Sample records for statistical forensic methodology

  1. Statistical Tools for Digital Image Forensics

    E-print Network

    Farid, Hany

    Statistical Tools for Digital Image Forensics A thesis submitted to the faculty in partial for Digital Image Forensics Alin C. Popescu A digitally altered image, often leaving no visual clues of having

  2. Natural Image Statistics for Digital Image Forensics

    E-print Network

    Lyu, Siwei

    statistics consist of first- and higher-order statistics that capture certain statistical regularitiesNatural Image Statistics for Digital Image Forensics A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial, for their endless love and support. #12;Abstract Natural Image Statistics for Digital Image Forensics Siwei Lyu We

  3. Non-Parametric Statistical Techniques for Computational Forensic Engineering

    E-print Network

    Wong, Jennifer L.

    Non-Parametric Statistical Techniques for Computational Forensic Engineering Jennifer Lee Wong Abstract Computational forensic engineering is the process of identification of the tool or algorithm which already exist. Computational forensic techniques remove these limitations and enable

  4. Statistical Evaluation of Biometric Evidence in Forensic Automatic Speaker Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drygajlo, Andrzej

    Forensic speaker recognition is the process of determining if a specific individual (suspected speaker) is the source of a questioned voice recording (trace). This paper aims at presenting forensic automatic speaker recognition (FASR) methods that provide a coherent way of quantifying and presenting recorded voice as biometric evidence. In such methods, the biometric evidence consists of the quantified degree of similarity between speaker-dependent features extracted from the trace and speaker-dependent features extracted from recorded speech of a suspect. The interpretation of recorded voice as evidence in the forensic context presents particular challenges, including within-speaker (within-source) variability and between-speakers (between-sources) variability. Consequently, FASR methods must provide a statistical evaluation which gives the court an indication of the strength of the evidence given the estimated within-source and between-sources variabilities. This paper reports on the first ENFSI evaluation campaign through a fake case, organized by the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI), as an example, where an automatic method using the Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) and the Bayesian interpretation (BI) framework were implemented for the forensic speaker recognition task.

  5. THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF APPLICATION OF TEETH IN FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY CENTER, TEHRAN, IRAN, 1980-2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Deebaei; Hadi Fathi Moghaddam; Parivash Delkhosh

    Objective: This retrospective study investigated cases in Tehran Forensic Odontology Center, which have been solved by using teeth as the main proof. Methodology: Two hundred forty eight files in archives of Tehran forensic odonotology center during years 1980 to 2000 were reviewed and the data collected from each file. Results: It shows that only 12 cases (4.8%) used the forensic

  6. Forensim: An open-source initiative for the evaluation of statistical methods in forensic genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hinda Haned

    2011-01-01

    Forensim is a new package for the R statistical software that is dedicated to forensic DNA evidence interpretation. As far as we know, forensim is the first open-source tool that allows for the simulation of data encountered in forensic genetics studies. The package also implements common statistical methods used for reporting the weight of DNA evidence. Forensim is written in

  7. An illustration of the advantages of efficient statistical methods for RFLP analysis in forensic science.

    PubMed Central

    Evett, I W; Scranage, J; Pinchin, R

    1993-01-01

    The debate about the statistics of DNA profiling in forensic science casework has been carried out mainly from the perspective which is generally known as "match/binning." This approach has an initial appeal because of its apparent conceptual simplicity. However, the simplicity is illusory because it encourages misconceptions which obscure the essential forensic issues. This is exemplified in a recent report of the National Research Council, which places great emphasis on the need for conservative estimation of relative frequencies while missing the point that the power of RFLP technology cannot be realized if the matching stage is inefficient. Our approach to the problem is a one-stage rather than a two-stage process, by means of one function--the likelihood ratio--which determines the evidential strength. This paper describes experiments which have been carried out to assess the power of the method in forensic science and compares it with match/binning methodology. Tests for gauging the effects of between-probe dependence are included, with the results complementing those of Risch and Devlin. PMID:8095367

  8. Nuclear Forensics: A Methodology Applicable to Nuclear Security and to Non-Proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.; Lützenkirchen, K.; Galy, J.; Varga, Z.; Erdmann, N.; Buda, R.; Kratz, J.-V.; Trautmann, N.; Fifield, K.

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear Security aims at the prevention and detection of and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material. Nuclear Forensics is a key element of nuclear security. Nuclear Forensics is defined as a methodology that aims at re-establishing the history of nuclear material of unknown origin. It is based on indicators that arise from known relationships between material characteristics and process history. Thus, nuclear forensics analysis includes the characterization of the material and correlation with production history. To this end, we can make use of parameters such as the isotopic composition of the nuclear material and accompanying elements, chemical impurities, macroscopic appearance and microstructure of the material. In the present paper, we discuss the opportunities for attribution of nuclear material offered by nuclear forensics as well as its limitations. Particular attention will be given to the role of nuclear reactions. Such reactions include the radioactive decay of the nuclear material, but also reactions with neutrons. When uranium (of natural composition) is exposed to neutrons, plutonium is formed, as well as 236U. We will illustrate the methodology using the example of a piece of uranium metal that dates back to the German nuclear program in the 1940's. A combination of different analytical techniques and model calculations enables a nuclear forensics interpretation, thus correlating the material characteristics with the production history.

  9. On the use of IRMS in forensic science: proposals for a methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Natacha; Besson, Luc; Pazos, Diego; Delémont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre

    2011-10-10

    The flourishing number of publications on the use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) in forensic science denotes the enthusiasm and the attraction generated by this technology. IRMS has demonstrated its potential to distinguish chemically identical compounds coming from different sources. Despite the numerous applications of IRMS to a wide range of forensic materials, its implementation in a forensic framework is less straightforward than it appears. In addition, each laboratory has developed its own strategy of analysis on calibration, sequence design, standards utilisation and data treatment without a clear consensus. Through the experience acquired from research undertaken in different forensic fields, we propose a methodological framework of the whole process using IRMS methods. We emphasize the importance of considering isotopic results as part of a whole approach, when applying this technology to a particular forensic issue. The process is divided into six different steps, which should be considered for a thoughtful and relevant application. The dissection of this process into fundamental steps, further detailed, enables a better understanding of the essential, though not exhaustive, factors that have to be considered in order to obtain results of quality and sufficiently robust to proceed to retrospective analyses or interlaboratory comparisons. PMID:21775081

  10. Non-Parametric Statistical Techniques for Computational Forensic Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Lee Wong

    Computational forensic engineering is the process of identification of the tool or algorithm that was used to produce a particular output or solution by examining the structural properties of the output. We introduce a new Relative Generic Forensic Engineering (RGFE)technique that has several advantages over the previously proposed approaches. From the quantitative point of view, the new RGFE technique performs

  11. Statistical Methodology for Educational Research. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, H. O.

    This 1966 Summer Institute for training educational research workers in statistical methodology attempted to convey concepts of statistical and analytic techniques, to provide instruction and experience in the use of high speed computers, and to guide trainees in the selection and application of techniques to their research work. The first session…

  12. Higher-order Wavelet Statistics and their Application to Digital Forensics and Siwei Lyu

    E-print Network

    Lyu, Siwei

    Higher-order Wavelet Statistics and their Application to Digital Forensics Hany Farid and Siwei Lyu decomposition. The model consists of first- and higher-order statis- tics that capture certain statistical- and higher-order statistics that capture the reg- ularities that are inherent to natural images. We then show

  13. In: IEEE Workshop on Statistical Analysis in Computer Vision (in conjunction with CVPR), 2003 Higher-order Wavelet Statistics and their Application to Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Farid, Hany

    Higher-order Wavelet Statistics and their Application to Digital Forensics Hany Farid and Siwei Lyu regularities of nat- ural images. We show how this model can be useful in several digital forensic applications- eral digital forensic applications, specifically in detect- ing various types of digital tampering. 2

  14. Statistical Tools for Digital Forensics Alin C. Popescu and Hany Farid

    E-print Network

    Farid, Hany

    Statistical Tools for Digital Forensics Alin C. Popescu and Hany Farid Department of Computer Science at Dartmouth College Abstract. A digitally altered photograph, often leaving no visual clues statistical techniques for detecting traces of digital tampering in the absence of any digital watermark

  15. The Trojan Made Me Do It: A First Step in Statistical Based Computer Forensics Event Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan Carney; Marc Roger

    2004-01-01

    The current study was exploratory and represents a first attempt at a standardized method for digital forensics event reconstruction based on statistical significance at a given error rate (? = .01). The study used four scenarios to test the ability to determine whether contraband images located on a system running Windows XP were intentionally downloaded or downloaded without the user's

  16. Specifying digital forensics: A forensics policy approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Louise Taylor; Barbara Endicott-Popovsky; Deborah A. Frincke

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to digital forensics specification based on forensic policy definition. Our methodology borrows from computer security policy specification, which has accumulated a significant body of research over the past 30 years. We first define the process of specifying forensics properties through a forensics policy and then present an example application of the process. This

  17. Blood species identification for forensic purposes using Raman spectroscopy combined with advanced statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

    2009-09-15

    Forensic analysis has become one of the most growing areas of analytical chemistry in recent years. The ability to determine the species of origin of a body fluid sample is a very important and crucial part of a forensic investigation. We introduce here a new technique which utilizes a modern analytical method based on the combination of Raman spectroscopy and advanced statistics to analyze the composition of blood traces from different species. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy (NIR) was used to analyze multiple dry samples of human, canine, and feline blood for the ultimate application to forensic species identification. All of the spectra were combined into a single data matrix, and the number of principle components that described the system was determined using multiple statistical methods such as significant factor analysis (SFA), principle component analysis (PCA), and several cross-validation methods. Of the six principle components that were determined to be present, the first three, which contributed over 90% to the spectral data of the system, were used to form a three-dimensional scores plot that clearly showed significant separation between the three groups of species. Ellipsoids representing a 99% confidence interval surrounding each species group showed no overlap. This technique using Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive and quick and can potentially be performed at the scene of a crime. PMID:19670872

  18. Author's personal copy Statistical Methodology 10 (2013) 4657

    E-print Network

    Ghoshal, Subhashis

    2013-01-01

    Verse ScienceDirect Statistical Methodology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet Finite skew reserved. doi:10.1016/j.stamet.2012.05.005 #12;Author's personal copy G.J. Bean et al. / Statistical

  19. Author's personal copy Statistical Methodology 10 (2012) 151169

    E-print Network

    Autin, Florent

    2012-01-01

    Verse ScienceDirect Statistical Methodology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet Testing the means reserved. doi:10.1016/j.stamet.2012.08.001 #12;Author's personal copy 152 F. Autin, C. Pouet / Statistical

  20. Methodological and statistical issues in pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Peters, Bas J M; Rodin, Andrei S; de Boer, Anthonius; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse

    2010-02-01

    Pharmacogenomics strives to explain the interindividual variability in response to drugs due to genetic variation. Although technological advances have provided us with relatively easy and cheap methods for genotyping, promises about personalised medicine have not yet met our high expectations. Successful results that have been achieved within the field of pharmacogenomics so far are, to name a few, HLA-B*5701 screening to avoid hypersensitivity to the antiretroviral abacavir, thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) genotyping to avoid thiopurine toxicity, and CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping for better dosing of the anticoagulant warfarin. However, few pharmacogenetic examples have made it into clinical practice in the treatment of complex diseases. Unfortunately, lack of reproducibility of results from observational studies involving many genes and diseases seems to be a common pattern in pharmacogenomic studies. In this article we address some of the methodological and statistical issues within study design, gene and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) selection and data analysis that should be considered in future pharmacogenomic research. First, we discuss some of the issues related to the design of epidemiological studies, specific to pharmacogenomic research. Second, we describe some of the pros and cons of a candidate gene approach (including gene and SNP selection) and a genome-wide scan approach. Finally, conventional as well as several innovative approaches to the analysis of large pharmacogenomic datasets are proposed that deal with the issues of multiple testing and systems biology in different ways. PMID:20487194

  1. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  2. The uniqueness of the human dentition as forensic evidence: a systematic review on the technological methodology.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ademir; Willems, Guy; Souza, Paulo Henrique Couto; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Thevissen, Patrick

    2014-11-15

    The uniqueness of human dentition is routinely approached as identification evidence in forensic odontology. Specifically in bitemark and human identification cases, positive identifications are obtained under the hypothesis that two individuals do not have the same dental features. The present study compiles methodological information from articles on the uniqueness of human dentition to support investigations into the mentioned hypothesis. In April 2014, three electronic library databases (SciELO®, MEDLINE®/PubMed®, and LILACS®) were systematically searched. In parallel, reference lists of relevant studies were also screened. From the obtained articles (n?=?1235), 13 full-text articles were considered eligible. They were examined according to the studied parameters: the sample size, the number of examined teeth, the registration technique for data collection, the methods for data analysis, and the study outcomes. Six combinations of studied data were detected: (1) dental shape, size, angulation, and position (n?=?1); (2) dental shape, size, and angulation (n?=?4); (3) dental shape and size (n?=?5); (4) dental angulation and position (n?=?2); (5) dental shape and angulation (n?=?1); and (6) dental shape (n?=?1). The sample size ranged between 10 and 1099 human dentitions. Ten articles examined the six anterior teeth, while three articles examined more teeth. Four articles exclusively addressed three-dimensional (3D) data registration, while six articles used two-dimensional (2D) imaging. In three articles, both imaging registrations were combined. Most articles (n?=?9) explored the data using landmark placement. The other articles (n?=?4) comprised digital comparison of superimposed dental contours. Although there were large methodological variations within the investigated articles, the uniqueness of human dentition remains unproved. PMID:25398633

  3. Methodological and Statistical Problems in Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uchechukwu C. Megwalu; Jay F. Piccirillo

    Results: Overall, the articles demonstrated fair meth- odological and statistical quality. Compared with the pre- vious review by Schechtman et al, there was a slight in- crease in the number of articles that discussed statistical power and reported confidence intervals. There were in- creases in the mean sample size, the percentage of ran- domized controlled studies, the number of end

  4. Author's personal copy Statistical Methodology 7 (2010) 574576

    E-print Network

    Elsner, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Direct Statistical Methodology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet Discussion paper Discussion portfolio. DOI of original article: 10.1016/j.stamet.2010.02.004. Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 303 759 matter © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.stamet.2010.06.003 #12;Author's personal

  5. Computational Forensic Techniques for Intellectual Property Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Wong; Darko Kirovski; Miodrag Potkonjak

    2001-01-01

    Computational forensic engineering (CFE) aims to identify the entity that created a particular intellectual property (IP). Rather than relying on watermarking content or designs, the generic CFE method- ology analyzes the statistics of certain features of a given IP and quan- tizes the likelihood that a well known source has created it. In this paper, we describe the generic methodology

  6. Statistical Methodologies to Integrate Experimental and Computational Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. A.; Johnson, R. T.; Montgomery, D. C.

    2008-01-01

    Development of advanced algorithms for simulating engine flow paths requires the integration of fundamental experiments with the validation of enhanced mathematical models. In this paper, we provide an overview of statistical methods to strategically and efficiently conduct experiments and computational model refinement. Moreover, the integration of experimental and computational research efforts is emphasized. With a statistical engineering perspective, scientific and engineering expertise is combined with statistical sciences to gain deeper insights into experimental phenomenon and code development performance; supporting the overall research objectives. The particular statistical methods discussed are design of experiments, response surface methodology, and uncertainty analysis and planning. Their application is illustrated with a coaxial free jet experiment and a turbulence model refinement investigation. Our goal is to provide an overview, focusing on concepts rather than practice, to demonstrate the benefits of using statistical methods in research and development, thereby encouraging their broader and more systematic application.

  7. Establishing forensic search methodologies and geophysical surveying for the detection of clandestine graves in coastal beach environments.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Jamie K; Holland, Claire; Szkornik, Katie; Harrison, Mark

    2012-06-10

    A 2010 UK police search for a clandestine burial highlighted the need for more information and quantitative data to aid coastal beach searches. This study aimed to address this by establishing relevant forensic search methodologies to aid the search for clandestine coastal burial sites, using the North West English coastline as a search area. A set of parameters were established, including criteria such as tidal range, proximity to vehicular access points and distance from inhabited areas, which may inform forensic searches by prioritising likely locations of clandestine burials. Three prioritised coastal locations were subsequently identified: (1) coastal dunes at Formby, (2) coastal dunes and (3) beach foreshore at Southport, all sites part of the Liverpool City Region in the United Kingdom. At all locations, simulated clandestine graves were hand-dug by spades into which a naked adult-sized, metal-jointed fiberglass mannequin was buried at 0.5 m below ground level. Trial geophysical surveys were then undertaken with the aim of identifying the optimal geophysical instrumentation and technique to deploy in such environments. GPR data showed 450 MHz frequency antennae to be optimal, with significantly poor data obtained from the foreshore area due to saline seawater. Electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility surveys were successful in coastal environments in target detection (albeit not in non-vegetated sand dunes), with resistivity fixed-offset configurations deemed optimal. The latter survey successes may be due to the recent disturbed 'grave' rather than the target, which itself is of interest in terms of identifying the most recent clandestine burials. PMID:22285503

  8. Lay understanding of forensic statistics: Evaluation of random match probabilities, likelihood ratios, and verbal equivalents.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William C; Newman, Eryn J

    2015-08-01

    Forensic scientists have come under increasing pressure to quantify the strength of their evidence, but it is not clear which of several possible formats for presenting quantitative conclusions will be easiest for lay people, such as jurors, to understand. This experiment examined the way that people recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk (n = 541) responded to 2 types of forensic evidence-a DNA comparison and a shoeprint comparison-when an expert explained the strength of this evidence 3 different ways: using random match probabilities (RMPs), likelihood ratios (LRs), or verbal equivalents of likelihood ratios (VEs). We found that verdicts were sensitive to the strength of DNA evidence regardless of how the expert explained it, but verdicts were sensitive to the strength of shoeprint evidence only when the expert used RMPs. The weight given to DNA evidence was consistent with the predictions of a Bayesian network model that incorporated the perceived risk of a false match from 3 causes (coincidence, a laboratory error, and a frame-up), but shoeprint evidence was undervalued relative to the same Bayesian model. Fallacious interpretations of the expert's testimony (consistent with the source probability error and the defense attorney's fallacy) were common and were associated with the weight given to the evidence and verdicts. The findings indicate that perceptions of forensic science evidence are shaped by prior beliefs and expectations as well as expert testimony and consequently that the best way to characterize and explain forensic evidence may vary across forensic disciplines. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25984887

  9. Statistical and methodological considerations for reporting RCTs in medical literature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are known to provide the most reliable evidence on intervention. However, RCTs are often conducted and reported incompletely and inadequately, making readers and reviewers unable to judge the validity and reliability of the trials. In this article, we consider the statistical and methodological issues involved in reporting on RCTs, particularly in relation to the objectives, designs, and commencements of trials. This paper deals with the various issues that should be considered in presenting RCTs, and suggests checklists for reporting on them. We expect that these checklists will remind readers and reviewers to evaluate manuscripts systematically and comprehensively, making those manuscripts more transparent and reliable. PMID:25844127

  10. A validation framework for microbial forensic methods based on statistical pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P

    2007-11-12

    This report discusses a general approach to validating microbial forensic methods that attempt to simultaneously distinguish among many hypotheses concerning the manufacture of a questioned biological agent sample. It focuses on the concrete example of determining growth medium from chemical or molecular properties of a bacterial agent to illustrate the concepts involved.

  11. Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2013-02-01

    The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversary's task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

  12. Statistical Methodology 7 (2010) 292306 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Dobra, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Methodology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet Modeling uncertainty in macroeconomic growth.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.stamet.2009.11.003 #12;A. Dobra et al. / Statistical Methodology 7

  13. Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  14. Statistical Methodology 5 (2008) 307317 www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet

    E-print Network

    Starck, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    Statistical Methodology 5 (2008) 307­317 www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet SZ and CMB reconstruction reserved. doi:10.1016/j.stamet.2007.10.003 #12;308 J. Bobin et al. / Statistical Methodology 5 (2008) 307

  15. Criminal computer forensics management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray Yeager

    2006-01-01

    This research paper addresses the methodology and approaches to managing criminal computer forensic investigations in a law enforcement environment with management controls, operational controls, and technical controls. Management controls cover policy and standard operating procedures (SOP's), methodology, and guidance. Operational controls cover SOP requirements, seizing evidence, evidence handling, best practices, and education, training and awareness. Technical controls cover acquisition and

  16. Non-Statistical metrics for estimating redundancies in forensic investigations of network intrusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua Ojo Nehinbe

    2011-01-01

    Most statistical methods do not perfectly conform to real cases of cyber crimes. Consequently, using statistical methods to analyze intrusion logs in order to present evidentiary values in courts of law are often refuted as baseless and inadmissible evidences regardless of the input spent to generate the reports and whether the reports are well-grounded evidences or not. Sometimes, complainants are

  17. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, P. G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

  18. Forensic Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, William D; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-07-22

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques. PMID:26070716

  19. Forensic Chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Bell

    2009-01-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is

  20. Forensic Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Academy of Forensic Engineers (1) provides a short definition of forensic engineering as: "the application of the art and science of engineering in matters which are in, or may possibly relate to the jurisprudence system, inclusive of alternative dispute resolution." Specialty areas in forensic engineering include fire investigation, industrial accidents, product liability, traffic accidents, civil engineering and transportation disasters, and environmental systems failures. For example, forensic engineers investigate structural collapses, such as the 2004 Paris Airport collapse described in this article from the Institution of Structural Engineers (2) This website from Materials Evaluation and Engineering, Inc. (3) points out that materials engineering is useful in product failure analysis because many products fail due to materials problems. Given the role forensic engineers play in legal disputes, research in forensic engineering is also a topic on this engineering ethics website (4). Forensic-Evidence.com (5 ) offers The Forensic Center Newsletter, which aims "to stimulate interdisciplinary efforts and research that unite, explore, and advance knowledge in the broad areas of law, medicine, and forensic sciences." This website from the Engineering Forensics Research Institute provides some examples of current research in forensic engineering (6). Finally, Glendale High School offers this Civil Structures Module (7) as a resource for teaching about topics related to forensic engineering, using the 1981 Kansas City Hyatt Regency walkway collapse as an example for analysis.

  1. The use of regression methodology for the compromise of confidential information in statistical databases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Palley; Jeffrey S. Simonoff

    1987-01-01

    A regression methodology based technique can be used to compromise confidentiality in a statistical database. This holds true even when the DBMS prevents application of regression methodology to the database. Existing inference controls, including cell restriction, perturbation, and table restriction approaches, are shown to be generally ineffective against this compromise technique. The effect of incomplete supplemental knowledge on the regression

  2. Projections of Education Statistics to 1990-91. Volume II: Methodological Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Martin M.; Gerald, Debra E.

    This methodological report describes in five chapters the techniques and assumptions that underlie and greatly influence the projections shown in the first volume of "Projections of Education Statistics to 1990-91." Chapter 1 describes the general methodology and assumptions used to produce the projections in Volume I. Chapters 2 through 5 provide…

  3. A simple, statistically based methodology for system tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    System tuning often occurs in response to observed changes in key performance indicators. But, how do we determine if a change is significant Our indicators are random variables. They display a natural'' variation. This presentation reviews techniques that may provide a great deal of assistance in determining the significance of a change -- and more importantly -- when and what to tune. The techniques were developed by Dr. William Shewhart at Bell Labs and refined by internationally known quality specialist W. Edwards Deming. Although founded on statistical theory, the techniques are easy to use, require no formal statistical training, and may help you

  4. Forensic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  5. Embedding Forensic Capabilities into Networks: Addressing Inefficiencies in Digital Forensics Investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara E. Endicott-Popovsky; Deborah A. Frincke

    2006-01-01

    When incident responders collect network forensic data, they must often decide between expending resources collecting forensically sound data, and restoring the network as quickly as possible. Organizational network forensic readiness has emerged as a discipline to support these choices, with suggested checklists, procedures and tools. This paper proposes a life cycle methodology for \\

  6. A Methodological Framework for Statistical Disclosure Limitation of Business Microdata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Burridge; Luisa Franconi; Silvia Polettini; Julian Stander

    This document discusses some strategies for statistical disclosure limitation de- veloped under the CASC project for treatment of business microdata. The deliverable mainly results from the composition of dierent proposals that have been previously or are to be published in the literature by the authors. First, a general framework for microdata pro- tection is sketched, as appears in Polettini, Franconi

  7. Statistical methodology for monitoring radiometric performance of RADARSAT-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. T. Banik; M. Adamovic; S. K. Srivastava

    2000-01-01

    An important objective of RADARSAT-1 is to provide users with geometrically and radiometrically calibrated products. This has been achieved largely through continuous long term monitoring of both point target measures at Canadian transponder sites, and the elevation beam patterns using the Amazon rainforest. This paper describes a statistical method useful for monitoring the radiometric performance of calibrated single beams during

  8. A Statistical, Nonparametric Methodology for Document Degradation Model Validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tapas Kanungo; Robert M. Haralick; Henry S. Baird; Werner Stuetzle; David Madigan

    2000-01-01

    Abstract—Printing, photocopying, and scanning processes degrade the image quality of a document. Statistical models of these degradation processes are crucial for document image understanding research. Models allow us to predict system performance, conduct controlled experiments to study the breakdown points of the systems, create large multilingual data sets with groundtruth for training classifiers, design optimal noise removal algorithms, choose values

  9. A Statistical, Nonparametric Methodology for Document Degradation Model Validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tapas Kanungo; Robert M. Haralick; Henry S. Baird; Werner Stuezle; David Madigan

    1999-01-01

    Printing, photocopying, and scanning processes degrade the image quality of a document. Statistical models of these degradation processes are crucial for document image understanding research. Models allow us to predict system performance, conduct controlled experiments to study the breakdown points of the systems, create large multilingual data sets with groundtruth for training classifiers, design optimal noise removal algorithms, choose values

  10. Methodological difficulties of conducting agroecological studies from a statistical perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Statistical methods for analysing agroecological data might not be able to help agroecologists to solve all of the current problems concerning crop and animal husbandry, but such methods could well help agroecologists to assess, tackle, and resolve several agroecological issues in a more reliable an...

  11. Statistical Methodology 9 (2012) 1931 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    Direct Statistical Methodology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet Astronomical image restoration using Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.stamet.2011.04.003 #12;20 M. Vega et al. / Statistical

  12. Research on statistical methodology to investigate energy consumption in public buildings sector in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuqin Chen; Nianping Li; Jun Guan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find a statistical methodology to investigate the national energy consumption in the public buildings sector in China, in order to look into the actuality of the national energy consumption of public buildings and to provide abundant data for building energy efficiency work. The frame of a national statistical system of energy consumption for

  13. Forensic identification of seal oils using lipid profiles and statistical models.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Margaret H; Seaborn, Gloria T; Schwacke, John H

    2013-03-01

    Seal blubber oils are used as a source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Canada but prohibited in the United States and (FA) European Union. Thus, a reliable method is needed to identify oils originating from seals versus fish. Two lipid profiling methods, fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, were applied with statistical models to discriminate commercial oils and blubber samples harvested from marine fish and seals. Significant differences were observed among FA profiles, and seal samples differed from each of the fish oils (p ? 0.001). FA and TAG profiles were used to discriminate sample groups using a random forest classifier; all samples were classified correctly as seals versus fish using both methods. We propose a two-step method for the accurate identification of seal oils, with preliminary identification based on FA profile analysis and confirmation with TAG profiles. PMID:23126262

  14. Methodology for statistical analysis of SENCAR mouse skin assay data.

    PubMed Central

    Stober, J A

    1986-01-01

    Various response measures and statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data collected in the SENCAR mouse skin assay are examined. The characteristics of the tumor response data do not readily lend themselves to the classical methods for hypothesis testing. The advantages and limitations of conventional methods of analysis and methods recommended in the literature are discussed. Several alternative response measures that were developed specifically to answer the problems inherent in the data collected in the SENCAR bioassay system are described. These measures take into account animal survival, tumor multiplicity, and tumor regression. Statistical methods for the analysis of these measures to test for a positive dose response and a dose-response relationship are discussed. Sample data from representative initiation/promotion studies are used to compare the response measures and methods of analysis. PMID:3780632

  15. Statistical methodologies for the control of dynamic remapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltz, J. H.; Nicol, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Following an initial mapping of a problem onto a multiprocessor machine or computer network, system performance often deteriorates with time. In order to maintain high performance, it may be necessary to remap the problem. The decision to remap must take into account measurements of performance deterioration, the cost of remapping, and the estimated benefits achieved by remapping. We examine the tradeoff between the costs and the benefits of remapping two qualitatively different kinds of problems. One problem assumes that performance deteriorates gradually, the other assumes that performance deteriorates suddenly. We consider a variety of policies for governing when to remap. In order to evaluate these policies, statistical models of problem behaviors are developed. Simulation results are presented which compare simple policies with computationally expensive optimal decision policies; these results demonstrate that for each problem type, the proposed simple policies are effective and robust.

  16. Statistical methodological issues in mapping historical schistosomiasis survey data.

    PubMed

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Hürlimann, Eveline; Raso, Giovanna; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-11-01

    For schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases for which resources for control are still limited, model-based maps are needed for prioritising spatial targeting of control interventions and surveillance of control programmes. Bayesian geostatistical modelling has been widely and effectively used to generate smooth empirical risk maps. In this paper, we review important issues related to the modelling of schistosomiasis risk, including Bayesian computation of large datasets, heterogeneity of historical survey data, stationary and isotropy assumptions and novel approaches for Bayesian geostatistical variable selection. We provide an example of advanced Bayesian geostatistical variable selection based on historical prevalence data of Schistosoma mansoni in Côte d'Ivoire. We include a "parameter expanded normal mixture of inverse-gamma" prior for the regression coefficients, which in turn allows selection of blocks of covariates, particularly categorical variables. The implemented Bayesian geostatistical variable selection provided a rigorous approach for the selection of predictors within a Bayesian geostatistical framework, identified the most important predictors of S. mansoni infection risk and led to a more parsimonious model compared to traditional selection approaches that ignore the spatial structure in the data. In conclusion, statistical advances in Bayesian geostatistical modelling offer unique opportunities to account for important inherent characteristics of the Schistosoma infection, and hence Bayesian geostatistical models can guide the spatial targeting of control interventions. PMID:23648217

  17. Automatic brain tumor detection in MRI: methodology and statistical validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Islam, Mohammad A.; Shaik, Jahangheer; Parra, Carlos; Ogg, Robert

    2005-04-01

    Automated brain tumor segmentation and detection are immensely important in medical diagnostics because it provides information associated to anatomical structures as well as potential abnormal tissue necessary to delineate appropriate surgical planning. In this work, we propose a novel automated brain tumor segmentation technique based on multiresolution texture information that combines fractal Brownian motion (fBm) and wavelet multiresolution analysis. Our wavelet-fractal technique combines the excellent multiresolution localization property of wavelets to texture extraction of fractal. We prove the efficacy of our technique by successfully segmenting pediatric brain MR images (MRIs) from St. Jude Children"s Research Hospital. We use self-organizing map (SOM) as our clustering tool wherein we exploit both pixel intensity and multiresolution texture features to obtain segmented tumor. Our test results show that our technique successfully segments abnormal brain tissues in a set of T1 images. In the next step, we design a classifier using Feed-Forward (FF) neural network to statistically validate the presence of tumor in MRI using both the multiresolution texture and the pixel intensity features. We estimate the corresponding receiver operating curve (ROC) based on the findings of true positive fractions and false positive fractions estimated from our classifier at different threshold values. An ROC, which can be considered as a gold standard to prove the competence of a classifier, is obtained to ascertain the sensitivity and specificity of our classifier. We observe that at threshold 0.4 we achieve true positive value of 1.0 (100%) sacrificing only 0.16 (16%) false positive value for the set of 50 T1 MRI analyzed in this experiment.

  18. The Statistical point of view of Quality: the Lean Six Sigma methodology.

    PubMed

    Bertolaccini, Luca; Viti, Andrea; Terzi, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Six Sigma and Lean are two quality improvement methodologies. The Lean Six Sigma methodology is applicable to repetitive procedures. Therefore, the use of this methodology in the health-care arena has focused mainly on areas of business operations, throughput, and case management and has focused on efficiency outcomes. After the revision of methodology, the paper presents a brief clinical example of the use of Lean Six Sigma as a quality improvement method in the reduction of the complications during and after lobectomies. Using Lean Six Sigma methodology, the multidisciplinary teams could identify multiple modifiable points across the surgical process. These process improvements could be applied to different surgical specialties and could result in a measurement, from statistical point of view, of the surgical quality. PMID:25973253

  19. The Statistical point of view of Quality: the Lean Six Sigma methodology

    PubMed Central

    Viti, Andrea; Terzi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Six Sigma and Lean are two quality improvement methodologies. The Lean Six Sigma methodology is applicable to repetitive procedures. Therefore, the use of this methodology in the health-care arena has focused mainly on areas of business operations, throughput, and case management and has focused on efficiency outcomes. After the revision of methodology, the paper presents a brief clinical example of the use of Lean Six Sigma as a quality improvement method in the reduction of the complications during and after lobectomies. Using Lean Six Sigma methodology, the multidisciplinary teams could identify multiple modifiable points across the surgical process. These process improvements could be applied to different surgical specialties and could result in a measurement, from statistical point of view, of the surgical quality. PMID:25973253

  20. Computer Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William H. Allen

    2005-01-01

    Evidence gathered from computers is increasingly important in criminal investigations, and forensic examination of computer and other digital data has become an indispensable tool for law enforcement, corporate security, and intelligence gathering. This columns presents an overview of the processes and problems related to computer forensics.

  1. Statistical Methodology 5 (2008) 387396 www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet

    E-print Network

    Starck, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    Statistical Methodology 5 (2008) 387­396 www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet Fast Poisson noise removal front matter c 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.stamet.2008.02.004 #12;388 B. Zhang

  2. Statistical Methodology 5 (2008) 299306 www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet

    E-print Network

    Babu, G. Jogesh

    2008-01-01

    Statistical Methodology 5 (2008) 299­306 www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet Object detection in multi-3127/$ - see front matter c 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.stamet.2008.02.003 #12;300 G

  3. Statistical Methodology 20 (2014) 210 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Babu, G. Jogesh

    2014-01-01

    Methodology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet Kesar Singh's contributions to statistical Tel.: +1 814 863 2837; fax: +1 814 863 7114. E-mail address: stamet@stat.psu.edu. 1572-3127/$ ­ see front matter © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stamet.2013

  4. Statistical Methodology 5 (2008) 350360 www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet

    E-print Network

    Micela, Giusi

    2008-01-01

    Statistical Methodology 5 (2008) 350­360 www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet An unsupervised, ensemble matter c 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.stamet.2008.02.008 #12;S.M. Hojnacki et al

  5. Statistical Methodology 4 (2007) 341353 www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet

    E-print Network

    Jammalamadaka, S. Rao

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Methodology 4 (2007) 341­353 www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet The generalized von Mises://www.stat.unibe.ch/gatto (R. Gatto). 1572-3127/$ - see front matter c 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.stamet

  6. Mathematics 363 -Introduction to Statistical Methodology Exam I -October 22, 2009

    E-print Network

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    Name Mathematics 363 - Introduction to Statistical Methodology Exam I - October 22, 2009 1. The Residence Life Recycling and Sustainability Program at the University of Arizona would like to increase Recycling and Sustainability Program. Explain how you can improve their design. 3 #12;4. An urn has 8 green

  7. COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    technology: "the digital revolution". Digital Forensics "the application of proven scientific methodsCOE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM ­ Spring 2013 Digital Forensics · Branches of Digital Forensics · Digital Forensics vs Other Fields · Digital Evidences

  8. Forensic Ballistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Karger

    \\u000a Forensic ballistics is the application of ballistics for forensic purposes. The basis is formed by wound ballistics. Two main\\u000a mechanisms of injury are differentiated: the crush-mechanism resulting in the permanent cavity and the stretch-mechanism resulting\\u000a in the temporary cavity. The missile-tissue interactions such as yawing, deformation, fragmentation, and bone contact are\\u000a explained here and it is shown why the energy

  9. Computer Forensics Today

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly J. Kuchta

    2000-01-01

    When people hear the word “forensics,” it often generates a mental image of the movie series with Jack Klugman as a medical examiner named Quincy. The fact is that there are as many as 25 separate forensic disciplines. They run from forensic accounting to forensic medicine and forensic pathology. The word forensics literally means “a science that deals with the

  10. Integration initiatives for forensic services

    PubMed Central

    ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

    2003-01-01

    Poorly implemented mental health reform policies are often given as reasons for the growth in demands for forensic psychiatric services and the steady increase of mental patients in prison systems. However, in this paper, additional reasons are advanced to explain the growth of forensic psychiatry, such as an expansion in the types of "psychiatric defences" in courts of law; public concerns about violent behaviour attributed to the mentally ill; the community management of paraphilias, especially pedophilia; the development of risk assessment methodologies and the halo of super-specialization. The net result of these developments is that patients who receive a label of "forensic" enter into a mental health ghetto with little connectivity or integration with the general mental health system. The forensic label increases the stigma and decreases opportunities for reintegration and full social recovery. The paper provides guidelines to reverse these trends. PMID:16946932

  11. Statistical Methodology for Maximally HIV-RNA Suppressive Treatments in HIV-Infected Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Yu; Neil Clendeninn; Barry D. Quart; Yueh Chang; Lisa Greenberg

    2000-01-01

    Statistical methods developed for survival analysis (time to event) were applied to treatments which are potent viral load suppressers in HIV-infected subjects. The methodology was applied to HIV-RNA levels obtained from the clinical study AG1343–511 (nelfinavir [NFV] in combination with zidovudine +lamivudine). Utilizing stringent treatment response definitions based on the limit of quantification (LOQ) of two assays, the analyses established

  12. On Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods inspired by Tsallis statistics: Methodology, optimization, and application to atomic clusters

    E-print Network

    Straub, John E.

    On Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods inspired by Tsallis statistics: Methodology a generalized statistical distribution derived from a modification of the Gibbs­Shannon entropy proposed of the phase space may result in distinct time averages. Statistical theories of chemical sys- tems are often

  13. CPR methodology with new steady-state criterion and more accurate statistical treatment of channel bow

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, S. [Axpo AG, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Bieli, R. [Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt AG, CH-5325 Leibstadt (Switzerland); Bergmann, U. C. [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, SE-721 63 Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    An overview is given of existing CPR design criteria and the methods used in BWR reload analysis to evaluate the impact of channel bow on CPR margins. Potential weaknesses in today's methodologies are discussed. Westinghouse in collaboration with KKL and Axpo - operator and owner of the Leibstadt NPP - has developed an optimized CPR methodology based on a new criterion to protect against dryout during normal operation and with a more rigorous treatment of channel bow. The new steady-state criterion is expressed in terms of an upper limit of 0.01 for the dryout failure probability per year. This is considered a meaningful and appropriate criterion that can be directly related to the probabilistic criteria set-up for the analyses of Anticipated Operation Occurrences (AOOs) and accidents. In the Monte Carlo approach a statistical modeling of channel bow and an accurate evaluation of CPR response functions allow the associated CPR penalties to be included directly in the plant SLMCPR and OLMCPR in a best-estimate manner. In this way, the treatment of channel bow is equivalent to all other uncertainties affecting CPR. Emphasis is put on quantifying the statistical distribution of channel bow throughout the core using measurement data. The optimized CPR methodology has been implemented in the Westinghouse Monte Carlo code, McSLAP. The methodology improves the quality of dryout safety assessments by supplying more valuable information and better control of conservatisms in establishing operational limits for CPR. The methodology is demonstrated with application examples from the introduction at KKL. (authors)

  14. Forensic archaeology and anthropology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Oakley

    2005-01-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can\\u000a provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic\\u000a archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical\\u000a organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a

  15. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Böhme; Felix C. Freiling; Thomas Gloe; Matthias Kirchner

    2009-01-01

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field.\\u000a This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both\\u000a multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying\\u000a observer model that defines

  16. Visual culture in forensic science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn Porter

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary Western culture increasingly uses visual images as a method of communicating ideas, meaning and concepts. The reliance on visual information has dramatically increased with the evolution of newer imaging technologies. Images play a critical role within the media, advertising, popular culture, personal memories, medical science and forensic science. This paper will discuss relationships between methodologies used in visual culture

  17. Forensic entomology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Amendt; Roman Krettek; Richard Zehner

    2004-01-01

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques,

  18. Statistical evaluation of metal fill widths for emulated metal fill in parasitic extraction methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J-Me, Teh; Noh, Norlaili Mohd.; Aziz, Zalina Abdul

    2015-05-01

    In the chip industry today, the key goal of a chip development organization is to develop and market chips within a short time frame to gain foothold on market share. This paper proposes a design flow around the area of parasitic extraction to improve the design cycle time. The proposed design flow utilizes the usage of metal fill emulation as opposed to the current flow which performs metal fill insertion directly. By replacing metal fill structures with an emulation methodology in earlier iterations of the design flow, this is targeted to help reduce runtime in fill insertion stage. Statistical design of experiments methodology utilizing the randomized complete block design was used to select an appropriate emulated metal fill width to improve emulation accuracy. The experiment was conducted on test cases of different sizes, ranging from 1000 gates to 21000 gates. The metal width was varied from 1 x minimum metal width to 6 x minimum metal width. Two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least significant difference test were used to analyze the interconnect net capacitance values of the different test cases. This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis for the 45 nm process technology. The recommended emulated metal fill width was found to be 4 x the minimum metal width.

  19. Molecular Forensics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sam Donovan (University of Pittsburgh; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    Can we establish the origin of an infection by looking at DNA? In the 1990â??s, suspicion that HIV in several individuals could be linked to a local dentist was investigated. We will take a closer look at sequence data from this dentist and other HIV positive individuals including patients who believed they were exposed to HIV during dental procedures. * examine viral DNA sequence data as forensic evidence

  20. Microbial Forensics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Abigail Salyers (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; )

    2004-01-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how microbial forensics is a relatively new field that can help in solving cases such as: bioterrorism attacks, medical negligence, and outbreaks of foodborne diseases. The paper is suitable for undergraduate and beyond levels. Excerpts from the paper are provided in a companion article at http://www.actionbioscience.org/newfrontiers/salyersarticle.html, suitable for middle school and lower division high school reading.

  1. Xbox Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul K. Burke; Philip Craiger

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft's Xbox game console is little more than a low-end personal computer; with a small amount of effort it can be modified to run additional operating systems, enabling it to store gigabytes worth of non-game-related files in addition to allowing it to run various computer services. Little has been published, however, on the proper forensic procedures to determine whether an

  2. Forensic Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang Li; Jennifer Seberry

    2003-01-01

    \\u000a Technology is rapidly changing the speed and manner in which people interact with each other and with the world. As technology\\u000a helps criminals to operate more easily and quickly across borders, so law enforcement capability must continuously improve\\u000a to keep one step ahead. Computer forensics has become a specialized and accepted investigative technique with its own tools\\u000a and legal precedents

  3. Demonstration of a software design and statistical analysis methodology with application to patient outcomes data sets

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Charles; Conners, Steve; Warren, Christopher; Miller, Robert; Court, Laurence; Popple, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With emergence of clinical outcomes databases as tools utilized routinely within institutions, comes need for software tools to support automated statistical analysis of these large data sets and intrainstitutional exchange from independent federated databases to support data pooling. In this paper, the authors present a design approach and analysis methodology that addresses both issues. Methods: A software application was constructed to automate analysis of patient outcomes data using a wide range of statistical metrics, by combining use of C#.Net and R code. The accuracy and speed of the code was evaluated using benchmark data sets. Results: The approach provides data needed to evaluate combinations of statistical measurements for ability to identify patterns of interest in the data. Through application of the tools to a benchmark data set for dose-response threshold and to SBRT lung data sets, an algorithm was developed that uses receiver operator characteristic curves to identify a threshold value and combines use of contingency tables, Fisher exact tests, Welch t-tests, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to filter the large data set to identify values demonstrating dose-response. Kullback-Leibler divergences were used to provide additional confirmation. Conclusions: The work demonstrates the viability of the design approach and the software tool for analysis of large data sets. PMID:24320426

  4. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

  5. Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Budowle; Randall Murch; Ranajit Chakraborty

    2005-01-01

    Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics—microbial forensics—has been created, which is focused

  6. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Tija Zarkovi?; Muzini?, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to the patient. Forensic treatment service effectiveness appears to be associated with individual case management and approach including psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and occupational therapy in order to achieve optimal rehabilitation, prevention of recidivism and stability in social functioning of the patient in the community. PMID:19794370

  7. Methodologies for statistical behavioral modeling and simulation of complex analog integrated circuits 

    E-print Network

    Swidzinski, Jan

    1997-01-01

    transistors, statistical i-nodeling techniques for integrated circuits, statistical behavioral modeling of analog functional blocks, and finally statistical behavioral system level modeling and simulation. A full statistical model for the behavioral parameters...

  8. Forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2010-01-01

    Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations, in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine, in road and workplace safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly targeted include amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine and the opiates, but can be any other illicit substance or almost any over-the-counter or prescribed drug, as well as poisons available to the community. The discipline requires high level skills in analytical techniques with a solid knowledge of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Modern techniques rely heavily on immunoassay screening analyses and mass spectrometry (MS) for confirmatory analyses using either high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography as the separation technique. Tandem MS has become more and more popular compared to single-stage MS. It is essential that analytical systems are fully validated and fit for the purpose and the assay batches are monitored with quality controls. External proficiency programs monitor both the assay and the personnel performing the work. For a laboratory to perform optimally, it is vital that the circumstances and context of the case are known and the laboratory understands the limitations of the analytical systems used, including drug stability. Drugs and poisons can change concentration postmortem due to poor or unequal quality of blood and other specimens, anaerobic metabolism and redistribution. The latter provides the largest handicap in the interpretation of postmortem results. PMID:20358697

  9. Bridging biometrics and forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa Ann

    2008-02-01

    This paper is a survey on biometrics and forensics, especially on the techniques and applications of face recognition in forensics. This paper describes the differences and connections between biometrics and forensics, and bridges each other by formulating the conditions when biometrics can be applied in forensics. Under these conditions, face recognition, as a non-intrusive and non-contact biometrics, is discussed in detail as an illustration of applying biometrics in forensics. The discussion on face recognition covers different approaches, feature extractions, and decision procedures. The advantages and limitations of biometrics in forensic applications are also addressed.

  10. Methodological Issues in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Risk of Determining Absolute Risk Through Statistical Models

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Stavrinos, Vassilis

    2006-01-01

    During the past years there has been increasing interest in the development of cardiovascular disease functions that predict future events at individual level. However, this effort has not been so far very successful, since several investigators have reported large differences in the estimation of the absolute risk among different populations. For example, it seems that predictive models that have been derived from US or north European populations overestimate the incidence of cardiovascular events in south European and Japanese populations. A potential explanation could be attributed to several factors such as geographical, cultural, social, behavioral, as well as genetic variations between the investigated populations in addition to various methodological, statistical, issues relating to the estimation of these predictive models. Based on current literature it can be concluded that, while risk prediction of future cardiovascular events is a useful tool and might be valuable in controlling the burden of the disease in a population, further work is required to improve the accuracy of the present predictive models. PMID:17326336

  11. Integrating Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  12. Computer Forensics in Forensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean Peisert; Matt Bishop; Keith Marzullo

    2008-01-01

    Dierent users apply computer forensic systems, models, and terminology in very dierent ways. They often make incompatible assumptions and reach dierent conclusions about the validity and accuracy of the methods they use to log, audit, and present forensic data. In fact, it can be hard to say who, if anyone is right. We present several forensic systems and discuss situations

  13. Forensic entomology in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Amendt; Roman Krettek; Constanze Niess; Richard Zehner; Hansjürgen Bratzke

    2000-01-01

    Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project ‘Forensic Entomology’ was started in Frankfurt\\/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is

  14. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. PMID:25498939

  15. Methodologies for statistical behavioral modeling and simulation of complex analog integrated circuits

    E-print Network

    Swidzinski, Jan

    1997-01-01

    for Modeling Uncertainty in IC Design B. Statistical Parameter Variations C. Statistical Process/Device Modeling D. Statistical Behavioral Modeling . E. Thesis Outline F. Author's Contributions 2 4 5 7 9 10 IH MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL MODELING... Transistor: A Case Study g 1 1. Statistical CMOS Transistor gl ? Modeling Results E. Statistical CMOS Transistor: A Case Study g 2 . 12 12 13 15 15 16 19 22 23 24 24 25 26 26 26 27 28 29 30 32 33 39 vus CHAPTER Page F. Summary IV...

  16. Development of reload safety analysis methodology and code package uncertainty analysis: amplification of statistical bases. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.

    1982-12-01

    NP-2577 presented the development of a statistical methodology proposed for use with Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Reactor Analysis Support Package (RASP). A subset of RASP, consisting of neutronics (ARMP), systems analysis (RETRAN), and thermal-hydraulics (VIPRE) codes, was considered in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) applications. This report supplements NP-2577 in amplifying the discussion of the statistical techniques suggested for use with RASP. In addition, further details of the classification of the uncertainty components are presented. Recommendations are made for future prototypical computations using RASP, which involve an effort expanded to include monitoring and protection system setpoint analyses.

  17. COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    technology: "the digital revolution". Digital Forensics "the application of proven scientific methodsCOE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM - Fall 2012 (T121) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Outline · Forensic Science (Forensics) ­ Classic (Analog) vs Digital

  18. Forensic evaluations in psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Chadda, R. K.

    2013-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an important subspecialty of psychiatry. Forensic psychiatrists play an important role in the society in assisting the judiciary in many complicated cases. In India, forensic psychiatry work is undertaken mostly by the general psychiatrists. Forensic psychiatric assessments are often associated with an element of anxiety or fear for a young psychiatrist. The present paper aims at familiarizing the readers with forensic evaluation in various situations so that they are able to carry out the assessments in real-life situations comfortably. Various steps of forensic assessment in different situations are discussed in the background of real-life cases. Assessment areas include criminal responsibility, fitness to plead, issue of guardianship, assessment of mental status, testamentary capacity and others. The paper gives some general guidelines on forensic psychiatric assessment in practical situations in our country. The readers are advised to refer to the standard textbooks and the Indian law for further details. PMID:24459315

  19. Projections of Education Statistics to 1992-93. Methodological Report with Detailed Projection Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerald, Debra E.

    This document describes the techniques and assumptions used by the National Center for Education Statistics to prepare the statistical projections used in the center's reports, and it presents many of the resulting projections in tabular form. The report covers projections in key areas of educational statistics, including enrollments, high school…

  20. Digital Image Forensics via Intrinsic Fingerprints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashwin Swaminathan; Min Wu; K. J. Ray Liu

    2008-01-01

    Digital imaging has experienced tremendous growth in recent decades, and digital camera images have been used in a growing number of applications. With such increasing popularity and the availability of low-cost image editing software, the integrity of digital image content can no longer be taken for granted. This paper introduces a new methodology for forensic analysis of digital camera images.

  1. Optimization of Input Pattern for Semi Non-Intrusive Component Forensics of Digital Cameras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashwin Swaminathan; Min wu; K. J. Ray Liu

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of semi non-intrusive component forensics and proposes a methodology to identify the algorithms and parameters employed by various processing modules inside a digital camera. The proposed analysis techniques assume the availability of the camera; and introduce a forensic methodology to estimate the parameters of the color interpolation and white balancing algorithms employed in cameras. We

  2. Teaching forensic medicine in the University of Porto.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Santos, Agostinho

    2014-07-01

    The University of Porto (UP) provides education in Forensic Medicine (FM) through the 1st, 2nd and 3rd cycle of studies, post-graduation and continuing education courses. This education is related to forensic pathology, clinical forensic medicine (including forensic psychology and psychiatry), forensic chemistry and toxicology, forensic genetics and biology, and criminalistics. With this work we intent to reflect on how we are currently teaching FM in the UP, at all levels of university graduation. We will present our models, regarding the educational objectives, curricular program and teaching/learning methodologies of each cycle of studies as well as in post-graduate and continuing education courses. Historically, and besides related administratively to the Ministry of Justice, the Portuguese Medico-Legal Institutes (since 1918) and more recently the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF) also have educational and research responsibilities. Thus, it lends space and cooperates with academic institutions and this contribution, namely regarding teaching forensic sciences in Portugal has been judged as an example for other Countries. This contribution is so important that in UP, the Department of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of the Faculty of Medicine (FMUP) shares, until now, the same physical space with North Branch of the INMLCF, which represents a notorious advantage, since it makes possible the "learning by doing". PMID:24931860

  3. Toward a general ontology for digital forensic disciplines.

    PubMed

    Karie, Nickson M; Venter, Hein S

    2014-09-01

    Ontologies are widely used in different disciplines as a technique for representing and reasoning about domain knowledge. However, despite the widespread ontology-related research activities and applications in different disciplines, the development of ontologies and ontology research activities is still wanting in digital forensics. This paper therefore presents the case for establishing an ontology for digital forensic disciplines. Such an ontology would enable better categorization of the digital forensic disciplines, as well as assist in the development of methodologies and specifications that can offer direction in different areas of digital forensics. This includes such areas as professional specialization, certifications, development of digital forensic tools, curricula, and educational materials. In addition, the ontology presented in this paper can be used, for example, to better organize the digital forensic domain knowledge and explicitly describe the discipline's semantics in a common way. Finally, this paper is meant to spark discussions and further research on an internationally agreed ontological distinction of the digital forensic disciplines. Digital forensic disciplines ontology is a novel approach toward organizing the digital forensic domain knowledge and constitutes the main contribution of this paper. PMID:24931294

  4. Statistical Methodology 7 (2010) 351365 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Raftery, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Methodology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet Inference from multiple imputation for missing front matter © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.stamet.2010.01.003 #12;352 R

  5. Statistical Methodology 6 (2009) 280289 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Jammalamadaka, S. Rao

    2009-01-01

    Methodology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet A general censoring scheme for circular data S Jammalamadaka). 1572-3127/$ ­ see front matter © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.stamet

  6. Statistical Methodology 7 (2010) 187209 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Gelman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Methodology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet Bridges between deterministic and probabilistic). 1572-3127/$ ­ see front matter © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.stamet.2009

  7. Statistical Methodology 7 (2010) 240253 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Dobra, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Methodology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet The mode oriented stochastic search (MOSS © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.stamet.2009.04.002 #12;A. Dobra, H. Massam

  8. Using Statistics to Catch Cheaters: Methodological and Legal Issues for Student Personnel Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, David J.; Hecht, Jeffrey B.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the use of probabilistic methodologies for identifying cheaters on classroom multiple-choice examinations concludes that imperfections in the detection techniques, coupled with legal issues, necessarily limit the applicability and utility of these strategies. (Author)

  9. Computational Forensics: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrin Franke; Sargur N. Srihari

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive abilities of human expertise modeled using computational methods offer several new possibilities for the forensic\\u000a sciences. They include three areas: providing tools for use by the forensic examiner, establishing a scientific basis for\\u000a the expertise, and providing an alternate opinion on a case. This paper gives a brief overview of computational forensics\\u000a with a focus on those disciplines that

  10. Court TV: Forensic Files

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This companion Web site to the Court TV series _Forensic Files_ offers a virtual forensics lab where visitors can learn more about the different techniques experts use to "put together the pieces of the crime puzzle." Each room of the virtual 3-story lab is dedicated to a different forensic technique, including DNA evidence, bite marks, blood splatter, time of death, and more. Each room offers an explanatory video presentation, as well as an annotated slide show or video of forensics scientists at work.

  11. Statistical Methodology 8 (2011) 4255 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Ji

    2011-01-01

    Methodology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/stamet Variable selection for qualitative interactions L@umich.edu (S.A. Murphy). 1572-3127/$ ­ see front matter © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.stamet

  12. Investigating Moderator Hypotheses in Aging Research: Statistical, Methodological, and Conceptual Difficulties with Comparing Separate Regressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsom, Jason T.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Schulz, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F., III

    2003-01-01

    Many topics in aging research address questions about group differences in prediction. Such questions can be viewed in terms of interaction or moderator effects, and use of appropriate methods to test these hypotheses are necessary to arrive at accurate conclusions about age differences. This article discusses the conceptual, methodological, and…

  13. STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE TYPES OF OUTCOMES IN NONLINEAR THRESHOLD MODELS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple outcomes are often measured on each experimental unit in toxicology experiments. These multiple observations typically imply the existence of correlation between endpoints, and a statistical analysis that incorporates it may result in improved inference. When both disc...

  14. A statistical optimization methodology for practical integrated circuit design for quality and manufacturability

    E-print Network

    Pastor, Curtis Lemay

    1997-01-01

    Characterization of Integrated Circuits 1. Designable Parameters . '2. Random Parameters . Circuit Simulator Variables 4. Performance Parameters B. Propagation of Variance Optimization . 1. Design Space 2. The Simplex 3. Capability It'Ieasures 4. Objective... conform to the assumptions and limitations of the optimization methodology. In this case, we will use a Propagation of Variance method employing a simplex search algorithm. Preliminary results and data will be used to identify the feasibility...

  15. Multimedia Forensics and Security

    E-print Network

    Autrusseau, Florent

    Multimedia Forensics and Security Edited by: Chang-Tsun Li, University of Warwick, UK 13-digit ISBN in the emerging field of multimedia forensics and security by tackling challenging issues such as digital wa. Increasing amounts of digital image, video, and music have created numerous information security issues

  16. Forensic medicine in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Nurul Islam; Mohammed Nasimul Islam

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the current medico-legal practice and future plan to improve the medico-legal service of Bangladesh which is rooted in the remnants of British medical jurisprudence. It includes clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. In Bangladesh all unnatural deaths are to be reported at the nearest police station and an appointed police officer should visit the scene

  17. Grant Title: METHODOLOGY, MEASUREMENT, AND STATISTICS Funding Opportunity Number: NSF 12-510.

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    , Behavioral, and Economic Sciences that supports the development of innovative analytical and statistical-510. Agency/Department: National Science Foundation; Directorate for Social, Behavioral & Economic Sciences in theory, and have potential utility for multiple fields within the social and behavioral sciences. As part

  18. Statistical shape analysis of tuber roots: a methodological case study on laser scanned

    E-print Network

    Rumpf, Martin

    of the input shapes a terrestrial laser scanner was used. In an exemplary case study the model was applied there is a need for correctly describing the 3D architecture of a plant, a crop, or a harvested produce, fast vision tool for 3D statistical shape analysis and show as a case study the application of this tool

  19. Improving Crime Statistics by “Correcting” for System Characteristics: A Methodological Note

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Hackler; Dianne Dagger

    1993-01-01

    Crime rates are influenced by the way various agencies screen out cases at different stages of the recording procedures. This leads to lack of comparability of statistics from one jurisdiction to another. However, the degree to which the police screen cases can be estimated, if one accepts certain assumptions. This can yield a “recording index” which could be used as

  20. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic

  1. Microbial Forensics: Applications in Bioterrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priyabrata Pattnaik; Asha Mukul Jana

    2005-01-01

    Microbial forensics is a new discipline combining microbiology and forensic science. Unlike public health investigations, microbial forensics goes further to associate the source of the causative agent with a specific individual or group. Microbial forensics measures molecular variations between related microbial strains and their use to infer the origin, relationship, or transmission route of a particular microbial strain. Several advanced

  2. First Digit Law and Its Application to Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yun Q.

    Digital data forensics, which gathers evidence of data composition, origin, and history, is crucial in our digital world. Although this new research field is still in its infancy stage, it has started to attract increasing attention from the multimedia-security research community. This lecture addresses the first digit law and its applications to digital forensics. First, the Benford and generalized Benford laws, referred to as first digit law, are introduced. Then, the application of first digit law to detection of JPEG compression history for a given BMP image and detection of double JPEG compressions are presented. Finally, applying first digit law to detection of double MPEG video compressions is discussed. It is expected that the first digit law may play an active role in other task of digital forensics. The lesson learned is that statistical models play an important role in digital forensics and for a specific forensic task different models may provide different performance.

  3. Statistical investigation of Kluyveromyces lactis cells permeabilization with ethanol by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Janaína T; Rocha, Pollyana F; Converti, Attilio; Passos, Flávia M L; Minim, Luis A; Sampaio, Fábio C

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to select the optimal operating conditions to permeabilize Kluyveromyces lactis cells using ethanol as a solvent as an alternative to cell disruption and extraction. Cell permeabilization was carried out by a non-mechanical method consisting of chemical treatment with ethanol, and the results were expressed as ?-galactosidase activity. Experiments were conducted under different conditions of ethanol concentration, treatment time and temperature according to a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), and the collected results were then worked out by response surface methodology (RSM). Cell permeabilization was improved by an increase in ethanol concentration and simultaneous decreases in the incubation temperature and treatment time. Such an approach allowed us to identify an optimal range of the independent variables within which the ?-galactosidase activity was optimized. A maximum permeabilization of 2,816 mmol L(-1) oNP min(-1) g(-1) was obtained by treating cells with 75.0% v/v of ethanol at 20.0 °C for 15.0 min. The proposed methodology resulted to be effective and suited for K. lactis cells permeabilization at a lab-scale and promises to be of possible interest for future applications mainly in the food industry. PMID:24688494

  4. Statistical Analysis of Metal Chelating Activity of Centella asiatica and Erythroxylum cuneatum Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Mohd Salim, R J; Adenan, M I; Amid, A; Jauri, M H; Sued, A S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the extraction parameters and the metal chelating activity of Centella asiatica (CA) and Erythroxylum cuneatum (EC). The response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters of methanolic extract of CA and EC with respect to the metal chelating activity. For CA, Run 17 gave optimum chelating activity with IC50 = 0.93?mg/mL at an extraction temperature of 25°C, speed of agitation at 200?rpm, ratio of plant material to solvent at 1?g?:?45?mL and extraction time at 1.5 hour. As for EC, Run 13 with 60°C, 200?rpm, 1?g?:?35?mL and 1 hour had metal chelating activity at IC50 = 0.3817?mg/mL. Both optimized extracts were further partitioned using a solvent system to evaluate the fraction responsible for the chelating activity of the plants. The hexane fraction of CA showed potential activity with chelating activity at IC50 = 0.090 and the ethyl acetate fraction of EC had IC50 = 0.120?mg/mL. The study showed that the response surface methodology helped to reduce the extraction time, temperature and agitation and subsequently improve the chelating activity of the plants in comparison to the conventional method. PMID:23533781

  5. Statistical Analysis of Metal Chelating Activity of Centella asiatica and Erythroxylum cuneatum Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Salim, R. J.; Adenan, M. I.; Amid, A.; Jauri, M. H.; Sued, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the extraction parameters and the metal chelating activity of Centella asiatica (CA) and Erythroxylum cuneatum (EC). The response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters of methanolic extract of CA and EC with respect to the metal chelating activity. For CA, Run 17 gave optimum chelating activity with IC50 = 0.93?mg/mL at an extraction temperature of 25°C, speed of agitation at 200?rpm, ratio of plant material to solvent at 1?g?:?45?mL and extraction time at 1.5 hour. As for EC, Run 13 with 60°C, 200?rpm, 1?g?:?35?mL and 1 hour had metal chelating activity at IC50 = 0.3817?mg/mL. Both optimized extracts were further partitioned using a solvent system to evaluate the fraction responsible for the chelating activity of the plants. The hexane fraction of CA showed potential activity with chelating activity at IC50 = 0.090 and the ethyl acetate fraction of EC had IC50 = 0.120?mg/mL. The study showed that the response surface methodology helped to reduce the extraction time, temperature and agitation and subsequently improve the chelating activity of the plants in comparison to the conventional method. PMID:23533781

  6. Statistical investigation of Kluyveromyces lactis cells permeabilization with ethanol by response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Janaína T.; Rocha, Pollyana F.; Converti, Attilio; Passos, Flávia M.L.; Minim, Luis A.; Sampaio, Fábio C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to select the optimal operating conditions to permeabilize Kluyveromyces lactis cells using ethanol as a solvent as an alternative to cell disruption and extraction. Cell permeabilization was carried out by a non-mechanical method consisting of chemical treatment with ethanol, and the results were expressed as ?-galactosidase activity. Experiments were conducted under different conditions of ethanol concentration, treatment time and temperature according to a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), and the collected results were then worked out by response surface methodology (RSM). Cell permeabilization was improved by an increase in ethanol concentration and simultaneous decreases in the incubation temperature and treatment time. Such an approach allowed us to identify an optimal range of the independent variables within which the ?-galactosidase activity was optimized. A maximum permeabilization of 2,816 mmol L?1 oNP min?1 g?1 was obtained by treating cells with 75.0% v/v of ethanol at 20.0 °C for 15.0 min. The proposed methodology resulted to be effective and suited for K. lactis cells permeabilization at a lab-scale and promises to be of possible interest for future applications mainly in the food industry. PMID:24688494

  7. Manipulating measurement scales in medical statistical analysis and data mining: A review of methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Marateb, Hamid Reza; Mansourian, Marjan; Adibi, Peyman; Farina, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Background: selecting the correct statistical test and data mining method depends highly on the measurement scale of data, type of variables, and purpose of the analysis. Different measurement scales are studied in details and statistical comparison, modeling, and data mining methods are studied based upon using several medical examples. We have presented two ordinal–variables clustering examples, as more challenging variable in analysis, using Wisconsin Breast Cancer Data (WBCD). Ordinal-to-Interval scale conversion example: a breast cancer database of nine 10-level ordinal variables for 683 patients was analyzed by two ordinal-scale clustering methods. The performance of the clustering methods was assessed by comparison with the gold standard groups of malignant and benign cases that had been identified by clinical tests. Results: the sensitivity and accuracy of the two clustering methods were 98% and 96%, respectively. Their specificity was comparable. Conclusion: by using appropriate clustering algorithm based on the measurement scale of the variables in the study, high performance is granted. Moreover, descriptive and inferential statistics in addition to modeling approach must be selected based on the scale of the variables. PMID:24672565

  8. The forensic psychiatric report.

    PubMed

    Norko, Michael A; Buchanan, Mar Alec

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a written forensic report is a core component of forensic practice, demonstrating the evaluator's skill in conducting the evaluation and in communicating relevant information to the legal audience in an effective manner. Although communication skills and quality of written documentation are important in clinical psychiatry generally, they form the sine qua non of successful forensic work, which consists in telling complex stories in a coherent and compelling fashion. High quality forensic reports require careful preparation from the earliest stages of work on a case. They generally follow an expected structure, which permits the evaluator to provide all the data necessary to form a carefully reasoned opinion that addresses the legal questions posed. Formats and content of reports vary according to the type of case and the circumstances of the evaluation and so require flexibility within customary frameworks. The style and quality of writing are critical to the crafting of forensic reports. The effects on legal decision-makers of various approaches to the presentation of information in reports has not been studied empirically, but guidance from experienced forensic psychiatrists is available. There is a small body of research on quality improvement in forensic writing, and further empiric study is warranted. PMID:25603453

  9. The imported forensic expert

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C.P.

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  10. National Security, Forensics and Mobile Communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Naccache

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a There are nearly 1.5 billion handset users in the world. As the recent attacks in London illustrate, this proliferation of\\u000a inexpensive mobile phones provides criminals and terrorists with flexible communication means. In this talk we will describe\\u000a the forensic methodology used for analysing SIM cards and handsets within the French legal context. We will describe specific\\u000a technical problems applicable to

  11. STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING TRANSPORT PARAMETERS: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS TO ONE-DOMENSIONAL ADVECTIVE-DISPERSIVE SYSTEMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Brian J.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation nonlinear multiple-regression methodology for estimating parameters that characterize the transport of contaminants is developed and demonstrated. Finite difference containment transport simulation is combined with a nonlinear weighted least squares multiple-regression procedure. The technique provides optimal parameter estimates and gives statistics for assessing the reliability of these estimates under certain general assumptions about the distributions of the random measurement errors. Monte Carlo analysis is used to estimate parameter reliability for a hypothetical homogeneous soil column for which concentration data contain large random measurement errors. The value of data collected spatially versus data collected temporally was investigated for estimation of velocity, dispersion coefficient, effective porosity, first-order decay rate, and zero-order production. The use of spatial data gave estimates that were 2-3 times more reliable than estimates based on temporal data for all parameters except velocity. (Estimated author abstract) Refs.

  12. Statistical methodology used in analyses of data from DOE experimental animal studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Griffith, W.C.; Carnes, B.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-07-01

    This document describes many of the statistical approaches that are being used to analyze data from life-span animal studies conducted under the Department of Energy experimental radiobiology program. The methods, which are intended to be as informative as possible for assessing human health risks, account for time-related factors and competing risks, and are reasonably comparable to methods used for analyzing data from human epidemiologic studies of persons exposed to radiation. The methods described in this report model the hazard, or age-specific risk, as a function of dose and other factors such as dose rate, age at risk, and time since exposure. Both models in which the radiation risk is expressed relative to the baseline risk and models in which this risk is expressed in absolute terms are formulated. Both parametric and non-parametric models for baseline risks are considered, and several dose-response functions are suggested. Tumors in animals are not always the cause of death but instead may be found incidentally to death from other causes. This report gives detailed attention to the context of observation of tumors, and emphasizes an approach that makes use of information provided by the pathologist on whether tumors are fatal or incidental. Special cases are those in which all tumors are observed in a fatal context or in which all tumors are observed in an incidental context. Maximum likelihood theory provides the basis for fitting the suggested models and for making statistical inferences regarding parameters of these models. Approaches in which observations are grouped by intervals of time and possibly other factors are emphasized. This approach is based on iteratively reweighted least squares and uses Poisson weights for tumors considered to be fatal and binomial weights for tumors considered to be incidental.

  13. A Statistical Methodology for Detecting and Monitoring Change in Forest Ecosystems Using Remotely Sensed Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, R. T.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.; Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.

    2011-12-01

    Variations in vegetation phenology, the annual temporal pattern of leaf growth and senescence, can be a strong indicator of ecological change or disturbance. However, phenology is also strongly influenced by seasonal, interannual, and long-term trends in climate, making identification of changes in forest ecosystems a challenge. Forest ecosystems are vulnerable to extreme weather events, insect and disease attacks, wildfire, harvesting, and other land use change. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a remotely sensed measure of greenness, provides a proxy for phenology. NDVI for the conterminous United States (CONUS) derived from the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 250 m resolution was used in this study to develop phenological signatures of ecological regimes called phenoregions. By applying a quantitative data mining technique to the NDVI measurements for every eight days over the entire MODIS record, annual maps of phenoregions were developed. This geospatiotemporal cluster analysis technique employs high performance computing resources, enabling analysis of such very large data sets. This technique produces a prescribed number of prototypical phenological states to which every location belongs in any year. Analysis of the shifts among phenological states yields information about responses to interannual climate variability and, more importantly, changes in ecosystem health due to disturbances. Moreover, a large change in the phenological states occupied by a single location over time indicates a significant disturbance or ecological shift. This methodology has been applied for identification of various forest disturbance events, including wildfire, tree mortality due to Mountain Pine Beetle, and other insect infestation and diseases, as well as extreme events like storms and hurricanes in the U.S. Presented will be results from analysis of phenological state dynamics, along with disturbance and validation data.

  14. Gold is going forensic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed A. Mohamed

    Not long ago, forensic science was mainly focused on fingerprint detection. With the advance in science and technology, forensics\\u000a has become an increasingly interesting scientific field to explore, and gold is playing an increasingly important role in\\u000a this area. Gold compounds and gold nanoparticles contribute to fingerprint detection and illicit drug testing. Fingerprints\\u000a can be detected on diverse suspected articles

  15. Professionalism in Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Alastair D.; Konstadopoulou, Anastasia

    The paper seeks to address the need to consider issues regarding professionalism in computer forensics in order to allow the discipline to develop and to ensure the credibility of the discipline from the differing perspectives of practitioners, the criminal justice system and in the eyes of the public. There is a need to examine and develop professionalism in computer forensics in order to promote the discipline and maintain the credibility of the discipline.

  16. Methodologic and statistical approaches to studying human fertility and environmental exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Tingen, Candace; Stanford, Joseph B; Dunson, David B

    2004-01-01

    Although there has been growing concern about the effects of environmental exposures on human fertility, standard epidemiologic study designs may not collect sufficient data to identify subtle effects while properly adjusting for confounding. In particular, results from conventional time to pregnancy studies can be driven by the many sources of bias inherent in these studies. By prospectively collecting detailed records of menstrual bleeding, occurrences of intercourse, and a marker of ovulation day in each menstrual cycle, precise information on exposure effects can be obtained, adjusting for many of the primary sources of bias. This article provides an overview of the different types of study designs, focusing on the data required, the practical advantages and disadvantages of each design, and the statistical methods required to take full advantage of the available data. We conclude that detailed prospective studies allowing inferences on day-specific probabilities of conception should be considered as the gold standard for studying the effects of environmental exposures on fertility. PMID:14698936

  17. Internet and forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamakura, Reddy P.

    1997-02-01

    The Internet is a very powerful and inexpensive tool that was created for the free distribution of knowledge and information. The Internet is a learning tool, a research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a journal with instant publication, a help desk, and a newspaper/journal with current information. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet also will be a live classroom and everyday conference. Forensic scientists, laboratories and colleges should make use of information already available on the Internet. They also should actively participate and contribute. Very few forensic scientists and laboratories have made their presence felt by setting up their home pages/web pages. But, there is tremendous growth during the past year. Immense benefits from Internet to forensic community are discussed along with the author's personal experience. Creating on-line searchable data bases in all specialties of forensic science is an urgent need. Leading forensic journals should take a lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. On line electronic publishing, collaborative research/paper publishing or editing is easy, fast, economical and convenient through the use of the Internet. Creation of Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Internet also can be used to give training, re-training or advanced training to students/forensic scientists.

  18. Curriculum and course materials for a forensic DNA biology course.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Kelly M

    2014-01-01

    The Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) requires accredited programs offer a "coherent curriculum" to ensure each student gains a "thorough grounding of the natural…sciences." Part of this curriculum includes completion of a minimum of 15 semester-hours forensic science coursework, nine of which can involve a class in forensic DNA biology. Departments that have obtained or are pursuing FEPAC accreditation can meet this requirement by offering a stand-alone forensic DNA biology course; however, materials necessary to instruct students are often homegrown and not standardized; in addition, until recently, the community lacked commercially available books, lab manuals, and teaching materials, and many of the best pedagogical resources were scattered across various peer-reviewed journals. The curriculum discussed below is an attempt to synthesize this disparate information, and although certainly not the only acceptable methodology, the below discussion represents "a way" for synthesizing and aggregating this information into a cohesive, comprehensive whole. PMID:24591042

  19. Forensic trace DNA: a review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

  20. Bringing science to digital forensics with standardized forensic corpora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simson Garfinkel; Paul Farrell; Vassil Roussev; George Dinolt

    2009-01-01

    Progress in computer forensics research has been limited by the lack of a standardized data sets—corpora—that are available for research purposes. We explain why corpora are needed to further forensic research, present a taxonomy for describing corpora, and announce the availability of several forensic data sets.

  1. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Promotion Students Choosing a Career Colleges & Universities Young Forensic Scientists Forum CSI Summer Camp Meetings AAFS 68th Annual Scientific Meeting — Las Vegas, NV - 2016 Forensic Science Educational Conferences IAFS Meeting International Conferences International ...

  2. Distinguishing between forensic science and forensic pseudoscience: testing of validity and reliability, and approaches to forensic voice comparison.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

    2014-05-01

    In this paper it is argued that one should not attempt to directly assess whether a forensic analysis technique is scientifically acceptable. Rather one should first specify what one considers to be appropriate principles governing acceptable practice, then consider any particular approach in light of those principles. This paper focuses on one principle: the validity and reliability of an approach should be empirically tested under conditions reflecting those of the case under investigation using test data drawn from the relevant population. Versions of this principle have been key elements in several reports on forensic science, including forensic voice comparison, published over the last four-and-a-half decades. The aural-spectrographic approach to forensic voice comparison (also known as "voiceprint" or "voicegram" examination) and the currently widely practiced auditory-acoustic-phonetic approach are considered in light of this principle (these two approaches do not appear to be mutually exclusive). Approaches based on data, quantitative measurements, and statistical models are also considered in light of this principle. PMID:24796954

  3. Statistical Laboratory & Department of Statistics

    E-print Network

    Statistical Laboratory & Department of Statistics Annual Report July 1, 2005 to December 31, 2006...............................................33 Statistical Computing Section ......................................34 CSSM and statistical methodology in the nutritional sciences. We were also very pleased to secure a permanent lecturer

  4. Face Recognition in Forensic Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole A. Spaun

    \\u000a In this chapter, we will first explain the current means of comparing faces used by forensic science laboratories. It is a\\u000a nonautomated process performed by forensic examiners and has been referred to as facial “photographic comparison” or forensic\\u000a facial identification. Next, we will outline the innovative ways in which facial recognition systems are being used by the\\u000a forensic community. Lastly,

  5. Establishing network computer forensics classes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise L. Soe; Dan Manson; Marcy Wright

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the deployment of computer forensics classes at undergraduate and graduate levels in a shared classroom\\/lab environment. The course content combined broad-based computer forensics theory and practice with hands-on forensics tools, including networked EnCase Enterprise forensics software. Our discussion covers teaching and learning issues from the perspectives of the instructors and the graduate and undergraduate students. Lessons learned

  6. Enacting forensics in homicide investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Williams; Jason Weetman

    2012-01-01

    This article, co-authored by an academic and a forensic practitioner, describes some of the gaps in current knowledge of the utility of forensic science support to homicide investigations. It also reflects on the experience of a recent pilot study of the use of forensic science in homicide investigations in an English police force to argue for new kinds of research

  7. A Formalization of Digital Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan Leigland; Axel W. Krings

    2004-01-01

    Forensic investigative procedures are used in the case of an intrusion into a networked computer system to detect the scope or nature of the attack. In many cases, the forensic procedures employed are constructed in an informal manner that can impede the effectiveness or integrity of the investigation. We propose a formal model for analyzing and constructing forensic procedures, showing

  8. Forensics on a Shoestring Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

  9. Statistical Optimization of Ultraviolet Irradiate Conditions for Vitamin D2 Synthesis in Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Jie; Ahn, Byung-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum vitamin D2 synthesis conditions in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). Ultraviolet B (UV-B) was selected as the most efficient irradiation source for the preliminary experiment, in addition to the levels of three independent variables, which included ambient temperature (25–45°C), exposure time (40–120 min), and irradiation intensity (0.6–1.2 W/m2). The statistical analysis indicated that, for the range which was studied, irradiation intensity was the most critical factor that affected vitamin D2 synthesis in oyster mushrooms. Under optimal conditions (ambient temperature of 28.16°C, UV-B intensity of 1.14 W/m2, and exposure time of 94.28 min), the experimental vitamin D2 content of 239.67 µg/g (dry weight) was in very good agreement with the predicted value of 245.49 µg/g, which verified the practicability of this strategy. Compared to fresh mushrooms, the lyophilized mushroom powder can synthesize remarkably higher level of vitamin D2 (498.10 µg/g) within much shorter UV-B exposure time (10 min), and thus should receive attention from the food processing industry. PMID:24736742

  10. Blurriness in Live Forensics: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoldi, Antonio; Gubian, Paolo

    The Live Forensics discipline aims at answering basic questions related to a digital crime, which usually involves a computer-based system. The investigation should be carried out with the very goal to establish which processes were running, when they were started and by whom, what specific activities those processes were doing and the state of active network connections. Besides, a set of tools needs to be launched on the running system by altering, as a consequence of the Locard’s exchange principle [2], the system’s memory. All the methodologies for the live forensics field proposed until now have a basic, albeit important, weakness, which is the inability to quantify the perturbation, or blurriness, of the system’s memory of the investigated computer. This is the very last goal of this paper: to provide a set of guidelines which can be effectively used for measuring the uncertainty of the collected volatile memory on a live system being investigated.

  11. Photography in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Henham, A P; Lee, K A

    1994-01-01

    Forensic photography, although similar to medical photography, has different aims, and different objectives. The main consideration is that the images are taken primarily for legal reasons, therefore the results must be accurate and detailed, and of use in court. The photographer must have an understanding of the technical requirements as well as the related medical and legal requirements. Autopsy photography must produce the minimum delay to the autopsy as well as being extremely reliable, as the images are not repeatable. This requires a combination of easily portable equipment and additional technical support. A good photograph clearly demonstrates the required information and minimizes distortion and misleading information. Factors to consider include identification, backgrounds, lighting, colour, scale, perspective, orientation and cropping. The requirements for the effective photographic documentation of forensic subjects are discussed, with reference to the current practices of a specialist forensic pathology service in South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. PMID:8034901

  12. Research in forensic odontology.

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    Forensic odontology has established itself as an important and often indispensable science in medicolegal matters and in particular in identification of the dead. Much of its expertise is drawn from clinical experience based on basic research and advances in knowledge in dentistry in general. There has also been, particularly during the past two decades, an increasing body of research in specifically forensic dental matters and these studies form the subject of this review. Progress in this field, as in others, will depend upon development of training pathways and research facilities in our dental schools. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:7044254

  13. Forensic discrimination of photocopy and printer toners. III. Multivariate statistics applied to scanning electron microscopy and pyrolysis gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Egan; Randolph C. Galipo; Brian K. Kochanowski; Stephen L. Morgan; Edward G. Bartick; Mark L. Miller; Dennis C. Ward; Robert F. Mothershead

    2003-01-01

    Copy toner samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy with X-ray dispersive analysis (SEM–EDX) and pyrolysis gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (Py–GC\\/MS). Principal component and cluster analysis of SEM data for 166 copy toner samples established 13 statistically different subgroups, with the presence or absence of a ferrite base being a major division. When toners were compared for which both SEM and

  14. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  15. Investigative Profiling with Computer Forensic Log Data and Association Rules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamas Abraham; Olivier Y. De Vel

    2002-01-01

    Investigative profiling is an important activity in computer forensics that can narrow the search for one or more computer perpetrators. Data mining is a technique that has produced good results in providing insight into large volumes of data. This paper describes how the association rule data mining technique may be employed to generate profiles from log data and the methodology

  16. Digital image forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fridrich; Min Wu; K. J. Ray Liu; Jessica Fridrich

    2009-01-01

    The article explains how photo-response nonuniformity (PRNU) of imaging sensors can be used for a variety of important digital forensic tasks, such as device identification, device linking, recovery of processing history, and detection of digital forgeries. The PRNU is an intrinsic property of all digital imaging sensors due to slight variations among individual pixels in their ability to convert photons

  17. Forensic medicine in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Muhammad Nurul; Islam, Mohammed Nasimul

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the current medico-legal practice and future plan to improve the medico-legal service of Bangladesh which is rooted in the remnants of British medical jurisprudence. It includes clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. In Bangladesh all unnatural deaths are to be reported at the nearest police station and an appointed police officer should visit the scene of crime for investigation and to arrange postmortem if required. The forensic services of the country are delivered partly by academic staffs of Government Medical Colleges and the rest by the Civil Surgeons. Sometimes, residential medical officers in the district hospitals perform the medico-legal work. Most of them have no forensic qualifications except a long exposure in the medico-legal field. Currently academic and professional postgraduate courses are available. The chemical examiner's laboratory is situated at Dhaka with the facility of quantitative tests only. The Government of Bangladesh is trying to standardize the existing system. A Workshop on medico-legal services has been organized regularly by The Medico-legal Society of Bangladesh. A DNA profiling laboratory at the Dhaka Medical College is in the process of being set up. Such progress will be a milestone in the development of the medico-legal service in Bangladesh. However, with a few exceptions, teaching and training facilities are still lacking. PMID:12935633

  18. Manual of Forensic Odontology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Griffiths

    1997-01-01

    Edited by C Michael Bowers and Gary L Belt. American Society of Forensic Odontology, Colorado Springs, third edition, 1996; 376 pp. soft cover; US$79.00 plus US$6.00 for handling direct from PO Box 669, Colorado Springs CO 80901-0669; ISBN 0 9650223 4 X.

  19. Summer Conference: Research in Forensic Psychiatry

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    1st Summer Conference: Research in Forensic Psychiatry The University of Regensburg Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit Head: Prof. Dr. med. Michael Osterheider Universitätsstrasse 84 D-93053 Conference: Research in Forensic Psychiatry in Regensburg. The conference schedule comprises nearly fifty

  20. Statistical Optimization of Process Parameters for Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Triethanolamine-Based Esterquats Using Response Surface Methodology in 2-Liter Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Basri, Mahiran; Kassim, Anuar; Kuang Abdullah, Dzulkefly; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa

    2013-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed production of triethanolamine-based esterquat by esterification of oleic acid (OA) with triethanolamine (TEA) in n-hexane was performed in 2?L stirred-tank reactor. A set of experiments was designed by central composite design to process modeling and statistically evaluate the findings. Five independent process variables, including enzyme amount, reaction time, reaction temperature, substrates molar ratio of OA to TEA, and agitation speed, were studied under the given conditions designed by Design Expert software. Experimental data were examined for normality test before data processing stage and skewness and kurtosis indices were determined. The mathematical model developed was found to be adequate and statistically accurate to predict the optimum conversion of product. Response surface methodology with central composite design gave the best performance in this study, and the methodology as a whole has been proven to be adequate for the design and optimization of the enzymatic process. PMID:24324389

  1. Statistical methodology for the evaluation of vaccine efficacy in a phase III multi-centre trial of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been much debate about the appropriate statistical methodology for the evaluation of malaria field studies and the challenges in interpreting data arising from these trials. Methods The present paper describes, for a pivotal phase III efficacy of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine, the methods of the statistical analysis and the rationale for their selection. The methods used to estimate efficacy of the primary course of vaccination, and of a booster dose, in preventing clinical episodes of uncomplicated and severe malaria, and to determine the duration of protection, are described. The interpretation of various measures of efficacy in terms of the potential public health impact of the vaccine is discussed. Conclusions The methodology selected to analyse the clinical trial must be scientifically sound, acceptable to regulatory authorities and meaningful to those responsible for malaria control and public health policy. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00866619 PMID:21816030

  2. A hybrid Land Cover Dataset for Russia: a new methodology for merging statistics, remote sensing and in-situ information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepaschenko, D.; McCallum, I.; Shvidenko, A.; Kraxner, F.; Fritz, S.

    2009-04-01

    There is a critical need for accurate land cover information for resource assessment, biophysical modeling, greenhouse gas studies, and for estimating possible terrestrial responses and feedbacks to climate change. However, practically all existing land cover datasets have quite a high level of uncertainty and suffer from a lack of important details that does not allow for relevant parameterization, e.g., data derived from different forest inventories. The objective of this study is to develop a methodology in order to create a hybrid land cover dataset at the level which would satisfy requirements of the verified terrestrial biota full greenhouse gas account (Shvidenko et al., 2008) for large regions i.e. Russia. Such requirements necessitate a detailed quantification of land classes (e.g., for forests - dominant species, age, growing stock, net primary production, etc.) with additional information on uncertainties of the major biometric and ecological parameters in the range of 10-20% and a confidence interval of around 0.9. The approach taken here allows the integration of different datasets to explore synergies and in particular the merging and harmonization of land and forest inventories, ecological monitoring, remote sensing data and in-situ information. The following datasets have been integrated: Remote sensing: Global Land Cover 2000 (Fritz et al., 2003), Vegetation Continuous Fields (Hansen et al., 2002), Vegetation Fire (Sukhinin, 2007), Regional land cover (Schmullius et al., 2005); GIS: Soil 1:2.5 Mio (Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute, 1996), Administrative Regions 1:2.5 Mio, Vegetation 1:4 Mio, Bioclimatic Zones 1:4 Mio (Stolbovoi & McCallum, 2002), Forest Enterprises 1:2.5 Mio, Rivers/Lakes and Roads/Railways 1:1 Mio (IIASA's data base); Inventories and statistics: State Land Account (FARSC RF, 2006), State Forest Account - SFA (FFS RF, 2003), Disturbances in forests (FFS RF, 2006). The resulting hybrid land cover dataset at 1-km resolution comprises the following classes: Forest (each grid links to the SFA database, which contains 86,613 records); Agriculture (5 classes, parameterized by 89 administrative units); Wetlands (8 classes, parameterized by 83 zone/region units); Open Woodland, Burnt area; Shrub/grassland (50 classes, parameterized by 300 zone/region units); Water; Unproductive area. This study has demonstrated the ability to produce a highly detailed (both spatially and thematically) land cover dataset over Russia. Future efforts include further validation of the hybrid land cover dataset for Russia, and its use for assessment of the terrestrial biota full greenhouse gas budget across Russia. The methodology proposed in this study could be applied at the global level. Results of such an undertaking would however be highly dependent upon the quality of the available ground data. The implementation of the hybrid land cover dataset was undertaken in a way that it can be regularly updated based on new ground data and remote sensing products (ie. MODIS).

  3. Statistical analysis of biomechanical properties of the adult skull and age-related structural changes by sex in a Japanese forensic sample.

    PubMed

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Takano, Tachio; Koizumi, Yoshinori; Makino, Yohsuke; Yajima, Daisuke; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Inokuchi, Go; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Otsuka, Katsura; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Odo, Yuriko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the biomechanical properties of the adult human skull and the structural changes that occur with age in both sexes. The heads of 94 Japanese cadavers (54 male cadavers, 40 female cadavers) autopsied in our department were used in this research. A total of 376 cranial samples, four from each skull, were collected. Sample fracture load was measured by a bending test. A statistically significant negative correlation between the sample fracture load and cadaver age was found. This indicates that the stiffness of cranial bones in Japanese individuals decreases with age, and the risk of skull fracture thus probably increases with age. Prior to the bending test, the sample mass, the sample thickness, the ratio of the sample thickness to cadaver stature (ST/CS), and the sample density were measured and calculated. Significant negative correlations between cadaver age and sample thickness, ST/CS, and the sample density were observed only among the female samples. Computerized tomographic (CT) images of 358 cranial samples were available. The computed tomography value (CT value) of cancellous bone which refers to a quantitative scale for describing radiodensity, cancellous bone thickness and cortical bone thickness were measured and calculated. Significant negative correlation between cadaver age and the CT value or cortical bone thickness was observed only among the female samples. These findings suggest that the skull is substantially affected by decreased bone metabolism resulting from osteoporosis. Therefore, osteoporosis prevention and treatment may increase cranial stiffness and reinforce the skull structure, leading to a decrease in the risk of skull fractures. PMID:24183343

  4. Forensic aspects of insulin.

    PubMed

    Marks, Vincent; Wark, Gwen

    2013-09-01

    Insulin or, more appropriately, hypoglycaemia gives rise to a wide variety of interactions with the law. In most cases its role is not seriously open to question occasionally however, it is. This is especially true of situations in which insulin is suspected of having been used inappropriately or maliciously. The major differences between investigation of hypoglycaemia in clinical and forensic situation are that in the latter the history is often unreliable, appropriate samples for analysis were not collected, preserved or labelled correctly and analytical results are likely to be challenged on grounds of specificity, accuracy and interpretation. Immunoassay remains the mainstay of clinical investigation of hypoglycaemia but likely to become displaced by mass-spectrometry in the forensic situation especially now that human insulin is being replaced by synthetic insulin analogues for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:23751444

  5. Forensic radiology in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Manigandan, T; Sumathy, C; Elumalai, M; Sathasivasubramanian, S; Kannan, A

    2015-04-01

    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster. PMID:26015728

  6. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Manigandan, T.; Sumathy, C.; Elumalai, M.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.; Kannan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster. PMID:26015728

  7. The rhetoric of therapy in forensic psychiatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jean Daniel

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results obtained from a qualitative research study conducted in a forensic psychiatric setting and to explore the dual role associated with being both "agents of care and agents of social control." Following the narratives provided by nurses working in this field, the analysis that follows will problematize the rhetoric of therapy in forensic psychiatric nursing. In order to support the analysis, this article comprises four sections. The first section will briefly review the study's methodological considerations. Using a combination of Foucault and Goffman's work, the second section provides an empirical contextualization of correctional environments and their effects on nursing care. The third section explains the effects of having a contradictory mandate of care and custody from Festinger's (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance. Lastly, the fourth section provides a critique of disciplinary interventions in forensic psychiatric nursing, as it is explained by the participants. PMID:23176358

  8. Tattoos: forensic considerations.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-12-01

    Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations. PMID:23846907

  9. Forensic Data Carving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povar, Digambar; Bhadran, V. K.

    File or data carving is a term used in the field of Cyber forensics. Cyber forensics is the process of acquisition, authentication, analysis and documentation of evidence extracted from and/or contained in a computer system, computer network and digital media. Extracting data (file) out of undifferentiated blocks (raw data) is called as carving. Identifying and recovering files based on analysis of file formats is known as file carving. In Cyber Forensics, carving is a helpful technique in finding hidden or deleted files from digital media. A file can be hidden in areas like lost clusters, unallocated clusters and slack space of the disk or digital media. To use this method of extraction, a file should have a standard file signature called a file header (start of the file). A search is performed to locate the file header and continued until the file footer (end of the file) is reached. The data between these two points will be extracted and analyzed to validate the file. The extraction algorithm uses different methods of carving depending on the file formats.

  10. Forensic Management Academy Spring 2011 Tentative Schedule Forensic Management Academy

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Bob Waggoner 8:00 ­ 11:30 Session XI How to Develop and Manage a Federal Grant Max Houck 11:30 ­ 1Forensic Management Academy ­ Spring 2011 Tentative Schedule Forensic Management Academy Spring Thursday April 14th Friday April 15th 11:00 ­ 11:30 Registration 8:30 - 11:30 Session II Developing

  11. COE589: Digital Forensics Research in Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    computing) ­ imaging ­ carving ­ history timeline ­ ... COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem 12 #12;4. Live Acquisition, magazines, and Internet is not research ­ Does not contribution to new knowledge ­ requires comprehension Almulhem 13 #12;5. Media Types · Computer forensics evolved into Digital Forensics ­ devices such as phones

  12. Forensic standardizations in torture and death in custody investigations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Torture and death in custody have incurred rapid development as juridical subject in recent years in Europe, with the implementation of the European Convention of Human Rights. Evaluation of sufferance severity, which is the consequence of pathology with chronic evolution, the predictability of decompensation of a subclinical pathology, and translating these medical information on a scale measuring the severity of detention consequences, are all challenges for the modern detention healthcare system, in which most allegations of torture are due to lack of appropriate medical treatment administered to inmates. Where ethics are concerned, the main data difficulties are addressed in ethical conflicts between officials and experts of the parties and also between experts and judiciary officials who handle cases of torture or death in detention; this is why standardization is very important in such cases both in clinical expertise and in autopsies or exhumations. Discussions: We must improve the forensic expertise methodology, the process of collecting data with statistical purposes, and sound evaluation criteria, all in a strong connection with the need for a balanced legal framework applied in the case of civil compensations granted after death in custody, and the biunique relation between medico-legal expertise and case investigation has to be standardized. PMID:24265878

  13. Tutorial on Forensic Speech Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Eriksson

    how our present knowledge can be applied in forensic fieldwork. In this part of the tutorial, the focus will be on human voice recognition and discrimination and how factors like memory, familiarity, language, disguise etc. influence these abilities. Lies and deception are age-old problems in forensic investigations. It is therefore not surprising that many people have tried to find ways

  14. An overview of computer forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Dixon

    2005-01-01

    The core goals of computer forensics are fairly straightforward: the preservation, identification, extraction, documentation, and interpretation of computer data. There are several policies and procedures that need to be out-lined and defined with regard to computer forensics are analyzed in this paper. Data must be able to be retrieved and analyzed without it is damaged. The authenticity of the data

  15. Computer forensic timeline visualization tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Olsson; Martin Boldt

    2009-01-01

    Computer Forensics is mainly about investigating crime where computers have been involved. There are many tools available to aid the investigator with this task. We have created a prototype of a new type of tool called CyberForensic TimeLab where all evidence is indexed by their time variables and plotted on a timeline. We believed that this way of visualizing the

  16. A new methodology for detection of counterfeit Viagra ® and Cialis ® tablets by image processing and statistical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio R. Jung; Rafael S. Ortiz; Renata Limberger; Paulo Mayorga

    This paper proposes a new approach for automatic classification of counterfeit Viagra® and Cialis® tablets using image processing and statistical analysis. A high resolution VSC 5000 is used for image acquisition in a controlled environment, and the combination of a thresholding technique with morphological operators is used to segment the tablet from the background. A statistical model based on the

  17. Encoded evidence: DNA in forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Jobling, Mark A; Gill, Peter

    2004-10-01

    Sherlock Holmes said "it has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important", but never imagined that such a little thing, the DNA molecule, could become perhaps the most powerful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Twenty years after the development of DNA fingerprinting, forensic DNA analysis is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects and the identification of victims of crimes, accidents and disasters, driving the development of innovative methods in molecular genetics, statistics and the use of massive intelligence databases. PMID:15510165

  18. A Simple Cost-Effective Framework for iPhone Forensic Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Iftekhar Husain; R. Sridhar; I. Baggili

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Apple iPhone has made significant impact on the society both as a handheld computing device and as a cellular phone. Due to\\u000a the unique hardware system as well as storage structure, iPhone has already attracted the forensic community in digital investigation\\u000a of the device. Currently available commercial products and methodologies for iPhone forensics are somewhat expensive, complex\\u000a and often require

  19. Digital forensics research: The next 10 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simson L. Garfinkel

    2010-01-01

    Today’s Golden Age of computer forensics is quickly coming to an end. Without a clear strategy for enabling research efforts that build upon one another, forensic research will fall behind the market, tools will become increasingly obsolete, and law enforcement, military and other users of computer forensics products will be unable to rely on the results of forensic analysis. This

  20. Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

  1. Computer Forensic: An Issue of Definitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Mccombie; Matt Warren

    2003-01-01

    The paper investigates what computer forensic is at the most basic level. The concept of Computer Forensic is thought to be widely known, but in essence is it? At the most fundamental level can computer forensics be defined. This paper will focus on a variety of approaches to actually defining computer forensics.

  2. Computer Forensics and Its Future Trend

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WANG Ling; QIAN Hua-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Computer forensics is the technology field that attempts to prove thorough, efficient, and secure means to investigate computer crime. Computer evidence must be authentic, accurate, complete and convincing to juries. In this paper, the stages of computer forensics are presented, and the theories and the realization of the forensics software are described. An example about forensic practice is also given.

  3. The state of nuclear forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  4. Nanoparticles in forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantu, Antonio A.

    2008-10-01

    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  5. Exploiting Statistical Methodologies and Controlled Vocabularies for Prioritized Functional Analysis of Genomic Experiments: the StRAnGER Web Application

    PubMed Central

    Chatziioannou, Aristotelis A.; Moulos, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    StRAnGER is a web application for the automated statistical analysis of annotated gene profiling experiments, exploiting controlled biological vocabularies, like the Gene Ontology or the KEGG pathways terms. Starting from annotated lists of differentially expressed genes and gene enrichment scores, regarding the terms of each vocabulary, StRAnGER repartitions and reorders the initial distribution of terms to define a new distribution of elements. Each element pools terms holding the same enrichment score. The new distribution thus derived, is reordered in a decreasing order to the right, according to the observation score of the elements, while elements with the same score, are sorted again in a decreasing order of their enrichment scores. By applying bootstrapping techniques, a corrected measure of the statistical significance of these elements is derived, which enables the selection of terms mapped to these elements, unambiguously associated with respective significant gene sets. The selected terms are immunized against the bias infiltrating statistical enrichment analyses, producing technically very high statistical scores, due to the finite nature of the data population. Besides their high statistical score, another selection criterion for the terms is the number of their members, something that incurs a biological prioritization in line with a Systems Biology context. The output derived, represents a detailed ranked list of significant terms, which constitute a starting point for further functional analysis. PMID:21293737

  6. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  7. Breaking the Performance Wall: The Case for Distributed Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Richard III, Golden G.

    Breaking the Performance Wall: The Case for Distributed Digital Forensics Vassil Roussev Golden G soon completely overwhelm digital forensics investigators attempting investigations using a single the level of sophistication of digital forensics analysis be- cause single forensics workstations

  8. A Methodology for Determining Statistical Performance Compliance for Airborne Doppler Radar with Forward-Looking Turbulence Detection Capability. Second Corrected Copy Issued May 23, 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.; Buck, Bill K.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the research developed and presented in this document was to statistically assess turbulence hazard detection performance employing airborne pulse Doppler radar systems. The FAA certification methodology for forward looking airborne turbulence radars will require estimating the probabilities of missed and false hazard indications under operational conditions. Analytical approaches must be used due to the near impossibility of obtaining sufficient statistics experimentally. This report describes an end-to-end analytical technique for estimating these probabilities for Enhanced Turbulence (E-Turb) Radar systems under noise-limited conditions, for a variety of aircraft types, as defined in FAA TSO-C134. This technique provides for one means, but not the only means, by which an applicant can demonstrate compliance to the FAA directed ATDS Working Group performance requirements. Turbulence hazard algorithms were developed that derived predictive estimates of aircraft hazards from basic radar observables. These algorithms were designed to prevent false turbulence indications while accurately predicting areas of elevated turbulence risks to aircraft, passengers, and crew; and were successfully flight tested on a NASA B757-200 and a Delta Air Lines B737-800. Application of this defined methodology for calculating the probability of missed and false hazard indications taking into account the effect of the various algorithms used, is demonstrated for representative transport aircraft and radar performance characteristics.

  9. Alternative methodologies in studies on business failure: do they produce better results than the classical statistical methods?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SOFIE BALCAEN; HUBERT OOGHE

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 35 years, the topic of company failure prediction has developed to a major research domain in corporate finance. Academic researchers from all over the world have been developing a gigantic number of corporate failure prediction models, based on various types of modelling techniques. Besides the classical cross-sectional statistical methods, which have produced numerous failure prediction models, researchers

  10. An innovative methodological approach in the frame of Marine Strategy Framework Directive: a statistical model based on ship detection SAR data for monitoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Pieralice, Francesca; Proietti, Raffaele; La Valle, Paola; Giorgi, Giordano; Mazzolena, Marco; Taramelli, Andrea; Nicoletti, Luisa

    2014-12-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) is focused on protection, preservation and restoration of the marine environment by achieving and maintaining Good Environmental Status (GES) by 2020. Within this context, this paper presents a methodological approach for a fast and repeatable monitoring that allows quantitative assessment of seabed abrasion pressure due to recreational boat anchoring. The methodology consists of two steps: a semi-automatic procedure based on an algorithm for the ship detection in SAR imagery and a statistical model to obtain maps of spatial and temporal distribution density of anchored boats. Ship detection processing has been performed on 36 ASAR VV-pol images of Liguria test site, for the three years 2008, 2009 and 2010. Starting from the pointwise distribution layer produced by ship detection in imagery, boats points have been subdivided into 4 areas where a constant distribution density has been assumed for the entire period 2008-2010. In the future, this methodology will be applied also to higher resolution data of Sentinel-1 mission, specifically designed for the operational needs of the European Programme Copernicus. PMID:25096752

  11. UT Knoxville: Forensic Anthropology Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Consider this: A hunter finds what she believes is a human skull deep in the woods. She calls the police. Who do the police call? A forensic anthropologist, of course, who comes to the site and examines the skull to determine whether the skull is, indeed, human, whether it is male or female, and how old the person was upon death. The Forensic Anthropology Center at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville trains forensic anthropologists for just this sort of work. Start with the homepage, where you can read up on the department, started in 1987 by Dr. William M. Bass. Next, follow a quick link to What is Forensic Anthropology? for an informative overview of the field. Also of interest, are the Short Courses, News, and, for those feeling philanthropic, Body Donation sections of the site.

  12. Handwriting Classification in Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansell, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Considers systems for the classification of handwriting features, discusses computer storage of information about handwriting features, and summarizes recent studies that give an idea of the range of forensic handwriting research. (GT)

  13. Passive-blind Image Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tian-Tsong Ng; Shih-Fu Chang; Ching-Yung Lin; Qibin Sun

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, we will review the research area of passive-blind image forensics, i.e., an form of image analysis for flnding out the condition of an image without relying on pre-registration or pre-embedded information. We consider the two main functions of passive-blind image forensics as be- ing image forgery detection and image source identiflcation. In this vein, we provide a

  14. [Investigations into post-traumatic complications in the practice of forensic medical expertise of living people].

    PubMed

    Berezovski?, D P; Shatov, D V; Kovalev, B V; Dodokhova, M A; Panenko, E S; Kornienko, I V

    2012-01-01

    Statistical data on the incidence and spectrum of thrombotic complications presented in this paper are based on the materials collected by the Department of Expertise of Living Subjects, Rostov Regional Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise, during 2004-2010. The cases of interest were analysed by age, sex, time of injury, character of traumatic impact, and time of surgical intervention. It is concluded that such cases require forensic medical expertise by standardized methods. PMID:23405461

  15. Issues in forensic voice.

    PubMed

    Hollien, Harry; Huntley Bahr, Ruth; Harnsberger, James D

    2014-03-01

    The following article provides a general review of an area that can be referred to as Forensic Voice. Its goals will be outlined and that discussion will be followed by a description of its major elements. Considered are (1) the processing and analysis of spoken utterances, (2) distorted speech, (3) enhancement of speech intelligibility (re: surveillance and other recordings), (4) transcripts, (5) authentication of recordings, (6) speaker identification, and (7) the detection of deception, intoxication, and emotions in speech. Stress in speech and the psychological stress evaluation systems (that some individuals attempt to use as lie detectors) also will be considered. Points of entry will be suggested for individuals with the kinds of backgrounds possessed by professionals already working in the voice area. PMID:24176301

  16. Forensic document analysis using scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Douglas K.

    2009-05-01

    The authentication and identification of the source of a printed document(s) can be important in forensic investigations involving a wide range of fraudulent materials, including counterfeit currency, travel and identity documents, business and personal checks, money orders, prescription labels, travelers checks, medical records, financial documents and threatening correspondence. The physical and chemical characterization of document materials - including paper, writing inks and printed media - is becoming increasingly relevant for law enforcement agencies, with the availability of a wide variety of sophisticated commercial printers and copiers which are capable of producing fraudulent documents of extremely high print quality, rendering these difficult to distinguish from genuine documents. This paper describes various applications and analytical methodologies using scanning electron miscoscopy/energy dispersive (x-ray) spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and related technologies for the characterization of fraudulent documents, and illustrates how their morphological and chemical profiles can be compared to (1) authenticate and (2) link forensic documents with a common source(s) in their production history.

  17. Forensic hash for multimedia information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  18. [Applications of forensic DNA technology in Gynecologic practice].

    PubMed

    Hochmeister, M

    1994-01-01

    Genetic characterization of biological material in criminal cases and for parentage testing at the DNA level has gained wide acceptance. This paper describes the basic methodology of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and the methodology based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RFLP typing is performed in all cases where larger quantities of DNA are available because of its high discrimination power. PCR is used when only limited quantities of DNA or degraded DNA are available. There is a lot of applicabilities for the gynecologist, primarily in the investigation of sexual assault cases and in parentage testing of newborns, which is shown by several examples of forensic cases. PMID:7819776

  19. Atom counting in HAADF STEM using a statistical model-based approach: methodology, possibilities, and inherent limitations.

    PubMed

    De Backer, A; Martinez, G T; Rosenauer, A; Van Aert, S

    2013-11-01

    In the present paper, a statistical model-based method to count the number of atoms of monotype crystalline nanostructures from high resolution high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images is discussed in detail together with a thorough study on the possibilities and inherent limitations. In order to count the number of atoms, it is assumed that the total scattered intensity scales with the number of atoms per atom column. These intensities are quantitatively determined using model-based statistical parameter estimation theory. The distribution describing the probability that intensity values are generated by atomic columns containing a specific number of atoms is inferred on the basis of the experimental scattered intensities. Finally, the number of atoms per atom column is quantified using this estimated probability distribution. The number of atom columns available in the observed STEM image, the number of components in the estimated probability distribution, the width of the components of the probability distribution, and the typical shape of a criterion to assess the number of components in the probability distribution directly affect the accuracy and precision with which the number of atoms in a particular atom column can be estimated. It is shown that single atom sensitivity is feasible taking the latter aspects into consideration. PMID:23759467

  20. CIS08052: Computer Forensic Investigation Game

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marius Costea; Jill Slay; Ben Turnbull

    Take one part computer forensics analysis software, add one hard drive image disc, a dash of police work, and mix in with an interactive gaming experience and you have Max's Computer Forensics Investigations Game .

  1. [Benzodiazepines and forensic aspects].

    PubMed

    Michel, L; Lang, J-P

    2003-01-01

    Adverse effects of benzodiazepines are well known since the first one was used in 1958 (chlordiazepoxide). The literature collects study-cases or rarely controlled studies concerning side effects or paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines. They mostly described drowsiness and behavioral disinhibition, including increased well-being feeling but also hostility, rage access with feeling of invulnerability, serious crimes and sometimes homicides. Delusional, manic, confusional or depressive states are also pointed out. Rate for aggressive behaviour is 0.3 to 0.7% but distinction should be done between accidental or "idiosyncratic" reaction and voluntary sought disinhibition, clearly more frequent. No benzodiazepine has any specificity for these adverse effects but pharmacology, doses, associated drugs (or alcohol) and psychopathology interact to produce hazardous psychic states. Pharmacology: GABA induces a decrease in serotonin compound and vigilance. Pharmacokinetic: first dose effect or over-dose effect, short half-life, lipophily, affinity, digestive absorption, active metabolites interact. Psychopathology: age, alcohol association, psychological status (high initial level of hostility, impulsivity, frustration, personality disorder and depressive status). External conditions: chronic illness, affective and professional frustrations, physical or psychic exhaustion contribute also. Some benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, diazepam, clorazepate, triazolam, alprazolam, lorazepam, for example) are more often concerned for pharmacokinetics characteristics but also prescription habits. Forensic aspects should be considered in case of homicide. Especially, reality of benzodiazepines consumption and awareness of the potential paradoxical reaction should be precisely evaluated. Special focus on voluntary induced disinhibition has to be done for forensic considerations. Relationship but also crime facilitations are sometimes consciously sought. Some benzodiazepines have already been identified for this use: flunitrazepam, clorazepate but also triazolam and temazepam in UK, alprazolam in USA. Flunitrazepam is prohibited in USA and considered as narcotics in France. A Swedish study showed that violent acts were more frequent and serious in juvenile offenders taking flunitrazepam/alcohol than other young offenders staying in the same correctional institution. They recommended classification of flunitrazepam as narcotic. A study from Belgium with drug addicts concluded in the same way and asked for an increased information of professionals and a more efficient control of the delivery. Before concluding to idiosyncratic effect, and then possibly to penal irresponsibility, the forensic approach should consider: firstly the reality of the benzodiazepines absorption and implication in committing violence (urine test, chronology, amnesia); secondly, the association of unusual behaviour and converging circumstances (pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, psychopathology, external conditions); thirdly the consumer's knowledge of the disinhibition effect. In our prison practice, we have to be particularly cautious as population frequently associates personality disorder, drug addiction and high level of frustration related to penitential context. Special information should be given to inmates when benzodiazepines are prescribed, but more extensively, a preventive strategy should be adopted in general population. PMID:15029082

  2. A Fuzzy Expert System for Network Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-sun Kim; Minsoo Kim; Bong-Nam Noh

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a The field of digital forensic science emerged as a response to the growth of a computer crime. Digital forensics is the art\\u000a of discovering and retrieving information about a crime in such a way to make digital evidence admissible in court. Especially,\\u000a network forensics is digital forensic science in networked environments. The more network traffic, the harder network analyzing.\\u000a Therefore,

  3. Computer Based Forensics -A Case Study -

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Computer Based Forensics - A Case Study - U.S Support To The U.N. Capt Kevin J. Ziese AF&D Directions s Generate Potential COTS Opportunities s Improve Overall Forensics Process #12;Computer Forensics, CHEMICAL, AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES #12;Valid Tools & Techniques TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES THAT CAN BE APPLIED

  4. Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

  5. Building theoretical underpinnings for digital forensics research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Mocas

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: In order for technical research in digital forensics to progress a cohesive set ofelectronic forensics characteristics must be specied. To date, although the needfor such a framework has been expressed, with a few exceptions, clear unifyingcharacteristics have not been well laid out. We begin the process of formulating aframework for digital forensics research by identifying fundamental properties andabstractions.

  6. Framework for a Digital Forensic Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kohn; Martin S. Olivier; Jan H. P. Eloff

    2006-01-01

    Computer Forensics is essential for the successful prosecution of computer criminals. For a forensic investigation to be performed successfully there are a number of important steps that have to be considered and taken. The aim of this paper is to define a clear, step-by-step framework for the collection of evidence suitable for presentation in a court of law. Existing forensic

  7. Digital Video Forensics Submitted to the Faculty

    E-print Network

    Farid, Hany

    Digital Video Forensics A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment;#12;Abstract We present new forensic tools that are capable of detecting traces of tampering in digital video first set of forensic tools for authenticating digital video. ii #12;Acknowledgments First, I would like

  8. Evaluating Commercial Counter-Forensic Tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Geiger

    2005-01-01

    Digital forensic analysts may find their task compl icated by any of more than a dozen commercial software packages designed to irretrieva bly erase files and records of computer activity. These counter-forensic tools hav e been used to eliminate evidence in criminal and civil legal proceedings and represent an area of continuing concern for forensic investigators. In this paper, we

  9. The history of forensic odontology in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Suzuki

    1996-01-01

    The major role of forensic odontology is to identify an unknown body by means of dental evidence. This method provides a positive identification. The importance of forensic odontology was especially recognized through the identification of the victims of the JAL crash in 1985. With this as a start, police dental surgeon system and Japanese Society of Forensic Odontology were founded

  10. A second generation computer forensic analysis system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Ayers

    2009-01-01

    The architecture of existing – first generation – computer forensic tools, including the widely used EnCase and FTK products, is rapidly becoming outdated. Tools are not keeping pace with increased complexity and data volumes of modern investigations. This paper discuses the limitations of first generation computer forensic tools. Several metrics for measuring the efficacy and performance of computer forensic tools

  11. Towards Proactive Computer-System Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip G. Bradford; Marcus Brown; Josh Perdue; Bonnie Self

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines principles and approaches for proactive computer-system forensics. Proactive computer- system forensics is the design, construction and configuring of systems to make them most amenable to digital foren- sics analyses in the future. The primary goals of proac- tive computer-system forensics are system structuring and augmentation for automated data discovery, lead forma- tion, and efficient data preservation. This

  12. The Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    The Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit Head: Prof. Dr. M. Osterheider 3rd Summer Conference. Cordially Michael Osterheider M.D. Professor of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy The University. Dr. Michael Osterheider Head of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit, University of Regensburg

  13. A visual tool for forensic analysis of mobile phone traffic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvatore Amato Catanese; Giacomo Fiumara

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present our tool LogAnalysis for forensic visual statistical analysis of mobile phone traffic. LogAnalysis graphically represents the relationships among mobile phone users with a node-link layout. Its aim is to explore the structure of a large graph, measure connectivity among users and give support to visual search and automatic identification of organizations. To do so, LogAnalysis

  14. The role of spatial aggregation in forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Fiene, Justin G; Sword, Gregory A; Van Laerhoven, Sherah L; Tarone, Aaron M

    2014-01-01

    A central concept in forensic entomology is that arthropod succession on carrion is predictable and can be used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of human remains. However, most studies have reported significant variation in successional patterns, particularly among replicate carcasses, which has complicated estimates of PMIs. Several forensic entomology researchers have proposed that further integration of ecological and evolutionary theory in forensic entomology could help advance the application of succession data for producing PMI estimates. The purpose of this essay is to draw attention to the role of spatial aggregation of arthropods among carrion resources as a potentially important aspect to consider for understanding and predicting the assembly of arthropods on carrion over time. We review ecological literature related to spatial aggregation of arthropods among patchy and ephemeral resources, such as carrion, and when possible integrate these results with published forensic literature. We show that spatial aggregation of arthropods across resources is commonly reported and has been used to provide fundamental insight for understanding regional and local patterns of arthropod diversity and coexistence. Moreover, two suggestions are made for conducting future research. First, because intraspecific aggregation affects species frequency distributions across carcasses, data from replicate carcasses should not be combined, but rather statistically quantified to generate occurrence probabilities. Second, we identify a need for studies that tease apart the degree to which community assembly on carrion is spatially versus temporally structured, which will aid in developing mechanistic hypotheses on the ecological factors shaping community assembly on carcasses. PMID:24605447

  15. Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

    Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

  16. Terminology and forensic gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Young, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The use of appropriate terminology is a fundamental aspect of forensic gait analysis. The language used in forensic gait analysis is an amalgam of that used in clinical practice, podiatric biomechanics and the wider field of biomechanics. The result can often be a lack of consistency in the language used, the definitions used and the clarity of the message given. Examples include the use of 'gait' and 'walking' as synonymous terms, confusion between 'step' and 'stride', the mixing of anatomical, positional and pathological descriptors, and inability to describe appropriately movements of major body segments such as the torso. The purpose of this paper is to share the well-established definitions of the fundamental parameters of gait, common to all professions, and advocate their use in forensic gait analysis to establish commonality. The paper provides guidance on the selection and use of appropriate terminology in the description of gait in the forensic context. This paper considers the established definitions of the terms commonly used, identifies those terms which have the potential to confuse readers, and suggests a framework of terminology which should be utilised in forensic gait analysis. PMID:26087876

  17. Neurobiological Correlates in Forensic Assessment: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    van der Gronde, Toon; Kempes, Maaike; van El, Carla; Rinne, Thomas; Pieters, Toine

    2014-01-01

    Background With the increased knowledge of biological risk factors, interest in including this information in forensic assessments is growing. Currently, forensic assessments are predominantly focused on psychosocial factors. A better understanding of the neurobiology of violent criminal behaviour and biological risk factors could improve forensic assessments. Objective To provide an overview of the current evidence about biological risk factors that predispose people to antisocial and violent behaviour, and determine its usefulness in forensic assessment. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using articles from PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed published between 2000 and 2013. Results This review shows that much research on the relationship between genetic predisposition and neurobiological alterations with aggression is performed on psychiatric patients or normal populations. However, the number of studies comparing offenders is limited. There is still a great need to understand how genetic and neurobiological alterations and/or deficits are related to violent behaviour, specifically criminality. Most studies focus on only one of the genetic or neurobiological fields related to antisocial and/or violent behaviour. To reliably correlate the findings of these fields, a standardization of methodology is urgently needed. Conclusion Findings from the current review suggest that violent aggression, like all forms of human behaviour, both develops under specific genetic and environmental conditions, and requires interplay between these conditions. Violence should be considered as the end product of a chain of life events, during which risks accumulate and potentially reinforce each other, displaying or triggering a specific situation. This systematic review did not find evidence of predispositions or neurobiological alterations that solely explain antisocial or violent behaviour. With better designed studies, more correlation between diverse fields, and more standardisation, it might be possible to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Thus, we advocate maintaining the current case-by-case differentiated approach to evidence-based forensic assessment. PMID:25330208

  18. Forensic web watch.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N

    1999-09-01

    Since the development of the Internet (Net) by the Americans in the 1970s as a potential means of communication following a future world war, it has evolved over the decades into the graphical format of the world-wide web (WWW, Web) that we know today. Anyone accessing the Net, be it from home or work, has access to information and resources on almost anything but with this comes the time-consuming and potentially expensive task of identifying those sites of use in one's professional work from those of purely interest or fun. These reviews will try and direct those working within forensic practice in all professions towards sites considered by the author to be practical resources. They are, by their very nature, a personal opinion and the author recognizes that the review of a site by one person may differ considerably from that of another user or the site designer. The articles will assume a basic knowledge of how to access and use the WWW using either Netscape or Microsoft Explorer. They will address groups of sites related to common areas of practice listing key web addresses to allow those interested to access sites reviewed. Because of the time between writing and publishing some sites may no longer be valid PMID:15335488

  19. A statistical methodology to derive the scaling law for the H-mode power threshold using a large multi-machine database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murari, A.; Lupelli, I.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Vega, J.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, a refined set of statistical techniques is developed and then applied to the problem of deriving the scaling law for the threshold power to access the H-mode of confinement in tokamaks. This statistical methodology is applied to the 2010 version of the ITPA International Global Threshold Data Base v6b(IGDBTHv6b). To increase the engineering and operative relevance of the results, only macroscopic physical quantities, measured in the vast majority of experiments, have been considered as candidate variables in the models. Different principled methods, such as agglomerative hierarchical variables clustering, without assumption about the functional form of the scaling, and nonlinear regression, are implemented to select the best subset of candidate independent variables and to improve the regression model accuracy. Two independent model selection criteria, based on the classical (Akaike information criterion) and Bayesian formalism (Bayesian information criterion), are then used to identify the most efficient scaling law from candidate models. The results derived from the full multi-machine database confirm the results of previous analysis but emphasize the importance of shaping quantities, elongation and triangularity. On the other hand, the scaling laws for the different machines and at different currents are different from each other at the level of confidence well above 95%, suggesting caution in the use of the global scaling laws for both interpretation and extrapolation purposes.

  20. Recent advances in forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Simon J

    2004-01-01

    Like many applications of molecular diagnostics, the field of forensic biology is undergoing a phase of expansion and diversification. The growth of forensic DNA databases and adoption of sophisticated analytical methods have catalyzed this increasing role. The range of molecular markers exploited in the fight against crime is beginning to increase too, and genes implying personal or physical characteristics are emerging in the research literature. However, the operational context of forensic biology is unlike many other fields of science. Harmonizing technological breakthroughs with the requirements of law enforcement agencies and the complexities of the legal system is an added challenge and one which evokes ongoing debate. This review examines the current status of this dynamic and important application of modern genetics. PMID:14711347

  1. System Support for Forensic Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan

    Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.

  2. Towards a Formalization of Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slay, Jill; Lin, Yi-Chi; Turnbull, Benjamin; Beckett, Jason; Lin, Paul

    While some individuals have referred to digital forensics as an art, the literature of the discipline suggests a trend toward the formalization of digital forensics as a forensic science. Questions about the quality of digital evidence and forensic soundness continue to be raised by researchers and practitioners in order to ensure the trustworthiness of digital evidence and its value to the courts. This paper reviews the development of digital forensic models, procedures and standards to lay a foundation for the discipline. It also points to new work that provides validation models through a complete mapping of the discipline.

  3. A Control Framework for Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Solms, Sebastiaan; Louwrens, Cecil; Reekie, Colette; Grobler, Talania

    This paper introduces a control framework for digital forensics. It proposes a taxonomy for control objectives, categorized within the phases of the digital forensic process: planning and preparation, incident response, investigation and juridical/evidentiary. Using the taxonomy as a basis, a digital forensic reference framework, consisting of control groupings, control objectives and detailed control objectives, is defined. The control framework is intended to provide a sound theoretical basis for digital forensics as well as a reference framework for digital forensics governance within organizations.

  4. Persecution of Jewish forensic pathologists.

    PubMed

    Strauch, H; Wirth, I

    2004-09-10

    Not even forensic pathologists were spared by the anti-Jewish laws of the Third Reich. Fritz Strassmann and Paul Fraenckel were among more than 140 faculty of the Berlin Department of Medicine persecuted by the national socialist dictatorship. It was because of their Jewish background that Georg Strassmann was expelled from university in Breslau, and Leone Lattes was forced to leave in Pavia. Miklós Nyiszli was deported from Oradea to Auschwitz and forced to perform forensic autopsies. Stefan Jellinek in Vienna, Ludwik Hirszfeld in Warsaw and Friedrich Schiff in Berlin were other medical professionals whose achievements had enriched legal medicine before they became victims of anti-Jewish persecution. PMID:15364381

  5. The Clinician and Forensic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Root, Irving; Scott, Wayne

    1973-01-01

    Although it is an intrinsic part of all medical practice forensic medicine often is either unrecognized as such or is consciously or subconsciously evaded. The failure to apply some rather basic and simple forensic principles that only the physician is capable of doing may result in problems to the patient ranging from frustration to near catastrophe. For physicians who are reasonably well equipped to understand the legal system, the successful conclusion of a legal case, including, sometimes, an appearance in court, can be stimulating and interesting. PMID:4733272

  6. DNA Forensics and Color Pigments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

    Students perform DNA forensics using food coloring to enhance their understanding of DNA fingerprinting, restriction enzymes, genotyping and DNA gel electrophoresis. They place small drops of different food coloring ("water-based paint") on strips of filter paper and then place one paper strip end in water. As water travels along the paper strips, students observe the pigments that compose the paint decompose into their color components. This is an example of the chromatography concept applied to DNA forensics, with the pigments in the paint that define the color being analogous to DNA fragments of different lengths.

  7. Group contribution methodology based on the statistical associating fluid theory for heteronuclear molecules formed from Mie segments

    SciTech Connect

    Papaioannou, Vasileios; Lafitte, Thomas; Adjiman, Claire S.; Jackson, George; Müller, Erich A.; Galindo, Amparo, E-mail: a.galindo@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Avendaño, Carlos [Department of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom) [Department of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-07

    A generalization of the recent version of the statistical associating fluid theory for variable range Mie potentials [Lafitte et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 154504 (2013)] is formulated within the framework of a group contribution approach (SAFT-? Mie). Molecules are represented as comprising distinct functional (chemical) groups based on a fused heteronuclear molecular model, where the interactions between segments are described with the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jonesium) potential of variable attractive and repulsive range. A key feature of the new theory is the accurate description of the monomeric group-group interactions by application of a high-temperature perturbation expansion up to third order. The capabilities of the SAFT-? Mie approach are exemplified by studying the thermodynamic properties of two chemical families, the n-alkanes and the n-alkyl esters, by developing parameters for the methyl, methylene, and carboxylate functional groups (CH{sub 3}, CH{sub 2}, and COO). The approach is shown to describe accurately the fluid-phase behavior of the compounds considered with absolute average deviations of 1.20% and 0.42% for the vapor pressure and saturated liquid density, respectively, which represents a clear improvement over other existing SAFT-based group contribution approaches. The use of Mie potentials to describe the group-group interaction is shown to allow accurate simultaneous descriptions of the fluid-phase behavior and second-order thermodynamic derivative properties of the pure fluids based on a single set of group parameters. Furthermore, the application of the perturbation expansion to third order for the description of the reference monomeric fluid improves the predictions of the theory for the fluid-phase behavior of pure components in the near-critical region. The predictive capabilities of the approach stem from its formulation within a group-contribution formalism: predictions of the fluid-phase behavior and thermodynamic derivative properties of compounds not included in the development of group parameters are demonstrated. The performance of the theory is also critically assessed with predictions of the fluid-phase behavior (vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria) and excess thermodynamic properties of a variety of binary mixtures, including polymer solutions, where very good agreement with the experimental data is seen, without the need for adjustable mixture parameters.

  8. Four Faculty Positions Applied Statistics & Computational Statistics

    E-print Network

    Shepp, Larry

    Four Faculty Positions Applied Statistics & Computational Statistics The Department of Statistics at the Assistant Professor rank. Two positions are open in the area of Applied Statistics, with a focus on the development of statistical methodology and statistical consulting. The other two positions are open

  9. COE589: Digital Forensics Research in Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    computing) ­ imaging ­ carving ­ history timeline ­ ... COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem 11 #12;4. Live Acquisition information ­ Gathering information from books, magazines, and Internet is not research · Does not contribute accurate is the analysis? COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem 12 #12;5. Media Types · Computer forensics evolved

  10. Forensic seismology revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in contrast simple, comprising one or two cycles of large amplitude followed by a low-amplitude coda. Earthquake signals on the other hand were often complex with numerous arrivals of similar amplitude spread over 35 s or more. It therefore appeared that earthquakes could be recognised on complexity. Later however, complex explosion signals were observed which reduced the apparent effectiveness of complexity as a criterion for identifying earthquakes. Nevertheless, the AWE Group concluded that for many paths to teleseismic distances, Earth is transparent for P signals and this provides a window through which source differences will be most clearly seen. Much of the research by the Group has focused on understanding the influence of source type on P seismograms recorded at teleseismic distances. Consequently the paper concentrates on teleseismic methods of distinguishing between explosions and earthquakes. One of the most robust criteria for discriminating between earthquakes and explosions is the m b : M s criterion which compares the amplitudes of the SP P waves as measured by the body-wave magnitude m b, and the long-period (LP: ˜0.05 Hz) Rayleigh-wave amplitude as measured by the surface-wave magnitude M s; the P and Rayleigh waves being the main wave types used in forensic seismology. For a given M s, the m b for explosions is larger than for most earthquakes. The criterion is difficult to apply however, at low magnitude (say m b < 4.5) and there are exceptions—earthquakes that look like explosions. A difficulty with identification criteria developed in the early days of forensic seismology was that they were in the main empirical—it was not known why they appeared to work and if there were test sites or earthquakes where they would fail. Consequently the AWE Group in cooperation with the University of Cambridge used seismogram modelling to try and understand what controls complexity of SP P seismograms, and to put the m b : M s criterion on a theoretical basis. The results of this work show that the m b : M s criterion is robust because several factors con

  11. Developing a one-semester course in forensic chemical science for university undergraduates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Sue Salem

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to research, develop and validate a one-semester course for the general education of university undergraduates in forensic chemical education. The course outline was developed using the research and development (R&D) methodology recommended by Gall, Borg, and Gall, (2003) and Dick and Carey, (2001) through a three step developmental cycle. Information was gathered and analyzed

  12. A Skeleton Tells Its Own Story: Forensic Analyses of Skeletal Elements for the Science Classroom Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naples, Virginia L.; Breed, David; Miller, Jon S.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques of forensic anthropology and pathology can provide new information to increase student interest in studying the structural details of the human skeleton. We present a simplified methodology for assessing skeletal ethnicity, sex, age, and stature. An inexpensive method has been devised for constructing an osteometric board to allow…

  13. Overview of State-of-the-Art in Digital Image Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. T. SENCAR; N. MEMON

    2007-01-01

    Digital images can now be easily created, altered, and manipulated with no obvious traces of having been subjected to any of these operations. There are currently no established methodologies to verify the authenticity and integrity of digital images in an automatic manner. Digital image forensics is an emerging research field with important implications for ensuring the credibility of digital images.

  14. A Lower Bound on Effective Performance Testing for Digital Forensic Tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Pan; Lynn Margaret Batten

    2007-01-01

    The increasing complexity and number of digital forensic tasks required in criminal investigations demand the development of an effective and efficient testing methodology, enabling tools of similar functionalities to be compared based on their performance. Assuming that the tool tester is familiar with the underlying testing platform and has the ability to use the tools correctly, we provide a numerical

  15. American Academy of Forensic Science: Choosing a Career

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This guide provides information on careers in forensic science. Topics include what forensic science is and what forensic scientists do, educational requirements, and what graduates in this field might expect in terms of work locations and pay. There are also brief overviews of different branches of forensic science (criminalistics, jurisprudence, pathology, anthropology, and others), and a list of online resources for forensic science.

  16. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option Catalog Year 2014-2015 Students Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Forensics CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 Subtotal: Subtotal: Restricted Elective Set 1: Take 2 Computing

  17. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option Catalog Year 2013-2014 Students Work CGS 5131 Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Forensics CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 Subtotal: Subtotal: Restricted Elective Set 1: Take 2 Computing

  18. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    Work CGS 5131 Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Forensics CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 Subtotal: Subtotal: Restricted Elective Set 1: Take 2 ComputingUCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option Catalog Year 2012-2013 1 Students

  19. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    Work CGS 5131 Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Forensics CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 Subtotal: Subtotal: Restricted Elective Set 1: Take 2 ComputingUCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option Catalog Year 2013-2014 Students

  20. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    Work CGS 5131 Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Forensics CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 Subtotal: Subtotal: Restricted Elective Set 1: Take 2 ComputingUCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option Catalog Year 2012-2013 Students

  1. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keim

    2003-01-01

    Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a

  2. Forensic entomology and climatic change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margherita Turchetto; Stefano Vanin

    2004-01-01

    Forensic entomology establishes the postmortem interval (PMI) by studying cadaveric fauna. The PMI today is still largely based on tables of insect succession on human cadavers compiled in the late 19th- or mid-20th centuries. In the last few years, however, the gradual warming of the climate has been changing faunal communities by favouring the presence of thermophilous species. To demonstrate

  3. International forensic automotive paint database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Bishea; Joe L. Buckle; Scott G. Ryland

    1999-01-01

    The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current,

  4. Behind the Scenes: Forensic Entomology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A short Canadian article about insurance claim investigation and forensic entomology. Most of the usual crime investigation procedures are clearly described, including maggot collection, weather data logging, and a discussion of post-mortem interval (though, without an actual calculation example). This is a commercial site.

  5. Master's Degree in Digital Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Craiger; Lucille Ponte; Carrie Morgan Whitcomb; Mark Pollitt; Ronald Eaglin

    2007-01-01

    Law enforcement agents at the local, state, and Federal levels have informed us of backlogs of computer-related crime cases ranging from 18 months to three years. The primary cause of these backlogs is the lack of educated and trained personnel to serve as digital forensics examiners. In response to this need, the University of Central Florida has created a Masters

  6. Forensics: Enhancing Civic Literacy & Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Shawn F.

    2009-01-01

    Forensics--interpretation, speech, and debate--can and should be a meaningful part of every school's curriculum. To put it simply, the course of study, alongside cocurricular competition, promotes civic education and enhances the standard curriculum by helping students explore myriad topics from multiple angles and find the truth in each,…

  7. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  8. Curriculum Guidelines on Forensic Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curriculum design explain the scope of forensic dentistry and interrelationships with other fields, give an overview of the curriculum, and outline suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty and facility…

  9. Linda M. Collins, Ph.D., is Professor of Human Development & Family Studies and Professor of Statistics at Penn State. She is also Director of The Methodology Center, an interdisciplinary

    E-print Network

    Contractor, Anis

    in the behavioral sciences. Since 1996 she has been Director of a National Institute on Drug Abuse Center of Statistics at Penn State. She is also Director of The Methodology Center, an interdisciplinary research data, particularly latent class approaches, and engineering-inspired methods for improving behavioral

  10. FACS separation of non-compromised forensically relevant biological mixtures.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Timothy J; Mitchell, R John; Chen, Weisan; Xiao, Kun; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2015-01-01

    Although focusing attention on the statistical analysis of complex mixture profiles is important, the forensic science community will also benefit from directing research to improving the reduction of the incidence of mixtures before DNA extraction. This preliminary study analysed the use of fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS) for separation of cellular mixtures before DNA extraction, specifically mixtures of relatively fresh blood and saliva from two donors, prepared in 14 different mixture ratios. Improvements in the number of detectable alleles from the targeted cell type and overall profile quality were seen when compared to the results from unseparated samples. STRmix calculations revealed increases in likelihood ratios after separation, demonstrating the potential for higher probative values to be obtained from forensically relevant mixtures after subjecting them to FACS than from unsorted samples. PMID:25450793

  11. Investigating the Implications of Virtual Machine Introspection for Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Bishop, Matt

    Investigating the Implications of Virtual Machine Introspection for Digital Forensics Kara Nance operations, and virtual machine introspection detection. Ke words­virtualization, digital forensics, cirtual machine introspection, VMI. I. INTRODUCTION Digital forensics is an increasingly important

  12. Detecting content adaptive scaling of images for forensic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillion, Claude; Sharma, Gaurav

    2010-01-01

    Content-aware resizing methods have recently been developed, among which, seam-carving has achieved the most widespread use. Seam-carving's versatility enables deliberate object removal and benign image resizing, in which perceptually important content is preserved. Both types of modifications compromise the utility and validity of the modified images as evidence in legal and journalistic applications. It is therefore desirable that image forensic techniques detect the presence of seam-carving. In this paper we address detection of seam-carving for forensic purposes. As in other forensic applications, we pose the problem of seam-carving detection as the problem of classifying a test image in either of two classes: a) seam-carved or b) non-seam-carved. We adopt a pattern recognition approach in which a set of features is extracted from the test image and then a Support Vector Machine based classifier, trained over a set of images, is utilized to estimate which of the two classes the test image lies in. Based on our study of the seam-carving algorithm, we propose a set of intuitively motivated features for the detection of seam-carving. Our methodology for detection of seam-carving is then evaluated over a test database of images. We demonstrate that the proposed method provides the capability for detecting seam-carving with high accuracy. For images which have been reduced 30% by benign seam-carving, our method provides a classification accuracy of 91%.

  13. Commentary: compassion at the core of forensic ethics.

    PubMed

    Norko, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    In 1982, Dr. Alan Stone raised a central dilemma in ethics for forensic psychiatry that has prompted significant and important discussion of the concerns about twisting justice, prostituting the profession, and operating without adequate ethics guidelines in the course of our work. In presidential addresses to the membership of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL), Dr. Paul Appelbaum and Dr. Ezra Griffith have attempted to deal with Stone's challenges, the former by providing a theory of forensic ethics, the latter by advocating cultural formulation and narrative as the methodology of our work. In his present contribution, Dr. Griffith advances the idea of narrative to involve compassion for the subject of the evaluation. In so doing, he brings us to a far more satisfactory resolution of the dilemma described by Dr. Stone. The obligation to show compassion deserves to be at the core of any valuable statement of forensic ethics. The role of compassion in justice, as discussed, for example, by Simone Weil, warrants further interdisciplinary study. PMID:16186205

  14. Statistical methodology for pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Ogliari, Paulo José; de Andrade, Dalton Francisco; Pacheco, Juliano Anderson; Franchin, Paulo Rogério; Batista, Cleide Rosana Vieira

    2007-08-01

    The main goal of the present study was to discuss the application of the McNemar test to the comparison of proportions in dependent samples. Data were analyzed from studies conducted to verify the suitability of replacing a conventional method with a new one for identifying the presence of Salmonella. It is shown that, in most situations, the McNemar test does not provide all the elements required by the microbiologist to make a final decision and that appropriate functions of the proportions need to be considered. Sample sizes suitable to guarantee a test with a high power in the detection of significant differences regarding the problem studied are obtained by simulation. Examples of functions that are of great value to the microbiologist are presented. PMID:17803152

  15. PyFlag – An advanced network forensic framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    Network forensics is an investigation technique looking at the network traffic generated by a system. PyFlag is a general purpose, open source, forensic package which merges disk forensics, memory forensics and network forensics.This paper describes the PyFlag architecture and in particular how that is used in the network forensics context. The novel processing of HTML pages is described and the

  16. [Forensic entomology and globalisation].

    PubMed

    Turchetto, M; Vanin, S

    2004-06-01

    The main aim of Forensic Entomology has always been, and is today, to establish the time of death (P.M.I.: Postmortem Period) or, more exactly, how long a carrion has been exposed in the environment. Most of the invertebrate fauna occurring on corpses consists of insects (mostly Diptera and Coleoptera). They are selectively attracted by the decomposing status of the carrion, and form complex communities or biocenosis within necrophagous or sarcophagous species and their predators, parasites and parasitoids, competing each one another. The rapid and continuos changes of the micro-ecosystem (the body), until its breakdown, does not permit the achievement of a steady state or an equilibrium in the animal communities. These continuous modifications give us the possibility to estimate when (and where) the death has occurred, by the identification of the species feeding on the corpse, the knowledge of their life history, and the length of each stage of their cycle at varying the temperature and the other abiotic factors, external to the carrion ecosystem. The P.M.I. today is still largely based on the tables of faunal succession on human cadavers recognised by Mégin in 1894, with few changes proposed by Authors from other countries. In the last years, however, it happens more and more often, that the natural communities are subverted by the presence of allocton species, which can compete, predate or parasite the most common local sarcophagous insects, modifying, this way, the succession waves and the trophic nets. The immission in the environment of foreign species may be voluntary or casual, but in any case is due to anthropic activities. The voluntary immission happens when some species, employed in the biological struggle against pest or dangerous insects, for pollination of allocton plants, or for other commercial utilities, are beyond man's control and swarm onto the environment; the casual spread is due to the globalisation phenomenon, that distributes the "little organisms" by chance, together with travellers, goods and food items. Together with human migratory flows, raw materials and vegetal foodstuffs travelling from Tropical developing Countries to the North of the world, also many tropical and subtropical insects can be carried out from their original lands. Eurioecious and polyphagous species, and species that evolved mechanisms (as diapausa or hibernation) to get over critical environmental conditions have the highest probability of survival. Saprophagous insects, and flies in particular, evolved such capabilities. The mortality of foreign species due to the difference of temperature and seasonally between tropical and temperate areas was, in the past, the most effective factor limiting the geographic propagation of insects. The ongoing global climate changes induce insect populations, now confined to the tropics, to most likely spread towards middle latitudes, where their specific competitors, predators and parasites, which regulate the population growth, are often absent. The lack of a biological control, the warming up of atmosphere temperature and the fall of the differences among seasons induce a more rapid development and an increased number of generations in new species, that often displace the autocton ones. This phenomenon is much more clear in little and simple ecosystems (such as carrion), mostly occur than in large and complex ecosystems, where many more components, vegetal organisms and phytophagous animals included, are present. To demonstrate how globalisation and climate changes are breaking the geographic barriers, we present some cases in which, during our entomoforensic investigations, performed mainly in North-eastern Italy, Neotropical, African and Asiatic necrophagous flies, beetles and wasp parasitoids have been collected, some of which rare or new for Italy or Paleartic Region. In particular, we report our studies on the american black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), that is showing a heavy competition with the local saprophagous species and is reaching

  17. Research issues in forensic pathology: a survey of academic institutions employing forensic pathologists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt B Nolte

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to characterize research efforts in forensic pathology, a questionnaire was sent to a representative of each of the 14 academic medical centers that employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Responses were received from all 14 (100%) of the institutions queried, representing a total of 39 forensic pathology faculty positions; 21 positions were tenure track and 18 positions were

  18. How do I become a forensic scientist? Educational pathways to forensic science careers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Gaensslen

    2003-01-01

    Forensic science is a broad, interdisciplinary group of applications of physical and biological sciences and various technologies to issues in civil and criminal justice. To discuss the educational preparation necessary for entry into the forensic sciences, we have to define their scope. In the broadest sense – the one we will adopt for purposes of this discussion – the forensic

  19. Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi

    2007-10-25

    Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations. PMID:17300893

  20. A Control Framework for Digital Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastiaan H. Von Solms; Cecil Louwrens; Colette Reekie; Talania Grobler

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a This paper introduces a control framework for digital forensics. It proposes a taxonomy for control objectives, categorized\\u000a within the phases of the digital forensic process: planning and preparation, incident response, investigation and juridical\\/evidentiary.\\u000a Using the taxonomy as a basis, a digital forensic reference framework, consisting of control groupings, control objectives\\u000a and detailed control objectives, is defined. The control framework is

  1. Distinction between forensic evidence and dermatological findings.

    PubMed

    Hammer, U; Boy, D; Rothaupt, D; Büttner, A

    2015-07-01

    The external examination after death requires knowledge in forensics/pathology, dermatology, as well as associated diseases and age-related alterations of the skin. This article highlights some findings with forensic evidence versus dermatological findings. The lectures in forensic medicine should be structured interdisciplinarily, especially to dermatology, internal medicine, surgery, pathology, and toxicology in order to train the overlapping skills required for external and internal postmortem examinations. PMID:26048487

  2. Artefact in forensic medicine: scrotal mummification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Patel

    2003-01-01

    Misinterpretation of postmortem artefacts in forensic medical practice may result in a misdiagnosis of criminal activity. Forensic physicians at the scene can liaise with forensic pathologists and visit the mortuary in the company of the crime scene investigators or scenes-of-crime officers to ensure all relevant facts are identified.In this case a postmortem change created by partial dessication of the scrotal

  3. Classification of spent reactor fuel for nuclear forensics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew E; Turner, Phillip; Zimmerman, Colin; Goulermas, John Y

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of pattern recognition and machine learning techniques to determine the reactor type from which spent reactor fuel has originated. This has been done using the isotopic and elemental measurements of the sample and proves to be very useful in the field of nuclear forensics. Nuclear materials contain many variables (impurities and isotopes) that are very difficult to consider individually. A method that considers all material parameters simultaneously is advantageous. Currently the field of nuclear forensics focuses on the analysis of key material properties to determine details about the materials processing history, for example, utilizing known half-lives of isotopes can determine when the material was last processed (Stanley, F. E. J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 2012, 27, 1821; Varga, Z.; Wallenius, M.; Mayer, K.; Keegan, E.; Millet, S. Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 8327-8334). However, it has been demonstrated that multivariate statistical analysis of isotopic concentrations can complement these method and are able to make use of a greater level of information through dimensionality reduction techniques (Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J. J. Environ. Radioact. 2008, 99, 1789-1797; Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J.; Heller, M. A. Nuclear Forensic Inferences Using Iterative Multidimensional Statistics. In Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management 50th Annual Meeting, Tucson, AZ, July 2009; 12 pages; Nicolaou, G. J. Environ. Radioact. 2006, 86, 313-318; Pajo, L.; Mayer, K.; Koch, L. Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 2001, 371, 348-352). There has been some success in using such multidimensional statistical methods to determine details about the history of spent reactor fuel (Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J. J. Environ. Radioact. 2008, 99, 1789-1797). Here, we aim to expand on these findings by pursuing more robust dimensionality reduction techniques based on manifold embedding which are able to better capture the intrinsic data set information. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a number of classification algorithms to reliably determine the reactor type in which a spent fuel material has been irradiated. A number of these classification techniques are novel applications in nuclear forensics and expand on the existing knowledge in this field by creating a reliable and robust classification model. The results from this analysis show that our techniques have been very successful and further ascertain the excellent potential of these techniques in the field of nuclear forensics at least with regard to spent reactor fuel. PMID:24805973

  4. USE OF DNA TECHNOLOGY IN FORENSIC DENTISTRY

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; de Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira; de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    The established importance of Forensic Dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article presents a literature review referring to the main studies on Forensic Dentistry that involve the use of DNA for human identification, and makes an overview of the evolution of this technology in the last years, highlighting the importance of molecular biology in forensic sciences. PMID:19089123

  5. Evolution of forensic odontology: An overview.

    PubMed

    Balachander, N; Babu, N Aravindha; Jimson, Sudha; Priyadharsini, C; Masthan, K M K

    2015-04-01

    Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology admits dentists' participation or identification of the victim and assisting legal and criminal issues. It refers to the proper handling, examination, identification and evaluation of dental evidence. This article summarizes the evolution of forensic odontology that started right from Garden of Eden to the modern scenario in identification of the gang rape case which happened in the state capital. Forensic dentistry plays a significant role in identifying the victims of crime, deceased individuals through the examination of anatomical structures, dental appliances and dental restorations. PMID:26015703

  6. Evolution of forensic odontology: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Balachander, N.; Babu, N. Aravindha; Jimson, Sudha; Priyadharsini, C.; Masthan, K. M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology admits dentists’ participation or identification of the victim and assisting legal and criminal issues. It refers to the proper handling, examination, identification and evaluation of dental evidence. This article summarizes the evolution of forensic odontology that started right from Garden of Eden to the modern scenario in identification of the gang rape case which happened in the state capital. Forensic dentistry plays a significant role in identifying the victims of crime, deceased individuals through the examination of anatomical structures, dental appliances and dental restorations. PMID:26015703

  7. Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

  8. Child neglect and forensic entomology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Benecke; Rüdiger Lessig

    2001-01-01

    Close co-operation between forensic scientists, medico-legal doctors, and police forces made it possible to estimate not only the post-mortem interval but also the time since a child was neglected. On the skin surface under the diaper (anal-genital area), third instar larvae of the false stable fly Muscina stabulans FALLÉN, and the lesser house fly Fannia canicularis L. were found. F.

  9. Forensic DNA Profiling and Database

    PubMed Central

    Panneerchelvam, S.; Norazmi, M.N.

    2003-01-01

    The incredible power of DNA technology as an identification tool had brought a tremendous change in crimnal justice . DNA data base is an information resource for the forensic DNA typing community with details on commonly used short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers. This article discusses the essential steps in compilation of COmbined DNA Index System (CODIS) on validated polymerase chain amplified STRs and their use in crime detection. PMID:23386793

  10. Forensic Handwritten Document Retrieval System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sargur N. Srihari; Zhixin Shi

    2004-01-01

    Document storage and retrieval capabilities of the CEDAR-FOX forensic handwritten document examination system are described. The system is designed for automated and semi-automated analysis of scanned handwritten documents. For library creation, the system provides functionalities for (i) entering document meta- data, e.g., identification number, writer and other collateral information, (ii) creating a textual transcript of the image content at the

  11. Forensic pathology and the autopsy.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, C S

    1984-06-01

    Questionnaires sent to representative medicolegal jurisdictions in the United States showed that medicolegal necropsies comprise a substantial proportion of the total number of autopsies performed. Qualitative differences between customary hospital autopsies and their forensic counterparts include autopsy bias, the importance of trauma, biological variability, and medicolegal logic. Because of these differences, medicolegal autopsies have an important role to play in the education of undergraduate and graduate medical students and should be incorporated into the training programs of academic departments of pathology. PMID:6547300

  12. Non-traumatic forensic neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Stewart, W; Black, M; Kalimo, H; Graham, D I

    2004-12-16

    The practicing Forensic Pathologist is likely to encounter case material in which either the cause of death or a major contribution to the cause of death is underlying damage to or disease of the central nervous system. While it is good practice in many instances to have a working relationship with a Department of Neuropathology, from which advice and practical help can be sought, there may be instances when the Forensic Pathologist needs to proceed on a basis of a working knowledge of Forensic Neuropathology up to and including how to examine the specimen and take tissue blocks for processing and subsequent histological examination. Some of the more common conditions of the central nervous system such as damage consequent to hypoxia-ischaemia, hypoglycemia and epilepsy, the encephalopathies associated with altered sodium concentration, deficiency due to Vitamin B(1) and various neurodegenerative diseases that manifest as dementia and include Alzheimer's disease, cortical Lewy body disease and the prion disorders, are outlined in this article. PMID:15542273

  13. Students' conceptions of evidence during a university introductory forensic science course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeshion, Theodore Elliot

    Students' Conceptions of Science, Scientific Evidence, and Forensic Evidence during a University Introductory Forensic Science Course This study was designed to examine and understand what conceptions undergraduate students taking an introductory forensic science course had about scientific evidence. Because the relationships between the nature of science, the nature of evidence, and the nature of forensic evidence are not well understood in the science education literature, this study sought to understand how these concepts interact and affect students' understanding of scientific evidence. Four participants were purposefully selected for this study from among 89 students enrolled in two sections of an introductory forensic science course taught during the fall 2005 semester. Of the 89 students, 84 were criminal justice majors with minimal science background and five were chemistry majors with academic backgrounds in the natural and physical sciences. All 89 students completed a biographical data sheet and a pre-instruction Likert scale survey consisting of twenty questions relating to the nature of scientific evidence. An evaluation of these two documents resulted in a purposeful selection of four varied student participants, each of whom was interviewed three times throughout the semester about the nature of science, the nature of evidence, and the nature of forensic evidence. The same survey was administered to the participants again at the end of the semester-long course. This study examined students' assumptions, prior knowledge, their understanding of scientific inference, scientific theory, and methodology. Examination of the data found few differences with regard to how the criminal justice majors and the chemistry majors responded to interview questions about forensic evidence. There were qualitative differences, however, when the same participants answered interview questions relating to traditional scientific evidence. Furthermore, suggestions are offered for undergraduate science teachers, science teaching programs, and future research.

  14. The logical foundations of forensic science: towards reliable knowledge.

    PubMed

    Evett, Ian

    2015-08-01

    The generation of observations is a technical process and the advances that have been made in forensic science techniques over the last 50 years have been staggering. But science is about reasoning-about making sense from observations. For the forensic scientist, this is the challenge of interpreting a pattern of observations within the context of a legal trial. Here too, there have been major advances over recent years and there is a broad consensus among serious thinkers, both scientific and legal, that the logical framework is furnished by Bayesian inference (Aitken et al. Fundamentals of Probability and Statistical Evidence in Criminal Proceedings). This paper shows how the paradigm has matured, centred on the notion of the balanced scientist. Progress through the courts has not been always smooth and difficulties arising from recent judgments are discussed. Nevertheless, the future holds exciting prospects, in particular the opportunities for managing and calibrating the knowledge of the forensic scientists who assign the probabilities that are at the foundation of logical inference in the courtroom. PMID:26101288

  15. Automated method for the removal of unwanted nonperiodic patterns from forensic images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Capel; Andrew Zisserman; Simon K. Bramble; David Compton

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is the removal of distracting background patterns from forensic evidence so that the evidence is rendered more visible. An example is the image of a finger print on a non-periodic background. The method involves registering the image with a control image of the background pattern that we seek to remove. A statistical comparison of the

  16. SNPs in forensic genetics: a review on SNP typing methodologies...

    Science.gov Websites

    Manual NCBI News PubMed PubMed Central (PMC) PubMed Clinical Queries PubMed Health All Literature Resources... Proteins BioSystems BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool)...

  17. Research issues in forensic pathology: a survey of academic institutions employing forensic pathologists.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B

    2004-05-01

    In an effort to characterize research efforts in forensic pathology, a questionnaire was sent to a representative of each of the 14 academic medical centers that employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Responses were received from all 14 (100%) of the institutions queried, representing a total of 39 forensic pathology faculty positions; 21 positions were tenure track and 18 positions were clinical or other tracks. Of the 39 positions, 25 positions (64%) at 10 institutions required some degree of research or scholarly output. Of the 25 forensic pathologists with a research imperative, only 3 (12%) were principal investigators or co-investigators on funded forensic pathology-based projects. The major limitation cited by respondents on the performance of forensic pathology research was the lack of protected time from service responsibilities. Fellowship training in forensic pathology was available at 6 of the 14 respondent institutions. Of these institutions, 4 (67%) had a research requirement for trainees, and 4 (67%) provided research training. In conclusion, very few US medical schools currently employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Of these, only a small number of institutions prioritize research by these faculty members. Scant federal funds are available to support research in forensic pathology. Few forensic pathology fellowship programs provide research training. To achieve a robust research agenda in forensic pathology that is sufficient to support the needs of the criminal justice and public health systems will require a paradigm shift in the medicolegal death investigative system and investment by federal agencies. PMID:15138925

  18. Forensic focused treatment planning: a new standard for forensic mental health systems.

    PubMed

    Schaufenbil, Robert J; Kornbluh, Rebecca; Stahl, Stephen M; Warburton, Katherine D

    2015-06-01

    Almost no literature addresses treatment planning for the forensic psychiatric patient. In the absence of such guidance, recovery-oriented multifocal treatment planning has been imported into forensic mental health systems from community psychiatric settings, despite the fact that conditions of admission and discharge are vastly different for forensic psychiatry inpatients. We propose that instead of focusing on recovery, forensic treatment planning should prioritize forensic outcomes, such as restoration of trial competence or mitigation of violence risk, as the first steps in a continuum of care that eventually leads to the patient's ability to resolve forensic issues and return to the community for recovery-oriented care. Here we offer a model for treatment planning in the forensic setting. PMID:25801440

  19. Forensic analysis of explosions: Inverse calculation of the charge mass.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, M M; van Wees, R M M; Brouwer, S D; van der Jagt-Deutekom, M J; Verreault, J

    2015-07-01

    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU FP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estimate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage around an explosion. In this paper, inverse models are presented based on two frequently occurring and reliable sources of information: window breakage and building damage. The models have been verified by applying them to the Enschede firework disaster and the Khobar tower attack. Furthermore, a statistical method has been developed to combine the various types of data, in order to determine an overall charge mass distribution. In relatively open environments, like for the Enschede firework disaster, the models generate realistic charge masses that are consistent with values found in forensic literature. The spread predicted by the IEA tool is however larger than presented in the literature for these specific cases. This is also realistic due to the large inherent uncertainties in a forensic analysis. The IEA-models give a reasonable first order estimate of the charge mass in a densely built urban environment, such as for the Khobar tower attack. Due to blast shielding effects which are not taken into account in the IEA tool, this is usually an under prediction. To obtain more accurate predictions, the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations is advised. The TNO IEA tool gives unique possibilities to inversely calculate the TNT equivalent charge mass based on a large variety of explosion effects and observations. The IEA tool enables forensic analysts, also those who are not experts on explosion effects, to perform an analysis with a largely reduced effort. PMID:25933424

  20. Models for regionalizing economic data and their applications within the scope of forensic disaster analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Hanns-Maximilian; Wiens, rer. pol. Marcus, , Dr.; Schultmann, rer. pol. Frank, Prof. _., Dr.

    2015-04-01

    The impact of natural hazards on the economic system can be observed in many different regions all over the world. Once the local economic structure is hit by an event direct costs instantly occur. However, the disturbance on a local level (e.g. parts of city or industries along a river bank) might also cause monetary damages in other, indirectly affected sectors. If the impact of an event is strong, these damages are likely to cascade and spread even on an international scale (e.g. the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull and its impact on the automotive sector in Europe). In order to determine these special impacts, one has to gain insights into the directly hit economic structure before being able to calculate these side effects. Especially, regarding the development of a model used for near real-time forensic disaster analyses any simulation needs to be based on data that is rapidly available or easily to be computed. Therefore, we investigated commonly used or recently discussed methodologies for regionalizing economic data. Surprisingly, even for German federal states there is no official input-output data available that can be used, although it might provide detailed figures concerning economic interrelations between different industry sectors. In the case of highly developed countries, such as Germany, we focus on models for regionalizing nationwide input-output table which is usually available at the national statistical offices. However, when it comes to developing countries (e.g. South-East Asia) the data quality and availability is usually much poorer. In this case, other sources need to be found for the proper assessment of regional economic performance. We developed an indicator-based model that can fill this gap because of its flexibility regarding the level of aggregation and the composability of different input parameters. Our poster presentation brings up a literature review and a summary on potential models that seem to be useful for this specific task. Moreover, some sample data from our own applications for developed and developing countries are shown. The use of the different methodologies for the calculation of indirect losses in the field of forensic disaster analyses is also to be discussed. Finally, we give an outlook on the further utilization of these models aiming for the simulation of indirect losses.

  1. Neurotoxin Exposure and MMPI Forensic Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Heidi A.

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) has been widely used as an objective personality test, in addition to being used in forensic assessments, especially involving claims of physical or emotional damage. It now appears that questions must be raised concerning the MMPI's forensic implications given the advent of new disease…

  2. Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Cliff; Helen W. Kreuzer; Christopher J. Ehrhardt; David S. Wunschel

    2012-01-01

    Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special

  3. The Ethics of Forensics: A Preliminary Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Walter

    Noting that the ethics of forensics is a complicated and controversial subject, this paper outlines some of the issues that should be addressed in preparing codes of ethics. The following issues are discussed: (1) the nature of professional ethics; (2) the functions of an ethics code; (3) approaches to ethical systems in forensics; (4) standards…

  4. A Proposal for Training in Forensic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Graduate programs are lagging behind in developing courses to prepare psychologists to function with expertise in forensic (law-related) matters. Paradoxically, the courts are now finding increasing use for the forensic psychologist, while current journals express wide skepticism about the quality of available expertise. (Author/RLV)

  5. md5bloom: Forensic filesystem hashing revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassil Roussev; Yixin Chen; Timothy Bourg; Golden G. Richard III

    2006-01-01

    Hashing is a fundamental tool in digital forensic analysis used both to ensure data integrity and to efficiently identify known data objects. However, despite many years of practice, its basic use has advanced little. Our objective is to leverage advanced hashing techniques in order to improve the efficiency and scalability of digital forensic analysis. Specifically, we explore the use of

  6. Forensics Education: Assessment and Measures of Excellence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A. Taylor; Barbara Endicott-popovsky; Amelia Phillips

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we assess current academic and certificate based education and training programs in digital forensics education. Strong interest in the digital forensics field has led to a proliferation of education options in both academia and professional training programs. Yet, few studies have attempted to define quality attributes or measures of excellence for these programs. This study defines a

  7. Digital Forensics for the Health Sciences

    E-print Network

    Payan, Yohan

    Digital Forensics for the Health Sciences: Applications in Practice and Research Andriani Daskalaki Cataloging-in-Publication Data Digital forensics for the health sciences : applications in practice and research / Andriani Daskalaki, editor. p. cm. Summary: "This book discusses current applications of digital

  8. Digital Forensics: Exploring Validation, Verification and Certification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Wilsdon; Jill Slay

    2005-01-01

    Digital forensic teams and laboratories are now common place within Australia, particularly associated with law enforcement and intelligence agencies. The digital forensics discipline is rapidly evolving to become a scientific practice with domain-specific guideline. These guidelines are still under discussion in an attempt to progress the discipline so as to become as solid and robust in its scientific underpinnings as

  9. Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

  10. Forensic Journal, Volume VI, January 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forensic Journal, 1984

    1984-01-01

    While covering various English language forensics activities in Japan, this special journal issue is heavily devoted to debate. The 22 articles in the journal are divided into five sections as follows: (1) general information on the Japan English Forensics Association (JEFA); (2) debate, including reports on debate tournaments around the world, a…

  11. Guidelines in forensic odontology: legal aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Vermylen

    2006-01-01

    The task of the forensic dentist is ruled by an obligation to be diligent and prudent. If guidelines should exist which are recognised by the dental forensic community, they will probably be used to judge his work, even if guidelines are only considered as recommendations. The questions to be answered are: who issued these guidelines and are they conform to

  12. Identification of Legal Issues for Computer Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Brungs; Rodger Jamieson

    2005-01-01

    The adoption of computers into every aspect of modern society has been accompanied by the rise of E-crime. the processes and techniques employed by the field of computer forensics offer huge potential for the extraction and presentation of electronic evidence in a court of law. This article analyzes the legal issues that currently or could potentially impact the computer forensics

  13. A Lessons Learned Repository for Computer Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren Harrison; George Heuston; Mark Morrissey; David Aucsmith; Sarah Mocas; Steve Russelle

    2002-01-01

    The Law Enforcement community possesses a large, but informal, community memory with respect to digital forensics. Large, because the experiences of every forensics technician and investigator contribute to the whole. Informal because there is seldom an explicit mechanism for disseminating this wisdom except \\

  14. Policies to Enhance Computer and Network Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alec Yasinsac; Yanet Manzano

    2001-01-01

    The Internet is growing explosively, as is thenumber of crimes committed against or using computers. As aresponse to the growth of computer crime, the field of Computerand Network Forensics emerged. Computer forensics is the artof discovering and retrieving information about a crime in such away to make it admissible in court. It is after-the-fact in that theonly preventative capability of

  15. Forensic pharmacy: can you prove it?

    PubMed

    Wick, Jeannette Y

    2013-07-01

    Forensic science is the acquisition, analysis, and application of scientific data to provide the legal system with answers to questions of interest. Pharmacy fills a forensic niche. Most pharmacists work in forensics part-time at their regular job or moonlight. A rare few work full-time. Most often, forensic pharmacists work as consultants to attorneys, claims adjustors, detectives/investigators, and other forensic specialists. These pharmacists review cases much like a clinical pharmacist or pharmacy manager would review a clinical challenge or administrative problem, but with an eye to the specific legal issues. Pharmacists' expert testimony has traditionally been offered in either therapeutics and human pharmacology or pharmacy practice. New specialty areas include drug-induced violence and death investigations. Deaths in long-term care facilities constitute their own category, and every state has its own approach. The law and science consider evidence quite differently, and sometimes, final verdicts surprise scientists. PMID:23835459

  16. Forensic Standards in the American Psychological Association's New Ethics Code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary I. Perrin; Bruce D. Sales

    1994-01-01

    The 1992 revision of the American Psychological Association's ethics code includes, for the first time, a section devoted to forensic issues. This article examines the adequacy with which the Forensic Activities section addresses fundamental ethical issues inherent in forensic practice (i.e., being competent in forensic practice, dealing with requests for service, providing informed consent, providing services, and reporting findings). We

  17. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option Catalog Year 2009-2010 Required CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 CHS 5503 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Clear POS Save POS #12;UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option Catalog Year

  18. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option Catalog Year 2009-2010 1 Students Work CGS 5131 Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital.graduatecatalog.ucf.edu Print POS Clear POS Save POS #12;UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option Catalog

  19. FORZA - Digital forensics investigation framework that incorporate legal issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricci S. C. Ieong

    2006-01-01

    What is Digital Forensics? Mark Pollitt highlighted in DFRWS 2004 (Politt MM. Six blind men from Indostan. Digital forensics research workshop (DFRWS); 2004) that digital forensics is not an elephant, it is a process and not just one process, but a group of tasks and processes in investigation. In fact, many digital forensics investigation processes and tasks were defined on

  20. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option Catalog Year 2011-2012 1 Students Work CGS 5131 Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital.graduatecatalog.ucf.edu Print POS Clear POS Save POS #12;UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option Catalog

  1. Digital forensics investigation framework that incorporate legal issues

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    FORZA Digital forensics investigation framework that incorporate legal issues Ricci S.C. Ieong #12;Presentation Outline 1. Introduction 2. Fundamental principle in digital forensics investigation procedures 3 framework 6. Future work #12;What is Digital Forensics? Introduction #12;#12;What is Digital Forensics

  2. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option Catalog Year 2010-2011 1 Students Work CGS 5131 Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital.graduatecatalog.ucf.edu Print POS Clear POS Save POS #12;UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Thesis Option Catalog

  3. Practice Parameter for Child and Adolescent Forensic Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This Parameter addresses the key concepts that differentiate the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents from a clinical assessment. There are ethical issues unique to the forensic evaluation, because the forensic evaluator's duty is to the person, court, or agency requesting the evaluation, rather than to the patient. The forensic

  4. An Empirical Investigation of the Relevant Skills of Forensic Accountants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGabriele, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The author investigated whether views of the relevant skills of forensic accountants differ among forensic accounting practitioners, accounting academics, and users of forensic accounting services. Universities and colleges are currently considering adding forensic accounting courses to their curriculum. The results of the present study provide…

  5. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Nonthesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    Institution For Department Use Only Transfer Classification Formal Course Work CGS 5131 Computer Forensics 1 CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 CHS 5503 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Forensics Subtotal: Subtotal: Restricted Elective Set 1: Take 2 Computing Specialization Courses, See

  6. Unifying Computer Forensics Modeling Approaches: A Software Engineering Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chris Bogen; David A. Dampier

    2005-01-01

    As an effort to introduce formalism into computer forensics, researchers have presented various modeling techniques for planning, analysis, and documentation of forensics activities. These modeling techniques provide representations of various forensics subjects such as investigative processes, chain of events, and evidence tests. From a software engineering perspective, it seems that several of these computer forensics modeling approaches may be unified

  7. Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Henry C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

  8. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  9. Survival analysis as a statistical methodology for analyzing factors that affect milk coagulation time in Holstein-Friesian and Brown Swiss cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to propose the survival analysis technique as a statistical approach for the analysis of rennet coagulation time (RCT) able to make use of coagulating and noncoagulating (NC) milk information in order to estimate potential sources of variations that affects RCT. A total of 1,025 Italian Holstein-Friesian cows (HF; progeny of 54 sires) and 1,234 Brown Swiss cows (BS; progeny of 58 sires) reared in 34 and 38 herds, respectively, were milk-sampled once. Rennet coagulation time was analyzed with a semiparametric proportional hazard model (i.e., a Cox model), with the NC samples considered as censored records. Furthermore, a different censoring scenario, with a new end point at 18 min, was considered after the rearrangement of the time space originally used for the observation of RCT. The percentage of NC samples was almost 10% for HF and 3.5% for BS cows in in the 31 min set, whereas it increased to 44 and 24.9%, respectively, in the 18 min set. Estimated hazard ratios indicated that the most important factors affecting the coagulation process were herd, days in milk, casein number, and milk acidity (expressed in terms of titratable acidity) for both HF and BS, whereas the SCS was relevant only for BS. The survival model seems to be particularly suitable for this analysis, as it can properly account for censored and uncensored records and appropriately use all available information. Moreover, this methodology allows us to rearrange the time space used for the observation of RCT and to define alternative traits (i.e., RCT with an end point at 18 min). Our restriction of the time space and the increased percentage of censored records did not highlight any substantial differences in terms of the risk of coagulating with respect to the traditional 31 min testing time. Although further research is needed to investigate the effect of these sources of variation on cheese yield, our results indicate that casein number, acidity, and SCS may be used as indicator traits for enhancing the technological properties of bovine milk. PMID:23831096

  10. [Incest--forensic genetic approach].

    PubMed

    Raczek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents intimate relationships between biologically and legally close relatives, complicated in the social, culture and religion perspective. (art. 201 of the Penal Code), but it chiefly addresses problems associated with giving opinion on the fatherhood towards the incestuous child. The report calls for a broader interest in this issue from expert witnesses in forensic genetics, as well as encourages them to publish examples taken from their own professional experience that may unquestionably be helpful to other practitioners in this field and above all will lead to extending educational methods related to widely understood DNA analysis in giving an opinion on arguable fatherhood. PMID:23424940

  11. International forensic automotive paint database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishea, Gregory A.; Buckle, Joe L.; Ryland, Scott G.

    1999-02-01

    The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current, validated, searchable, automotive paint database that is used to identify make(s), model(s), and year(s) of questioned paint samples in hit-and-run fatalities and other associated investigations involving automotive paint.

  12. Some Challenges in Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spafford, Eugene

    This essay discusses some of the principal challenges facing the emerging discipline of digital forensics. Most of the challenges have a scientific basis—understanding the needs and limitations caused by changes in the scope and pace of information technology. Others are engineering in nature, requiring the construction of new software and hardware to enable the collection, retention and examination of potential digital evidence. All of the challenges have administrative and legal frameworks within which they must be addressed, and the limits and structures imposed by these frameworks must evolve and be shaped by science, engineering and practice.

  13. Forensic Entomologists: An Evaluation of their Status

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences (2009) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists. PMID:24219583

  14. Idea Bank: Forensics on a Shoestring Budget

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joseph A. Greco

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into the 10th-grade biology curriculum while staying within the budget. This activity involves estimating a time of death based on fictitious police and medical examiner reports. Students are challenged to apply their knowledge using inquiry in lieu of elaborate equipment or supplies.

  15. National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentis, Samantha E.; Ulicny, William D.

    2009-08-01

    Over the course of the 2009 Federal Fiscal Year the United States (U.S.) Department of Homeland Security (DHS), in partnership with the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Energy (DOE), is continuing existing programs and introducing new programs designed to maintain a highly qualified, enduring workforce capable of performing the technical nuclear forensics mission. These student and university programs are designed to recruit the best and brightest students, develop university faculty and research capabilities, and engage the national laboratories in fields of study with application in nuclear forensics. This comprehensive effort constitutes the National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program.

  16. Concept Mapping for Digital Forensic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, April; Dampier, David

    Research in digital forensics has yet to focus on modeling case domain information involved in investigations. This paper shows how concept mapping can be used to create an excellent alternative to the popular checklist approach used in digital forensic investigations. Concept mapping offers several benefits, including creating replicable, reusable techniques, simplifying and guiding the investigative process, capturing and reusing specialized forensic knowledge, and supporting training and knowledge management activities. The paper also discusses how concept mapping can be used to integrate case-specific details throughout the investigative process.

  17. Modeling Forensic Evidence Systems Using Design Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Colin; Armstrong, Helen

    This paper presents an overview of the application of design science research to the tactical management of forensic evidence processing. The opening discussion addresses the application of design science techniques to specific socio-technical information systems research in regard to processing forensic evidence. The discussion then presents the current problems faced by those dealing with evidence and a conceptual meta-model for a unified approach to forensic evidence is developed. Any practical application of the suggested model would be predominantly law enforcement driven; evaluation of sections of the model has been carried out by law enforcement participants in several international jurisdictions.

  18. Open Source Live Distributions for Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustini, Giancarlo; Andreolini, Mauro; Colajanni, Michele

    Current distributions of open source forensic software provide digital investigators with a large set of heterogeneous tools. Their use is not always focused on the target and requires high technical expertise. We present a new GNU/Linux live distribution, named CAINE (Computer Aided INvestigative Environment) that contains a collection of tools wrapped up into a user friendly environment. The CAINE forensic framework introduces novel important features, aimed at filling the interoperability gap across different forensic tools. Moreover, it provides a homogeneous graphical interface that drives digital investigators during the acquisition and analysis of electronic evidence, and it offers a semi-automatic mechanism for the creation of the final report.

  19. Chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization of soils from the Curitiba Metropolitan Region for forensic purpose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vander F. Melo; Leila C. Barbar; Patrício G. P. Zamora; Carlos E. Schaefer; Gilcélia A. Cordeiro

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose a soil characterization methodology for forensic use, based on physical (textural and spectroscopic analyses), chemical (extractions with hydrofluoric acid, ammonium oxalate, sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate and NaOH solution) and mineralogical (thermal analyses and X-ray diffraction) analyses. The study was carried out in the State of Paraná, Brazil, in three neighborhoods of Curitiba city and

  20. Role of forensic pathologists in mass disasters.

    PubMed

    Schuliar, Yves; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis

    2012-06-01

    The forensic pathologist has always had a central role in the identification of the dead in every day practice, in accidents, and in disasters involving hundreds or thousands of victims. This role has changed in recent years, as advances in forensic odontology, genetics and anthropology have improved the chances of identifying victims beyond recognition. According to the Interpol DVI Guide, fingerprints, dental examination and DNA are the primary identifiers, and this has given new emphasis to the role of the forensic pathologist as the leader of a multidisciplinary team of experts in a disaster situation, based on his or her qualifications and the experience gained from doing the same work in the everyday situation of an institute of forensic medicine. PMID:22160735

  1. Forensic veterinary pathology, today's situation and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Olsén, L; Gavier-Widén, D

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders. PMID:25013083

  2. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Anoop K.; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709

  3. Development of a forensic evidence protection kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, Brian; Kelly, Roy

    1999-02-01

    A kit has been developed for the preservation of vital forensic evidence on a suspect following a serious assault, murder or other offense where contamination may occur. This also includes the handling of firearms, explosives and/or drugs.

  4. [Forensic psychiatric assessment in the USSR].

    PubMed

    Friemert, K

    1988-11-01

    Basing on the author's experiences during his study stay at the Serbsky All-Union Research Institute for General and Forensic Psychiatry in Moscow a report is given about the theoretical foundations and the carrying-out of forensic-psychiatric expert-opinions in the field of penal as well as civil law in the U.S.S.R. Some peculiarities in comparison with the practice in the G.D.R. are taken in special account. PMID:3237873

  5. Integrating Digital Forensics in Network Infrastructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kulesh Shanmugasundaram; Hervé Brönnimann; Nasir D. Memon

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of integrating digital forensic capabilities into network infrastructures. Building a forensic\\u000a system for wide area networks has generally been considered infeasible due to the large volume of data that potentially has\\u000a to be processed and stored. However, it is opportune to revisit this problem in the light of recent advances in data streaming\\u000a algorithms, the

  6. Contemporary practice in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shalini; Agnihotri, Archana; Chandra, Akhilesh; Gupta, Om Prakash

    2014-05-01

    Forensic odontology plays a major role in the identification of those individuals who cannot be identified visually or by other means. The unique nature of dental anatomy and placement of custom restorations ensure accuracy when the techniques are correctly employed. It is evident that identification of victims in accidents and natural calamities is of utmost importance and is a challenging task. The teeth may also be used as weapons and under certain circumstances; they may provide information regarding the identity of the biter. Dental professionals play a major role in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize malpractices, negligence, fraud child abuse and also, identify an individual. In this article, we will discuss such evolvement of the subject. PMID:25328306

  7. Toxicological evidence in forensic pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Ferner, R E

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory evidence of the presence and concentration of a drug in a person who has come to harm is often helpful in forensic pharmacology, and may be crucial. However, its value depends on two critical interpretations by the expert. First, the expert must make a careful analysis of the relationship between the results as measured in the sample and the drug in the patient at the time that harm occurred. That is especially difficult with post-mortem samples. Secondly, the expert must syntheses the laboratory information with the available clinical history and clinical or pathological findings. Even in the most favourable circumstances, when the sample is correctly obtained, identified, and analyzed, it can be hard to say that beyond reasonable doubt a given concentration had a given effect. PMID:22436255

  8. Computer Forensics Education - the Open Source Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Ewa; Bem, Derek; Cheung, Hon

    In this chapter we discuss the application of the open source software tools in computer forensics education at tertiary level. We argue that open source tools are more suitable than commercial tools, as they provide the opportunity for students to gain in-depth understanding and appreciation of the computer forensic process as opposed to familiarity with one software product, however complex and multi-functional. With the access to all source programs the students become more than just the consumers of the tools as future forensic investigators. They can also examine the code, understand the relationship between the binary images and relevant data structures, and in the process gain necessary background to become the future creators of new and improved forensic software tools. As a case study we present an advanced subject, Computer Forensics Workshop, which we designed for the Bachelor's degree in computer science at the University of Western Sydney. We based all laboratory work and the main take-home project in this subject on open source software tools. We found that without exception more than one suitable tool can be found to cover each topic in the curriculum adequately. We argue that this approach prepares students better for forensic field work, as they gain confidence to use a variety of tools, not just a single product they are familiar with.

  9. Computer Forensics: you can hide but you canComputer Forensics: you can hide but you can''t deletet delete Dr. Nazli Hardy, 2009Reference: Computer Forensics: Principles and Practice

    E-print Network

    Hardy, Christopher R.

    1 Computer Forensics: you can hide but you canComputer Forensics: you can hide but you can''t deletet delete Dr. Nazli Hardy, 2009Reference: Computer Forensics: Principles and Practice Volonino Anzaldua Godwin Computer Forensics April 10, 2009 Presentation for Dr. Maria Schiza's Forensics class

  10. Forensic Botany: Using Plant Evidence to Aid in Forensic Death Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Miller Coyle; Cheng-Lung Lee; W en-Yu Lin; Timothy M. Palmbach

    Forensic botany is still an under-utilized resource in forensic casework, although it has been used on occasion. It is an area of specialty science that could include traditional botanical classification of spe- cies, DNA, or materials evidence (trace and transfer evidence), crime mapping or geo-sourcing, all de- pendent on the specific case application under consideration. Critical to the evaluation of

  11. A new standard of care for forensic mental health treatment: prioritizing forensic intervention.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Katherine D

    2015-06-01

    Many forensic psychiatric settings serve unique populations who have, in addition to traditional psychiatric symptoms, diverse legal and criminogenic needs. A lack of clear treatment standards that address all aspects of forensic care can lead to inefficient or inappropriate interventions and contribute to institutional violence. PMID:25882228

  12. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: A Legal Study Concerning the Forensic Sciences Personnel. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Oliver, Jr.

    The place and function of forensic sciences personnel in American criminal law and court procedure, and the criteria used by criminal trial judges and lawyers to assess the value of forensic sciences personnel were investigated. Federal, state, Virgin Island, and Puerto Rican laws were examined, and a search of the medical and legal literature…

  13. Application of ion mobility spectrometry in cases of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Keller, Thomas; Keller, Andrea; Tutsch-Bauer, Edith; Monticelli, Fabio

    2006-09-12

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been known as an analytical technique since the late 1960s and early 1970s. To date, it has been successfully utilized for the detection of environmental pollutants, warfare agents, explosives, herbicides, pesticides, petroleum products as well as for the detection of prescription and illicit drugs. In this paper the authors describe the use of the IMS technology in cases of forensic interest in Salzburg, Austria. We report the use of the IMS methodology for the rapid analysis of hallucinogenic mushroom material as well as for the analysis of samples taken after an explosion. A new application of the IMS technology for the analysis of postmortem sweat samples for drugs is also presented. PMID:16831529

  14. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  15. Forensic miRNA: potential biomarker for body fluids?

    PubMed

    Silva, Sarah S; Lopes, Cátia; Teixeira, A L; Carneiro de Sousa, M J; Medeiros, R

    2015-01-01

    In forensic investigation, body fluids represent an important support to professionals when detected, collected and correctly identified. Through many years, various approaches were used, namely serology-based methodologies however, their lack of sensitivity and specificity became difficult to set aside. In order to sidetrack the problem, miRNA profiling surged with a real potential to be used to identify evidences like urine, blood, menstrual blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions. MiRNAs are small RNA structures with 20-25 nt whose proprieties makes them less prone to degradation processes when compared to mRNA which is extremely important once, in a crime scene, biological evidences might be exposed to several unfavorable environmental factors. Recently, published studies were able to identify some specific miRNAs, however their results were not always reproducible by others which can possibly be the reflection of different workflow strategies for their profiling studies. Given the current blast of interest in miRNAs, it is important to acknowledge potential limitations of miRNA profiling, yet, the lack of such studies are evident. This review pretends to gather all the information to date and assessed a multitude of factors that have a potential aptitude to discrediting miRNA profiling, such as: methodological approaches, environmental factors, physiological conditions, gender, pathologies and samples storage. It can be asserted that much has yet to be made, but we pretend to highlight a potential answer for the ultimate question: Can miRNA profiling be used as the forensic biomarker for body fluids identification? PMID:25280377

  16. Statistical pre-processing and analyses of hydro-meteorological time series in a geologic clay site (methodology and first results for Mont Terri’s PP experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatmi, H.; Ababou, R.; Matray, J. M.

    This article presents a set of statistical methods for pre-processing (or pre-conditioning) and analyzing multivariate hydro-geologic time series, such as pore pressures and atmospheric pressure (temporal structures). The pre-processing methods are necessary to enhance or complete the signals due to defects in the observed time series (data gaps, spurious values, variable time steps). The statistical analyses aim, in fine, at characterizing the hydraulic behaviour of a clayey formation in the context of deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste. Pore water and atmospheric pressure time series from the Mont Terri rock laboratory (BPP-1 borehole) are taken as an example.

  17. Development of a forensic identity SNP panel for Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Augustinus, Daniel; Gahan, Michelle E; McNevin, Dennis

    2015-07-01

    Genetic markers included in forensic identity panels must exhibit Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium (HWE and LE). "Universal" panels designed for global use can fail these tests in regional jurisdictions exhibiting high levels of genetic differentiation such as the Indonesian archipelago. This is especially the case where a single DNA database is required for allele frequency estimates to calculate random match probabilities (RMPs) and associated likelihood ratios (LRs). A panel of 65 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a reduced set of 52 SNPs have been selected from 15 Indonesian subpopulations in the HUGO Pan Asian SNP database using a SNP selection strategy that could be applied to any panel of forensic identity markers. The strategy consists of four screening steps: (1) application of a G test for HWE; (2) ranking for high heterozygosity; (3) selection for LE; and (4) selection for low inbreeding depression. SNPs in our Indonesian panel perform well in comparison to some other universal SNP and short tandem repeat (STR) panels as measured by Fisher's exact test for HWE and LE and Wright's F statistics. PMID:25104323

  18. Significant dates in the history of forensic hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Scheflin, A W; Frischholz, E J

    1999-10-01

    Important dates in the history of forensic hypnosis are identified and their significance is briefly described. Trends regarding the use of forensic hypnosis are highlighted, as well as criticisms of various positions. The authors recommend that professionals who practice forensic hypnosis be thoroughly familiar with the significant precedents, problems, and pitfalls that have arisen concerning the use of hypnosis with memory in forensic settings. PMID:10624020

  19. Multiple personality and forensic issues.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D O; Bard, J S

    1991-09-01

    As clinicians become more sophisticated regarding MPD, we can expect many more cases to come to the court's attention, especially among violent offenders. This is because violence and MPD have very similar origins in early extraordinary physical and sexual abuse. As offenders become more knowledgeable, we can also expect to encounter more and better malingering. At this time, however, we are far more likely to overlook the problem than we are to overdiagnose it. Why is it that MPD is recognized so infrequently in the offender population? Probably because so many of its characteristics are similar to the symptoms associated with antisocial personality. For example, amnesia for behaviors is dismissed as lying, fugue states appear to be attempts to evade justice; finding things in one's possession looks like stealing; self-mutilation and suicide attempts seem manipulative; and the use of different names at different times and in different circumstances is interpreted as the conscious use of aliases in order to evade the law. Even the dramatic, at times heart-wrenching emotional catharses relating to abuse revealed during hypnosis are so painful that the average person has difficulty accepting that they happened and, therefore, dismisses them as exaggeration or total fabrication. Most often, the diagnosis is missed because the clinician does not even consider it a possibility. In this article we have reviewed some of the ways in which courts have approached the issue of MPD and some of the problems specific to its diagnosis in forensic settings. The clinician must keep in mind that in cases in which issues of mental illness are raised, the law reflects that which it is taught by alleged experts. The case law on multiple personality is still sparse, leaving much room for new data and new interpretations of these data. The current tendency to treat each alternate as though it were a whole and responsible individual as opposed to an imaginary construct, a symptom of a mental illness, reflects the confusion among clinicians as well as attorneys regarding the phenomenon of MPD. As we continue to learn more about the disorder and its forensic implications, we must be careful to avoid presenting to the court clinical impression as fact or mythology as truth. PMID:1946033

  20. MS Reference Libraries for Forensics: Past, Present and Future

    E-print Network

    Perkins, Richard A.

    MS Reference Libraries for Forensics: Past, Present and Future Forensics@NIST 2012 Steve Stein et al. NIST MS Data Center #12;Identification A Central Task in Forensics · People ­ DNA, Fingerprints, Features, ... · Objects ­ Clothing, Weapon, ... · Chemicals ­ Molecular Identity #12;Outline · Library

  1. Remarks on forensically interesting Sony Playstation 3 console features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugs, Gunnar; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals with forensically interesting features of the Sony Playstation 3 game console. The construction and the internal structure are analyzed more precisely. Interesting forensic features of the operating system and the file system are presented. Differences between a PS3 with and without jailbreak are introduced and possible forensic attempts when using an installed Linux are discussed.

  2. Forensic entomology: application, education and research in Western Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. R. Dadour; D. F. Cook; J. N. Fissioli; W. J. Bailey

    2001-01-01

    Forensic entomology as a science and a tool for investigation has had slow beginnings in Australia. A number of small animal decomposition trials have been recorded in the literature but mostly from an ecological rather than a forensic entomology perspective. In the last 20 years, a number of more forensically orientated field trials on small pigs and some fly developmental

  3. Recommended Practice: Creating Cyber Forensics Plans for Control Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Cornelius; Mark Fabro

    2008-01-01

    Cyber forensics has been in the popular mainstream for some time, and has matured into an information-technology capability that is very common among modern information security programs. The goal of cyber forensics is to support the elements of troubleshooting, monitoring, recovery, and the protection of sensitive data. Moreover, in the event of a crime being committed, cyber forensics is also

  4. Computer Forensics: An Essential Ingredient for Cyber Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Bassett; Linda Bass; Paul O'Brien

    Computer forensics uses computer investigation and analysis techniques to collect evidence regarding what happened on a computer that is admissible in a court of law. Computer forensics requires a well- balanced combination of technical skills, legal acumen, and ethical conduct. Computer forensics specialists use powerful software tools to uncover data to be sorted through, and then must figure out the

  5. Crime Scene Genetics: Transforming Forensic Science through Molecular Technologies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Melissa Lee Phillips (Freelance Science Writer; )

    2008-06-01

    Advances in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) technology over the past 25 years have led to spectacularly precise forensic identification techniques, although some applications have also unleashed controversies regarding genetic privacy. Current molecular forensic work is pushing these technologies even further by analyzing extremely damaged DNA and by introducing RNA (ribonucleic acid) techniques to forensics.

  6. Quality Assurance as Pedagogy for Academic Forensic Anthropology Laboratories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Warren; Traci Van Deest; Kristina Ballard

    2011-01-01

    A surety-based quality assurance program is the hallmark of an efficient and reliable forensic laboratory, as well as a basic requirement for accreditation and\\/or certification. Most forensic laboratories are staffed by professional scientists who have completed their education and training. However, many, if not most, forensic anthropology laboratories are placed in academic institutions in which graduate education is a primary

  7. The impact of full disk encryption on digital forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eoghan Casey; Gerasimos J. Stellatos

    2008-01-01

    The integration of strong encryption into operating systems is creating challenges for forensic examiners, potentially preventing us from recovering any digital evidence from a computer. Because strong encryption cannot be circumvented without a key or passphrase, forensic examiners may not be able to access data after a computer is shut down, and must decide whether to perform a live forensic

  8. Sensor Defects in Digital Image Forensic Jessica Fridrich

    E-print Network

    Fridrich, Jessica

    Chapter 1 Sensor Defects in Digital Image Forensic Jessica Fridrich Just as human fingerprints or skin blemishes can be used for forensic pur- poses, imperfections of digital imaging sensors can serve information for estimating an approximate age of digital photographs. This so-called temporal forensics

  9. On the role of file system metadata in digital forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian P. Buchholz; Eugene H. Spafford

    2004-01-01

    Most of the eort in today's digital forensics community lies in the retrieval and analysis of existing information from computing systems. Little is being done to increase the quantity and quality of the forensic information on today's computing systems. In this paper we pose the question of what kind of information is desired on a system by a forensic investigator.

  10. Design of a Digital Forensics Image Mining System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross Brown; Binh Pham; Olivier Y. De Vel

    2005-01-01

    Increasing amount of illicit image data transmitted via the internet has triggered the need to develop effective image mining systems for digital forensics purposes. This paper discusses the requirements of digital image forensics which underpin the design of our forensic image mining system. This system can be trained by a hierarchical Support Vector Machine (SVM) to detect objects and scenes

  11. XIRAF - XML-based indexing and querying for digital forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wouter Alink; R. A. F. Bhoedjang; Peter A. Boncz; Arjen P. De Vries

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a novel, XML-based approach towards managing and querying forensic traces extracted from digital evidence. This approach has been implemented in XIRAF, a prototype system for forensic analysis. XIRAF systematically applies forensic analysis tools to evidence files (e.g., hard disk images). Each tool produces structured XML annotations that can refer to regions (byte ranges) in an evidence file.

  12. BLOCK SIZE FORENSIC ANALYSIS IN DIGITAL IMAGES Steven Tjoa

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    BLOCK SIZE FORENSIC ANALYSIS IN DIGITAL IMAGES Steven Tjoa , W. Sabrina Lin , H. Vicky Zhao , and K@ece.ualberta.ca. To even begin forensic analysis for digital images, we must first address the presence of block processing, University of Alberta ­ Edmonton, AB TG6 2V4 Canada ABSTRACT In non-intrusive forensic analysis, we wish

  13. Setting Course: The Case for the Credentialing of Forensic Interviewers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Mike; Vieth, Victor I.; Campos, Hector M.

    2010-01-01

    The article provides a history of efforts to develop a credentialing or certification process for forensic interviewers and reviews the multitiered credentialing process offered by the National Association of Certified Child Forensic Interviewers. The authors argue the benefits of a credentialing process for forensic interviewers and respond to…

  14. Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

  15. Computer Forensics: Is It the Next Hot IT Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Victor G.; Revels, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Digital Forensics is not just the recovery of data or information from computer systems and their networks. It is not a procedure that can be accomplished by software alone, and most important, it is not something that can be accomplished by other than a trained IT forensic professional. Digital Forensics is an emerging science and was developed…

  16. Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    "Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics to…

  17. Knowledge discovery and experience modeling in computer forensics media analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chris Bogen; David A. Dampier

    2004-01-01

    This paper is presented to identify research goals for the modeling of experiences, lessons learned, and knowledge discovered during the analysis of digital evidence in a forensic investigation. Additionally this paper suggests how such models might be used to facilitate automated computer forensics media analysis tools. The scope of this paper, with respect to computer forensics, is limited to the

  18. The legal aspects of corporate computer forensic investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Taylor; John Haggerty; David Gresty

    2007-01-01

    The use of computer forensics was previously limited mainly to law enforcement agencies. However, UK organisations are increasingly undertaking computer forensics activities for incidents such as fraud, money laundering, accessing or distributing indecent images, harassment, industrial spying and identity theft amongst others. In this paper we examine the legal aspects of UK corporate computer forensic investigations.

  19. THE CASE FOR TEACHING NETWORK PROTOCOLS TO COMPUTER FORENSICS EXAMINERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary C. Kessler; Matt Fasulo

    Most computer forensics experts are well-versed in basic computer hardware technology, operating systems, common software applications, and computer forensics tools. And while many have rudimentary knowledge about the Internet and simple network-lookup tools, they are not trained in the analysis of network communication protocols and the use of packet sniffers. This paper describes digital forensics applications for network analysis and

  20. Automated method for the removal of unwanted nonperiodic patterns from forensic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capel, David; Zisserman, Andrew; Bramble, Simon K.; Compton, David

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this work is the removal of distracting background patterns from forensic evidence so that the evidence is rendered more visible. An example is the image of a finger print on a non-periodic background. The method involves registering the image with a control image of the background pattern that we seek to remove. A statistical comparison of the registered images identifies the latent mark.

  1. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  2. Role of the forensic psychiatric nurse.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Tamsen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The article clarifies the role of the forensic psychiatric nurse (FPN) and challenges interchangeable terms confusing forensic and correctional nursing. It addresses the varied venues where the FPN may assess the patient (victim or perpetrator) and gather evidence that may influence conviction, sentencing, recidivism, treatment, and prevention. In depth knowledge of medical and psychiatric nursing as well as the criminal justice system is germane to competent advanced practice forensic nursing. An analogy is drawn between the forensic assessment for risk of violence which is commonly performed by psychiatric nurses in Emergency Departments and the collection and preservation of evidence by medical nurses in Emergency Departments. Both instances require evidence-based techniques and a familiarity with forensic procedures and are often performed by nurses who are not specifically trained in these areas. A case analysis demonstrates the value of an in depth and broad assessment of victim and perpetrator. Evidence based training and the application of structured clinical judgment used in the evaluation of victims and perpetrators make it possible for the FNP to provide expert testimony and to make recommendations for treatment. PMID:19222692

  3. Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist

    PubMed Central

    Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D.; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C.; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public. PMID:23162478

  4. Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view

    PubMed Central

    Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth

    2012-01-01

    The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster. PMID:23087581

  5. Application of STR markers in wildlife forensic casework involving Australian black-cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus spp.).

    PubMed

    White, Nicole E; Dawson, Rick; Coghlan, Megan L; Tridico, Silvana R; Mawson, Peter R; Haile, James; Bunce, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Parrots and cockatoos are highly prized aviary birds and the demands for such species has fuelled their illegal trade and harvest from the wild. Here we report on three forensic case studies involving black-cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus spp.) endemic to Australia. These cases involve suspected poaching and illegal killing of endangered red- and white-tailed black-cockatoos. Through the prior development of 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci and population databases for white- and red-tailed black-cockatoos, the tools are available to conduct high-resolution paternity and individual identity testing. In one case, we matched a red-tailed black-cockatoo nestling to a tree hollow from which it was poached through the use of DNA from eggshell recovered from the nest. For the second case, we utilized our provenance population database (nest sites), and identified the kinship and geographic origin of a white-tailed black-cockatoo, which was illegally harvested from the wild. The third case determined the number individual white-tailed black-cockatoos allegedly shot at a fruit grower's orchard from body part remains. These genetic investigations highlight the significance and statistical confidence of DNA profiling and associated databases for endangered taxa, such as exotic birds. Our cockatoo population databases are the first of their kind in Australia, and demonstrate the efficacy of such approaches to identify such illegal activity. With a robust set of genetic markers and methodologies in place, we aim to broaden our population databases to include other cockatoo species of conservation concern. PMID:22101117

  6. 492 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 5, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2010 Forensic Detection of Image Manipulation Using

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    for digital image forensic tech- niques capable of detecting image alterations and forged images. A number probability of 7% or less. Index Terms--Contrast enhancement, digital forensics, digital image forgery, the field of digital image forensics has been born. Oneoftheprimarygoalsofdigitalimageforensicsistheidenti

  7. 1456 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 8, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2013 Robust Median Filtering Forensics Using an

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    of digital images, researchers have begun developing digital forensic techniques to identify image editing, noise residual, image forensics, autoregressive model. I. INTRODUCTION BECAUSE digital images can digital forensic researchers is median filtering [1]­[4], [25]. Median filtering is a nonlinear operation

  8. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession. A Survey of Educational Offerings in the Forensic Sciences. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kenneth S.; And Others

    This survey of the educational offerings in the Forensic Sciences was initiated to identify institutions and agencies offering educational courses and/or programs in the forensic sciences and to evaluate the availability of these programs. The information gathered by surveying members of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences reveals that…

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 1, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2006 311 Behavior Forensics for Scalable Multiuser

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 1, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2006 311 Behavior Forensics for Scalable Multiuser Collusion: Fairness Versus Effectiveness H. Vicky Zhao, Member, IEEE, and K security systems and offer stronger protection of multimedia, behavior forensics formulate the dynamics

  10. [Evidence based medicine (EBM) in health care system and treatment of individual patient. Part iii. Teaching of epidemiological methodology and statistics].

    PubMed

    Borkowski, W?odzimierz

    2009-01-01

    The question arises--what role the doctor will meet in the web society. Is it going to be a creative person in the assessment of knowledge and application at the bedside of the patient, disciplined executor of he clinical guidelines, or a loyal client of pharmaceutical companies. Medical theories are usually at the high degree of complexity, so the evaluation of the validity of the research questions, the adequacy ot models, appraisal of clinical trials, and the use of statistical analysis requires new teaching. Teaching epidemiology and statistics for EBM is designed to prepare doctors for applyinig scientific advances in clinical practice, skills in appraisal and use of the publicated results. Effects of teaching on courses organised by CMKP shows that the barrier in learning of statistical concepts are caused by defective curricula and their faulty implementation, and not by narrow perception of physicians. According to the author, such teaching should also be applied during graduated medical studies, as optional. After co-ordination with the physiology, genetics, biochemistry, informatics EBM oriented teaching would be particularly attractive for students who have a view on the work of research and research careers. Bearing in mind the time needed for implementation, it is urgent need to start this work as soon as possible. PMID:19899602

  11. Developing a one-semester course in forensic chemical science for university undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Roberta Sue

    The purpose of this study was to research, develop and validate a one-semester course for the general education of university undergraduates in forensic chemical education. The course outline was developed using the research and development (R&D) methodology recommended by Gall, Borg, and Gall, (2003) and Dick and Carey, (2001) through a three step developmental cycle. Information was gathered and analyzed through review of literature and proof of concept interviews, laying the foundation for the framework of the course outline. A preliminary course outline was developed after a needs assessment showed need for such a course. Professors expert in the area of forensic science participated in the first field test of the course. Their feedback was recorded, and the course was revised for a main field test. Potential users of the guide served as readers for the main field test and offered more feedback to improve the course.

  12. Elementary! A Nuclear Forensics Workshop Teaches Vital Skills to International Practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Cornelia P.; Minnema, Lindsay T.

    2014-04-01

    The article describes the Nuclear Forensics Workshop sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) and hosted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory October 28-November 8, 2013 in Richland,Washington. Twenty-six participants from 10 countries attended the workshop. Experts from from Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Pacific Northwest national laboratories collaborated with an internationally recognized cadre of experts from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and other U.S. agencies, IAEA, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the United Kingdom Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), and the European Union Joint Research Center Institute for Transuranium Elements, to train practitioners in basic methodologies of nuclear forensic examinations.

  13. A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

    2010-08-11

    The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

  14. The future of forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Butler, John M

    2015-08-01

    The author's thoughts and opinions on where the field of forensic DNA testing is headed for the next decade are provided in the context of where the field has come over the past 30 years. Similar to the Olympic motto of 'faster, higher, stronger', forensic DNA protocols can be expected to become more rapid and sensitive and provide stronger investigative potential. New short tandem repeat (STR) loci have expanded the core set of genetic markers used for human identification in Europe and the USA. Rapid DNA testing is on the verge of enabling new applications. Next-generation sequencing has the potential to provide greater depth of coverage for information on STR alleles. Familial DNA searching has expanded capabilities of DNA databases in parts of the world where it is allowed. Challenges and opportunities that will impact the future of forensic DNA are explored including the need for education and training to improve interpretation of complex DNA profiles. PMID:26101278

  15. Applying Machine Trust Models to Forensic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Marika; Venter, Hein; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin

    Digital forensics involves the identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of electronic evidence for use in legal proceedings. In the presence of contradictory evidence, forensic investigators need a means to determine which evidence can be trusted. This is particularly true in a trust model environment where computerised agents may make trust-based decisions that influence interactions within the system. This paper focuses on the analysis of evidence in trust-based environments and the determination of the degree to which evidence can be trusted. The trust model proposed in this work may be implemented in a tool for conducting trust-based forensic investigations. The model takes into account the trust environment and parameters that influence interactions in a computer network being investigated. Also, it allows for crimes to be reenacted to create more substantial evidentiary proof.

  16. Nuclear Forensics for High School Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, Catherine; Doss, Heide; Plisch, Monica; Isola, Drew; Mirakovitz, Kathy

    2011-04-01

    We developed an education module on nuclear forensics, designed for high school science classrooms. The lessons include a mix of hands-on activities, computer simulations, and written exercises. Students are presented with realistic scenarios designed to develop their knowledge of nuclear science and its application to nuclear forensics. A two-day teacher workshop offered at Hope College attracted 20 teachers. They were loaned kits to implement activities with their students, and each teacher spent 3--7 days on the lessons. All who reported back said they would do it again and would share the lessons with colleagues. Many said that access to equipment and ready-made lessons enabled them to expand what they taught about nuclear science and introduce nuclear forensics. A few teachers invited guest speakers to their classroom, which provided an excellent opportunity to share career information with students. We acknowledge generous support from the Department of Homeland Security and the AIP Meggars Award.

  17. Counter-forensics in machine learning based forgery detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Francesco; Poggi, Giovanni; Roli, Fabio; Sansone, Carlo; Verdoliva, Luisa

    2015-03-01

    With the powerful image editing tools available today, it is very easy to create forgeries without leaving visible traces. Boundaries between host image and forgery can be concealed, illumination changed, and so on, in a naive form of counter-forensics. For this reason, most modern techniques for forgery detection rely on the statistical distribution of micro-patterns, enhanced through high-level filtering, and summarized in some image descriptor used for the final classification. In this work we propose a strategy to modify the forged image at the level of micro-patterns to fool a state-of-the-art forgery detector. Then, we investigate on the effectiveness of the proposed strategy as a function of the level of knowledge on the forgery detection algorithm. Experiments show this approach to be quite effective especially if a good prior knowledge on the detector is available.

  18. Dem Bones Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alease S. Bruce

    2001-01-01

    In this case study, a forensic anthropologist must determine the age and sex as well as look for signs of trauma to a skeleton found in a shallow grave in a state park. Students simulate the actual procedures used in a forensics lab and learn to identify bones, landmarks, and anatomical features associated with sex, age, height, and pathology. The case was developed for use in a freshman-level human anatomy and physiology course. It could also be used in biology, anatomy, and anthropology courses.

  19. [Metabonomics and its perspective on forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gao-Qin; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Da-Ming; Liu, Yao

    2010-10-01

    Metabolomics is a new study, which use chromatography, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques on the cells, organs and other body fluids and metabolites in samples were isolated, purified and testing, re-use bioinformatics tools on the obtained data are analyzed to obtain one or a set of biomarker information. Based on analysis of the literatures in recent years, metabolomics was summarized from history, concept, advantage, methods, application, difficulties and challenges, journals and books, websites, and its application in forensic medicine was forecasted. As a new branch of global system biology, metabonomics developed rapidly, and its perspective on forensic medicine was feasible and very optimistic. PMID:21287744

  20. Location tracking forensics on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Stefan; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    The spread of navigation devices has increased significantly over the last 10 years. With the help of the current development of even smaller navigation receiver units it is to navigate with almost any current smart phone. Modern navigation systems are no longer limited to satellite navigation, but use current techniques, e.g. WLAN localization. Due to the increased use of navigation devices their relevance to forensic investigations has risen rapidly. Because navigation, for example with navigation equipment and smartphones, have become common place these days, also the amount of saved navigation data has risen rapidly. All of these developments lead to a necessary forensic analysis of these devices. However, there are very few current procedures for investigating of navigation devices. Navigation data is forensically interesting because by the position of the devices in most cases the location and the traveled path of the owner can be reconstructed. In this work practices for forensic analysis of navigation devices are developed. Different devices will be analyzed and it is attempted, by means of forensic procedures to restore the traveled path of the mobile device. For analysis of the various devices different software and hardware is used. There will be presented common procedures for securing and testing of mobile devices. Further there will be represented the specials in the investigation of each device. The different classes considered are GPS handhelds, mobile navigation devices and smartphones. It will be attempted, wherever possible, to read all data of the device. The aim is to restore complete histories of the navigation data and to forensically study and analyze these data. This is realized by the usage of current forensic software e.g. TomTology or Oxygen Forensic Suite. It is also attempted to use free software whenever possible. Further alternative methods are used (e.g. rooting) to access locked data of the unit. To limit the practical work the data extraction is focused on the frequently used device sample of a specific class, as the procedure for many groups of devices can be similar. In the present work a Garmin Dakota 10, a TomTom GO 700, an iPhone 4 (iOS) and a Samsung Galaxy S Plus (Android) is used because they have a wide circulation.

  1. [Forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yun-Liang; Peng, Ming-Qi

    2013-12-01

    As an important component of judicial expertise, forensic science is broad and highly specialized. With development of network technology, increasement of information resources, and improvement of people's legal consciousness, forensic scientists encounter many new problems, and have been required to meet higher evidentiary standards in litigation. In view of this, evidence-based concept should be established in forensic medicine. We should find the most suitable method in forensic science field and other related area to solve specific problems in the evidence-based mode. Evidence-based practice can solve the problems in legal medical field, and it will play a great role in promoting the progress and development of forensic science. This article reviews the basic theory of evidence-based medicine and its effect, way, method, and evaluation in the forensic medicine in order to discuss the application value of forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks. PMID:24665620

  2. Forensic science, genetics and wildlife biology: getting the right mix for a wildlife DNA forensics lab

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob Ogden

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife DNA forensics is receiving increasing coverage in the popular press and has begun to appear in the scientific literature\\u000a in relation to several different fields. Recognized as an applied subject, it rests on top of very diverse scientific pillars\\u000a ranging from biochemistry through to evolutionary genetics, all embedded within the context of modern forensic science. This\\u000a breadth of scope,

  3. Impurity Profiling of a Chemical Weapon Precursor for Possible Forensic Signatures by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography\\/Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamin C. Hoggard; Jon H. Wahl; Robert E. Synovec; Gary M. Mong; Carlos G. Fraga

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present the feasibility of using analytical chemical and chemometric methodologies to reveal and exploit the organic impurity profiles from commercial dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) samples to illustrate the type of forensic information that may be obtained from chemical-attack evidence. Using DMMP as a model compound for a toxicant that may be used in a chemical attack, we

  4. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Non-Thesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) Non-Thesis Option Catalog Year 2014-2015 Students Computer Forensics 1 CHS 5504 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Forensics CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 Subtotal: Subtotal: Restricted Elective Set 1: Take 2 Computing

  5. UCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) 0706M Nonthesis Option

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    Forensics 1 CNT 6418 Computer Forensics 2 CHS 5503 Topics in Forensic Science CIS 6207 The Practice of Digital Forensics Subtotal: Subtotal: Restricted Elective Set 1: Take 2 Computing Specialization CoursesUCF Digital Forensics MS Program of Study (POS) ­ 0706M Nonthesis Option Catalog Year 2011

  6. Statistical modeling and optimization of alkaline protease production from a newly isolated alkalophilic Bacillus species BGS using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Moorthy, Innasi Muthu Ganesh; Baskar, Rajoo

    2013-01-01

    A new hyperactive alkalophilic bacterial strain (Bacillus sp. BGS) was isolated from samples collected from soil that received the effluent of a milk processing industry located in Madurai, Tamilnadu, India, and this bacterial strain was used for the production of alkaline protease. Four out of eight variables, such as molasses, peptone, pH, and inoculum size, have been identified through Plackett-Burman (PB) design and used for the alkaline protease production. These significant variables were further optimized through a hybrid system of response surface methodology (RSM) followed by genetic algorithm (GA). The optimal combination of media components and culture conditions for maximal protease production was found to be 16.827 g/L of peptone, 1.128% (v/v) of molasses, pH value of 11, and 2% (v/v) of inoculum size. A 6.36-fold increase in protease production was achieved through the RSM-GA hybrid system. The protease activity increased significantly with an optimized medium (2,992.75 U/mL) as opposed to an unoptimized basal medium (470.35 U/mL). PMID:23379276

  7. Computer Forensics in Japan: A Preliminary Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jigang Liu; Tetsutaro Uehara

    2009-01-01

    Many national studies on computer forensics have been reported in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia, except Japan. As one of the economic powers in the world and the only Asian country represented in the G8, Japan has been playing a critical role in Asia as well as in the world in fighting against the cyber crime and

  8. Using spectral information in forensic imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon M. Miskelly; John H. Wagner

    2005-01-01

    Improved detection of forensic evidence by combining narrow band photographic images taken at a range of wavelengths is dependent on the substance of interest having a significantly different spectrum from the underlying substrate. While some natural substances such as blood have distinctive spectral features which are readily distinguished from common colorants, this is not true for visualization agents commonly used

  9. A Forensic Approach to Consumer Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Selman A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a forensic-oriented, college-level course in consumer chemistry. Includes course goals, topical outline, and list of chemical ingredients in consumer products useful for student research projects. The first section of the course focuses on mathematics since students in introductory courses may fear doing the most rudimentary mathematical…

  10. Online Database Coverage of Forensic Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Bonnie; Ifshin, Steven L.

    1984-01-01

    Online seaches of sample topics in the area of forensic medicine were conducted in the following life science databases: Biosis Previews, Excerpta Medica, Medline, Scisearch, and Chemical Abstracts Search. Search outputs analyzed according to criteria of recall, uniqueness, overlap, and utility reveal the need for a cross-database approach to…

  11. Chromatographic Techniques in Forensic Chemical Examinations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Fitsev; V. K. Blokhin; G. K. Budnikov

    2004-01-01

    Some aspects of the use of chromatographic analytical techniques in the forensic chemical examination of materials, substances, and products were considered. The detection and subsequent expert examination of various materials (psychoactive drugs, explosives, gunshot residues, etc.) was exemplified. It was demonstrated that the effectiveness and validity of the evidential matter of expert examinations can be provided by tdeveloping a uniform

  12. The Outpatient Forensic Substance Abuse Profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Cianciulli

    1993-01-01

    This study examines the reliability and validity of an instrument that is clinically useful for assessment of risk factors among chemically dependent populations in an outpatient forensic setting. It is reliable, both across time and internally, and demonstrates a high degree of user acceptance. There is good agreement between client scores and independent assessment of the same characteristics. Continued examination

  13. Developing Forensic Mental Healthcare in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Salize, Hans Joachim; Lavikainen, Juha; Seppänen, Allan; Gjocaj, Milazim

    2014-01-01

    In many economically struggling societies, forensic psychiatry is still in its initial developmental stages and thus forensic patients pose an ongoing challenge for the healthcare and juridical systems. In this article, we present the various issues and problems that arose when establishing the first forensic psychiatric institute in Kosovo – a country whose population has constantly been reported as suffering from a high psychiatric morbidity due to long-lasting traumatic experiences during the war of 1999. The implementation of a new forensic psychiatric institute in the developing mental healthcare system of Kosovo, still characterized by considerable shortages, required substantial effort on various levels. On the policy and financial level, it was made possible by a clear intent and coordinated commitment of all responsible national stakeholders and authorities, such as the Ministries of Health and Justice, and by the financial contribution of the European Commission. Most decisive in terms of the success of the project was capacity building in human resources, i.e., the recruitment and training of motivated staff. Training included essential clinical and theoretical issues as well as clearly defined standard operation procedures, guidelines, and checklists to aid daily routine work and the management of challenging situations. PMID:24779004

  14. A Forensic Camp for Talented Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levins, Lesley; Levins, Martin

    1995-01-01

    In the North West Region of New South Wales, a project was initiated in 1993 to address the lack of resources allocated to the talented science student. A four-day residential camp resulted, which was held in Armidale. The foci for the program were the scientific procedures and concepts involved in the practice of forensic science. (Author)

  15. Forensic Analysis of the Windows 7 Registry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khawla Abdulla Alghafli; Andrew Jones; Thomas Anthony Martin

    2010-01-01

    The recovery of digital evidence of crimes from storage media is an increasingly time consuming process as the capacity of the storage media is in a state of constant growth. It is also a difficult and complex task for the forensic investigator to analyse all of the locations in the storage media. These two factors, when combined, may result in

  16. Overcoming Impediments to Cell Phone Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Jansen; Aurélien Delaitre; Ludovic Moenner

    2008-01-01

    Cell phones are an emerging but rapidly growing area of computer forensics. While cell phones are becoming more like desktop computers functionally, their organization and operation are quite different in certain areas. For example, most cell phones do not contain a hard drive and rely instead on flash memory for persistent storage. Cell phones are also designed more as special-

  17. FORENSIC (MEDICO-LEGAL) NECROPSY OF WILDLIFE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Wobeser

    Post-mnortemim examination of wild animals for legal purposes has become increasingly comummmmoim. Special procedures are necessary during sucim necropsies to ensure thmat time information collected is suitable for use in a court of law. Forensic necropsies should be performed by pa- timologmsts with formal trainingand experience, because these credentials will be examined if a case reaches court. Timere mmmst be

  18. Trial by Science: A Forensic Extravaganza

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Vanessa Hunt

    2004-05-01

    This intriguing crime-solving activity for middle level students demonstrates some of the basics of forensic science; including the analysis of fingerprints, hair, fiber, and soil evidence. The realism of the scenario is enhanced by recruiting adult volunteers to serve as suspects that can be questioned and tried by students through the process of scientific inquiry.

  19. Forensic neuropsychological test usage: An empirical survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher W. Williams; John T. Dunn

    1996-01-01

    The frequency with which various psychological tests are administered in forensic evaluations was assessed. Data was gathered from reports of adult personal injury evaluations by 100 examiners identified as experts in neuropsychology. A rank ordering of tests from most to least used by examiners was created. For example, the most frequently used tests were the WAIS-R, MMPI, WMS-R, Trails A

  20. End-to-End Digital Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Stephenson

    2002-01-01

    ‘Getting the Whole Picture’ is a new series relevant to anyone who is regularly or occasionally involved in cyber-investigations during their career. You could be an information security specialist, an auditor, a fraud examiner or a member of law enforcment or have an interest in cybercrime, and the use of computer forensics to detect such crimes.

  1. Can we trust digital image forensics?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Gloe; Matthias Kirchner; Antje Winkler; Rainer Böhme

    2007-01-01

    Compared to the prominent role digital images play in nowadays multimedia society, research in the field of image authenticity is still in its infancy. Only recently, research on digital image forensics has gained attention by addressing tamper detection and image source identification. However, most publications in this emerging field still lack rigorous discussions of robustness against strategic counterfeiters, who anticipate

  2. Technical Challenges and Directions for Digital Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George M. Mohay

    2005-01-01

    Digital forensics is concerned with the investigation of any suspected crime or misbehaviour that may be manifested by digital evidence. The digital evidence may be manifest in various forms. It may be manifest on digital electronic devices or computers that are simply passive repositories of evidence that documents the activity, or it may consist of information or meta-information resident on

  3. Digital Forensics: Defining a Research Agenda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kara L. Nance; Brian Hay; Matt Bishop

    2009-01-01

    Abstract While many ,fields have ,well-defined research agendas, evolution of the field of digital forensics has been largely driven by practitionersin the field. As a result, the majority of the tools and practice have been,developed ,in response ,to a ,diverse set of specific threats or scenarios, rather than as the result ofa research and development plan. In June, 2008 agroup

  4. Transform Coder Classification for Digital Image Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Tjoa; Wan-yi Sabrina Lin; K. J. Ray Liu

    2007-01-01

    The area of non-intrusive forensic analysis has found many applica- tions in the area of digital imaging. One unexplored area is the iden- tification of source coding in digital images. In other words, given a digital image, can we identify which compression scheme was used, if any? This paper focuses on the aspect of transform coder clas- sification, where we

  5. Prosecuting Assaultive Forensic and Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Kerri C.; Reddon, John R.; Chudleigh, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Inpatient assault of forensic and psychiatric staff is a complex and multifaceted issue. Hence, the consequences reported in the literature regarding prosecuting assaultive inpatients are quite variable. In this article, issues pertaining to the prosecution of violent inpatients are reviewed. Illustrative cases, challenges of prosecution,…

  6. Cybercrime forensic system in cloud computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ChengYan

    2011-01-01

    The cloud is a virtual computing environment that provides applications, platforms and software support as services. The applications are extended over the Internet domain to the cloud service provider (CSP) with greater flexibility and availability at lower cost. Unfortunately, the cloud computing service also provides a better environment for criminals and increases the difficulties of cybercrime forensics. In this paper,

  7. Developing forensic mental healthcare in kosovo.

    PubMed

    Salize, Hans Joachim; Lavikainen, Juha; Seppänen, Allan; Gjocaj, Milazim

    2014-01-01

    In many economically struggling societies, forensic psychiatry is still in its initial developmental stages and thus forensic patients pose an ongoing challenge for the healthcare and juridical systems. In this article, we present the various issues and problems that arose when establishing the first forensic psychiatric institute in Kosovo - a country whose population has constantly been reported as suffering from a high psychiatric morbidity due to long-lasting traumatic experiences during the war of 1999. The implementation of a new forensic psychiatric institute in the developing mental healthcare system of Kosovo, still characterized by considerable shortages, required substantial effort on various levels. On the policy and financial level, it was made possible by a clear intent and coordinated commitment of all responsible national stakeholders and authorities, such as the Ministries of Health and Justice, and by the financial contribution of the European Commission. Most decisive in terms of the success of the project was capacity building in human resources, i.e., the recruitment and training of motivated staff. Training included essential clinical and theoretical issues as well as clearly defined standard operation procedures, guidelines, and checklists to aid daily routine work and the management of challenging situations. PMID:24779004

  8. DNA Profiling Technologies in Forensic Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Kashyap; P. Chattopadhyay; R. Trivedi

    2004-01-01

    KEYWORDS Forensic analysis; DNA profiling; RFLP; STRs; SNPs ABSTRACT The remarkable advances in DNA technologies over the past two decades have had an enormous impact on human identification, medical diagnosis, population genetics, understanding of evolution of species, wildlife management, characterization and unfolding the mysteries of antiquity of archaic specimens. This article presents an overview of the current technologies in the

  9. RICH EVENT REPRESENTATION FOR COMPUTER FORENSICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley Schatz; George Moha; Andrew Clark

    Recent advances in computer internetworking and continued increases in Internet usage have been accompanied by a continued increase in the inc idence of computer related crime. At the same time, the number of sources of potential evide nce in any particular computer forensic investigation has grown considerably, as evidence o f the occurrence of relevant events can potentially be drawn

  10. Computer Forensics Field Triage Process Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus K. Rogers; James Goldman; Rick Mislan; Timothy Wedge; Steve Debrota

    2006-01-01

    With the proliferation of digital based evidence, the need for the timely identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence is becoming more crucial. In many investigations critical information is required while at the scene or within a short period of time - measured in hours as opposed to days. The traditional cyber forensics approach of seizing a system(s)\\/media, transporting it

  11. Computer Forensic Analysis in a Virtual Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Bem; Ewa Huebner

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the potential role of virtual environments in the analysis phase of computer forensics investigations. General concepts of virtual environments and software tools are presented and discussed. Further we identify the limitations of virtual environments leading to the conclusion that this method can not be considered to be a replacement for conventional techniques of computer evidence

  12. Towards Automating Analysis in Computer Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bastian Schwittay

    Abstract In the recent past, the number of attacks on computer systems that are moti- vated by profit has increased significantly, and such “cybercrime” is expected to dominate the threat landscape in the future. With criminal acts becoming more common in computer related incidents, the need for Computer Forensic experts to provide admissible evidence for these crimes also rises. Since

  13. Computer Forensics in the Global Enterprise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melisa Bleasdale; Scott Mann; John Patzakis

    2003-01-01

    The increase in cyber-crime has created the need for security technologies that are always one step ahead of the criminal. Computer forensics and incident response solutions allow a corporation to self-regulate and investigate their infrastructure with a significantly increased level of assurance; identifying the root cause of an incident and verifying the integrity of critical information. Many countries have enacted

  14. A generalized Benford's law for JPEG coefficients and its applications in image forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dongdong; Shi, Yun Q.; Su, Wei

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, a novel statistical model based on Benford's law for the probability distributions of the first digits of the block-DCT and quantized JPEG coefficients is presented. A parametric logarithmic law, i.e., the generalized Benford's law, is formulated. Furthermore, some potential applications of this model in image forensics are discussed in this paper, which include the detection of JPEG compression for images in bitmap format, the estimation of JPEG compression Qfactor for JPEG compressed bitmap image, and the detection of double compressed JPEG image. The results of our extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed statistical model.

  15. A study of composite restorations as a tool in forensic identification

    PubMed Central

    Hemasathya, Bahavathi Ananthan; Balagopal, Sundaresan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Comparing ante-mortem and post-mortem dental data is a principal method of identification in forensic odontology. Radiographic images of amalgam have been used in dental forensics for identification due to their unique appearance. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether radio-opaque composite restorations have a potential for identification in forensic odontology. Materials and Methods: Thirty typodont mandibular first molar teeth were prepared with Class-II (proximo-occlusal) cavities and restored with a radio-opaque composite (Tetric N-Ceram). Two sets of standardized radiographs were taken from the 30 teeth, keeping the radiological parameters constant. One set of these 30 radiographs was named as SET 1. Ten randomly chosen radiographs from the other set and two other radiographs of Class-II composite restorations in typodont teeth constituted SET 2. Thirty dentally trained examiners were asked to match the 12 radiographic images of SET 2 with those of SET 1. Results: The results show that 15 examiners were able to correctly match all the 12 images. Statistical analysis was done using kappa statistical test. Conclusion: This study shows that, if the post-mortem radiographs are accurate duplicates of ante-mortem radiographs of composite restorations, then the shape of the composite restoration is unique and can be used for identification. PMID:23960413

  16. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-08-01

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. PMID:26101280

  17. Diversity and forensics: diversity in hiring is not enough.

    PubMed

    Koppl, Roger

    2007-04-01

    The current organization of forensic work may induce biases in forensic analysis (Risinger et al., 2002). Such biases may have a differential impact across groups, creating differential bias. We should reorganize forensic work to reduce this bias. The obvious strategy of hiring ethnically diverse forensic workers will not work. 'Us vs. Them' thinking is an important source of differential bias. The definitions of 'Us' and 'Them' are socially conditioned. The current organization of forensic work induces forensic workers to see the police as 'Us' and suspects of any ethnicity as 'Them'. Thus, differential biases in arrests become differential biases in forensic analysis. I argue that my prior proposal for 'competitive self regulation' (Koppl, 2005) would reduce or eliminate differential bias. Competitive self regulation divides forensic work among several, unrelated parties, and hides extraneous, bias-inducing information from forensic analysts. These measures separate forensic workers from the police, reduce their sense of identification with the police, and hide from them the knowledge of what result the police are looking for. My argument builds on a literature on biases, Us vs. Them thinking, and the role of 'coalitional alliances' (Kurzban et al., 2001) in bias formation. PMID:17520956

  18. Strengthen forensic entomology in court--the need for data exploration and the validation of a generalised additive mixed model.

    PubMed

    Baqué, Michèle; Amendt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Developmental data of juvenile blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are typically used to calculate the age of immature stages found on or around a corpse and thus to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval (PMI(min)). However, many of those data sets don't take into account that immature blow flies grow in a non-linear fashion. Linear models do not supply a sufficient reliability on age estimates and may even lead to an erroneous determination of the PMI(min). According to the Daubert standard and the need for improvements in forensic science, new statistic tools like smoothing methods and mixed models allow the modelling of non-linear relationships and expand the field of statistical analyses. The present study introduces into the background and application of these statistical techniques by analysing a model which describes the development of the forensically important blow fly Calliphora vicina at different temperatures. The comparison of three statistical methods (linear regression, generalised additive modelling and generalised additive mixed modelling) clearly demonstrates that only the latter provided regression parameters that reflect the data adequately. We focus explicitly on both the exploration of the data--to assure their quality and to show the importance of checking it carefully prior to conducting the statistical tests--and the validation of the resulting models. Hence, we present a common method for evaluating and testing forensic entomological data sets by using for the first time generalised additive mixed models. PMID:22370995

  19. Evaluation of dental expertise with intra-oral peri-apical view radiographs for forensic identification

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Kanwalpreet Kaur; Bhullar, Ramandeep S.; Balagopal, Sundaresan; Ganesh, Arathi; Rajan, Mathan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Identification of a dead person is important in starting the investigation into the circumstances of death. In the absence of forensic odontologist, it is vital that general dentists are able to compare the ante mortem-post mortem (AM-PM) records and with their ability, correctly interpret the individuality of the person. Aims: This study wascarried out to find out the accuracy with which undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate dentists can do this comparison, using the simulated AM-PM intra-oral peri-apical (IOPA) view radiographs. Setting and Design: A total of 60 investigators of which 20 undergraduate students, 20 general dentists, 20 post-graduate dentists viewed 10 pairs of simulated AM and PM radiographs and recorded their findings. Materials and Methods: Ten pairs of simulated AM-PM IOPA view radiographs were given to 60 dentists to investigate their discriminatory potential for dental identification purposes. The results were statistically analyzed. Statistical Analysis: ?2 -test and Mann-Whitney U-test were carried out to compare the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the three types of examiners (UG, G, PG). Results: The results showed sensitivity of 59.8%, specificity of 62.6%, accuracy of 61% for undergraduate students, sensitivity of 86.6%, specificity of 87.5%, accuracy of 87% for graduate doctors, sensitivity of 89.3%, specificity of 92.3% and accuracy of 90.5% for post-graduate doctors respectively. Conclusion: Inexperienced investigators in forensic identification showed fairly acceptable results, therefore, introduction of forensic odontology in an undergraduate course may help general dentists to provide better service, if required, in the absence of a forensic odontologist. PMID:25177139

  20. On the Typical Statistic Features for Image Blind Steganalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangyang Luo; Fenlin Liu; Shiguo Lian; Chunfang Yang; Stefanos Gritzalis

    2011-01-01

    Multimedia content is a suitable carrier for secret communication. This paper focuses on the steganalysis technique which aims to get the forensic of secrecy existing in multimedia carriers. A key concern for designing a blind steganalysis algorithm is the selection of statistic features. The Probability Density Function (PDF) moment and Characteristic Function (CF) moment are two typical kinds of statistic

  1. Sensor Noise Camera Identification: Countering Counter-Forensics Miroslav Goljan, Jessica Fridrich, and Mo Chen

    E-print Network

    Fridrich, Jessica

    . Keywords: Camera identification, digital forensics, photo-response non-uniformity, sensor fingerprint with more advanced forensic methods. Digital sensor fingerprints [1] are likewise vulnerable to forgingSensor Noise Camera Identification: Countering Counter-Forensics Miroslav Goljan, Jessica Fridrich

  2. Cognitive neuroscience in forensic science: understanding and utilizing the human element.

    PubMed

    Dror, Itiel E

    2015-08-01

    The human element plays a critical role in forensic science. It is not limited only to issues relating to forensic decision-making, such as bias, but also relates to most aspects of forensic work (some of which even take place before a crime is ever committed or long after the verification of the forensic conclusion). In this paper, I explicate many aspects of forensic work that involve the human element and therefore show the relevance (and potential contribution) of cognitive neuroscience to forensic science. The 10 aspects covered in this paper are proactive forensic science, selection during recruitment, training, crime scene investigation, forensic decision-making, verification and conflict resolution, reporting, the role of the forensic examiner, presentation in court and judicial decisions. As the forensic community is taking on the challenges introduced by the realization that the human element is critical for forensic work, new opportunities emerge that allow for considerable improvement and enhancement of the forensic science endeavour. PMID:26101281

  3. Reconsidering Data Logging in Light of Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Bin-Hui; Takahashi, Kenichi; Hori, Yoshiaki; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Logs record the events that have happened within in a system so they are considered the history of system activities. They are one of the objects that digital forensic investigators would like to examine when a security incident happens. However, logs were initially created for trouble shooting, and are not purposefully designed for digital forensics. Thus, enormous and redundant log data make analysis tasks complicated and time-consuming to find valuable information, and make logging-related techniques difficult utilized in some systems such as embedded systems. In this paper, we reconsider a data logging mechanism in terms of forensics and consequently, we propose purpose-based forensic logging. In purpose-based forensic logging, we only collect the required logs according to a specific purpose, which could decrease the space that logs occupy and may mitigate the analysis tasks during forensic investigations.

  4. STATISTICAL METHODS STATISTICAL METHODS

    E-print Network

    Delorme, Arnaud

    STATISTICAL METHODS 1 STATISTICAL METHODS Arnaud Delorme, Swartz Center for Computational@salk.edu. Keywords: statistical methods, inference, models, clinical, software, bootstrap, resampling, PCA, ICA Abstract: Statistics represents that body of methods by which characteristics of a population are inferred

  5. Development of the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology disaster victim identification forensic odontology guide.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J

    2009-12-01

    The need for documented procedures and protocols are important in every specialist group to ensure a consistent service to the community. They provide guidance to members of the specialist group about responsibilities and appropriate practices, and confidence to the community that the services are of the highest possible standard. In a Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) incident, by enabling the process to be audited, they also serve to ensure that identifications are reliable. Following the Bali Bombings of 2002 and the 2004 Asian Tsunami the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology recognised the need for a practice guide to assist the management of their members in DVI incidents. 31 members of the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology participated in the development of a guideline document for Disaster Victim Identification using a Delphi based model. The advantage of using the iterative Delphi process is that it encouraged participants to think about the processes used in the forensic odontology aspects of a DVI incident and their expectations of a guiding document. The document developed as a result of this project is comprehensive in coverage and places the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology at the vanguard of professionalism in the forensic odontology and DVI community. PMID:22785098

  6. Historical development of expertise in forensic chemical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Vycudilik

    2000-01-01

    The history of forensic chemical analysis shows a development from the mere quotation of a concentration value to an expert\\u000a opinion which helps to explain manifold circumstances of the case under consideration. The development of forensic expertises\\u000a on chemical problems connected to forensic medicine reveals two essential stages: 1. A period, when sensual perceptions were\\u000a the only means of investigation

  7. Best practice in forensic entomology—standards and guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Amendt; Carlo P. Campobasso; Emmanuel Gaudry; Christian Reiter; Hélène N. LeBlanc; Martin J. R. Hall

    2007-01-01

    Forensic entomology, the use of insects and other arthropods in forensic investigations, is becoming increasingly more important\\u000a in such investigations. To ensure its optimal use by a diverse group of professionals including pathologists, entomologists\\u000a and police officers, a common frame of guidelines and standards is essential. Therefore, the European Association for Forensic\\u000a Entomology has developed a protocol document for best

  8. iPhone examination with modern forensic software tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höne, Thomas; Kröger, Knut; Luttenberger, Silas; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to show the usefulness of modern forensic software tools for iPhone examination. In particular, we focus on the new version of Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit and compare it with Oxygen Forensics Suite 2012 regarding functionality, usability and capabilities. It is shown how these software tools works and how capable they are in examining non-jailbreaked and jailbreaked iPhones.

  9. An Embedded Bayesian Network Hidden Markov Model for Digital Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Y. De Vel; Nianjun Liu; Terry Caelli; Tibério S. Caetano

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a In the paper we combine a Bayesian Network model for encoding forensic evidence during a given time interval with a Hidden\\u000a Markov Model (EBN-HMM) for tracking and predicting the degree of criminal activity as it evolves over time. The model is evaluated\\u000a with 500 randomly produced digital forensic scenarios and two specific forensic cases. The experimental results indicate that\\u000a the

  10. A Term Distribution Visualization Approach to Digital Forensic String Search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moses Schwartz; Lorie M. Liebrock

    2008-01-01

    Digital forensic string search is vital to the forensic discovery process, but there has been little research on improving\\u000a tools or methods for this task. We propose the use of term distribution visualizations to aid digital forensic string search\\u000a tasks. Our visualization model enables an analyst to quickly identify relevant sections of a text and provides brushing and\\u000a drilling-down capabilities

  11. Basic research in evolution and ecology enhances forensics.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Benbow, M Eric; Tarone, Aaron M; Mohr, Rachel M

    2011-02-01

    In 2009, the National Research Council recommended that the forensic sciences strengthen their grounding in basic empirical research to mitigate against criticism and improve accuracy and reliability. For DNA-based identification, this goal was achieved under the guidance of the population genetics community. This effort resulted in DNA analysis becoming the 'gold standard' of the forensic sciences. Elsewhere, we proposed a framework for streamlining research in decomposition ecology, which promotes quantitative approaches to collecting and applying data to forensic investigations involving decomposing human remains. To extend the ecological aspects of this approach, this review focuses on forensic entomology, although the framework can be extended to other areas of decomposition. PMID:21185105

  12. Artefact in forensic medicine: non-missile penetrating injury.

    PubMed

    Patel, F

    1994-12-01

    Gunshot wounds are well characterised in forensic textbooks and atypical or unusual ballistic characteristics feature regularly in forensic literature. Forensic practitioners receive continuing education in recognising a variety of gunshot wounds which are created by bullet missiles. Awareness of a non-missile penetrating injury mimicking a gunshot wound is also relevant to forensic medical examiners or others who are likely to attend a scene of death. In this case, which involved self-stabbing with a metal nail, a homicidal firearm death investigation was instigated because of a misinterpretation by crime scene investigators. PMID:16371284

  13. Genome sizes of forensically relevant Diptera.

    PubMed

    Picard, C J; Johnston, J S; Tarone, A M

    2012-01-01

    Genome size estimates for both sexes of forensically relevant Diptera from 17 species (four families) are reported herein. Average genome sizes ranged from 425.8 Mb for female Chrysomya rufifacies to 1,197.4 Mb for male Haematobia irritans. These estimates are useful not only for molecular studies, but also for determination of the species and sex of immatures. Species in three of the sampled families had sexually dimorphic genome sizes, presenting a new tool useful for the determination of sex in these species, especially in the immature stages where sexes are morphologically difficult or impossible to identify. In addition, closely related species had significantly different genome sizes, suggesting the use of flow cytometry as a new tool for species identification of some species of forensically relevant larvae. PMID:22308788

  14. An IP Traceback Model for Network Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilli, Emmanuel S.; Joshi, R. C.; Niyogi, Rajdeep

    Network forensics deals with capture, recording, analysis and investigation of network traffic to traceback the attackers. Its ultimate goal is to provide sufficient evidence to allow the perpetrator to be prosecuted. IP traceback is an important aspect in the investigation process where the real attacker is identified by tracking source address of the attack packets. In this paper we classify the various approaches to network forensics to list the requirements of the traceback. We propose a novel model for traceback based on autonomous systems (AS) and deterministic packet marking (DPM) to enable traceback even with a single packet. The model is analyzed against various evaluation metrics. The traceback solution will be a major step in the direction of attack attribution and investigation.

  15. Forensic science: the truth is out there

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Lynne D.

    2002-06-01

    Criminalistics, one of the many sub-divisions of forensic science, is an applied science in which items of evidence are analyzed to provide investigative information and scientific evidence to be used in courts of law. Laboratories associated with governmental public agencies are typically involved in criminal cases as opposed to civil cases, and those types of cases that fall within the jurisdiction of the particular agency. Common analytical divisions within criminalistics laboratories include blood alcohol testing, toxicology, narcotics, questioned documents, biology, firearms, latent fingerprints, physical and trace evidence sections. Specialized field investigative services may be provided in the areas of clandestine drug laboratories and major crimes (firearms, biology, trace, arson/explosives). Forensic science best practice requires the use of non-destructive testing whenever reasonably possible. Several technically difficult situations (bodies and evidence encased in cement and metal) are presented as a challenge to audience.

  16. Transposition of teeth: A forensic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Supriya; Mogra, Subraya; Shetty, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    Dental identification plays a key role in mass casualties and is usually based on disturbances of tooth eruption, malocclusions and/or previous dental treatments, changes brought about by age, pathological conditions and developmental disturbances. Tooth transposition is a disturbance of tooth eruption and is defined as change in the position of two adjacent teeth within the same quadrant. This review aims to discuss the prevalence and the etiology of transposition through a literature survey and to discuss its importance and implications as pertaining to the field of forensics. In summary, transposition is a rare and severe positional anomaly that represents a challenge for a dentist. It requires a keen eye on the part of the forensic pathologist to identify the condition. PMID:25177135

  17. Next generation DRM: cryptography or forensics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Arnaud

    2009-02-01

    Current content protection systems rely primarily on applied cryptographic techniques but there is an increased use of forensic solutions in images, music and video distribution alike. The two approaches differ significantly, both in terms of technology and in terms of strategy, and thus it begs the question: will one approach take over in the long run, and if so which one? Discussing the evolution of both cryptographic and forensic solutions, we conclude that neither approach is ideal for all constituents, and that in the video space at least they will continue to co-exist for the foreseeable future - even if this may not be the case for other media types. We also analyze shortcomings of these approaches, and suggest that new solutions are necessary in this still emerging marketplace.

  18. Alleged biological father incest: a forensic approach.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Vânia; Jardim, Patrícia; Taveira, Francisco; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo J; Magalhães, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Paternal incest is one of the most serious forms of intrafamilial sexual abuse with clinical, social, and legal relevance. A retrospective study was performed, based on forensic reports and judicial decisions of alleged cases of biological paternal incest of victims under 18 years old (n = 215) from 2003 to 2008. Results highlight that in a relevant number of cases: victims were female; the abuse begun at an early age with reiteration; the alleged perpetrator presented a history of sexual crimes against children; sexual practices were physically poorly intrusive, which associated with a forensic medical evaluation performed more than 72 h after the abuse, explain partially the absence of physical injuries or other evidence-these last aspects are different from extrafamilial cases. In conclusion, observations about paternal incest are likely to exacerbate the psychosocial consequences of the abuse and may explain the difficulty and delay in detect and disclose these cases. Few cases were legally prosecuted and convicted. PMID:24180349

  19. [Forensic aspects of gunshot suicides in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Meyer, Harald J; Kraus, Sybille

    2013-12-01

    Suicidal gunshot wounds are a common appearance in forensic casework. The main task of the coroner lies in the detection of typical pathomorphological correlates, thus differentiating between homicide, suicide and accident. Apart from characteristic bloodstain patterns on the gun and shooting hand, the localisation of the entrance wound and the position of the weapon, additional details such as family background or medical history are important aspects of forensic investigation. An uncommon choice of weaponry and its unusual morphological manifestation often complicate the examination and reconstruction of such cases. Furthermore, due to social stigmatisation, the possibility of secondary changes by relatives at the crime scene should be considered. In addition to autopsy findings, a careful crime scene investigation and bloodstain pattern analysis, a ballistic reconstruction can be an essential tool to gain knowledge of the shooting distance and position of the gun. PMID:23857247

  20. Recent Developments in Bootstrap Methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Davison; D. V. Hinkley; G. A. Young

    2003-01-01

    Ever since its introduction, the bootstrap has provided both a powerful set of\\u000asolutions for practical statisticians, and a rich source of theoretical and methodological\\u000aproblems for statistics. In this article, some recent\\u000adevelopments in bootstrap methodology are reviewed and discussed.\\u000aAfter a brief introduction\\u000ato the bootstrap, we consider the following topics at varying levels of detail: the use

  1. Cyber Forensics Ontology for Cyber Criminal Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heum Park; Sunho Cho; Hyuk-Chul Kwon

    2009-01-01

    We developed Cyber Forensics Ontology for the criminal investigation in cyber space. Cyber crime is classified into cyber\\u000a terror and general cyber crime, and those two classes are connected with each other. The investigation of cyber terror requires\\u000a high technology, system environment and experts, and general cyber crime is connected with general crime by evidence from\\u000a digital data and cyber

  2. Digital Forensics II: Course Outline and Syllabus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Center for Systems Security and Information Assurance (CSSIA) provides this zip file with a course outline and syllabus document for an advanced computer forensics course. The syllabus is a sample one, which could be adapted to suit any course on this topic. It includes information about the course, required textbook and other materials, course goals, outline, classroom policies and grading policies. An additional document with a course outline is also included in the zip file.

  3. Forensics 1: Course Outline and Syllabus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Center for Systems Security and Information Assurance (CSSIA) provides this zip file with a course outline and syllabus document for an introductory computer forensics course. The syllabus is a sample one, which could be adapted to suit any course on this topic. It includes information about the course, required textbook and other materials, course goals, outline, classroom policies and grading policies. A Unix file with an additional course outline is also included in the ZIP file.

  4. A brief history of forensic entomology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Benecke

    2001-01-01

    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century) and later artistic contributions, the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the late 1880s by Reinhard and Hofmann, whom we propose recognizing as co-founders of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin’s popular book on

  5. Forensic investigation of failed airfield test pavements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Field and laboratory forensic studies were conducted to investigate the failure mechanisms of four different flexible test\\u000a pavement sections at the Federal Aviation Administration's National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF), a state-of-the-art\\u000a full scale pavement test facility dedicated solely to airport pavement research. The first set of test pavements constructed\\u000a at the NAPTF included a total of nine test sections

  6. Approach of forensic medicine to gossypiboma

    PubMed Central

    Karakaya, M. Arif; Koç, Okay; Ekiz, Feza; A?açhan, A. Feran

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors and preventive measures for gossypibomas and their medico-legal implications in forensic medicine in the Turkish legal system. Material and Methods: This study involved a retrospective analysis of the records of 39 patients with gossypiboma. Records were available from the Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institution and were surveyed for faulty treatment between 2008 and 2012. Parameters such as distribution of the cases according to specializations, elective and emergency procedures, surgical procedures, radio-opaque sponge and fluoroscopy availability, routine sponge and instrument counting, number of nurses for counting, and control of the operative field by a second surgeon were investigated. Results: All cases were evaluated by the Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institute 3rd Expertise Committee. This committee comprised of specialists from the departments of forensic medicine, orthopedics and traumatology, general surgery, neurology, internal medicine, pediatrics, chest disease, and infectious diseases. All cases were considered as poor medical practice (malpractice) and surgeons were found to be responsible. In 16 of these 39 cases (41%) emergency procedures were performed. No unexpected event was reported in any procedure. In 16 cases (41%), sponge count was performed and was reported to be complete. Operation notes were available in 16 (41%) cases. Control of the operative field was performed by 1 surgeon, and sponge and instrument count was performed by 1 scrub nurse. Radio-opaque sponge and fluoroscopy were available in 9 (23%) centers in these cases. Conclusion: Gossypiboma can be prevented not only with surgeons’ care but also with adequate support of medical device and material. However, it is considered as a poor medical practice. Presence of only 1 general surgeon in the expertise committee and ignorance of the working conditions by the surgeons should be questioned. PMID:26170754

  7. Microanalytical Methods for Bio-Forensics Investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L N Brewer; P K Weber; R P Grant; S Ghosal; J R Michael

    2006-01-01

    Forensics investigations of bio-crime or bio-terrorism incidents require careful analysis of collected evidentiary material. Although the biological markers in the evidentiary material are important (e.g. genomic signatures, protein markers), the elemental make-up of the organisms themselves and the surrounding non-biological material is extremely useful for attributing a specific process and, perhaps, specific persons to the production of the biological agent.

  8. Reproducibility of Digital Evidence in Forensic Investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Pan; Lynn Margaret Batten

    2005-01-01

    We present a three-component model of a digi- tal investigation which comprises: determination of input-output layers, assignment of read and write operations associated with use of forensic tools, and time-stamping of read and write operations. This builds on work of several authors, culminating in the new model presented here which is generic, scal- able and compatible with all functions in

  9. Suspicious childhood injury: formulation of forensic opinion.

    PubMed

    Skellern, Catherine; Donald, Terence

    2011-11-01

    Child protection paediatricians have a role as forensic experts in the context of suspicious childhood injury. The task of forensic evaluation of suspicious injury is to reach a conclusion to support legal proceedings. For each injury, one of four conclusions should be reached: 1 The injury has been caused by another person and is considered to have been inflicted. 2 The injury is adequately explained by the circumstances of the injury event provided (by the carer or other witnesses). 3 The injury is self-inflicted - has been caused by the child's own behaviour as a result of normal childhood activity (with no other person actively involved). 4 The mechanism or sequence of events leading to the injury remains indeterminate or unclear. An additional consideration is determining the extent to which an injury incident was foreseeable and therefore preventable, to form an opinion on whether lack of care (neglect) is involved. Opinions reflect a body of knowledge in forensic and medical literature of known mechanisms of injury including biomechanical aspects of tissue injury in trauma scenarios. Limitations in using research documenting injury type and prevalence at different developmental stages is discussed and in particular, the application of such research to support a conclusion that the injury must have been inflicted. Emerging recognition of research documenting injuries that overlap with those found in populations of children thought to have been physically assaulted creates some doubt on previous opinions regarding exclusivity of certain findings in children definitively indicating 'abuse'. Forensic paediatricians should remain objective, limit their opinions to what can be confidently stated and exercise caution where reasonable doubt exists and avoid speculation. PMID:20598073

  10. Advancing the science of forensic data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Timothy S.

    2002-07-01

    Many individual elements comprise a typical forensics process. Collecting evidence, analyzing it, and using results to draw conclusions are all mutually distinct endeavors. Different physical locations and personnel are involved, juxtaposed against an acute need for security and data integrity. Using digital technologies and the Internet's ubiquity, these diverse elements can be conjoined using digital data as the common element. This result is a new data management process that can be applied to serve all elements of the community. The first step is recognition of a forensics lifecycle. Evidence gathering, analysis, storage, and use in legal proceedings are actually just distinct parts of a single end-to-end process, and thus, it is hypothesized that a single data system that can also accommodate each constituent phase using common network and security protocols. This paper introduces the idea of web-based Central Data Repository. Its cornerstone is anywhere, anytime Internet upload, viewing, and report distribution. Archives exist indefinitely after being created, and high-strength security and encryption protect data and ensure subsequent case file additions do not violate chain-of-custody or other handling provisions. Several legal precedents have been established for using digital information in courts of law, and in fact, effective prosecution of cyber crimes absolutely relies on its use. An example is a US Department of Agriculture division's use of digital images to back up its inspection process, with pictures and information retained on secure servers to enforce the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act. Forensics is a cumulative process. Secure, web-based data management solutions, such as the Central Data Repository postulated here, can support each process step. Logically marrying digital technologies with Internet accessibility should help nurture a thought process to explore alternatives that make forensics data accessible to authorized individuals, whenever and wherever they need it.

  11. Forensic pharmacovigilance: Newer dimension of pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Sewal, Rakesh K; Saini, Vikas K; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-08-01

    Drug safety for the patients is of paramount importance for a medical professional. Pharmacovigilance attempts to ensure the safety of patients by keeping a close vigil on the pattern of adverse events secondary to drug use. Number of medicolegal cases is at rise since last few years. Forensic sciences and pharmacovigilance need to work hand in hand to unlock the mystery of many criminal and civil proceedings. Pharmacovigilance offers its wide scope in forensic sciences by putting forward its expertise on adverse profile of drugs which may be instrumental in solving the cases and bringing the justice forth. It may range from as simple affairs as defining the adverse drug reaction on one hand to putting expert advice in critical criminal cases on the other one. Pharmacovigilance experts have to abide by the ethics of the practice while executing their duties as expert else it may tarnish the justice and loosen its dependability. As a budding discipline of science, it is confronted with several hurdles and challenges which include reluctance of medical professionals for being involved in court proceedings, extrapolations of facts and data and variations in law across the globe etc. These challenges and hurdles call the medical fraternity come forward to work towards the momentous application of pharmacovigilance in the forensic sciences. Evidence based practice e.g. testing the biological samples for the presence of drugs may prove to be pivotal in the success of this collaboration of sciences. PMID:26165669

  12. Perceptions of ethical problems by forensic psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, R

    1989-01-01

    A survey was undertaken of the opinions of two groups of forensic psychiatrists to determine their views regarding forensic ethical issues. Although AAPL has made significant strides for our profession by adopting ethical guidelines, some important issues have not yet been addressed, as revealed by our survey. Included were items heretofore considered too "controversial" for incorporation into guidelines, as well as items from the APA ethical framework. All APA items were evaluated as addressing ethical problems. The majority of respondents also viewed most of the "controversial" items as confronting relevant ethical problems, thereby suggesting their inclusion, in some form, in the profession's guidelines. They also appeared to favor retention of many traditional medical ethical values when functioning as a forensic psychiatrist. Clear selective discrimination existed among differing death penalty facets. Since AAPL at present does not wish to conduct its own ethics hearings, the AAPL guidelines as well as the items supported in this paper's survey would best be translated into a form consistent with the APA framework. In this way, AAPL's guidelines and also the new suggested items could readily be coordinated within the APA framework and could play a role in the APA local district branch enforcement process. PMID:2758120

  13. Implant bone integration importance in forensic identification.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Odontological identification consists of the comparison of antemortem dental information regarding a missing person with postmortem data from an unidentified corpse or human remains. Usually, the comparison concerns morphologic features that the operator chooses among all the visible characteristics because of inter-individual uniqueness; for this reason, implants can be of enormous assistance. A case concerning the recovery of a burnt oral implant, connected to a bone fragment, among 2780 charred bone fragments, suspected to have belonged to a victim of homicide, is presented to demonstrate that dental implants and their site of bone integration represent a very precious element for personal forensic identification. Because of their morphological invariability in time and because of their morphologic uniqueness, they were used as evidence to associate unidentified human charred remains to a missing person where DNA analysis failed to do so. The case illustrates the fundamental contribution, not yet described in literature, given by the clinical aspects of tooth replacement with dental implants to a forensic discipline. Clinical practitioners should therefore be aware of the great importance of their work and of dental records in a forensic identification scenario. PMID:25387697

  14. Supportive housing and forensic patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Salem, Leila; Crocker, Anne G; Charette, Yanick; Seto, Michael C; Nicholls, Tonia L; Côté, Gilles

    2015-06-01

    In Canada, Review Boards are mandated to evaluate individuals found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD) on an annual basis and render 1 of 3 dispositions: (a) custody, (b) conditional discharge, or (c) absolute discharge. To promote social reintegration, conditional discharge can be ordered with the condition to live in supportive housing. However, NCRMD accused face great barriers to housing access as a result of the stigma associated with the forensic label. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of housing in the clinical and criminal trajectories of forensic patients as they reintegrate into the community. Data for this study were extracted from a national study of individuals found NCRMD in Canada (Crocker, Nicholls, Seto, Côté, et al., in press). The present study focuses on a random sample of NCRMD accused in the province of Québec, who were under a conditional discharge disposition during the study period (n = 837). Controlling for sociodemographic, clinical, and criminal variables, survival analysis showed that individuals placed in independent housing following a conditional discharge from the Review Board were 2.5 times more likely to commit a new offense, nearly 3 times more likely to commit an offense against a person, and 1.4 times more likely to be readmitted for psychiatric treatment compared with individuals residing in supportive housing. These results point to the influence housing can have on the trajectories of forensic patients, above and beyond a range of clinical, criminological, and sociodemographic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25365472

  15. Bayesian calibration for forensic age estimation.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Luigi; Skrami, Edlira; Gesuita, Rosaria; Cameriere, Roberto

    2015-05-10

    Forensic medicine is increasingly called upon to assess the age of individuals. Forensic age estimation is mostly required in relation to illegal immigration and identification of bodies or skeletal remains. A variety of age estimation methods are based on dental samples and use of regression models, where the age of an individual is predicted by morphological tooth changes that take place over time. From the medico-legal point of view, regression models, with age as the dependent random variable entail that age tends to be overestimated in the young and underestimated in the old. To overcome this bias, we describe a new full Bayesian calibration method (asymmetric Laplace Bayesian calibration) for forensic age estimation that uses asymmetric Laplace distribution as the probability model. The method was compared with three existing approaches (two Bayesian and a classical method) using simulated data. Although its accuracy was comparable with that of the other methods, the asymmetric Laplace Bayesian calibration appears to be significantly more reliable and robust in case of misspecification of the probability model. The proposed method was also applied to a real dataset of values of the pulp chamber of the right lower premolar measured on x-ray scans of individuals of known age. PMID:25645903

  16. Data mining in forensic image databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geradts, Zeno J.; Bijhold, Jurrien

    2002-07-01

    Forensic Image Databases appear in a wide variety. The oldest computer database is with fingerprints. Other examples of databases are shoeprints, handwriting, cartridge cases, toolmarks drugs tablets and faces. In these databases searches are conducted on shape, color and other forensic features. There exist a wide variety of methods for searching in images in these databases. The result will be a list of candidates that should be compared manually. The challenge in forensic science is to combine the information acquired. The combination of the shape of a partial shoe print with information on a cartridge case can result in stronger evidence. It is expected that searching in the combination of these databases with other databases (e.g. network traffic information) more crimes will be solved. Searching in image databases is still difficult, as we can see in databases of faces. Due to lighting conditions and altering of the face by aging, it is nearly impossible to find a right face from a database of one million faces in top position by a image searching method, without using other information. The methods for data mining in images in databases (e.g. MPEG-7 framework) are discussed, and the expectations of future developments are presented in this study.

  17. Advances in forensic DNA quantification: a review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steven B; McCord, Bruce; Buel, Eric

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses upon a critical step in forensic biology: detection and quantification of human DNA from biological samples. Determination of the quantity and quality of human DNA extracted from biological evidence is important for several reasons. Firstly, depending on the source and extraction method, the quality (purity and length), and quantity of the resultant DNA extract can vary greatly. This affects the downstream method as the quantity of input DNA and its relative length can determine which genotyping procedure to use-standard short-tandem repeat (STR) typing, mini-STR typing or mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Secondly, because it is important in forensic analysis to preserve as much of the evidence as possible for retesting, it is important to determine the total DNA amount available prior to utilizing any destructive analytical method. Lastly, results from initial quantitative and qualitative evaluations permit a more informed interpretation of downstream analytical results. Newer quantitative techniques involving real-time PCR can reveal the presence of degraded DNA and PCR inhibitors, that provide potential reasons for poor genotyping results and may indicate methods to use for downstream typing success. In general, the more information available, the easier it is to interpret and process the sample resulting in a higher likelihood of successful DNA typing. The history of the development of quantitative methods has involved two main goals-improving precision of the analysis and increasing the information content of the result. This review covers advances in forensic DNA quantification methods and recent developments in RNA quantification. PMID:25088961

  18. DNA methylation and application in forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Kader, Farzeen; Ghai, Meenu

    2015-04-01

    DNA methylation of cytosine residues is a stable epigenetic alteration, beginning as early as foetal development in the uterus and continuously evolving throughout life. DNA methylation as well as other epigenetic modifications such as chromatin remodelling and histone modifications are indispensable in mammalian development. Methylation is to a large extent influenced by the ageing process, diets and lifestyle choices. Our understanding of this crucial modification may even contribute to the treatment and prevention of age-related illnesses in the very near future. Genome-wide methylation analysis using high throughput DNA technologies has discovered numerous differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) which differ in levels of methylation in various cell types and tissues. TDMRs have been useful in various applications, particularly medicine and forensic sciences. Forensic scientists are constantly seeking exciting and novel methods to aid in the reconstruction of crime scenes, and the analysis of tDMRs represents a new and reliable technique to identify biological fluids and tissues found at the scene of a violent act. Not only has research been able to unequivocally identify various fluids and tissues, but methods to determine the sex, age and phenotype of donors has been developed. New tDMRs in genes are being searched for consistently to serve as novel markers in forensic DNA analysis. PMID:25732744

  19. [Historical outline of forensic medicine in Poland and its connections with forensic medicine in German-speaking countries].

    PubMed

    Raszeja, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    The author briefly presented development of forensic medicine as a separate branch of medical sciences in Poland from the end of the Middle Ages to date. He comments on conditions in which forensic medicine developed after partitions of Poland and its restoration of independence. He emphasized the merits of Prof. Wachholz and his pupils, as well as the great publishing effort of forensic scientists during the interwar period and after World War II. He did not fail to highlight links between Polish and German forensic medicine and quotes numerous examples of very close contacts between both communities in this field. PMID:15782775

  20. AVIAN/WIND STATISTICAL PEER REVIEW PROJECT

    E-print Network

    ............................................................................................................................................ 7 WAS THE STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY USED ON THE ANALYSIS CONSISTENT WITH ACCEPTED METHODS USEDAVIAN/WIND STATISTICAL PEER REVIEW PROJECT Prepared for: California Energy Commission Prepared by IN OTHER BIO-STATISTICAL ANALYSES

  1. Forensic Science Methods Called Into Question by National Academies Report

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinnell, Max

    2009-02-20

    Study Calls for Oversight of Forensics in Crime Labs http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/19/us/19forensics.htmlCall For Forensics Overhaul Linked to 'CSI' Effecthttp://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=100831831Forensics under the microscopehttp://www.chicagotribune.com/news/specials/chi-forensics-specialpackage,0,4244313.specialStrengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forwardhttp://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12589#tocForensic Magazinehttp://www.forensicmag.com/DNA Forensics [Flash Player, pdf]http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtmlU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory [pdf, Flash Player]http://www.lab.fws.gov/The average person watching any number of procedural crime television shows might be forgiven if he or she believed that every piece of carpet fiber or DNA can lead to a "case closed" finale. In real life, forensic science isn't nearly as infallible as it appears on television, and that is something that has troubled many at the National Academy of Sciences. In a report released this Wednesday, the National Academy of Sciences research team found that in 2005 there was a backlog of 359,000 requests for forensic analysis and that 80 percent of all crime laboratories are understaffed. The report went on to call into question the scientific merit of practically every commonly used forensic method of analysis, including the analysis of ballistics, arson, hair, and fingerprints. The team of scholars who wrote the report also recommended that the United States should standardize forensic tests and assume responsibility for the certification of forensic experts. These findings have garnered attention from the general public, the law enforcement community, and elected officials such as Senator Patrick Leahy (D) of Vermont. In a recent interview with the New York Times, Leahy commented, "I am troubled by the report's general finding that far too many forensic disciplines lack the standards necessary to ensure their scientific reliability in court."The first link will take users to a New York Times article from this Wednesday, which talks a bit about this recent report. The second link leads to an audio piece from National Public Radio about the report and how it might transform forensic science. Moving on, the third link leads to a very fine set of investigative articles on forensic science from the Chicago Tribune. The fourth link will whisk users away to the full-text of the Academies' recent report on the state of forensic science. The fifth link leads to the homepage of Forensic Science magazine. Here, visitors can learn more about the field and read articles from current and past editions of the publication. The sixth link leads to a set of resources on DNA forensic analysis offered by the Human Genome Project. Finally, the last link leads to the homepage of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory, which is "the only lab in the world dedicated to crimes against wildlife."

  2. Adult forensic age estimation using mandibular first molar radiographs: A novel technique

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Deepu George; Rajesh, S; Koshi, Elizabeth; Priya, Lakshmi E; Nair, Amal S; Mohan, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop an independent procedure for estimating age for Indian individuals using radiographs of multi-rooted posterior teeth with accuracy needed in forensic age prediction. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomography (OPG) was obtained for 88 subjects. The subjects were divided into two sub sets; study subset (n = 60) which were used to find regression formula to calculate the age from pulp chamber height and test subset (n = 28) which were used to test the accuracy of this formula. Results: There was a statistically significant strong correlation between chronological age and pulp chamber crown root trunk height ratio (r = ?0.56; P = 0.000). The regression equation for estimating the age, derived from the study subset was estimated age = ?100.920 (PCTHR) +55.415. (PCTHR is the pulp chamber crown root trunk height ratio). This equation was applied on the test subset and there was no significant difference between estimated ages and chronological ages (P = 0.639). The mean absolute error (MAE) was 6.96 years, which was within acceptable error limits for forensic age estimation (<±10 years). Conclusion: The procedure developed to estimate the age using height reduction in pulp chamber was found to be fairly accurate to perform forensic age prediction in Indian individuals. PMID:23960417

  3. Wildlife molecular forensics: identification of the Sardinian mouflon using STR profiling and the Bayesian assignment test.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Rita; Cabras, Pierangela; Fanelli, Rita; Carboni, Giuseppe L

    2011-08-01

    A forensic short tandem repeat (STR) typing test using a population database was developed to investigate an instance of poaching on the protected Sardinian mouflon. The case study involves a suspected poacher found in possession of a carcass, which he claimed was that of a sheep from his flock and had died accidentally. His claim was refuted by the molecular forensic analyses as DNA typing and the Bayesian assignment test revealed the carcass to be mouflon-derived; the genetic profile of the carcass matched also that of additional trace evidence collected by forestry officers at the scene of the kill. The matching evidence led to the poacher being charged with the illegal harvest of protected wildlife. Molecular techniques, in combination with a reference population database, and the appropriate statistical evaluation of genetic information, are fundamental to wildlife forensics. This approach allows DNA testing to be accepted in court as submissible evidence in the fight against poaching and other crimes involving wildlife. PMID:21371958

  4. Caput succedaneum and facial petechiae--birth-associated injuries in healthy newborns under forensic aspects.

    PubMed

    Wisser, Matthias; Rothschild, Markus A; Schmolling, Jan C; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2012-05-01

    In cases of suspected neonaticide, the results of a forensic autopsy might be important for conviction or acquittal. But autopsy findings in dead newborns are often unspecific and can rarely provide corroborative evidence of inflicted injury, as they are known to occur during normal birth as well. In our study, we examined 59 vaginally delivered, healthy newborns within the first 30 min after birth to know more about the prevalence and possible correlations of a caput succedaneum and facial petechiae. Caput succedaneum occurred in 33.9%, facial petechiae in 20.3%. As for the occurrence of caput succedaneum, statistically significant differences could be shown for the duration of delivery and the mother's parity. These correlations could not be shown for the occurrence of facial petechiae. Within the scope of our study, we could demonstrate that neither caput succedaneum nor facial petechiae are rare findings in healthy newborns. In the forensic investigation of suspected neonaticide, their potential significance can only be ascertained together with further investigations of the circumstances of death and a thorough forensic pathological autopsy. PMID:22120972

  5. Femoral subtrochanteric shape variation in Albania: implications for use in forensic applications.

    PubMed

    McIlvaine, B K; Schepartz, L A

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates temporal trends in femoral subtrochanteric shape in Albanian skeletal material to evaluate levels of platymeria in a set of populations with European ancestry. Although flattening of the diaphysis in the subtrochanteric region has been associated with individuals of Native American and Asian ancestry, high levels of platymeria may not be unique to those groups. The forensic utility of Gilbert and Gill's (Skeletal Attribution of Race: Methods for Forensic Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, 1990) method for identifying ancestry from femoral subtrochanteric shape is examined using non-American skeletons of European ancestry. Femoral subtrochanteric anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters for Albanian skeletons from Apollonia (n=117) and Lofkënd (n=50) are assessed for temporal trends and then compared with published data using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests. High degrees of subtrochanteric flattening are identified in the Albanian samples and statistically significant temporal trends of decreasing platymeria are documented. Although recent publications suggest that subtrochanteric shape is less effective in identifying ancestry then was initially proposed, forensic anthropologists still commonly use femoral subtrochanteric shape to determine ancestry among skeletonized remains. This paper's findings support the assertion that proximal femoral morphology is functionally related, and more likely to be influenced by biomechanical adaptation and body proportions than genetic constraints. PMID:25500529

  6. Staff Beliefs about Why People with Learning Disabilities Self-Harm: A Q-Methodology Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Katie; Gleeson, Kate; Johnstone, Lucy; Weston, Clive

    2011-01-01

    Staff beliefs about self-harm can influence staff responses to the behaviour. Existing research into staff beliefs about self-harm by people with learning disabilities is limited, with qualitative research restricted to forensic services. The aim of this study was to use Q-methodology to explore staff beliefs about why people with learning…

  7. A methodology for finger mark research.

    PubMed

    Sears, V G; Bleay, S M; Bandey, H L; Bowman, V J

    2012-09-01

    Currently there is no standard way of carrying out research into finger mark enhancement techniques. Individuals, groups or establishments tend to use different methodologies depending on a number of factors, especially finance and time. However, data published in the literature can be misleading to the forensic community if the data generated reflects research involving very few finger marks or if those finger marks have been deliberately doped with an unnatural balance of sweat or an unusual contaminant. This paper presents an experimental methodology which is intended to establish minimum standards for those carrying out finger mark enhancement research (at least within the United Kingdom) and bring some consistency to the process. It will aim to identify the many variables encountered when dealing with finger marks and suggest experimental methods to take these into account. It will also present the key stages of the progression of a process from a laboratory concept to a tool used on operational work. PMID:22841138

  8. Getting in touch—3D printing in Forensic Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Chr. Ebert; Michael J. Thali; Steffen Ross

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing use of medical imaging in forensics, as well as the technological advances in rapid prototyping, we suggest combining these techniques to generate displays of forensic findings. We used computed tomography (CT), CT angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface scanning with photogrammetry in conjunction with segmentation techniques to generate 3D polygon meshes. Based on these data sets,

  9. Closing forensic psychiatric hospitals in Italy: a new revolution begins?

    PubMed

    Barbui, Corrado; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2015-06-01

    On 30 May 2014 the Italian Parliament approved a new law regarding forensic psychiatric hospitals. Forensic psychiatric hospitals are facilities that admit individuals who have committed a criminal offence but lack criminal responsibility because of a mental disorder and are deemed as dangerous to public safety. Here we report the key aspects of the new legislation together with some critical considerations. PMID:26034177

  10. Forensic Rhetoric: A Strategy for Cross-Cultural Conflict Resolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William B. Chapel

    A foundation for human communication was laid down with the basics of classical rhetorical persuasion. A key element of this persuasive foundation was preserved through the teachings of Aristotle, particularly in his definitions and descriptions of forensic rhetoric. He argued that effective forensic rhetoric provides a positive persuasive model for resolving conflicts. This paper's purpose is to delineate the Aristotelian

  11. Fear and Loathing in Forensics: The View from Postmodern Suburbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, B. Keith

    This report attempts to construct a postmodern framework to provide for an analysis of Intercollegiate Forensics. It isolates the major theoretical constructs of postmodernism, applies them to Intercollegiate Forensics, and draws conclusions. The paper maintains that linguistic-based postmodernism consists of four theoretical areas: (1)…

  12. Microbial forensics—Taking diagnostic microbiology to the next level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald M Atlas

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to the diagnostic needs of medical practice and the epidemiologic needs of public health, microbial forensics for legal proceedings requires much more detailed characterization of microbial isolates and special processing procedures for producing legal evidence. Microbial forensic analyses for biocrimes and acts of bioterrorism ultimately are needed in court to answer the following questions: where did the specific

  13. Plants & Perpetrators: Forensic Investigation in the Botany Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amy E.

    2006-01-01

    Applying botanical knowledge to a simulated forensic investigation provides inquiry-based and problem-based learning in the botany classroom. This paper details one such forensic investigation in which students use what they have learned about plant morphology and anatomy to analyze evidence and solve a murder mystery. (Contains 1 table.)

  14. Barriers to research utilisation among forensic mental health nurses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Carrion; Phil Woods; Ian Norman

    2004-01-01

    This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive design to identify barriers to research utilisation among forensic mental health nurses. A postal questionnaire was sent to the total population of 88 registered nurses working in a forensic mental health hospital in the UK. Forty-seven responded representing a response rate of 53%. Results showed that the greatest barriers to research utilisation were those

  15. Forensic Science, Wrongful Convictions, and American Prosecutor Discretion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DENNIS J. STEVENS

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: A hot controversy exists about the reliability of forensic science as reported by prime-time drama television series in bringing violent criminals to justice. This exploratory research will show that neither forensics or its fictionalised (CSI Effect) accounts, nor substantial evidence secured by police investigators, shape prosecutor decisions to charge a suspect with a crime, which can often result in

  16. Network forensics based on fuzzy logic and expert system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niandong Liao; Shengfeng Tian; Tinghua Wang

    2009-01-01

    Network forensics is a research area that finds the malicious users by collecting and analyzing the intrusion or infringement evidence of computer crimes such as hacking. In the past, network forensics was only used by means of investigation. However, nowadays, due to the sharp increase of network traffic, not all the information captured or recorded will be useful for analysis

  17. FORESIGHT: A Business Approach to Improving Forensic Science Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max M. Houck; Richard A. Riley; Tom S. Witt

    2009-01-01

    Managers of scientific laboratories see themselves as scientists first and managers second; consequently, they tend to devalue the managerial aspects of their jobs. Forensic laboratory managers are no different, but the stakes may be much higher given the importance of quality science to the criminal justice system. The need for training and support in forensic laboratory management has been recognized

  18. Forensic Friends Voice a Helping Hand in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodenhamer, Julia A.

    Volunteers are those who find that they have the ability to change at least one other person's life for the better. Public service programs can be established within the forensics medium. Such programs as "Kids on the Block," which uses puppetry to teach about individual differences, can benefit from forensics experience. Dramatic expertise,…

  19. Neglect of the elderly: forensic entomology cases and considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Benecke; Eberhard Josephi; Ralf Zweihoff

    2004-01-01

    Wounds of living persons are a potential target for the same flies that live, or feed early on corpses. This can lead to complications in estimation of PMI but also allows to determine additional information that might be valuable in a trial, or during the investigations [e.g., M. Benecke, R. Lessig, Child neglect and forensic entomology, Forensic Sci. Int. 120

  20. Application of DNA-Based Methods in Forensic Entomology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey D. Wells; Jamie R. Stevens

    2008-01-01

    A forensic entomological investigation can benefit from a variety of widely practiced molecular genotyping methods. The most commonly used is DNA-based specimen identification. Other applications include the identification of insect gut contents and the characterization of the population genetic structure of a forensically important insect species. The proper application of these procedures demands that the analyst be technically expert. However,

  1. Activity of the forensic entomology department of the French Gendarmerie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Gaudry; Jean-Bernard Myskowiak; Bernard Chauvet; Thierry Pasquerault; Fabrice Lefebvre; Yvan Malgorn

    2001-01-01

    The criminal research Institute of the French Gendarmerie deals with several disciplines which are part of forensic science. Forensic entomology is one of the last laboratories created in Rosny-Sous-Bois. As with all other departments of the Institute, its main mission is carrying out its expertise on behalf of justice. Another important mission is to educate on one hand the “scene

  2. The Ex-Director as a Forensics Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Robert S.

    When directors of forensics stop coaching and travelling with their teams, they often seek other roles to enable them to continue their affiliation with forensic activities. A closer look at five commonly held assumptions about the motivation of ex-directors shows that: (1) after active coaching ends, ex-directors do take on different roles in…

  3. Psychology 331-001/901: Forensic Dr. Don Dutton

    E-print Network

    Handy, Todd C.

    Psychology 331-001/901: Forensic Psychology 2014 Dr. Don Dutton "the proper design of public) Course Website: · URL: courses.drdondutton.com · Enrollment Key: psyc331201408231513 · 2 #12;Psychology 331 (Forensic Psychology) · applications of psychology to the criminal justice system · Psychological

  4. Personality Characteristics of Undergraduates with Career Interests in Forensic Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberti, Jonathan W.

    2004-01-01

    The author assessed personality scores for 47 undergraduates enrolled in a forensic identification program. Results revealed no difference between men and women enrolled in the Forensic Identification Program on subscales of the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V), with the exception of Experience Seeking. Participants had lower Disinhibition scores…

  5. Application Layer Information Forensics Based on Packet Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruining Guo; Tianjie Cao; Xuan Luo

    2010-01-01

    The work presented in this paper focuses on acquiring the original illegal information hidden in the network data traffic, to provide reliable digital evidence for the network crime cases. Directing toward the data transmission based on Web service, the paper designed a total-part type forensics modal, and implemented a passive network forensics system under the windows system. The technology and

  6. Forensic detection of median filtering in digital images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Cao; Yao Zhao; Rongrong Ni; Lifang Yu; Huawei Tian

    2010-01-01

    In digital image forensics, prior works are prone to the detection of malicious tampering. However, there is also a need for developing techniques to identify general content-preserved manipulations, which are employed to conceal tampering trails frequently. In this paper, we propose a blind forensic algorithm to detect median filtering (MF), which is applied extensively for signal denoising and digital image

  7. Content-Based Image Retrieval for Digital Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yixin Chen; Vassil Roussev; Golden G. Richard III; Yun Gao

    2005-01-01

    Digital forensic investigators are often faced with the task of manually examining a large number of (photographic) images in order to identify potential evidence. The task can be especially daunting and time-consuming if the target of the investigation is very broad, such as a web hosting service. Current forensic tools are woefully inadequate in facilitating this process and are largely

  8. Printer Profiling for Forensics and Ballistics Department of Computer Science

    E-print Network

    Farid, Hany

    Processing]: Miscellaneous General Terms Security Keywords Digital Tampering, Digital Forensics, DocumentPrinter Profiling for Forensics and Ballistics Eric Kee Department of Computer Science Dartmouth. That was a mistake, which we deeply regret." In an increasingly digital age, printed and scanned doc- uments

  9. An Ad Hoc Review of Digital Forensic Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark M. Pollitt

    2007-01-01

    Digital forensics has been the subject of academic study for a relatively brief period of time. One of the foundational ways in which researchers try to understand the scientific basis of a discipline is to construct models which reflect their observations. This paper reviews a collection of fifteen published papers which represent data points in the development of digital forensic

  10. Automated recognition of event scenarios for digital forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathon Abbott; Jim Bell; Andrew Clark; Olivier Y. De Vel; George M. Mohay

    2006-01-01

    The authors have previously developed the ECF (Event Correlation for Forensics) framework for scenario matching in the forensic investigation of activity manifested in digital transactional logs. ECF incorporated a suite of log parsers to reduce event records from heterogeneous logs to a canonical form for lodging in an SQL database. This paper presents work since then, the Auto-ECF system, which

  11. Victims Deserve More: The Building of a Forensics Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lili K.

    2007-01-01

    Because victims deserve more, The American Academy of Applied Forensics at Central Piedmont Community College was created to link cutting-edge forensics research to its field applications. It does this by enhancing the knowledge, skill, and ability levels of crime scene investigators, thereby increasing the likelihood that truth will be revealed…

  12. Curriculum and Course Materials for a Forensic DNA Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    The Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) requires accredited programs offer a "coherent curriculum" to ensure each student gains a "thorough grounding of the natural…sciences." Part of this curriculum includes completion of a minimum of 15 semester-hours forensic science coursework, nine of which…

  13. Forensic Software Engineering: an overview CIS, University of Kingston, UK

    E-print Network

    Hatton, Les

    , that of the prevention of defect. In this context, Forensic Software Engineering is an amalgam of techniques specifically their equivalents in the physical world give good predictive behaviour in the elimination of defect. It Forensic Software Engineering: an overview Les Hatton CIS, University of Kingston, UK December 19

  14. (O12) Blended Learning in Forensic Pathology - the way forward?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Cassella; Sally Cassella

    The rise in the public interest in Forensic Science, essentially due the media, has seen a continual rise in the numbers of undergraduate and postgraduate forensic science courses and student applications in the UK. This continues to be pedagogically challenging to academic science departments, due to increasing student numbers and also in part to the criticism of course content and

  15. Forensic identification by computer-aided craniofacial superimposition: a survey

    E-print Network

    Granada, Universidad de

    superimposition is a forensic process where a photograph of a missing person is com- pared with a skull found: Forensic identification, craniofacial superimposition, photo- graphic supra-projection, skull-face superimposition, photographic superimposition, video super- imposition, skull modeling, decision making 1

  16. Genetic analysis of fingernail debris: application to forensic casework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Fernández-Rodr??guez; M. J Iturralde; L Fernández de Simón; J Capilla; M Sancho

    2003-01-01

    DNA typing of fingernail debris in cases in which a struggle is suspected can be a relevant issue in forensic casework. In this study, we analyzed 106 samples of fingernail material from 40 forensic cases. A mixture of the victim and the offender was found in eight samples from the victims' fingernails in six different criminal cases, allowing the identification

  17. [Research progress on the phenotype informative SNP in forensic science].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xuan; Hu, Qing-Qing; Ma, Hong-Du; Huang, Dai-Xin

    2014-10-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) refers to the single base sequence variation in specific location of the human genome. Phenotype informative SNP has gradually become one of the research hot spots in forensic science. In this paper, the forensic research situation and application prospect of phenotype informative SNP in the characteristics of hair, eye and skin color, height, and facial feature are reviewed. PMID:25735077

  18. Luminescence analysis for radiological and nuclear forensic application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel A. Spooner; Barnaby W. Smith

    2008-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses recombination luminescence and its use in forensic radiation dosimetry. Recombination luminescence techniques offer a new capability for radiological forensic analysis of sites and vehicles previously cleared of isotopic contamination, enabling the determination of the prior presence of radioactive materials. This key ability, to provide radiation exposure data after the ionising radiation sources and radioisotopes have been

  19. Favorite Demonstration: Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brian R. Shmaefsky

    2006-09-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of a forensics-based demonstration encourages science majors to move beyond their own narrow fields of study. The demonstration described in this column emphasizes the interconnectedness of biology, chemistry, and geology. Forensic-based demonstrations such as this can also be used to introduce the protocols governing the application of discipline specific information to other fields of study.

  20. A survey of forensic psychiatrists' views on psychopathic disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemarie Cope

    1993-01-01

    All forensic psychiatrists working in regional secure units (RSUs), Special Hospitals (SHs) and other forensic settings in England, Scotland and Wales were sent a questionnaire, with the aim of canvassing their views on psychopathic disorder (PD). The questionnaire, which used case vignettes, included questions about current legislation, treatment and treatability, dangerousness, facilities and decision-making. Of the 94 questionnaires sent out,