01

120

The use of geoscience methods for terrestrial forensic searches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoscience methods are increasingly being utilised in criminal, environmental and humanitarian forensic investigations, and the use of such methods is supported by a growing body of experimental and theoretical research. Geoscience search techniques can complement traditional methodologies in the search for buried objects, including clandestine graves, weapons, explosives, drugs, illegal weapons, hazardous waste and vehicles. This paper details recent advances in search and detection methods, with case studies and reviews. Relevant examples are given, together with a generalised workflow for search and suggested detection technique(s) table. Forensic geoscience techniques are continuing to rapidly evolve to assist search investigators to detect hitherto difficult to locate forensic targets.

Pringle, J. K.; Ruffell, A.; Jervis, J. R.; Donnelly, L.; McKinley, J.; Hansen, J.; Morgan, R.; Pirrie, D.; Harrison, M.

2012-08-01

121

Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic

American Psychologist, 2013

2013-01-01

122

National Academy of Forensic Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Academy of Forensic Engineers provides a short definition of forensic engineering here. After reading through the definition, click the "Menu" link at the bottom of the page to access the site's main menu. From here, you can find more information on the National Academy of Forensic Engineers, and forensic engineering in general.

2008-04-07

123

FORENSIC TECHNIQUES FOR CELL PHONES  

E-print Network

, is called mobile phone forensics. In general, forensic science is the application of scientific principles for legal, investigative, and public policy purposes. Digital forensic science refers to the preservation incidents. The science of recovering digital evidence from mobile phones, using forensically sound

124

Lecture Notes On Forensic Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers lecture notes relating to an introductory survey course on forensic science. It is designed to provide a comprehensive understanding and analysis of technical and legal issues involving forensic techniques. The lectures, focus on traditional subjects relating to the services of crime laboratories,but also deals with allied subjects,including forensic psychiatry, forensic pathology, and social science.

O'Connor, Tom

2011-07-14

125

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis  

E-print Network

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert (UC San Diego) Matt Bishop (UC Davis) Sid Karin is Forensic Analysis? Forensic analysis is the process of answering the questions: How did an event take place? What was the nature of the event? What were the effects of the event? Forensic analysis applies

Peisert, Sean

126

Application of statistical experimental methodology to optimize reactive dye decolourization by commercial laccase.  

PubMed

Three-level Box-Behnken factorial design with three factors (pH, temperature and enzyme concentration) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the dye degradation of reactive red 239 (RR239), reactive yellow 15 (RY15) and reactive blue 114 (RB114) dyes by commercial laccase. Mathematical models were developed for each dye showing the effect of each factor and their interactions on colour removal. The model predicted for RY15 that a decolourization above 90% (after 24h) could be obtained when the enzyme concentration, temperature and pH were set at 109.8U/L, 39.2 degrees C and 6.6, respectively; whilst for RB114 and RR239 the temperature and enzyme concentration did not affect the decolourization (>90%) in the considered range and optimum pH value was found at 5.5-7.0 and 7.0-7.5, respectively. These predicted values were also experimentally validated. Average final values of responses were in good agreement with calculated values, thus confirming the reliability of the models of RY15, RB114 and RR239 decolourization. PMID:18639377

Tavares, Ana P M; Cristvo, Raquel O; Loureiro, Jos M; Boaventura, Rui A R; Macedo, Eugnia A

2009-03-15

127

STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING TRANSPORT PARAMETERS: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS TO ONE-DOMENSIONAL ADVECTIVE-DISPERSIVE SYSTEMS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A simulation nonlinear multiple-regression methodology for estimating parameters that characterize the transport of contaminants is developed and demonstrated. Finite difference containment transport simulation is combined with a nonlinear weighted least squares multiple-regression procedure. The technique provides optimal parameter estimates and gives statistics for assessing the reliability of these estimates under certain general assumptions about the distributions of the random measurement errors. Monte Carlo analysis is used to estimate parameter reliability for a hypothetical homogeneous soil column for which concentration data contain large random measurement errors. The value of data collected spatially versus data collected temporally was investigated for estimation of velocity, dispersion coefficient, effective porosity, first-order decay rate, and zero-order production. The use of spatial data gave estimates that were 2-3 times more reliable than estimates based on temporal data for all parameters except velocity. (Estimated author abstract) Refs.

Wagner, Brian J.; Gorelick, Steven M.

1986-01-01

128

A Statistical Methodology for Detecting and Monitoring Change in Forest Ecosystems Using Remotely Sensed Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in vegetation phenology, the annual temporal pattern of leaf growth and senescence, can be a strong indicator of ecological change or disturbance. However, phenology is also strongly influenced by seasonal, interannual, and long-term trends in climate, making identification of changes in forest ecosystems a challenge. Forest ecosystems are vulnerable to extreme weather events, insect and disease attacks, wildfire, harvesting, and other land use change. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a remotely sensed measure of greenness, provides a proxy for phenology. NDVI for the conterminous United States (CONUS) derived from the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 250 m resolution was used in this study to develop phenological signatures of ecological regimes called phenoregions. By applying a quantitative data mining technique to the NDVI measurements for every eight days over the entire MODIS record, annual maps of phenoregions were developed. This geospatiotemporal cluster analysis technique employs high performance computing resources, enabling analysis of such very large data sets. This technique produces a prescribed number of prototypical phenological states to which every location belongs in any year. Analysis of the shifts among phenological states yields information about responses to interannual climate variability and, more importantly, changes in ecosystem health due to disturbances. Moreover, a large change in the phenological states occupied by a single location over time indicates a significant disturbance or ecological shift. This methodology has been applied for identification of various forest disturbance events, including wildfire, tree mortality due to Mountain Pine Beetle, and other insect infestation and diseases, as well as extreme events like storms and hurricanes in the U.S. Presented will be results from analysis of phenological state dynamics, along with disturbance and validation data.

Mills, R. T.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.; Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.

2011-12-01

129

Topic in Depth - Forensic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The field of forensic engineering involves the study of products, materials, and structures that fail to function properly. Forensic engineers investigate the problem to locate the source of the failure in order to improve the product or structure. Principles of forensic engineering are applied broadly across many different disciplines. Evidence from forensic engineering investigations is often used in both civil and criminal courts. The resources in this folder provide an overview of many different aspects of the forensic engineering discipline.

2010-09-10

130

Forensic Facial Reconstruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a background of forensic facial reconstruction with a process description on how to give students a reliable laboratory experience from which to learn the origins and insertions of the muscles of facial expression.

Sarah Cooper (Arcadia University)

2008-07-01

131

Forensic Chemistry Lab Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Any aspect of forensic science can be quite tricky, and educators will be delighted to learn about this helpful educational resource designed just for them. Created by Professor Robert Thompson of Oberlin College this online forensic chemistry lab manual is designed to help chemistry faculty in developing forensic chemistry project laboratories for both undergraduate and graduate courses. In this manual, visitors will find sample preparations, procedural details, instructions for students, and typical results in a variety of formats. Along the left-hand side of the homepage, visitors can look through the forensic chemistry analyses, which include explosives, fabric, glass, and arson. The site is rounded out by a selection of "Stories", which are meant to provide the background for chemical analyses of crime scene samples.

Thompson, Robert

132

Forensic speaker recognition  

E-print Network

Looking at the different points highlighted in this article, we affirm that forensic applications of speaker recognition should still be taken under a necessary need for caution. Disseminating this message remains one of ...

Bonstre, Jean-Francois

133

SEM in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic investigation traces of crime scenes are very popular in current TV serial stories. But demonstration of forensic\\u000a scientists work is very schematic and authors mix a lot of special fields of examinations together. All equipment has a special\\u000a effect and it is possible to be used for special determination samples. SEM with EDS\\/WDS makes is possible to observe topography

I. Turkova; M. Kotrly

134

Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics  

SciTech Connect

Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special considerations for the forensic arena - quality control, sample integrity, etc. Mark Wilson (retired FBI): Western Carolina University Chapter 4. Physical signatures: Light and electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gravimetry etc. Joseph Michael, Sandia National Laboratory Chapter 5. Lipids: FAME, PLFA, steroids, LPS, etc. James Robertson, Federal Bureau of Investigation Chapter 6. Carbohydrates: Cell wall components, cytoplasm components, methods Alvin Fox, University of South Carolina School of Medicine David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 7. Peptides: Peptides, proteins, lipoproteins David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 8. Elemental content: CNOHPS (treated in passing), metals, prospective cell types John Cliff, International Atomic Energy Agency Chapter 9. Isotopic signatures: Stable isotopes C,N,H,O,S, 14C dating, potential for heavy elements. Helen Kreuzer-Martin, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Michaele Kashgarian, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Chapter 10. Extracellular signatures: Cellular debris, heme, agar, headspace, spent media, etc Karen Wahl, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 11. Data Reduction and Integrated Microbial Forensics: Statistical concepts, parametric and multivariate statistics, integrating signatures Kristin Jarman, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Cliff, John B.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Wunschel, David S.

2012-01-03

135

Internet and forensic science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet is a very powerful and inexpensive tool that was created for the free distribution of knowledge and information. The Internet is a learning tool, a research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a journal with instant publication, a help desk, and a newspaper/journal with current information. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet also will be a live classroom and everyday conference. Forensic scientists, laboratories and colleges should make use of information already available on the Internet. They also should actively participate and contribute. Very few forensic scientists and laboratories have made their presence felt by setting up their home pages/web pages. But, there is tremendous growth during the past year. Immense benefits from Internet to forensic community are discussed along with the author's personal experience. Creating on-line searchable data bases in all specialties of forensic science is an urgent need. Leading forensic journals should take a lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. On line electronic publishing, collaborative research/paper publishing or editing is easy, fast, economical and convenient through the use of the Internet. Creation of Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Internet also can be used to give training, re-training or advanced training to students/forensic scientists.

Chamakura, Reddy P.

1997-02-01

136

Statistical Laboratory & Department of Statistics  

E-print Network

Statistical Laboratory & Department of Statistics Annual Report July 1, 2005 to December 31, 2006...............................................33 Statistical Computing Section ......................................34 CSSM and statistical methodology in the nutritional sciences. We were also very pleased to secure a permanent lecturer

137

FRNSC 514: Applied Forensic Science Time and Place: M 8:008:50 in 252 Ag Engineering  

E-print Network

FRNSC 514: Applied Forensic Science Statistics Syllabus Time and Place: M 8:00­8:50 in 252 Ag of a project, due at the end of the semester, that tackles some statistical analy- sis related to forensic science. Since students might have their own statistical problems related to their master's research

Hunter, David

138

Curriculum and course materials for a forensic DNA biology course.  

PubMed

The Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) requires accredited programs offer a "coherent curriculum" to ensure each student gains a "thorough grounding of the naturalsciences." Part of this curriculum includes completion of a minimum of 15 semester-hours forensic science coursework, nine of which can involve a class in forensic DNA biology. Departments that have obtained or are pursuing FEPAC accreditation can meet this requirement by offering a stand-alone forensic DNA biology course; however, materials necessary to instruct students are often homegrown and not standardized; in addition, until recently, the community lacked commercially available books, lab manuals, and teaching materials, and many of the best pedagogical resources were scattered across various peer-reviewed journals. The curriculum discussed below is an attempt to synthesize this disparate information, and although certainly not the only acceptable methodology, the below discussion represents "a way" for synthesizing and aggregating this information into a cohesive, comprehensive whole. PMID:24591042

Elkins, Kelly M

2014-01-01

139

Forensic trace DNA: a review  

PubMed Central

DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

2010-01-01

140

Distinguishing between forensic science and forensic pseudoscience: testing of validity and reliability, and approaches to forensic voice comparison.  

PubMed

In this paper it is argued that one should not attempt to directly assess whether a forensic analysis technique is scientifically acceptable. Rather one should first specify what one considers to be appropriate principles governing acceptable practice, then consider any particular approach in light of those principles. This paper focuses on one principle: the validity and reliability of an approach should be empirically tested under conditions reflecting those of the case under investigation using test data drawn from the relevant population. Versions of this principle have been key elements in several reports on forensic science, including forensic voice comparison, published over the last four-and-a-half decades. The aural-spectrographic approach to forensic voice comparison (also known as "voiceprint" or "voicegram" examination) and the currently widely practiced auditory-acoustic-phonetic approach are considered in light of this principle (these two approaches do not appear to be mutually exclusive). Approaches based on data, quantitative measurements, and statistical models are also considered in light of this principle. PMID:24796954

Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

2014-05-01

141

Forensics on a Shoestring Budget  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum

Greco, Joseph A.

2005-01-01

142

Enacting forensics in homicide investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article, co-authored by an academic and a forensic practitioner, describes some of the gaps in current knowledge of the utility of forensic science support to homicide investigations. It also reflects on the experience of a recent pilot study of the use of forensic science in homicide investigations in an English police force to argue for new kinds of research

Robin Williams; Jason Weetman

2012-01-01

143

Forensic Seismology and the Comprehensive  

E-print Network

Forensic Seismology and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty David Bowers and Neil D. Selby discrimination methods, underground explosion source, earthquake source Abstract One application of forensic facing the forensic seismologist is to discriminate between the many thousands of earthquakes

Jellinek, Mark

144

NISTIR 7100 PDA Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7100 PDA Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysis RickAyers WayneJansen #12;ii NISTIR 7100 C O M P U T E R S E C U R I T Y PDA Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis Rick Ayers Wayne Jansen incident, forensic examiners require tools that allow the proper retrieval and speedy examination

145

Nuclear forensics: attributing the source of spent fuel used in an RDD event  

E-print Network

. Spent fuel is one of the most dangerous possible radiological sources for an RDD. In this work, a forensics methodology was developed and implemented to attribute spent fuel to a source reactor. The specific attributes determined are the spent fuel...

Scott, Mark Robert

2005-08-29

146

Implementing statistical learning methods through Bayesian networks (Part 2): Bayesian evaluations for results of black toner analyses in forensic document examination.  

PubMed

This paper presents and discusses the use of Bayesian procedures - introduced through the use of Bayesian networks in Part I of this series of papers - for 'learning' probabilities from data. The discussion will relate to a set of real data on characteristics of black toners commonly used in printing and copying devices. Particular attention is drawn to the incorporation of the proposed procedures as an integral part in probabilistic inference schemes (notably in the form of Bayesian networks) that are intended to address uncertainties related to particular propositions of interest (e.g., whether or not a sample originates from a particular source). The conceptual tenets of the proposed methodologies are presented along with aspects of their practical implementation using currently available Bayesian network software. PMID:20627632

Biedermann, A; Taroni, F; Bozza, S; Mazzella, W D

2011-01-30

147

Forensic Science Center  

SciTech Connect

Since 1991, the Laboratory's Forensic Science Center has focused a comprehensive range of analytical expertise on issues related to non proliferation, counterterrorism, and domestic law enforcement. During this short period, LLNL's singular combination of human and technological resources has made the Center among the best of its kind in the world. The Forensic Science Center houses a variety of state-of-the-art analytical tools ranging from gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers to ultratrace DNA detection techniques. The Center's multidisciplinary staff provides expertise in organic and inorganic analytical chemistry, nuclear science, biochemistry, and genetics useful for supporting law enforcement and for verifying compliance with international treaties and agreements.

Andresen, B.; Grant, P.M.

1994-03-01

148

Research in forensic odontology.  

PubMed Central

Forensic odontology has established itself as an important and often indispensable science in medicolegal matters and in particular in identification of the dead. Much of its expertise is drawn from clinical experience based on basic research and advances in knowledge in dentistry in general. There has also been, particularly during the past two decades, an increasing body of research in specifically forensic dental matters and these studies form the subject of this review. Progress in this field, as in others, will depend upon development of training pathways and research facilities in our dental schools. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:7044254

Whittaker, D. K.

1982-01-01

149

Handbook of Forensic Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious about the procedures used in documenting a crime scene and gathering evidence? Look no further than the official handbook of the FBI Laboratory, "one of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world." The full text of the handbook may be read online in HTML format, divided by chapter. Topics discussed include guidelines for conducting a crime scene search, crime scene safety, guidelines for various types of evidence, and how to pack and ship evidence, among others. Also included at the site are links to the full text of the journal, Forensic Science Communications and to the official sites of the FBI Lab and Library.

1999-01-01

150

Handbook of Forensic Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious about the procedures used in documenting a crime scene and gathering evidence? Look no further than the official handbook of the FBI Laboratory, "one of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world." The full text of the handbook may be read online in HTML format, divided by chapter. Topics discussed include guidelines for conducting a crime scene search, crime scene safety, guidelines for various types of evidence, and how to pack and ship evidence, among others. Also included at the site are links to the full text of the journal, Forensic Science Communications and to the official sites of the FBI Lab and Library.

151

Linda M. Collins, Ph.D., is Professor of Human Development & Family Studies and Professor of Statistics at Penn State. She is also Director of The Methodology Center, an interdisciplinary  

E-print Network

of Statistics at Penn State. She is also Director of The Methodology Center, an interdisciplinary research of Excellence, Center for Prevention and Treatment Methodology. Her research is also funded by the National and Methodology Training Program (T32DA017629). Dr. Collins's research interests include analysis of longitudinal

Contractor, Anis

152

Exploring Trends in Forensic Odontology  

PubMed Central

Background: Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Materials and Methods: Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. Results: A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. Results showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Conclusion: Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology. PMID:25654026

Singh, Narendra Nath; Ain, Tasneem S.; Sultan, Saima

2014-01-01

153

Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

1988-01-01

154

Forensic Applications of LIBS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

155

Inter-Faculty Bachelor of Forensic Science  

E-print Network

Inter-Faculty Bachelor of Forensic Science Forensic science is the study of evidence in criminal of Forensic Science allows you to focus on three major areas of forensic science by choosing a scientific is intended for students interested in the use of DNA and serology in forensic science. 2) The Chemistry

156

Virtual Tour of a Forensic Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour of a forensic laboratory has three floors. Each floor has a number of rooms devoted to a particular forensic specialty. Each room has a slide show of forensic scientists performing their work. All rooms have a video explanation detailing the forensic specialty being visited. Some rooms also have videos of forensic scientists demonstrating analytical techniques.

2012-09-28

157

Statistical Optimization of Process Parameters for Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Triethanolamine-Based Esterquats Using Response Surface Methodology in 2-Liter Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Lipase-catalyzed production of triethanolamine-based esterquat by esterification of oleic acid (OA) with triethanolamine (TEA) in n-hexane was performed in 2?L stirred-tank reactor. A set of experiments was designed by central composite design to process modeling and statistically evaluate the findings. Five independent process variables, including enzyme amount, reaction time, reaction temperature, substrates molar ratio of OA to TEA, and agitation speed, were studied under the given conditions designed by Design Expert software. Experimental data were examined for normality test before data processing stage and skewness and kurtosis indices were determined. The mathematical model developed was found to be adequate and statistically accurate to predict the optimum conversion of product. Response surface methodology with central composite design gave the best performance in this study, and the methodology as a whole has been proven to be adequate for the design and optimization of the enzymatic process. PMID:24324389

Basri, Mahiran; Kassim, Anuar; Kuang Abdullah, Dzulkefly; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa

2013-01-01

158

Statistical methodology for the evaluation of vaccine efficacy in a phase III multi-centre trial of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African children  

PubMed Central

Background There has been much debate about the appropriate statistical methodology for the evaluation of malaria field studies and the challenges in interpreting data arising from these trials. Methods The present paper describes, for a pivotal phase III efficacy of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine, the methods of the statistical analysis and the rationale for their selection. The methods used to estimate efficacy of the primary course of vaccination, and of a booster dose, in preventing clinical episodes of uncomplicated and severe malaria, and to determine the duration of protection, are described. The interpretation of various measures of efficacy in terms of the potential public health impact of the vaccine is discussed. Conclusions The methodology selected to analyse the clinical trial must be scientifically sound, acceptable to regulatory authorities and meaningful to those responsible for malaria control and public health policy. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00866619 PMID:21816030

2011-01-01

159

A hybrid Land Cover Dataset for Russia: a new methodology for merging statistics, remote sensing and in-situ information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a critical need for accurate land cover information for resource assessment, biophysical modeling, greenhouse gas studies, and for estimating possible terrestrial responses and feedbacks to climate change. However, practically all existing land cover datasets have quite a high level of uncertainty and suffer from a lack of important details that does not allow for relevant parameterization, e.g., data derived from different forest inventories. The objective of this study is to develop a methodology in order to create a hybrid land cover dataset at the level which would satisfy requirements of the verified terrestrial biota full greenhouse gas account (Shvidenko et al., 2008) for large regions i.e. Russia. Such requirements necessitate a detailed quantification of land classes (e.g., for forests - dominant species, age, growing stock, net primary production, etc.) with additional information on uncertainties of the major biometric and ecological parameters in the range of 10-20% and a confidence interval of around 0.9. The approach taken here allows the integration of different datasets to explore synergies and in particular the merging and harmonization of land and forest inventories, ecological monitoring, remote sensing data and in-situ information. The following datasets have been integrated: Remote sensing: Global Land Cover 2000 (Fritz et al., 2003), Vegetation Continuous Fields (Hansen et al., 2002), Vegetation Fire (Sukhinin, 2007), Regional land cover (Schmullius et al., 2005); GIS: Soil 1:2.5 Mio (Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute, 1996), Administrative Regions 1:2.5 Mio, Vegetation 1:4 Mio, Bioclimatic Zones 1:4 Mio (Stolbovoi & McCallum, 2002), Forest Enterprises 1:2.5 Mio, Rivers/Lakes and Roads/Railways 1:1 Mio (IIASA's data base); Inventories and statistics: State Land Account (FARSC RF, 2006), State Forest Account - SFA (FFS RF, 2003), Disturbances in forests (FFS RF, 2006). The resulting hybrid land cover dataset at 1-km resolution comprises the following classes: Forest (each grid links to the SFA database, which contains 86,613 records); Agriculture (5 classes, parameterized by 89 administrative units); Wetlands (8 classes, parameterized by 83 zone/region units); Open Woodland, Burnt area; Shrub/grassland (50 classes, parameterized by 300 zone/region units); Water; Unproductive area. This study has demonstrated the ability to produce a highly detailed (both spatially and thematically) land cover dataset over Russia. Future efforts include further validation of the hybrid land cover dataset for Russia, and its use for assessment of the terrestrial biota full greenhouse gas budget across Russia. The methodology proposed in this study could be applied at the global level. Results of such an undertaking would however be highly dependent upon the quality of the available ground data. The implementation of the hybrid land cover dataset was undertaken in a way that it can be regularly updated based on new ground data and remote sensing products (ie. MODIS).

Schepaschenko, D.; McCallum, I.; Shvidenko, A.; Kraxner, F.; Fritz, S.

2009-04-01

160

Statistical analysis of biomechanical properties of the adult skull and age-related structural changes by sex in a Japanese forensic sample.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to investigate the biomechanical properties of the adult human skull and the structural changes that occur with age in both sexes. The heads of 94 Japanese cadavers (54 male cadavers, 40 female cadavers) autopsied in our department were used in this research. A total of 376 cranial samples, four from each skull, were collected. Sample fracture load was measured by a bending test. A statistically significant negative correlation between the sample fracture load and cadaver age was found. This indicates that the stiffness of cranial bones in Japanese individuals decreases with age, and the risk of skull fracture thus probably increases with age. Prior to the bending test, the sample mass, the sample thickness, the ratio of the sample thickness to cadaver stature (ST/CS), and the sample density were measured and calculated. Significant negative correlations between cadaver age and sample thickness, ST/CS, and the sample density were observed only among the female samples. Computerized tomographic (CT) images of 358 cranial samples were available. The computed tomography value (CT value) of cancellous bone which refers to a quantitative scale for describing radiodensity, cancellous bone thickness and cortical bone thickness were measured and calculated. Significant negative correlation between cadaver age and the CT value or cortical bone thickness was observed only among the female samples. These findings suggest that the skull is substantially affected by decreased bone metabolism resulting from osteoporosis. Therefore, osteoporosis prevention and treatment may increase cranial stiffness and reinforce the skull structure, leading to a decrease in the risk of skull fractures. PMID:24183343

Torimitsu, Suguru; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Takano, Tachio; Koizumi, Yoshinori; Makino, Yohsuke; Yajima, Daisuke; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Inokuchi, Go; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Otsuka, Katsura; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Odo, Yuriko; Iwase, Hirotaro

2014-01-01

161

Forensic Analysis of Phone Call Networks  

E-print Network

In the context of preventing and fighting crime, the analysis of mobile phone traffic, among actors of a criminal network, is helpful in order to reconstruct illegal activities on the base of the relationships connecting those specific individuals. Thus, forensic analysts and investigators require new advanced tools and techniques which allow them to manage these data in a meaningful and efficient way. In this paper we present LogAnalysis, a tool we developed to provide visual data representation and filtering, statistical analysis features and the possibility of a temporal analysis of mobile phone activities. Its adoption may help in unveiling the structure of a criminal network and the roles and dynamics of communications among its components. By using LogAnalysis, forensic investigators could deeply understand hierarchies within criminal organizations, for example discovering central members that provide connections among different sub-groups, etc. Moreover, by analyzing the temporal evolution of the conta...

Catanese, Salvatore; Fiumara, Giacomo

2013-01-01

162

By Diana Ha, Undergraduate, UNLV Diversity in Forensics  

E-print Network

be when a forensic pathologist seeks the advice of a forensic science technician that specializes in DNABy Diana Ha, Undergraduate, UNLV Diversity in Forensics Since there is diversity forensic investigators, crime scene photographers, firearm and tool mark examiners, forensic accountants

Walker, Lawrence R.

163

University of Glasgow Forensic Medicine and Science  

E-print Network

University of Glasgow Forensic Medicine and Science COURSE IN FORENSIC MEDICAL SCIENCES Session and Course Fee to: Dr Marjorie Turner Forensic Medicine and Science University of Glasgow Glasgow G12 8QQ Tel

Glasgow, University of

164

Forensic Anthropology Center Department of Anthropology  

E-print Network

Forensic Anthropology Center Department of Anthropology University of Tennessee 250 South Stadium Anthropology Databank. Data Collection Procedures for Forensic Skeletal Material (1994) PM Moore-Jansen, SD: Field Methods in Forensic Anthropology Outdoor Recovery Human Identification Advanced Laboratory

Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

165

Spatial and statistical methodologies to determine the distribution of dengue in Brazilian municipalities and relate incidence with the Health Vulnerability Index.  

PubMed

Dengue fever is among the most important emerging infectious diseases in the world, and in recent years it has been a source of public concern for the public health control systems of many tropical and subtropical countries. Thus, the purpose of this study was to apply spatial and statistical methodologies to analyze the geographic distribution of dengue and to relate its incidence to the Health Vulnerability Index (HVI), an indicator that integrates different socioeconomic variables to estimate the degree of health vulnerability in different Brazilian cities. The cases of dengue, incidence rates and Bayesian incidence rates were determined using census tracts covering a period of 3 years in a city with socioeconomic and administrative characteristics typical of Brazilian municipalities. Distribution plots, descriptive statistics, kernel density maps, test of global and local spatial autocorrelation and Spearman correlation were used. No association was found between the incidence of dengue and the HVI. Conversely, statistically significant high-incidence clusters were found over the 3 years in an area identified as having lower health vulnerability. The finding that HVI was not a good indicator of dengue in the city studied may be explained by the complexity of the disease. Administrative and financial problems in the municipalities, environmental factors, cultural changes and the emergence of new serotypes are other factors that hinder the understanding and control of the disease. However, the spatial and statistical methodologies used here are suitable and useful tools for the accurate understanding of dengue and other infectious epidemiological processes. PMID:25457603

Pastrana, Misael Enrique Oviedo; Brito, Rachel Lage; Nicolino, Rafael Romero; de Oliveira, Camila Stefanie Fonseca; Haddad, Joo Paulo Amaral

2014-10-01

166

Biological Science Initative- Forensic Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides middle and high school teachers and students with concepts and techniques of forensic evidence analysis commonly employed in forensic laboratories. This site contains a series of laboratory exercises that can be downloaded for use in middle and high school settings. Experiments are designed to teach students basic principles and methods of forensic science and to motivate the teaching of science in the classroom. Experiments are designed to teach laboratory and data-collection techniques.

2011-06-09

167

[Forensic aspects of schizophrenia].  

PubMed

Recent research has shown a clear association between schizophrenia and violent behaviour, which cannot be completely explained by co-morbid substance abuse or personality disorders. This increased risk for delinquent behaviour becomes apparent in acts of severe violent crime. Individuals who frequent the penal system often have a history of acute and chronic mental illness, as well as significant rates of co-morbidity; this includes alcohol and drug abuse, lack of motivation in therapy, poor insight regarding their illness, high rates of therapeutic non-compliance, as well as frequent, mostly short-term, contact with general psychiatry prior to forensic institutionalisation. Forensic psychiatric research has developed assessment and treatment tools which are also of great practical importance to general psychiatry. PMID:23132197

Prunnlechner, Regina

2012-12-01

168

RNA in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA analysis offers insight into diseases and mechanisms leading to death and could develop into a valuable tool for diagnosis of the cause of death in forensic pathology. Other possible applications include the determination of the age of wounds and injuries and of the post-mortem interval. The molecular identification of body fluids by analysis of cell-specific mRNA expression already represents

M. Bauer

2007-01-01

169

Introduction to Forensic Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic anthropology is the application of biological anthropology principals and knowledge of the human skeleton to medicolegal\\u000a casework. The specialized skill set brought by the anthropologist to the crime scene insures a comprehensive recognition of\\u000a human remains, proper documentation of the scene, and identification and collection of potentially associated evidence. An\\u000a understanding of decomposition patterns, taphonomic processes, and thermal alteration

Jennifer C. Love; Michelle D. Hamilton

170

Parricide: a forensic approach.  

PubMed

Parricide is the act of murdering one's father (patricide), mother (matricide) or other close relative, but usually not children (infanticide). It is a rare event and little information is available on this topic. This study aims to increase knowledge about this phenomenon, promoting the timely detection of problematic cases and avoiding fatalities. A retrospective study based on the autopsy reports of parricide victims performed by the North Services of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal between 2003 and 2011, as well as on the judicial outcome of each case, was performed. Seven cases of parricide were found, corresponding to 1.7% of all the homicides undergoing forensic evaluated. Victims and perpetrators were typically males. The assaults occurred all at home, in the presence of witnesses, and the perpetrator remained at the scene after the crime. The main alleged reasons were untreated psychiatric illness and financial conflicts in the cases of adult parricide, and attempts to protect the mother from intimate partner violence in younger ones. The judicial outcomes ranged from acquittal for nonimputability to conviction for murder, manslaughter or involuntary manslaughter. This study was carried out on a forensic sample and it is useful to implement strategies to prevent parricide. PMID:24485411

Dantas, Soraia; Santos, Agostinho; Dias, Isabel; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhes, Teresa

2014-02-01

171

NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence

2011-01-01

172

Digital Forensics Using Local Signal Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rapid growth of the Internet and the popularity of digital imaging devices, digital imagery has become our major information source. Meanwhile, the development of digital manipulation techniques employed by most image editing software brings new challenges to the credibility of photographic images as the definite records of events. We

Pan, Xunyu

2011-01-01

173

A New Anti-forensic Scheme-Hiding the Single JPEG Compression Trace for Digital Image.  

PubMed

To prevent image forgeries, a number of forensic techniques for digital image have been developed that can detect an image's origin, trace its processing history, and can also locate the position of tampering. Especially, the statistical footprint left by JPEG compression operation can be a valuable source of information for the forensic analyst, and some image forensic algorithm have been raised based on the image statistics in the DCT domain. Recently, it has been shown that footprints can be removed by adding a suitable anti-forensic dithering signal to the image in the DCT domain, this results in invalid for some image forensic algorithms. In this paper, a novel anti-forensic algorithm is proposed, which is capable of concealing the quantization artifacts that left in the single JPEG compressed image. In the scheme, a chaos-based dither is added to an image's DCT coefficients to remove such artifacts. Effectiveness of both the scheme and the loss of image quality are evaluated through the experiments. The simulation results show that the proposed anti-forensic scheme can verify the reliability of the JPEG forensic tools. PMID:25442510

Cao, Yanjun; Gao, Tiegang; Sheng, Guorui; Fan, Li; Gao, Lin

2015-01-01

174

Computational Forensics: Towards Hybrid-Intelligent Crime Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, mathematical, statistical and computer science methods have found extensive application in developing new procedures for crime investigation, prosecution and the enforcement of law. Computer-based methods have also become important tools for performing certain forensic functions. Yet, knowledge and intuition of the human expert plays a central role. This paper gives a brief overview of the potential of

Katrin Franke; Sargur N. Srihari

2007-01-01

175

A Methodological Review of Statistical Methods for Handling Multilevel Non-Nested Longitudinal Data in Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As applications of multilevel modelling in educational research increase, researchers realize that multilevel data collected in many educational settings are often not purely nested. The most common multilevel non-nested data structure is one that involves student mobility in longitudinal studies. This article provides a methodological review of

Sun, Shuyan; Pan, Wei

2014-01-01

176

Forensic standardizations in torture and death in custody investigations  

PubMed Central

Torture and death in custody have incurred rapid development as juridical subject in recent years in Europe, with the implementation of the European Convention of Human Rights. Evaluation of sufferance severity, which is the consequence of pathology with chronic evolution, the predictability of decompensation of a subclinical pathology, and translating these medical information on a scale measuring the severity of detention consequences, are all challenges for the modern detention healthcare system, in which most allegations of torture are due to lack of appropriate medical treatment administered to inmates. Where ethics are concerned, the main data difficulties are addressed in ethical conflicts between officials and experts of the parties and also between experts and judiciary officials who handle cases of torture or death in detention; this is why standardization is very important in such cases both in clinical expertise and in autopsies or exhumations. Discussions: We must improve the forensic expertise methodology, the process of collecting data with statistical purposes, and sound evaluation criteria, all in a strong connection with the need for a balanced legal framework applied in the case of civil compensations granted after death in custody, and the biunique relation between medico-legal expertise and case investigation has to be standardized. PMID:24265878

2012-01-01

177

Oxygen isotopic measurements by secondary ion mass spectrometry in uranium oxide microparticles: a nuclear forensic diagnostic.  

PubMed

To exploit oxygen isotopic measurement by SIMS as a diagnostic tool in nuclear forensics, the magnitude and reproducibility of 0-isotope instrumental mass discrimination for O-isotope standards in the SIMS laboratory at the Institute for Transuranium Elements has been evaluated. Tests for matrix-dependent discrimination effects on three different O-isotope standards with substantially different matrix compositions have been performed. The results were checked by an interlaboratory comparison of O-isotope discrimination with those obtained in the SIMS laboratory at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on two standards. The results from the two laboratories are in very good agreement, indicating statistically indistinguishable instrumental mass discrimination factors for 180/160 ratios on the Cameca 6f and 3f, when the analyses are performed under the experimental conditions described. The 2sigma(mean) uncertainties of these factors are in the range of 0.3-0.9%. In accordance with the tested methodology, 0-isotope compositions were measured in three particulate uranium oxide samples of nuclear forensics interest. PMID:12498207

Tamborini, G; Phinney, D; Blidstein, O; Betti, M

2002-12-01

178

Forensic anthropology in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic anthropology has been one of the fastest growing medicolegal disciplines both in its contribution to the practical needs of the legal system and research accomplishments. New anthropological standards were developed to apply to a specific population of a region. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a large sample of anthropological forensic cases and to review pertinent literature

M Ya?ar ??can; Horacio Elbio Solla Olivera

2000-01-01

179

Pediatric Forensic Pathology in Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric forensic pathology is an area of medicine that has only received attention relatively recently as a subspecialization of forensic pathology dealing with cases involving children, i.e., it is the study of diseases and injuries of children with subsequent medicolegal interpretation of findings for police and the courts. Unfortunately, the mere naming of an area of medicine does not automatically

Roger W. Byard; Henry F. Krous

2004-01-01

180

International Standards in Forensic DNA  

E-print Network

2014: "Minimum Requirements for DNA Collection, Analysis, and Interpretation" US & Canada Europe Groups · ISFG DNA Commission (International) · FBI DNA Advisory Board (U.S.) · SWGDAM (U.S.) · ENFSI DNA/NZ) · Asian Forensic Science Network DNA WG (Asia) · NCFS and OSAC (U.S.) Butler, J.M. (2013) Forensic DNA

181

Encoded evidence: DNA in forensic analysis.  

PubMed

Sherlock Holmes said "it has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important", but never imagined that such a little thing, the DNA molecule, could become perhaps the most powerful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Twenty years after the development of DNA fingerprinting, forensic DNA analysis is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects and the identification of victims of crimes, accidents and disasters, driving the development of innovative methods in molecular genetics, statistics and the use of massive intelligence databases. PMID:15510165

Jobling, Mark A; Gill, Peter

2004-10-01

182

Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to

Torpey, Elka Maria

2009-01-01

183

Global Forensic Science Collaboration: Standards and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on a presentation (Lucas 2011) by the author at a session organized by the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) at the International Association of Forensic Sciences Meeting in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, on September 16, 2011. The title of the session was Global Research: The Forensic Science Edge. The global nature of AAFS, forensic science, and

Douglas M. Lucas

2011-01-01

184

National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and  

E-print Network

National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science NEAFS Plenary Session Hershey, PA November 5, 2014 #12;NCFS and OSAC: U.S. Efforts to Strengthen Forensic Science · National

185

Forensic Computing Xiang Li and Jennifer Seberry  

E-print Network

Forensic Computing Xiang Li and Jennifer Seberry #3; Abstract Technology is rapidly changing continuously improve to keep one step ahead. Computer forensics has become a specialized and accepted forensic software is also widely used during the whole process of computer forensic investigation

Seberry, Jennifer

186

NISTIR 7516 Forensic Filtering of Cell  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7516 Forensic Filtering of Cell Phone Protocols AurélienDelaitre WayneJansen #12;ii Forensic of Standards and Technology Interagency Report 42 pages (2008) iii #12;Abstract Phone managers are non-forensic managers are sometimes used by forensic investigators to recover data from a cell phone when no suitable

187

Forensic Science: Middle School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This resource guide for middle school educators provides background content knowledge, lessons and activities, career information, and ideas for integrating forensics topics and concepts into existing units commonly taught in middle level science - for example, nature of science, methods of science, biology, engineering or genetics units. One section shows the alignment of resources to the National Science Education Standards.

Lefever, Mary

2009-07-01

188

An innovative methodological approach in the frame of Marine Strategy Framework Directive: a statistical model based on ship detection SAR data for monitoring programmes.  

PubMed

The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) is focused on protection, preservation and restoration of the marine environment by achieving and maintaining Good Environmental Status (GES) by 2020. Within this context, this paper presents a methodological approach for a fast and repeatable monitoring that allows quantitative assessment of seabed abrasion pressure due to recreational boat anchoring. The methodology consists of two steps: a semi-automatic procedure based on an algorithm for the ship detection in SAR imagery and a statistical model to obtain maps of spatial and temporal distribution density of anchored boats. Ship detection processing has been performed on 36 ASAR VV-pol images of Liguria test site, for the three years 2008, 2009 and 2010. Starting from the pointwise distribution layer produced by ship detection in imagery, boats points have been subdivided into 4 areas where a constant distribution density has been assumed for the entire period 2008-2010. In the future, this methodology will be applied also to higher resolution data of Sentinel-1 mission, specifically designed for the operational needs of the European Programme Copernicus. PMID:25096752

Pieralice, Francesca; Proietti, Raffaele; La Valle, Paola; Giorgi, Giordano; Mazzolena, Marco; Taramelli, Andrea; Nicoletti, Luisa

2014-12-01

189

Nanoparticles in forensic science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

Cantu, Antonio A.

2008-10-01

190

The state of nuclear forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

2013-01-01

191

Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

Gaensslen, Robert E.

2002-01-01

192

NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

Nichols, T.

2011-02-07

193

Determination of Adult Age at Death in the Forensic Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-at-death assessment faces biological and methodological problems. Age-related processes show great variation, both within\\u000a and between populations. However, in forensic contexts, this parameter is crucial for identification, and both accuracy and\\u000a reliability are required. Rather than proposing a list of various methods, the aim of this chapter is to suggest the most\\u000a appropriate methods according to the indicators available for

Eric Baccino; Aurore Schmitt

194

Development of Statistical Process Control Methodology for an Environmentally Compliant Surface Cleaning Process in a Bonding Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bonding labs at both MSFC and the northern Utah production plant prepare bond test specimens which simulate or witness the production of NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The current process for preparing the bonding surfaces employs 1,1,1-trichloroethane vapor degreasing, which simulates the current RSRM process. Government regulations (e.g., the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act) have mandated a production phase-out of a number of ozone depleting compounds (ODC) including 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In order to comply with these regulations, the RSRM Program is qualifying a spray-in-air (SIA) precision cleaning process using Brulin 1990, an aqueous blend of surfactants. Accordingly, surface preparation prior to bonding process simulation test specimens must reflect the new production cleaning process. The Bonding Lab Statistical Process Control (SPC) program monitors the progress of the lab and its capabilities, as well as certifies the bonding technicians, by periodically preparing D6AC steel tensile adhesion panels with EA-91 3NA epoxy adhesive using a standardized process. SPC methods are then used to ensure the process is statistically in control, thus producing reliable data for bonding studies, and identify any problems which might develop. Since the specimen cleaning process is being changed, new SPC limits must be established. This report summarizes side-by-side testing of D6AC steel tensile adhesion witness panels and tapered double cantilevered beams (TDCBs) using both the current baseline vapor degreasing process and a lab-scale spray-in-air process. A Proceco 26 inches Typhoon dishwasher cleaned both tensile adhesion witness panels and TDCBs in a process which simulates the new production process. The tests were performed six times during 1995, subsequent statistical analysis of the data established new upper control limits (UCL) and lower control limits (LCL). The data also demonstrated that the new process was equivalent to the vapor degreasing process.

Hutchens, Dale E.; Doan, Patrick A.; Boothe, Richard E.

1997-01-01

195

Age Estimation in Forensic Sciences  

PubMed Central

Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (19551963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 (14C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2 = 0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 1.0 0.6 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification. PMID:19965905

Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L.

2010-01-01

196

Forensic Science--A Proposal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

1973-01-01

197

UT Knoxville: Forensic Anthropology Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Consider this: A hunter finds what she believes is a human skull deep in the woods. She calls the police. Who do the police call? A forensic anthropologist, of course, who comes to the site and examines the skull to determine whether the skull is, indeed, human, whether it is male or female, and how old the person was upon death. The Forensic Anthropology Center at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville trains forensic anthropologists for just this sort of work. Start with the homepage, where you can read up on the department, started in 1987 by Dr. William M. Bass. Next, follow a quick link to What is Forensic Anthropology? for an informative overview of the field. Also of interest, are the Short Courses, News, and, for those feeling philanthropic, Body Donation sections of the site.

198

National Forensic League  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over its eighty year history, the NFL has graduated such notable alumni as President Lyndon Baines Johnson, Oprah Winfrey, Jane Pauley, and Don Ameche. They never played a moment in the NFL that celebrates the legends of the gridiron, but rather they honed their powers of persuasion and oratory in the National Forensic League. Over one million additional alums have joined these well-known personages, and persons who wish to know more about the organization and its operations will want to take a close look at their site. From the homepage, visitors can move through sections that provide hands-on resources that will help both students and coaches get familiar with the world of debate. Most of these resources are located in the "Coaching Resources" area, and are divided into such topics as speech assignments, vocabulary, and peer evaluations.

2007-03-01

199

National Forensic League  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over its eighty year history, the NFL has graduated such notable alumni as President Lyndon Baines Johnson, Oprah Winfrey, Jane Pauley, and Don Ameche. They never played a moment in the NFL that celebrates the legends of the gridiron, but rather they honed their powers of persuasion and oratory in the National Forensic League. Over one million additional alums have joined these well-known personages, and persons who wish to know more about the organization and its operations will want to take a close look at their site. From the homepage, visitors can move through sections that provide hands-on resources that will help both students and coaches get familiar with the world of debate. Most of these resources are located in the "Coaching Resources" area, and are divided into such topics as speech assignments, vocabulary, and peer evaluations.

200

How to Improve Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some institutional structures for inquiry produce better approximations to truth than others. The current institutional structure\\u000a of police forensics gives each lab a monopoly in the analysis of the police evidence it receives. Forensic workers have inadequate\\u000a incentives to produce reliable analyses of police evidence. Competition would create such incentives. I outline a system of\\u000a competitive self regulation for police

Roger Koppl

2005-01-01

201

Forensic entomology: applications and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main\\u000a application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the\\u000a age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the\\u000a corpse. In

J. AmendtC; C. S. Richards; C. P. Campobasso; R. Zehner; M. J. R. Hall

202

Forensic document analysis using scanning microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authentication and identification of the source of a printed document(s) can be important in forensic investigations involving a wide range of fraudulent materials, including counterfeit currency, travel and identity documents, business and personal checks, money orders, prescription labels, travelers checks, medical records, financial documents and threatening correspondence. The physical and chemical characterization of document materials - including paper, writing inks and printed media - is becoming increasingly relevant for law enforcement agencies, with the availability of a wide variety of sophisticated commercial printers and copiers which are capable of producing fraudulent documents of extremely high print quality, rendering these difficult to distinguish from genuine documents. This paper describes various applications and analytical methodologies using scanning electron miscoscopy/energy dispersive (x-ray) spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and related technologies for the characterization of fraudulent documents, and illustrates how their morphological and chemical profiles can be compared to (1) authenticate and (2) link forensic documents with a common source(s) in their production history.

Shaffer, Douglas K.

2009-05-01

203

Validation of a multiplex PCR assay for the forensic identification of Indian crocodiles.  

PubMed

A dependable and efficient wildlife species identification system is essential for swift dispensation of the justice linking wildlife crimes. Development of molecular techniques is befitting the need of the time. The forensic laboratories often receive highly ill-treated samples for identification purposes, and thus, validation of any novel methodology is necessary for forensic usage. We validate a novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay, developed at this laboratory for the forensic identification of three Indian crocodiles, Crocodylus palustris, Crocodylus porosus, and Gavialis gangeticus, following the guidelines of Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods. The multiplex PCR was tested for its specificity, reproducibility, sensitivity, and stability. This study also includes the samples treated with various chemical substances and exposed to various environmental regimes. The result of this validation study promises this technique to be an efficient identification tool for Indian crocodiles and therefore is recommended for forensic purposes. PMID:21595696

Meganathan, Poorlin Ramakodi; Dubey, Bhawna; Jogayya, Kothakota Naga; Haque, Ikramul

2011-09-01

204

Statistical analysis of spectral data: a methodology for designing an intelligent monitoring system for the diabetic foot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection of (pre-)signs of ulceration on a diabetic foot is valuable for clinical practice. Hyperspectral imaging is a promising technique for detection and classification of such (pre-)signs. However, the number of the spectral bands should be limited to avoid overfitting, which is critical for pixel classification with hyperspectral image data. The goal was to design a detector/classifier based on spectral imaging (SI) with a small number of optical bandpass filters. The performance and stability of the design were also investigated. The selection of the bandpass filters boils down to a feature selection problem. A dataset was built, containing reflectance spectra of 227 skin spots from 64 patients, measured with a spectrometer. Each skin spot was annotated manually by clinicians as "healthy" or a specific (pre-)sign of ulceration. Statistical analysis on the data set showed the number of required filters is between 3 and 7, depending on additional constraints on the filter set. The stability analysis revealed that shot noise was the most critical factor affecting the classification performance. It indicated that this impact could be avoided in future SI systems with a camera sensor whose saturation level is higher than 106, or by postimage processing.

Liu, Chanjuan; van Netten, Jaap J.; Klein, Marvin E.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Bus, Sicco A.; van der Heijden, Ferdi

2013-12-01

205

Statistical analysis of spectral data: a methodology for designing an intelligent monitoring system for the diabetic foot.  

PubMed

Early detection of (pre-)signs of ulceration on a diabetic foot is valuable for clinical practice. Hyperspectral imaging is a promising technique for detection and classification of such (pre-)signs. However, the number of the spectral bands should be limited to avoid overfitting, which is critical for pixel classification with hyperspectral image data. The goal was to design a detector/classifier based on spectral imaging (SI) with a small number of optical bandpass filters. The performance and stability of the design were also investigated. The selection of the bandpass filters boils down to a feature selection problem. A dataset was built, containing reflectance spectra of 227 skin spots from 64 patients, measured with a spectrometer. Each skin spot was annotated manually by clinicians as "healthy" or a specific (pre-)sign of ulceration. Statistical analysis on the data set showed the number of required filters is between 3 and 7, depending on additional constraints on the filter set. The stability analysis revealed that shot noise was the most critical factor affecting the classification performance. It indicated that this impact could be avoided in future SI systems with a camera sensor whose saturation level is higher than 106, or by postimage processing. PMID:24337494

Liu, Chanjuan; van Netten, Jaap J; Klein, Marvin E; van Baal, Jeff G; Bus, Sicco A; van der Heijden, Ferdi

2013-12-01

206

A study of two unsupervised data driven statistical methodologies for detecting and classifying damages in structural health monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is concerned with the practical use of Multiway Principal Component Analysis (MPCA), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Squared Prediction Error (SPE) measures and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) to detect and classify damages in mechanical structures. The formalism is based on a distributed piezoelectric active sensor network for the excitation and detection of structural dynamic responses. Statistical models are built using PCA when the structure is known to be healthy either directly from the dynamic responses or from wavelet coefficients at different scales representing Time-frequency information. Different damages on the tested structures are simulated by adding masses at different positions. The data from the structure in different states (damaged or not) are then projected into the different principal component models by each actuator in order to obtain the input feature vectors for a SOM from the scores and the SPE measures. An aircraft fuselage from an Airbus A320 and a multi-layered carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plate are used as examples to test the approaches. Results are presented, compared and discussed in order to determine their potential in structural health monitoring. These results showed that all the simulated damages were detectable and the selected features proved capable of separating all damage conditions from the undamaged state for both approaches.

Tibaduiza, D.-A.; Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Mujica, L. E.; Rodellar, J.; Fritzen, C.-P.

2013-12-01

207

UC Davis Forensic Science Graduate Program Proposed curriculum changes to the MS Degree in Forensic Science  

E-print Network

1 UC Davis Forensic Science Graduate Program Proposed curriculum changes to the MS Degree in Forensic Science (Graduate Council approved June 21, 2007) Background The Graduate Forensic Science M reflection of that research effort would be 18-36 research units. Initial Forensic Science Curriculum 2001

Ullrich, Paul

208

Psy 4993, 8993 Forensic Psych Seminar --Spring 2002 --Page 1 of 10 Forensic Psychology Seminar  

E-print Network

Psy 4993, 8993 Forensic Psych Seminar -- Spring 2002 -- Page 1 of 10 Forensic Psychology Seminar Hall, Fridays 9:10­11:00 a.m. Objectives: To provide coverage of relevant topics in forensic psychology listed topics will be bumped. We may have guest speakers in specialty forensic areas; this is currently

Grove, William M.

209

Modeling senescence changes of the pubic symphysis in historic Italian populations: A comparison of the Rostock and forensic approaches to aging using transition analysis.  

PubMed

Age-related anatomical changes to the surface of the pubic symphysis are well-documented in the literature. However, aligning these morphological changes with chronological age has proven problematic, often resulting in biased age estimates. Statistical modeling provides an avenue for forensic anthropologists and bioarchaeologists to increase the accuracy of traditional aging methods. Locating appropriate samples to use as a basis for modeling age estimations can be challenging due to differing sample age distributions and potentially varying patterns of senescence. We compared two approaches, Rostock and Forensic, coupled with a Bayesian methodology, to address these issues. Transition analysis was run specific to each method (which differ by sample selection). A Gompertz model was derived from an informative prior that yielded the mortality and senescence parameters for constructing highest posterior density ranges, i.e., coverages, which are analogous to age ranges. These age ranges were generated from both approaches and are presented as reference tables useful for historic male and female Italian samples. The age ranges produced from each approach were tested on an historic Italian sample, using cumulative binomial tests. These two approaches performed similarly, with the Forensic approach showing a slight advantage. However, the Forensic approach is unable to identify varying senescence patterns between populations, thus preference for one approach over the other will depend on research design. Finally, we demonstrate that while populations exhibit similar morphological changes with advancing age, there are no significant sex differences in these samples, and the timing of these changes varies from population to population. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:466-473, 2015. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25407762

Godde, Kanya; Hens, Samantha M

2015-03-01

210

Group contribution methodology based on the statistical associating fluid theory for heteronuclear molecules formed from Mie segments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalization of the recent version of the statistical associating fluid theory for variable range Mie potentials [Lafitte et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 154504 (2013)] is formulated within the framework of a group contribution approach (SAFT-? Mie). Molecules are represented as comprising distinct functional (chemical) groups based on a fused heteronuclear molecular model, where the interactions between segments are described with the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jonesium) potential of variable attractive and repulsive range. A key feature of the new theory is the accurate description of the monomeric group-group interactions by application of a high-temperature perturbation expansion up to third order. The capabilities of the SAFT-? Mie approach are exemplified by studying the thermodynamic properties of two chemical families, the n-alkanes and the n-alkyl esters, by developing parameters for the methyl, methylene, and carboxylate functional groups (CH3, CH2, and COO). The approach is shown to describe accurately the fluid-phase behavior of the compounds considered with absolute average deviations of 1.20% and 0.42% for the vapor pressure and saturated liquid density, respectively, which represents a clear improvement over other existing SAFT-based group contribution approaches. The use of Mie potentials to describe the group-group interaction is shown to allow accurate simultaneous descriptions of the fluid-phase behavior and second-order thermodynamic derivative properties of the pure fluids based on a single set of group parameters. Furthermore, the application of the perturbation expansion to third order for the description of the reference monomeric fluid improves the predictions of the theory for the fluid-phase behavior of pure components in the near-critical region. The predictive capabilities of the approach stem from its formulation within a group-contribution formalism: predictions of the fluid-phase behavior and thermodynamic derivative properties of compounds not included in the development of group parameters are demonstrated. The performance of the theory is also critically assessed with predictions of the fluid-phase behavior (vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria) and excess thermodynamic properties of a variety of binary mixtures, including polymer solutions, where very good agreement with the experimental data is seen, without the need for adjustable mixture parameters.

Papaioannou, Vasileios; Lafitte, Thomas; Avendao, Carlos; Adjiman, Claire S.; Jackson, George; Mller, Erich A.; Galindo, Amparo

2014-02-01

211

Group contribution methodology based on the statistical associating fluid theory for heteronuclear molecules formed from Mie segments  

SciTech Connect

A generalization of the recent version of the statistical associating fluid theory for variable range Mie potentials [Lafitte et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 154504 (2013)] is formulated within the framework of a group contribution approach (SAFT-? Mie). Molecules are represented as comprising distinct functional (chemical) groups based on a fused heteronuclear molecular model, where the interactions between segments are described with the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jonesium) potential of variable attractive and repulsive range. A key feature of the new theory is the accurate description of the monomeric group-group interactions by application of a high-temperature perturbation expansion up to third order. The capabilities of the SAFT-? Mie approach are exemplified by studying the thermodynamic properties of two chemical families, the n-alkanes and the n-alkyl esters, by developing parameters for the methyl, methylene, and carboxylate functional groups (CH{sub 3}, CH{sub 2}, and COO). The approach is shown to describe accurately the fluid-phase behavior of the compounds considered with absolute average deviations of 1.20% and 0.42% for the vapor pressure and saturated liquid density, respectively, which represents a clear improvement over other existing SAFT-based group contribution approaches. The use of Mie potentials to describe the group-group interaction is shown to allow accurate simultaneous descriptions of the fluid-phase behavior and second-order thermodynamic derivative properties of the pure fluids based on a single set of group parameters. Furthermore, the application of the perturbation expansion to third order for the description of the reference monomeric fluid improves the predictions of the theory for the fluid-phase behavior of pure components in the near-critical region. The predictive capabilities of the approach stem from its formulation within a group-contribution formalism: predictions of the fluid-phase behavior and thermodynamic derivative properties of compounds not included in the development of group parameters are demonstrated. The performance of the theory is also critically assessed with predictions of the fluid-phase behavior (vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria) and excess thermodynamic properties of a variety of binary mixtures, including polymer solutions, where very good agreement with the experimental data is seen, without the need for adjustable mixture parameters.

Papaioannou, Vasileios; Lafitte, Thomas; Adjiman, Claire S.; Jackson, George; Mller, Erich A.; Galindo, Amparo, E-mail: a.galindo@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Avendao, Carlos [Department of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom) [Department of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

2014-02-07

212

A Fuzzy Expert System for Network Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The field of digital forensic science emerged as a response to the growth of a computer crime. Digital forensics is the art\\u000a of discovering and retrieving information about a crime in such a way to make digital evidence admissible in court. Especially,\\u000a network forensics is digital forensic science in networked environments. The more network traffic, the harder network analyzing.\\u000a Therefore,

Jung-sun Kim; Minsoo Kim; Bong-Nam Noh

2004-01-01

213

Semantic based DNS Forensics Samuel Marchal1  

E-print Network

Semantic based DNS Forensics Samuel Marchal1 , J´er^ome Franc¸ois1 , Radu State1 , Thomas Engel1 1.lastname@uni.lu Abstract--In network level forensics, Domain Name Service (DNS) is a rich source of information. This paper describes a new approach to mine DNS data for forensic purposes. We propose a new technique that leverages

Boyer, Edmond

214

Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

1985-01-01

215

National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and  

E-print Network

National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC and Technology NIST Fellow & Special Assistant to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science GenomeID Forum Greenville, NC September 10, 2014 #12;Material Measurement

216

NCSU Forensic Science Symposium December 6, 2011  

E-print Network

4th NCSU Forensic Science Symposium December 6, 2011 Convocation Room, College of Textiles, NCSU of North Texas 10:15 Break 10:45 Veterinary Forensic Science & Disaster Response Dr. Jason Byrd Associate Tulleners, MSFS Director, Forensic Science Graduate Program University of California at Davis 2:00 Overview

Langerhans, Brian

217

Meet Your Specialist 1 Forensic Entomology 1  

E-print Network

Meet Your Specialist 1 Forensic Entomology 1 Four Years of Making 4-H Fitness 2 Fun Kids Fishing Meet Your Specialist 1 Forensic Entomology 1 Four Years of Making 4-H Fitness 2 Fun Kids Fishing variety." Forensic Entomology Thirty middle school students in Collier County were introduced to the world

Jawitz, James W.

218

Forensic Imaging and Art Herbert Buckley  

E-print Network

Forensic Imaging and Art Herbert Buckley Director, Forensic Imaging, New York State Police 4pm, Wed., April 23, 2008 Auditorium of the Center for Imaging Science wwwwwwwww by the Forensic Imaging Office of the New York State Police are physiognomical (facial) reconstruction of skeletal

Zanibbi, Richard

219

Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 89124  

E-print Network

Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 89­124 Advances in capillary electrophoresis a ,b , a c Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. PII S0379-0738(98)00011-5 #12;90 Z. Deyl et al. / Forensic Science by this technique. Because in forensic science we are nearly always faced with complex natural samples in the most

Miksik, Ivan

220

Zoology 4053, Sec. 050 Forensic Entomology  

E-print Network

will explore the use of insects in the science of Forensic Entomology and its impact on death sceneZoology 4053, Sec. 050 Forensic Entomology University of Oklahoma Biological Station May 2012 TA: TBA email: TBA Course Description Forensic Entomology is the application of entomological

Oklahoma, University of

221

The Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit  

E-print Network

The Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit Head: Prof. Dr. M. Osterheider 3rd Summer Conference Research in Forensic Psychiatry Regensburg, Germany May 31 - June 2, 2007 #12;3 3rdSummerConference Dear in Forensic Psychiatry. With renowned keynote speakers from Germany and the USA and with several highly

Schubart, Christoph

222

Summer Conference: Research in Forensic Psychiatry  

E-print Network

1st Summer Conference: Research in Forensic Psychiatry The University of Regensburg Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit Head: Prof. Dr. med. Michael Osterheider Universitätsstrasse 84 D-93053 Conference: Research in Forensic Psychiatry in Regensburg. The conference schedule comprises nearly fifty

Schubart, Christoph

223

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert  

E-print Network

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert Matt Bishop Sidney Karin Keith Marzullo Abstract The existing solutions in the field of computer forensics are largely ad hoc. This paper discusses the need for a rigorous model of forensics and outlines qualities that such a model should possess. It presents

Zhou, Yuanyuan

224

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic  

E-print Network

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic Service Whanau/family Booklet Bachelor of Arts Application Deadline: 13 February, Noon Project Description: The Canterbury Regional Forensic Service (http' and their families' journey through the Forensic Service. The data has already been transcribed but needs in

Hickman, Mark

225

NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysis RickAyers WayneJansen NicolasCilleros RonanDaniellou #12;iii NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis Rick Ayers Wayne are involved in a crime or other incident, forensic examiners require tools that allow the proper retrieval

226

NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysisUpdate RickAyers WayneJansen LudovicMoenner AurelienDelaitre #12;iii NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis or other incident, forensic examiners require tools that allow the proper retrieval and speedy examination

227

Forensic familial searching: scientific and social implications  

E-print Network

Forensic familial searching: scientific and social implications Nanibaa' A. Garrison1 , Rori V. Rohlfs2 and Stephanie M. Fullerton3 Familial searching in forensic genetic testing is raising concerns Published online 4 June 2013 In July 2010, a new forensic technique called familial searching gained public

228

Ireland's Global University MSc Forensic Computing &  

E-print Network

Ireland's Global University MSc Forensic Computing & Cybercrime Investigation (Distance Learning on content considering the needs of digital forensics investigators and computer crime specialists. The UCD research and have developed a number of forensic tools. Depending on the modules taken, you will be able

229

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic  

E-print Network

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic Service Whanau/family Booklet Bachelor of Arts Application Deadline: 1 February, 2012 Project Description: The Canterbury Regional Forensic Service (http' and their families' journey through the Forensic Service. The data has already been transcribed but needs in

Hickman, Mark

230

Four Faculty Positions Applied Statistics & Computational Statistics  

E-print Network

Four Faculty Positions Applied Statistics & Computational Statistics The Department of Statistics at the Assistant Professor rank. Two positions are open in the area of Applied Statistics, with a focus on the development of statistical methodology and statistical consulting. The other two positions are open

Shepp, Larry

231

Neurobiological Correlates in Forensic Assessment: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background With the increased knowledge of biological risk factors, interest in including this information in forensic assessments is growing. Currently, forensic assessments are predominantly focused on psychosocial factors. A better understanding of the neurobiology of violent criminal behaviour and biological risk factors could improve forensic assessments. Objective To provide an overview of the current evidence about biological risk factors that predispose people to antisocial and violent behaviour, and determine its usefulness in forensic assessment. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using articles from PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed published between 2000 and 2013. Results This review shows that much research on the relationship between genetic predisposition and neurobiological alterations with aggression is performed on psychiatric patients or normal populations. However, the number of studies comparing offenders is limited. There is still a great need to understand how genetic and neurobiological alterations and/or deficits are related to violent behaviour, specifically criminality. Most studies focus on only one of the genetic or neurobiological fields related to antisocial and/or violent behaviour. To reliably correlate the findings of these fields, a standardization of methodology is urgently needed. Conclusion Findings from the current review suggest that violent aggression, like all forms of human behaviour, both develops under specific genetic and environmental conditions, and requires interplay between these conditions. Violence should be considered as the end product of a chain of life events, during which risks accumulate and potentially reinforce each other, displaying or triggering a specific situation. This systematic review did not find evidence of predispositions or neurobiological alterations that solely explain antisocial or violent behaviour. With better designed studies, more correlation between diverse fields, and more standardisation, it might be possible to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Thus, we advocate maintaining the current case-by-case differentiated approach to evidence-based forensic assessment. PMID:25330208

van der Gronde, Toon; Kempes, Maaike; van El, Carla; Rinne, Thomas; Pieters, Toine

2014-01-01

232

High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

2012-10-01

233

Potential Applications of Scanning Probe Microscopy in Forensic Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forensic community utilises a myriad of techniques to investigate a wide range of materials, from paint flakes to DNA. The various microscopic techniques have provided some of the greatest contributions, e.g., FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared) microspectroscopy utilised in copy toner discrimination, multi-layer automobile paint fragment examination, etc, SEM-EDA (scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis) used to investigate glass fragments, fibers, and explosives, and SEM in microsampling for elemental analysis, just to name a few. This study demonstrates the ability of the Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) to analyse human fingerprints on surfaces utilising a step-and-scan feature, enabling analysis of a larger field-of-view. We also extend a line crossings study by incorporating height analysis and surface roughness measurements. The study demonstrates the potential for SPM techniques to be utilised for forensic analysis which could complement the more traditional methodologies used in such investigations.

Watson, G. S.; Watson, J. A.

2007-04-01

234

Forensic odontology in the disaster victim identification process.  

PubMed

Disaster victim identification (DVI) is an intensive and demanding task involving specialists from various disciplines. The forensic dentist is one of the key persons who plays an important role in the DVI human identification process. In recent years, many disaster incidents have occurred that challenged the DVI team with various kinds of difficulties related to disaster management and unique situations in each disaster. New technologies have been developed to make the working process faster and more effective and the different DVI protocols have been evaluated and improved. The aim of this article is to collate all information regarding diagnostic tools and methodologies pertaining to forensic odontological DVI, both current and future. It can be concluded that lessons learned from previous disaster incidents have helped to optimize working protocols and to develop new tools that can be applied in future DVI operation. The working procedures have been greatly improved by newly developed technologies. PMID:23000806

Pittayapat, P; Jacobs, R; De Valck, E; Vandermeulen, D; Willems, G

2012-07-01

235

Clinical forensics for perioperative nurses.  

PubMed

Perioperative nurses frequently care for victims and suspected perpetrators of violent crimes. Nurses often are the first health care providers to assess the trauma patient and collect crucial evidence for future legal action. Informational evidence includes observations about patients' behavior and appearance and documentation of their comments. Nurses also must protect the chain of evidence so that evidence can be admissible in court. To function in this role, perioperative nurses must understand the concepts of clinical forensics, which is the application of the principles and practices of forensic science to questions of law in the investigation of violent crime. PMID:7998800

Muro, G A; Easter, C R

1994-10-01

236

DNA Forensics and Color Pigments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students perform DNA forensics using food coloring to enhance their understanding of DNA fingerprinting, restriction enzymes, genotyping and DNA gel electrophoresis. They place small drops of different food coloring ("water-based paint") on strips of filter paper and then place one paper strip end in water. As water travels along the paper strips, students observe the pigments that compose the paint decompose into their color components. This is an example of the chromatography concept applied to DNA forensics, with the pigments in the paint that define the color being analogous to DNA fragments of different lengths.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

237

The Clinician and Forensic Medicine  

PubMed Central

Although it is an intrinsic part of all medical practice forensic medicine often is either unrecognized as such or is consciously or subconsciously evaded. The failure to apply some rather basic and simple forensic principles that only the physician is capable of doing may result in problems to the patient ranging from frustration to near catastrophe. For physicians who are reasonably well equipped to understand the legal system, the successful conclusion of a legal case, including, sometimes, an appearance in court, can be stimulating and interesting. PMID:4733272

Root, Irving; Scott, Wayne

1973-01-01

238

Forensic seismology revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground teststhat is in forensic seismologyhave been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: 1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P wavesthe most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosionswere in contrast simple, comprising one or two cycles of large amplitude followed by a low-amplitude coda. Earthquake signals on the other hand were often complex with numerous arrivals of similar amplitude spread over 35 s or more. It therefore appeared that earthquakes could be recognised on complexity. Later however, complex explosion signals were observed which reduced the apparent effectiveness of complexity as a criterion for identifying earthquakes. Nevertheless, the AWE Group concluded that for many paths to teleseismic distances, Earth is transparent for P signals and this provides a window through which source differences will be most clearly seen. Much of the research by the Group has focused on understanding the influence of source type on P seismograms recorded at teleseismic distances. Consequently the paper concentrates on teleseismic methods of distinguishing between explosions and earthquakes. One of the most robust criteria for discriminating between earthquakes and explosions is the m b : M s criterion which compares the amplitudes of the SP P waves as measured by the body-wave magnitude m b, and the long-period (LP: 0.05 Hz) Rayleigh-wave amplitude as measured by the surface-wave magnitude M s; the P and Rayleigh waves being the main wave types used in forensic seismology. For a given M s, the m b for explosions is larger than for most earthquakes. The criterion is difficult to apply however, at low magnitude (say m b < 4.5) and there are exceptionsearthquakes that look like explosions. A difficulty with identification criteria developed in the early days of forensic seismology was that they were in the main empiricalit was not known why they appeared to work and if there were test sites or earthquakes where they would fail. Consequently the AWE Group in cooperation with the University of Cambridge used seismogram modelling to try and understand what controls complexity of SP P seismograms, and to put the m b : M s criterion on a theoretical basis. The results of this work show that the m b : M s criterion is robust because several factors con

Douglas, A.

2007-01-01

239

Forensic botany: Usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant

Viivi Virtanen; Helena Korpelainen; Kirsi Kostamo

2007-01-01

240

A methodology for finger mark research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there is no standard way of carrying out research into finger mark enhancement techniques. Individuals, groups or establishments tend to use different methodologies depending on a number of factors, especially finance and time. However, data published in the literature can be misleading to the forensic community if the data generated reflects research involving very few finger marks or if

V. G. Sears; S. M. Bleay; H. L. Bandey; V. J. Bowman

241

Compulsory Education: Statistics, Methodology, Reforms and New Tendencies. Conference Papers for the 8th Session of the International Standing Conference for the History of Education (Parma, Italy, September 3-6, 1986). Volume IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection, the last of four volumes on the history of compulsory education among the nations of Europe and the western hemisphere, analyzes statistics, methodology, reforms, and new tendencies. Twelve of the document's 18 articles are written in English, 3 are written in French and 3 are in Italian. Summaries accompany most articles; three

Genovesi, Giovanni, Ed.

242

Aitken, CGG. Zadora, G & Lucy, D. (2007) A Two-Level Model for Evidence Evaluation. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 52(2); 412-419.  

E-print Network

of Forensic Sciences. 52(2); 412-419. A Two-Level Model for Evidence Evaluation Colin G.G. Aitken,1 Ph of Mathematics & Statistics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YF. KEYWORDS: forensic science, evidenceAitken, CGG. Zadora, G & Lucy, D. (2007) A Two-Level Model for Evidence Evaluation. Journal

Lucy, David

243

Forensics: Enhancing Civic Literacy & Democracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensics--interpretation, speech, and debate--can and should be a meaningful part of every school's curriculum. To put it simply, the course of study, alongside cocurricular competition, promotes civic education and enhances the standard curriculum by helping students explore myriad topics from multiple angles and find the truth in each,

Briscoe, Shawn F.

2009-01-01

244

Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock

Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

2014-01-01

245

Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a

Keim

2003-01-01

246

Forensic entomology and climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology establishes the postmortem interval (PMI) by studying cadaveric fauna. The PMI today is still largely based on tables of insect succession on human cadavers compiled in the late 19th- or mid-20th centuries. In the last few years, however, the gradual warming of the climate has been changing faunal communities by favouring the presence of thermophilous species. To demonstrate

Margherita Turchetto; Stefano Vanin

2004-01-01

247

American Academy of Forensic Sciences  

MedlinePLUS

... improve practice, and encourage collaboration in the forensic sciences. Quick Links History of AAFS 2015 Advance Program JFS Member Access AAFS Reference Library AAFS 67th Meeting 2015 AAFS Applicants for Promotion AAFS Applicants for ... of Science & Technology Summer Internship Program January 2015, Vol. 45, ...

248

Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be

Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

2014-01-01

249

"Android Forensics: Simplifying Cell Phone  

E-print Network

system (OS) whose growth has thrived due to its customization. · Android's developer, Google, allows;18 Android Architecture · No limited application · Equality of each apps. · Parallel running #12;19 Two main"Android Forensics: Simplifying Cell Phone Examinations" Jeff Lessard, Gary Kessler 2010 Presented

Almulhem, Ahmad

250

Recent Activities in the United States: National Commission on Forensic  

E-print Network

Recent Activities in the United States: National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS and Technology NIST Fellow & Special Assistant to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science Asian Forensic Sciences Network World Forensics Festival Seoul, Korea October

251

BS in Digital Forensics Department of Computer and Information Science  

E-print Network

BS in Digital Forensics Department of Computer and Information Science The Digital Forensics Program Digital Forensics is the area of computer science concerned with the examination and analysis Science Digital Forensics degree program covers a wide range of knowledge, including forensic accounting

Lu, Yi

252

Forensic Science in A Report of Multidisciplinary Discussion  

E-print Network

0 Forensic Science in Canada A Report of Multidisciplinary Discussion May 4 ­ 5, 2012 Forensic have learned that reliable forensic science is a cornerstone of any effective justice system. However. In this report, forensic experts from across Canada describe the current state-of-the-art in forensic science

Sokolowski, Marla

253

MSc/PgDip/PgCert FORENSIC SCIENCE  

E-print Network

MSc/PgDip/PgCert FORENSIC SCIENCE #12;MSc/PgDip/PgCert FORENSIC SCIENCE The Centre for Forensic Science The University of Strathclyde has been teaching forensic science for over 40 years and has the longest established programme in the UK. The course is accredited by the Forensic Science Society

Mottram, Nigel

254

American Academy of Forensic Science: Choosing a Career  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides information on careers in forensic science. Topics include what forensic science is and what forensic scientists do, educational requirements, and what graduates in this field might expect in terms of work locations and pay. There are also brief overviews of different branches of forensic science (criminalistics, jurisprudence, pathology, anthropology, and others), and a list of online resources for forensic science.

255

FACS separation of non-compromised forensically relevant biological mixtures.  

PubMed

Although focusing attention on the statistical analysis of complex mixture profiles is important, the forensic science community will also benefit from directing research to improving the reduction of the incidence of mixtures before DNA extraction. This preliminary study analysed the use of fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS) for separation of cellular mixtures before DNA extraction, specifically mixtures of relatively fresh blood and saliva from two donors, prepared in 14 different mixture ratios. Improvements in the number of detectable alleles from the targeted cell type and overall profile quality were seen when compared to the results from unseparated samples. STRmix calculations revealed increases in likelihood ratios after separation, demonstrating the potential for higher probative values to be obtained from forensically relevant mixtures after subjecting them to FACS than from unsorted samples. PMID:25450793

Verdon, Timothy J; Mitchell, R John; Chen, Weisan; Xiao, Kun; van Oorschot, Roland A H

2015-01-01

256

[Forensic entomology and globalisation].  

PubMed

The main aim of Forensic Entomology has always been, and is today, to establish the time of death (P.M.I.: Postmortem Period) or, more exactly, how long a carrion has been exposed in the environment. Most of the invertebrate fauna occurring on corpses consists of insects (mostly Diptera and Coleoptera). They are selectively attracted by the decomposing status of the carrion, and form complex communities or biocenosis within necrophagous or sarcophagous species and their predators, parasites and parasitoids, competing each one another. The rapid and continuos changes of the micro-ecosystem (the body), until its breakdown, does not permit the achievement of a steady state or an equilibrium in the animal communities. These continuous modifications give us the possibility to estimate when (and where) the death has occurred, by the identification of the species feeding on the corpse, the knowledge of their life history, and the length of each stage of their cycle at varying the temperature and the other abiotic factors, external to the carrion ecosystem. The P.M.I. today is still largely based on the tables of faunal succession on human cadavers recognised by Mgin in 1894, with few changes proposed by Authors from other countries. In the last years, however, it happens more and more often, that the natural communities are subverted by the presence of allocton species, which can compete, predate or parasite the most common local sarcophagous insects, modifying, this way, the succession waves and the trophic nets. The immission in the environment of foreign species may be voluntary or casual, but in any case is due to anthropic activities. The voluntary immission happens when some species, employed in the biological struggle against pest or dangerous insects, for pollination of allocton plants, or for other commercial utilities, are beyond man's control and swarm onto the environment; the casual spread is due to the globalisation phenomenon, that distributes the "little organisms" by chance, together with travellers, goods and food items. Together with human migratory flows, raw materials and vegetal foodstuffs travelling from Tropical developing Countries to the North of the world, also many tropical and subtropical insects can be carried out from their original lands. Eurioecious and polyphagous species, and species that evolved mechanisms (as diapausa or hibernation) to get over critical environmental conditions have the highest probability of survival. Saprophagous insects, and flies in particular, evolved such capabilities. The mortality of foreign species due to the difference of temperature and seasonally between tropical and temperate areas was, in the past, the most effective factor limiting the geographic propagation of insects. The ongoing global climate changes induce insect populations, now confined to the tropics, to most likely spread towards middle latitudes, where their specific competitors, predators and parasites, which regulate the population growth, are often absent. The lack of a biological control, the warming up of atmosphere temperature and the fall of the differences among seasons induce a more rapid development and an increased number of generations in new species, that often displace the autocton ones. This phenomenon is much more clear in little and simple ecosystems (such as carrion), mostly occur than in large and complex ecosystems, where many more components, vegetal organisms and phytophagous animals included, are present. To demonstrate how globalisation and climate changes are breaking the geographic barriers, we present some cases in which, during our entomoforensic investigations, performed mainly in North-eastern Italy, Neotropical, African and Asiatic necrophagous flies, beetles and wasp parasitoids have been collected, some of which rare or new for Italy or Paleartic Region. In particular, we report our studies on the american black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), that is showing a heavy competition with the local saprophagous species and is reaching

Turchetto, M; Vanin, S

2004-06-01

257

Microanalytical Methods for Bio-Forensics Investigations  

SciTech Connect

Forensics investigations of bio-crime or bio-terrorism incidents require careful analysis of collected evidentiary material. Although the biological markers in the evidentiary material are important (e.g. genomic signatures, protein markers), the elemental make-up of the organisms themselves and the surrounding non-biological material is extremely useful for attributing a specific process and, perhaps, specific persons to the production of the biological agent. This talk will describe the coordinated use of microanalytical techniques such as SEM-EDX, STEM-EDX, and NanoSIMS for generating compositional signatures for bio-forensics investigations. These analytical techniques span length scales from the 50 {micro}m range to the 5nm range. The range of analytical sensitivities spans from {approx}.5wt% for EDX down to parts per billion for SIMS techniques. In addition, we will discuss the use of spectrum imaging techniques for rapidly extracting the key elemental signatures from large scale data sets. Spectrum imaging techniques combined with multivariate statistical analysis allow for the collection and interrogation or enormous quantities of data without pre-biasing the answer.[1] Spectrum imaging has been used successfully in EDX microanalysis[1] (both in the SEM and TEM) and TOF-SIMS[2]. In this study, a set of test biological agents, ?-irradiated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were examined using the aforementioned microanalytical techniques. The sample set included a number of processing conditions to gauge the ability of these techniques to identify the production methods of these simulated agents. Complementary but distinct forensic signatures were obtained by all three analytical techniques. Figure 1 shows two types of silicate particles observed among the spore material itself. At this length scale, the spores themselves cannot be resolved, but the presence of these silicates is key marker for distinguishing this production route. A STEM-EDX spectrum image from the same material does not show these large silicates but instead shows the segregation of elements such as sulfur and silicon to the extra-cellular material between spores, again a result of the specific process used to produce this simulated agent (Figure 2). NanoSIMS data from the same material also shows the segregation of Si in this preparation. The NanoSIMS data also displays and quantifies the distribution of elements such as fluorine at levels which were not detectable in the STEM-EDX measurements (Figure 3).

Brewer, L N; Weber, P K; Grant, R P; Ghosal, S; Michael, J R

2006-02-10

258

Special Publication 800-86 Guide to Integrating Forensic  

E-print Network

Special Publication 800-86 Guide to Integrating Forensic Techniques into Incident ResponseDang #12;#12;Guide to Integrating Forensic Techniques into Incident Response Recommendations A. Jeffrey, Director #12;GUIDE TO INTEGRATING FORENSIC TECHNIQUES INTO INCIDENT RESPONSE Reports

259

Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies.  

PubMed

Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations. PMID:17300893

Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi

2007-10-25

260

[The application of radiological image in forensic medicine].  

PubMed

Personal identification is an important work in forensic investigation included sex discrimination, age and stature estimation. Human identification depended on radiological image technique analysis is a practice and proper method in forensic science field. This paper intended to understand the advantage and defect by reviewed the employing of forensic radiology in forensic science field broadly and provide a reference to perfect the application of forensic radiology in forensic science field. PMID:16850607

Zhang, Ji-Zong; Che, Hong-Min; Xu, Li-Xiang

2006-04-01

261

Spring Break Course in Florida! Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic sci-  

E-print Network

the science of forensic en- tomology through daily laboratory and field ac- tivities. We also interactSpring Break Course in Florida! Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic sci- ence utilizing with crime scene in- vestigators and professionals from other foren- sic science disciplines, including

262

The contribution of forensic science to crime analysis and investigation: Forensic intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate in forensic science concentrates on issues such as standardisation, accreditation and de-contextualisation, in a legal and economical context, in order to ensure the scientific objectivity and efficiency that must guide the process of collecting, analysing, interpreting and reporting forensic evidence. At the same time, it is recognised that forensic case data is still poorly integrated into the investigation

Olivier Ribaux; Simon J. Walsh; Pierre Margot

2006-01-01

263

How do I become a forensic scientist? Educational pathways to forensic science careers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic science is a broad, interdisciplinary group of applications of physical and biological sciences and various technologies to issues in civil and criminal justice. To discuss the educational preparation necessary for entry into the forensic sciences, we have to define their scope. In the broadest sense the one we will adopt for purposes of this discussion the forensic

R. E. Gaensslen

2003-01-01

264

Diversity in United States Forensics: A Report of Research Conducted for the American Forensic Association.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the participation of women and minorities in the United States forensic community. Surveys sent to a large cross-section of the college and university forensic community examined such issues as: academic mission; funding sources for the forensic program; program evaluation; program size; program activities; program records

Allen, Mike; Ulrich, Tammie; Trejo, Mary; Bartanen, Michael; Schroeder, Anthony

265

STRBase and Information Resources on Forensic DNA  

E-print Network

Journal of Forensic Sciences DNA publications vs total articles 0 3 0 6 9 11 14 15 18 26 34 35 43 44 43 51 of the technique · DNA is often referred to as the "gold standard" in forensic science because of the scientific of Journals in Our Group Library We now have on-line access to all forensic DNA journals #12;Applied Genetics

Perkins, Richard A.

266

American Board of Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Robert Hall of the University of Missouri-Columbia has taken a rather unsavory subfield of entomology and compiled an interesting and comprehensive collection of information. From this site we learn that forensic entomology is the science of using insect evidence to reveal circumstances of interest to the law, often related to a crime. Such key information as time of death, whether a body was moved, and the conditions under which a body was kept can be revealed by examination of the organisms found on a corpse and their stage of development. Scientists and criminal investigators have utilized such information for well over one hundred years, but the field has only recently gained widespread use. Sections cover history, case studies, the profession, and a list of members of the American Board of Forensic Entomology.

Hall, Robert D.

267

DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future  

PubMed Central

DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting. PMID:24245688

2013-01-01

268

Child neglect and forensic entomology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Close co-operation between forensic scientists, medico-legal doctors, and police forces made it possible to estimate not only the post-mortem interval but also the time since a child was neglected. On the skin surface under the diaper (anal-genital area), third instar larvae of the false stable fly Muscina stabulans FALLN, and the lesser house fly Fannia canicularis L. were found. F.

Mark Benecke; Rdiger Lessig

2001-01-01

269

Forensic DNA Profiling and Database  

PubMed Central

The incredible power of DNA technology as an identification tool had brought a tremendous change in crimnal justice . DNA data base is an information resource for the forensic DNA typing community with details on commonly used short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers. This article discusses the essential steps in compilation of COmbined DNA Index System (CODIS) on validated polymerase chain amplified STRs and their use in crime detection. PMID:23386793

Panneerchelvam, S.; Norazmi, M.N.

2003-01-01

270

Classification of spent reactor fuel for nuclear forensics.  

PubMed

In this paper we demonstrate the use of pattern recognition and machine learning techniques to determine the reactor type from which spent reactor fuel has originated. This has been done using the isotopic and elemental measurements of the sample and proves to be very useful in the field of nuclear forensics. Nuclear materials contain many variables (impurities and isotopes) that are very difficult to consider individually. A method that considers all material parameters simultaneously is advantageous. Currently the field of nuclear forensics focuses on the analysis of key material properties to determine details about the materials processing history, for example, utilizing known half-lives of isotopes can determine when the material was last processed (Stanley, F. E. J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 2012, 27, 1821; Varga, Z.; Wallenius, M.; Mayer, K.; Keegan, E.; Millet, S. Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 8327-8334). However, it has been demonstrated that multivariate statistical analysis of isotopic concentrations can complement these method and are able to make use of a greater level of information through dimensionality reduction techniques (Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J. J. Environ. Radioact. 2008, 99, 1789-1797; Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J.; Heller, M. A. Nuclear Forensic Inferences Using Iterative Multidimensional Statistics. In Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management 50th Annual Meeting, Tucson, AZ, July 2009; 12 pages; Nicolaou, G. J. Environ. Radioact. 2006, 86, 313-318; Pajo, L.; Mayer, K.; Koch, L. Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 2001, 371, 348-352). There has been some success in using such multidimensional statistical methods to determine details about the history of spent reactor fuel (Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J. J. Environ. Radioact. 2008, 99, 1789-1797). Here, we aim to expand on these findings by pursuing more robust dimensionality reduction techniques based on manifold embedding which are able to better capture the intrinsic data set information. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a number of classification algorithms to reliably determine the reactor type in which a spent fuel material has been irradiated. A number of these classification techniques are novel applications in nuclear forensics and expand on the existing knowledge in this field by creating a reliable and robust classification model. The results from this analysis show that our techniques have been very successful and further ascertain the excellent potential of these techniques in the field of nuclear forensics at least with regard to spent reactor fuel. PMID:24805973

Jones, Andrew E; Turner, Phillip; Zimmerman, Colin; Goulermas, John Y

2014-06-01

271

Using Forensics: Wildlife Crime Scene!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A crime wave has hit the animal kingdom--and your students can help put a stop to it even as they investigate the science behind animal-species identification and threats against wild animals. Using Forensics: Wildlife Crime Scene! opens with an overview of crimes that threaten different wild animal species around the world. Next come eight forensic training lessons about antlers and horns, blood typing, DNA fingerprinting, fingerprints, hair identification, pH and pH indicators, mammal skulls, and tracks of animals. Students then transform into detectives for a classroom simulation based on a real wildlife crime: the illegal shooting and dismemberment of a bear. They work in teams to review crime scene reports, conduct interviews of suspects and witnesses, analyze evidence, and bring charges before a "prosecuting attorney." To close the unit, the book provides teachers strategies for evaluating individual students and student teams. Using Forensics: Wildlife Crime Scene! is an ideal complement to middle and high school courses in biology, environmental science, general science, and criminology. It provides a high-interest, real-life format for learning a variety of scientific concepts and skills that correlate with the Standards. It also gives students reason to genuinely care about preserving the wildlife and ecosystems they're studying.

Laura M. Sanders Arndt

2007-07-01

272

Forensic scatology: preliminary experimental study of the preparation and potential for identification of captive carnivore scat.  

PubMed

Carnivore scats recovered from animal attack and/or scavenging contexts frequently contain forensic evidence such as human bone fragments. Forensic cases with carnivore involvement are increasingly prevalent, necessitating a methodology for the recovery and analysis of scat evidence. This study proposes a method for the safe preparation of carnivore scat, recovery of bone inclusions, and quantification and comparison of scat variables. Fourteen scats (lion, jaguar, lynx, wolf, and coyote) were prepared with sodium-acetate-formalin fixative; analytical variables included carnivore individual, species, body size, and taxonomic family. Scat variables, particularly bone fragment inclusions, were found to vary among carnivore individuals, families, species, and sizes. The methods in this study facilitate safe scat processing, the complete recovery of digested evidence, and the preliminary identification of involved animals. This research demonstrates that scat collected from forensic contexts can yield valuable information concerning both the victim and the carnivore involved. PMID:21923796

Gilmour, Rebecca J; Skinner, Mark F

2012-01-01

273

Forensic audio watermark detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital audio watermarking detection is often computational complex and requires at least as much audio information as required to embed a complete watermark. In some applications, especially real-time monitoring, this is an important drawback. The reason for this is the usage of sync sequences at the beginning of the watermark, allowing a decision about the presence only if at least the sync has been found and retrieved. We propose an alternative method for detecting the presence of a watermark. Based on the knowledge of the secret key used for embedding, we create a mark for all potential marking stages and then use a sliding window to test a given audio file on the presence of statistical characteristics caused by embedding. In this way we can detect a watermark in less than 1 second of audio.

Steinebach, Martin; Zmudzinski, Sascha; Petrautzki, Dirk

2012-03-01

274

Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the

Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

2011-01-01

275

Health Considerations for Forensic Professionals: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing crime rates and global security crises have necessitated the employment of forensic techniques for tackling such situations. Crime scene investigation forms an essential part of forensic science protocol, which involves collection and examination of the physical evidences present in various forms (chemical, biological and physical) and their subsequent examination in the laboratory. Interaction of the crime scene investigating personnel

Pooja Malik; Gagandeep Singh

2011-01-01

276

Computer Forensics In Forensis Sean Peisert  

E-print Network

instrumental in convicting criminals, and clearing people who have been wrongly convicted and imprisoned. DNAComputer Forensics In Forensis Sean Peisert and Matt Bishop Department of Computer Science forensic systems, models, and terminology in very differ- ent ways. They often make incompatible

Peisert, Sean

277

Developing and Utilizing Style through Forensics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Style is a crucial component of success in competitive forensics, whether debate or individual events, and one of the greatest benefits students get from participating in such events is the opportunity to develop a sense of style. In keeping with the classical canons of rhetoric, style (as it relates to forensics) can be limited to a consideration

Harte, Thomas B.

278

From Manual Cyber Attacks Forensic to  

E-print Network

From Manual Cyber Attacks Forensic to Automatic Characterization of Attackers' Profiles J. Briffaut-00995211,version1- #12;From Manual Cyber Attacks Forensic to Automatic Characterization of Attackers'Orléans France Abstract This chapter studies the activities of cyber attackers on a large scale honeypot run

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

279

Optimizing Automated Particle Analysis for Forensic Applications  

E-print Network

Optimizing Automated Particle Analysis for Forensic Applications Nicholas W. M. Ritchie Materials ­ Material science, forensics, manufacturing, #12;Our Tools Instruments ­ 2 electron microprobes, 2 FIBS, 2 Measurement Science Division Materials Measurement Lab 29-Nov-2012 #12;The Big Picture X-ray Microanalysis

Perkins, Richard A.

280

Forensic application of organ-specific antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay for organ-specific antigen is described for use in forensic practice. The sandwich enzyme immunoassays for specific antigens to the liver (LSA), the small intestine (sucrase-isomaltase), and the heart (cardiac troponin I) were developed. High levels of antigen could be detected to exist in forensic materials, and it is clearly possible to differentiate between samples

Keiichi Takahama

1996-01-01

281

Forensic Journal, Volume VI, January 1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While covering various English language forensics activities in Japan, this special journal issue is heavily devoted to debate. The 22 articles in the journal are divided into five sections as follows: (1) general information on the Japan English Forensics Association (JEFA); (2) debate, including reports on debate tournaments around the world, a

Forensic Journal, 1984

1984-01-01

282

Forensic evidence: Materializing bodies, materializing crimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an ethnographic study of fingerprint and DNA evidence practices in the Swedish judicial system, this article analyses the materialization of forensic evidence. It argues that forensic evidence, while popularly understood as firmly rooted in materiality, is inseparably technoscientific and cultural. Its roots in the material world are entangled threads of matter, technoscience and culture that produce particular bodily

Corinna Kruse

2010-01-01

283

Forensic Science in Transition: Critical Leadership Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our nation needs strong forensic leaders. National leaders are needed to champion reforms recommended by the National Research Council and Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community (2009). Leaders are also needed in laboratories to address difficult challenges in the context of resource limitations and constraints that hamper progress toward important goals. Business tools, strategies, and tactics

Wendy S. Becker; W. Mark Dale; Edward J. Pavur Jr

2010-01-01

284

Forensic Science in a Human Rights Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic services, founded upon good science and best practice, provide an inherent safeguard for human rights. Moreover, practitioners are well placed to uphold fundamental and longstanding rights such as the right to a fair hearing. Our ability to embrace other emerging rights, however, is less clear. The increasing ambit and remit of forensic science is a cause of increasing social,

Sarah Donnelly

2012-01-01

285

Welcome to Forensic science, medicine, and pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does the forensic scientific community require a new journal? Do we not have enough already? Well the answer from my point of view is of course, yes, we do need a new journal and no we do not have too many already. I hope in this short editorial to outline why Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology (also known as FSMP)

Guy N. Rutty

2005-01-01

286

Suicide by drowning: A forensic challenge.  

PubMed

In the case of suicidal drowning forensic examination is difficult, particularly with regard to differentiating between suicide, accident, homicide and natural death. Bondage and weighting with objects, putrescence and attendant lesions aggravate interpretation and investigation of postmortal forensic findings. In this respect, two cases of seemingly homicidal drowning with leg and arm bondage and weighting, to prevent resurfacing, are presented and discussed. PMID:24793320

Todt, Melanie; Ast, Friedrich; Wolff-Maras, Roman; Roesler, Birte; Germerott, Tanja

2014-07-01

287

The Thin Blue Line-Forensic Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site draws on, and brings together, many scientific disciplines-identification of hairs and fibers, forensic psychology, DNA testing, photography, bloodstain pattern analysis, and computer forensics- that contribute to the integrated analysis of a crime and the physical evidence left at a crime scene.

2012-11-15

288

Forensic Science International 94 (1998) 167181  

E-print Network

Forensic Science International 94 (1998) 167­181 The application of volume deformation to three-0738(98)00066-8 #12;168 L.A. Nelson, S.D. Michael / Forensic Science International 94 (1998) 167­181 sufficient, 20133 Milan, Italy b Department of Computer Science, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park

Frey, Pascal

289

Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 185199  

E-print Network

Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 185­199 Nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis. Application-0738(98)00015-2 #12;186 M.S. Bellini et al. / Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 185­199 1. Introduction, Czech Republic c ´ ` ´Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Videoska 1083

Miksik, Ivan

290

Scientific standards for studies in forensic genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic molecular genetics has evolved from a rapidly developing field with changing technologies into a highly recognized and generally accepted forensic science, leading to the establishment of national DNA databases with DNA profiles from suspects and convicted offenders. DNA evidence has taken a central role by carrying a significant weight for convictions, as well as by excluding innocent suspects early

Peter M. Schneider

2007-01-01

291

Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been

Lewis, Catherine F.

2004-01-01

292

National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS)  

E-print Network

) John M. Butler, Ph.D. National Institute of Standards and Technology Vice-Chair, National Commission) ­ Leahy Bill (Justice) ­ Rockefeller Bill (Commerce) · FY14 New NIST Role ­ administer OSAC Criminal Justice and Forensic Science Reform Act (Leahy Bill) Forensic Science and Standards Act (Rockefeller Bill

293

Irreconcilable conflict between therapeutic and forensic roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite being contrary to good patient care and existing clinical and forensic practice guidelines, some therapists nevertheless engage in dual clinical and forensic roles. Perhaps because an injured litigant seeking treatment is required to engage in 2 distinct roles (litigant and patient), care providers may be tempted to meet both sets of that person's needs. Through the presentation of 10

Stuart A. Greenberg; Daniel W. Shuman

1997-01-01

294

Forensic information acquisition in mobile networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquisition of data stored on mobile network client equipment including 3G devices, Personal Digital Assistants, Pocket PCs running operating systems such as Symbian and Windows Mobile may be required for forensic purposes. Access to such devices across wireless and mobile interfaces raises challenges which do not normally exist when forensic analysis of hard drives and other storage media occurs. Only

David Irwin; Ray Hunt

2009-01-01

295

Issues and opportunities: the application of the numerical likelihood ratio framework to forensic speaker comparison.  

PubMed

Across forensic speech science, the likelihood ratio (LR) is increasingly becoming accepted as the logically and legally correct framework for the expression of expert conclusions. However, there remain a number of theoretical and practical shortcomings in the procedures applied for computing LRs based on speech evidence. In this paper we review how the LR is currently applied to speaker comparison evidence and outline three specific areas which deserve further investigation: namely statistical modelling, issues relating to the relevant population and the combination of LRs from correlated parameters. We then consider future directions for confronting these issues and discuss the implications for forensic comparison evidence more generally. PMID:25002047

Gold, Erica; Hughes, Vincent

2014-07-01

296

Authentication of forensic DNA samples.  

PubMed

Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system. PMID:20129467

Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

2010-02-01

297

Practice Parameter for Child and Adolescent Forensic Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Parameter addresses the key concepts that differentiate the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents from a clinical assessment. There are ethical issues unique to the forensic evaluation, because the forensic evaluator's duty is to the person, court, or agency requesting the evaluation, rather than to the patient. The forensic

Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011

2011-01-01

298

By Diana Ha, Undergraduate, UNLV The Forensics Community  

E-print Network

and research. Examples of such journals are: The Open Forensic Science Journal (http://www.bentham.org/open/toforsj/) The Internet Journal of Forensic Science (http://www.ispub.com/journal/the_internet_journal_of_forensic_science.html) Forensic Science Communications (an open access journal from the FBI) (http

Walker, Lawrence R.

299

An Empirical Investigation of the Relevant Skills of Forensic Accountants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author investigated whether views of the relevant skills of forensic accountants differ among forensic accounting practitioners, accounting academics, and users of forensic accounting services. Universities and colleges are currently considering adding forensic accounting courses to their curriculum. The results of the present study provide

DiGabriele, James A.

2008-01-01

300

UNDERSTANDING THE DISCRIMINATION POWER OF FACIAL REGIONS IN FORENSIC CASEWORK  

E-print Network

of systems have obtained an in- creased emphasis is the forensic field [2, 3]. Forensic science analyses data reliable and available identification methods in forensic science, automatic face recognition technologyUNDERSTANDING THE DISCRIMINATION POWER OF FACIAL REGIONS IN FORENSIC CASEWORK Pedro Tomea , Luis Bl

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

301

Forensic ScienceInternational 74 (1995) 155-165  

E-print Network

ELSEVIER Forensic ScienceInternational 74 (1995) 155-165 Forensic SCience The computer-aided facial Research Institute of Police Science, Tokyo 102, Japan bFirst Forensic Science Division, National Research-0738(95)01744-4 #12;156 S. Miyasaka et al. /Forensic Science International 74 (1995) 155-165 areunsuccessfulin

Frey, Pascal

302

invites you to the NC State Forensic Science Symposium  

E-print Network

invites you to the 5th NC State Forensic Science Symposium December 4, 2012 Convocation Room@ncsu.edu Agenda 8:00 Registration 9:00 Welcome David Hinks Director, Forensic Sciences Institute North Carolina Department of Forensic Science and Biology Graduate Director, Forensic Science Virginia Commonwealth

Liu, Paul

303

Revised 05/21/2014 School of Forensic Sciences  

E-print Network

Revised 05/21/2014 School of Forensic Sciences 1111 West 17th Street Tulsa, OK 741071898 in Forensic Document Examination (FDE) M.S.F.S. Option in Forensic Science Administration has applied to the School of Forensic Sciences. Admission requires at least one year of professional

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

304

Identification in forensic anthropology: Its relation to genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within forensic activity, whenever identification is a problem, it is generalized that DNA analysis is the solution. However, it is well known both by forensic pathologists and anthropologists that, apart form the immense potentiality of this technique, there are many situations where the classical forensic anthropology examination is still useful and irreplaceable. Through the presentation of two forensic routine cases

Eugnia Cunha; Joo Pinheiro; Duarte Nuno Vieira

2006-01-01

305

A method for enhancement of background sounds in forensic  

E-print Network

A method for enhancement of background sounds in forensic audio recordings Robert C. Maher;Outline · Introduction ­ Audio forensic analysis ­ Adaptive interference cancelling ­ Sinusoidal modeling · Test implementation · Example processing · Conclusion #12;Audio Forensics · Audio Forensics

Maher, Robert C.

306

Detecting Content Adaptive Scaling of Images for Forensic Applications  

E-print Network

Detecting Content Adaptive Scaling of Images for Forensic Applications Claude Fillion1,2 , Gaurav images as evidence in legal and journalistic applications. It is therefore desirable that image forensic-carving for forensic purposes. As in other forensic applications, we pose the problem of seam-carving detection

Sharma, Gaurav

307

FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION REPORTING USING AUTOMATIC SPEAKER RECOGNITION SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION REPORTING USING AUTOMATIC SPEAKER RECOGNITION SYSTEMS J. Gonzalez to the bayesian approach for evidence analysis and forensic reporting. This approach, firmly established in other forensic areas as fingerprint, DNA or fiber analysis, suits the needs of both the court and the forensic

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

308

Forensic Science: Hair Sample Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into how hairs from a crime scene are matched to suspects. Learners each take a single hair from their own head, then put it directly into the beam of a laser pointer. This projects the unique pattern of each hair onto a piece of paper to be traced, measured, identified and compared with the others. Learners can conclude this activity by setting up a mystery exercise with prepared samples of hair already in frames. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forensics.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

309

Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

Lee, Henry C.

1980-01-01

310

A perspective on errors, bias, and interpretation in the forensic sciences and direction for continuing advancement.  

PubMed

The forensic sciences are under review more so than ever before. Such review is necessary and healthy and should be a continuous process. It identifies areas for improvement in quality practices and services. The issues surrounding error, i.e., measurement error, human error, contextual bias, and confirmatory bias, and interpretation are discussed. Infrastructure is already in place to support reliability. However, more definition and clarity of terms and interpretation would facilitate communication and understanding. Material improvement across the disciplines should be sought through national programs in education and training, focused on science, the scientific method, statistics, and ethics. To provide direction for advancing the forensic sciences a list of recommendations ranging from further documentation to new research and validation to education and to accreditation is provided for consideration. The list is a starting point for discussion that could foster further thought and input in developing an overarching strategic plan for enhancing the forensic sciences. PMID:19486241

Budowle, Bruce; Bottrell, Maureen C; Bunch, Stephen G; Fram, Robert; Harrison, Diana; Meagher, Stephen; Oien, Cary T; Peterson, Peter E; Seiger, Danielle P; Smith, Michael B; Smrz, Melissa A; Soltis, Greg L; Stacey, Robert B

2009-07-01

311

The Forensic Science Assessment Test (FSAT): A Potential Tool for the Academic Assessment of Forensic Science Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic science college and university education, like college education in general, needs assessment tools to ensure the accountability and continued improvement of academic programs. Both forensic science educators and practitioners have vested interests in the successful student outcomes of forensic science programs and the need for rigorous high quality academic programs. The Forensic Science Assessment Test (FSAT) may provide a

Lawrence A. Presley; Michael Haas; Lawrence Quarino

2009-01-01

312

Abstract--In this paper, we propose a system-on-chip software hardware co-design methodology for a statistical coder. We use  

E-print Network

-coded bit stream. The compression ratio of the pre-coded (spatially/temporally compressed but statistically uncompressed) bit stream over the statistically compressed bit stream determines the efficiency of that coder the compressed bit stream generated by the reference CABAC SW (without any HW assisted circuitries

Thinh, Le Minh

313

Forensic Analysis of Compromised Computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Directory Tree Analysis File Generator is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) script that simplifies and automates the collection of information for forensic analysis of compromised computer systems. During such an analysis, it is sometimes necessary to collect and analyze information about files on a specific directory tree. Directory Tree Analysis File Generator collects information of this type (except information about directories) and writes it to a text file. In particular, the script asks the user for the root of the directory tree to be processed, the name of the output file, and the number of subtree levels to process. The script then processes the directory tree and puts out the aforementioned text file. The format of the text file is designed to enable the submission of the file as input to a spreadsheet program, wherein the forensic analysis is performed. The analysis usually consists of sorting files and examination of such characteristics of files as ownership, time of creation, and time of most recent access, all of which characteristics are among the data included in the text file.

Wolfe, Thomas

2004-01-01

314

Electron microscopy and forensic practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron microanalysis in forensic practice ranks among basic applications used in investigation of traces (latents, stains, etc.) from crime scenes. Applying electron microscope allows for rapid screening and receiving initial information for a wide range of traces. SEM with EDS/WDS makes it possible to observe topography surface and morphology samples and examination of chemical components. Physical laboratory of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague use SEM especially for examination of inorganic samples, rarely for biology and other material. Recently, possibilities of electron microscopy have been extended considerably using dual systems with focused ion beam. These systems are applied mainly in study of inner micro and nanoparticles , thin layers (intersecting lines in graphical forensic examinations, analysis of layers of functional glass, etc.), study of alloys microdefects, creating 3D particles and aggregates models, etc. Automated mineralogical analyses are a great asset to analysis of mineral phases, particularly soils, similarly it holds for cathode luminescence, predominantly colour one and precise quantitative measurement of their spectral characteristics. Among latest innovations that are becoming to appear also at ordinary laboratories are TOF - SIMS systems and micro Raman spectroscopy with a resolution comparable to EDS/WDS analysis (capable of achieving similar level as through EDS/WDS analysis).

Kotrl, Marek; Turkov, Ivana

2013-05-01

315

Forensic proteomics of poxvirus production.  

PubMed

The field of microbial forensics has recently sought to develop methods to discern biological signatures to indicate production methods for biological agents. Viral agents have received less attention to date. Their obligate propagation in living cells makes purification from cellular material a challenge. This leads to potential carryover of protein-rich signatures of their production system. Here we have explored a proteomic analysis of vaccinia virus as a model poxvirus system in which to compare samples of virus propagated in different cell lines and subjected to different purification schemes. The proteomic data sets indicated viral, host cell and culture medium proteins. Several layers of data analysis were applied to build confidence in the peptide identification and capture information on the taxonomic utility of each. The analysis showed clear shifts in protein profiles with virus purification, with successive gradient purification steps showing different levels of viral protein enrichment. Peptides from cellular proteins, including those present in purified virus preparations, provided signatures which enabled discrimination of cell line substrates, including distinguishing between cells derived from different primate species. The ability to discern multiple aspects of viral production demonstrates the potential value of proteomic analysis as tool for microbial forensics. PMID:23979794

Wunschel, David; Tulman, Edan; Engelmann, Heather; Clowers, Brian H; Geary, Steven; Robinson, Aaron; Liao, Xiaofen

2013-11-01

316

Vocal Forgery in Forensic Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes techniques of vocal forgery able to affect automatic speaker recognition system in a forensic context. Vocal forgery covers two main aspects: voice transformation and voice conversion. Concerning voice transformation, this article proposes an automatic analysis of four specific disguised voices in order to detect the forgery and, for voice conversion, different ways to automatically imitate a target voice. Vocal forgery appears as a real and relevant question for forensic expertise. In most cases, criminals who make a terrorist claim or a miscellaneous call, disguise their voices to hide their identity or to take the identity of another person. Disguise is considered in this paper as a deliberate action of the speaker who wants to conceal or falsify his identity. Different techniques exist to transform ones own voice. Some are sophisticated as software manipulation, some others are simpler as using an handkerchief over the mouth. In voice transformation, the presented work is dedicated to the study of disguise used in the most common cases. In voice conversion, different techniques will be presented, compared, and applied on an original example of the French President voice.

Perrot, Patrick; Morel, Mathieu; Razik, Joseph; Chollet, Grard

317

Identification of the first reported Lapita cremation in the Pacific Islands using archaeological, forensic and contemporary burning evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burnt human remains excavated from a scoop feature from a cemetery at Teouma, Vanuatu in the western Pacific (?2850 BP) were examined to assess the nature of the deposit. Possible scenarios explaining the reason the bone was burnt and interred were assessed using osteological signatures taken from archaeological, experimental, and forensic studies. The methodology of the study included recording color

Rachel M. Scott; Hallie R. Buckley; Matthew Spriggs; Frdrique Valentin; Stuart Bedford

2010-01-01

318

Idea Bank: Forensics on a Shoestring Budget  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into the 10th-grade biology curriculum while staying within the budget. This activity involves estimating a time of death based on fictitious police and medical examiner reports. Students are challenged to apply their knowledge using inquiry in lieu of elaborate equipment or supplies.

Greco, Joseph A.

2005-07-01

319

National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the course of the 2009 Federal Fiscal Year the United States (U.S.) Department of Homeland Security (DHS), in partnership with the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Energy (DOE), is continuing existing programs and introducing new programs designed to maintain a highly qualified, enduring workforce capable of performing the technical nuclear forensics mission. These student and university programs are designed to recruit the best and brightest students, develop university faculty and research capabilities, and engage the national laboratories in fields of study with application in nuclear forensics. This comprehensive effort constitutes the National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program.

Kentis, Samantha E.; Ulicny, William D.

2009-08-01

320

Open Source Live Distributions for Computer Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current distributions of open source forensic software provide digital investigators with a large set of heterogeneous tools. Their use is not always focused on the target and requires high technical expertise. We present a new GNU/Linux live distribution, named CAINE (Computer Aided INvestigative Environment) that contains a collection of tools wrapped up into a user friendly environment. The CAINE forensic framework introduces novel important features, aimed at filling the interoperability gap across different forensic tools. Moreover, it provides a homogeneous graphical interface that drives digital investigators during the acquisition and analysis of electronic evidence, and it offers a semi-automatic mechanism for the creation of the final report.

Giustini, Giancarlo; Andreolini, Mauro; Colajanni, Michele

321

[The application of palynology in forensic medicine].  

PubMed

Palynology, one science of plant's pollen and spores, has been proven to be a new frontier discipline. Because of the characteristics of pollen and spores, such as small size, light weight, large amount, and difficult to be found, they can leave physical evidence and provide new clues to solve a case. Therefore palynology has a good prospect for practical application in forensic medicine. The paper intends to analyze the advantage and limitation of palynology in forensic medicine by reviewing its general characteristics, classification, morphology, and disseminating circadian rhythm. We hope to provide some reference to apply palynology in forensic medicine. PMID:18402121

Zhang, Dan-Yan; Zhang, Dan-Mei; Hou, Yi-Ping

2007-12-01

322

[Forensic medicine literature databank. Goals and uses].  

PubMed

In addition to existing, international database systems we started building up a forensic-medical database. Whereas the current systems offer a cross section of the newest medical knowledge, we wanted to reach a review over the most important journals specialized in forensic medicine, starting from their beginning. In this way one gets informations over empirical knowledge and casuistry, which are of great importance in forensic medicine. As technical basis we use a personal computer and the dBase III database system. PMID:2241833

Denk, W; Missliwetz, J

1990-01-01

323

Current issues in species identification for forensic science and the validity of using the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.  

PubMed

Species identification techniques commonly utilized in Australian Forensic Science laboratories are gel immunodifussion antigen antibody reactions and hair comparison analysis. Both of these techniques have significant limitations and should be considered indicative opinion based tests. The Barcode of Life Initiative aims to sequence a section of DNA (~648 base pairs) for the Cytochrome Oxidase I mitochondrial gene (COI) in all living species on Earth, with the data generated being uploaded to the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) which can then be used for species identification. The COI gene therefore offers forensics scientists an opportunity to use the marker to analyze unknown samples and compare sequences generated in BOLD. Once sequences from enough species are on the database, it is anticipated that routine identification of an unknown species may be possible. However, most forensic laboratories are not yet suited to this type of analysis and do not have the expertise to fully interpret the implications of matches and non matches involving a poorly sampled taxa (for example where there are cryptic species) and in providing the required opinion evidence. Currently, the use of BOLD is limited by the number of relevant species held in the database and the quality assurance and regulation of sequences that are there. In this paper, the COI methodology and BOLD are tested on a selection of introduced and Australian mammals in a forensic environment as the first step necessary in the implementation of this approach in the Australian context. Our data indicates that the COI methodology performs well on distinct species but needs further exploration when identifying more closely related species. It is evident from our study that changes will be required to implement DNA based wildlife forensics using the BOLD approach for forensic applications and recommendations are made for the future adoption of this technology into forensic laboratories. PMID:20563888

Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Norman, Janette; Robertson, James; Sarre, Stephen; Georges, Arthur

2010-09-01

324

Use of Stable Isotopes in Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

The use of isotopic signatures for forensic analysis of biological materials is well-established, and the same general principles that apply to interpretation of stable isotope content of C, N, O, and H apply to the analysis of microorganisms. Heterotrophic microorganisms derive their isotopic content from their growth substrates, which are largely plant and animal products, and the water in their culture medium. Thus the isotope signatures of microbes are tied to their growth environment. The C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of spores have been demonstrated to constitute highly discriminating signatures for sample matching. They can rule out specific samples of media and/or water as possible production media, and can predict isotope ratio ranges of the culture media and water used to produce a given sample. These applications have been developed and tested through analyses of approximately 250 samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and over 500 samples of culture media, providing a strong statistical basis for data interpretation. A Bayesian statistical framework for integrating stable isotope data with other types of signatures derived from microorganisms has been able to characterize the culture medium used to produce spores of various Bacillus species, leveraging isotopic differences in different medium types and demonstrating the power of data integration for forensic investigations.

Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.

2012-01-18

325

Testing methodologies  

SciTech Connect

Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs.

Bender, M.A.

1990-01-01

326

Enhancing forensic science with spectroscopic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation outlines the research we are developing in the area of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging with the focus on materials of forensic interest. FTIR spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a powerful tool for characterisation of heterogeneous materials. FTIR imaging relies on the ability of the military-developed infrared array detector to simultaneously measure spectra from thousands of different locations in a sample. Recently developed application of FTIR imaging using an ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) mode has demonstrated the ability of this method to achieve spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of infrared light in air. Chemical visualisation with enhanced spatial resolution in micro-ATR mode broadens the range of materials studied with FTIR imaging with applications to pharmaceutical formulations or biological samples. Macro-ATR imaging has also been developed for chemical imaging analysis of large surface area samples and was applied to analyse the surface of human skin (e.g. finger), counterfeit tablets, textile materials (clothing), etc. This approach demonstrated the ability of this imaging method to detect trace materials attached to the surface of the skin. This may also prove as a valuable tool in detection of traces of explosives left or trapped on the surfaces of different materials. This FTIR imaging method is substantially superior to many of the other imaging methods due to inherent chemical specificity of infrared spectroscopy and fast acquisition times of this technique. Our preliminary data demonstrated that this methodology will provide the means to non-destructive detection method that could relate evidence to its source. This will be important in a wider crime prevention programme. In summary, intrinsic chemical specificity and enhanced visualising capability of FTIR spectroscopic imaging open a window of opportunities for counter-terrorism and crime-fighting, with applications ranging from analysis of trace evidence (e.g. in soil), tablets, drugs, fibres, tape explosives, biological samples to detection of gunshot residues and imaging of fingerprints.

Ricci, Camilla; Kazarian, Sergei G.

2006-09-01

327

Role of dental expert in forensic odontology  

PubMed Central

Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709

Verma, Anoop K.; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

2014-01-01

328

Contemporary practice in forensic odontology  

PubMed Central

Forensic odontology plays a major role in the identification of those individuals who cannot be identified visually or by other means. The unique nature of dental anatomy and placement of custom restorations ensure accuracy when the techniques are correctly employed. It is evident that identification of victims in accidents and natural calamities is of utmost importance and is a challenging task. The teeth may also be used as weapons and under certain circumstances; they may provide information regarding the identity of the biter. Dental professionals play a major role in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize malpractices, negligence, fraud child abuse and also, identify an individual. In this article, we will discuss such evolvement of the subject. PMID:25328306

Gupta, Shalini; Agnihotri, Archana; Chandra, Akhilesh; Gupta, Om Prakash

2014-01-01

329

Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

1999-10-12

330

Forensic 3D scene reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

2000-05-01

331

Engineering forensics at Youngstown State University  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buildings collapse, vehicles crash, cranes and bridges collapse. Why? Who is responsible? Forensic engineers must analyze\\u000a failures to determine causes, origins, and legal responsibilities of accidents, fires, and explosions. This is the subject\\u000a of a new course offered in spring 2005 at Youngstown State University (YSU) entitled Engineering Forensics Using the Scanning Electron Microscope. The course included a lab in

Robert A. McCoy

2005-01-01

332

Forensic Examination Using a Nondestructive Evaluation Method for Surface Metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to describe the use of a new technique of optical profilometry in a nondestructive, non-contact fashion for the comparison of two metallic surfaces, one hard and one soft. When brought in contact with one another, the harder material (i.e. the tool) will impress its surface roughness onto the softer. It is understood that the resulting set of impressions left from a tool tip act in a manner similar to a photographic negative, in that it leaves a reverse, or negative impression on the surface of a plate. If properly inverted and reversed, measurements from the softer material should be identical to the harder indenting object with regard to surface texture and roughness. This assumption is inherent in the area of forensics, where bullets, cartridge cases, and toolmarked surfaces from crime scenes are compared to similar marks made under controlled conditions in the forensic laboratory. This paper will examine the methodology used to compare two surfaces for similarities and dissimilarities, and comment on the applicability of this technique to other studies.

Eisenmann, David J.; Chumbley, L. Scott

2009-03-01

333

Computer Forensics Education - the Open Source Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter we discuss the application of the open source software tools in computer forensics education at tertiary level. We argue that open source tools are more suitable than commercial tools, as they provide the opportunity for students to gain in-depth understanding and appreciation of the computer forensic process as opposed to familiarity with one software product, however complex and multi-functional. With the access to all source programs the students become more than just the consumers of the tools as future forensic investigators. They can also examine the code, understand the relationship between the binary images and relevant data structures, and in the process gain necessary background to become the future creators of new and improved forensic software tools. As a case study we present an advanced subject, Computer Forensics Workshop, which we designed for the Bachelor's degree in computer science at the University of Western Sydney. We based all laboratory work and the main take-home project in this subject on open source software tools. We found that without exception more than one suitable tool can be found to cover each topic in the curriculum adequately. We argue that this approach prepares students better for forensic field work, as they gain confidence to use a variety of tools, not just a single product they are familiar with.

Huebner, Ewa; Bem, Derek; Cheung, Hon

334

Protecting victims of elder financial exploitation: the role of an Elder Abuse Forensic Center in referring victims for conservatorship.  

PubMed

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which an Elder Abuse Forensic Center protects financial exploitation (FE) victims through referral to the Office of the Public Guardian (PG) for investigation and possible conservatorship (called 'guardianship' in many states). Method: Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center cases involving adults aged 65 and older (April 2007-December 2009) were matched using one-to-one propensity-score matching to 33,650 usual care Adult Protective Services (APS) cases. The final analysis sample consisted of 472 FE cases. Results: Compared to usual care, Forensic Center cases were more likely to be referred to the PG for investigation (30.6%, n = 72vs. 5.9%, n = 14, p < .001). The strongest predictors of PG referral were suspected cognitive impairment, as identified by APS (odds ratio [OR] = 11.69, confidence intervals [CI]: 3.50-39.03), and Forensic Center review (OR = 7.85, CI: 3.86-15.95). Among referred cases, the court approved conservatorship at higher rates - though not statistically significant - for Forensic Center cases than usual care (52.9%, n = 36/68vs. 41.7%, n = 5/12). Conclusion: Conservatorship may be a necessary last resort to improve safety for some FE victims, and the Forensic Center appears to provide a pathway to this service. These findings suggest modification to the Elder Abuse Forensic Center conceptual model and contribute to an emerging body of evidence on the role of the Forensic Center in addressing elder abuse. PMID:25269384

Gassoumis, Zachary D; Navarro, Adria E; Wilber, Kathleen H

2014-10-01

335

Preserving the Pedagogy: The Director of Forensics as an At-Risk Professional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's collegiate forensic activities have changed in ways that pose profound challenges to directors of forensics. Six primary factors that contribute to the "at-riskness" of directors of forensics are: the changing face of today's forensic program forces difficult choices; the forensics community is seeing signs of a crisis in forensic

Jensen, Scott

336

Forensic Botany: Using Plant Evidence to Aid in Forensic Death Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic botany is still an under-utilized resource in forensic casework, although it has been used on occasion. It is an area of specialty science that could include traditional botanical classification of spe- cies, DNA, or materials evidence (trace and transfer evidence), crime mapping or geo-sourcing, all de- pendent on the specific case application under consideration. Critical to the evaluation of

Heather Miller Coyle; Cheng-Lung Lee; W en-Yu Lin; Timothy M. Palmbach

337

Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: A Legal Study Concerning the Forensic Sciences Personnel. Volume III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The place and function of forensic sciences personnel in American criminal law and court procedure, and the criteria used by criminal trial judges and lawyers to assess the value of forensic sciences personnel were investigated. Federal, state, Virgin Island, and Puerto Rican laws were examined, and a search of the medical and legal literature

Schroeder, Oliver, Jr.

338

Research and Training in Forensic Psychology: National Survey of Forensic Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was sent to the 103 directors of public forensic facilities in the United States. Responses were received from 68, a response rate of 66%. Information on the facilities' involvement in training and research in forensic psychology was obtained. A number of facilities reported involvement in psychology training at different levels; graduate practicum (43%) and predoctoral internship (41%) were

Kirk S. Heilbrun; Lawrence V. Annis

1988-01-01

339

Midwest Forensics Resource Center Project Summary June 2005  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the MFRC Research and Development Program, is to provide technological advances in forensic science for the benefit of our regional partners as well as the forensic community at large. Key areas of forensic science need are identified through our interactions with our Midwest partners and our R&D advisory group, as well as through our participation in national meetings in forensic science. Under the sponsorship of the National Institute of Justice, the MFRC solicits proposals for the development of practical and useful technology, instrumentation, and methodology that address needs in areas related to forensic science and its application to operational crime laboratories. The MFRC facilitates proposal development by working to establish partnerships between researchers and our regional partners. The MFRC administers a peer-review of the proposals and then funds the selected projects at a cost of approximately $55,000 each, with a 12-month period of performance. The process for selection of these projects includes the following steps: (1) drafting of a call for proposals by MFRC staff, (2) review of the draft call by members of the R&D advisory committee, (3) review and approval of the call by NIJ, (4) issuance of the call to ISU, Ames Laboratory, regional partners, and research organizations, (5) receipt of proposals, (6) review of proposals by R&D advisory committee, (7) ranking and selection by MFRC staff using advisory committee reviews, with concurrence by NIJ, (8) notification of proposers, (9) receipt and review of progress reports by MFRC, (10) receipt and review of final reports by MFRC, R&D advisory committee, and NIJ. The decision to fund any specific project is based upon a peer-reviewed call-for-proposal system administered by the MFRC. The reviewers are crime laboratory specialists and scientists who are asked to rate the proposals on four criteria areas including: (1) relevance to the mission of the MFRC, (2) technical approach and procedures, (3) capabilities, teaming, and leveraging, and (4) implementation plan. A successful proposal demonstrates knowledge of the background for the research and related work in the field and includes a research plan with a defined plan to implement the technology to benefit our partners at the crime laboratories. The project summaries are meant to demonstrate the range of research funded by the MFRC including chemistry, DNA, and patterned evidence. The project summaries describe the forensic need the projects serve as well as the benefits derived from the technology. The summaries provide a brief description of the technology and the accomplishments to date. In addition, the collaboration with regional partners and the status of the implementation of the technology are highlighted. These technical summaries represent the development and implementation of practical and useful technology for crime laboratories that the MFRC hopes to accomplish.

David Baldwin

2005-06-01

340

[Forensic medical estimation of gunshot fractures of the flat bones].  

PubMed

The principal characteristics of the investigations into the mechanisms of gunshot injuries are considered. The general and peculiar features of gunshot fractures and the pathological processes underlying them are discussed. The theory of bullet impact effect put forward by the Russian surgeons in the late XIXth century is verified. The explanation is proposed for the physical nature of direct and side impacts and the phenomenon of a temporary oscillating cavity from the standpoint of the theory of bullet impact effect. The new forensic medical criteria for the gunshot origin of an injury have been developed that allow the gunshot distance and the geometric characteristics of the bullet to be determined. A methodological basis for the determination of the long-range gunshot distance has been created. The results of the present study may be of interest for criminal lawyers and military specialists. PMID:22567957

Dubrovin, I A; Dubrovina, I A

2012-01-01

341

Forensic miRNA: Potential biomarker for body fluids?  

PubMed

In forensic investigation, body fluids represent an important support to professionals when detected, collected and correctly identified. Through many years, various approaches were used, namely serology-based methodologies however, their lack of sensitivity and specificity became difficult to set aside. In order to sidetrack the problem, miRNA profiling surged with a real potential to be used to identify evidences like urine, blood, menstrual blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions. MiRNAs are small RNA structures with 20-25nt whose proprieties makes them less prone to degradation processes when compared to mRNA which is extremely important once, in a crime scene, biological evidences might be exposed to several unfavorable environmental factors. Recently, published studies were able to identify some specific miRNAs, however their results were not always reproducible by others which can possibly be the reflection of different workflow strategies for their profiling studies. Given the current blast of interest in miRNAs, it is important to acknowledge potential limitations of miRNA profiling, yet, the lack of such studies are evident. This review pretends to gather all the information to date and assessed a multitude of factors that have a potential aptitude to discrediting miRNA profiling, such as: methodological approaches, environmental factors, physiological conditions, gender, pathologies and samples storage. It can be asserted that much has yet to be made, but we pretend to highlight a potential answer for the ultimate question: Can miRNA profiling be used as the forensic biomarker for body fluids identification? PMID:25280377

Silva, Sarah S; Lopes, Ctia; Teixeira, A L; Sousa, M J Carneiro de; Medeiros, R

2015-01-01

342

People V. Castro: Challenging the Forensic Use of DNA Evidence  

E-print Network

forensic context, where there might be particular problems arising from the sometimes miniscule amounts of available biological material,forensic setting, scientists often have only minute samples of blood, perhaps quite old, possibly contaminated with bacteria or other materials

Mnookin, Jennifer L.

2007-01-01

343

Printer Profiling for Forensics and Ballistics Department of Computer Science  

E-print Network

Printer Profiling for Forensics and Ballistics Eric Kee Department of Computer Science Dartmouth College Hanover, NH 03755 erickee@cs.dartmouth.edu Hany Farid Department of Computer Science Dartmouth Processing]: Miscellaneous General Terms Security Keywords Digital Tampering, Digital Forensics, Document

Farid, Hany

344

VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

345

Estimating JPEG2000 compression for image forensics using Benford's Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the tremendous growth and usage of digital images nowadays, the integrity and authenticity of digital content is becoming increasingly important, and a growing concern to many government and commercial sectors. Image Forensics, based on a passive statistical analysis of the image data only, is an alternative approach to the active embedding of data associated with Digital Watermarking. Benford's Law was first introduced to analyse the probability distribution of the 1st digit (1-9) numbers of natural data, and has since been applied to Accounting Forensics for detecting fraudulent income tax returns [9]. More recently, Benford's Law has been further applied to image processing and image forensics. For example, Fu et al. [5] proposed a Generalised Benford's Law technique for estimating the Quality Factor (QF) of JPEG compressed images. In our previous work, we proposed a framework incorporating the Generalised Benford's Law to accurately detect unknown JPEG compression rates of watermarked images in semi-fragile watermarking schemes. JPEG2000 (a relatively new image compression standard) offers higher compression rates and better image quality as compared to JPEG compression. In this paper, we propose the novel use of Benford's Law for estimating JPEG2000 compression for image forensics applications. By analysing the DWT coefficients and JPEG2000 compression on 1338 test images, the initial results indicate that the 1st digit probability of DWT coefficients follow the Benford's Law. The unknown JPEG2000 compression rates of the image can also be derived, and proved with the help of a divergence factor, which shows the deviation between the probabilities and Benford's Law. Based on 1338 test images, the mean divergence for DWT coefficients is approximately 0.0016, which is lower than DCT coefficients at 0.0034. However, the mean divergence for JPEG2000 images compression rate at 0.1 is 0.0108, which is much higher than uncompressed DWT coefficients. This result clearly indicates a presence of compression in the image. Moreover, we compare the results of 1st digit probability and divergence among JPEG2000 compression rates at 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.9. The initial results show that the expected difference among them could be used for further analysis to estimate the unknown JPEG2000 compression rates.

Qadir, Ghulam; Zhao, Xi; Ho, Anthony T. S.

2010-05-01

346

Development of a forensic identity SNP panel for Indonesia.  

PubMed

Genetic markers included in forensic identity panels must exhibit Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium (HWE and LE). "Universal" panels designed for global use can fail these tests in regional jurisdictions exhibiting high levels of genetic differentiation such as the Indonesian archipelago. This is especially the case where a single DNA database is required for allele frequency estimates to calculate random match probabilities (RMPs) and associated likelihood ratios (LRs). A panel of 65 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a reduced set of 52 SNPs have been selected from 15 Indonesian subpopulations in the HUGO Pan Asian SNP database using a SNP selection strategy that could be applied to any panel of forensic identity markers. The strategy consists of four screening steps: (1) application of a G test for HWE; (2) ranking for high heterozygosity; (3) selection for LE; and (4) selection for low inbreeding depression. SNPs in our Indonesian panel perform well in comparison to some other universal SNP and short tandem repeat (STR) panels as measured by Fisher's exact test for HWE and LE and Wright's F statistics. PMID:25104323

Augustinus, Daniel; Gahan, Michelle E; McNevin, Dennis

2014-08-01

347

Age Estimation in Forensic Anthropology: Quantification of Observer Error in Phase Versus Component-Based Methods.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess observer error in phase versus component-based scoring systems used to develop age estimation methods in forensic anthropology. A method preferred by forensic anthropologists in the AAFS was selected for this evaluation (the Suchey-Brooks method for the pubic symphysis). The Suchey-Brooks descriptions were used to develop a corresponding component-based scoring system for comparison. Several commonly used reliability statistics (kappa, weighted kappa, and the intraclass correlation coefficient) were calculated to assess observer agreement between two observers and to evaluate the efficacy of each of these statistics for this study. The linear weighted kappa was determined to be the most suitable measure of observer agreement. The results show that a component-based system offers the possibility for more objective scoring than a phase system as long as the coding possibilities for each trait do not exceed three states of expression, each with as little overlap as possible. PMID:25389078

Shirley, Natalie R; Ramirez Montes, Paula Andrea

2014-11-12

348

Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view  

PubMed Central

The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster. PMID:23087581

Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth

2012-01-01

349

Forensic Analysis using Geological and Geochemical Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the globalisation of legal (and illegal) trade there is an increasing demand for techniques which can verify the geographical origin and transfer routes of many legal and illegal commodities and products. Although geological techniques have been used in forensic investigations since the emergence of forensics as a science in the late eighteen hundreds, the last decade has seen a marked increase in geo-scientists initiating concept studies using the latest analytical techniques, including studying natural abundance isotope variations, micro analysis with laser ablation ICPMS and geochemical mapping. Most of the concept studies have shown a good potential but uptake by the law enforcement and legal community has been limited due to concerns about the admissibility of the new methods. As an introduction to the UGU2009 session "Forensic Provenancing using Geological and Geochemical Techniques" I will give an overview of the state of the art of forensic geology and the issues that concern the admissibility of geological forensic evidence. I will use examples from the NITECRIME and FIRMS networks, the EU TRACE project and other projects and literature to illustrate the important issues at hand.

Hoogewerff, J.

2009-04-01

350

Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

Reilly, Dallas David

351

Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist  

PubMed Central

The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public. PMID:23162478

Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D.; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C.; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

2012-01-01

352

Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist.  

PubMed

The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public. PMID:23162478

Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

2012-01-01

353

Forensic science, genetics and wildlife biology: getting the right mix for a wildlife DNA forensics lab.  

PubMed

Wildlife DNA forensics is receiving increasing coverage in the popular press and has begun to appear in the scientific literature in relation to several different fields. Recognized as an applied subject, it rests on top of very diverse scientific pillars ranging from biochemistry through to evolutionary genetics, all embedded within the context of modern forensic science. This breadth of scope, combined with typically limited resources, has often left wildlife DNA forensics hanging precariously between human DNA forensics and academics keen to seek novel applications for biological research. How best to bridge this gap is a matter for regular debate among the relatively few full-time practitioners in the field. The decisions involved in establishing forensic genetic services to investigate wildlife crime can be complex, particularly where crimes involve a wide range of species and evidential questions. This paper examines some of the issues relevant to setting up a wildlife DNA forensics laboratory based on experiences of working in this area over the past 7 years. It includes a discussion of various models for operating individual laboratories as well as options for organizing forensic testing at higher national and international levels. PMID:20593251

Ogden, Rob

2010-09-01

354

Setting Course: The Case for the Credentialing of Forensic Interviewers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article provides a history of efforts to develop a credentialing or certification process for forensic interviewers and reviews the multitiered credentialing process offered by the National Association of Certified Child Forensic Interviewers. The authors argue the benefits of a credentialing process for forensic interviewers and respond to

Haney, Mike; Vieth, Victor I.; Campos, Hector M.

2010-01-01

355

Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female

Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.

2009-01-01

356

Computer Forensics: Is It the Next Hot IT Subject?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital Forensics is not just the recovery of data or information from computer systems and their networks. It is not a procedure that can be accomplished by software alone, and most important, it is not something that can be accomplished by other than a trained IT forensic professional. Digital Forensics is an emerging science and was developed

Williams, Victor G.; Revels, Ken

2006-01-01

357

The role of forensic geoscience in wildlife crime detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in both automation and precision in the analysis of geological materials has had significant impact upon forensic investigations in the last 10 years. There is however, a fundamental philosophical difference between forensic and geological enquiry. This paper presents the results of forensic geoscientific investigations of three cases of wildlife crime. Two cases involve the analysis of soils recovered

Ruth M. Morgan; Patricia Wiltshire; Adrian Parker; Peter A. Bull

2006-01-01

358

Volume 3 Issue 5 1000147 J Forensic Res  

E-print Network

Volume 3 · Issue 5 · 1000147 J Forensic Res ISSN: 2157-7145 JFR, an open access journal Open Access) released a report in 2009 discussing the "science" used in forensics. Specifically, the report outlined concerns regarding the state of the forensic sciences and what was needed to raise the level of rigor

Tomberlin, Jeff

359

Forensic science in Australia Can we learn from international reports?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of international reports, including the National Academies (NAS) report from the USA, have highlighted shortcomings in wide-ranging aspects of forensic science. The reports not only target service delivery issues but also the fundamental underpinnings of forensic science with respect to its knowledge base. How does forensic science in Australia compare? What would the reports say if the studies

Alastair Ross

2011-01-01

360

The Evolution of Molecular Analyses in Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of molecular biological tools and their application to the study of human DNA has had a widespread impact on forensic science in terms of greater accuracy of results and increased use of biological materials. Novel techniques in DNA fingerprinting coupled with traditional methods in forensic haemogenetics will in time greatly increase the contribution of forensic science to the

B. A. Neilan; L. Y. C. Lai; A. Gurvitz

1994-01-01

361

Journal of Forensic Identification 60 / 61 (1), 2011  

E-print Network

Journal of Forensic Identification 60 / 61 (1), 2011 1 Department of Psychological and Brain. #12;Journal of Forensic Identification 61 (1), 2011 \\ 61 Introduction Latent print examinations number of matching points or details that is mandated by the courts or forensic science community

Yu, Chen

362

Crime Scene Genetics: Transforming Forensic Science through Molecular Technologies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Advances in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) technology over the past 25 years have led to spectacularly precise forensic identification techniques, although some applications have also unleashed controversies regarding genetic privacy. Current molecular forensic work is pushing these technologies even further by analyzing extremely damaged DNA and by introducing RNA (ribonucleic acid) techniques to forensics.

Melissa Lee Phillips (Freelance Science Writer;)

2008-06-01

363

Forensic entomology: application, education and research in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology as a science and a tool for investigation has had slow beginnings in Australia. A number of small animal decomposition trials have been recorded in the literature but mostly from an ecological rather than a forensic entomology perspective. In the last 20 years, a number of more forensically orientated field trials on small pigs and some fly developmental

I. R. Dadour; D. F. Cook; J. N. Fissioli; W. J. Bailey

2001-01-01

364

UC DAVIS FORENSIC SCIENCE CENTER 1909 Galileo Court, Suite B  

E-print Network

UC DAVIS FORENSIC SCIENCE CENTER 1909 Galileo Court, Suite B Davis, CA 95618 Directions to the UC Davis Forensic Science Center: Exit I80 south on Richards Blvd. Richards Blvd. changes its name at the end of the court. Our office is on the right, Suite B. FORENSIC SCIENCE CENTER SUITE B Key Contact

Peisert, Sean

365

17 MODELING FORENSIC EVIDENCE SYSTEMS USING DESIGN SCIENCE  

E-print Network

17 MODELING FORENSIC EVIDENCE SYSTEMS USING DESIGN SCIENCE Colin Armstrong Helen Armstrong School an overview of the application of design science research to the tactical management of forensic evidence in several international jurisdictions. Keywords Design science research, socio-technology, forensic evidence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

366

Page 1 of 5 INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC SCIENCE (JUST 281)  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 5 INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC SCIENCE (JUST 281) SPRING 2010 Tuesday and Thursday 9:00 ­ 10: An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2007); ISBN 0-13-221655-8. Our on fundamental principles of forensic science. We will have increasingly more hands-on activities as we go

Gering, Jon C.

367

FORENSIC SCIENCE GRADUATE GROUP BYLAWS Administrative Home: UC Davis Extension  

E-print Network

1 FORENSIC SCIENCE GRADUATE GROUP BYLAWS Administrative Home: UC Davis Extension Revision: November ­ Objective The Forensic Science Graduate Group (hereafter referred to as the Group) is organized primarily to establish and administer graduate teaching and research leading to the M.S. degree in Forensic Science

Ullrich, Paul

368

Biometric Identification in Forensic Cases According to the Bayesian Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the one hand, commercial biometric systems and forensic identification require different approaches in order to evaluate system outputs. On the other hand, bayesian approach for evidence analysis and forensic reporting perfectly suits the needs of the court and the forensic scientist. Inside this bayesian framework, any biometric system can be adapted to provide its results in the form of

Joaquin Gonzalez-rodriguez; Julian Firrez-aguilar; Javier Ortega-garcia; J. J. Lucena-molina

2002-01-01

369

THE NEED FOR A RESEARCH CULTURE IN THE FORENSIC SCIENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods, techniques, and reliability of the forensic sciences in general, and the pattern identification disciplines in particular, have faced significant scrutiny in recent years. Critics have attacked the scientific basis for the assumptions and claims made by forensic scientists both in and out of the courtroom. Defenders have emphasized courts' long-standing acceptance of forensic science evidence, the relative dearth

Jonathan Koehler; Jennifer L. Mnookin; Simon A. Cole; Barry A. J. Fisher; Itiel E. Dror; Max Houck; Kieth Inman; David H. Kaye; Glenn Langenburg; D. Michel Risinger; Norah Rudin; Jay Siegel

2011-01-01

370

Craniofacial Superimposition in Forensic Identification using Genetic Algorithms  

E-print Network

at the University of Granada. 1 Introduction Forensic anthropology is best conceptualized more broadly as a field the skeleton. This way, the most important application of forensic anthropology is the identification of humanCraniofacial Superimposition in Forensic Identification using Genetic Algorithms Lucia Ballerini1

Granada, Universidad de

371

Quality Assurance as Pedagogy for Academic Forensic Anthropology Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surety-based quality assurance program is the hallmark of an efficient and reliable forensic laboratory, as well as a basic requirement for accreditation and\\/or certification. Most forensic laboratories are staffed by professional scientists who have completed their education and training. However, many, if not most, forensic anthropology laboratories are placed in academic institutions in which graduate education is a primary

Michael W. Warren; Traci Van Deest; Kristina Ballard

2011-01-01

372

A Strategy for Improving Forensic Anthropology Research Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent discussions about future developments of forensic anthropology have inspired this proposal about how small forensic anthropology programs may increase research capacity by utilizing a collaborative research protocol and establishing a deeded body program. Forensic anthropologists would benefit from developing collaborative research groups and protocols, such as that illustrated by the integrative measurement protocol produced by the Bones and Behavior

Phoebe R. Stubblefield

2011-01-01

373

ITL BULLETIN FOR JUNE 2014 ITL FORENSIC SCIENCE PROGRAM  

E-print Network

), face recognition, speaker recognition, image- and audio-based biometrics, and digital and multimediaITL BULLETIN FOR JUNE 2014 ITL FORENSIC SCIENCE PROGRAM Barbara Guttman, Software and Systems evidence. The ITL Forensic Science Program's pursuits in digital forensics include the National Software

374

Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics to

Shmaefsky, Brian R.

2006-01-01

375

Significant genetic correlations among Caucasians at forensic DNA loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the effect of population differentiation on the forensic use of DNA profiles has been the subject of controversy for some years now, the debate has largely failed to focus on the genetical questions directly relevant to the forensic context. We re-analyse two published data sets and find that they convey much the same message for forensic inference, in contrast

DAVID J. BALDING; RICHARD A. NICHOLS

1997-01-01

376

Remarks on forensically interesting Sony Playstation 3 console features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with forensically interesting features of the Sony Playstation 3 game console. The construction and the internal structure are analyzed more precisely. Interesting forensic features of the operating system and the file system are presented. Differences between a PS3 with and without jailbreak are introduced and possible forensic attempts when using an installed Linux are discussed.

Daugs, Gunnar; Krger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2012-02-01

377

FORENSIC TRACKING AND MOBILITY PREDICTION IN VEHICULAR NETWORKS  

E-print Network

i #12;ii #12;Chapter 1 FORENSIC TRACKING AND MOBILITY PREDICTION IN VEHICULAR NETWORKS Saif Al been especially tailored for forensic analysis then propose several instances emulating different transportation means. We then use these models to build a full-fledged offline multi-modal forensic tracking sys

Sheldon, Nathan D.

378

Forensic identification: the Island Problem and its generalisations  

E-print Network

Forensic identification: the Island Problem and its generalisations Klaas Slooten and Ronald Meester April 26, 2010 Abstract In forensics it is a classical problem to determine, when a suspect by a likelihood ratio. Keywords: Island problem, Forensic identification, Weight of evidence, Posterior odds

Meester, Ronald

379

Forensic Tracking and Surveillance Algorithms for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Settings  

E-print Network

Forensic Tracking and Surveillance Algorithms for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Settings Submitted-Kuwari) Date: #12;"I cannot succeed except through God" #12;Abstract Digital forensics is an emerging field. Traditionally, digital forensics has been confined to the extraction of digital evidence from electronic devices

Sheldon, Nathan D.

380

CASE REPORT Three-Dimensional Computer Visualization of Forensic  

E-print Network

CASE REPORT Three-Dimensional Computer Visualization of Forensic Pathology Data Jack March, BA in US courtrooms, it is only recently that forensic computer animations have become an increas- ingly of Nottingham has been influential in the critical investigation of forensic computer graphics reconstruction

Schofield, Damian

381

Ireland's Global University MSc Digital Investigation & Forensic Computing  

E-print Network

Ireland's Global University MSc Digital Investigation & Forensic Computing (One Year Full Time will be able to perform forensic analysis of a personal computer running Windows OS; understand legal issues demonstrations and in-depth discussions. · Computer Forensic Foundations · Law for IT Investigators · Application

382

FORENSIC CONNOISSEURSHIP, JACKSON POLLOCK, AND THE AUTHENTIC EYE  

E-print Network

FORENSIC CONNOISSEURSHIP, JACKSON POLLOCK, AND THE AUTHENTIC EYE by Francis V. O'Connor, Ph shall proceed to some general #12;Forensic Connoisseurship, Pollock, & The Authentic Eye - F. V. O, the training of authentic eyes and forensic connoisseurs -- concluding with a final thought on the historicity

Taylor, Richard

383

Psychology 331-001/901: Forensic Dr. Don Dutton  

E-print Network

Psychology 331-001/901: Forensic Psychology 2014 Dr. Don Dutton "the proper design of public 331 (Forensic Psychology) · applications of psychology to the criminal justice system · Psychological" cab523@psych.ubc.ca 6 #12;Course Text: · J. Pozzulo, C. Bennell, A. Forth (2012) Forensic Psychology

Handy, Todd C.

384

Synchrotron radiation identified human chemical fingerprints a novel forensic approach  

E-print Network

Synchrotron radiation identified human chemical fingerprints ­ a novel forensic approach T with the goal of developing an advanced forensic technique to identify complicated partial latent prints a forensic analysis of the fingerprint chemistry, or to identify the latent prints of pre-pubescent children

385

Computer Forensics: An Essential Ingredient for Cyber Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer forensics uses computer investigation and analysis techniques to collect evidence regarding what happened on a computer that is admissible in a court of law. Computer forensics requires a well- balanced combination of technical skills, legal acumen, and ethical conduct. Computer forensics specialists use powerful software tools to uncover data to be sorted through, and then must figure out the

Richard Bassett; Linda Bass; Paul O'Brien

386

The relationship between the detection of acquisitive crime by forensic science and drug-dependent offenders.  

PubMed

Drug- and nondrug-related acquisitive crime offences such as burglary, theft, and motor vehicle theft, were compared to assess whether drug abusers were more likely to be apprehended via forensic science techniques. Data were all acquisitive offences committed over a 6-year period within a police force area in England. Drug-dependent offenders committed a wider range of offence types than nondependent offenders, and they were significantly more likely to be detected via their DNA or fingerprints (p < 0.01). A logistic regression (n > 14,000) revealed a number of predictors that influence the detection of the crime by forensic techniques. The results indicate that a number of these predictors are of statistical significance; the most significant of these being drug use by the offender with sex, ethnicity, and employment status also being relevant. Age of the offender and number of offences committed were found not to be significant. Of the four hypotheses considered to explain this, the most likely was thought to be the physical and mental impact of drug use on crime scene behavior. Consideration is given to the disciplines of forensic science and forensic psychology working closely together to distinguish factors that influence crime scene behavior. PMID:17645745

Bond, John W; Sheridan, Lorraine

2007-09-01

387

A forensic science perspective on the role of images in crime investigation and reconstruction.  

PubMed

This article presents a global vision of images in forensic science. The proliferation of perspectives on the use of images throughout criminal investigations and the increasing demand for research on this topic seem to demand a forensic science-based analysis. In this study, the definitions of and concepts related to material traces are revisited and applied to images, and a structured approach is used to persuade the scientific community to extend and improve the use of images as traces in criminal investigations. Current research efforts focus on technical issues and evidence assessment. This article provides a sound foundation for rationalising and explaining the processes involved in the production of clues from trace images. For example, the mechanisms through which these visual traces become clues of presence or action are described. An extensive literature review of forensic image analysis emphasises the existing guidelines and knowledge available for answering investigative questions (who, what, where, when and how). However, complementary developments are still necessary to demystify many aspects of image analysis in forensic science, including how to review and select images or use them to reconstruct an event or assist intelligence efforts. The hypothetico-deductive reasoning pathway used to discover unknown elements of an event or crime can also help scientists understand the underlying processes involved in their decision making. An analysis of a single image in an investigative or probative context is used to demonstrate the highly informative potential of images as traces and/or clues. Research efforts should be directed toward formalising the extraction and combination of clues from images. An appropriate methodology is key to expanding the use of images in forensic science. PMID:25498936

Milliet, Quentin; Delmont, Olivier; Margot, Pierre

2014-12-01

388

Effect of investigator disturbance in experimental forensic entomology: carcass biomass loss and temperature.  

PubMed

Often carrion decomposition studies are conducted using a single carcass or a few carcasses sampled repeatedly through time to reveal trends in succession community composition. Measurements of biomass and other abiotic parameters (e.g., temperature) are often collected on the same carcasses but are rarely a focal point of the studies. This study investigated the effects that repeated sampling during experiments have on the decomposition of carrion, measured as both gross biomass (carcass plus fauna) and net biomass (carcass only), on carcasses disturbed on every visit (with weighing only or also with the collection of fauna) and on carcasses disturbed only once. Each trial lasted at least 21 days, with samples taken in triplicate. Rat carcasses used in this study were placed in the field on the same day and either weighed on every visit or ignored until a given day. Internal and ambient air temperatures were recorded on each carcass at the time of sampling and on undisturbed carcasses using temperature loggers. The presence of succession fauna did not result in significant biomass loss on most days; however, there were individual days early in decomposition (days 3 through 6) when the succession fauna comprised a large portion of the gross biomass. With the exception of biomass loss by the emigration of maggots on days 4 and 5, neither repeated weighing of the carcasses nor repeated weighing and faunal sampling of the carcasses statistically affected the rate of biomass loss. Internal temperatures of carcasses sampled repeatedly were frequently 2-5C lower than those that had not been disturbed, and ambient temperatures differed significantly depending on the location of measurement device. Results indicate that methods used historically for biomass loss determination in experimental forensic entomology studies are adequate, but further refinements to experimental methodology are desirable. PMID:20840287

De Jong, Grant D; Hoback, W Wyatt; Higley, Leon G

2011-01-01

389

Forensic investigations in Kosovo: experiences of the European Union Forensic Expert Team.  

PubMed

The international community has intervened ethnic hostilities in Kosovo, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. A team of Finnish forensic experts worked in December 1998 and January 1999 in Kosovo under the mandate of the European Union. The team investigated human remains from three locations of alleged ethnic violence. Concerning the events in Klecka, Volujak and Racak, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia received documents of great gravity. The standard methods of forensic pathology were complemented with radiological, forensic odontological, physical anthropological and molecular genetic investigations. PMID:16083688

Rainio, J; Karkola, K; Lalu, K; Ranta, H; Takamaa, K; Penttil, A

2001-12-01

390

Forensic patients hiding in full view.  

PubMed

Violence has been identified as one of the leading public health hazards of our time. The majority of the victims of violence are being seen in emergency departments and critical care areas. This compels today's nurse to be educated in the proper recognition, interpretation, collection, documentation, and photo-documentation of the ramifications of violence and the associated forensic evidence. The categorization of these patients should be determined by the critical care nurse. Categorical determinations will ensure that the nurse develops a systematic, algorithmic management plan for any client with potential forensic implications associated with their care. It will also assist the nurse in recognizing the mandated reporting that must be completed in certain instances. The additional benefit is to determine what educational needs are required by the critical care nurse staff to posit the forensic population; and, to consider what future research must be accomplished in order to better serve this unique clientele. PMID:25463003

Pasqualone, Georgia; Michel, Christine

2015-01-01

391

Applying Machine Trust Models to Forensic Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital forensics involves the identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of electronic evidence for use in legal proceedings. In the presence of contradictory evidence, forensic investigators need a means to determine which evidence can be trusted. This is particularly true in a trust model environment where computerised agents may make trust-based decisions that influence interactions within the system. This paper focuses on the analysis of evidence in trust-based environments and the determination of the degree to which evidence can be trusted. The trust model proposed in this work may be implemented in a tool for conducting trust-based forensic investigations. The model takes into account the trust environment and parameters that influence interactions in a computer network being investigated. Also, it allows for crimes to be reenacted to create more substantial evidentiary proof.

Wojcik, Marika; Venter, Hein; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin

392

A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

2010-08-11

393

Nuclear Forensics for High School Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed an education module on nuclear forensics, designed for high school science classrooms. The lessons include a mix of hands-on activities, computer simulations, and written exercises. Students are presented with realistic scenarios designed to develop their knowledge of nuclear science and its application to nuclear forensics. A two-day teacher workshop offered at Hope College attracted 20 teachers. They were loaned kits to implement activities with their students, and each teacher spent 3-7 days on the lessons. All who reported back said they would do it again and would share the lessons with colleagues. Many said that access to equipment and ready-made lessons enabled them to expand what they taught about nuclear science and introduce nuclear forensics. A few teachers invited guest speakers to their classroom, which provided an excellent opportunity to share career information with students.

Mader, Catherine; Doss, Heide; Plisch, Monica; Isola, Drew; Mirakovitz, Kathy

2011-04-01

394

Plant Pathogen Forensics: Capabilities, Needs, and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

A biological attack on U.S. crops, rangelands, or forests could reduce yield and quality, erode consumer confidence, affect economic health and the environment, and possibly impact human nutrition and international relations. Preparedness for a crop bioterror event requires a strong national security plan that includes steps for microbial forensics and criminal attribution. However, U.S. crop producers, consultants, and agricultural scientists have traditionally focused primarily on strategies for prevention and management of diseases introduced naturally or unintentionally rather than on responding appropriately to an intentional pathogen introduction. We assess currently available information, technologies, and resources that were developed originally to ensure plant health but also could be utilized for postintroduction plant pathogen forensics. Recommendations for prioritization of efforts and resource expenditures needed to enhance our plant pathogen forensics capabilities are presented. PMID:16760310

Fletcher, J.; Bender, C.; Budowle, B.; Cobb, W. T.; Gold, S. E.; Ishimaru, C. A.; Luster, D.; Melcher, U.; Murch, R.; Scherm, H.; Seem, R. C.; Sherwood, J. L.; Sobral, B. W.; Tolin, S. A.

2006-01-01

395

Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession. A Survey of Educational Offerings in the Forensic Sciences. Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of the educational offerings in the Forensic Sciences was initiated to identify institutions and agencies offering educational courses and/or programs in the forensic sciences and to evaluate the availability of these programs. The information gathered by surveying members of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences reveals that

Field, Kenneth S.; And Others

396

Statistical modeling and optimization of alkaline protease production from a newly isolated alkalophilic Bacillus species BGS using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm.  

PubMed

A new hyperactive alkalophilic bacterial strain (Bacillus sp. BGS) was isolated from samples collected from soil that received the effluent of a milk processing industry located in Madurai, Tamilnadu, India, and this bacterial strain was used for the production of alkaline protease. Four out of eight variables, such as molasses, peptone, pH, and inoculum size, have been identified through Plackett-Burman (PB) design and used for the alkaline protease production. These significant variables were further optimized through a hybrid system of response surface methodology (RSM) followed by genetic algorithm (GA). The optimal combination of media components and culture conditions for maximal protease production was found to be 16.827 g/L of peptone, 1.128% (v/v) of molasses, pH value of 11, and 2% (v/v) of inoculum size. A 6.36-fold increase in protease production was achieved through the RSM-GA hybrid system. The protease activity increased significantly with an optimized medium (2,992.75 U/mL) as opposed to an unoptimized basal medium (470.35 U/mL). PMID:23379276

Moorthy, Innasi Muthu Ganesh; Baskar, Rajoo

2013-01-01

397

Developing a one-semester course in forensic chemical science for university undergraduates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to research, develop and validate a one-semester course for the general education of university undergraduates in forensic chemical education. The course outline was developed using the research and development (R&D) methodology recommended by Gall, Borg, and Gall, (2003) and Dick and Carey, (2001) through a three step developmental cycle. Information was gathered and analyzed through review of literature and proof of concept interviews, laying the foundation for the framework of the course outline. A preliminary course outline was developed after a needs assessment showed need for such a course. Professors expert in the area of forensic science participated in the first field test of the course. Their feedback was recorded, and the course was revised for a main field test. Potential users of the guide served as readers for the main field test and offered more feedback to improve the course.

Salem, Roberta Sue

398

Forensic Analysis of Venezuelan Elections during the Chvez Presidency  

PubMed Central

Hugo Chvez dominated the Venezuelan electoral landscape since his first presidential victory in 1998 until his death in 2013. Nobody doubts that he always received considerable voter support in the numerous elections held during his mandate. However, the integrity of the electoral system has come into question since the 2004 Presidential Recall Referendum. From then on, different sectors of society have systematically alleged electoral irregularities or biases in favor of the incumbent party. We have carried out a thorough forensic analysis of the national-level Venezuelan electoral processes held during the 19982012 period to assess these complaints. The second-digit Benford's law and two statistical models of vote distributions, recently introduced in the literature, are reviewed and used in our case study. In addition, we discuss a new method to detect irregular variations in the electoral roll. The outputs obtained from these election forensic tools are examined taking into account the substantive context of the elections and referenda under study. Thus, we reach two main conclusions. Firstly, all the tools uncover anomalous statistical patterns, which are consistent with election fraud from 2004 onwards. Although our results are not a concluding proof of fraud, they signal the Recall Referendum as a turning point in the integrity of the Venezuelan elections. Secondly, our analysis calls into question the reliability of the electoral register since 2004. In particular, we found irregular variations in the electoral roll that were decisive in winning the 50% majority in the 2004 Referendum and in the 2012 Presidential Elections. PMID:24971462

Jimnez, Ral; Hidalgo, Manuel

2014-01-01

399

Massively parallel sequencing of forensically relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms using TruSeq forensic amplicon.  

PubMed

The TruSeq Forensic Amplicon library preparation protocol, originally designed to attach sequencing adapters to chromatin-bound DNA for chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (TruSeq ChIP-Seq), was used here to attach adapters directly to amplicons containing markers of forensic interest. In this study, the TruSeq Forensic Amplicon library preparation protocol was used to detect 160 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including human identification SNPs (iSNPs), ancestry, and phenotypic SNPs (apSNPs) in 12 reference samples. Results were compared with those generated by a second laboratory using the same technique, as well as to those generated by whole genome sequencing (WGS). The genotype calls made using the TruSeq Forensic Amplicon library preparation protocol were highly concordant. The protocol described herein represents an effective and relatively sensitive means of preparing amplified nuclear DNA for massively parallel sequencing (MPS). PMID:25408291

Warshauer, David H; Davis, Carey P; Holt, Cydne; Han, Yonmee; Walichiewicz, Paulina; Richardson, Tom; Stephens, Kathryn; Jager, Anne; King, Jonathan; Budowle, Bruce

2015-01-01

400

STATISTICAL METHODS STATISTICAL METHODS  

E-print Network

STATISTICAL METHODS 1 STATISTICAL METHODS Arnaud Delorme, Swartz Center for Computational@salk.edu. Keywords: statistical methods, inference, models, clinical, software, bootstrap, resampling, PCA, ICA Abstract: Statistics represents that body of methods by which characteristics of a population are inferred

Delorme, Arnaud

401

Prosecuting Assaultive Forensic and Psychiatric Inpatients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inpatient assault of forensic and psychiatric staff is a complex and multifaceted issue. Hence, the consequences reported in the literature regarding prosecuting assaultive inpatients are quite variable. In this article, issues pertaining to the prosecution of violent inpatients are reviewed. Illustrative cases, challenges of prosecution,

Angus, Kerri C.; Reddon, John R.; Chudleigh, Michele D.

2008-01-01

402

The Wrongful Conviction of Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of claims that faulty forensic science is a leading cause of wrongful convictions. This sentiment has been reported at length by major news outlets across the United States. It has also been a matter of great concern to a group of activists in what is known as the innocence network

John M. Collins; Jay Jarvis

2009-01-01

403

Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)

Bruce, Alease

2001-01-01

404

Molecular forensic science of nuclear materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO (An:

Wilkerson; Marianne Perry

2010-01-01

405

Trial by Science: A Forensic Extravaganza  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This intriguing crime-solving activity for middle level students demonstrates some of the basics of forensic science; including the analysis of fingerprints, hair, fiber, and soil evidence. The realism of the scenario is enhanced by recruiting adult volunteers to serve as suspects that can be questioned and tried by students through the process of scientific inquiry.

Hunt, Vanessa

2004-05-01

406

A Forensic Approach to Consumer Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a forensic-oriented, college-level course in consumer chemistry. Includes course goals, topical outline, and list of chemical ingredients in consumer products useful for student research projects. The first section of the course focuses on mathematics since students in introductory courses may fear doing the most rudimentary mathematical

Berger, Selman A.

1983-01-01

407

A Forensic Camp for Talented Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the North West Region of New South Wales, a project was initiated in 1993 to address the lack of resources allocated to the talented science student. A four-day residential camp resulted, which was held in Armidale. The foci for the program were the scientific procedures and concepts involved in the practice of forensic science. (Author)

Levins, Lesley; Levins, Martin

1995-01-01

408

On Maggots and Murders: Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a very short and cursory introduction to forensic entomology. It is downloaded as a PDF and is a four-page article about how insects can be used to assess time of death. There is an emphasis on the role of blow flies. There are some color photos of marginal quality included.

0002-11-30

409

Developing Forensic Mental Healthcare in Kosovo  

PubMed Central

In many economically struggling societies, forensic psychiatry is still in its initial developmental stages and thus forensic patients pose an ongoing challenge for the healthcare and juridical systems. In this article, we present the various issues and problems that arose when establishing the first forensic psychiatric institute in Kosovo a country whose population has constantly been reported as suffering from a high psychiatric morbidity due to long-lasting traumatic experiences during the war of 1999. The implementation of a new forensic psychiatric institute in the developing mental healthcare system of Kosovo, still characterized by considerable shortages, required substantial effort on various levels. On the policy and financial level, it was made possible by a clear intent and coordinated commitment of all responsible national stakeholders and authorities, such as the Ministries of Health and Justice, and by the financial contribution of the European Commission. Most decisive in terms of the success of the project was capacity building in human resources, i.e., the recruitment and training of motivated staff. Training included essential clinical and theoretical issues as well as clearly defined standard operation procedures, guidelines, and checklists to aid daily routine work and the management of challenging situations. PMID:24779004

Salize, Hans Joachim; Lavikainen, Juha; Seppnen, Allan; Gjocaj, Milazim

2014-01-01

410

Review of Forensic Tools for Smartphones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technological capability of mobile devices in particular Smartphones makes their use of value to the criminal community as a data terminal in the facilitation of organised crime or terrorism. The effective targeting of these devices from criminal and security intelligence perspectives and subsequent detailed forensic examination of the targeted device will significantly enhance the evidence available to the law enforcement community. When phone devices are involved in crimes, forensic examiners require tools that allow the proper retrieval and prompt examination of information present on these devices. Smartphones that are compliant to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) standards, will maintains their identity and user's personal information on Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). Beside SIM cards, substantial amount of information is stored on device's internal memory and external memory modules. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the currently available forensic software tools that are developed to carry out forensic investigation of mobile devices and point to current weaknesses within this process.

Jahankhani, Hamid; Azam, Amir

411

COE589: Digital Forensics Reading Research Papers  

E-print Network

- Ahmad Almulhem 5 #12;Reading Process (Fong 2009) Comprehension · understand what a paper says EvaluationCOE589: Digital Forensics Reading Research Papers Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM - Fall 2012 (T121) 1COE of Papers · Reading Process · Efficient Reading ­ Keshav's Approach · Reading Exercise COE589 - Ahmad

Almulhem, Ahmad

412

COE589: Digital Forensics Reading Research Papers  

E-print Network

shows citation counts COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem 5 #12;Reading Process (Fong 2009) Comprehension COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem 6 #12;Reading Process (Fong 2009) Comprehension: understand what a paper saysCOE589: Digital Forensics Reading Research Papers Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM - Spring 2013 (T122) 1

Almulhem, Ahmad

413

Forensic anthropology of sex and body size  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of sex and estimation of stature are among the important aspect of forensic anthropology. These characteristics display population specific variation and therefore, need further attention for major populations of the world. The aim of this special issue is to bring together scientific papers dealing with new anthropological techniques and knowledge about populations that are least known. The present

Mehmet Ya?ar ??can

2005-01-01

414

Sexual assault examinations and forensic medical samples.  

PubMed

Recent studies and a review in the United States have identified that tens of thousands of used but untested sexual assault examination kits containing medical examination specimens are to be found in police station evidence rooms, forensic science laboratories, hospitals and rape crisis centres. A 2007 survey undertaken by the National Institute of Justice in the United States explored some of the reasons why forensic specimens are not tested by forensic science laboratories. Many of these relate to lack of knowledge on the part of investigators as to how scientific information can assist the investigation process, even if not used subsequently at trial. Cost factors and laboratory casework overload were also identified as significant. For the medical practitioner, the lack of testing poses issues that include quality management of the forensic medical examination and informed consent in a setting requiring the balancing of public and private benefits for the examinee. Limiting scientific testing, even with intelligence-led triaging of sample testing, could have an adverse effect on both prosecution and defence decision-making and ultimately could adversely affect trial outcomes. PMID:21988007

Ranson, David

2011-09-01

415

Forensic Entomology & Taphonomy Smith Hall Room 125  

E-print Network

ENTM 295T Forensic Entomology & Taphonomy Smith Hall Room 125 Monday 8:30 ­ 11:20 a.m. Fall and on the postmortem fate of human remains. Ralph Williams, Ph.D. D-ABFE Professor of Entomology Entomology, Smith B9

Ginzel, Matthew

416

Fire sales forensics: measuring endogenous risk  

E-print Network

Fire sales forensics: measuring endogenous risk Rama Cont & Lakshithe Wagalath May 12, 2012 Abstract We propose a tractable framework for quantifying the impact of fire sales on the volatility and correlations of asset returns in a multi-asset setting. Our results enable to quantify the impact of fire sales

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

417

National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS)  

E-print Network

) John M. Butler, Ph.D. National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST Fellow & Special Assistant Committees) · Pending Legislation (Senate) ­ Leahy Bill (Justice) ­ Rockefeller Bill (Commerce) · FY14 New Bill) Forensic Science and Standards Act (Rockefeller Bill) http

418

Forensic Analysis of the Windows 7 Registry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of digital evidence of crimes from storage media is an increasingly time consuming process as the capacity of the storage media is in a state of constant growth. It is also a difficult and complex task for the forensic investigator to analyse all of the locations in the storage media. These two factors, when combined, may result in

Khawla Abdulla Alghafli; Andrew Jones; Thomas Anthony Martin

2010-01-01

419

Cloud computing: Forensic challenges for law enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing is a relatively new concept that offers the potential to deliver scalable elastic services to many. The notion of pay-per use is attractive and in the current global recession hit economy it offers an economic solution to an organizations' IT needs. Computer forensics is a relatively new discipline born out of the increasing use of computing and digital

D. Reilly; C. Wren; T. Berry

2010-01-01

420

The scanning electron microscope in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forensic scientist's task is usually to analyse and compare known and questioned material. A frequent problem is the small size of the samples available. The scanning electron microscope with X-ray microanalysis has the ability to image the surface of a specimen with a resolution typically 10 nm; to do this with a very large depth of focus; and to

C. G. van Essen

1974-01-01

421

Martin Hall Lecture on Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Martin Hall, of the entomology department at the Natural History Museum in London, lectures on forensic entomology. He covers maggot behavior, the blow fly life cycle, how blow flies find a body and how to collect maggots. Requires QuickTime or Windows Media Player.

0002-11-30

422

A Critical (Legal) View of Forensic Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic Computing is a relatively new academic discipline that in its current form seems very much geared towards the production of professionals who are likely to be active in law enforcement. It is generally predicated on the idea that computers can be misused for criminal purposes and such activities need to be prosecuted. For such prosecution technical expertise in computer

Bernd Carsten Stahl

423

Encoded evidence: DNA in forensic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sherlock Holmes said it has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important, but never imagined that such a little thing, the DNA molecule, could become perhaps the most powerful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Twenty years after the development of DNA fingerprinting, forensic DNA analysis is key to the

Mark A. Jobling; Peter Gill

2004-01-01

424

Evaluating Competencies: Forensic Assessments and Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Grisso, T. (1986). Evaluating competencies: Forensic assessments and instruments. New York: Plenum. (Volume 7 of Perspectives in law & psychology). ISBN 0306421267, 9780306421266\\u000aPublisher summary: This book offers a conceptual model for understanding the nature of legal competencies. The model is interpreted to assist mental health professionals in designing and performing assessments for legal competencies defined in criminal and

Thomas Grisso

1986-01-01

425

Cybercrime forensic system in cloud computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cloud is a virtual computing environment that provides applications, platforms and software support as services. The applications are extended over the Internet domain to the cloud service provider (CSP) with greater flexibility and availability at lower cost. Unfortunately, the cloud computing service also provides a better environment for criminals and increases the difficulties of cybercrime forensics. In this paper,

ChengYan

2011-01-01

426

Findings from an Elder Abuse Forensic Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The first Elder Abuse Forensic Center (EAFC) in the United States was instituted in 2003. People from a variety of disciplines, including Adult Protective Services social workers, law enforcement, the district attorney's office, a medical response team, public guardian deputies, ombudsmen, mental health services, a victim advocate, and a

Wiglesworth, Aileen; Mosqueda, Laura; Burnight, Kerry; Younglove, Ted; Jeske, Daniel

2006-01-01

427

Forensic analysis of print using digital image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this investigation is to establish whether it is possible to produce a practical forensic tool that can identify the production sources of printed text from different digital print engines. The identification of print using an automated machine system is important because although expert observers can be employed for this task, there are cases when they make mistakes or do not possess the required knowledge. Therefore the development of an automated print identification system is under consideration. It is envisaged that the system will be useful in solving criminal cases involving the analysis of fraudulent replication of official documents, threatening letters and the counterfeiting of consumer products. The methodology used in this investigation employed a digital image analysis system and specially developed software to measure the shape characteristics of text characters. The information about the shapes of the text characters can be stored in a database along with the corresponding data about the print engines that produced them. A database search engine can then be used to classify text characters of unknown origin. The paper will report on the methodology and techniques used in the investigation and the latest experimental results for the project.

Tchan, Jack

2003-06-01

428

Three Certificate Programs in Sponsored by the UWM Center for Forensic Science  

E-print Network

Three Certificate Programs in Sponsored by the UWM Center for Forensic Science www Investigation Forensic Toxicology Forensic Science Forensic Science #12;POLICE LINE DO Have you ever thought? The skills you acquire in Forensic Science Programs can be used at modern day crime scenes or anthropological

Saldin, Dilano

429

A study of composite restorations as a tool in forensic identification  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Comparing ante-mortem and post-mortem dental data is a principal method of identification in forensic odontology. Radiographic images of amalgam have been used in dental forensics for identification due to their unique appearance. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether radio-opaque composite restorations have a potential for identification in forensic odontology. Materials and Methods: Thirty typodont mandibular first molar teeth were prepared with Class-II (proximo-occlusal) cavities and restored with a radio-opaque composite (Tetric N-Ceram). Two sets of standardized radiographs were taken from the 30 teeth, keeping the radiological parameters constant. One set of these 30 radiographs was named as SET 1. Ten randomly chosen radiographs from the other set and two other radiographs of Class-II composite restorations in typodont teeth constituted SET 2. Thirty dentally trained examiners were asked to match the 12 radiographic images of SET 2 with those of SET 1. Results: The results show that 15 examiners were able to correctly match all the 12 images. Statistical analysis was done using kappa statistical test. Conclusion: This study shows that, if the post-mortem radiographs are accurate duplicates of ante-mortem radiographs of composite restorations, then the shape of the composite restoration is unique and can be used for identification. PMID:23960413

Hemasathya, Bahavathi Ananthan; Balagopal, Sundaresan

2013-01-01

430

NFI Forecasts Methodology NFI Forecasts Methodology  

E-print Network

NFI Forecasts Methodology NFI Forecasts Methodology Overview Issued by: National Forest Inventory.brewer@forestry.gsi.gov.uk Website: www.forestry.gov.uk/inventory 1 NFI Softwood Forecasts Methodology Overview #12;NFI Forecasts Methodology Contents Contents

431

78 FR 12355 - Notice of Establishment of the National Commission on Forensic Science and Solicitation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of the National Commission on Forensic Science and Solicitation of Applications...establishing the National Commission on Forensic Science. This notice establishes criteria...establishing the National Commission on Forensic Science (``Commission'')....

2013-02-22

432

Forensic Anthropology Population Data Facial reconstruction: Soft tissue thickness values for South African black females  

E-print Network

Forensic Anthropology Population Data Facial reconstruction: Soft tissue thickness values for South African black females D. Cavanagh, M. Steyn * Forensic Anthropology Research Centre, Department of Anatomy identification CT scan measurements Soft tissue thickness Population-specificity Forensic Anthropology Population

Frey, Pascal

433

Review article Entomotoxicology, experimental set-up and interpretation for forensic  

E-print Network

Review article Entomotoxicology, experimental set-up and interpretation for forensic toxicologists-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.4. Interpretation in forensic cases a useful tool in forensic investigations [1,2]. Although this science has permitted to provide answers

Rasmont, Pierre

434

78 FR 40737 - Notification of Deletion of System of Records; Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Records; Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics & Training, National Enforcement Investigations...Center, Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics & Training at (303) 462-9051 or Tammy...Center, Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics & Training at (303) 462-9054,...

2013-07-08

435

AVIAN/WIND STATISTICAL PEER REVIEW PROJECT  

E-print Network

............................................................................................................................................ 7 WAS THE STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY USED ON THE ANALYSIS CONSISTENT WITH ACCEPTED METHODS USEDAVIAN/WIND STATISTICAL PEER REVIEW PROJECT Prepared for: California Energy Commission Prepared by IN OTHER BIO-STATISTICAL ANALYSES

436

Forensic science and criminal justice: An analysis of curricular models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multi-disciplinary field of forensic science frequently finds its academic home within criminal justice programs. After\\u000a examining the reasons for this academic linkage, an analysis of criminal justice curricular models and courses was undertaken\\u000a to assess their applicability to forensic science education and careers. The authors concluded that the relationship between\\u000a criminal justice and forensic science can be mutually beneficial;

Charles A. Lindquist; Frederick P. Smith

1982-01-01

437

iPhone examination with modern forensic software tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the paper is to show the usefulness of modern forensic software tools for iPhone examination. In particular, we focus on the new version of Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit and compare it with Oxygen Forensics Suite 2012 regarding functionality, usability and capabilities. It is shown how these software tools works and how capable they are in examining non-jailbreaked and jailbreaked iPhones.

Hne, Thomas; Krger, Knut; Luttenberger, Silas; Creutzburg, Reiner

2012-06-01

438

The practice of forensic medicine: opportunity with strings attached.  

PubMed

Contrary to popular belief, forensic medicine is not limited to grisly anatomic pathology, or even to criminal cases. It is better defined as practice at any of the many interfaces of medicine and law. This article will discuss some topics and procedures of forensic practice that are shared by many forms of forensic work, regardless of specialty. It will focus on private consultation, in which the physician provides expertise to lawyers, courts, or organizations involved in legal or administrative matters. PMID:12733486

Reid, William H

2003-01-01

439

Next generation DRM: cryptography or forensics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current content protection systems rely primarily on applied cryptographic techniques but there is an increased use of forensic solutions in images, music and video distribution alike. The two approaches differ significantly, both in terms of technology and in terms of strategy, and thus it begs the question: will one approach take over in the long run, and if so which one? Discussing the evolution of both cryptographic and forensic solutions, we conclude that neither approach is ideal for all constituents, and that in the video space at least they will continue to co-exist for the foreseeable future - even if this may not be the case for other media types. We also analyze shortcomings of these approaches, and suggest that new solutions are necessary in this still emerging marketplace.

Robert, Arnaud

2009-02-01

440

Forensic Anthropology and Human Osteology Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Providing educators, practitioners and students with resources and materials related to forensic anthropology and its sister science osteology this site links users to related books, resources and educational opportunities. The resources section provides tutorials, study guides and the like; handy for students or for an educator to integrate into a classroom environment. The book portion of the site is nicely laid out - listing over one hundred books often with a brief description along with a link to buy the book online. The education and association sections will be of especial interest to students, providing both a solid list of programs in forensic anthropology and human osteology as well as an array of professional associations.

Adamson, Marci

2007-02-01

441

Bone finds: a challenge to forensic science.  

PubMed

The study presented here is based on 176 forensic dental reports compiled between 1993 and 2001. The bulk of the research took place in 1997, when major construction at Potsdamer Platz and Lehrter Bahnhof in central Berlin required the excavation of considerable quantities of earth. As building proceeded here, at 'Europe's biggest construction site', it revealed not only a large number of long bones, but also a great many skulls and skull fragments. In five instances, complete skeletons were unearthed. Many of the bones ultimately proved to be of animal origin. The police were not instructed to open a single criminal investigation. Identifying and piecing together the material in this context makes tremendous demands of forensic osteology. Establishing the nature of these finds beyond reasonable doubt, and putting a name and date to them, calls for interdisciplinary co-operation between experts in odontology, anthropology, anatomy, radiology and veterinary medicine, not to mention historians. PMID:12935638

Ganswindt, Melanie; Ehrlich, Edwin; Klostermann, Peter; Troike, Wolf-Gunther; Schneider, Volkmar

2003-03-01

442

Forensic science: the truth is out there  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Criminalistics, one of the many sub-divisions of forensic science, is an applied science in which items of evidence are analyzed to provide investigative information and scientific evidence to be used in courts of law. Laboratories associated with governmental public agencies are typically involved in criminal cases as opposed to civil cases, and those types of cases that fall within the jurisdiction of the particular agency. Common analytical divisions within criminalistics laboratories include blood alcohol testing, toxicology, narcotics, questioned documents, biology, firearms, latent fingerprints, physical and trace evidence sections. Specialized field investigative services may be provided in the areas of clandestine drug laboratories and major crimes (firearms, biology, trace, arson/explosives). Forensic science best practice requires the use of non-destructive testing whenever reasonably possible. Several technically difficult situations (bodies and evidence encased in cement and metal) are presented as a challenge to audience.

Herold, Lynne D.

2002-06-01

443

Alleged biological father incest: a forensic approach.  

PubMed

Paternal incest is one of the most serious forms of intrafamilial sexual abuse with clinical, social, and legal relevance. A retrospective study was performed, based on forensic reports and judicial decisions of alleged cases of biological paternal incest of victims under 18 years old (n = 215) from 2003 to 2008. Results highlight that in a relevant number of cases: victims were female; the abuse begun at an early age with reiteration; the alleged perpetrator presented a history of sexual crimes against children; sexual practices were physically poorly intrusive, which associated with a forensic medical evaluation performed more than 72 h after the abuse, explain partially the absence of physical injuries or other evidence-these last aspects are different from extrafamilial cases. In conclusion, observations about paternal incest are likely to exacerbate the psychosocial consequences of the abuse and may explain the difficulty and delay in detect and disclose these cases. Few cases were legally prosecuted and convicted. PMID:24180349

Gomes, Vnia; Jardim, Patrcia; Taveira, Francisco; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo J; Magalhes, Teresa

2014-01-01

444

Developmental validation of the IrisPlex system: determination of blue and brown iris colour for forensic intelligence.  

PubMed

The IrisPlex system consists of a highly sensitive multiplex genotyping assay together with a statistical prediction model, providing users with the ability to predict blue and brown human eye colour from DNA samples with over 90% precision. This 'DNA intelligence' system is expected to aid police investigations by providing phenotypic information on unknown individuals when conventional DNA profiling is not informative. Falling within the new area of forensic DNA phenotyping, this paper describes the developmental validation of the IrisPlex assay following the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines for the application of DNA-based eye colour prediction to forensic casework. The IrisPlex assay produces complete SNP genotypes with only 31pg of DNA, approximately six human diploid cell equivalents, and is therefore more sensitive than commercial STR kits currently used in forensics. Species testing revealed human and primate specificity for a complete SNP profile. The assay is capable of producing accurate results from simulated casework samples such as blood, semen, saliva, hair, and trace DNA samples, including extremely low quantity samples. Due to its design, it can also produce full profiles with highly degraded samples often found in forensic casework. Concordance testing between three independent laboratories displayed reproducible results of consistent levels on varying types of simulated casework samples. With such high levels of sensitivity, specificity, consistency and reliability, this genotyping assay, as a core part of the IrisPlex system, operates in accordance with SWGDAM guidelines. Furthermore, as we demonstrated previously, the IrisPlex eye colour prediction system provides reliable results without the need for knowledge on the bio-geographic ancestry of the sample donor. Hence, the IrisPlex system, with its model-based prediction probability estimation of blue and brown human eye colour, represents a useful tool for immediate application in accredited forensic laboratories, to be used for forensic intelligence in tracing unknown individuals from crime scene samples. PMID:20947461

Walsh, Susan; Lindenbergh, Alexander; Zuniga, Sofia B; Sijen, Titia; de Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred; Ballantyne, Kaye N

2011-11-01

445

[The role of a forensic medicine expert in criminal proceedings].  

PubMed

The author describes actual cases from his practice as a policeman. He also presents the opinions of well-known and highly valued forensic medicine experts and lawyers about the discussed criminal cases. Drawing from his longtime experience, the author analyses the cooperation between forensic medicine experts and prosecution bodies in offences against life and health. He deals mainly with the role played by a forensic medicine expert in formulating possible versions of the event and establishing a direction the investigation should follow. The author's practice shows that it is only a good cooperation with a forensic medicine expert that can ensure a correct, fast and successful investigation. PMID:18432141

Bednarski, Leszek

2007-01-01

446

Are UK undergraduate Forensic Science degrees fit for purpose?  

PubMed

In October 2009 Skills for Justice published the social research paper 'Fit for purpose?: Research into the provision of Forensic Science degree programmes in UK Higher Education Institutions.' The research engaged employers representing 95% of UK Forensic Science providers and 79% of UK universities offering Forensic Science or Crime Scene degree programmes. In addition to this, the research collected the views of 430 students studying these degrees. In 2008 there were approximately 9000 people working in the Forensic Science sector in the UK. The research found that the numbers of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees in the UK have more than doubled since 2002-03, from 2191 in to 5664 in 2007-08. Over the same period there were twice as many females as males studying for these degrees. The research concluded that Forensic Science degree programmes offered by UK universities were of a good quality and they provided the student with a positive learning experience but the content was not relevant for Forensic Science employers. This echoed similar research by the former Government Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills on graduates from wider science, technology, engineering and mathematics degree programmes. The research also found that 75% of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees expected to have a career in the Forensic Science sector, meaning that ensuring these courses are relevant for employers is a key challenge for universities. This paper reflects on the original research and discusses the implications in light of recent government policy. PMID:21889111

Welsh, Charles; Hannis, Marc

2011-09-01

447

Founding editorial--forensics and TheScientificWorld.  

PubMed

At the beginning of a new millennium it seems a good idea to stop for a moment and take stock of the current state of forensic science. As a field of scientific research and scientific application, forensic science is a little more than a century old. Forensic science may be said to have begun in 1887 with the simultaneous publication of A. Conan Doyle's A Study in Scarlet and Hans Gross's Handbuch f1/4r Untersuchungsrichter. Conan Doyle's novel introduced to the world the character of Sherlock Holmes, whose literary career would popularize the use of physical evidence in criminal investigations. Gross's manual for examining magistrates suggests ways in which the expertise of chemists, biologists, geologists, and other natural scientists could contribute to investigations. Gross's book was translated into a number of languages and went through various updated editions during the course of the century. The intervening century saw the development and application of fingerprinting, firearm and tool mark identification, forensic chemistry, forensic biology, forensic toxicology, forensic odontology, forensic pathology, and forensic engineering. Increasingly, the judicial systems of the industrial nations of the world have come to rely upon the expertise of scientists in a variety of disciplines. In most advanced countries, virtually all criminal prosecutions now involve the presentation of scientific testimony. This has had the beneficial effect of diminishing the reliance of courts on eyewitness testimony and defendant confessions. PMID:12805857

Rowe, W

2001-10-30

448

Environmental forensics: an emerging discipline within UK higher education?  

PubMed

Environmental forensics is an established discipline in North America, but has yet to make an impact within Europe and more specifically within the UK. In this paper we explore the reasons for this and explore the nature and fundamental philosophy that underlies this discipline. Case studies can be used to explore the complexity that can be associated with an environmental forensic investigation and we argue that there is a demand for professionals with skills in forensic practice within the environmental sector today. The paper finishes by suggesting that environmental forensics is a discipline of its moment within Europe for which the Higher Education sector must now cater. PMID:17492083

Astin, K Brian; Bennett, Matthew R; Kneller, Paul

2007-05-01

449

Hidden Atrocities: The Forensic Investigation and Prosecution of Genocide.  

E-print Network

??The demand for forensic anthropologists and archaeologists to investigate violations of human rights and international humanitarian law is increasing. The International Criminal Court, established in (more)

Tyers, Caroline Alyce

2009-01-01

450

The Role of NDT in Forensic Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic engineering refers to a comprehensive investigation of the root cause of failures in structures and operating equipment, usually dealing with the relation and application of engineering facts to legal problems and product liability. The first and often most critical step is to use NDT to fully define the size, shape, and possible nature of all defects in the failed item prior to performing destructive tests. An example of a case where NDT played a critical role is presented.

Leon-Salamanca, Teodoro

2007-03-01

451

A brief history of forensic entomology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from an early case report from China (13th century) and later artistic contributions, the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the late 1880s by Reinhard and Hofmann, whom we propose recognizing as co-founders of the discipline. After the French publication of Mgnins popular book on

Mark Benecke

2001-01-01

452

Estimation and Evidence in Forensic Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifications in forensic anthropology occur in two rather different contexts. One context is that of estimation, when\\u000a a biological profile from unidentified remains is built in the hope of eventually identifying said remains. Another context\\u000a is in evidentiary proceedings, where biological information from the remains is used to contribute to a probability statement\\u000a about the likelihood of a correct identification.

Lyle W. Konigsberg; Ann H. Ross; William L. Jungers

453

Forensics 1: Course Outline and Syllabus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Systems Security and Information Assurance (CSSIA) provides this zip file with a course outline and syllabus document for an introductory computer forensics course. The syllabus is a sample one, which could be adapted to suit any course on this topic. It includes information about the course, required textbook and other materials, course goals, outline, classroom policies and grading policies. A Unix file with an additional course outline is also included in the ZIP file.

2013-07-23

454

Boned up: differential decomposition of child-sized swine remains to model a forensic context.  

E-print Network

??Forensic anthropology is often connected with the identification of human skeletal remains using various skeletal analyses. However in a medicolegal context, forensic anthropologists aid investigators (more)

White, Elizabeth K.

2009-01-01

455

Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of nuclear terrorism; it also supports the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its investigative mission to prevent and respond to nuclear terrorism. Development of the capability involves two major elements: (1) the ability to collect evidence and make forensic measurements, and (2) the ability to interpret the forensic data. The Program leverages the existing capability throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory complex in a way that meets the requirements of the FBI and other government users. At the same time the capability is being developed, the Program also conducts investigations for a variety of sponsors using the current capability. The combination of operations and R&D in one program helps to ensure a strong linkage between the needs of the user community and the scientific development.

Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

2005-11-04

456

Molecular forensic science of nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect

We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxides materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, process history, or transport of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science required to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensics science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

Wilkerson, Marianne Perry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

457

Visible Proofs: Forensic Views of the Body  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It seems that the field of forensic medicine is everywhere, particularly in the arena of popular television programs and such. This field has a long and distinguished history, and this engaging story is told rather effectively by this online exhibit created by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. First-time visitors may want to begin by looking through the "Exhibition" area. Within its six subsections, visitors can learn about the emerging technologies of forensic surveillance in the late 19th century and also learn about recent innovations in the field. Along with accessible and lucid essays, visitors will be treated to a number of medical illustrations from the period. The "Galleries" section presents another treasure trove of material, including detailed examinations of famous early forensics cases. While most of the material on the site may be about as graphic as the average prime-time television program that deals with similar material, users should use discretion when allowing younger children look through the site.

2006-01-01

458

The medicolegal and forensic aspects of fires.  

PubMed

Fires, their consequences and their investigations, continue to provide forensic scientists, especially those involved in medicolegal investigation (the medical examiner or forensic pathologist), with constant work and variations in problems. The recent history of mass disasters involving high-rise buildings, transport accidents, and arson-related accidents in nightclubs and prisons has emphasized the necessity for corrective and preventive means to ensure safety to the occupants of any of these areas. Problems presented by fires include the determination of the cause of the fire, the identification of the victims, and the cause and manner of their deaths. The motivation of the fire setter and the settlement by the insurance company or legal means are also aspects to be considered. The imperceptible effects of the fires include many other aspects, among which loss of loved ones and family providers and loss of industrial revenue and job potential are all felt. The most frightening development of all, however, is the insidious surfacing of arson as a possible factor in many major fires. The most recent tragedies involving the Stouffer Inn fire and the Hilton International Hotel fire were both related to arsonous acts. The scope of this article is to review the subject as it affects the forensic medical practitioner directly or indirectly so that his or her investigation may be brought to completion in conjunction with other authorities involved in the case. PMID:7340512

Eckert, W G

1981-12-01

459

Implant Bone Integration Importance in Forensic Identification.  

PubMed

Odontological identification consists of the comparison of antemortem dental information regarding a missing person with postmortem data from an unidentified corpse or human remains. Usually, the comparison concerns morphologic features that the operator chooses among all the visible characteristics because of inter-individual uniqueness; for this reason, implants can be of enormous assistance. A case concerning the recovery of a burnt oral implant, connected to a bone fragment, among 2780 charred bone fragments, suspected to have belonged to a victim of homicide, is presented to demonstrate that dental implants and their site of bone integration represent a very precious element for personal forensic identification. Because of their morphological invariability in time and because of their morphologic uniqueness, they were used as evidence to associate unidentified human charred remains to a missing person where DNA analysis failed to do so. The case illustrates the fundamental contribution, not yet described in literature, given by the clinical aspects of tooth replacement with dental implants to a forensic discipline. Clinical practitioners should therefore be aware of the great importance of their work and of dental records in a forensic identification scenario. PMID:25387697

De Angelis, Danilo; Cattaneo, Cristina

2014-11-12

460

Statistical Methodology in Meta-Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meta-analysis has become an important supplement to traditional methods of research reviewing, although many problems must be addressed by the reviewer who carries out a meta-analysis. These problems include identifying and obtaining appropriate studies, extracting estimates of effect size from the studies, coding or classifying studies, analyzing

Hedges, Larry V.

461

Statistical Science Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains links in several statistical categories, including other meta-sites (catalogs), universities, statistics departments, software, journals, data sets, methodology, conferences, and teaching, among others. It has an Australian flavor, but is international in scope. Gordon K. Smyth, Research scientist and mathematician, maintains this site.

1998-01-01

462

NanoSIMS analysis of Bacillus spores for forensics  

SciTech Connect

The threat associated with the potential use of radiological, nuclear, chemical and biological materials in terrorist acts has resulted in new fields of forensic science requiring the application of state-of-the-science analytical techniques. Since the anthrax letter attacks in the United States in the fall of 2001, there has been increased interest in physical and chemical characterization of bacterial spores. While molecular methods are powerful tools for identifying genetic differences, other methods may be able to differentiate genetically identical samples based on physical and chemical properties, as well as provide complimentary information, such as methods of production and approximate date of production. Microanalysis has the potential to contribute significantly to microbial forensics. Bacillus spores are highly structured, consisting of a core, cortex, coat, and in some species, an exosporium. This structure provides a template for constraining elemental abundance differences at the nanometer scale. The primary controls on the distribution of major elements in spores are likely structural and physiological. For example, P and Ca are known to be abundant in the spore core because that is where P-rich nucleic acids and Cadipicolinic acid are located, respectively. Trace elements are known to bind to the spore coat but the controls on these elements are less well understood. Elemental distributions and abundances may be directly related to spore production, purification and stabilization methodologies, which are of particular interest for forensic investigation. To this end, we are developing a high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry method using a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 to study the distribution and abundance of trace elements in bacterial spores. In this presentation we will review and compare methods for preparing and analyzing samples, as well as review results on the distribution and abundance of elements in bacterial spores. We use NanoSIMS to directly image samples as well as depth profile samples. The directly imaged samples are sectioned to present a flat surface for analysis. We use focused ion beam (FIB) milling to top-cut individual spores to create flat surfaces for NanoSIMS analysis. Depth profiling can be used on whole spores, which are consumed in the process of analysis. The two methods generate comparable results, with the expected distribution of P and Ca. Ca-compatible elements, such as Mg and Mn, are found to follow the distribution of Ca. The distribution of other elements will be discussed. We envision the first application of this methodology will be to sample matching for trace samples. Towards this end, we are generating a baseline data set for samples produced by multiple laboratories. Preliminary results suggest that this method provides significant probative value for identifying samples produced by the same method in the same laboratory, as well as coming from the same initial production run. The results of this study will be presented.

Weber, P K; Davisson, M L; Velsko, S P

2010-02-23

463

Forensic Science Methods Called Into Question by National Academies Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Study Calls for Oversight of Forensics in Crime Labs http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/19/us/19forensics.htmlCall For Forensics Overhaul Linked to 'CSI' Effecthttp://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=100831831Forensics under the microscopehttp://www.chicagotribune.com/news/specials/chi-forensics-specialpackage,0,4244313.specialStrengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forwardhttp://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12589#tocForensic Magazinehttp://www.forensicmag.com/DNA Forensics [Flash Player, pdf]http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtmlU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory [pdf, Flash Player]http://www.lab.fws.gov/The average person watching any number of procedural crime television shows might be forgiven if he or she believed that every piece of carpet fiber or DNA can lead to a "case closed" finale. In real life, forensic science isn't nearly as infallible as it appears on television, and that is something that has troubled many at the National Academy of Sciences. In a report released this Wednesday, the National Academy of Sciences research team found that in 2005 there was a backlog of 359,000 requests for forensic analysis and that 80 percent of all crime laboratories are understaffed. The report went on to call into question the scientific merit of practically every commonly used forensic method of analysis, including the analysis of ballistics, arson, hair, and fingerprints. The team of scholars who wrote the report also recommended that the United States should standardize forensic tests and assume responsibility for the certification of forensic experts. These findings have garnered attention from the general public, the law enforcement community, and elected officials such as Senator Patrick Leahy (D) of Vermont. In a recent interview with the New York Times, Leahy commented, "I am troubled by the report's general finding that far too many forensic disciplines lack the standards necessary to ensure their scientific reliability in court."The first link will take users to a New York Times article from this Wednesday, which talks a bit about this recent report. The second link leads to an audio piece from National Public Radio about the report and how it might transform forensic science. Moving on, the third link leads to a very fine set of investigative articles on forensic science from the Chicago Tribune. The fourth link will whisk users away to the full-text of the Academies' recent report on the state of forensic science. The fifth link leads to the homepage of Forensic Science magazine. Here, visitors can learn more about the field and read articles from current and past editions of the publication. The sixth link leads to a set of resources on DNA forensic analysis offered by the Human Genome Project. Finally, the last link leads to the homepage of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory, which is "the only lab in the world dedicated to crimes against wildlife."

Grinnell, Max

2009-02-20

464

Femoral subtrochanteric shape variation in Albania: Implications for use in forensic applications.  

PubMed

This paper investigates temporal trends in femoral subtrochanteric shape in Albanian skeletal material to evaluate levels of platymeria in a set of populations with European ancestry. Although flattening of the diaphysis in the subtrochanteric region has been associated with individuals of Native American and Asian ancestry, high levels of platymeria may not be unique to those groups. The forensic utility of Gilbert and Gill's (Skeletal Attribution of Race: Methods for Forensic Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, 1990) method for identifying ancestry from femoral subtrochanteric shape is examined using non-American skeletons of European ancestry. Femoral subtrochanteric anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters for Albanian skeletons from Apollonia (n=117) and Lofknd (n=50) are assessed for temporal trends and then compared with published data using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests. High degrees of subtrochanteric flattening are identified in the Albanian samples and statistically significant temporal trends of decreasing platymeria are documented. Although recent publications suggest that subtrochanteric shape is less effective in identifying ancestry then was initially proposed, forensic anthropologists still commonly use femoral subtrochanteric shape to determine ancestry among skeletonized remains. This paper's findings support the assertion that proximal femoral morphology is functionally related, and more likely to be influenced by biomechanical adaptation and body proportions than genetic constraints. PMID:25500529

McIlvaine, B K; Schepartz, L A

2015-02-01

465

Adult forensic age estimation using mandibular first molar radiographs: A novel technique  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop an independent procedure for estimating age for Indian individuals using radiographs of multi-rooted posterior teeth with accuracy needed in forensic age prediction. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomography (OPG) was obtained for 88 subjects. The subjects were divided into two sub sets; study subset (n = 60) which were used to find regression formula to calculate the age from pulp chamber height and test subset (n = 28) which were used to test the accuracy of this formula. Results: There was a statistically significant strong correlation between chronological age and pulp chamber crown root trunk height ratio (r = ?0.56; P = 0.000). The regression equation for estimating the age, derived from the study subset was estimated age = ?100.920 (PCTHR) +55.415. (PCTHR is the pulp chamber crown root trunk height ratio). This equation was applied on the test subset and there was no significant difference between estimated ages and chronological ages (P = 0.639). The mean absolute error (MAE) was 6.96 years, which was within acceptable error limits for forensic age estimation (<10 years). Conclusion: The procedure developed to estimate the age using height reduction in pulp chamber was found to be fairly accurate to perform forensic age prediction in Indian individuals. PMID:23960417

Mathew, Deepu George; Rajesh, S; Koshi, Elizabeth; Priya, Lakshmi E; Nair, Amal S; Mohan, Aparna

2013-01-01

466

Q-methodology  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective: To introduce the Q-methodology research technique to the field of health informatics. Q-methodologythe systematic study of subjectivitywas used to identify and categorize the opinions of primary care physicians and medical students that contributed to our understanding of their reasons for acceptance of and/or resistance to adapting information technologies in the health care workplace. Design: Thirty-four physicians and 25 medical students from the Chicago area were surveyed and asked to rank-order 30 opinion statements about information technologies within the health care workplace. The Q-methodology research technique was employed to structure an opinion typology from their rank-ordered statements. (The rank-ordered sorts were subjected to correlation and by-person factor analysis to obtain groupings of participants who sorted the opinion statements into similar arrangements.) Results: The typology for this study revealed groupings of similar opinion-types associated with the likelihood of physicians and medical students to adapt information technology into their health care workplace. A typology of six opinions was identified in the following groups: (1) Full-Range Adopters; (2) Skills-Concerned Adopters; (3) Technology-Critical Adopters; (4) Independently-Minded and Concerned; (5) Inexperienced and Worried; and (6) Business-Minded and Adaptive. It is imperative to understand that in the application of Q-methodology, the domain is subjectivity and research is performed on small samples. The methodology is a combination of qualitative and quantitative research techniques that reveals dimensions of subjective phenomena from a perspective intrinsic to the individual to determine what is statistically different about the dimensions and to identify characteristics of individuals who share common viewpoints. Low response rates do not bias Q-methodology because the primary purpose is to identify a typology, not to test the typology's proportional distribution within the larger population. Conclusion: Q-methodology can allow for the simultaneous study of objective and subjective issues to determine an individual's opinion and forecast their likeliness to adapt information technologies in the health care workplace. This study suggests that an organization's system implementers could employ Q-methodology to individualize and customize their approach to understanding the personality complexities of physicians in their organization and their willingness to adapt and utilize information technologies within the workplace. PMID:9391937

Valenta, Annette L.; Wigger, Ulrike

1997-01-01

467

A methodology for finger mark research.  

PubMed

Currently there is no standard way of carrying out research into finger mark enhancement techniques. Individuals, groups or establishments tend to use different methodologies depending on a number of factors, especially finance and time. However, data published in the literature can be misleading to the forensic community if the data generated reflects research involving very few finger marks or if those finger marks have been deliberately doped with an unnatural balance of sweat or an unusual contaminant. This paper presents an experimental methodology which is intended to establish minimum standards for those carrying out finger mark enhancement research (at least within the United Kingdom) and bring some consistency to the process. It will aim to identify the many variables encountered when dealing with finger marks and suggest experimental methods to take these into account. It will also present the key stages of the progression of a process from a laboratory concept to a tool used on operational work. PMID:22841138

Sears, V G; Bleay, S M; Bandey, H L; Bowman, V J

2012-09-01

468

Forensic Disaster Analysis in Near-real Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of extreme hydro-meteorological and geophysical events are controlled by various factors including severity of the event (intensity, duration, spatial extent), amplification with other phenomena (multihazard or cascading effects), interdependencies of technical systems and infrastructure, preparedness and resilience of the society. The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) has adopted the comprehensive understanding of disasters and develops methodologies of near real-time FDA as a complementing component of the FORIN program of IRDR. The new research strategy 'Near Real-Time Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA)' aims at scrutinizing disasters closely with a multi-disciplinary approach in order to assess the various aspects of disasters and to identify mechanisms most relevant for an extreme event to become a disaster (e.g., causal loss analysis). Recent technology developments - which have opened unprecedented opportunities for real-time hazard, vulnerability and loss assessment - are used for analyzing disasters and their impacts in combination with databases of historical events. The former covers modern empirical and analytical methods available in engineering and remote sensing for rapid impact assessments, rapid information extraction from crowd sourcing as well as rapid assessments of socio-economic impacts and economic losses. The event-driven science-based assessments of CEDIM are compiled based on interdisciplinary expertise and include the critical evaluation, assessment, validation, and quantification of an event. An important component of CEDIM's FDA is the near real-time approach which is expected to significantly speed up our understanding of natural disasters and be used to provide timely, relevant and valuable information to various user groups within their respective contexts. Currently, CEDIM has developed models and methodologies to assess different types of hazard. These approaches were applied to several disasters including, for example, Super Typhoon Haiyan/Yolanda (Nov. 2013), Central European Floods (June 2013), Hurricane Sandy (Oct. 2012), US Droughts (Summer 2012), or Typhoon Saola in Taiwan and Philippines (July 2012).

Kunz, Michael; Zschau, Jochen; Wenzel, Friedemann; Khazai, Bijan; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner

2014-05-01

469

Victims Deserve More: The Building of a Forensics Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because victims deserve more, The American Academy of Applied Forensics at Central Piedmont Community College was created to link cutting-edge forensics research to its field applications. It does this by enhancing the knowledge, skill, and ability levels of crime scene investigators, thereby increasing the likelihood that truth will be revealed

Johnson, Lili K.

2007-01-01

470

A Term Project for a Course on Computer Forensics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The typical approach to creating an examination disk for exercises and projects in a course on computer forensics is for the instructor to populate a piece of media with evidence to be retrieved. While such an approach supports the simple use of forensic tools, in many cases the use of an instructor-developed examination disk avoids utilizing some

Harrison, Warren

2006-01-01

471

Forensic implications of PCR inhibitionA review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is currently the method of choice for the identification of human remains in forensic coursework. DNA samples from crime scenes often contain co-purified impurities which inhibit PCR. PCR inhibition is the most common cause of PCR failure when adequate copies of DNA are present. Inhibitors have been routinely reported in forensic investigations of DNA extracted from

Reza Alaeddini

472

Forensics as a Laboratory Experience in Small Group Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensics programs can be laboratories for small group processes, whether or not they are explicitly recognized by either the participants or their teachers. Small group dynamics, as identified by M. Shaw (1981), are present and clearly define the forensic activity as a small group experience. The combination of being a small group, spending

Zeuschner, Raymond Bud

473

Forensic Science, Wrongful Convictions, and American Prosecutor Discretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: A hot controversy exists about the reliability of forensic science as reported by prime-time drama television series in bringing violent criminals to justice. This exploratory research will show that neither forensics or its fictionalised (CSI Effect) accounts, nor substantial evidence secured by police investigators, shape prosecutor decisions to charge a suspect with a crime, which can often result in

DENNIS J. STEVENS

2008-01-01

474

Computer Forensics In Forensis Sean Peisert and Matt Bishop  

E-print Network

criminals, and clearing people who have been wrongly convicted and imprisoned. DNA evidence condensesComputer Forensics In Forensis Sean Peisert and Matt Bishop Department of Computer Science La Jolla, CA 92093-0404 marzullo@cs.ucsd.edu ABSTRACT Different users apply computer forensic systems

Peisert, Sean

475

Computer Forensics In Forensis Sean Peisert and Matt Bishop  

E-print Network

instrumental in convicting criminals, and clearing people who have been wrongly convicted and imprisoned. DNAComputer Forensics In Forensis Sean Peisert and Matt Bishop Department of Computer Science La Jolla, CA 92093­0404 marzullo@cs.ucsd.edu ABSTRACT Di#erent users apply computer forensic systems

Bishop, Matt

476

Initial Case Analysis Using Windows Registry in Computer Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Windows registry has significant information which are valuable to the forensic analyst. Especially, some information such as the timezone information, the time when the OS was installed and the system was turned off, furthermore what kinds of the storage devices were attached are necessary in the forensic analysis. Besides, the investigator must recognize them for the further investigation. In

Kisik Chang; Gibum Kim; Kwonyoup Kim; Woosuk Kim

2007-01-01

477

Forensic Anthropology Dr. Nancy E. Todd SUMMER 2013  

E-print Network

Forensic Anthropology ANTH 123 Dr. Nancy E. Todd SUMMER 2013 OFFICE: 10 Sachem St., 010 OFFICE to change by Instructor COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course is a hands-on introduction to forensic anthropology anthropology. 1 Credit. Tuition $2,650. Session A: June 4 ­ July 6 CLASS TEXTS: Byers, Steven. 2007

478

Favorite Demonstration: Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The interdisciplinary nature of a forensics-based demonstration encourages science majors to move beyond their own narrow fields of study. The demonstration described in this column emphasizes the interconnectedness of biology, chemistry, and geology. Forensic-based demonstrations such as this can also be used to introduce the protocols governing the application of discipline specific information to other fields of study.

Shmaefsky, Brian R.

2006-09-01

479

Journal of Forensic Identification 58 (1), 2008 \\ 109  

E-print Network

Journal of Forensic Identification 58 (1), 2008 \\ 109 Received November 21, 2006; accepted March 19, they are still discriminable. #12;Journal of Forensic Identification 110 / 58 (1), 2008 Introduction The study Center of Excellence for Document Analysis and Recognition Department of Computer Science and Engineering

480

FORESIGHT: A Business Approach to Improving Forensic Science Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managers of scientific laboratories see themselves as scientists first and managers second; consequently, they tend to devalue the managerial aspects of their jobs. Forensic laboratory managers are no different, but the stakes may be much higher given the importance of quality science to the criminal justice system. The need for training and support in forensic laboratory management has been recognized

Max M. Houck; Richard A. Riley; Tom S. Witt

2009-01-01

481

A Round Table Discussion on Forensic Science in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript is an edited transcript of a round table discussion held during the Australian New Zealand Forensic Science Society International Symposium held in Sydney in 2010. The discussants covered a variety of topics, including the management of science, the handling of quality issues, and the report on forensic science from the U.S. National Academies of Science National Research Council.

Max M. Houck; James Robertson; Bryan Found; Hilton Kobus; Simon Lewis; Michael Raymond; Paul Reedy; Alistair Ross; Claude Roux; Ross Vining

2011-01-01

482

Neglect of the elderly: forensic entomology cases and considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wounds of living persons are a potential target for the same flies that live, or feed early on corpses. This can lead to complications in estimation of PMI but also allows to determine additional information that might be valuable in a trial, or during the investigations [e.g., M. Benecke, R. Lessig, Child neglect and forensic entomology, Forensic Sci. Int. 120

Mark Benecke; Eberhard Josephi; Ralf Zweihoff

2004-01-01

483

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND STANDARDS IN FORENSIC HANDWRITING ANALYSIS CONFERENCE & WEBCAST  

E-print Network

1 MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND STANDARDS IN FORENSIC HANDWRITING ANALYSIS CONFERENCE & WEBCAST IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENTS June 4-5, 2013 Overview We have several important announcements regarding the Measurement Science and Standards in Forensic Handwriting Analysis Conference & Webcast that starts at 9:00AM Eastern Time on June 4

Magee, Joseph W.

484

Forensic applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometryA review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key role of a forensic scientist is to assist in determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so, assist in the identification of the offender. Many people hold the belief that a particular item can be conclusively linked to a specific person, place or object. Unfortunately, this is often not achievable in forensic science. In performing their

Sarah Benson; Chris Lennard; Philip Maynard; Claude Roux

2006-01-01

485

Activity of the forensic entomology department of the French Gendarmerie  

Microsoft Academic Search

The criminal research Institute of the French Gendarmerie deals with several disciplines which are part of forensic science. Forensic entomology is one of the last laboratories created in Rosny-Sous-Bois. As with all other departments of the Institute, its main mission is carrying out its expertise on behalf of justice. Another important mission is to educate on one hand the scene

Emmanuel Gaudry; Jean-Bernard Myskowiak; Bernard Chauvet; Thierry Pasquerault; Fabrice Lefebvre; Yvan Malgorn

2001-01-01

486

A Research Configuration for a Digital Network Forensic Lab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The digital forensic network lab is implemented with the goal of providing all students and faculty with a configurable research environment ideally suited for conducting network forensic testing on all TCP\\/IP network protocols passing through it. Of particular interest are protocols that are commonly used for file sharing, message passing, and those that actively obfuscate or

Jeffrey S. Marean; Mike Losavio; Ibrahim N. Imam

2008-01-01

487

The role of forensic anthropology in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly describes Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) and reviews the history of the use of forensic anthropology in the identification process. The potential contributions made by forensic anthropology are illustrated through the presentation of a case study. In February 2009 the state of Victoria in south-eastern Australia experienced the most devastating bushfires in its history, resulting in catastrophic loss

Soren Blau; Christopher A. Briggs

2011-01-01

488

Curriculum and Course Materials for a Forensic DNA Biology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) requires accredited programs offer a "coherent curriculum" to ensure each student gains a "thorough grounding of the naturalsciences." Part of this curriculum includes completion of a minimum of 15 semester-hours forensic science coursework, nine of which

Elkins, Kelly M.

2014-01-01

489

DNA Fingerprinting Using PCR: A Practical Forensic Science Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a forensic science simulation programme applicable for use in colleges. Students were asked to find a putative suspect by DNA fingerprinting using a simple protocol developed in this study. DNA samples were obtained from a hair root and a drop of blood, common sources of DNA in forensic science. The DNA fingerprinting protocol

Choi, Hyun-Jung; Ahn, Jung Hoon; Ko, Minsu

2008-01-01

490

Legal Aspects of Digital Forensics: A Research Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the Information Age has necessitated and facilitated the relatively new field of digital forensics. As a largely practitioner-driven field, there is no clearly defined research agenda to promote top-down research in related areas so that the evolution can be more solidly based on research findings. This paper builds on previously published topical research agendas for digital forensics

Kara L. Nance; Daniel J. Ryan

2011-01-01

491

Cross-Cultural Issues in Forensic Psychiatry Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Forensic psychiatry was officially recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties in the 1990's. In 1994, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) gave its first written examination to certify forensic psychiatrists. In 1996, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) began

Layde, Joseph B.

2004-01-01

492

Forensic analysis of the android file system YAFFS2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of Android devices has resulted in a requirement for a process to extract and analyse data in a forensically sound manner. There is a wide range of devices which use the Android operating system, and hence a standard process for forensic extraction and analysis for all devices is not possible. Many devices use the Yet Another Flash File

Darren Quick; Mohammed Alzaabi

2011-01-01

493

Forensically Determining the Order of Signal Processing Operations  

E-print Network

manipulated a signal. In this paper, we propose a new forensic detection framework that can be used determine applied to an image. I. INTRODUCTION In today's society, the majority of multimedia content is captured to identify the use of specific image processing operations and manipulations. These forensic techniques work

Liu, K. J. Ray

494

Developing a computer forensics program in police higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the analysis and comparison of the application of domestic and overseas computer forensics education, combining with the demand of the industry, the characteristics of subjects and the aim of police education in China, an innovative program in computer forensics has been developed and begun in fall 2007. This four-year program consists of courses in general education, major (computer crime

Liu Zhijun; Wang Ning

2009-01-01

495

Application Guidelines Master of Science in Forensic Sciences  

E-print Network

majors in parentheses): o forensic biology/DNA (biology, cell biology, genetics, molecular biology) o applicant or related job experience for MS option College-level biology and chemistry, prerequisites forensic pathology/death scene investigation or /microbiology (biology, human anatomy, histology

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

496

Plants & Perpetrators: Forensic Investigation in the Botany Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applying botanical knowledge to a simulated forensic investigation provides inquiry-based and problem-based learning in the botany classroom. This paper details one such forensic investigation in which students use what they have learned about plant morphology and anatomy to analyze evidence and solve a murder mystery. (Contains 1 table.)

Boyd, Amy E.

2006-01-01

497

Partners in Crime: Integrating Forensic Science and Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensic science lends itself to many academic areas. Aside from the science itself, writing plays a major role in the investigation process as well as in the courtroom. It is paramount that students learn how to write proficiently when recording results or writing evaluations and reports, just as forensic scientists do. This can also be done

Hein, Erik

2006-01-01

498

Burnout and Secondary Trauma Among Forensic Interviewers of Abused Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined factors associated with burnout and secondary trauma among forensic interviewers of abused children. Sixty-six forensic interviewers who are affiliated with advocacy centers across the United States completed an online survey. The Oldenburg Burnout Inventory and Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale were used to measure burnout and secondary trauma, respectively. Results indicate that organizational satisfaction has a moderate inverse

Brian E. Perron; Barbara S. Hiltz

2006-01-01

499

Defining Digital Forensic Examination and Analysis Tools Using Abstraction Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the theory of abstraction layers to describe the purpose and goals of digital forensic analysis tools. Using abstraction layers, we identify where tools can introduce errors and provide requirements that the tools must follow. Categories of forensic analysis types are also defined based on the abstraction layers. Abstraction layers are not a new concept, but their usage

Brian Carrier

2002-01-01

500

[Forensic medical examination in cases of sexual abuse].  

PubMed

The article presents the analysis of forensic medical expert practice in the field of sexual abuse. Drawbacks in expert examinations, official decisions on such examinations, low expertise of forensic medical personnel in sexual crime, lack of tools for genital and anal examination are analysed and methods of correction of this situation are proposed. PMID:17089603

Deriagin, G B

2006-01-01