These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Quantitative structure朼ctivity relationship (QSAR) methodology in forensic toxicology: Modeling postmortem redistribution of structurally diverse drugs using multivariate statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postmortem redistribution (PMR) constitutes a multifaceted process, which renders the analytical results of drug concentrations inaccurate to be interpreted by forensic toxicologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether quantitative structure朼ctivity relationship (QSAR) methodology could serve as an effective tool to estimate the ability of drugs to redistribute across tissue barriers during postmortem period on the basis

Costas Giaginis; Anna Tsantili-Kakoulidou; Stamatios Theocharis

2009-01-01

2

Statistics in Practice Forensic Science  

E-print Network

". 路 Greater use of trace evidence (paint/glass/fibres). 路 DNA revolution. The rise of DNA was coincident in Practice 颅 p.2/36 #12;Forensic Science Greater realisation that uncertainty is important has lead to: 路 Trace evidence (glass/paint/fibres) being treated statistically. 路 More evidence types: 路 common

Lucy, David

3

Statistical Tools for Forensic Analysis of Toolmarks  

SciTech Connect

Recovery and comparison of toolmarks, footprint impressions, and fractured surfaces connected to a crime scene are of great importance in forensic science. The purpose of this project is to provide statistical tools for the validation of the proposition that particular manufacturing processes produce marks on the work-product (or tool) that are substantially different from tool to tool. The approach to validation involves the collection of digital images of toolmarks produced by various tool manufacturing methods on produced work-products and the development of statistical methods for data reduction and analysis of the images. The developed statistical methods provide a means to objectively calculate a ''degree of association'' between matches of similarly produced toolmarks. The basis for statistical method development relies on ''discriminating criteria'' that examiners use to identify features and spatial relationships in their analysis of forensic samples. The developed data reduction algorithms utilize the same rules used by examiners for classification and association of toolmarks.

David Baldwin; Max Morris; Stan Bajic; Zhigang Zhou; James Kreiser

2004-04-22

4

Statistical Tools for Digital Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digitally altered photograph, often leaving no visual clues of having been tampered with, can be indistinguishable from an authentic photograph. As a result, photographs no longer hold the unique stature as a denitive recording of events. We describe several statistical techniques for detecting traces of digital tampering in the absence of any digital watermark or signature. In particular, we

Alin C. Popescu; Hany Farid

2004-01-01

5

Forensic anthropology casework-essential methodological considerations in stature estimation.  

PubMed

The examination of skeletal remains is a challenge to the medical examiner's/coroner's office and the forensic anthropologist conducting the investigation. One of the objectives of the medico-legal investigation is to estimate stature or height from various skeletal remains and body parts brought for examination. Various skeletal remains and body parts bear a positive and linear correlation with stature and have been successfully used for stature estimation. This concept is utilized in estimation of stature in forensic anthropology casework in mass disasters and other forensic examinations. Scientists have long been involved in standardizing the anthropological data with respect to various populations of the world. This review deals with some essential methodological issues that need to be addressed in research related to estimation of stature in forensic examinations. These issues have direct relevance in the identification of commingled or unknown remains and therefore it is essential that forensic nurses are familiar with the theories and techniques used in forensic anthropology. PMID:22372398

Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Menezes, Ritesh G; Ghosh, Abhik

2012-03-01

6

Evaluation of novel forensic DNA storage methodologies.  

PubMed

An issue in forensic sciences is the secure storage of extracted DNA. Most of the time, DNA is frozen at -20癈 or -80癈. Recently, new room temperature DNA storage technologies have been developed based on anhydrobiosis. Two products use this technology: Qiasafe (Qiagen) and Gentegra (Genvault). In this study we focused on the recent Gentegra product and initiated a comparison versus -20癈 and Qiasafe storage. We compared the quantity and quality of DNA stored using anhydrobiosis technology against DNA stored at -20癈, by performing STR profiling after short term storage. Furthermore, we studied the quantity and integrity of DNA after long term storage. Our results prove the high potential of this technology but it seems to be extraction dependent. Phenol/chloroform extracted DNA could be stored using the Gentegra matrix for more than 6 months without any obvious degradation. However, DNA extracted using magnetic beads could not be safely stored over the same period. Adaptations are therefore required to store this kind of samples. PMID:20837408

Frippiat, Christophe; Zorbo, Sabrina; Leonard, Daniel; Marcotte, Anne; Chaput, Mariella; Aelbrecht, Charlotte; Noel, Fabrice

2011-11-01

7

Statistical inference and forensic evidence: evaluating a bullet lead match.  

PubMed

This experiment tested the ability of undergraduate mock jurors (N=295) to draw appropriate conclusions from statistical data on the diagnostic value of forensic evidence. Jurors read a summary of a homicide trial in which the key evidence was a bullet lead "match" that was either highly diagnostic, non-diagnostic, or of unknown diagnostic value. There was also a control condition in which the forensic "match" was not presented. The results indicate that jurors as a group used the statistics appropriately to distinguish diagnostic from non-diagnostic forensic evidence, giving considerable weight to the former and little or no weight to the latter. However, this effect was attributable to responses of a subset of jurors who expressed confidence in their ability to use statistical data. Jurors who lacked confidence in their statistical ability failed to distinguish highly diagnostic from non-diagnostic forensic evidence; they gave no weight to the forensic evidence regardless of its diagnostic value. Confident jurors also gave more weight to evidence of unknown diagnostic value. Theoretical and legal implications are discussed. PMID:17186386

Kaasa, Suzanne O; Peterson, Tiamoyo; Morris, Erin K; Thompson, William C

2007-10-01

8

Nuclear Forensic Inferences Using Iterative Multidimensional Statistics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear forensics involves the analysis of interdicted nuclear material for specific material characteristics (referred to as 'signatures') that imply specific geographical locations, production processes, culprit intentions, etc. Predictive signatures rely on expert knowledge of physics, chemistry, and engineering to develop inferences from these material characteristics. Comparative signatures, on the other hand, rely on comparison of the material characteristics of the interdicted sample (the 'questioned sample' in FBI parlance) with those of a set of known samples. In the ideal case, the set of known samples would be a comprehensive nuclear forensics database, a database which does not currently exist. In fact, our ability to analyze interdicted samples and produce an extensive list of precise materials characteristics far exceeds our ability to interpret the results. Therefore, as we seek to develop the extensive databases necessary for nuclear forensics, we must also develop the methods necessary to produce the necessary inferences from comparison of our analytical results with these large, multidimensional sets of data. In the work reported here, we used a large, multidimensional dataset of results from quality control analyses of uranium ore concentrate (UOC, sometimes called 'yellowcake'). We have found that traditional multidimensional techniques, such as principal components analysis (PCA), are especially useful for understanding such datasets and drawing relevant conclusions. In particular, we have developed an iterative partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) procedure that has proven especially adept at identifying the production location of unknown UOC samples. By removing classes which fell far outside the initial decision boundary, and then rebuilding the PLS-DA model, we have consistently produced better and more definitive attributions than with a single pass classification approach. Performance of the iterative PLS-DA method compared favorably to that of classification and regression tree (CART) and k nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithms, with the best combination of accuracy and robustness, as tested by classifying samples measured independently in our laboratories against the vendor QC based reference set.

Robel, M; Kristo, M J; Heller, M A

2009-06-09

9

Statistical Inference and Forensic Evidence: Evaluating a Bullet Lead Match  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment tested the ability of undergraduate mock jurors (N=295) to draw appropriate conclusions from statistical data on the diagnostic value of forensic evidence. Jurors read a summary\\u000a of a homicide trial in which the key evidence was a bullet lead 搈atch that was either highly diagnostic, non-diagnostic,\\u000a or of unknown diagnostic value. There was also a control condition in

Suzanne O. Kaasa; Tiamoyo Peterson; Erin K. Morris; William C. Thompson

2007-01-01

10

SNPs in forensic genetics: a review on SNP typing methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing interest in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing in the forensic field, not only for the usefulness of SNPs for defining Y chromosome or mtDNA haplogroups or for analyzing the geographical origin of samples, but also for the potential applications of autosomal SNPs. The interest of forensic researchers in autosomal SNPs has been attracted due to the

Beatriz Sobrino; Mar韆 Bri髇; Angel Carracedo

2005-01-01

11

Higher-order Wavelet Statistics and their Application to Digital Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a statistical model for natural images that is built upon a multi-scale wavelet decomposition. The model consists of first- and higher-order statistics that capture certain statistical regularities of natural images. We show how this model can be useful in several digital forensic applications, specifically in detecting various types of digital tampering.

Hany Faridy; Siwei Lyu

2003-01-01

12

Statistical Tools for Digital Forensics Alin C. Popescu and Hany Farid  

E-print Network

, rumored to have a romantic relationship, walking hand-in-hand. Such a photograph could be createdStatistical Tools for Digital Forensics Alin C. Popescu and Hany Farid Department of Computer statistical techniques for detecting traces of digital tampering in the absence of any digital watermark

Farid, Hany

13

Elemental fingerprinting of soils using ICP-MS and multivariate statistics: a study for and by forensic chemistry majors.  

PubMed

Students in an instrumental analysis course with a forensic emphasis were presented with a mock scenario in which soil was collected from a murder suspect's car mat, from the crime scene, from adjacent areas, and from more distant locations. Students were then asked to conduct a comparative analysis using the soil's elemental distribution fingerprints. The soil was collected from Lafayette County, Mississippi, USA and categorized as sandy loam. Eight student groups determined twenty-two elements (Li, Be, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Cs, Ba, Pb, U) in seven samples of soil and one sample of sediment by microwave-assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Data were combined and evaluated using multivariate statistical analyses. All eight student groups correctly classified their unknown among the different locations. Students learn, however, that whereas their results suggest that the elemental fingerprinting approach can be used to distinguish soils from different land-use areas and geographic locations, applying the methodology in forensic investigations is more complicated and has potential pitfalls. Overall, the inquiry-based pedagogy enthused the students and provided learning opportunities in analytical chemistry, including sample preparation, ICP-MS, figures-of-merit, and multivariate statistics. PMID:24314499

Reidy, Lorlyn; Bu, Kaixuan; Godfrey, Murrell; Cizdziel, James V

2013-12-10

14

Methodological and statistical issues in pharmacogenomics.  

PubMed

Pharmacogenomics strives to explain the interindividual variability in response to drugs due to genetic variation. Although technological advances have provided us with relatively easy and cheap methods for genotyping, promises about personalised medicine have not yet met our high expectations. Successful results that have been achieved within the field of pharmacogenomics so far are, to name a few, HLA-B*5701 screening to avoid hypersensitivity to the antiretroviral abacavir, thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) genotyping to avoid thiopurine toxicity, and CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping for better dosing of the anticoagulant warfarin. However, few pharmacogenetic examples have made it into clinical practice in the treatment of complex diseases. Unfortunately, lack of reproducibility of results from observational studies involving many genes and diseases seems to be a common pattern in pharmacogenomic studies. In this article we address some of the methodological and statistical issues within study design, gene and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) selection and data analysis that should be considered in future pharmacogenomic research. First, we discuss some of the issues related to the design of epidemiological studies, specific to pharmacogenomic research. Second, we describe some of the pros and cons of a candidate gene approach (including gene and SNP selection) and a genome-wide scan approach. Finally, conventional as well as several innovative approaches to the analysis of large pharmacogenomic datasets are proposed that deal with the issues of multiple testing and systems biology in different ways. PMID:20487194

Peters, Bas J M; Rodin, Andrei S; de Boer, Anthonius; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse

2010-02-01

15

Forensic discrimination of dyed hair color: II. Multivariate statistical analysis.  

PubMed

This research is intended to assess the ability of UV-visible microspectrophotometry to successfully discriminate the color of dyed hair. Fifty-five red hair dyes were analyzed and evaluated using multivariate statistical techniques including agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis (DA). The spectra were grouped into three classes, which were visually consistent with different shades of red. A two-dimensional PCA observations plot was constructed, describing 78.6% of the overall variance. The wavelength regions associated with the absorbance of hair and dye were highly correlated. Principal components were selected to represent 95% of the overall variance for analysis with DA. A classification accuracy of 89% was observed for the comprehensive dye set, while external validation using 20 of the dyes resulted in a prediction accuracy of 75%. Significant color loss from successive washing of hair samples was estimated to occur within 3 weeks of dye application. PMID:20854362

Barrett, Julie A; Siegel, Jay A; Goodpaster, John V

2011-01-01

16

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

1973-01-01

17

Applying Statistical Process Quality Control Methodology to Educational Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A subset of Statistical Process Control (SPC) methodology known as Control Charting is introduced. SPC methodology is a collection of graphical and inferential statistics techniques used to study the progress of phenomena over time. The types of control charts covered are the null X (mean), R (Range), X (individual observations), MR (moving

Blumberg, Carol Joyce

18

The uniqueness of the human dentition as forensic evidence: a systematic review on the technological methodology.  

PubMed

The uniqueness of human dentition is routinely approached as identification evidence in forensic odontology. Specifically in bitemark and human identification cases, positive identifications are obtained under the hypothesis that two individuals do not have the same dental features. The present study compiles methodological information from articles on the uniqueness of human dentition to support investigations into the mentioned hypothesis. In April 2014, three electronic library databases (SciELO, MEDLINE/PubMed, and LILACS) were systematically searched. In parallel, reference lists of relevant studies were also screened. From the obtained articles (n?=?1235), 13 full-text articles were considered eligible. They were examined according to the studied parameters: the sample size, the number of examined teeth, the registration technique for data collection, the methods for data analysis, and the study outcomes. Six combinations of studied data were detected: (1) dental shape, size, angulation, and position (n?=?1); (2) dental shape, size, and angulation (n?=?4); (3) dental shape and size (n?=?5); (4) dental angulation and position (n?=?2); (5) dental shape and angulation (n?=?1); and (6) dental shape (n?=?1). The sample size ranged between 10 and 1099 human dentitions. Ten articles examined the six anterior teeth, while three articles examined more teeth. Four articles exclusively addressed three-dimensional (3D) data registration, while six articles used two-dimensional (2D) imaging. In three articles, both imaging registrations were combined. Most articles (n?=?9) explored the data using landmark placement. The other articles (n?=?4) comprised digital comparison of superimposed dental contours. Although there were large methodological variations within the investigated articles, the uniqueness of human dentition remains unproved. PMID:25398633

Franco, Ademir; Willems, Guy; Souza, Paulo Henrique Couto; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Thevissen, Patrick

2014-11-15

19

Statistical analyses to support forensic interpretation for a new ten-locus STR profiling system.  

PubMed

A new ten-locus STR (short tandem repeat) profiling system was recently introduced into casework by the Forensic Science Service (FSS) and statistical analyses are described here based on data collected using this new system for the three major racial groups of the UK: Caucasian. Afro-Caribbean and Asian (of Indo-Pakistani descent). Allele distributions are compared and the FSS position with regard to routine significance testing of DNA frequency databases is discussed. An investigation of match probability calculations is carried out and the consequent analyses are shown to provide support for proposed changes in how the FSS reports DNA results when very small match probabilities are involved. PMID:11296886

Foreman, L A; Evett, I W

2001-01-01

20

Forensic Science and Information Technology at NIST  

E-print Network

Forensic Science and Information Technology at NIST Martin Herman Information Technology Laboratory, mathematics, and statistics. Cloud Computing Complex Systems Forensic Science Health Information in Forensic Science Advance measurements and standards infrastructure for forensics through information

Perkins, Richard A.

21

New Statistical Methodology for Determining Cancer Clusters  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Martin Kulldorff, while at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Bethesda, Md., and colleagues developed an innovative statistical technique that shows that women living in a broad stretch of the metropolitan northeastern United States, which includes Long Island, are slightly more likely to die from breast cancer than women in other parts of the Northeast.

22

Statistical and Methodological Considerations in Exercise Genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The field of exercise genomics is growing at an amazing rate. New technologies such as genotyping chips used for genome-wide\\u000a association studies (GWAS) have expanded the tools that can be used to uncover the effect genetic variants have on exercise\\u000a performance and health and fitness-related phenotypes. The statistical methods for analyzing data from these new technologies\\u000a are still being cultivated

Heather Gordish-Dressman; Joseph M. Devaney

23

A review of the methodological aspects of aspartic acid racemization analysis for use in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate age determination of adult cadavers and human remains is a key requirement in forensic practice. The current morphological methods lack accuracy and precision, require specialist training and are costly. The use of aspartic acid racemization (AAR) in human dentine provides a simple, cost-effective solution and the method can achieve accuracies of 3 years at best. Currently, there are differences

E. R Waite; M. J Collins; S Ritz-Timme; H-W Schutz; C Cattaneo; H. I. M Borrman

1999-01-01

24

NISTIR 7617 Mobile Forensic  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7617 Mobile Forensic Reference Materials: AMethodologyandReification WayneJansen Aur閘ienDelaitre i #12;Mobile Forensic Reference Materials: A Methodology and Reification Wayne Jansen Aur閘ien of forensic tools. It describes an application and data set developed to populate identity modules

25

Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part I: discrimination from related Salvia species.  

PubMed

Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic herb that is internationally regulated. In this study, salvinorin A, the active compound in S. divinorum, was extracted from S. divinorum plant leaves using a 5-min extraction with dichloromethane. Four additional Salvia species (Salvia officinalis, Salvia guaranitica, Salvia splendens, and Salvia nemorosa) were extracted using this procedure, and all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Differentiation of S. divinorum from other Salvia species was successful based on visual assessment of the resulting chromatograms. To provide a more objective comparison, the total ion chromatograms (TICs) were subjected to principal components analysis (PCA). Prior to PCA, the TICs were subjected to a series of data pretreatment procedures to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. Successful discrimination of S. divinorum from the other four Salvia species was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot. To provide a numerical assessment of the discrimination, a series of statistical procedures such as Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores. The statistical procedures were then compared to determine the advantages and disadvantages for forensic applications. PMID:22038586

Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

2012-01-01

26

Statistical Methodologies to Integrate Experimental and Computational Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of advanced algorithms for simulating engine flow paths requires the integration of fundamental experiments with the validation of enhanced mathematical models. In this paper, we provide an overview of statistical methods to strategically and efficiently conduct experiments and computational model refinement. Moreover, the integration of experimental and computational research efforts is emphasized. With a statistical engineering perspective, scientific and engineering expertise is combined with statistical sciences to gain deeper insights into experimental phenomenon and code development performance; supporting the overall research objectives. The particular statistical methods discussed are design of experiments, response surface methodology, and uncertainty analysis and planning. Their application is illustrated with a coaxial free jet experiment and a turbulence model refinement investigation. Our goal is to provide an overview, focusing on concepts rather than practice, to demonstrate the benefits of using statistical methods in research and development, thereby encouraging their broader and more systematic application.

Parker, P. A.; Johnson, R. T.; Montgomery, D. C.

2008-01-01

27

FORENSIC SCIENCE About Forensic Science  

E-print Network

Fact Sheet FORENSIC SCIENCE About Forensic Science: The Forensic Science program at SJSU offers: The SJSU Forensic Science program delivers coursework and training to Empowergraduatestobecomeagentsofchangetorecognize, document and report errors and injustices in the practice of forensic science and crime scene

Su, Xiao

28

Establishing forensic search methodologies and geophysical surveying for the detection of clandestine graves in coastal beach environments.  

PubMed

A 2010 UK police search for a clandestine burial highlighted the need for more information and quantitative data to aid coastal beach searches. This study aimed to address this by establishing relevant forensic search methodologies to aid the search for clandestine coastal burial sites, using the North West English coastline as a search area. A set of parameters were established, including criteria such as tidal range, proximity to vehicular access points and distance from inhabited areas, which may inform forensic searches by prioritising likely locations of clandestine burials. Three prioritised coastal locations were subsequently identified: (1) coastal dunes at Formby, (2) coastal dunes and (3) beach foreshore at Southport, all sites part of the Liverpool City Region in the United Kingdom. At all locations, simulated clandestine graves were hand-dug by spades into which a naked adult-sized, metal-jointed fiberglass mannequin was buried at 0.5 m below ground level. Trial geophysical surveys were then undertaken with the aim of identifying the optimal geophysical instrumentation and technique to deploy in such environments. GPR data showed 450 MHz frequency antennae to be optimal, with significantly poor data obtained from the foreshore area due to saline seawater. Electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility surveys were successful in coastal environments in target detection (albeit not in non-vegetated sand dunes), with resistivity fixed-offset configurations deemed optimal. The latter survey successes may be due to the recent disturbed 'grave' rather than the target, which itself is of interest in terms of identifying the most recent clandestine burials. PMID:22285503

Pringle, Jamie K; Holland, Claire; Szkornik, Katie; Harrison, Mark

2012-06-10

29

A Hierarchical Statistic Methodology for Advanced Memory System Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Advances in technology have resulted in a widening of the gap between computing speed and memory access time. Data access time has become increasingly important for computer system design. Various hierarchical memory architectures have been developed. The performance of these advanced memory systems, however, varies with applications and problem sizes. How to reach an optimal cost/performance design eludes researchers still. In this study, the authors introduce an evaluation methodology for advanced memory systems. This methodology is based on statistical factorial analysis and performance scalability analysis. It is two fold: it first determines the impact of memory systems and application programs toward overall performance; it also identifies the bottleneck in a memory hierarchy and provides cost/performance comparisons via scalability analysis. Different memory systems can be compared in terms of mean performance or scalability over a range of codes and problem sizes. Experimental testing has been performed extensively on the Department of Energy's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) machines and benchmarks available at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to validate this newly proposed methodology. Experimental and analytical results show this methodology is simple and effective. It is a practical tool for memory system evaluation and design. Its extension to general architectural evaluation and parallel computer systems are possible and should be further explored.

Sun, X.-J.; He, D.; Cameron, K.W.; Luo, Y.

1999-04-12

30

Forensic odontology: an overview.  

PubMed

This article is an overview of the field of forensic odontology, highlighting historical cases, with an emphasis on California cases, and briefly discussing some of the current techniques and issues in the field. As with all fields of dentistry, forensic odontology is adapting to new methodologies, changes in techniques, research findings and legal issues. Today's dentist who works in the forensic arena must face and understand these changes and advancements. PMID:25080766

Spencer, Duane E

2014-06-01

31

Statistical and methodological considerations for reporting RCTs in medical literature  

PubMed Central

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are known to provide the most reliable evidence on intervention. However, RCTs are often conducted and reported incompletely and inadequately, making readers and reviewers unable to judge the validity and reliability of the trials. In this article, we consider the statistical and methodological issues involved in reporting on RCTs, particularly in relation to the objectives, designs, and commencements of trials. This paper deals with the various issues that should be considered in presenting RCTs, and suggests checklists for reporting on them. We expect that these checklists will remind readers and reviewers to evaluate manuscripts systematically and comprehensively, making those manuscripts more transparent and reliable.

2015-01-01

32

A validation framework for microbial forensic methods based on statistical pattern recognition  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses a general approach to validating microbial forensic methods that attempt to simultaneously distinguish among many hypotheses concerning the manufacture of a questioned biological agent sample. It focuses on the concrete example of determining growth medium from chemical or molecular properties of a bacterial agent to illustrate the concepts involved.

Velsko, S P

2007-11-12

33

Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.  

SciTech Connect

The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversary's task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

2013-02-01

34

A new statistical methodology predicting chip failure probability considering electromigration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research thesis, we present a new approach to analyze chip reliability subject to electromigration (EM) whose fundamental causes and EM phenomenon happened in different materials are presented in this thesis. This new approach utilizes the statistical nature of EM failure in order to assess overall EM risk. It includes within-die temperature variations from the chip's temperature map extracted by an Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tool to estimate the failure probability of a design. Both the power estimation and thermal analysis are performed in the EDA flow. We first used the traditional EM approach to analyze the design with a single temperature across the entire chip that involves 6 metal and 5 via layers. Next, we used the same traditional approach but with a realistic temperature map. The traditional EM analysis approach and that coupled with a temperature map and the comparison between the results of considering and not considering temperature map are presented in in this research. A comparison between these two results confirms that using a temperature map yields a less pessimistic estimation of the chip's EM risk. Finally, we employed the statistical methodology we developed considering a temperature map and different use-condition voltages and frequencies to estimate the overall failure probability of the chip. The statistical model established considers the scaling work with the usage of traditional Black equation and four major conditions. The statistical result comparisons are within our expectations. The results of this statistical analysis confirm that the chip level failure probability is higher i) at higher use-condition frequencies for all use-condition voltages, and ii) when a single temperature instead of a temperature map across the chip is considered. In this thesis, I start with an overall review on current design types, common flows, and necessary verifications and reliability checking steps used in this IC design industry. Furthermore, the important concepts about "Scripting Automation" which is used in all the integration of using diversified EDA tools in this research work are also described in detail with several examples and my completed coding works are also put in the appendix for your reference. Hopefully, this construction of my thesis will give readers a thorough understanding about my research work from the automation of EDA tools to the statistical data generation, from the nature of EM to the statistical model construction, and the comparisons among the traditional EM analysis and the statistical EM analysis approaches.

Sun, Ted

35

A New Computational Methodology for the Construction of Forensic, Facial Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facial composite generated from an eyewitness抯 memory often constitutes the first and only means available for police forces to identify a criminal suspect. To date, commercial computerised systems for constructing facial composites have relied almost exclusively on a feature-based, 慶ut-andpaste method whose effectiveness has been fundamentally limited by both the witness抯 limited ability to recall and verbalise facial features and by the large dimensionality of the search space. We outline a radically new approach to composite generation which combines a parametric, statistical model of facial appearance with a computational search algorithm based on interactive, evolutionary principles. We describe the fundamental principles on which the new system has been constructed, outline recent innovations in the computational search procedure and also report on the real-world experience of UK police forces who have been using a commercial version of the system.

Solomon, Christopher; Gibson, Stuart; Maylin, Matthew

36

Leaders in cloud computing and digital forensics from the  

E-print Network

Frontiers in Forensic Science Rapid advances in cloud computing require new methodologies for performing and actions: - The Future of Forensic Science in the Cloud - Challenges for Cloud Computing Forensic Science workshop on Cloud Forensic Science. Join experts in the fields of cloud, digital forensics, and measurement

Bentz, Dale P.

37

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Find Funding - Contracts - 279 Facilitating the Transfer of Statistical Methodology into Practice  

Cancer.gov

The development of new statistical methodology represents a key component of biomedical research. For cutting-edge statistical methodology to be used by people other than the developer, accompanying user-friendly, robust software is necessary. Often the developer of the statistical methodology does not have the time, knowledge, or skills to convert research-quality code for calculation engines into professional-quality software to be used by the general medical research community.

38

Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

1989-01-01

39

Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A succinct but clear introduction to forensic entomology with an emphasis on the role of the forensic investigator. Covers life cycles, protocols, information to collect at the scene. Also provides links to other forensic entomology websites and resources.

0000-00-00

40

Forensic webwatch: Forensic computing.  

PubMed

With the rapid and continuous development of information technology, policing faces new challenges. As computer equipments are becoming cheaper and the internet more readily available, computer crime and criminal exploitation is on the increase. Investigating such crimes requires identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of digital evidence, the key elements of forensic computing. This is helped by the fact that Locard's principle is applicable to this branch of science as much as in other areas of forensic science. This webwatch considers the ever evolving area of Forensic Computing. PMID:15763691

Bouhaidar, R

2005-02-01

41

Establishing the robustness of short-tandem-repeat statistics for forensic applications.  

PubMed Central

Before the introduction of a four-locus multiplex short-tandem-repeat (STR) system into casework, an extensive series of tests were carried out to determine robust procedures for assessing the evidential value of a match between crime and suspect samples. Twelve databases were analyzed from the three main ethnic groups encountered in casework in the United Kingdom: Caucasians, Afro-Caribbeans, and Asians from the Indian subcontinent. Independence tests resulted in a number of significant results, and the impact that these might have on forensic casework was investigated. It is demonstrated that previously published methods provide a simple procedure for correcting allele frequencies--and that this leads to conservative casework estimates of evidential value. PMID:8571967

Evett, I. W.; Gill, P. D.; Scrange, J. K.; Weir, B. S.

1996-01-01

42

1 Forensic Sciences FORENSIC SCIENCES  

E-print Network

1 Forensic Sciences FORENSIC SCIENCES As part of the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences' natural, mathematical and biomedical sciences programs, the forensic sciences program provides an understanding of the integration of forensic disciplines with the investigation of criminal activity, along

Vertes, Akos

43

Embedding Forensic Capabilities into Networks: Addressing Inefficiencies in Digital Forensics Investigations  

SciTech Connect

A typical incident response pits technicians against networks that aren't prepared forensically. [1, 2] If practitioners do consider collecting network forensic data, they face a choice between expending extraordinary effort (time and money) collecting forensically sound data, or simply restoring the network as quickly as possible. In this context, the concept of organizational network forensic readiness has emerged. This paper proposes a methodology for "operationalizing" organizational network forensic readiness. The methodology, and the theoretical analysis that led to its development, are offered as a conceptual framework for thinking about more efficient, proactive approaches to digital forensics on networks.

Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deb A.

2006-08-01

44

Comparative forensic soil analysis of New Jersey state parks using a combination of simple techniques with multivariate statistics.  

PubMed

This study has shown that the combination of simple techniques with the use of multivariate statistics offers the potential for the comparative analysis of soil samples. Five samples were obtained from each of twelve state parks across New Jersey in both the summer and fall seasons. Each sample was examined using particle-size distribution, pH analysis in both water and 1 M CaCl2 , and a loss on ignition technique. Data from each of the techniques were combined, and principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) were used for multivariate data transformation. Samples from different locations could be visually differentiated from one another using these multivariate plots. Hold-one-out cross-validation analysis showed error rates as low as 3.33%. Ten blind study samples were analyzed resulting in no misclassifications using Mahalanobis distance calculations and visual examinations of multivariate plots. Seasonal variation was minimal between corresponding samples, suggesting potential success in forensic applications. PMID:24502530

Bonetti, Jennifer; Quarino, Lawrence

2014-05-01

45

The Power of Teaching Activities: Statistical and Methodological Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers rarely mention statistical power in "Teaching of Psychology" teaching activity studies. Insufficiently powered tests promote uncertainty in the decision to accept or reject the tested null hypothesis and influence the interpretation of results. We analyzed the a priori power of statistical tests from 197 teaching activity effectiveness

Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob

2009-01-01

46

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

Cobb, P. G. W.

1973-01-01

47

A methodology for cost-risk analysis in the statistical validation of simulation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is presented for constructing the relationships among model user's risk, model builder's risk, acceptable validity range, sample sizes, and cost of data collection when statistical hypothesis testing is used for validating a simulation model of a real, observable system. The use of the methodology is illustrated for the use of Hotelling's two-sample T 2 test in testing the

Osman Balci; Robert G. Sargent

1981-01-01

48

The use of regression methodology for the compromise of confidential information in statistical databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regression methodology based technique can be used to compromise confidentiality in a statistical database. This holds true even when the DBMS prevents application of regression methodology to the database. Existing inference controls, including cell restriction, perturbation, and table restriction approaches, are shown to be generally ineffective against this compromise technique. The effect of incomplete supplemental knowledge on the regression

Michael A. Palley; Jeffrey S. Simonoff

1987-01-01

49

Forensic odontology.  

PubMed

Forensic odontology is a specialized field of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Forensic odontology embraces all dental specialities and it is almost impossible to segregate this branch from other dental specialities. This review aims to discuss the utility of various dental specialities with forensic odontology. PMID:22482381

Shamim, Thorakkal

2012-04-01

50

Forensic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Academy of Forensic Engineers (1) provides a short definition of forensic engineering as: "the application of the art and science of engineering in matters which are in, or may possibly relate to the jurisprudence system, inclusive of alternative dispute resolution." Specialty areas in forensic engineering include fire investigation, industrial accidents, product liability, traffic accidents, civil engineering and transportation disasters, and environmental systems failures. For example, forensic engineers investigate structural collapses, such as the 2004 Paris Airport collapse described in this article from the Institution of Structural Engineers (2) This website from Materials Evaluation and Engineering, Inc. (3) points out that materials engineering is useful in product failure analysis because many products fail due to materials problems. Given the role forensic engineers play in legal disputes, research in forensic engineering is also a topic on this engineering ethics website (4). Forensic-Evidence.com (5 ) offers The Forensic Center Newsletter, which aims "to stimulate interdisciplinary efforts and research that unite, explore, and advance knowledge in the broad areas of law, medicine, and forensic sciences." This website from the Engineering Forensics Research Institute provides some examples of current research in forensic engineering (6). Finally, Glendale High School offers this Civil Structures Module (7) as a resource for teaching about topics related to forensic engineering, using the 1981 Kansas City Hyatt Regency walkway collapse as an example for analysis.

51

Methodological difficulties of conducting agroecological studies from a statistical perspective  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Statistical methods for analysing agroecological data might not be able to help agroecologists to solve all of the current problems concerning crop and animal husbandry, but such methods could well help agroecologists to assess, tackle, and resolve several agroecological issues in a more reliable an...

52

A Gate Level Methodology for Efficient Statistical Leakage Estimation in Complex 32nm Circuits  

E-print Network

and not applicable on large circuits. Statistical leakage estimation which analytically estimates the leakage-current been previous researches for estimating total leakage currents at both gate and circuit level. In [4A Gate Level Methodology for Efficient Statistical Leakage Estimation in Complex 32nm Circuits

Paris-Sud XI, Universit茅 de

53

Statistical methodologies for the control of dynamic remapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following an initial mapping of a problem onto a multiprocessor machine or computer network, system performance often deteriorates with time. In order to maintain high performance, it may be necessary to remap the problem. The decision to remap must take into account measurements of performance deterioration, the cost of remapping, and the estimated benefits achieved by remapping. We examine the tradeoff between the costs and the benefits of remapping two qualitatively different kinds of problems. One problem assumes that performance deteriorates gradually, the other assumes that performance deteriorates suddenly. We consider a variety of policies for governing when to remap. In order to evaluate these policies, statistical models of problem behaviors are developed. Simulation results are presented which compare simple policies with computationally expensive optimal decision policies; these results demonstrate that for each problem type, the proposed simple policies are effective and robust.

Saltz, J. H.; Nicol, D. M.

1986-01-01

54

Forensic Toxicology Certificate  

E-print Network

Forensic Toxicology Certificate What is Forensic Toxicology? Forensic toxicology is a discipline of forensic science that is concerned with the study of toxic substances or poisons. Toxicology encompasses. Students of forensic toxicology obtain knowledge about the absorption, distribution, and elimination

Saldin, Dilano

55

Automatic brain tumor detection in MRI: methodology and statistical validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated brain tumor segmentation and detection are immensely important in medical diagnostics because it provides information associated to anatomical structures as well as potential abnormal tissue necessary to delineate appropriate surgical planning. In this work, we propose a novel automated brain tumor segmentation technique based on multiresolution texture information that combines fractal Brownian motion (fBm) and wavelet multiresolution analysis. Our wavelet-fractal technique combines the excellent multiresolution localization property of wavelets to texture extraction of fractal. We prove the efficacy of our technique by successfully segmenting pediatric brain MR images (MRIs) from St. Jude Children"s Research Hospital. We use self-organizing map (SOM) as our clustering tool wherein we exploit both pixel intensity and multiresolution texture features to obtain segmented tumor. Our test results show that our technique successfully segments abnormal brain tissues in a set of T1 images. In the next step, we design a classifier using Feed-Forward (FF) neural network to statistically validate the presence of tumor in MRI using both the multiresolution texture and the pixel intensity features. We estimate the corresponding receiver operating curve (ROC) based on the findings of true positive fractions and false positive fractions estimated from our classifier at different threshold values. An ROC, which can be considered as a gold standard to prove the competence of a classifier, is obtained to ascertain the sensitivity and specificity of our classifier. We observe that at threshold 0.4 we achieve true positive value of 1.0 (100%) sacrificing only 0.16 (16%) false positive value for the set of 50 T1 MRI analyzed in this experiment.

Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Islam, Mohammad A.; Shaik, Jahangheer; Parra, Carlos; Ogg, Robert

2005-04-01

56

502 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 1, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2006 Digital Video Steganalysis Exploiting Statistical  

E-print Network

spread-spec- trum steganography. Our performance gains are achieved by ex- ploiting the collusion attack forensics, pattern recognition, video steganalysis, video steganography. I. INTRODUCTION THE purpose] and the center of mass of the histogram classification function by Harmsen and Pearlman [9] have also been

Kundur, Deepa

57

Computer-assisted systems for forensic pathology and forensic toxicology.  

PubMed

A computer software, R鋞tsBASE (RB), was developed for all forensic pathology units in Sweden and introduced in 1992. Simultaneously, a corresponding software, ToxBASE (TB), was developed for the Department of Forensic Toxicology, where all forensic toxicology in Sweden is managed. Both of the databases were created using dBASE IV, and the programming was carried out according to specifications from the staff at the forensic toxicology and forensic pathology units. since the development or RB and TB was coordinated, the systems can run together smoothly. The purpose of both systems was to automate the offices and to enable compilation of detailed statistics. Installation of Novell Netware and ISDN-connections (Integrated Service Digital Network) has enabled rapid communication between the units and easy compilation of nationwide statistics of forensic pathology and forensic toxicology. the systems offer a wide spectrum of reports and include a simple module for evaluation of the importance of the forensic efforts for th whole death investigation. The configuration of the softwares has also enabled processing of a large amount of related toxicological and autopsy data that in turn has yielded a base for compilation of toxicology interpretation lists. This article includes a summary of the features of the software and a discussion of its benefits and limitations. PMID:15637819

Druid, H; Holmgren, P; L鰓enhielm, P

1996-09-01

58

Statistical analysis and diagnosis methodology for RF circuits in LCP substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the application of a fast and accurate layout-level statistical analysis methodology for the diagnosis of RF circuit layouts with embedded passives in liquid crystalline polymer substrates. The approach is based on layout-segmentation, lumped-element modeling, sensitivity analysis, and extraction of probability density function using convolution methods. The statistical analyses were utilized as a diagnosis tool to estimate distributed

Souvik Mukherjee; Madhavan Swaminathan; Erdem Matoglu

2005-01-01

59

Statistical Test of the Rule Assessment Methodology by Latent Class Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem of Siegler's (1981) rule assessment methodology is that the assignment of subjects to rules takes place by an arbitrary criterion. This problem can be solved by latent class analysis by which we can test statistically how many rules are needed to fit the data and which these rules are. Two data sets of the balance scale test are

Brenda R. J. Jansen

1997-01-01

60

Application of Statistical Design Models for the Characterization of CMP Pads Using Non-Destructive Ultrasonic Methodology and Laser Testing Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper statistical design models are used for the characterization (in terms of thickness and Young's Modulus) of polyurethane Chemical Mechanical and Polishing (CMP) pad. Two testing methodologies are used: a non- destructive ultrasonic and laser (Raman Spectroscopy). The paper aims to compare and evaluate both methodologies in terms of the consistency of the results thus obtained.

Grisselle Centeno; Vijayalakshmi Sampath; Anitha Eranki; Wilfrido Moreno; Prashant Datar; Bhasker Tadi

61

Forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations,\\u000a in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine,\\u000a in road and work-place safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly\\u000a targeted

Olaf H. Drummer

62

An Examination of Digital Forensic Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law enforcement is in a perpetual race with criminals in the application of digital technologies, and requires the development of tools to systematically search digital devices for pertinent evidence. Another part of this race, and perhaps more crucial, is the development of a methodology in digital forensics that encompasses the forensic analysis of all genres of digital crime scene investigations.

Mark Reith; Clint Carr; Gregg H. Gunsch

2002-01-01

63

Accurate statistical process variation analysis for 0.25-?m CMOS with advanced TCAD methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of statistical process variation on the 0.25-?m CMOS performance have been accurately characterized by using a new calibrated TCAD methodology. To conduct the variation analysis, a series of TCAD simulations was conducted on the basis of DoE (design of experiments) with optimum variable transformations, which resulted in RSF's (response surface functions) for threshold voltage (Vth) and saturation drain current

Hisako Sato; Hisaaki Kunitomo; Katsumi Tsuneno; Kazutaka Mori; Hiroo Masuda

1998-01-01

64

Statistical downscaling with a weather typing approach: adapting the methodology to France mountainous areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, an innovative statistical methodology has been developed to downscale climate simulations using a weather-typing approach (Bo et al., 2006), aimed at first for the France Seine river basin, and extended\\/adapted to the whole metropolitan France thereafter. It has been used to downscale 15 CMIP3 models as well as several M閠閛-France ARPEGE climate numerical model (Salas et al., 2005) simulations.

L. Terray; C. Pag; E. Sanchez

2009-01-01

65

On Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods inspired by Tsallis statistics: Methodology, optimization, and application to atomic clusters  

E-print Network

On Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods inspired by Tsallis statistics: Methodology a generalized statistical distribution derived from a modification of the Gibbs颅Shannon entropy proposed of the phase space may result in distinct time averages. Statistical theories of chemical sys- tems are often

Straub, John E.

66

A Statistical Treatment of the Gamma-Ray Burst "No Host Galaxy" Problem: I. Methodology  

E-print Network

If gamma-ray bursts originate in galaxies at cosmological distances, the host galaxy should be detected if a burst error box is searched deep enough; are the host galaxies present? We present and implement a statistical methodology which evaluates whether the observed galaxy detections in a burst's error box are consistent with the presence of the host galaxy, or whether all the detections can be attributed to unrelated background galaxies. This methodology requires the model-dependent distribution of host galaxy fluxes. While our methodology was derived for galaxies in burst error boxes, it can be applied to other candidate host objects (e.g., active galaxies) and to other types of error boxes. As examples, we apply this methodology to two published studies of burst error boxes. We find that the nine error boxes observed by Larson and McLean (1997) are too large to discriminate between the presence or absence of host galaxies, while the absence of bright galaxies in the four significantly smaller error boxes observed by HST (Schaefer et al. 1997) does confirm that there is a "no-host galaxy" problem within the "minimal" host galaxy model.

David L. Band; Dieter H. Hartmann

1997-09-09

67

ITL BULLETIN FOR JUNE 2014 ITL FORENSIC SCIENCE PROGRAM  

E-print Network

ITL BULLETIN FOR JUNE 2014 ITL FORENSIC SCIENCE PROGRAM Barbara Guttman, Software and Systems.S. Department of Commerce Digital forensics is the process used to acquire, preserve, analyze, and report, and statistics, the ITL Forensic Science program advances the measurements and standards infrastructure

68

Ozone effects on agricultural crops: Statistical methodologies and estimated dose-response relationships  

SciTech Connect

The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) began in 1980 to coordinate research on the investigation of the impact of ozone on agricultural crops. A major objective was to develop dose-response relationships between yield of major agricultural crop species and ozone pollution in order to estimate the economic effects of ozone. The paper reports on the statistical methodologies used in combining the dose-response information for each species over sites and years, and serves as a summary of the ozone dose-response relationships obtained from the NCLAN studies. All dose-response relationships between yield and ozone were characterized with the polynomial response function and the nonlinear Weibull response function. The paper presents the general methodology for both models and the dose response equations for the Weibull model.

Lesser, V.M.; Rawlings, J.O.; Spruill, S.E.; Somerville, M.C.

1990-01-01

69

Municipal solid waste composition: sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation.  

PubMed

Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10-50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at "Level III", e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at "Level I"). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3-4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single-family and multi-family house areas), the individual percentage composition of food waste, paper, and glass was significantly different between the housing types. This indicates that housing type is a critical stratification parameter. Separating food leftovers from food packaging during manual sorting of the sampled waste did not have significant influence on the proportions of food waste and packaging materials, indicating that this step may not be required. PMID:25483613

Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; G鰐ze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

2015-02-01

70

New advances in methodology for statistical tests useful in geostatistical studies  

SciTech Connect

Methodology for statistical procedures to perform tests of hypothesis pertaining to various aspects of geostatistical investigations has been slow in developing. The correlated nature of the data precludes most classical tests and makes the design of new tests difficult. Recent studies have led to modifications of the classical t test which allow for the intercorrelation. In addition, results for certain nonparametric tests have been obtained. The conclusions of these studies provide a variety of new tools for the geostatistician in deciding questions on significant differences and magnitudes.

Borgman, L.E.

1988-05-01

71

Forensic Science Certificate  

E-print Network

Forensic Science Certificate What do Forensic Scientists Do? Forensic scientists apply scientific conclusions about a crime based on the evidence. Some forensic scientists work in laboratories, while others complete their work on site, at the scene of the crime. Forensic scientists need to explain and justify

Saldin, Dilano

72

Forensic Automatic Speaker Recognition  

E-print Network

1 Forensic Automatic Speaker Recognition: Fiction or Science? Joaquin Gonzalez-Rodriguez ATVS is Forensic Science about? CSI is to Forensic Science as Science Fiction to Science CSI is to Forensic Science as Science Fiction to Science #12;9 9 漏 JGR 2008 Fiction and Science #12;10 10 漏 JGR 2008 Courts and Forensic

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

73

Forensic detection of noise addition in digital images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed a technique to detect the global addition of noise to a digital image. As an anti-forensics tool, noise addition is typically used to disguise the visual traces of image tampering or to remove the statistical artifacts left behind by other operations. As such, the blind detection of noise addition has become imperative as well as beneficial to authenticate the image content and recover the image processing history, which is the goal of general forensics techniques. Specifically, the special image blocks, including constant and strip ones, are used to construct the features for identifying noise addition manipulation. The influence of noising on blockwise pixel value distribution is formulated and analyzed formally. The methodology of detectability recognition followed by binary decision is proposed to ensure the applicability and reliability of noising detection. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed noising detector.

Cao, Gang; Zhao, Yao; Ni, Rongrong; Ou, Bo; Wang, Yongbin

2014-03-01

74

The epistemology of mathematical and statistical modeling: a quiet methodological revolution.  

PubMed

A quiet methodological revolution, a modeling revolution, has occurred over the past several decades, almost without discussion. In contrast, the 20th century ended with contentious argument over the utility of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). The NHST controversy may have been at least partially irrelevant, because in certain ways the modeling revolution obviated the NHST argument. I begin with a history of NHST and modeling and their relation to one another. Next, I define and illustrate principles involved in developing and evaluating mathematical models. Following, I discuss the difference between using statistical procedures within a rule-based framework and building mathematical models from a scientific epistemology. Only the former is treated carefully in most psychology graduate training. The pedagogical implications of this imbalance and the revised pedagogy required to account for the modeling revolution are described. To conclude, I discuss how attention to modeling implies shifting statistical practice in certain progressive ways. The epistemological basis of statistics has moved away from being a set of procedures, applied mechanistically, and moved toward building and evaluating statistical and scientific models. PMID:20063905

Rodgers, Joseph Lee

2010-01-01

75

Weather Typing Statistical Downscaling with dsclim: Diagnostic methodology and configuration sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 8-km output of the statistical downscaling methodology dsclim has been used since a few years to perform impacts and adaptation studies in France. The dsclim method is resampling the M閠閛-France SAFRAN observation mesoscale analysis. Since then, the SAFRAN observation period has been extended from 1981-2005 to 1958-2012. At the same time, there are strong needs of cross-national impact studies, hence the required use of an European observation dataset in the methodology. In this context, a diagnostic package has been developed to properly evaluate the downscaling methodology and its performance: it enables to evaluate the sensitivity and the impacts of the changes in its configuration, taking also properly into account stochastic aspects. In this study we evaluated the impacts on the results with respect to the extension of the learning period from 1981-2005 to 1958-2012, as well as the comparison on the use of the EOBS dataset instead of SAFRAN, having the objective of running dsclim over a larger region within the EU FP7 SPECS project and the EU COST Action VALUE downscaling methods intercomparison. This study was funded by the EU project SPECS funded by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Research Programme under the grant agreement 243964.

Page, C.; Albertus, G.

2013-12-01

76

Optimizing image quality using statistical multivariate optimization methodology using desirability functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to optimize image quality, Figures of Merit (FOM) have been developed, including Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR), Contrast-to-Noise ratio (CNR), and CNR2-to-Dose ratio (CNR2/PED). Some FOMs are designed to describe the performance of system components: Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) and Noise Equivalent Quanta (NEQ) are examples. A single FOM has the downside that optimization is inherently driven by the design of the FOM and cannot be changed. In this paper, we propose using a multi-parametric methodology for optimizing multiple input factors and multiple response measurements. This methodology has been developed in the statistical community as an offshoot of MANOVA (Multivariate ANalysis Of VAriance) analysis. In this paper, we acquired 120 images with various techniques and measured four individual image quality metrics. We then developed multivariate prediction formula for each metric and determined the global optimum operating point, using desirability functions. We demonstrate the power of this methodology over single FOM metrics.

Leong, David L.; Brennan, Patrick C.

2009-02-01

77

September 2006 FORENSIC TECHNIQUES  

E-print Network

September 2006 FORENSIC TECHNIQUES: HELPING ORGANIZATIONS IMPROVE THEIR RESPONSES TO INFORMATION SECURITY INCIDENTS FORENSIC TECHNIQUES: HELPING ORGANIZATIONS IMPROVE THEIR RESPONSES TO INFORMATION and Technology National Institute of Standards and Technology Digital forensic techniques involve the application

78

Microbial Forensics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how microbial forensics is a relatively new field that can help in solving cases such as: bioterrorism attacks, medical negligence, and outbreaks of foodborne diseases. The paper is suitable for undergraduate and beyond levels. Excerpts from the paper are provided in a companion article at http://www.actionbioscience.org/newfrontiers/salyersarticle.html, suitable for middle school and lower division high school reading.

Abigail Salyers (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; )

2004-01-01

79

Molecular Forensics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can we establish the origin of an infection by looking at DNA? In the 1990??s, suspicion that HIV in several individuals could be linked to a local dentist was investigated. We will take a closer look at sequence data from this dentist and other HIV positive individuals including patients who believed they were exposed to HIV during dental procedures. * examine viral DNA sequence data as forensic evidence

Sam Donovan (University of Pittsburgh; Biology)

2006-05-20

80

Forensic geomorphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

2014-02-01

81

Bayesian Integrated Microbial Forensics  

SciTech Connect

In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax letters, researchers have been exploring ways to predict the production environment of unknown source microorganisms. Different mass spectral techniques are being developed to characterize components of a microbe抯 culture medium including water, carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions added, and the presence of agar. Individually, each technique has the potential to identify one or two ingredients in a culture medium recipe. However, by integrating data from multiple mass spectral techniques, a more complete characterization is possible. We present a Bayesian statistical approach to integrated microbial forensics and illustrate its application on spores grown in different culture media.

Jarman, Kristin H.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wunschel, David S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.

2008-06-01

82

Forensic Science: Best Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All about forensic science Forensic Science for High School Do you watch CSI? You should look at related Web site! How about this one? FORENSIC SCIENCE and have a look at what the Scout Report has to say: Court TV: Forensic Files And don\\'t forget about CSI CSI: The TV Show ...

Marcia M.

2007-03-08

83

ice | proceedings Forensic Engineering  

E-print Network

ice | proceedings Forensic Engineering Volume 165 Issue FE4 November 2012 Forensic Engineering or economic damage. Research and practice papers are sought on traditional or modern forensic engineering, design and construction. Topics covered also include research and education best practice in forensic

Mottram, Toby

84

Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.  

PubMed

For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to the patient. Forensic treatment service effectiveness appears to be associated with individual case management and approach including psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and occupational therapy in order to achieve optimal rehabilitation, prevention of recidivism and stability in social functioning of the patient in the community. PMID:19794370

Palijan, Tija Zarkovi?; Muzini?, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

2009-09-01

85

Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*  

PubMed Central

This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2009-01-01

86

Digital Forensics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course on Digital Forensics is provided by the Cyber Security Education Consortium (CSEC). At the end of the course, students will understand the procedures for "tracking, analyzing, and patching security holes after an incident has occurred." This includes "seizure of equipment, analysis of confiscated materials, and follow up procedures relating to the incident."燣inks are provided to learn more about the Major Topics Covered, Course Learning Objectives, and Course Outline. The Course Outline includes a list of careers that require the knowledge from this course and related textbooks.

87

Statistical analysis of biomechanical properties of the adult sagittal suture using a bending method in a Japanese forensic sample.  

PubMed

This study examined the mechanical properties of the adult sagittal suture compared with surrounding parietal bones using bending tests and investigated the association between the mechanical properties of the suture and age. We used the heads of 116 Japanese cadavers (76 male cadavers and 40 female cadavers) of known age and sex. A total of 1160 cranial samples, 10 from each skull, were collected. The samples were imaged using multidetector computed tomography, and the sample thickness at the center of each sample (ST) was measured. The failure stress of each sample (FS) was measured by a bending test, and the ratio of failure stress to the square of sample thickness (FS/ST(2)) was calculated. Statistical analyses revealed that the FS and FS/ST(2) values were significantly lower at all suture sites than at all bone sites regardless of sex. There were not significant but slight positive correlations between age and FS and FS/ST(2) values at any suture site in male samples. In female samples, age had significant positive correlations with FS and FS/ST(2) values at the middle suture sites, whereas there were not significant but slight positive correlations between age and FS and FS/ST(2) values at the edges of the suture. Statistical analyses also demonstrated that FS and FS/ST(2) values were significantly greater in male samples than in female samples at the middle suture sites. These findings suggest that the bending strength of the adult sagittal suture is significantly lower than that of surrounding parietal bones. Therefore, avoiding direct impact on cranial sutures may be important for preventing skull fractures and severe complications that can cause death. The results of this study also revealed that the bending strength of the middle sagittal suture significantly increases with age in only female samples, whereas the bending strength is significantly higher in male samples than in female samples at the middle suture sites, indicating the possibility of sex difference in the bony interdigitation of the sutures during childhood. PMID:25679987

Torimitsu, Suguru; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Takano, Tachio; Koizumi, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Yajima, Daisuke; Inokuchi, Go; Makino, Yohsuke; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Iwase, Hirotaro

2015-04-01

88

A statistical methodology for the comparison of blue gel pen inks analyzed by laser desorption\\/ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical methodology for the objective comparison of LDI-MS mass spectra of blue gel pen inks was evaluated. Thirty-three blue gel pen inks previously studied by RAMAN were analyzed directly on the paper using both positive and negative mode. The obtained mass spectra were first compared using relative areas of selected peaks using the Pearson correlation coefficient and the Euclidean

C閘ine Weyermann; Lukas Bucher; Paul Majcherczyk

2011-01-01

89

Meta-analysis of the technical performance of an imaging procedure: Guidelines and statistical methodology.  

PubMed

Medical imaging serves many roles in patient care and the drug approval process, including assessing treatment response and guiding treatment decisions. These roles often involve a quantitative imaging biomarker, an objectively measured characteristic of the underlying anatomic structure or biochemical process derived from medical images. Before a quantitative imaging biomarker is accepted for use in such roles, the imaging procedure to acquire it must undergo evaluation of its technical performance, which entails assessment of performance metrics such as repeatability and reproducibility of the quantitative imaging biomarker. Ideally, this evaluation will involve quantitative summaries of results from multiple studies to overcome limitations due to the typically small sample sizes of technical performance studies and/or to include a broader range of clinical settings and patient populations. This paper is a review of meta-analysis procedures for such an evaluation, including identification of suitable studies, statistical methodology to evaluate and summarize the performance metrics, and complete and transparent reporting of the results. This review addresses challenges typical of meta-analyses of technical performance, particularly small study sizes, which often causes violations of assumptions underlying standard meta-analysis techniques. Alternative approaches to address these difficulties are also presented; simulation studies indicate that they outperform standard techniques when some studies are small. The meta-analysis procedures presented are also applied to actual [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) test-retest repeatability data for illustrative purposes. PMID:24872353

Huang, Erich P; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; McShane, Lisa M; G鰊en, Mithat; Ye, Jingjing; Buckler, Andrew J; Kinahan, Paul E; Reeves, Anthony P; Jackson, Edward F; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Zahlmann, Gudrun

2015-02-01

90

A statistical comparison of protein and carbohydrate characterisation methodology applied on sewage sludge samples.  

PubMed

Biochemical characterization of organic matter is becoming of key importance in wastewater treatment. The main objectives are to predict organic matter properties, such as granulation or flocculation, and hence treatment performance. Although standardized methods do exist for some organic molecules, such as volatile fatty acids or lipids, there are no standard methods to measure proteins and carbohydrates content, both biochemical families being the main components of sewage sludge. Consequently, the aim of the present work is to investigate the efficiency of several colorimetric methods to determine proteins and carbohydrates content as well as their compatibility with the sludge matrices. The different methods have been evaluated based on statistical criteria such as sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, rightness, and specificity using standard molecules such as Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), glucose, cellulose and a certified reference product. The Lowry and the Dubois methods have been shown to be the best compromise for the considered criteria after having been tested on sewage sludge samples obtained from different locations in a wastewater treatment plant. In average, the measured volatile fatty acids, lipids, proteins and carbohydrates contents represented 80 7% (% volatile solids) of the organic matter. Proteins and carbohydrates represented in average 69 3%. This study underlined that the choice of a relevant methodology is of great importance for organic matter measurement. PMID:23357791

Jimenez, Julie; Vedrenne, Fabien; Denis, C閏ile; Mottet, Alexis; D閘閞is, Stephane; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Cacho Rivero, Jes鷖 Andr閟

2013-04-01

91

CASE REPORT Three-Dimensional Computer Visualization of Forensic  

E-print Network

methodologies and techniques and in raising the profile of this novel form of data visualization within graphics, forensic pathology, UK, visualization, suicidal stabbing (Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2004;25: 60 relating to a suicidal stabbing, with particular emphasis placed upon the comparison of 2 knives found

Schofield, Damian

92

STATISTICAL NOTIONS OF DATA DISCLOSURE AVOIDANCE AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO TRADITIONAL STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY: DATA SWAPPING AND LOGLINEAR MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most data releases especially those from censuses, the U. S. Bureau of the Census has either released data at high levels of aggregation or applied a data disclosure avoidance procedure such as data swapping or cell suppression before preparing micro-data or tables for release. In this paper, we present a general statistical characterization of the goal of a statistical

Stephen E. Fienberg; Russell J. Steele

1996-01-01

93

Integrating Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

2000-01-01

94

Computer Forensics Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of science and education to computer-related crime forensics is still largely limited to law enforcement organizations. Building a suitable workforce development program could support the rapidly growing field of computer and network forensics.

Alec Yasinsac; Robert F. Erbacher; Donald G. Marks; Mark Pollitt; Peter M. Sommer

2003-01-01

95

Reporting characteristics of meta-analyses in orthodontics: methodological assessment and statistical recommendations.  

PubMed

Ideally meta-analyses (MAs) should consolidate the characteristics of orthodontic research in order to produce an evidence-based answer. However severe flaws are frequently observed in most of them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the statistical methods, the methodology, and the quality characteristics of orthodontic MAs and to assess their reporting quality during the last years. Electronic databases were searched for MAs (with or without a proper systematic review) in the field of orthodontics, indexed up to 2011. The AMSTAR tool was used for quality assessment of the included articles. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test, one-way ANOVA, and generalized linear modelling. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to represent changes during the years in reporting of key items associated with quality. A total of 80 MAs with 1086 primary studies were included in this evaluation. Using the AMSTAR tool, 25 (27.3%) of the MAs were found to be of low quality, 37 (46.3%) of medium quality, and 18 (22.5%) of high quality. Specific characteristics like explicit protocol definition, extensive searches, and quality assessment of included trials were associated with a higher AMSTAR score. Model selection and dealing with heterogeneity or publication bias were often problematic in the identified reviews. The number of published orthodontic MAs is constantly increasing, while their overall quality is considered to range from low to medium. Although the number of MAs of medium and high level seems lately to rise, several other aspects need improvement to increase their overall quality. PMID:23493385

Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Papadopoulos, Moschos A; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

2014-02-01

96

Careers with Forensic Biology  

E-print Network

Careers with Forensic Biology www.twitter.com/mmu_careers www.facebook.com/MMUCareersandEmployability Careers & Employability Service www.mmu.ac.uk/careers/guides #12;2 08/12 Careers with Forensic Biology These are a range of careers and employers that would use and value your forensic biology knowledge: Laboratory

97

lthough forensic DNA testing is well established, experts sometimes disagree about the interpreta-  

E-print Network

A lthough forensic DNA testing is well established, experts sometimes disagree about the interpreta. THOMPSON, LAURENCE D. MUELLER, AND DAN E. KRANE 12 Forensic DNA Statistics: Still Controversial In Some Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM), a group of forensic scientists chosen by the FBI to propose

Rose, Michael R.

98

Centre for Forensic Science Centre for Forensic Science  

E-print Network

Centre for Forensic Science #12;Centre for Forensic Science First program in UK and now in itsKie #12;Education, Research & Practice MSc/PgDip Forensic Science BSc/MChem Forensic & Analytical chemistry BSc Forensic Biology Scientific and Law Enforcement training Professional bodies Practice

Mottram, Nigel

99

Bayesian networks for evaluation of evidence from forensic entomology.  

PubMed

In the aftermath of a CBRN incident, there is an urgent need to reconstruct events in order to bring the perpetrators to court and to take preventive actions for the future. The challenge is to discriminate, based on available information, between alternative scenarios. Forensic interpretation is used to evaluate to what extent results from the forensic investigation favor the prosecutors' or the defendants' arguments, using the framework of Bayesian hypothesis testing. Recently, several new scientific disciplines have been used in a forensic context. In the AniBioThreat project, the framework was applied to veterinary forensic pathology, tracing of pathogenic microorganisms, and forensic entomology. Forensic entomology is an important tool for estimating the postmortem interval in, for example, homicide investigations as a complement to more traditional methods. In this article we demonstrate the applicability of the Bayesian framework for evaluating entomological evidence in a forensic investigation through the analysis of a hypothetical scenario involving suspect movement of carcasses from a clandestine laboratory. Probabilities of different findings under the alternative hypotheses were estimated using a combination of statistical analysis of data, expert knowledge, and simulation, and entomological findings are used to update the beliefs about the prosecutors' and defendants' hypotheses and to calculate the value of evidence. The Bayesian framework proved useful for evaluating complex hypotheses using findings from several insect species, accounting for uncertainty about development rate, temperature, and precolonization. The applicability of the forensic statistic approach to evaluating forensic results from a CBRN incident is discussed. PMID:23971824

Andersson, M Gunnar; Sundstr鰉, Anders; Lindstr鰉, Anders

2013-09-01

100

Digital Image Forensics via Intrinsic Fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital imaging has experienced tremendous growth in recent decades, and digital camera images have been used in a growing number of applications. With such increasing popularity and the availability of low-cost image editing software, the integrity of digital image content can no longer be taken for granted. This paper introduces a new methodology for forensic analysis of digital camera images.

Ashwin Swaminathan; Min Wu; K. J. Ray Liu

2008-01-01

101

FORENSIC TECHNIQUES FOR CELL PHONES  

E-print Network

June 2007 FORENSIC TECHNIQUES FOR CELL PHONES FORENSIC TECHNIQUES FOR CELL PHONES Shirley Radack of recovering digital evidence from mobile phones, using forensically sound conditions and accepted methods, is called mobile phone forensics. In general, forensic science is the application of scientific principles

102

Teaching forensic medicine in the University of Porto.  

PubMed

The University of Porto (UP) provides education in Forensic Medicine (FM) through the 1st, 2nd and 3rd cycle of studies, post-graduation and continuing education courses. This education is related to forensic pathology, clinical forensic medicine (including forensic psychology and psychiatry), forensic chemistry and toxicology, forensic genetics and biology, and criminalistics. With this work we intent to reflect on how we are currently teaching FM in the UP, at all levels of university graduation. We will present our models, regarding the educational objectives, curricular program and teaching/learning methodologies of each cycle of studies as well as in post-graduate and continuing education courses. Historically, and besides related administratively to the Ministry of Justice, the Portuguese Medico-Legal Institutes (since 1918) and more recently the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF) also have educational and research responsibilities. Thus, it lends space and cooperates with academic institutions and this contribution, namely regarding teaching forensic sciences in Portugal has been judged as an example for other Countries. This contribution is so important that in UP, the Department of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of the Faculty of Medicine (FMUP) shares, until now, the same physical space with North Branch of the INMLCF, which represents a notorious advantage, since it makes possible the "learning by doing". PMID:24931860

Magalh鉫s, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Santos, Agostinho

2014-07-01

103

An Interview with David Rindskopf: A Leading Voice on Teaching Statistics and Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with David Rindskopf, a Distinguished Professor of Educational Psychology and Psychology at the City University of New York Graduate Center, where he has taught since 1979. His research and teaching are in the area of applied statistics, measurement, and research design. He is a fellow of the American Statistical

Bembenutty, Hefer

2011-01-01

104

Forensics Investigator  

MedlinePLUS

... If you like this career, checkout these videos: Dr. Lois Tully NIST: Explanation of DNA testing Tour of the National Institute of Standards and Technology * Information regarding income is cited from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. ** More than a minimum degree may be required for some careers.

105

World of Forensic Laboratory Testing  

MedlinePLUS

... Was this page helpful? Overview | Forensic Pathology | Forensic Toxicology | Genetic Tests and DNA Typing | Testing in Cases ... Michael Jackson died in 2009, results of Forensic Toxicology tests on his brain tissue took almost a ...

106

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

107

Ask a Forensic Artist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How exactly does one become a forensic artist? It is not easy, and this website provides some rather direct and frank advice about the profession. The Ask a Forensic Artist (AAFA) site is well organized, and first-time visitors should make a beeline for the "FAQ" section. Here they will find answers to questions like "What is 'Forensic Art'?" and "What training is available in Forensic Art?" The remaining sections include "Careers", "Gallery", "Artist Interviews" and the thematic "Categories" area on the right-hand side of the page. The "Artist Interviews" includes profiles with forensic artists working in many fields of law enforcement. The "Gallery" features a few samples of forensic art, and the "Careers" area includes some basic information for those who wish to get started in the field. The site is rounded out by a list of career-related sites and helpful blogs.

108

The Epistemology of Mathematical and Statistical Modeling: A Quiet Methodological Revolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quiet methodological revolution, a modeling revolution, has occurred over the past several decades, almost without discussion. In contrast, the 20th century ended with contentious argument over the utility of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). The NHST controversy may have been at least partially irrelevant, because in certain ways the

Rodgers, Joseph Lee

2010-01-01

109

Five Methodology Errors in Educational Research: The Pantheon of Statistical Significance and Other Faux Pas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After presenting a general linear model as a framework for discussion, this paper reviews five methodology errors that occur in educational research: (1) the use of stepwise methods; (2) the failure to consider in result interpretation the context specificity of analytic weights (e.g., regression beta weights, factor pattern coefficients,

Thompson, Bruce

110

STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE TYPES OF OUTCOMES IN NONLINEAR THRESHOLD MODELS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple outcomes are often measured on each experimental unit in toxicology experiments. These multiple observations typically imply the existence of correlation between endpoints, and a statistical analysis that incorporates it may result in improved inference. When both disc...

111

Court TV: Forensic Files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This companion Web site to the Court TV series _Forensic Files_ offers a virtual forensics lab where visitors can learn more about the different techniques experts use to "put together the pieces of the crime puzzle." Each room of the virtual 3-story lab is dedicated to a different forensic technique, including DNA evidence, bite marks, blood splatter, time of death, and more. Each room offers an explanatory video presentation, as well as an annotated slide show or video of forensics scientists at work.

112

Doctoral Training in Statistics, Measurement, and Methodology in Psychology: Replication and Extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) Survey of PhD Programs in North America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada, the authors documented the quantitative methodology curriculum (statistics, measurement, and research design) to examine the extent to which innovations in quantitative methodology have diffused into the training of PhDs in psychology. In all, 201 psychology PhD

Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.; Millsap, Roger E.

2008-01-01

113

Forensic psychiatry: contemporary scope, challenges and controversies  

PubMed Central

Forensic psychiatry is the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law, and with the flow of mentally disordered offenders along a continuum of social systems. Modern forensic psychiatry has benefited from four key developments: the evolution in the understanding and appreciation of the relationship between mental illness and criminality; the evolution of the legal tests to define legal insanity; the new methodologies for the treatment of mental conditions providing alternatives to custodial care; and the changes in attitudes and perceptions of mental illness among the public. This paper reviews the current scope of forensic psychiatry and the ethical dilemmas that this subspecialty is facing worldwide. PMID:16946941

ARBOLEDA-FL覴EZ, JULIO

2006-01-01

114

DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It

Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

2008-01-01

115

Methodologies for statistical behavioral modeling and simulation of complex analog integrated circuits  

E-print Network

APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D A. Final Summary B. Suggestions for Future Work 95 97 99 105 107 125 159 VITA 171 LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page I Accuracy of the established means for the first 20 parameters of the statistical device model II...

Swidzinski, Jan

1997-01-01

116

METHODOLOGY FOR PROJECTION OF OCCUPATIONAL TRENDS IN THE DENVER STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

VARIOUS METHODS AVAILABLE FOR A PROJECTION OF OCCUPATIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF A STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA (SMSA) ARE REVIEWED, AS WELL AS THE DATA AVAILABLE TO IMPLEMENT THESE APPROACHES. TWO "NAIVE" MODELS ARE RECOMMENDED FOR USE AS BENCH MARKS AGAINST WHICH TO COMPARE MORE SOPHISTICATED APPROACHES--THE "NO CHANGE" MODEL AND A MODEL

FISHMAN, LESLIE; AND OTHERS

117

Methodology Note Towards comparable statistics on mortality by socioeconomic status in EU Member States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overall levels of mortality have declined in all socioeconomic status (SES) groups in the EU, but there are indications that relative mortality differences between those in low and high SES groups have increased. EU policy groups and departments expressed the need to address this issue but noted that comparable and high quality systems of data collection and statistics required for

George Groenewold; Jeroen van Ginneken

118

Reconsiderations on evaluating methodology of repellent effects: validation of indices and statistical analyses.  

PubMed

Many pest repellents are in household use, and a variety of procedures, indices, and statistical tests have been used to examine their effectiveness. However, the effect of action mechanism on these indices has not been adequately discussed. In addition, the interreplication variance of data have not been taken into account in some cases. This study considered the validity of tests used to evaluate repellents and proposed methods to statistically evaluate them. First, various repellents with different mechanisms of action were virtually assumed, and their repelling processes were formulated as differential equations. Numerical and analytical analyses of the formulae revealed that, in some action mechanisms, the indices could be altered by parameters other than the repellent effect and that the indices should be used only for repellents of a specific mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of an actual repellent, by using two different experimental designs and the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were evaluated. This demonstrated that the evaluated effectiveness could vary with experimental design and suggested that the design should reflect the situation in which repellents are actually used. Therefore, statistical methods to quantify the effectiveness of repellents are proposed herein and applied to the results of the above-mentioned experiments. Particular emphasis was placed on the importance of incorporating the interreplication variance in statistical models and estimating confidence intervals. Finally, the validity and limitations of evaluation using indices of repellents' effects, and the identification of important criteria that should be considered when assessing the effects of repellents also are discussed. PMID:19886465

Takakura, Koh-Ichi

2009-10-01

119

Making Forensic Attack Event/forensic Analysis as Simple  

E-print Network

science can only answer part of it. 路 Forensic analysis is an art, but there are scientific componentsMaking Forensic Attack Event/forensic Analysis as Simple as Possible and No Simpler Sean Peisert to focus on non-binary (e.g., post mortem analysis). 5Tuesday, July 22, 2008 #12;What is forensic Analysis

Peisert, Sean

120

FORENSIC SCIENCE The bachelor of science in forensic science at  

E-print Network

FORENSIC SCIENCE The bachelor of science in forensic science at Wichita State University is designed to meet an increasing demand for trained forensic scientists and technicians. No other university with this degree can be assigned to virtually any aspect of a forensic investigation with less pre-service training

121

Forensic Science Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career

Tech Directions, 2010

2010-01-01

122

Forensic video image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic video image analysis is a new scientific tool for perpetrator enhancement and identification in poorly recorded crime scene situations. Forensic video image analysis is emerging technology for law enforcement, industrial security and surveillance addressing the following problems often found in these poor quality video recorded incidences.

Edwards, Thomas R.

1997-02-01

123

Statistical investigation of Kluyveromyces lactis cells permeabilization with ethanol by response surface methodology  

PubMed Central

The aim of our study was to select the optimal operating conditions to permeabilize Kluyveromyces lactis cells using ethanol as a solvent as an alternative to cell disruption and extraction. Cell permeabilization was carried out by a non-mechanical method consisting of chemical treatment with ethanol, and the results were expressed as ?-galactosidase activity. Experiments were conducted under different conditions of ethanol concentration, treatment time and temperature according to a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), and the collected results were then worked out by response surface methodology (RSM). Cell permeabilization was improved by an increase in ethanol concentration and simultaneous decreases in the incubation temperature and treatment time. Such an approach allowed us to identify an optimal range of the independent variables within which the ?-galactosidase activity was optimized. A maximum permeabilization of 2,816 mmol L?1 oNP min?1 g?1 was obtained by treating cells with 75.0% v/v of ethanol at 20.0 癈 for 15.0 min. The proposed methodology resulted to be effective and suited for K. lactis cells permeabilization at a lab-scale and promises to be of possible interest for future applications mainly in the food industry. PMID:24688494

de Faria, Jana韓a T.; Rocha, Pollyana F.; Converti, Attilio; Passos, Fl醰ia M.L.; Minim, Luis A.; Sampaio, F醔io C.

2013-01-01

124

The use of geoscience methods for terrestrial forensic searches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoscience methods are increasingly being utilised in criminal, environmental and humanitarian forensic investigations, and the use of such methods is supported by a growing body of experimental and theoretical research. Geoscience search techniques can complement traditional methodologies in the search for buried objects, including clandestine graves, weapons, explosives, drugs, illegal weapons, hazardous waste and vehicles. This paper details recent advances in search and detection methods, with case studies and reviews. Relevant examples are given, together with a generalised workflow for search and suggested detection technique(s) table. Forensic geoscience techniques are continuing to rapidly evolve to assist search investigators to detect hitherto difficult to locate forensic targets.

Pringle, J. K.; Ruffell, A.; Jervis, J. R.; Donnelly, L.; McKinley, J.; Hansen, J.; Morgan, R.; Pirrie, D.; Harrison, M.

2012-08-01

125

Manipulating measurement scales in medical statistical analysis and data mining: A review of methodologies  

PubMed Central

Background: selecting the correct statistical test and data mining method depends highly on the measurement scale of data, type of variables, and purpose of the analysis. Different measurement scales are studied in details and statistical comparison, modeling, and data mining methods are studied based upon using several medical examples. We have presented two ordinal杤ariables clustering examples, as more challenging variable in analysis, using Wisconsin Breast Cancer Data (WBCD). Ordinal-to-Interval scale conversion example: a breast cancer database of nine 10-level ordinal variables for 683 patients was analyzed by two ordinal-scale clustering methods. The performance of the clustering methods was assessed by comparison with the gold standard groups of malignant and benign cases that had been identified by clinical tests. Results: the sensitivity and accuracy of the two clustering methods were 98% and 96%, respectively. Their specificity was comparable. Conclusion: by using appropriate clustering algorithm based on the measurement scale of the variables in the study, high performance is granted. Moreover, descriptive and inferential statistics in addition to modeling approach must be selected based on the scale of the variables. PMID:24672565

Marateb, Hamid Reza; Mansourian, Marjan; Adibi, Peyman; Farina, Dario

2014-01-01

126

National Academy of Forensic Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Academy of Forensic Engineers provides a short definition of forensic engineering here. After reading through the definition, click the "Menu" link at the bottom of the page to access the site's main menu. From here, you can find more information on the National Academy of Forensic Engineers, and forensic engineering in general.

127

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis  

E-print Network

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert (UC San Diego) Matt Bishop (UC Davis) Sid Karin is Forensic Analysis? Forensic analysis is the process of answering the questions: How did an event take place? What was the nature of the event? What were the effects of the event? Forensic analysis applies

Peisert, Sean

128

International Standards in Forensic DNA  

E-print Network

International Standards in Forensic DNA John M. Butler, Ph.D. National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST Fellow & Special Assistant to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science World Forensics Festival Seoul, Korea October 15, 2014 #12;Definition

129

Lecture Notes On Forensic Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers lecture notes relating to an introductory survey course on forensic science. It is designed to provide a comprehensive understanding and analysis of technical and legal issues involving forensic techniques. The lectures, focus on traditional subjects relating to the services of crime laboratories,but also deals with allied subjects,including forensic psychiatry, forensic pathology, and social science.

O'Connor, Tom

130

Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic

American Psychologist, 2013

2013-01-01

131

First Digit Law and Its Application to Digital Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital data forensics, which gathers evidence of data composition, origin, and history, is crucial in our digital world. Although this new research field is still in its infancy stage, it has started to attract increasing attention from the multimedia-security research community. This lecture addresses the first digit law and its applications to digital forensics. First, the Benford and generalized Benford laws, referred to as first digit law, are introduced. Then, the application of first digit law to detection of JPEG compression history for a given BMP image and detection of double JPEG compressions are presented. Finally, applying first digit law to detection of double MPEG video compressions is discussed. It is expected that the first digit law may play an active role in other task of digital forensics. The lesson learned is that statistical models play an important role in digital forensics and for a specific forensic task different models may provide different performance.

Shi, Yun Q.

132

Identification of variables and value optimization for optimum lipase production by Bacillus pumilus RK31 using statistical methodology.  

PubMed

In an effort to optimize the medium components, the statistical methodology was applied to achieve the optimum lipase production under shake flask conditions. The study was conducted in three steps on newly isolated Bacillus pumilus RK 31. In the first step, 12 different variables viz., Glucose, Olive oil, Yeast extract, Peptone, Tween 80, KH(2)PO(4), MgSO(4), NaNO(3), CaCl(2), Temperature, pH and Inoculum size were used to identify the most significant variables affecting lipase production using Plackett-Burman statistical design. Variance analysis showed that Olive oil, Tween 80 and KH(2)PO(4) played significant role in lipase production. In the second step, the values of the above-identified three variables were optimized by central composite design using three-level-three-factor approach. The optimum values of Olive oil, Tween 80 and KH(2)PO(4) were found to be 10.0ml/l, 5.0ml/l and 8.0g/l, respectively. KH(2)PO(4) was found to be responsible for maximum lipase production of 5.59IU/ml, experimental and 5.03IU/ml, predicted. In the third step, the optimum predicted values of the three factors and lipase production were verified by experimental approach. The amount of lipase produced in the designated medium was in agreement with that of predicted values by statistical method. PMID:20601261

Kumar, Rakesh; Mahajan, Shivani; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Deepak

2011-01-31

133

Topic in Depth - Forensic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The field of forensic engineering involves the study of products, materials, and structures that fail to function properly. Forensic engineers investigate the problem to locate the source of the failure in order to improve the product or structure. Principles of forensic engineering are applied broadly across many different disciplines. Evidence from forensic engineering investigations is often used in both civil and criminal courts. The resources in this folder provide an overview of many different aspects of the forensic engineering discipline.

134

The forensic psychiatric report.  

PubMed

The construction of a written forensic report is a core component of forensic practice, demonstrating the evaluator's skill in conducting the evaluation and in communicating relevant information to the legal audience in an effective manner. Although communication skills and quality of written documentation are important in clinical psychiatry generally, they form the sine qua non of successful forensic work, which consists in telling complex stories in a coherent and compelling fashion. High quality forensic reports require careful preparation from the earliest stages of work on a case. They generally follow an expected structure, which permits the evaluator to provide all the data necessary to form a carefully reasoned opinion that addresses the legal questions posed. Formats and content of reports vary according to the type of case and the circumstances of the evaluation and so require flexibility within customary frameworks. The style and quality of writing are critical to the crafting of forensic reports. The effects on legal decision-makers of various approaches to the presentation of information in reports has not been studied empirically, but guidance from experienced forensic psychiatrists is available. There is a small body of research on quality improvement in forensic writing, and further empiric study is warranted. PMID:25603453

Norko, Michael A; Buchanan, Mar Alec

2015-01-01

135

STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING TRANSPORT PARAMETERS: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS TO ONE-DOMENSIONAL ADVECTIVE-DISPERSIVE SYSTEMS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A simulation nonlinear multiple-regression methodology for estimating parameters that characterize the transport of contaminants is developed and demonstrated. Finite difference containment transport simulation is combined with a nonlinear weighted least squares multiple-regression procedure. The technique provides optimal parameter estimates and gives statistics for assessing the reliability of these estimates under certain general assumptions about the distributions of the random measurement errors. Monte Carlo analysis is used to estimate parameter reliability for a hypothetical homogeneous soil column for which concentration data contain large random measurement errors. The value of data collected spatially versus data collected temporally was investigated for estimation of velocity, dispersion coefficient, effective porosity, first-order decay rate, and zero-order production. The use of spatial data gave estimates that were 2-3 times more reliable than estimates based on temporal data for all parameters except velocity. (Estimated author abstract) Refs.

Wagner, Brian J.; Gorelick, Steven M.

1986-01-01

136

A statistical methodology for the comparison of blue gel pen inks analyzed by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A statistical methodology for the objective comparison of LDI-MS mass spectra of blue gel pen inks was evaluated. Thirty-three blue gel pen inks previously studied by RAMAN were analyzed directly on the paper using both positive and negative mode. The obtained mass spectra were first compared using relative areas of selected peaks using the Pearson correlation coefficient and the Euclidean distance. Intra-variability among results from one ink and inter-variability between results from different inks were compared in order to choose a differentiation threshold minimizing the rate of false negative (i.e. avoiding false differentiation of the inks). This yielded a discriminating power of up to 77% for analysis made in the negative mode. The whole mass spectra were then compared using the same methodology, allowing for a better DP in the negative mode of 92% using the Pearson correlation on standardized data. The positive mode results generally yielded a lower differential power (DP) than the negative mode due to a higher intra-variability compared to the inter-variability in the mass spectra of the ink samples. PMID:21889108

Weyermann, C閘ine; Bucher, Lukas; Majcherczyk, Paul

2011-09-01

137

Methodologic and statistical approaches to studying human fertility and environmental exposure.  

PubMed Central

Although there has been growing concern about the effects of environmental exposures on human fertility, standard epidemiologic study designs may not collect sufficient data to identify subtle effects while properly adjusting for confounding. In particular, results from conventional time to pregnancy studies can be driven by the many sources of bias inherent in these studies. By prospectively collecting detailed records of menstrual bleeding, occurrences of intercourse, and a marker of ovulation day in each menstrual cycle, precise information on exposure effects can be obtained, adjusting for many of the primary sources of bias. This article provides an overview of the different types of study designs, focusing on the data required, the practical advantages and disadvantages of each design, and the statistical methods required to take full advantage of the available data. We conclude that detailed prospective studies allowing inferences on day-specific probabilities of conception should be considered as the gold standard for studying the effects of environmental exposures on fertility. PMID:14698936

Tingen, Candace; Stanford, Joseph B; Dunson, David B

2004-01-01

138

Forensic speaker recognition  

E-print Network

Looking at the different points highlighted in this article, we affirm that forensic applications of speaker recognition should still be taken under a necessary need for caution. Disseminating this message remains one of ...

Bonstre, Jean-Francois

139

Forensic Facial Reconstruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a background of forensic facial reconstruction with a process description on how to give students a reliable laboratory experience from which to learn the origins and insertions of the muscles of facial expression.

Sarah Cooper (Arcadia University)

2008-07-01

140

Forensic Chemistry Lab Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Any aspect of forensic science can be quite tricky, and educators will be delighted to learn about this helpful educational resource designed just for them. Created by Professor Robert Thompson of Oberlin College this online forensic chemistry lab manual is designed to help chemistry faculty in developing forensic chemistry project laboratories for both undergraduate and graduate courses. In this manual, visitors will find sample preparations, procedural details, instructions for students, and typical results in a variety of formats. Along the left-hand side of the homepage, visitors can look through the forensic chemistry analyses, which include explosives, fabric, glass, and arson. The site is rounded out by a selection of "Stories", which are meant to provide the background for chemical analyses of crime scene samples.

Thompson, Robert

141

Multivariate statistical methodologies applied in biomedical Raman spectroscopy: assessing the validity of partial least squares regression using simulated model datasets.  

PubMed

Raman spectroscopy is fast becoming a valuable analytical tool in a number of biomedical scenarios, most notably disease diagnostics. Importantly, the technique has also shown increasing promise in the assessment of drug interactions on cellular and subcellular levels, particularly when coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. However, with respect to both Raman spectroscopy and the associated statistical methodologies, an important consideration is the accuracy of these techniques and more specifically, the sensitivities which can be achieved, and ultimately the limits of detection of the various methods. The purpose of this study is thus the construction of a model simulated dataset with the aim of testing the accuracy and sensitivity of the partial least squares regression (PLSR) approach to spectral analysis. The basis of the dataset is the experimental spectral profiles of a previously reported Raman spectroscopic analysis of the interaction of the cancer chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin in an adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell-line, in vitro, and is thus reflective of actual experimental data. The simulated spectroscopic data are constructed by adding known perturbations which are independently linear in drug doses as well as cytological responses experimentally determined by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. It is demonstrated that, through appropriate choice of dose range, PLSR against the respective targets can differentiate between the spectroscopic signatures of the direct chemical effect of the drug dose and the indirect cytological effect it produces. PMID:25558476

Keating, Mark E; Nawaz, Haq; Bonnier, Franck; Byrne, Hugh J

2015-03-16

142

Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics  

SciTech Connect

Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special considerations for the forensic arena - quality control, sample integrity, etc. Mark Wilson (retired FBI): Western Carolina University Chapter 4. Physical signatures: Light and electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gravimetry etc. Joseph Michael, Sandia National Laboratory Chapter 5. Lipids: FAME, PLFA, steroids, LPS, etc. James Robertson, Federal Bureau of Investigation Chapter 6. Carbohydrates: Cell wall components, cytoplasm components, methods Alvin Fox, University of South Carolina School of Medicine David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 7. Peptides: Peptides, proteins, lipoproteins David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 8. Elemental content: CNOHPS (treated in passing), metals, prospective cell types John Cliff, International Atomic Energy Agency Chapter 9. Isotopic signatures: Stable isotopes C,N,H,O,S, 14C dating, potential for heavy elements. Helen Kreuzer-Martin, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Michaele Kashgarian, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Chapter 10. Extracellular signatures: Cellular debris, heme, agar, headspace, spent media, etc Karen Wahl, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 11. Data Reduction and Integrated Microbial Forensics: Statistical concepts, parametric and multivariate statistics, integrating signatures Kristin Jarman, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Cliff, John B.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Wunschel, David S.

2012-01-03

143

Professionalism in Computer Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper seeks to address the need to consider issues regarding professionalism in computer forensics in order to allow the discipline to develop and to ensure the credibility of the discipline from the differing perspectives of practitioners, the criminal justice system and in the eyes of the public. There is a need to examine and develop professionalism in computer forensics in order to promote the discipline and maintain the credibility of the discipline.

Irons, Alastair D.; Konstadopoulou, Anastasia

144

Dynamics of Forensic Interviews with Suspected Abuse Victims Who Do Not Disclose Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The present study was designed to explore structural differences between forensic interviews in which children made allegations and those in which children did not make allegations. Methodology: Fifty forensic interviews of 4- to 13-year-old suspected victims of abuse who did not disclose abuse during the interview were compared with

Hershkowitz, Irit; Orbach, Yael; Lamb, Michael E.; Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Horowitz, Dvora

2006-01-01

145

Curriculum and course materials for a forensic DNA biology course.  

PubMed

The Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) requires accredited programs offer a "coherent curriculum" to ensure each student gains a "thorough grounding of the natural卻ciences." Part of this curriculum includes completion of a minimum of 15 semester-hours forensic science coursework, nine of which can involve a class in forensic DNA biology. Departments that have obtained or are pursuing FEPAC accreditation can meet this requirement by offering a stand-alone forensic DNA biology course; however, materials necessary to instruct students are often homegrown and not standardized; in addition, until recently, the community lacked commercially available books, lab manuals, and teaching materials, and many of the best pedagogical resources were scattered across various peer-reviewed journals. The curriculum discussed below is an attempt to synthesize this disparate information, and although certainly not the only acceptable methodology, the below discussion represents "a way" for synthesizing and aggregating this information into a cohesive, comprehensive whole. PMID:24591042

Elkins, Kelly M

2014-01-01

146

Forensic trace DNA: a review  

PubMed Central

DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

2010-01-01

147

Proceedings of Australian Digital Forensics  

E-print Network

............................................................................................ 52 6. Forensic Analysis Avoidance Techniques of Malware.................... 119 13. An examination of the Asus WL-HDD 2.5 as a Nepenthes malware collector ...... 154 17. Can SDV Technology be Utilised in a Smartphone to Prevent Forensic Analysis

Tomkins, Andrew

148

Exploring relationship between asthma and air pollution: a geospatial methodology using dasymetric mapping, GIS analysis, and spatial statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents methodology using dasymetric mapping from remotely sensed imagery, geographic information system (GIS), spatial analysis and spatial statistics to explore relationship between asthma and air pollution in the Pensacola metropolitan region of Florida. Health outcome indicators thought to be sensitive to increased exposure of airborne environmental hazards are mortality and morbidity rates for total population asthma patients. Environmental data for the time around the year 1999 include point source pollution sites and emissions, traffic count with emission estimates, and a Landsat ETM+ image. Standardized mortality/morbility ratios (SMRs) were used as dependent variables for the analysis. A centroid map was created from the zip code map with each centroid assigned the corresponding SMR values. Then spatial interpolation using the Kriging method was used to generate continuous SMR surfaces. An emission or point count based kernel density raster map was created from each of the air pollution maps. A raster layer 'greenness' was extracted using tasseled cap transformation from the Landsat ETM+ image. The dasymetric mapping technique was employed to limit the analysis and modeling to the area where human activities occur. The ETM+ image was classified into a thematic land use/cover map and the developed area extracted. A road network was combined with the developed area to generate a buffer (buffer distance=1.5 km). A random sample with enough number of points was generated across the study area and 505 points were found within the developed area and the buffer. Data values at these sample points were extracted and used for statistical modeling. Two spatial autoregressive models (spatial error and spatial lag) were fitted. Both models show relationship between the asthmas outcome indicators and air pollution (positive) and 'greenness' (negative).

Hu, Z.; Liebens, Johan; Rao, Ranga

2007-06-01

149

Statistical analyses of 14 short tandem repeat loci in Brazilian populations from Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul states for forensic and identity testing purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the statistical features of a database for two Brazilian populations (one from the Rio de Janeiro State (southeast region), and one from the Mato Grosso do Sul State (central western region) using fourteen short tandem repeat loci (STR).

D. A. Silva; C. A. Crouse; R. Chakraborty; A. C. S. G骵s; E. F. Carvalho

2004-01-01

150

Doctoral training in statistics, measurement, and methodology in psychology: replication and extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) survey of PhD programs in North America.  

PubMed

In a survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada, the authors documented the quantitative methodology curriculum (statistics, measurement, and research design) to examine the extent to which innovations in quantitative methodology have diffused into the training of PhDs in psychology. In all, 201 psychology PhD programs (86%) participated. This survey replicated and extended a previous survey (L. S. Aiken, S. G. West, L. B. Sechrest, & R. R. Reno, 1990), permitting examination of curriculum development. Most training supported laboratory and not field research. The median of 1.6 years of training in statistics and measurement was mainly devoted to the modally 1-year introductory statistics course, leaving little room for advanced study. Curricular enhancements were noted in statistics and to a minor degree in measurement. Additional coverage of both fundamental and innovative quantitative methodology is needed. The research design curriculum has largely stagnated, a cause for great concern. Elite programs showed no overall advantage in quantitative training. Forces that support curricular innovation are characterized. Human capital challenges to quantitative training, including recruiting and supporting young quantitative faculty, are discussed. Steps must be taken to bring innovations in quantitative methodology into the curriculum of PhD programs in psychology. PMID:18193979

Aiken, Leona S; West, Stephen G; Millsap, Roger E

2008-01-01

151

NISTIR 7100 PDA Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7100 PDA Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysis RickAyers WayneJansen #12;ii NISTIR 7100 C O M P U T E R S E C U R I T Y PDA Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis Rick Ayers Wayne Jansen incident, forensic examiners require tools that allow the proper retrieval and speedy examination

152

Forensics on a Shoestring Budget  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum

Greco, Joseph A.

2005-01-01

153

Forensic Seismology and the Comprehensive  

E-print Network

Forensic Seismology and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty David Bowers and Neil D. Selby discrimination methods, underground explosion source, earthquake source Abstract One application of forensic facing the forensic seismologist is to discriminate between the many thousands of earthquakes

Jellinek, Mark

154

InnoDB Database Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whenever data is being processed, there are many places where parts of the data are temporarily stored; thus forensic analysis can reveal past activities, create a (partial) timeline and recover deleted data. While this fact is well known for computer forensics, multiple forensic tools exist to analyze data and the systematic analysis of database systems has only recently begun. This

Peter Fruhwirt; Marcus Huber; Martin Mulazzani; Edgar R. Weippl

2010-01-01

155

18: Plethora of Cyber Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As threats against digital assets have risen and there is necessitate exposing and eliminating hidden risks and threats. The ability of exposing is called 揷yber forensics. Cyber Penetrators have adopted more sophistical tools and tactics that endanger the operations of the global phenomena. These attackers are also using anti-forensic techniques to hide evidence of a cyber crime. Cyber forensics tools

2011-01-01

156

Statistical methodology to evaluate food exposure to a contaminant and influence of sanitary limits: application to Ochratoxin A.  

PubMed

This paper presents some statistical methodologies to evaluate the food exposure to a contaminant and quantify the outcome of a new maximum limit on a food item. Our application deals with Ochratoxin A (OTA). We focus on the quantitative evaluation of the distribution of exposure based on both consumption data and contamination data. One specific aspect of contamination data is left censorship due to the limits of detection. Three calculation procedures are proposed: [P1] a deterministic method using means of contamination; [P2] a probabilistic method using a parametric adjustment of the distributions of contamination taking into account the left censorship; and [P3] a non-parametric method which consists in randomly selecting the consumption data and the contamination values. Our main result shows that a non-parametric probabilistic approach is well adapted for the purpose of exposure assessment, when large samples are available. In the application to OTA, the probability to exceed a safe level is high, particularly for children. Simulations show that the impact of the existing standards on cereals and the currently proposed standards on wine generally do not significantly reduce the risk to be overexposed to OTA. PMID:15546679

Tressou, J; Leblanc, J Ch; Feinberg, M; Bertail, P

2004-12-01

157

Statistical Optimization of Ultraviolet Irradiate Conditions for Vitamin D2 Synthesis in Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Using Response Surface Methodology  

PubMed Central

Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum vitamin D2 synthesis conditions in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). Ultraviolet B (UV-B) was selected as the most efficient irradiation source for the preliminary experiment, in addition to the levels of three independent variables, which included ambient temperature (2545癈), exposure time (40120 min), and irradiation intensity (0.61.2 W/m2). The statistical analysis indicated that, for the range which was studied, irradiation intensity was the most critical factor that affected vitamin D2 synthesis in oyster mushrooms. Under optimal conditions (ambient temperature of 28.16癈, UV-B intensity of 1.14 W/m2, and exposure time of 94.28 min), the experimental vitamin D2 content of 239.67 礸/g (dry weight) was in very good agreement with the predicted value of 245.49 礸/g, which verified the practicability of this strategy. Compared to fresh mushrooms, the lyophilized mushroom powder can synthesize remarkably higher level of vitamin D2 (498.10 礸/g) within much shorter UV-B exposure time (10 min), and thus should receive attention from the food processing industry. PMID:24736742

Wu, Wei-Jie; Ahn, Byung-Yong

2014-01-01

158

Statistical optimization of ultraviolet irradiate conditions for vitamin D? synthesis in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum vitamin D2 synthesis conditions in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). Ultraviolet B (UV-B) was selected as the most efficient irradiation source for the preliminary experiment, in addition to the levels of three independent variables, which included ambient temperature (25-45癈), exposure time (40-120 min), and irradiation intensity (0.6-1.2 W/m2). The statistical analysis indicated that, for the range which was studied, irradiation intensity was the most critical factor that affected vitamin D2 synthesis in oyster mushrooms. Under optimal conditions (ambient temperature of 28.16癈, UV-B intensity of 1.14 W/m2, and exposure time of 94.28 min), the experimental vitamin D2 content of 239.67 礸/g (dry weight) was in very good agreement with the predicted value of 245.49 礸/g, which verified the practicability of this strategy. Compared to fresh mushrooms, the lyophilized mushroom powder can synthesize remarkably higher level of vitamin D2 (498.10 礸/g) within much shorter UV-B exposure time (10 min), and thus should receive attention from the food processing industry. PMID:24736742

Wu, Wei-Jie; Ahn, Byung-Yong

2014-01-01

159

Handbook of Forensic Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious about the procedures used in documenting a crime scene and gathering evidence? Look no further than the official handbook of the FBI Laboratory, "one of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world." The full text of the handbook may be read online in HTML format, divided by chapter. Topics discussed include guidelines for conducting a crime scene search, crime scene safety, guidelines for various types of evidence, and how to pack and ship evidence, among others. Also included at the site are links to the full text of the journal, Forensic Science Communications and to the official sites of the FBI Lab and Library.

1999-01-01

160

Handbook of Forensic Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious about the procedures used in documenting a crime scene and gathering evidence? Look no further than the official handbook of the FBI Laboratory, "one of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world." The full text of the handbook may be read online in HTML format, divided by chapter. Topics discussed include guidelines for conducting a crime scene search, crime scene safety, guidelines for various types of evidence, and how to pack and ship evidence, among others. Also included at the site are links to the full text of the journal, Forensic Science Communications and to the official sites of the FBI Lab and Library.

161

Research in forensic odontology.  

PubMed Central

Forensic odontology has established itself as an important and often indispensable science in medicolegal matters and in particular in identification of the dead. Much of its expertise is drawn from clinical experience based on basic research and advances in knowledge in dentistry in general. There has also been, particularly during the past two decades, an increasing body of research in specifically forensic dental matters and these studies form the subject of this review. Progress in this field, as in others, will depend upon development of training pathways and research facilities in our dental schools. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:7044254

Whittaker, D. K.

1982-01-01

162

Aitken, CGG. Zadora, G & Lucy, D. (2007) A Two-Level Model for Evidence Evaluation. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 52(2); 412-419.  

E-print Network

of Forensic Sciences. 52(2); 412-419. A Two-Level Model for Evidence Evaluation Colin G.G. Aitken,1 Ph for Forensic Statistics and Legal Rea- soning, The King's Buildings, The University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ 2 Institute of Forensic Research, Westerplatte 9, PL-31-033, Krakow, Poland. 3 Department

Lucy, David

2007-01-01

163

Exploring Trends in Forensic Odontology  

PubMed Central

Background: Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Materials and Methods: Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. Results: A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. Results showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Conclusion: Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology. PMID:25654026

Singh, Narendra Nath; Ain, Tasneem S.; Sultan, Saima

2014-01-01

164

Important statistical points to improve and promote the methodology of the articles on medical sciences, particularly nephrology and kidney; a review article  

PubMed Central

Background: Quality of articles methodology is one of the important factors which is considered by researchers. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine statistical guidelines on promotion of methodology抯 quality in the articles concerning medical sciences, particularly nephrology, to assist authors and reviewers. Materials and Methods: This study is a systematic review. Initially, the keywords "Epidemiologic Methods/analysis" [Mesh] OR "Epidemiologic Methods/epidemiology" and "reporting" were selected in Medline database. Then, reliable databases were searched for relevant publications. Being relevant, containing viewpoints, and recommending statistical guidelines as well as approval of at least two of the three examiners of articles were determined as the inclusion criteria into the study. Results: Two hundred relevant articles were retrieved. Thirty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. By the examined articles, 30 applied points have determinative role for improving and promoting quality of articles methodology. Of the important points, introducing and describing target community and statistical population, mentioning article title, introducing independent and dependent variables as well as confounders, reporting sample size for subgroups and the whole study, summarizing the data according to their statistical distribution (reporting mean and standard deviation for data with normal distribution), reporting the type of rate (incidence, survival), ratio (odds, hazard) or risk (absolute, relative, difference) with 95% CI and the used software could be mentioned. Conclusion: The most important factors contributing greatly to the quality of articles methodology on nephrology were reported in the present study. Applying these factors by articles authors and reviewers could lead to improve articles and journals quality. In addition, use of the findings of the present study in articles materials and methods could avoid research errors.

Ahmadi, Ali; Soori, Hamid

2015-01-01

165

Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

1988-01-01

166

Virtual Tour of a Forensic Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour of a forensic laboratory has three floors. Each floor has a number of rooms devoted to a particular forensic specialty. Each room has a slide show of forensic scientists performing their work. All rooms have a video explanation detailing the forensic specialty being visited. Some rooms also have videos of forensic scientists demonstrating analytical techniques.

167

Forensic Applications of LIBS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

168

Assessing the effect of sample size, methodological quality and statistical rigour on outcomes of randomised controlled trials on mobilisation, manipulation and massage for low back pain of at least 6 weeks duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo assess the effect of sample size, methodological quality and statistical rigour on outcomes of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on manual therapy (i.e. manipulation, mobilisation and\\/or massage) for non-specific low back pain (LBP) of at least 6 weeks duration, and to report results from RCTs with adequate sample size, methodological quality and statistical rigour.

Dries M. Hettinga; Deirdre A. Hurley; Anne Jackson; Stephen May; Chris Mercer; Lisa Roberts

2008-01-01

169

Forensic Analysis of Phone Call Networks  

E-print Network

In the context of preventing and fighting crime, the analysis of mobile phone traffic, among actors of a criminal network, is helpful in order to reconstruct illegal activities on the base of the relationships connecting those specific individuals. Thus, forensic analysts and investigators require new advanced tools and techniques which allow them to manage these data in a meaningful and efficient way. In this paper we present LogAnalysis, a tool we developed to provide visual data representation and filtering, statistical analysis features and the possibility of a temporal analysis of mobile phone activities. Its adoption may help in unveiling the structure of a criminal network and the roles and dynamics of communications among its components. By using LogAnalysis, forensic investigators could deeply understand hierarchies within criminal organizations, for example discovering central members that provide connections among different sub-groups, etc. Moreover, by analyzing the temporal evolution of the conta...

Catanese, Salvatore; Fiumara, Giacomo

2013-01-01

170

By Diana Ha, Undergraduate, UNLV Diversity in Forensics  

E-print Network

be when a forensic pathologist seeks the advice of a forensic science technician that specializes in DNABy Diana Ha, Undergraduate, UNLV Diversity in Forensics Since there is diversity forensic investigators, crime scene photographers, firearm and tool mark examiners, forensic accountants

Walker, Lawrence R.

171

Statistical methodology for the evaluation of vaccine efficacy in a phase III multi-centre trial of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African children  

PubMed Central

Background There has been much debate about the appropriate statistical methodology for the evaluation of malaria field studies and the challenges in interpreting data arising from these trials. Methods The present paper describes, for a pivotal phase III efficacy of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine, the methods of the statistical analysis and the rationale for their selection. The methods used to estimate efficacy of the primary course of vaccination, and of a booster dose, in preventing clinical episodes of uncomplicated and severe malaria, and to determine the duration of protection, are described. The interpretation of various measures of efficacy in terms of the potential public health impact of the vaccine is discussed. Conclusions The methodology selected to analyse the clinical trial must be scientifically sound, acceptable to regulatory authorities and meaningful to those responsible for malaria control and public health policy. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00866619 PMID:21816030

2011-01-01

172

Statistical Optimization of Process Parameters for Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Triethanolamine-Based Esterquats Using Response Surface Methodology in 2-Liter Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Lipase-catalyzed production of triethanolamine-based esterquat by esterification of oleic acid (OA) with triethanolamine (TEA) in n-hexane was performed in 2?L stirred-tank reactor. A set of experiments was designed by central composite design to process modeling and statistically evaluate the findings. Five independent process variables, including enzyme amount, reaction time, reaction temperature, substrates molar ratio of OA to TEA, and agitation speed, were studied under the given conditions designed by Design Expert software. Experimental data were examined for normality test before data processing stage and skewness and kurtosis indices were determined. The mathematical model developed was found to be adequate and statistically accurate to predict the optimum conversion of product. Response surface methodology with central composite design gave the best performance in this study, and the methodology as a whole has been proven to be adequate for the design and optimization of the enzymatic process. PMID:24324389

Basri, Mahiran; Kassim, Anuar; Kuang Abdullah, Dzulkefly; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa

2013-01-01

173

University of Glasgow Forensic Medicine and Science  

E-print Network

University of Glasgow Forensic Medicine and Science COURSE IN FORENSIC MEDICAL SCIENCES Session and Course Fee to: Dr Marjorie Turner Forensic Medicine and Science University of Glasgow Glasgow G12 8QQ Tel

Glasgow, University of

174

Biological Science Initative- Forensic Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides middle and high school teachers and students with concepts and techniques of forensic evidence analysis commonly employed in forensic laboratories. This site contains a series of laboratory exercises that can be downloaded for use in middle and high school settings. Experiments are designed to teach students basic principles and methods of forensic science and to motivate the teaching of science in the classroom. Experiments are designed to teach laboratory and data-collection techniques.

175

Selected Issues in Forensic Neuropsychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its rapid growth in recent years, in many respects the field of forensic neuropsychology is still in its infancy.\\u000a Numerous opportunities remain for neuropsychologists who wish to include some form of forensic work in their scope of practice.\\u000a A good deal more research needs to be done in specific areas of interest to forensic neuropsychologists, such as malingering,\\u000a mild

Brian Goodyear; Douglas Umetsu

176

Forensic Biology: Serology and DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Crime Laboratories routinely process evidence from criminal cases for the presence of biological fluids such as blood, semen,\\u000a and saliva in order to obtain DNA profiles. Forensic Biology encompasses both Forensic Serology and DNA testing. Prior to\\u000a examination, it is important for the forensic scientist to evaluate the type of crime and the samples submitted so that the\\u000a evidence can

Lisa Gefrides; Katie Welch

177

British military forensic psychiatry.  

PubMed

Military psychiatry has recently generated a lot of interest. In contrast there is virtually no literature on military forensic psychiatry. The first section of the paper is a brief review of British military psychiatric services and recent data on the prevalence of mental illness in British armed forces personnel. The second section summarizes the relevant aspects of the British military judicial and penal systems including the practice of summary justice, the court martial system, and sentencing and corrective training. The third section of the paper addresses issues which are particular to forensic psychiatry, including mental defences in relation to the military, the military offences of malingering and impersonation, risk assessment in military contexts and the notion of 'temperamental unsuitability' to military service. PMID:15176622

Turner, Mark A; Neal, Leigh A

2004-04-01

178

RNA in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA analysis offers insight into diseases and mechanisms leading to death and could develop into a valuable tool for diagnosis of the cause of death in forensic pathology. Other possible applications include the determination of the age of wounds and injuries and of the post-mortem interval. The molecular identification of body fluids by analysis of cell-specific mRNA expression already represents

M. Bauer

2007-01-01

179

Conferences Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

Integrity http://ori.hhs.gov/education/products/plagiarism/ 1 of 2 6/16/11 12:34 PM #12;U.S. DepartmentSearch ORI Sections About ORI Assurance Conferences Forensic Tools Handling Misconduct a s t u p d a t e d o n D e c e m b e r 6 , 2 0 0 9 Legal Disclaimer / Accessibility Office of Research

Feschotte, Cedric

180

Computerized forensic facial reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic investigations frequently utilize facial reconstructions\\/approximations to stimulate recognition and identification.\\u000a Over the past 25 years, many computer-based systems have been developed, and with the recent rapid advances in medical imaging\\u000a and computer technology, the current systems claim high levels of efficiency, objectivity, and flexibility. The history of\\u000a computerized facial approximation\\/reconstruction is presented, along with a discussion of the advantages

Caroline Wilkinson

2005-01-01

181

Parricide: a forensic approach.  

PubMed

Parricide is the act of murdering one's father (patricide), mother (matricide) or other close relative, but usually not children (infanticide). It is a rare event and little information is available on this topic. This study aims to increase knowledge about this phenomenon, promoting the timely detection of problematic cases and avoiding fatalities. A retrospective study based on the autopsy reports of parricide victims performed by the North Services of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal between 2003 and 2011, as well as on the judicial outcome of each case, was performed. Seven cases of parricide were found, corresponding to 1.7% of all the homicides undergoing forensic evaluated. Victims and perpetrators were typically males. The assaults occurred all at home, in the presence of witnesses, and the perpetrator remained at the scene after the crime. The main alleged reasons were untreated psychiatric illness and financial conflicts in the cases of adult parricide, and attempts to protect the mother from intimate partner violence in younger ones. The judicial outcomes ranged from acquittal for nonimputability to conviction for murder, manslaughter or involuntary manslaughter. This study was carried out on a forensic sample and it is useful to implement strategies to prevent parricide. PMID:24485411

Dantas, Soraia; Santos, Agostinho; Dias, Isabel; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalh鉫s, Teresa

2014-02-01

182

Forensic Management Academy Spring 2011 Tentative Schedule Forensic Management Academy  

E-print Network

Forensic Management Academy 颅 Spring 2011 Tentative Schedule Forensic Management Academy Spring Effective Leadership Styles Joyce Heames 8:30 颅 11:30 Session IV Performance Management Dean Gialamas 8:30 颅 11:30 Session VI Fundamentals of Budgeting Paul Speaker 8:30 颅 11:30 Session IX Process Improvement

Mohaghegh, Shahab

183

A new methodology for detection of counterfeit Viagra and Cialis tablets by image processing and statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new approach for automatic classification of counterfeit Viagra and Cialis tablets using image processing and statistical analysis. A high resolution VSC 5000 is used for image acquisition in a controlled environment, and the combination of a thresholding technique with morphological operators is used to segment the tablet from the background. A statistical model based on the

Claudio R. Jung; Rafael S. Ortiz; Renata Limberger; Paulo Mayorga

184

Forensic Practice: Pride and Prejudice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of forensic psychology and psychiatry has evolved rapidly and our research instruments and experts command growing respect among both the scientific community and lay audiences. We have, however, focused almost exclusively on assessment rather than treatment and, in doing this, have fostered the perception that most forensic clients are not amenable to treatment. The author discusses the role

Jay Adams

2003-01-01

185

Forensic standardizations in torture and death in custody investigations  

PubMed Central

Torture and death in custody have incurred rapid development as juridical subject in recent years in Europe, with the implementation of the European Convention of Human Rights. Evaluation of sufferance severity, which is the consequence of pathology with chronic evolution, the predictability of decompensation of a subclinical pathology, and translating these medical information on a scale measuring the severity of detention consequences, are all challenges for the modern detention healthcare system, in which most allegations of torture are due to lack of appropriate medical treatment administered to inmates. Where ethics are concerned, the main data difficulties are addressed in ethical conflicts between officials and experts of the parties and also between experts and judiciary officials who handle cases of torture or death in detention; this is why standardization is very important in such cases both in clinical expertise and in autopsies or exhumations. Discussions: We must improve the forensic expertise methodology, the process of collecting data with statistical purposes, and sound evaluation criteria, all in a strong connection with the need for a balanced legal framework applied in the case of civil compensations granted after death in custody, and the biunique relation between medico-legal expertise and case investigation has to be standardized. PMID:24265878

2012-01-01

186

Digital Forensics Using Local Signal Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rapid growth of the Internet and the popularity of digital imaging devices, digital imagery has become our major information source. Meanwhile, the development of digital manipulation techniques employed by most image editing software brings new challenges to the credibility of photographic images as the definite records of events. We

Pan, Xunyu

2011-01-01

187

A Methodological Review of Statistical Methods for Handling Multilevel Non-Nested Longitudinal Data in Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As applications of multilevel modelling in educational research increase, researchers realize that multilevel data collected in many educational settings are often not purely nested. The most common multilevel non-nested data structure is one that involves student mobility in longitudinal studies. This article provides a methodological review of

Sun, Shuyan; Pan, Wei

2014-01-01

188

Forensic medicine: matters of life and death.  

PubMed

Forensic radiology uses medical imaging to answer a variety of legal questions, including questions about suspicious and violent deaths. This article traces the history of forensic medicine and forensic radiology and outlines radiology's role in investigating death. The authors discuss the physical changes that occur after death and the procedures involved in forensic autopsies, including radiography. PMID:10582250

Newman, J; McLemore, J

1999-01-01

189

National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and  

E-print Network

National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science NEAFS Plenary Session Hershey, PA November 5, 2014 #12;NCFS and OSAC: U.S. Efforts to Strengthen Forensic Science National

190

Inter-Faculty Bachelor of Forensic Science  

E-print Network

Inter-Faculty Bachelor of Forensic Science Forensic science is the study of evidence in criminal. Their collection, packaging, preservation, and analysis require special expertise and scientific knowledge. www.uwindsor.ca/forensics A Rigorous, Enriching Program Our forensic programs focus on acquiring the skills and knowledge essential

191

Forensic Computing Xiang Li and Jennifer Seberry  

E-print Network

Forensic Computing Xiang Li and Jennifer Seberry #3; Abstract Technology is rapidly changing continuously improve to keep one step ahead. Computer forensics has become a specialized and accepted forensic software is also widely used during the whole process of computer forensic investigation

Seberry, Jennifer

192

Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to

Torpey, Elka Maria

2009-01-01

193

Forensic Imaging and Art Herbert Buckley  

E-print Network

Forensic Imaging and Art Herbert Buckley Director, Forensic Imaging, New York State Police 4pm, Wed by the Forensic Imaging Office of the New York State Police are physiognomical (facial) reconstruction of skeletal of Forensic Imaging. Mr. Buckley has been a guest lecturer before the annual conclave of the New York State

Zanibbi, Richard

194

NISTIR 7516 Forensic Filtering of Cell  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7516 Forensic Filtering of Cell Phone Protocols Aur閘ienDelaitre WayneJansen #12;ii Forensic of Standards and Technology Interagency Report 42 pages (2008) iii #12;Abstract Phone managers are non-forensic managers are sometimes used by forensic investigators to recover data from a cell phone when no suitable

195

National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and  

E-print Network

NIST Role 颅 administer OSAC Criminal Justice and Forensic Science Reform Act (Leahy Bill) Forensic Committees) 路 Pending Legislation (Senate) 颅 Leahy Bill (Justice) 颅 Rockefeller Bill (Commerce) 路 FY14 New.gov/forensics/national-commission-on-forensic-science-webcast.cfm #12;NCFS Members Commissioner Biographies available at http://www.justice.gov/ncfs/members.html Willie

196

Forensic Science: Middle School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This resource guide for middle school educators provides background content knowledge, lessons and activities, career information, and ideas for integrating forensics topics and concepts into existing units commonly taught in middle level science - for example, nature of science, methods of science, biology, engineering or genetics units. One section shows the alignment of resources to the National Science Education Standards.

Mary LeFever

197

Exploiting Statistical Methodologies and Controlled Vocabularies for Prioritized Functional Analysis of Genomic Experiments: the StRAnGER Web Application  

PubMed Central

StRAnGER is a web application for the automated statistical analysis of annotated gene profiling experiments, exploiting controlled biological vocabularies, like the Gene Ontology or the KEGG pathways terms. Starting from annotated lists of differentially expressed genes and gene enrichment scores, regarding the terms of each vocabulary, StRAnGER repartitions and reorders the initial distribution of terms to define a new distribution of elements. Each element pools terms holding the same enrichment score. The new distribution thus derived, is reordered in a decreasing order to the right, according to the observation score of the elements, while elements with the same score, are sorted again in a decreasing order of their enrichment scores. By applying bootstrapping techniques, a corrected measure of the statistical significance of these elements is derived, which enables the selection of terms mapped to these elements, unambiguously associated with respective significant gene sets. The selected terms are immunized against the bias infiltrating statistical enrichment analyses, producing technically very high statistical scores, due to the finite nature of the data population. Besides their high statistical score, another selection criterion for the terms is the number of their members, something that incurs a biological prioritization in line with a Systems Biology context. The output derived, represents a detailed ranked list of significant terms, which constitute a starting point for further functional analysis. PMID:21293737

Chatziioannou, Aristotelis A.; Moulos, Panagiotis

2011-01-01

198

Forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Before the routine use of DNA profiling, blood typing was an important forensic tool. However, blood typing was not very discriminating. For example, roughly 30% of the United States population has type A-positive blood. Therefore, if A-positive blood were found at a crime scene, it could have come from 30% of the population. DNA profiling has a much better ability for discrimination. Forensic laboratories no longer routinely determine blood type. If blood is found at a crime scene, DNA profiling is performed. From Jeffrey's discovery of DNA fingerprinting to the development of PCR of STRs to the formation of DNA databases, our knowledge of DNA and DNA profiling have expanded greatly. Also, the applications for which we use DNA profiling have increased. DNA profiling is not just used for criminal case work, but it has expanded to encompass paternity testing, disaster victim identification, monitoring bone marrow transplants, detecting fetal cells in a mother's blood, tracing human history, and a multitude of other areas. The future of DNA profiling looks expansive with the development of newer instrumentation and techniques. PMID:22693781

McDonald, Jessica; Lehman, Donald C

2012-01-01

199

Statistical and methodological issues in the analysis of complex sample survey data: Practical guidance for trauma researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard methods for the analysis of survey data assume that the data arise from a simple random sample of the target population. In practice, analysts of survey data sets collected from nationally representative probability samples often pay little attention to important properties of the survey data. Standard statistical software procedures do not allow analysts to take these properties of survey

Brady T. West

2008-01-01

200

Copyright 2003 by the Genetics Society of America Rank-Based Statistical Methodologies for Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping  

E-print Network

have been proposed. However, nonparametric estimation of genetic effects has not been studied. We mapping via simulations and a real data example. The results indicate that the nonparametric method-especially with progress in DNA-based genetic linkage maps. Various statistical approaches have been mented in the latest

Yandell, Brian S.

201

Statistical methodologies for tree-ring research to understand the climate-growth relationships over time and space  

EPA Science Inventory

The International Tree-Ring Database is a valuable resource for studying climate change and its effects on terrestrial ecosystems over time and space. We examine the statistical methods in current use in dendroclimatology and dendroecology to process the tree-ring data and make ...

202

Statistical and methodological challenges for disaster preparedness and medical needs assessment in Rio Grande Valley of Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, disaster preparedness through assessment of medical and special needs persons (MSNP) has taken a center place in public eye in effect of frequent natural disasters such as hurricanes, storm surge or tsunami due to climate change and increased human activity on our planet. Statistical methods complex survey design and analysis have equally gained significance as a consequence.

Sartaj Alam

2009-01-01

203

Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

Gaensslen, Robert E.

2002-01-01

204

NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

Nichols, T.

2011-02-07

205

A Methodology for Determining Statistical Performance Compliance for Airborne Doppler Radar with Forward-Looking Turbulence Detection Capability. Second Corrected Copy Issued May 23, 2011  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the research developed and presented in this document was to statistically assess turbulence hazard detection performance employing airborne pulse Doppler radar systems. The FAA certification methodology for forward looking airborne turbulence radars will require estimating the probabilities of missed and false hazard indications under operational conditions. Analytical approaches must be used due to the near impossibility of obtaining sufficient statistics experimentally. This report describes an end-to-end analytical technique for estimating these probabilities for Enhanced Turbulence (E-Turb) Radar systems under noise-limited conditions, for a variety of aircraft types, as defined in FAA TSO-C134. This technique provides for one means, but not the only means, by which an applicant can demonstrate compliance to the FAA directed ATDS Working Group performance requirements. Turbulence hazard algorithms were developed that derived predictive estimates of aircraft hazards from basic radar observables. These algorithms were designed to prevent false turbulence indications while accurately predicting areas of elevated turbulence risks to aircraft, passengers, and crew; and were successfully flight tested on a NASA B757-200 and a Delta Air Lines B737-800. Application of this defined methodology for calculating the probability of missed and false hazard indications taking into account the effect of the various algorithms used, is demonstrated for representative transport aircraft and radar performance characteristics.

Bowles, Roland L.; Buck, Bill K.

2009-01-01

206

An innovative methodological approach in the frame of Marine Strategy Framework Directive: a statistical model based on ship detection SAR data for monitoring programmes.  

PubMed

The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) is focused on protection, preservation and restoration of the marine environment by achieving and maintaining Good Environmental Status (GES) by 2020. Within this context, this paper presents a methodological approach for a fast and repeatable monitoring that allows quantitative assessment of seabed abrasion pressure due to recreational boat anchoring. The methodology consists of two steps: a semi-automatic procedure based on an algorithm for the ship detection in SAR imagery and a statistical model to obtain maps of spatial and temporal distribution density of anchored boats. Ship detection processing has been performed on 36 ASAR VV-pol images of Liguria test site, for the three years 2008, 2009 and 2010. Starting from the pointwise distribution layer produced by ship detection in imagery, boats points have been subdivided into 4 areas where a constant distribution density has been assumed for the entire period 2008-2010. In the future, this methodology will be applied also to higher resolution data of Sentinel-1 mission, specifically designed for the operational needs of the European Programme Copernicus. PMID:25096752

Pieralice, Francesca; Proietti, Raffaele; La Valle, Paola; Giorgi, Giordano; Mazzolena, Marco; Taramelli, Andrea; Nicoletti, Luisa

2014-12-01

207

ONE FACULTY POSITIONS IN ANALYTICAL, FORENSIC CHEMISTRY OR TOXICOLOGY  

E-print Network

ONE FACULTY POSITIONS IN ANALYTICAL, FORENSIC CHEMISTRY OR TOXICOLOGY The Department of Chemistry, we seek one outstanding individual to join our recently established Forensic Technology Institute and our FEPAC- accredited Forensics Chemistry Program. A primary focus on forensics research should

Linsley, Braddock K.

208

A method for enhancement of background sounds in forensic  

E-print Network

A method for enhancement of background sounds in forensic audio recordings Robert C. Maher;Outline Introduction Audio forensic analysis Adaptive interference cancelling Sinusoidal modeling Test implementation Example processing Conclusion #12;Audio Forensics Audio Forensics

Maher, Robert C.

209

Forensic Science--A Proposal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

1973-01-01

210

UT Knoxville: Forensic Anthropology Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Consider this: A hunter finds what she believes is a human skull deep in the woods. She calls the police. Who do the police call? A forensic anthropologist, of course, who comes to the site and examines the skull to determine whether the skull is, indeed, human, whether it is male or female, and how old the person was upon death. The Forensic Anthropology Center at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville trains forensic anthropologists for just this sort of work. Start with the homepage, where you can read up on the department, started in 1987 by Dr. William M. Bass. Next, follow a quick link to What is Forensic Anthropology? for an informative overview of the field. Also of interest, are the Short Courses, News, and, for those feeling philanthropic, Body Donation sections of the site.

211

American Academy of Forensic Sciences  

MedlinePLUS

... Sciences Foundation Forensic Links AAFS Reference Library Fellowships & Internships Legislative Corner Videos Webinars AAFS 68th Annual Scientific ... 67th Annual Meeting Office of Science & Technology Summer Internship Program POST A JOB Trouble viewing this page ...

212

Age Estimation in Forensic Sciences  

PubMed Central

Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (19551963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 (14C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2 = 0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 1.0 0.6 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification. PMID:19965905

Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L.

2010-01-01

213

National Forensic League  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over its eighty year history, the NFL has graduated such notable alumni as President Lyndon Baines Johnson, Oprah Winfrey, Jane Pauley, and Don Ameche. They never played a moment in the NFL that celebrates the legends of the gridiron, but rather they honed their powers of persuasion and oratory in the National Forensic League. Over one million additional alums have joined these well-known personages, and persons who wish to know more about the organization and its operations will want to take a close look at their site. From the homepage, visitors can move through sections that provide hands-on resources that will help both students and coaches get familiar with the world of debate. Most of these resources are located in the "Coaching Resources" area, and are divided into such topics as speech assignments, vocabulary, and peer evaluations.

214

Issues in forensic voice.  

PubMed

The following article provides a general review of an area that can be referred to as Forensic Voice. Its goals will be outlined and that discussion will be followed by a description of its major elements. Considered are (1) the processing and analysis of spoken utterances, (2) distorted speech, (3) enhancement of speech intelligibility (re: surveillance and other recordings), (4) transcripts, (5) authentication of recordings, (6) speaker identification, and (7) the detection of deception, intoxication, and emotions in speech. Stress in speech and the psychological stress evaluation systems (that some individuals attempt to use as lie detectors) also will be considered. Points of entry will be suggested for individuals with the kinds of backgrounds possessed by professionals already working in the voice area. PMID:24176301

Hollien, Harry; Huntley Bahr, Ruth; Harnsberger, James D

2014-03-01

215

How to Improve Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some institutional structures for inquiry produce better approximations to truth than others. The current institutional structure\\u000a of police forensics gives each lab a monopoly in the analysis of the police evidence it receives. Forensic workers have inadequate\\u000a incentives to produce reliable analyses of police evidence. Competition would create such incentives. I outline a system of\\u000a 揷ompetitive self regulation for police

Roger Koppl

2005-01-01

216

Forensic odontology: a global activity.  

PubMed

Forensic odontology is an important and expanding field of dentistry. The application of these forensic techniques in identification, criminal justice and dental liability are being practiced worldwide. In some mass disaster events, notably large commercial aircraft crashes, the traumatic forces are such that fragmentation and conflagration result in only the most durable of human tissues-dentition survive and become a potential source of identification. PMID:15253463

Gould, George A

2004-05-01

217

[Forensic medicine in the hospital].  

PubMed

The reform of teaching hospitals which integrates all the hospital disciplines has been responsible for the creation of forensic medicine units in hospitals. Several solutions have been proposed; in Lyon this organisation has been set up within the framework of medical emergency units as that is effectively where there are the most forensic problems to solve. This integration is beneficial for our discipline: it is thus possible to set up a permanent service 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, at the disposal of the justice department and the police, and it opens the possibility of doing extra examinations like X-rays or getting the opinion of a specialist such as an ophthalmologist. But the forensic pathologist in hospital can help his colleagues to draw up a difficult certificate or give advice concerning medical law: it must be remembered that forensic medicine is not only a link between medicine and law in matters of experts' reports or certificates, it also establishes the same link between the legal world and medicine. This integration has allowed the development of clinical forensic medicine and a better understanding of the needs of the general practitioner in this area. This national experience has been broadcast in periodicals such as Journal de m閐ecine l間ale et Droit m閐ical (Journal of forensic medicine and Medical Law) and books published by Editions A. Lacassagne of which I am in charge. PMID:8221170

Roche, L

1993-05-01

218

[Investigations into post-traumatic complications in the practice of forensic medical expertise of living people].  

PubMed

Statistical data on the incidence and spectrum of thrombotic complications presented in this paper are based on the materials collected by the Department of Expertise of Living Subjects, Rostov Regional Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise, during 2004-2010. The cases of interest were analysed by age, sex, time of injury, character of traumatic impact, and time of surgical intervention. It is concluded that such cases require forensic medical expertise by standardized methods. PMID:23405461

Berezovski?, D P; Shatov, D V; Kovalev, B V; Dodokhova, M A; Panenko, E S; Kornienko, I V

2012-01-01

219

Development of Statistical Process Control Methodology for an Environmentally Compliant Surface Cleaning Process in a Bonding Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bonding labs at both MSFC and the northern Utah production plant prepare bond test specimens which simulate or witness the production of NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The current process for preparing the bonding surfaces employs 1,1,1-trichloroethane vapor degreasing, which simulates the current RSRM process. Government regulations (e.g., the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act) have mandated a production phase-out of a number of ozone depleting compounds (ODC) including 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In order to comply with these regulations, the RSRM Program is qualifying a spray-in-air (SIA) precision cleaning process using Brulin 1990, an aqueous blend of surfactants. Accordingly, surface preparation prior to bonding process simulation test specimens must reflect the new production cleaning process. The Bonding Lab Statistical Process Control (SPC) program monitors the progress of the lab and its capabilities, as well as certifies the bonding technicians, by periodically preparing D6AC steel tensile adhesion panels with EA-91 3NA epoxy adhesive using a standardized process. SPC methods are then used to ensure the process is statistically in control, thus producing reliable data for bonding studies, and identify any problems which might develop. Since the specimen cleaning process is being changed, new SPC limits must be established. This report summarizes side-by-side testing of D6AC steel tensile adhesion witness panels and tapered double cantilevered beams (TDCBs) using both the current baseline vapor degreasing process and a lab-scale spray-in-air process. A Proceco 26 inches Typhoon dishwasher cleaned both tensile adhesion witness panels and TDCBs in a process which simulates the new production process. The tests were performed six times during 1995, subsequent statistical analysis of the data established new upper control limits (UCL) and lower control limits (LCL). The data also demonstrated that the new process was equivalent to the vapor degreasing process.

Hutchens, Dale E.; Doan, Patrick A.; Boothe, Richard E.

1997-01-01

220

DNA methylation-based forensic tissue identification.  

PubMed

Identifying the source tissue of biological material found at crime scenes can be very informative in a number of cases. Despite their usefulness, current visual, catalytic, enzymatic, and immunologic tests for presumptive and confirmatory tissue identification are applicable only to a subset of samples, might suffer limitations such as low specificity, lack of sensitivity, and are substantially impacted by environmental insults. Moreover these assays are incompatible and thus cannot be multiplexed. Thus they are less amenable to automation. In addition their results are operator-dependent. A better alternative approach is tissue identification based on messenger RNA (mRNA) or microRNA (miRNA); however, RNA is not as stable as DNA, and requires the use of non-standard procedures by forensic laboratories. Herein a DNA-based assay is described that enables tissue identification based on detection of tissue-specific methylation patterns. DNA samples are subjected to digestion by a methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease followed by multiplex amplification of specific genomic targets with fluorescent-labeled primers, capillary electrophoresis of amplification products, and automatic signal analysis by dedicated software, yielding the source tissue of the sample. The single tube assay was designed for easy integration by forensic laboratories (as the assay utilizes the same platforms as current forensic STR profiling). The system is fully automatable, provides operator-independent results, and allows combining tissue identification with profiling in a single procedure. The assay was tested on 50 DNA samples from blood, saliva, semen, and skin epidermis, and the source tissue was successfully identified in all cases. Detection of semen and DNA profiling were combined into one assay and the ability to detect mixtures of semen and saliva in various ratios was demonstrated. The assay correctly detected semen in all samples where it was present, and the calculated percentage of semen was comparable to the fraction of semen in the samples. The results demonstrate that methylation-based tissue identification is more than a proof-of-concept. The methodology holds promise as another viable forensic DNA analysis tool for characterization of biological materials. PMID:21196138

Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Budowle, Bruce; Davidson, Ariane

2011-11-01

221

Uniqueness in the forensic identification sciences--fact or fiction?  

PubMed

Fingerprint analysts, firearms and toolmark examiners, and forensic odontologists often rely on the uniqueness proposition in order to support their theory of identification. However, much of the literature claiming to have proven uniqueness in the forensic identification sciences is methodologically weak, and suffers flaws that negate any such conclusion being drawn. The finding of uniqueness in any study appears to be an overstatement of the significance of its results, and in several instances, this claim is made despite contrary data being presented. The mathematical and philosophical viewpoint regarding this topic is that obtaining definitive proof of uniqueness is considered impossible by modern scientific methods. More importantly, there appears to be no logical reason to pursue such research, as commentators have established that uniqueness is not the essential requirement for forming forensic conclusions. The courts have also accepted this in several recent cases in the United States, and have dismissed the concept of uniqueness as irrelevant to the more fundamental question of the reliability of the forensic analysis. PMID:20832209

Page, Mark; Taylor, Jane; Blenkin, Matt

2011-03-20

222

[Applications of forensic DNA technology in Gynecologic practice].  

PubMed

Genetic characterization of biological material in criminal cases and for parentage testing at the DNA level has gained wide acceptance. This paper describes the basic methodology of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and the methodology based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RFLP typing is performed in all cases where larger quantities of DNA are available because of its high discrimination power. PCR is used when only limited quantities of DNA or degraded DNA are available. There is a lot of applicabilities for the gynecologist, primarily in the investigation of sexual assault cases and in parentage testing of newborns, which is shown by several examples of forensic cases. PMID:7819776

Hochmeister, M

1994-01-01

223

UC Davis Forensic Science Graduate Program Proposed curriculum changes to the MS Degree in Forensic Science  

E-print Network

1 UC Davis Forensic Science Graduate Program Proposed curriculum changes to the MS Degree in Forensic Science (Graduate Council approved June 21, 2007) Background The Graduate Forensic Science M reflection of that research effort would be 18-36 research units. Initial Forensic Science Curriculum 2001

Ullrich, Paul

224

Psy 4993, 8993 Forensic Psych Seminar --Spring 2002 --Page 1 of 10 Forensic Psychology Seminar  

E-print Network

Psy 4993, 8993 Forensic Psych Seminar -- Spring 2002 -- Page 1 of 10 Forensic Psychology Seminar Hall, Fridays 9:1011:00 a.m. Objectives: To provide coverage of relevant topics in forensic psychology listed topics will be bumped. We may have guest speakers in specialty forensic areas; this is currently

Grove, William M.

225

Modeling senescence changes of the pubic symphysis in historic Italian populations: A comparison of the Rostock and forensic approaches to aging using transition analysis.  

PubMed

Age-related anatomical changes to the surface of the pubic symphysis are well-documented in the literature. However, aligning these morphological changes with chronological age has proven problematic, often resulting in biased age estimates. Statistical modeling provides an avenue for forensic anthropologists and bioarchaeologists to increase the accuracy of traditional aging methods. Locating appropriate samples to use as a basis for modeling age estimations can be challenging due to differing sample age distributions and potentially varying patterns of senescence. We compared two approaches, Rostock and Forensic, coupled with a Bayesian methodology, to address these issues. Transition analysis was run specific to each method (which differ by sample selection). A Gompertz model was derived from an informative prior that yielded the mortality and senescence parameters for constructing highest posterior density ranges, i.e., coverages, which are analogous to age ranges. These age ranges were generated from both approaches and are presented as reference tables useful for historic male and female Italian samples. The age ranges produced from each approach were tested on an historic Italian sample, using cumulative binomial tests. These two approaches performed similarly, with the Forensic approach showing a slight advantage. However, the Forensic approach is unable to identify varying senescence patterns between populations, thus preference for one approach over the other will depend on research design. Finally, we demonstrate that while populations exhibit similar morphological changes with advancing age, there are no significant sex differences in these samples, and the timing of these changes varies from population to population. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:466-473, 2015. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25407762

Godde, Kanya; Hens, Samantha M

2015-03-01

226

[Benzodiazepines and forensic aspects].  

PubMed

Adverse effects of benzodiazepines are well known since the first one was used in 1958 (chlordiazepoxide). The literature collects study-cases or rarely controlled studies concerning side effects or paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines. They mostly described drowsiness and behavioral disinhibition, including increased well-being feeling but also hostility, rage access with feeling of invulnerability, serious crimes and sometimes homicides. Delusional, manic, confusional or depressive states are also pointed out. Rate for aggressive behaviour is 0.3 to 0.7% but distinction should be done between accidental or "idiosyncratic" reaction and voluntary sought disinhibition, clearly more frequent. No benzodiazepine has any specificity for these adverse effects but pharmacology, doses, associated drugs (or alcohol) and psychopathology interact to produce hazardous psychic states. Pharmacology: GABA induces a decrease in serotonin compound and vigilance. Pharmacokinetic: first dose effect or over-dose effect, short half-life, lipophily, affinity, digestive absorption, active metabolites interact. Psychopathology: age, alcohol association, psychological status (high initial level of hostility, impulsivity, frustration, personality disorder and depressive status). External conditions: chronic illness, affective and professional frustrations, physical or psychic exhaustion contribute also. Some benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, diazepam, clorazepate, triazolam, alprazolam, lorazepam, for example) are more often concerned for pharmacokinetics characteristics but also prescription habits. Forensic aspects should be considered in case of homicide. Especially, reality of benzodiazepines consumption and awareness of the potential paradoxical reaction should be precisely evaluated. Special focus on voluntary induced disinhibition has to be done for forensic considerations. Relationship but also crime facilitations are sometimes consciously sought. Some benzodiazepines have already been identified for this use: flunitrazepam, clorazepate but also triazolam and temazepam in UK, alprazolam in USA. Flunitrazepam is prohibited in USA and considered as narcotics in France. A Swedish study showed that violent acts were more frequent and serious in juvenile offenders taking flunitrazepam/alcohol than other young offenders staying in the same correctional institution. They recommended classification of flunitrazepam as narcotic. A study from Belgium with drug addicts concluded in the same way and asked for an increased information of professionals and a more efficient control of the delivery. Before concluding to idiosyncratic effect, and then possibly to penal irresponsibility, the forensic approach should consider: firstly the reality of the benzodiazepines absorption and implication in committing violence (urine test, chronology, amnesia); secondly, the association of unusual behaviour and converging circumstances (pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, psychopathology, external conditions); thirdly the consumer's knowledge of the disinhibition effect. In our prison practice, we have to be particularly cautious as population frequently associates personality disorder, drug addiction and high level of frustration related to penitential context. Special information should be given to inmates when benzodiazepines are prescribed, but more extensively, a preventive strategy should be adopted in general population. PMID:15029082

Michel, L; Lang, J-P

2003-01-01

227

Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating procedures and training to meet these initial challenges so as minimize disturbance of the evidence. While epidemiology and forensics are similar sciences with similar goals when applied to biocrimes, forensics has additional and more stringent requirements. Maintaining a chain of custody on evidentiary samples is one example of an extra requirement imposed on an investigation of a biocrime. Another issue is the intent in microbial forensics to identify a bioattack organism in greatest detail. If possible, forensic investigations will strive to identify the precise strain and substrain, rather than just to the species level, which might be sufficient in an epidemiological investigation. Although multiple groups have developed lists of bioterrorism target pathogens, these lists are too narrow. An expansion of microorganisms relevant to food and water threats should be considered. Computerized networks should be established to track infectious disease outbreaks in real time. These systems could alert public health and agricultural officials to the existence of a potential bioattack earlier than simply waiting for a report of a suspicious cluster of similar patients. Once a biocrime is suspected, a wide variety of methods are available to identify the microorganism used in the bioattack and to analyze features that might lead to the source of the event. A multi-pronged approach to such an investigation may be preferable, using many available methods-ranging from genomics to sequencing to physiology to analysis of substances in the sample. Microbial forensics will be most effective if there is sufficient basic scientific information concerning microbial genetics, evolution, physiology, and ecology. Strain subtyping analysis will be difficult to interpret if we do not understand some of the basic evolutionary mechanisms and population diversity of pathogens. Phenotypic features associated with evidentiary pathogens also may provide investigative leads, but full exploitation of these features can only be accomplished if we understand basic principles that control microbial physiology. Finally

Keim, Paul

2003-02-17

228

A study of two unsupervised data driven statistical methodologies for detecting and classifying damages in structural health monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is concerned with the practical use of Multiway Principal Component Analysis (MPCA), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Squared Prediction Error (SPE) measures and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) to detect and classify damages in mechanical structures. The formalism is based on a distributed piezoelectric active sensor network for the excitation and detection of structural dynamic responses. Statistical models are built using PCA when the structure is known to be healthy either directly from the dynamic responses or from wavelet coefficients at different scales representing Time-frequency information. Different damages on the tested structures are simulated by adding masses at different positions. The data from the structure in different states (damaged or not) are then projected into the different principal component models by each actuator in order to obtain the input feature vectors for a SOM from the scores and the SPE measures. An aircraft fuselage from an Airbus A320 and a multi-layered carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plate are used as examples to test the approaches. Results are presented, compared and discussed in order to determine their potential in structural health monitoring. These results showed that all the simulated damages were detectable and the selected features proved capable of separating all damage conditions from the undamaged state for both approaches.

Tibaduiza, D.-A.; Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Mujica, L. E.; Rodellar, J.; Fritzen, C.-P.

2013-12-01

229

Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

230

forensics.uts.edu.au research themes  

E-print Network

forensics.uts.edu.au research themes science science.uts.edu.au #12;ThE UNIVERSITy OF TEChNOLOgy, SyDNEy'S (UTS) centre for forensic science (cfs) IS A WORLD-LEADINg ACADEMIC AND RESEARCh g's state of the art forensic laboratories including appropriate security and separate search rooms. UTS:Science

University of Technology, Sydney

231

Digital Forensic Readiness: Are We There Yet?  

E-print Network

Digital Forensic Readiness: Are We There Yet? Antonis Mouhtaropoulos, Chang-Tsun Li Department.co.za Abstract--Digital Forensic Readiness is defined as the pre- incident plan that deals with an organization for a common forensic readiness standard. This article reviews a number of key initiatives in order to point

Li, Chang-Tsun

232

NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysisUpdate RickAyers WayneJansen LudovicMoenner AurelienDelaitre #12;iii NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis or other incident, forensic examiners require tools that allow the proper retrieval and speedy examination

233

Forensic Anthropology Center Department of Anthropology  

E-print Network

Forensic Anthropology Center Department of Anthropology University of Tennessee 250 South Stadium unknown adult skeletal material by ancestry and sex based on known sample popula- tions from the Forensic Anthropology Databank. Data Collection Procedures for Forensic Skeletal Material (1994) PM Moore-Jansen, SD

Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

234

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert  

E-print Network

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert Matt Bishop Sidney Karin Keith Marzullo Abstract The existing solutions in the field of computer forensics are largely ad hoc. This paper discusses the need for a rigorous model of forensics and outlines qualities that such a model should possess. It presents

Zhou, Yuanyuan

235

NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysis RickAyers WayneJansen NicolasCilleros RonanDaniellou #12;iii NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis Rick Ayers Wayne are involved in a crime or other incident, forensic examiners require tools that allow the proper retrieval

236

Meet Your Specialist 1 Forensic Entomology 1  

E-print Network

Meet Your Specialist 1 Forensic Entomology 1 Four Years of Making 4-H Fitness 2 Fun Kids Fishing Meet Your Specialist 1 Forensic Entomology 1 Four Years of Making 4-H Fitness 2 Fun Kids Fishing variety." Forensic Entomology Thirty middle school students in Collier County were introduced to the world

Jawitz, James W.

237

Zoology 4053, Sec. 050 Forensic Entomology  

E-print Network

Zoology 4053, Sec. 050 Forensic Entomology University of Oklahoma Biological Station May 2012 TA: TBA email: TBA Course Description Forensic Entomology is the application of entomological will explore the use of insects in the science of Forensic Entomology and its impact on death scene

Oklahoma, University of

238

From Manual Cyber Attacks Forensic to  

E-print Network

From Manual Cyber Attacks Forensic to Automatic Characterization of Attackers' Profiles J. Briffaut-00995211,version1- #12;From Manual Cyber Attacks Forensic to Automatic Characterization of Attackers, or governmental organisations. Experimental results of these forensic and high level characteriza- tion methods

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

239

NCSU Forensic Science Symposium December 6, 2011  

E-print Network

4th NCSU Forensic Science Symposium December 6, 2011 Convocation Room, College of Textiles, NCSU:00 Welcome 9:15 The Future of Forensic Human DNA Analysis: From Disaster Response to Crime Scene Processing Dr. Rhonda Roby Associate Professor Department of Forensic and Investigative Genetics University

Langerhans, Brian

240

The future of forensic science standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2010 the Australia New Zealand Policing Advisory Agency National Institute of Forensic Science (NIFS) established a project to set up a sustainable mechanism for the development and maintenance of standards, across a broad science and technology base that is relevant to general law enforcement, and the forensic science community. The project includes four core forensic standards covering the collection,

Linzi M. Wilson-Wilde; James Brandi; Stephen J. Gutowski

241

Forensic Evolution: Influences upon Local Program Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensic program alumni returning for reunions or speech tournaments sometimes find difficulty in keeping pace with changing forensics practices and procedures. Elements influencing the evolutionary process in forensics include: a growing number of debate philosophy formats, bringing diversity in competitive options; expansion of standard

Derryberry, Bob R.

242

Cyber Forensics: A Military Operations Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses some of the unique military requirements and challenges in Cyber Forensics. A definition of Cyber Forensics is presented in a military context. Capabilities needed to perform cyber forensic analysis in a networked environment are discussed, along with a list of current shortcomings in providing these capabilities and a technology needs list. Finally, it is shown how these

Joseph Giordano; Chester Maciag

2002-01-01

243

Summer Conference: Research in Forensic Psychiatry  

E-print Network

1st Summer Conference: Research in Forensic Psychiatry The University of Regensburg Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit Head: Prof. Dr. med. Michael Osterheider Universit盲tsstrasse 84 D-93053 Conference: Research in Forensic Psychiatry in Regensburg. The conference schedule comprises nearly fifty

Schubart, Christoph

244

Performance Appraisal Research Applied to Forensics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the extent to which college level forensics coaches incorporate appraisal techniques into the forensics setting. A survey, based on a review of organizational literature, was distributed to coaches at a midwestern forensics tournament. Thirty-five surveys were distributed and 17 were returned for a response rate of 48%. The survey

Wolff, Denelle

245

The Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit  

E-print Network

The Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit Head: Prof. Dr. M. Osterheider 3rd Summer Conference. Cordially Michael Osterheider M.D. Professor of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy The University. Dr. Michael Osterheider Head of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit, University of Regensburg

Schubart, Christoph

246

Research Based Guidelines for Child Forensic Interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. We present important considerations for conducting foren sic interviews with children who are witnesses to or alleged victims of crime. Specifically, we (a) present the basic principles of the forensic in terview and review some of the best structured forensic protocols cur rently available; (b) provide a detailed, practical blueprint for conducting a structured forensic interview and emphasize how

Alison R. Perona; Bette L. Bottoms; Erin Sorenson

2006-01-01

247

Steganography forensics method for detecting least significant bit replacement attack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an image forensics method to detect least significant bit replacement steganography attack. The proposed method provides fine-grained forensics features by using the hierarchical structure that combines pixels correlation and bit-planes correlation. This is achieved via bit-plane decomposition and difference matrices between the least significant bit-plane and each one of the others. Generated forensics features provide the susceptibility (changeability) that will be drastically altered when the cover image is embedded with data to form a stego image. We developed a statistical model based on the forensics features and used least square support vector machine as a classifier to distinguish stego images from cover images. Experimental results show that the proposed method provides the following advantages. (1) The detection rate is noticeably higher than that of some existing methods. (2) It has the expected stability. (3) It is robust for content-preserving manipulations, such as JPEG compression, adding noise, filtering, etc. (4) The proposed method provides satisfactory generalization capability.

Wang, Xiaofeng; Wei, Chengcheng; Han, Xiao

2015-01-01

248

Forensic radiology and personal identification of unidentified bodies: a review.  

PubMed

Personal identification of unidentified bodies is crucial for ethical, juridical and civil reasons and is performed through comparison between biological data obtained from the cadaver and antemortem material from one or more missing persons to whom the body may have belonged in life. The increasing applications of forensic radiology and the wide use of conventional radiography and computed tomography (CT) in routine clinical practice demonstrate the potential of these technologies as tools for verifying the correspondence between an unidentified body and an identity suspect. This paper reviews the literature concerning the application of forensic radiology to the difficult issue of personal identification. Despite the increasing importance of the comparison between radiographic and CT findings, numerous limitations still need to be overcome, including the fact that few forensic centres have access to sophisticated X-ray technologies and that the reliability of those technologies for detecting specific morphological traits and bone lesions is a matter of intense debate. In addition, as with other morphological methods for identification, comparisons between antemortem and postmortem data require standardisation and statistical analysis, especially in Europe where there are very few indications concerning the admission in court of evidence obtained by anthropological and radiological methods. In the future, with developments in radiographic technologies and increasing numbers of studies on their application to the forensic setting, radiology will become one of the most useful tools in the field of personal identification. PMID:21509554

Ciaffi, R; Gibelli, D; Cattaneo, C

2011-09-01

249

Neurobiological Correlates in Forensic Assessment: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background With the increased knowledge of biological risk factors, interest in including this information in forensic assessments is growing. Currently, forensic assessments are predominantly focused on psychosocial factors. A better understanding of the neurobiology of violent criminal behaviour and biological risk factors could improve forensic assessments. Objective To provide an overview of the current evidence about biological risk factors that predispose people to antisocial and violent behaviour, and determine its usefulness in forensic assessment. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using articles from PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed published between 2000 and 2013. Results This review shows that much research on the relationship between genetic predisposition and neurobiological alterations with aggression is performed on psychiatric patients or normal populations. However, the number of studies comparing offenders is limited. There is still a great need to understand how genetic and neurobiological alterations and/or deficits are related to violent behaviour, specifically criminality. Most studies focus on only one of the genetic or neurobiological fields related to antisocial and/or violent behaviour. To reliably correlate the findings of these fields, a standardization of methodology is urgently needed. Conclusion Findings from the current review suggest that violent aggression, like all forms of human behaviour, both develops under specific genetic and environmental conditions, and requires interplay between these conditions. Violence should be considered as the end product of a chain of life events, during which risks accumulate and potentially reinforce each other, displaying or triggering a specific situation. This systematic review did not find evidence of predispositions or neurobiological alterations that solely explain antisocial or violent behaviour. With better designed studies, more correlation between diverse fields, and more standardisation, it might be possible to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Thus, we advocate maintaining the current case-by-case differentiated approach to evidence-based forensic assessment. PMID:25330208

van der Gronde, Toon; Kempes, Maaike; van El, Carla; Rinne, Thomas; Pieters, Toine

2014-01-01

250

Group contribution methodology based on the statistical associating fluid theory for heteronuclear molecules formed from Mie segments  

SciTech Connect

A generalization of the recent version of the statistical associating fluid theory for variable range Mie potentials [Lafitte et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 154504 (2013)] is formulated within the framework of a group contribution approach (SAFT-? Mie). Molecules are represented as comprising distinct functional (chemical) groups based on a fused heteronuclear molecular model, where the interactions between segments are described with the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jonesium) potential of variable attractive and repulsive range. A key feature of the new theory is the accurate description of the monomeric group-group interactions by application of a high-temperature perturbation expansion up to third order. The capabilities of the SAFT-? Mie approach are exemplified by studying the thermodynamic properties of two chemical families, the n-alkanes and the n-alkyl esters, by developing parameters for the methyl, methylene, and carboxylate functional groups (CH{sub 3}, CH{sub 2}, and COO). The approach is shown to describe accurately the fluid-phase behavior of the compounds considered with absolute average deviations of 1.20% and 0.42% for the vapor pressure and saturated liquid density, respectively, which represents a clear improvement over other existing SAFT-based group contribution approaches. The use of Mie potentials to describe the group-group interaction is shown to allow accurate simultaneous descriptions of the fluid-phase behavior and second-order thermodynamic derivative properties of the pure fluids based on a single set of group parameters. Furthermore, the application of the perturbation expansion to third order for the description of the reference monomeric fluid improves the predictions of the theory for the fluid-phase behavior of pure components in the near-critical region. The predictive capabilities of the approach stem from its formulation within a group-contribution formalism: predictions of the fluid-phase behavior and thermodynamic derivative properties of compounds not included in the development of group parameters are demonstrated. The performance of the theory is also critically assessed with predictions of the fluid-phase behavior (vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria) and excess thermodynamic properties of a variety of binary mixtures, including polymer solutions, where very good agreement with the experimental data is seen, without the need for adjustable mixture parameters.

Papaioannou, Vasileios; Lafitte, Thomas; Adjiman, Claire S.; Jackson, George; M黮ler, Erich A.; Galindo, Amparo, E-mail: a.galindo@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Avenda駉, Carlos [Department of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom) [Department of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

2014-02-07

251

Group contribution methodology based on the statistical associating fluid theory for heteronuclear molecules formed from Mie segments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalization of the recent version of the statistical associating fluid theory for variable range Mie potentials [Lafitte et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 154504 (2013)] is formulated within the framework of a group contribution approach (SAFT-? Mie). Molecules are represented as comprising distinct functional (chemical) groups based on a fused heteronuclear molecular model, where the interactions between segments are described with the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jonesium) potential of variable attractive and repulsive range. A key feature of the new theory is the accurate description of the monomeric group-group interactions by application of a high-temperature perturbation expansion up to third order. The capabilities of the SAFT-? Mie approach are exemplified by studying the thermodynamic properties of two chemical families, the n-alkanes and the n-alkyl esters, by developing parameters for the methyl, methylene, and carboxylate functional groups (CH3, CH2, and COO). The approach is shown to describe accurately the fluid-phase behavior of the compounds considered with absolute average deviations of 1.20% and 0.42% for the vapor pressure and saturated liquid density, respectively, which represents a clear improvement over other existing SAFT-based group contribution approaches. The use of Mie potentials to describe the group-group interaction is shown to allow accurate simultaneous descriptions of the fluid-phase behavior and second-order thermodynamic derivative properties of the pure fluids based on a single set of group parameters. Furthermore, the application of the perturbation expansion to third order for the description of the reference monomeric fluid improves the predictions of the theory for the fluid-phase behavior of pure components in the near-critical region. The predictive capabilities of the approach stem from its formulation within a group-contribution formalism: predictions of the fluid-phase behavior and thermodynamic derivative properties of compounds not included in the development of group parameters are demonstrated. The performance of the theory is also critically assessed with predictions of the fluid-phase behavior (vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria) and excess thermodynamic properties of a variety of binary mixtures, including polymer solutions, where very good agreement with the experimental data is seen, without the need for adjustable mixture parameters.

Papaioannou, Vasileios; Lafitte, Thomas; Avenda駉, Carlos; Adjiman, Claire S.; Jackson, George; M黮ler, Erich A.; Galindo, Amparo

2014-02-01

252

High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

2012-10-01

253

Potential Applications of Scanning Probe Microscopy in Forensic Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forensic community utilises a myriad of techniques to investigate a wide range of materials, from paint flakes to DNA. The various microscopic techniques have provided some of the greatest contributions, e.g., FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared) microspectroscopy utilised in copy toner discrimination, multi-layer automobile paint fragment examination, etc, SEM-EDA (scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis) used to investigate glass fragments, fibers, and explosives, and SEM in microsampling for elemental analysis, just to name a few. This study demonstrates the ability of the Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) to analyse human fingerprints on surfaces utilising a step-and-scan feature, enabling analysis of a larger field-of-view. We also extend a line crossings study by incorporating height analysis and surface roughness measurements. The study demonstrates the potential for SPM techniques to be utilised for forensic analysis which could complement the more traditional methodologies used in such investigations.

Watson, G. S.; Watson, J. A.

2007-04-01

254

Forensic odontology in the disaster victim identification process.  

PubMed

Disaster victim identification (DVI) is an intensive and demanding task involving specialists from various disciplines. The forensic dentist is one of the key persons who plays an important role in the DVI human identification process. In recent years, many disaster incidents have occurred that challenged the DVI team with various kinds of difficulties related to disaster management and unique situations in each disaster. New technologies have been developed to make the working process faster and more effective and the different DVI protocols have been evaluated and improved. The aim of this article is to collate all information regarding diagnostic tools and methodologies pertaining to forensic odontological DVI, both current and future. It can be concluded that lessons learned from previous disaster incidents have helped to optimize working protocols and to develop new tools that can be applied in future DVI operation. The working procedures have been greatly improved by newly developed technologies. PMID:23000806

Pittayapat, P; Jacobs, R; De Valck, E; Vandermeulen, D; Willems, G

2012-07-01

255

DNA Forensics and Color Pigments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students perform DNA forensics using food coloring to enhance their understanding of DNA fingerprinting, restriction enzymes, genotyping and DNA gel electrophoresis. They place small drops of different food coloring ("water-based paint") on strips of filter paper and then place one paper strip end in water. As water travels along the paper strips, students observe the pigments that compose the paint decompose into their color components. This is an example of the chromatography concept applied to DNA forensics, with the pigments in the paint that define the color being analogous to DNA fragments of different lengths.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

256

Forensic seismology revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests梩hat is in forensic seismology梙ave been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: 1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves梩he most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions梬ere in contrast simple, comprising one or two cycles of large amplitude followed by a low-amplitude coda. Earthquake signals on the other hand were often complex with numerous arrivals of similar amplitude spread over 35 s or more. It therefore appeared that earthquakes could be recognised on complexity. Later however, complex explosion signals were observed which reduced the apparent effectiveness of complexity as a criterion for identifying earthquakes. Nevertheless, the AWE Group concluded that for many paths to teleseismic distances, Earth is transparent for P signals and this provides a window through which source differences will be most clearly seen. Much of the research by the Group has focused on understanding the influence of source type on P seismograms recorded at teleseismic distances. Consequently the paper concentrates on teleseismic methods of distinguishing between explosions and earthquakes. One of the most robust criteria for discriminating between earthquakes and explosions is the m b : M s criterion which compares the amplitudes of the SP P waves as measured by the body-wave magnitude m b, and the long-period (LP: 0.05 Hz) Rayleigh-wave amplitude as measured by the surface-wave magnitude M s; the P and Rayleigh waves being the main wave types used in forensic seismology. For a given M s, the m b for explosions is larger than for most earthquakes. The criterion is difficult to apply however, at low magnitude (say m b < 4.5) and there are exceptions梕arthquakes that look like explosions. A difficulty with identification criteria developed in the early days of forensic seismology was that they were in the main empirical梚t was not known why they appeared to work and if there were test sites or earthquakes where they would fail. Consequently the AWE Group in cooperation with the University of Cambridge used seismogram modelling to try and understand what controls complexity of SP P seismograms, and to put the m b : M s criterion on a theoretical basis. The results of this work show that the m b : M s criterion is robust because several factors con

Douglas, A.

2007-01-01

257

9649 forensic web watch--DNA in forensic science.  

PubMed

In 1923, within the Manual of Police technique, Edmond Locard published what is commonly known as the Doctrine of Exchange; a series of rules related to the exchange of trace evidence between the victim and offender. Although at the time of publication these rules principally applied to trace evidence related to print (for exchange finger print or shoeprint), fibre and blood, today one can add the very substance that defines each human being -- DNA. Since th first use of DNA evidence to help identify an offender in the Pitchfork Murders of 1986, the use of DNA within forensic science has developed from its humble days within a single experimental laboratory at the University of Leicester to a multi-million pound industry. It thus seams fitting that this forensic web watch should originate from the very University where the use of DNA in forensic science was conceived, drawing the readers attention to a number of sites which can be used as an introduction to the concept of the use of DNA in forensic science today. PMID:15704281

Bowyer, V L; Graham, E A M; Rutty, G N

2004-10-01

258

A Skeleton Tells Its Own Story: Forensic Analyses of Skeletal Elements for the Science Classroom Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The techniques of forensic anthropology and pathology can provide new information to increase student interest in studying the structural details of the human skeleton. We present a simplified methodology for assessing skeletal ethnicity, sex, age, and stature. An inexpensive method has been devised for constructing an osteometric board to allow

Naples, Virginia L.; Breed, David; Miller, Jon S.

2010-01-01

259

BS in Digital Forensics Department of Computer and Information Science  

E-print Network

BS in Digital Forensics Department of Computer and Information Science The Digital Forensics Program Digital Forensics is the area of computer science concerned with the examination and analysis Science Digital Forensics degree program covers a wide range of knowledge, including forensic accounting

Lu, Yi

260

American Academy of Forensic Science: Choosing a Career  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides information on careers in forensic science. Topics include what forensic science is and what forensic scientists do, educational requirements, and what graduates in this field might expect in terms of work locations and pay. There are also brief overviews of different branches of forensic science (criminalistics, jurisprudence, pathology, anthropology, and others), and a list of online resources for forensic science.

261

Recent Activities in the United States: National Commission on Forensic  

E-print Network

Recent Activities in the United States: National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS and Technology NIST Fellow & Special Assistant to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science Asian Forensic Sciences Network World Forensics Festival Seoul, Korea October

262

MSc/PgDip/PgCert FORENSIC SCIENCE  

E-print Network

MSc/PgDip/PgCert FORENSIC SCIENCE #12;MSc/PgDip/PgCert FORENSIC SCIENCE The Centre for Forensic Science The University of Strathclyde has been teaching forensic science for over 40 years and has the longest established programme in the UK. The course is accredited by the Forensic Science Society

Mottram, Nigel

263

Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock

Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

2014-01-01

264

Forensics: Enhancing Civic Literacy & Democracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensics--interpretation, speech, and debate--can and should be a meaningful part of every school's curriculum. To put it simply, the course of study, alongside cocurricular competition, promotes civic education and enhances the standard curriculum by helping students explore myriad topics from multiple angles and find the truth in each,

Briscoe, Shawn F.

2009-01-01

265

Behind the Scenes: Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short Canadian article about insurance claim investigation and forensic entomology. Most of the usual crime investigation procedures are clearly described, including maggot collection, weather data logging, and a discussion of post-mortem interval (though, without an actual calculation example). This is a commercial site.

0000-00-00

266

Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be

Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

2014-01-01

267

School COMSC Forensics, Trust & Identity  

E-print Network

the student to make informed decisions related to the issues of trust and identity within information systems on the issues faced by multi-national organisations and their approach to Trust and Identity. UnderstandingSchool COMSC Forensics, Trust & Identity Every organization will eventually deal with cyber

Martin, Ralph R.

268

System Baselining - A Forensic Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the analysis of a compromised system, it is important to identify what has been compromised, re- cover as much useful state information as possible, and restore the system to a usable, but less vulnerable state. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the utility of system baselining as a technique that supports these goals. From a forensic point

Klayton Monroe; Dave Bailey

2006-01-01

269

Non-Forensic Odontological Biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

While techniques such as biometric face recognition observe facial landmarks and local texture for identification and verification, temporal variability and long term impact of aging reduce recognition accuracy considerably. Facial bone and moreover dental structures, are, however, both exposed directly and much less variable and are routinely used in forensic applications. We propose to use novel optical and ultrasound signal

Stephen D. Wolthusen; Christoph Busch

2009-01-01

270

"Android Forensics: Simplifying Cell Phone  

E-print Network

"Android Forensics: Simplifying Cell Phone Examinations" Jeff Lessard, Gary Kessler 2010 Presented, to be exact. It's taken 16 years to pass 1 billion. Smart phone users #12;5 Smart phone users #12;6 Android.com, there were 300 million Android devices in use as of February 28, 2012 #12;7 an open-sourced operating

Almulhem, Ahmad

271

Forensic anthropology in Latin America.  

PubMed

Forensic anthropology has been one of the fastest growing medico-legal disciplines both in its contribution to the practical needs of the legal system and research accomplishments. New anthropological standards were developed to apply to a specific population of a region. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a large sample of anthropological forensic cases and to review pertinent literature that deals with anthropological standards developed for the population of the continent of Central and South America. Using Uruguay as an example, there was not a single office or anthropologist assigned to analyze human skeletal remains in Uruguay. In 1991 the Laboratorio de Antropolog韆 Forense at the Morgue Judicial of Montevideo was created. A total of 189 forensic anthropological cases (276 individuals) were analyzed since this date. Twenty six percent of cases involving human remains were positively identified. The majority came from the Departamento de Montevideo, the largest population district of the country. Most of the cases fell into the 60 to 69 years old age range (35%). Females represented 32% of the total. Since the establishment of the laboratory, the number of forensic cases increased considerably from 20 in 1991 to 40 in 1997. The case studies were accompanied with skull-photo superimposition and facial reconstruction when no other evidence for positive identification was available. This service provided by the laboratory was quickly known to coroners, law enforcement agencies, and other legal authorities and thus utilized not only in Uruguay but also in several other countries in the continent. Because of the obvious need for an anthropologist, there are now university programs to provide forensic anthropological education. Yet, research has lagged behind considerably. Deficiencies are obvious in basic osteological standards of estimating age, calculating stature, determining sex and assessing race that can be applied to populations of the continent. Regional standards are also needed to estimate postmortem interval, to identify culture specific causes of trauma and other forensic phenomena. Some of these can be remedied if there is a database where the available literature is stored and osteometric information is shared. PMID:10759068

I?can, M Y; Olivera, H E

2000-03-13

272

On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community.  

PubMed

In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today. PMID:24630329

van Asten, Arian C

2014-03-01

273

A model for data analysis of microRNA expression in forensic body fluid identification.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs, 18-25 bases in length) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNA expression patterns, including presence and relative abundance of particular miRNA species, provide cell- and tissue-specific information that can be used for body fluid identification. Recently, two published studies reported that a number of body fluid-specific miRNAs had been identified. However, the results were inconsistent when different technology platforms and statistical methods were applied. To further study the role of miRNAs in identification of body fluids, this study sets out to develop an accurate and reliable model for data analysis of miRNA expression. To that end, the relative expression levels of three miRNAs were studied using the mirVana miRNA Isolation Kit, high-specificity stem-loop reverse transcription (RT) and high-sensitivity hydrolysis probes (TaqMan) quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in forensically relevant biological fluids, including venous blood, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood, semen and saliva. Accurate quantification of miRNAs requires not only a highly sensitive and specific detection platform for experiment operation, but also a reproducible methodology with an adequate model for data analysis. In our study, the efficiency-calibrated model that incorporated the impact of the quantification cycle (Cq) values and PCR efficiencies of target and reference genes was developed to calculate the relative expression ratio of miRNAs in forensically relevant body fluids. Our results showed that venous blood was distinguished from other body fluids according to the relative expression ratio of miR16 using as little as 50pg of total RNA, while the expression level of miR658 was unstable and that of miR205 was nonspecific among different body fluids. Collectively, the findings may constitute a basis for future miRNA-based research on body fluid identification and show miRNAs as a promising biomarker in forensic identification of body fluids. PMID:21903498

Wang, Zheng; Luo, Haibo; Pan, Xiongfei; Liao, Miao; Hou, Yiping

2012-05-01

274

Use and usefulness of forensic archaeology and forensic anthropology in Great Britain  

E-print Network

This thesis explores the extent to which forensic archaeology and forensic anthropology are utilised within Great Britain and to what extent they aid, or do not aid, medico-legal investigation of death. Chapter One ...

Sinfield, Laura Nancy

2014-11-28

275

Challenge Paper: Validation of Forensic Techniques for Criminal Prosecution  

E-print Network

Challenge Paper: Validation of Forensic Techniques for Criminal Prosecution Robert F. Erbacher that digital forensics analysts would benefit from the extension, development and application of advanced techniques in performing large scale and heterogeneous data analysis. Modern digital forensics analysis

Erbacher, Robert F.

276

Special Publication 800-86 Guide to Integrating Forensic  

E-print Network

Special Publication 800-86 Guide to Integrating Forensic Techniques into Incident ResponseDang #12;#12;Guide to Integrating Forensic Techniques into Incident Response Recommendations A. Jeffrey, Director #12;GUIDE TO INTEGRATING FORENSIC TECHNIQUES INTO INCIDENT RESPONSE Reports

277

[Forensic entomology and globalisation].  

PubMed

The main aim of Forensic Entomology has always been, and is today, to establish the time of death (P.M.I.: Postmortem Period) or, more exactly, how long a carrion has been exposed in the environment. Most of the invertebrate fauna occurring on corpses consists of insects (mostly Diptera and Coleoptera). They are selectively attracted by the decomposing status of the carrion, and form complex communities or biocenosis within necrophagous or sarcophagous species and their predators, parasites and parasitoids, competing each one another. The rapid and continuos changes of the micro-ecosystem (the body), until its breakdown, does not permit the achievement of a steady state or an equilibrium in the animal communities. These continuous modifications give us the possibility to estimate when (and where) the death has occurred, by the identification of the species feeding on the corpse, the knowledge of their life history, and the length of each stage of their cycle at varying the temperature and the other abiotic factors, external to the carrion ecosystem. The P.M.I. today is still largely based on the tables of faunal succession on human cadavers recognised by M間in in 1894, with few changes proposed by Authors from other countries. In the last years, however, it happens more and more often, that the natural communities are subverted by the presence of allocton species, which can compete, predate or parasite the most common local sarcophagous insects, modifying, this way, the succession waves and the trophic nets. The immission in the environment of foreign species may be voluntary or casual, but in any case is due to anthropic activities. The voluntary immission happens when some species, employed in the biological struggle against pest or dangerous insects, for pollination of allocton plants, or for other commercial utilities, are beyond man's control and swarm onto the environment; the casual spread is due to the globalisation phenomenon, that distributes the "little organisms" by chance, together with travellers, goods and food items. Together with human migratory flows, raw materials and vegetal foodstuffs travelling from Tropical developing Countries to the North of the world, also many tropical and subtropical insects can be carried out from their original lands. Eurioecious and polyphagous species, and species that evolved mechanisms (as diapausa or hibernation) to get over critical environmental conditions have the highest probability of survival. Saprophagous insects, and flies in particular, evolved such capabilities. The mortality of foreign species due to the difference of temperature and seasonally between tropical and temperate areas was, in the past, the most effective factor limiting the geographic propagation of insects. The ongoing global climate changes induce insect populations, now confined to the tropics, to most likely spread towards middle latitudes, where their specific competitors, predators and parasites, which regulate the population growth, are often absent. The lack of a biological control, the warming up of atmosphere temperature and the fall of the differences among seasons induce a more rapid development and an increased number of generations in new species, that often displace the autocton ones. This phenomenon is much more clear in little and simple ecosystems (such as carrion), mostly occur than in large and complex ecosystems, where many more components, vegetal organisms and phytophagous animals included, are present. To demonstrate how globalisation and climate changes are breaking the geographic barriers, we present some cases in which, during our entomoforensic investigations, performed mainly in North-eastern Italy, Neotropical, African and Asiatic necrophagous flies, beetles and wasp parasitoids have been collected, some of which rare or new for Italy or Paleartic Region. In particular, we report our studies on the american black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), that is showing a heavy competition with the local saprophagous species and is reaching

Turchetto, M; Vanin, S

2004-06-01

278

Detecting content adaptive scaling of images for forensic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Content-aware resizing methods have recently been developed, among which, seam-carving has achieved the most widespread use. Seam-carving's versatility enables deliberate object removal and benign image resizing, in which perceptually important content is preserved. Both types of modifications compromise the utility and validity of the modified images as evidence in legal and journalistic applications. It is therefore desirable that image forensic techniques detect the presence of seam-carving. In this paper we address detection of seam-carving for forensic purposes. As in other forensic applications, we pose the problem of seam-carving detection as the problem of classifying a test image in either of two classes: a) seam-carved or b) non-seam-carved. We adopt a pattern recognition approach in which a set of features is extracted from the test image and then a Support Vector Machine based classifier, trained over a set of images, is utilized to estimate which of the two classes the test image lies in. Based on our study of the seam-carving algorithm, we propose a set of intuitively motivated features for the detection of seam-carving. Our methodology for detection of seam-carving is then evaluated over a test database of images. We demonstrate that the proposed method provides the capability for detecting seam-carving with high accuracy. For images which have been reduced 30% by benign seam-carving, our method provides a classification accuracy of 91%.

Fillion, Claude; Sharma, Gaurav

2010-01-01

279

Spring Break Course in Florida! Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic sci-  

E-print Network

the science of forensic en- tomology through daily laboratory and field ac- tivities. We also interactSpring Break Course in Florida! Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic sci- ence utilizing with crime scene in- vestigators and professionals from other foren- sic science disciplines, including

280

The contribution of forensic science to crime analysis and investigation: Forensic intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate in forensic science concentrates on issues such as standardisation, accreditation and de-contextualisation, in a legal and economical context, in order to ensure the scientific objectivity and efficiency that must guide the process of collecting, analysing, interpreting and reporting forensic evidence. At the same time, it is recognised that forensic case data is still poorly integrated into the investigation

Olivier Ribaux; Simon J. Walsh; Pierre Margot

2006-01-01

281

Diversity in United States Forensics: A Report of Research Conducted for the American Forensic Association.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the participation of women and minorities in the United States forensic community. Surveys sent to a large cross-section of the college and university forensic community examined such issues as: academic mission; funding sources for the forensic program; program evaluation; program size; program activities; program records

Allen, Mike; Ulrich, Tammie; Trejo, Mary; Bartanen, Michael; Schroeder, Anthony

282

Developmental Integrative BiologyForensic Science A complement of specialized resources, equipment, and talent guides forensic  

E-print Network

Developmental Integrative BiologyForensic Science A complement of specialized resources, equipment, and talent guides forensic science research at UNT, with a multidisciplinary infrastructure encompassing research in natural sciences and diverse areas--from the development of detection sensors and forensic

Tarau, Paul

283

The Non-Forensics After-Life of a Forensics Director.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the personal and career choices that motivate an educator's departure from active involvement in forensics activities, and what trends, if any, exist concerning what former directors do in place of forensics. The study also investigated how forensics participation as a coach/director impacted on the individual, and what

Nicolai, Michael T.

284

[Confidential information in forensic odontologic investigation].  

PubMed

The forensic odontologist is normally not bound by any professional secrecy during his forensic investigation. He has to present the legal authorities with all details of his findings. But he has to respect the rights of the defense and the human rights. He cannot force a suspect to undergo any examination without his explicit and informed consent. Dental records are covered by confidentiality and shall not be handed out to the forensic odontologist without the patient's consent. PMID:11836811

Vermylen, Y

1995-06-01

285

Guidelines in forensic odontology: legal aspects.  

PubMed

The task of the forensic dentist is ruled by an obligation to be diligent and prudent. If guidelines should exist which are recognised by the dental forensic community, they will probably be used to judge his work, even if guidelines are only considered as recommendations. The questions to be answered are: who issued these guidelines and are they conform to evidence-based forensic odontology. PMID:16563684

Vermylen, Y

2006-05-15

286

DRAFT AGENDA Measurement Science & Standards in Forensic Firearms  

E-print Network

DRAFT AGENDA Measurement Science & Standards in Forensic Firearms Analysis July 10-11, 2012 Enforcement Standards Office, Forensic Science Program Scientific Working Group for Firearms and Toolmarks

287

American Board of Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Robert Hall of the University of Missouri-Columbia has taken a rather unsavory subfield of entomology and compiled an interesting and comprehensive collection of information. From this site we learn that forensic entomology is the science of using insect evidence to reveal circumstances of interest to the law, often related to a crime. Such key information as time of death, whether a body was moved, and the conditions under which a body was kept can be revealed by examination of the organisms found on a corpse and their stage of development. Scientists and criminal investigators have utilized such information for well over one hundred years, but the field has only recently gained widespread use. Sections cover history, case studies, the profession, and a list of members of the American Board of Forensic Entomology.

Hall, Robert D.

288

DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future  

PubMed Central

DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting. PMID:24245688

2013-01-01

289

Audit Log for Forensic Photography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

290

Using Forensics: Wildlife Crime Scene!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A crime wave has hit the animal kingdom--and your students can help put a stop to it even as they investigate the science behind animal-species identification and threats against wild animals. Using Forensics: Wildlife Crime Scene! opens with an overview of crimes that threaten different wild animal species around the world. Next come eight forensic training lessons about antlers and horns, blood typing, DNA fingerprinting, fingerprints, hair identification, pH and pH indicators, mammal skulls, and tracks of animals. Students then transform into detectives for a classroom simulation based on a real wildlife crime: the illegal shooting and dismemberment of a bear. They work in teams to review crime scene reports, conduct interviews of suspects and witnesses, analyze evidence, and bring charges before a "prosecuting attorney." To close the unit, the book provides teachers strategies for evaluating individual students and student teams. Using Forensics: Wildlife Crime Scene! is an ideal complement to middle and high school courses in biology, environmental science, general science, and criminology. It provides a high-interest, real-life format for learning a variety of scientific concepts and skills that correlate with the Standards. It also gives students reason to genuinely care about preserving the wildlife and ecosystems they're studying.

Laura M. Sanders Arndt

2007-07-01

291

Forensic scatology: preliminary experimental study of the preparation and potential for identification of captive carnivore scat.  

PubMed

Carnivore scats recovered from animal attack and/or scavenging contexts frequently contain forensic evidence such as human bone fragments. Forensic cases with carnivore involvement are increasingly prevalent, necessitating a methodology for the recovery and analysis of scat evidence. This study proposes a method for the safe preparation of carnivore scat, recovery of bone inclusions, and quantification and comparison of scat variables. Fourteen scats (lion, jaguar, lynx, wolf, and coyote) were prepared with sodium-acetate-formalin fixative; analytical variables included carnivore individual, species, body size, and taxonomic family. Scat variables, particularly bone fragment inclusions, were found to vary among carnivore individuals, families, species, and sizes. The methods in this study facilitate safe scat processing, the complete recovery of digested evidence, and the preliminary identification of involved animals. This research demonstrates that scat collected from forensic contexts can yield valuable information concerning both the victim and the carnivore involved. PMID:21923796

Gilmour, Rebecca J; Skinner, Mark F

2012-01-01

292

A Simple Cost-Effective Framework for iPhone Forensic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apple iPhone has made significant impact on the society both as a handheld computing device and as a cellular phone. Due to the unique hardware system as well as storage structure, iPhone has already attracted the forensic community in digital investigation of the device. Currently available commercial products and methodologies for iPhone forensics are somewhat expensive, complex and often require additional hardware for analysis. Some products are not robust and often fail to extract optimal evidence without modifying the iPhone firmware which makes the analysis questionable in legal platforms. In this paper, we present a simple and inexpensive framework (iFF) for iPhone forensic analysis. Through experimental results using real device, we have shown the effectiveness of this framework in extracting digital evidence from an iPhone.

Husain, Mohammad Iftekhar; Baggili, Ibrahim; Sridhar, Ramalingam

293

The use of insects in forensic investigations: An overview on the scope of forensic entomology  

PubMed Central

Forensic entomology is the study of insects/arthropods in criminal investigation. Right from the early stages insects are attracted to the decomposing body and may lay eggs in it. By studying the insect population and the developing larval stages, forensic scientists can estimate the postmortem index, any change in position of the corpse as well as the cause of death. Forensic odontologists are called upon more frequently to collaborate in criminal investigations and hence should be aware of the possibilities that forensic entomology have to offer and use it as an adjunct to the conventional means of forensic investigation. PMID:22408328

Joseph, Isaac; Mathew, Deepu G; Sathyan, Pradeesh; Vargheese, Geetha

2011-01-01

294

Students' conceptions of evidence during a university introductory forensic science course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' Conceptions of Science, Scientific Evidence, and Forensic Evidence during a University Introductory Forensic Science Course This study was designed to examine and understand what conceptions undergraduate students taking an introductory forensic science course had about scientific evidence. Because the relationships between the nature of science, the nature of evidence, and the nature of forensic evidence are not well understood in the science education literature, this study sought to understand how these concepts interact and affect students' understanding of scientific evidence. Four participants were purposefully selected for this study from among 89 students enrolled in two sections of an introductory forensic science course taught during the fall 2005 semester. Of the 89 students, 84 were criminal justice majors with minimal science background and five were chemistry majors with academic backgrounds in the natural and physical sciences. All 89 students completed a biographical data sheet and a pre-instruction Likert scale survey consisting of twenty questions relating to the nature of scientific evidence. An evaluation of these two documents resulted in a purposeful selection of four varied student participants, each of whom was interviewed three times throughout the semester about the nature of science, the nature of evidence, and the nature of forensic evidence. The same survey was administered to the participants again at the end of the semester-long course. This study examined students' assumptions, prior knowledge, their understanding of scientific inference, scientific theory, and methodology. Examination of the data found few differences with regard to how the criminal justice majors and the chemistry majors responded to interview questions about forensic evidence. There were qualitative differences, however, when the same participants answered interview questions relating to traditional scientific evidence. Furthermore, suggestions are offered for undergraduate science teachers, science teaching programs, and future research.

Yeshion, Theodore Elliot

295

Forensic experience of Saudi nurses; an emerging need for forensic qualifications.  

PubMed

Forensic nursing was recognized as a nursing subspecialty after the perceived need for forensic nurses to bring about their nursing duties while at the same time helping legal authorities to deliver justice. With the increased rate of cases that are presenting to the forensic centers in Saudi Arabia, there was a need for the presence of nurses to work side by side to physicians. This study was aimed at determining the forensic qualifications of nurses working in emergency departments in the area of Dammam and their knowledge about principles of forensic nursing. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to registered nurses who are working in Emergency departments of secondary hospitals in the area of Dammam. Questions included knowledge, awareness and attitude toward forensic nursing. A total of 96 participants responded to the questionnaire with females representing 78% (n: 75). Diploma was the highest earned nursing degree in 95% (n: 91) of participants. Only 33% (n: 32) were aware of the term forensic nursing and the majority of the respondents gave invalid or didn't know the answers to knowledge questions. A total of 77% (n: 74) agreed that they are not adequately trained for handling forensic cases. Saudi nurses need forensic education. The presence of qualified forensic nurses would help delivering optimal forensic services and would assist in bringing justice. PMID:25287793

Alsaif, Dalia M; Alfaraidy, Maram; Alsowayigh, Kholoud; Alhusain, Awal; Almadani, Osama M

2014-10-01

296

IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE [84] MARCH 2009 he field of audio forensics involves many topics  

E-print Network

/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale to the court to be unbiased, to have known reliability statistics, to be nondestructive, and to be widely of audio forensics even though the topics and techniques seem out-of-date to those of us in the signal

Maher, Robert C.

297

The Thin Blue Line-Forensic Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site draws on, and brings together, many scientific disciplines-identification of hairs and fibers, forensic psychology, DNA testing, photography, bloodstain pattern analysis, and computer forensics- that contribute to the integrated analysis of a crime and the physical evidence left at a crime scene.

298

Applying Professional Evaluation Standards to Forensics Directors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggesting that the university faculty members assigned extra-curricular duties with forensics have been denied proper evaluation procedures, this paper argues for the need to apply professional evaluation standards to forensics directors. It proposes four separate components to be considered in developing such standards: (1) professional

Congalton, David; Burtis, John O.

299

Scientific standards for studies in forensic genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic molecular genetics has evolved from a rapidly developing field with changing technologies into a highly recognized and generally accepted forensic science, leading to the establishment of national DNA databases with DNA profiles from suspects and convicted offenders. DNA evidence has taken a central role by carrying a significant weight for convictions, as well as by excluding innocent suspects early

Peter M. Schneider

2007-01-01

300

Forensic Science International 94 (1998) 167181  

E-print Network

Forensic Science International 94 (1998) 167颅181 The application of volume deformation to three-0738(98)00066-8 #12;168 L.A. Nelson, S.D. Michael / Forensic Science International 94 (1998) 167颅181 sufficient, 20133 Milan, Italy b Department of Computer Science, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park

Frey, Pascal

301

Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 185199  

E-print Network

Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 185颅199 Nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis. Application-0738(98)00015-2 #12;186 M.S. Bellini et al. / Forensic Science International 92 (1998) 185颅199 1. Introduction, Czech Republic c 麓 ` 麓Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Videoska 1083

Miksik, Ivan

302

Digital Forensics for the Health Sciences  

E-print Network

Digital Forensics for the Health Sciences: Applications in Practice and Research Andriani Daskalaki of IGI Global) 701 E. Chocolate Avenue Hershey PA 17033 Tel: 717-533-8845 Fax: 717-533-8661 E-mail: cust Cataloging-in-Publication Data Digital forensics for the health sciences : applications in practice

Payan, Yohan

303

Irreconcilable conflict between therapeutic and forensic roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite being contrary to good patient care and existing clinical and forensic practice guidelines, some therapists nevertheless engage in dual clinical and forensic roles. Perhaps because an injured litigant seeking treatment is required to engage in 2 distinct roles (litigant and patient), care providers may be tempted to meet both sets of that person's needs. Through the presentation of 10

Stuart A. Greenberg; Daniel W. Shuman

1997-01-01

304

Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the

Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

2011-01-01

305

Computer Forensics In Forensis Sean Peisert  

E-print Network

they could be augmented. Finally, we present some recommendations about how computer scientists, forensic practitioners, lawyers, and judges could build more complete models of forensics that take into account is the sole judge of scientific "truth." --Nobel Laureate Richard P. Feynman, California Institute

Peisert, Sean

306

Neurotoxin Exposure and MMPI Forensic Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) has been widely used as an objective personality test, in addition to being used in forensic assessments, especially involving claims of physical or emotional damage. It now appears that questions must be raised concerning the MMPI's forensic implications given the advent of new disease

Storm, Heidi A.

307

Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been

Lewis, Catherine F.

2004-01-01

308

Forensics for advanced UNIX file systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced UNIX file systems differ substantially from traditional UNIX file systems with respect to their internal layout and data structures. This paper analyzes these differences and their effects on the methods and results of digital forensic media analysis. In addition, it provides results from a prototype implementation of a forensic toolkit for an advanced UNIX file system, IBM's Journaling File

Knut Eckstein

2004-01-01

309

Forensic neuropsychology and the criminal law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores theoretical and empirical issues in the application of clinical neuropsychological evidence to forensic issues in the criminal law. The nature of forensic neuropsychological evaluations is discussed with reference to issues of competency to stand trial, criminal responsibility, and other competencies in the criminal process. Examples of specific disorders relevant to criminal law standards are presented, together with

Daniel A. Martellt

1992-01-01

310

A Proposal for Training in Forensic Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graduate programs are lagging behind in developing courses to prepare psychologists to function with expertise in forensic (law-related) matters. Paradoxically, the courts are now finding increasing use for the forensic psychologist, while current journals express wide skepticism about the quality of available expertise. (Author/RLV)

Poythress, Norman G., Jr.

1979-01-01

311

A proposal for training in forensic psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Documents the need for specialized training in forensic psychology. Several areas of specialty training are identified, and concrete and hypothetical examples are used to document the kinds of problems that emerge when mental health professionals without specialized training practice in the forensic area. Such specialties include legal tests and concepts, proper assessment, familiarity with relevant literature, and courtroom orientation. A

Norman G. Poythress

1979-01-01

312

National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS)  

E-print Network

) 颅 Leahy Bill (Justice) 颅 Rockefeller Bill (Commerce) 路 FY14 New NIST Role 颅 administer OSAC Criminal Justice and Forensic Science Reform Act (Leahy Bill) Forensic Science and Standards Act (Rockefeller Bill Commissioner Biographies available at http://www.justice.gov/ncfs/members.html Willie E. May, Ph.D. (Acting

313

[MVR-PCR and forensic medicine].  

PubMed

MVR mapping is one kind of DNA analytic techniques, which has developed greatly within 13 years. The molecular basis, history and applications in forensic medicine were systemically reviewed in this paper. Because of its umsubstitutive mole in forensic paternity test and individual identification, the technique is becoming one of the important methods of bioassay. PMID:15150880

Wang, Ji-qiu; Ding, Mei; Sun, Zhe

2004-01-01

314

Issues and opportunities: the application of the numerical likelihood ratio framework to forensic speaker comparison.  

PubMed

Across forensic speech science, the likelihood ratio (LR) is increasingly becoming accepted as the logically and legally correct framework for the expression of expert conclusions. However, there remain a number of theoretical and practical shortcomings in the procedures applied for computing LRs based on speech evidence. In this paper we review how the LR is currently applied to speaker comparison evidence and outline three specific areas which deserve further investigation: namely statistical modelling, issues relating to the relevant population and the combination of LRs from correlated parameters. We then consider future directions for confronting these issues and discuss the implications for forensic comparison evidence more generally. PMID:25002047

Gold, Erica; Hughes, Vincent

2014-07-01

315

Forensic ScienceInternational 74 (1995) 155-165  

E-print Network

ELSEVIER Forensic ScienceInternational 74 (1995) 155-165 Forensic SCience The computer-aided facial Research Institute of Police Science, Tokyo 102, Japan bFirst Forensic Science Division, National Research-0738(95)01744-4 #12;156 S. Miyasaka et al. /Forensic Science International 74 (1995) 155-165 areunsuccessfulin

Frey, Pascal

316

By Diana Ha, Undergraduate, UNLV The Forensics Community  

E-print Network

and research. Examples of such journals are: The Open Forensic Science Journal (http://www.bentham.org/open/toforsj/) The Internet Journal of Forensic Science (http://www.ispub.com/journal/the_internet_journal_of_forensic_science.html) Forensic Science Communications (an open access journal from the FBI) (http

Walker, Lawrence R.

317

UNDERSTANDING THE DISCRIMINATION POWER OF FACIAL REGIONS IN FORENSIC CASEWORK  

E-print Network

UNDERSTANDING THE DISCRIMINATION POWER OF FACIAL REGIONS IN FORENSIC CASEWORK Pedro Tomea , Luis Bl extraction for forensic applications. Forensic examiners compare different fa- cial areas of face images and compare the discriminative capabilities of 15 fa- cial regions considered in forensic practice

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

318

Forensic Science in A Report of Multidisciplinary Discussion  

E-print Network

0 Forensic Science in Canada A Report of Multidisciplinary Discussion May 4 5, 2012 Forensic been eroded by several high-profile inquiries into the damage wrought by faulty forensic evidence. We have learned that reliable forensic science is a cornerstone of any effective justice system. However

Sokolowski, Marla

319

Revised 05/21/2014 School of Forensic Sciences  

E-print Network

Revised 05/21/2014 School of Forensic Sciences 1111 West 17th Street Tulsa, OK 741071898 Country Code Area Code Phone Number Re: Request for Verification of Forensics in Forensic Document Examination (FDE) M.S.F.S. Option in Forensic Science Administration

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

320

Detecting Content Adaptive Scaling of Images for Forensic Applications  

E-print Network

Detecting Content Adaptive Scaling of Images for Forensic Applications Claude Fillion1,2 , Gaurav images as evidence in legal and journalistic applications. It is therefore desirable that image forensic-carving for forensic purposes. As in other forensic applications, we pose the problem of seam-carving detection

Sharma, Gaurav

321

Practice Parameter for Child and Adolescent Forensic Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Parameter addresses the key concepts that differentiate the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents from a clinical assessment. There are ethical issues unique to the forensic evaluation, because the forensic evaluator's duty is to the person, court, or agency requesting the evaluation, rather than to the patient. The forensic

Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011

2011-01-01

322

FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION REPORTING USING AUTOMATIC SPEAKER RECOGNITION SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION REPORTING USING AUTOMATIC SPEAKER RECOGNITION SYSTEMS J. Gonzalez to the bayesian approach for evidence analysis and forensic reporting. This approach, firmly established in other forensic areas as fingerprint, DNA or fiber analysis, suits the needs of both the court and the forensic

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

323

University of Glasgow COURSE IN FORENSIC MEDICAL SCIENCES  

E-print Network

University of Glasgow COURSE IN FORENSIC MEDICAL SCIENCES 2014 - 15 please turn over Information range of topics within the general theme of forensic medical sciences. The emphasis is on medical aspects of forensic practice, but with important contributions in forensic science and the legal process

Glasgow, University of

324

An Empirical Investigation of the Relevant Skills of Forensic Accountants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author investigated whether views of the relevant skills of forensic accountants differ among forensic accounting practitioners, accounting academics, and users of forensic accounting services. Universities and colleges are currently considering adding forensic accounting courses to their curriculum. The results of the present study provide

DiGabriele, James A.

2008-01-01

325

Forensic aspects of ocular injury.  

PubMed

A case of homicidal stabbing resulting in bilateral penetrating ocular injuries is described. The case is noteworthy in that it highlights an unusual mechanism of death in homicidal stabbing. Disturbances in heart rhythm including asystole can be ascribed to the so-called oculocardiac or trigeminocardiac reflex. Although this phenomenon is well known to ophthalmologists, neurosurgeons, and anesthetists, it is much less familiar to forensic pathologists. This is a potential mechanism of death worthy of consideration in cases of sudden unexpected death occurring in the context of facial injury. PMID:10871125

Lynch, M J; Parker, H

2000-06-01

326

[Incest--forensic genetic approach].  

PubMed

The paper presents intimate relationships between biologically and legally close relatives, complicated in the social, culture and religion perspective. (art. 201 of the Penal Code), but it chiefly addresses problems associated with giving opinion on the fatherhood towards the incestuous child. The report calls for a broader interest in this issue from expert witnesses in forensic genetics, as well as encourages them to publish examples taken from their own professional experience that may unquestionably be helpful to other practitioners in this field and above all will lead to extending educational methods related to widely understood DNA analysis in giving an opinion on arguable fatherhood. PMID:23424940

Raczek, Ewa

2012-01-01

327

Forensic Science: Hair Sample Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into how hairs from a crime scene are matched to suspects. Learners each take a single hair from their own head, then put it directly into the beam of a laser pointer. This projects the unique pattern of each hair onto a piece of paper to be traced, measured, identified and compared with the others. Learners can conclude this activity by setting up a mystery exercise with prepared samples of hair already in frames. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forensics.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

328

Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

Lee, Henry C.

1980-01-01

329

Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

Kammerer, Catherine C.

2009-01-01

330

Forensic Proteomics of Poxvirus Production  

SciTech Connect

The field of microbial forensics has recently sought to develop methods to discern biological signatures to indicate production methods for biological agents. Viral agents have received less attention to date. Their obligate propagation in living cells makes purification from cellular material a challenge. This leads to potential carryover of protein-rich signature of their production system. Here we have explored a proteomic analysis of Vaccinia virus as a model poxvirus system in which to compare samples of virus propagated in different cell lines and subjected to different purification schemes. The proteomic data sets indicated viral, host cell and culture medium proteins, and several layers of data analysis were applied to build confidence in the peptide identification and capture information on the taxonomic utility of each. The analysis showed clear shifts in protein profiles with virus purification, with successive gradient purification steps showing different levels of viral protein enrichment. Peptides from cellular proteins, including those present in purified virus preparations, provided signatures which enabled discrimination of cell line substrates, including distinguishing between cells derived from different primate species. The ability to discern multiple aspects of viral production demonstrates the potential value of proteomic analysis as tool for microbial forensics.

Wunschel, David S.; Tulman, Edan; Engelmann, Heather E.; Clowers, Brian H.; Geary, Steven J.; Robinson, Aaron C.; Liao, Xiaofen

2013-08-27

331

Forensic Analysis of Compromised Computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Directory Tree Analysis File Generator is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) script that simplifies and automates the collection of information for forensic analysis of compromised computer systems. During such an analysis, it is sometimes necessary to collect and analyze information about files on a specific directory tree. Directory Tree Analysis File Generator collects information of this type (except information about directories) and writes it to a text file. In particular, the script asks the user for the root of the directory tree to be processed, the name of the output file, and the number of subtree levels to process. The script then processes the directory tree and puts out the aforementioned text file. The format of the text file is designed to enable the submission of the file as input to a spreadsheet program, wherein the forensic analysis is performed. The analysis usually consists of sorting files and examination of such characteristics of files as ownership, time of creation, and time of most recent access, all of which characteristics are among the data included in the text file.

Wolfe, Thomas

2004-01-01

332

Electron microscopy and forensic practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron microanalysis in forensic practice ranks among basic applications used in investigation of traces (latents, stains, etc.) from crime scenes. Applying electron microscope allows for rapid screening and receiving initial information for a wide range of traces. SEM with EDS/WDS makes it possible to observe topography surface and morphology samples and examination of chemical components. Physical laboratory of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague use SEM especially for examination of inorganic samples, rarely for biology and other material. Recently, possibilities of electron microscopy have been extended considerably using dual systems with focused ion beam. These systems are applied mainly in study of inner micro and nanoparticles , thin layers (intersecting lines in graphical forensic examinations, analysis of layers of functional glass, etc.), study of alloys microdefects, creating 3D particles and aggregates models, etc. Automated mineralogical analyses are a great asset to analysis of mineral phases, particularly soils, similarly it holds for cathode luminescence, predominantly colour one and precise quantitative measurement of their spectral characteristics. Among latest innovations that are becoming to appear also at ordinary laboratories are TOF - SIMS systems and micro Raman spectroscopy with a resolution comparable to EDS/WDS analysis (capable of achieving similar level as through EDS/WDS analysis).

Kotrl, Marek; Turkov, Ivana

2013-05-01

333

Concept Mapping for Digital Forensic Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in digital forensics has yet to focus on modeling case domain information involved in investigations. This paper shows how concept mapping can be used to create an excellent alternative to the popular checklist approach used in digital forensic investigations. Concept mapping offers several benefits, including creating replicable, reusable techniques, simplifying and guiding the investigative process, capturing and reusing specialized forensic knowledge, and supporting training and knowledge management activities. The paper also discusses how concept mapping can be used to integrate case-specific details throughout the investigative process.

Tanner, April; Dampier, David

334

Idea Bank: Forensics on a Shoestring Budget  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into the 10th-grade biology curriculum while staying within the budget. This activity involves estimating a time of death based on fictitious police and medical examiner reports. Students are challenged to apply their knowledge using inquiry in lieu of elaborate equipment or supplies.

Joseph A. Greco

2005-07-01

335

Use of Stable Isotopes in Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

The use of isotopic signatures for forensic analysis of biological materials is well-established, and the same general principles that apply to interpretation of stable isotope content of C, N, O, and H apply to the analysis of microorganisms. Heterotrophic microorganisms derive their isotopic content from their growth substrates, which are largely plant and animal products, and the water in their culture medium. Thus the isotope signatures of microbes are tied to their growth environment. The C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of spores have been demonstrated to constitute highly discriminating signatures for sample matching. They can rule out specific samples of media and/or water as possible production media, and can predict isotope ratio ranges of the culture media and water used to produce a given sample. These applications have been developed and tested through analyses of approximately 250 samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and over 500 samples of culture media, providing a strong statistical basis for data interpretation. A Bayesian statistical framework for integrating stable isotope data with other types of signatures derived from microorganisms has been able to characterize the culture medium used to produce spores of various Bacillus species, leveraging isotopic differences in different medium types and demonstrating the power of data integration for forensic investigations.

Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.

2012-01-18

336

Anti-forensic resilient memory acquisition Johannes Stttgen a,*, Michael Cohen b  

E-print Network

Anti-forensic resilient memory acquisition Johannes St黷tgen a,*, Michael Cohen b a Department, Germany b Google Inc., Brandschenkestrasse 110, Zurich, Switzerland Keywords: Memory forensics Memory acquisition Anti forensics Live forensics Malware Computer security Information security Incident response a b

Tomkins, Andrew

337

Bacterial Deposition of Gold on Hair: Archeological, Forensic and Toxicological Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTrace metal analyses in hair are used in archeological, forensic and toxicological investigations as proxies for metabolic processes. We show metallophilic bacteria mediating the deposition of gold (Au), used as tracer for microbial activity in hair post mortem after burial, affecting results of such analyses.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHuman hair was incubated for up to six months in auriferous soils, in natural soil

Genevieve Phillips; Frank Reith; Clifford Qualls; Abdul-Mehdi Ali; Mike Spilde; Otto Appenzeller; Niyaz Ahmed

2010-01-01

338

Towards Privacy Preserving of Forensic DNA Databases  

E-print Network

Protecting privacy of individuals is critical for forensic genetics. In a kinship/identity testing, related DNA profiles between user's query and the DNA database need to be extracted. However, unrelated profiles cannot be revealed to each other...

Liu, Sanmin

2012-02-14

339

Forensic veterinary pathology, today's situation and perspectives.  

PubMed

To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders. PMID:25013083

Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Ols閚, L; Gavier-Wid閚, D

2014-11-01

340

Role of dental expert in forensic odontology  

PubMed Central

Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709

Verma, Anoop K.; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

2014-01-01

341

Role of dental expert in forensic odontology.  

PubMed

Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709

Verma, Anoop K; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

2014-01-01

342

Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

1999-10-12

343

Forensic 3D scene reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

2000-05-01

344

Contemporary practice in forensic odontology  

PubMed Central

Forensic odontology plays a major role in the identification of those individuals who cannot be identified visually or by other means. The unique nature of dental anatomy and placement of custom restorations ensure accuracy when the techniques are correctly employed. It is evident that identification of victims in accidents and natural calamities is of utmost importance and is a challenging task. The teeth may also be used as weapons and under certain circumstances; they may provide information regarding the identity of the biter. Dental professionals play a major role in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize malpractices, negligence, fraud child abuse and also, identify an individual. In this article, we will discuss such evolvement of the subject. PMID:25328306

Gupta, Shalini; Agnihotri, Archana; Chandra, Akhilesh; Gupta, Om Prakash

2014-01-01

345

Contemporary practice in forensic odontology.  

PubMed

Forensic odontology plays a major role in the identification of those individuals who cannot be identified visually or by other means. The unique nature of dental anatomy and placement of custom restorations ensure accuracy when the techniques are correctly employed. It is evident that identification of victims in accidents and natural calamities is of utmost importance and is a challenging task. The teeth may also be used as weapons and under certain circumstances; they may provide information regarding the identity of the biter. Dental professionals play a major role in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize malpractices, negligence, fraud child abuse and also, identify an individual. In this article, we will discuss such evolvement of the subject. PMID:25328306

Gupta, Shalini; Agnihotri, Archana; Chandra, Akhilesh; Gupta, Om Prakash

2014-05-01

346

Formula X: The Search for the Equitable Sweepstakes Tabulation Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perhaps one of the greatest challenges facing tournament directors wishing to provide a balance between individual events and debate is an equitable overall sweepstakes formula. One such formula, modified from a methodology initially developed in response to a need at the Missouri Association of Forensic Activities (MAFA) intercollegiate

Huebner, Thomas M., Jr.

347

Computer Forensics Education - the Open Source Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter we discuss the application of the open source software tools in computer forensics education at tertiary level. We argue that open source tools are more suitable than commercial tools, as they provide the opportunity for students to gain in-depth understanding and appreciation of the computer forensic process as opposed to familiarity with one software product, however complex and multi-functional. With the access to all source programs the students become more than just the consumers of the tools as future forensic investigators. They can also examine the code, understand the relationship between the binary images and relevant data structures, and in the process gain necessary background to become the future creators of new and improved forensic software tools. As a case study we present an advanced subject, Computer Forensics Workshop, which we designed for the Bachelor's degree in computer science at the University of Western Sydney. We based all laboratory work and the main take-home project in this subject on open source software tools. We found that without exception more than one suitable tool can be found to cover each topic in the curriculum adequately. We argue that this approach prepares students better for forensic field work, as they gain confidence to use a variety of tools, not just a single product they are familiar with.

Huebner, Ewa; Bem, Derek; Cheung, Hon

348

Testing methodologies  

SciTech Connect

Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs.

Bender, M.A.

1990-01-01

349

Computer Forensics: you can hide but you canComputer Forensics: you can hide but you can''t deletet delete Dr. Nazli Hardy, 2009Reference: Computer Forensics: Principles and Practice  

E-print Network

1 Computer Forensics: you can hide but you canComputer Forensics: you can hide but you can''t deletet delete Dr. Nazli Hardy, 2009Reference: Computer Forensics: Principles and Practice Volonino Anzaldua Godwin Computer Forensics April 10, 2009 Presentation for Dr. Maria Schiza's Forensics class

Hardy, Christopher R.

350

Forensic Botany: Using Plant Evidence to Aid in Forensic Death Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic botany is still an under-utilized resource in forensic casework, although it has been used on occasion. It is an area of specialty science that could include traditional botanical classification of spe- cies, DNA, or materials evidence (trace and transfer evidence), crime mapping or geo-sourcing, all de- pendent on the specific case application under consideration. Critical to the evaluation of

Heather Miller Coyle; Cheng-Lung Lee; W en-Yu Lin; Timothy M. Palmbach

351

Forensic odontology in India, an oral pathologist's perspective  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Oral pathologists have major responsibilities in the development of forensic science. We conducted a survey to evaluate the degree of involvement of oral pathologists in forensic investigations in India and the difficulties faced by them. Materials and Methods: Data was collected during 20072009 by means of a questionnaire survey among qualified oral pathologists related to confidence in handling forensic cases, knowledge and awareness, training in forensic odontology, practical exposure to forensic cases, and difficulties faced. Results: A total of 120 oral pathologists responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 28% expressed confidence in handling forensic cases, 7% had been exposed to formal training in forensic odontology, and 6% had handled forensic cases earlier. Only two participants said that they were part of the forensic team in their respective cities. Forty-eight percent of the participants said that they read forensic journals regularly. Conclusion: Oral pathologists are generally not very confident about handling forensic cases mainly because of inadequate formal training in the field of forensic dentistry, inadequate exposure to the subject, minimal importance given to the subject in the undergraduate and postgraduate curriculum, and no practical exposure to forensic cases. PMID:22022135

Shetty, Pushparaja; Raviprakash, A

2011-01-01

352

Midwest Forensics Resource Center Project Summary June 2005  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the MFRC Research and Development Program, is to provide technological advances in forensic science for the benefit of our regional partners as well as the forensic community at large. Key areas of forensic science need are identified through our interactions with our Midwest partners and our R&D advisory group, as well as through our participation in national meetings in forensic science. Under the sponsorship of the National Institute of Justice, the MFRC solicits proposals for the development of practical and useful technology, instrumentation, and methodology that address needs in areas related to forensic science and its application to operational crime laboratories. The MFRC facilitates proposal development by working to establish partnerships between researchers and our regional partners. The MFRC administers a peer-review of the proposals and then funds the selected projects at a cost of approximately $55,000 each, with a 12-month period of performance. The process for selection of these projects includes the following steps: (1) drafting of a call for proposals by MFRC staff, (2) review of the draft call by members of the R&D advisory committee, (3) review and approval of the call by NIJ, (4) issuance of the call to ISU, Ames Laboratory, regional partners, and research organizations, (5) receipt of proposals, (6) review of proposals by R&D advisory committee, (7) ranking and selection by MFRC staff using advisory committee reviews, with concurrence by NIJ, (8) notification of proposers, (9) receipt and review of progress reports by MFRC, (10) receipt and review of final reports by MFRC, R&D advisory committee, and NIJ. The decision to fund any specific project is based upon a peer-reviewed call-for-proposal system administered by the MFRC. The reviewers are crime laboratory specialists and scientists who are asked to rate the proposals on four criteria areas including: (1) relevance to the mission of the MFRC, (2) technical approach and procedures, (3) capabilities, teaming, and leveraging, and (4) implementation plan. A successful proposal demonstrates knowledge of the background for the research and related work in the field and includes a research plan with a defined plan to implement the technology to benefit our partners at the crime laboratories. The project summaries are meant to demonstrate the range of research funded by the MFRC including chemistry, DNA, and patterned evidence. The project summaries describe the forensic need the projects serve as well as the benefits derived from the technology. The summaries provide a brief description of the technology and the accomplishments to date. In addition, the collaboration with regional partners and the status of the implementation of the technology are highlighted. These technical summaries represent the development and implementation of practical and useful technology for crime laboratories that the MFRC hopes to accomplish.

David Baldwin

2005-06-01

353

Statistical pre-processing and analyses of hydro-meteorological time series in a geologic clay site (methodology and first results for Mont Terri抯 PP experiment)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a set of statistical methods for pre-processing (or pre-conditioning) and analyzing multivariate hydro-geologic time series, such as pore pressures and atmospheric pressure (temporal structures). The pre-processing methods are necessary to enhance or complete the signals due to defects in the observed time series (data gaps, spurious values, variable time steps). The statistical analyses aim, in fine, at characterizing the hydraulic behaviour of a clayey formation in the context of deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste. Pore water and atmospheric pressure time series from the Mont Terri rock laboratory (BPP-1 borehole) are taken as an example.

Fatmi, H.; Ababou, R.; Matray, J. M.

354

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND STANDARDS IN FORENSIC HANDWRITING ANALYSIS CONFERENCE & WEBCAST  

E-print Network

1 MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND STANDARDS IN FORENSIC HANDWRITING ANALYSIS CONFERENCE & WEBCAST IMPORTANT and Standards in Forensic Handwriting Analysis Conference & Webcast that starts at 9:00AM Eastern Time on June 4

Magee, Joseph W.

355

Teaching forensic odontology: an opinion on its content and format*.  

PubMed

Forensic odontology involves dentists' participation in assisting legal and criminal issues. Formal teaching in forensic odontology has existed for over a 100 years. Over the last century, forensic odontology has evolved and, today, it is an integral part of undergraduate dental training in many countries. Dentists have been trained in the specialty, and dedicated departments established in institutes and universities around the world. A survey undertaken at five universities revealed that these centres have developed detailed curricula in forensic odontology, and a general standard exists in teaching forensic odontology, however, coverage of recent advances in forensic science may be lacking. While recognising that these programmes are not representative of teaching in forensic odontology worldwide, suggestions are made for an alternative approach to teaching the subject. Moreover, it is stressed that teaching be undertaken by qualified forensic odontologists. PMID:16842587

Acharya, A B

2006-08-01

356

Forensic miRNA: potential biomarker for body fluids?  

PubMed

In forensic investigation, body fluids represent an important support to professionals when detected, collected and correctly identified. Through many years, various approaches were used, namely serology-based methodologies however, their lack of sensitivity and specificity became difficult to set aside. In order to sidetrack the problem, miRNA profiling surged with a real potential to be used to identify evidences like urine, blood, menstrual blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions. MiRNAs are small RNA structures with 20-25 nt whose proprieties makes them less prone to degradation processes when compared to mRNA which is extremely important once, in a crime scene, biological evidences might be exposed to several unfavorable environmental factors. Recently, published studies were able to identify some specific miRNAs, however their results were not always reproducible by others which can possibly be the reflection of different workflow strategies for their profiling studies. Given the current blast of interest in miRNAs, it is important to acknowledge potential limitations of miRNA profiling, yet, the lack of such studies are evident. This review pretends to gather all the information to date and assessed a multitude of factors that have a potential aptitude to discrediting miRNA profiling, such as: methodological approaches, environmental factors, physiological conditions, gender, pathologies and samples storage. It can be asserted that much has yet to be made, but we pretend to highlight a potential answer for the ultimate question: Can miRNA profiling be used as the forensic biomarker for body fluids identification? PMID:25280377

Silva, Sarah S; Lopes, C醫ia; Teixeira, A L; Carneiro de Sousa, M J; Medeiros, R

2015-01-01

357

Estimating JPEG2000 compression for image forensics using Benford's Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the tremendous growth and usage of digital images nowadays, the integrity and authenticity of digital content is becoming increasingly important, and a growing concern to many government and commercial sectors. Image Forensics, based on a passive statistical analysis of the image data only, is an alternative approach to the active embedding of data associated with Digital Watermarking. Benford's Law was first introduced to analyse the probability distribution of the 1st digit (1-9) numbers of natural data, and has since been applied to Accounting Forensics for detecting fraudulent income tax returns [9]. More recently, Benford's Law has been further applied to image processing and image forensics. For example, Fu et al. [5] proposed a Generalised Benford's Law technique for estimating the Quality Factor (QF) of JPEG compressed images. In our previous work, we proposed a framework incorporating the Generalised Benford's Law to accurately detect unknown JPEG compression rates of watermarked images in semi-fragile watermarking schemes. JPEG2000 (a relatively new image compression standard) offers higher compression rates and better image quality as compared to JPEG compression. In this paper, we propose the novel use of Benford's Law for estimating JPEG2000 compression for image forensics applications. By analysing the DWT coefficients and JPEG2000 compression on 1338 test images, the initial results indicate that the 1st digit probability of DWT coefficients follow the Benford's Law. The unknown JPEG2000 compression rates of the image can also be derived, and proved with the help of a divergence factor, which shows the deviation between the probabilities and Benford's Law. Based on 1338 test images, the mean divergence for DWT coefficients is approximately 0.0016, which is lower than DCT coefficients at 0.0034. However, the mean divergence for JPEG2000 images compression rate at 0.1 is 0.0108, which is much higher than uncompressed DWT coefficients. This result clearly indicates a presence of compression in the image. Moreover, we compare the results of 1st digit probability and divergence among JPEG2000 compression rates at 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.9. The initial results show that the expected difference among them could be used for further analysis to estimate the unknown JPEG2000 compression rates.

Qadir, Ghulam; Zhao, Xi; Ho, Anthony T. S.

2010-05-01

358

Age estimation in forensic anthropology: quantification of observer error in phase versus component-based methods.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess observer error in phase versus component-based scoring systems used to develop age estimation methods in forensic anthropology. A method preferred by forensic anthropologists in the AAFS was selected for this evaluation (the Suchey-Brooks method for the pubic symphysis). The Suchey-Brooks descriptions were used to develop a corresponding component-based scoring system for comparison. Several commonly used reliability statistics (kappa, weighted kappa, and the intraclass correlation coefficient) were calculated to assess observer agreement between two observers and to evaluate the efficacy of each of these statistics for this study. The linear weighted kappa was determined to be the most suitable measure of observer agreement. The results show that a component-based system offers the possibility for more objective scoring than a phase system as long as the coding possibilities for each trait do not exceed three states of expression, each with as little overlap as possible. PMID:25389078

Shirley, Natalie R; Ramirez Montes, Paula Andrea

2015-01-01

359

Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

Reilly, Dallas David

360

Doing forensic work, I: starting the case.  

PubMed

The private forensic work discussed here is performed as an "expert" or "expert witness," defined in law as a person who is allowed to offer opinions to a court. One should not be an expert in forensic matters that involve one's own patients. Initial communication with the potential retaining entity (e.g., lawyer, court, agency, insurance company) should clarify the case, the lack of conflict of interest, one's possible forensic role, and practicalities such as fees, scheduling, and the way in which the work will be performed. One should guard against being misused, or having one's opinions misconstrued, in forensic matters, including being named as an expert witness without actually being retained (a "phantom expert"). Communicating orally with the retaining entity about progress and findings is important; written findings or opinions should be created or communicated only if the lawyer (or other retaining entity) requests them. Opinions should not be rendered without adequate review of complete and credible records and/or other sources, and even then caveats or disclaimers may be ethically or legally required. The forensic work routine almost always begins with record review, and may or may not include examining a litigant or other person. PMID:22418403

Reid, William H

2012-03-01

361

Forensic Analysis using Geological and Geochemical Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the globalisation of legal (and illegal) trade there is an increasing demand for techniques which can verify the geographical origin and transfer routes of many legal and illegal commodities and products. Although geological techniques have been used in forensic investigations since the emergence of forensics as a science in the late eighteen hundreds, the last decade has seen a marked increase in geo-scientists initiating concept studies using the latest analytical techniques, including studying natural abundance isotope variations, micro analysis with laser ablation ICPMS and geochemical mapping. Most of the concept studies have shown a good potential but uptake by the law enforcement and legal community has been limited due to concerns about the admissibility of the new methods. As an introduction to the UGU2009 session "Forensic Provenancing using Geological and Geochemical Techniques" I will give an overview of the state of the art of forensic geology and the issues that concern the admissibility of geological forensic evidence. I will use examples from the NITECRIME and FIRMS networks, the EU TRACE project and other projects and literature to illustrate the important issues at hand.

Hoogewerff, J.

2009-04-01

362

Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view  

PubMed Central

The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster. PMID:23087581

Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth

2012-01-01

363

[Forensic psychiatry and islamic law].  

PubMed

Islam is the second most popular monotheistic religion in the world. Its followers, the Muslims, are about 1.2 billion people and are the majority in 56 countries around the globe. Islam is an holistic way and model of life and its rules, according to a large proportion of Muslims, should have more power than the laws deriving from any secular authority. This means that the divine laws, as depicted from Islam's holy scripts, should be the laws of the land. In the strict Islamic states, as Saudi Arabia, the Islamic law or the Shari'ah prevails. Shari'ah means the path, the road each faithful Muslim should follow according to the rules of God. The Islamic views on mental health have some interesting characteristics: on the one hand, the moral necessity for the protection and care of the vulnerable individuals is very strong, but on the other hand superstitions and stigmatization influence the peoples' attitude against mental health patients. At the beginning of its historical course, Islamic world was a pioneer concerning mental health care. Unfortunately, as time passed by, we have observed considerable regression. In our days mental health services provided in most of the Islamic states cannot be considered adequate according to modern Western standards. The same course characterizes the Forensic Psychiatric services and the relevant legislation in the Islamic world. PMID:25630549

Geferakos, G; Lykouras, L; Douzenis, A

2014-01-01

364

Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view.  

PubMed

The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster. PMID:23087581

Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth

2012-01-01

365

The philosophy, nature and practice of forensic sediment analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapidly expanding field of forensic geoscience derives its roots from nineteenth- and early twentieth-century scientists who both influence and are influenced by literature and fictional writing. Forensic geoscience borrows much, but not all, of its precepts from geological and geomorphological analytical techniques. Fundamental differences exist between forensic geoscience and its sister disciplines, fundamental enough to make the unwary geoscientist

Ruth M. Morgan; Peter A. Bull

2007-01-01

366

invites you to the NC State Forensic Science Symposium  

E-print Network

@ncsu.edu Agenda 8:00 Registration 9:00 Welcome David Hinks Director, Forensic Sciences Institute North Carolina State University 9:15 Advancing Forensic Human DNA Analysis Dr. Tracey Dawson-Cruz Associate Professorinvites you to the 5th NC State Forensic Science Symposium December 4, 2012 Convocation Room

Liu, Paul

367

FORENSIC SCIENCE GRADUATE GROUP BYLAWS Administrative Home: UC Davis Extension  

E-print Network

1 FORENSIC SCIENCE GRADUATE GROUP BYLAWS Administrative Home: UC Davis Extension Revision: November 颅 Objective The Forensic Science Graduate Group (hereafter referred to as the Group) is organized primarily to establish and administer graduate teaching and research leading to the M.S. degree in Forensic Science

Ullrich, Paul

368

Computer Forensics: Is It the Next Hot IT Subject?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital Forensics is not just the recovery of data or information from computer systems and their networks. It is not a procedure that can be accomplished by software alone, and most important, it is not something that can be accomplished by other than a trained IT forensic professional. Digital Forensics is an emerging science and was developed

Williams, Victor G.; Revels, Ken

2006-01-01

369

A survey of forensic characterization methods for physical devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes methods for forensic characterization of physical devices. This is important in verifying the trust and authenticity of data and the device that created it. Current forensic identification techniques for digital cameras, printers, and RF devices are presented. It is also shown how these techniques can fit into a general forensic characterization framework, which can be generalized for

Nitin Khanna; Aravind K. Mikkilineni; Anthony F. Martone; Gazi N. Ali; George T.-C. Chiu; Jan P. Allebach; Edward J. Delp

2006-01-01

370

17 MODELING FORENSIC EVIDENCE SYSTEMS USING DESIGN SCIENCE  

E-print Network

17 MODELING FORENSIC EVIDENCE SYSTEMS USING DESIGN SCIENCE Colin Armstrong Helen Armstrong School an overview of the application of design science research to the tactical management of forensic evidence-technical information systems research in regard to processing forensic evidence. The discussion then presents

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

371

Biografo: An Integrated Tool for Forensic Writer Identification  

E-print Network

Biografo: An Integrated Tool for Forensic Writer Identification Javier Galbally, Santiago Gonzalez of a practical integrated tool for writer identification in forensic scenarios is presented. The tool has been designed to help forensic examiners along the complete identification process: from the data acquisition

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

372

A Survey of Computer Methods in Forensic Handwritten Document Examination  

E-print Network

1 A Survey of Computer Methods in Forensic Handwritten Document Examination Sargur SRIHARI Graham LEEDHAM Abstract Forensic document examination is at a cross-roads due to challenges posed to its recent efforts in the areas of establishing a scientific basis of forensic handwriting examination

373

Application Guidelines Master of Science in Forensic Sciences  

E-print Network

Application Guidelines Master of Science in Forensic Sciences OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR HEALTH SCIENCES Updated 2/13/2014 OSU School of Forensic Sciences 1111 West 17th Street, Tulsa, OK 74107-1898 * 1-800-677-1972 Ext. 11145 or 918-561-1108 forensic@okstate.edu * forensicsciences

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

374

Forensic Anthropology Dr. Nancy E. Todd SUMMER 2013  

E-print Network

Forensic Anthropology ANTH 123 Dr. Nancy E. Todd SUMMER 2013 OFFICE: 10 Sachem St., 010 OFFICE to change by Instructor COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course is a hands-on introduction to forensic anthropology remains, reconstruction of faces, genetic identification, and medicolegal contexts of forensic

375

A MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR FORENSIC ANALYSIS Ovidiu Ghita1  

E-print Network

A MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR FORENSIC ANALYSIS Ovidiu Ghita1 , Ren Gapert2 , Laura Monks1 , Jason Forensic Anthropology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, University College Dublin remains are analysed by forensic anthropologists in order to draw conclusions about the probable identity

Whelan, Paul F.

376

FORENSIC CONNOISSEURSHIP, JACKSON POLLOCK, AND THE AUTHENTIC EYE  

E-print Network

FORENSIC CONNOISSEURSHIP, JACKSON POLLOCK, AND THE AUTHENTIC EYE by Francis V. O'Connor, Ph shall proceed to some general #12;Forensic Connoisseurship, Pollock, & The Authentic Eye - F. V. O, the training of authentic eyes and forensic connoisseurs -- concluding with a final thought on the historicity

Taylor, Richard

377

FORENSIC TRACKING AND MOBILITY PREDICTION IN VEHICULAR NETWORKS  

E-print Network

i #12;ii #12;Chapter 1 FORENSIC TRACKING AND MOBILITY PREDICTION IN VEHICULAR NETWORKS Saif Al been especially tailored for forensic analysis then propose several instances emulating different transportation means. We then use these models to build a full-fledged offline multi-modal forensic tracking sys

Sheldon, Nathan D.

378

Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female

Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.

2009-01-01

379

28 CFR 90.14 - Forensic medical examination payment requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forensic medical examination payment requirement...Women Formula Grant Program 90.14 Forensic medical examination payment requirement...incurs the full out-of-pocket costs of forensic medical examinations for victims...

2013-07-01

380

RESEARCH Open Access Introducing the Forensic Research/Reference on  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Introducing the Forensic Research/Reference on Genetics knowledge base, FROG used in forensic teaching, research, and investigations. The Fst value of each CODIS marker tends identification and description. However, online tools and databases that can be used for forensic research

Kidd, Kenneth

381

Setting Course: The Case for the Credentialing of Forensic Interviewers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article provides a history of efforts to develop a credentialing or certification process for forensic interviewers and reviews the multitiered credentialing process offered by the National Association of Certified Child Forensic Interviewers. The authors argue the benefits of a credentialing process for forensic interviewers and respond to

Haney, Mike; Vieth, Victor I.; Campos, Hector M.

2010-01-01

382

Page 1 of 5 INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC SCIENCE (JUST 281)  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 5 INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC SCIENCE (JUST 281) SPRING 2010 Tuesday and Thursday 9:00 10: An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2007); ISBN 0-13-221655-8. Our textbook, written by an experienced forensic scientist, is geared toward those individuals with no prior

Gering, Jon C.

383

UC DAVIS FORENSIC SCIENCE CENTER 1909 Galileo Court, Suite B  

E-print Network

UC DAVIS FORENSIC SCIENCE CENTER 1909 Galileo Court, Suite B Davis, CA 95618 Directions to the UC Davis Forensic Science Center: Exit I80 south on Richards Blvd. Richards Blvd. changes its name at the end of the court. Our office is on the right, Suite B. FORENSIC SCIENCE CENTER SUITE B Key Contact

Peisert, Sean

384

Forensic identification: the Island Problem and its generalisations  

E-print Network

Forensic identification: the Island Problem and its generalisations Klaas Slooten and Ronald Meester April 26, 2010 Abstract In forensics it is a classical problem to determine, when a suspect by a likelihood ratio. Keywords: Island problem, Forensic identification, Weight of evidence, Posterior odds

Meester, Ronald

385

Ireland's Global University MSc Digital Investigation & Forensic Computing  

E-print Network

Ireland's Global University MSc Digital Investigation & Forensic Computing (One Year Full Time will be able to perform forensic analysis of a personal computer running Windows OS; understand legal issues demonstrations and in-depth discussions. Computer Forensic Foundations Law for IT Investigators Application

386

Synchrotron radiation identified human chemical fingerprints a novel forensic approach  

E-print Network

Synchrotron radiation identified human chemical fingerprints a novel forensic approach T with the goal of developing an advanced forensic technique to identify complicated partial latent prints a forensic analysis of the fingerprint chemistry, or to identify the latent prints of pre-pubescent children

387

28 CFR 90.14 - Forensic medical examination payment requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Forensic medical examination payment requirement...Women Formula Grant Program 90.14 Forensic medical examination payment requirement...incurs the full out-of-pocket costs of forensic medical examinations for victims...

2012-07-01

388

Subject-based Semantic Document Clustering for Digital Forensic Investigations  

E-print Network

Subject-based Semantic Document Clustering for Digital Forensic Investigations Gaby G. Dagher computers has created a demand for special forensic tools that allow investigators to look for evidence by the forensic process at S^uret磂 du Qu磂bec (SQ), the Qu磂bec provincial police, we propose a new subject

Fung, Benjamin C. M.

389

28 CFR 90.14 - Forensic medical examination payment requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Forensic medical examination payment requirement...Women Formula Grant Program 90.14 Forensic medical examination payment requirement...incurs the full out-of-pocket costs of forensic medical examinations for victims...

2014-07-01

390

Crime Scene Genetics: Transforming Forensic Science through Molecular Technologies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Advances in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) technology over the past 25 years have led to spectacularly precise forensic identification techniques, although some applications have also unleashed controversies regarding genetic privacy. Current molecular forensic work is pushing these technologies even further by analyzing extremely damaged DNA and by introducing RNA (ribonucleic acid) techniques to forensics.

Melissa Lee Phillips (Freelance Science Writer; )

2008-06-01

391

Computer Forensics In Forensis Sean Peisert and Matt Bishop  

E-print Network

in which they could be augmented. Finally, we present some recommen- dations about how computer scientists, forensic practition- ers, lawyers, and judges could build more complete models of forensics that take. They are often hard to answer in practice. Com- puter scientists and forensic practitioners have both made

Peisert, Sean

392

Computer Forensics In Forensis Sean Peisert and Matt Bishop  

E-print Network

they could be augmented. Finally, we present some recommen dations about how computer scientists, forensic practition ers, lawyers, and judges could build more complete models of forensics that take into account. They are often hard to answer in practice. Com puter scientists and forensic practitioners have both made

Bishop, Matt

393

Forensic Tracking and Surveillance Algorithms for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Settings  

E-print Network

Forensic Tracking and Surveillance Algorithms for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Settings Submitted-Kuwari) Date: #12;"I cannot succeed except through God" #12;Abstract Digital forensics is an emerging field processing. One important application of computational forensics is criminal tracking, which we collec

Sheldon, Nathan D.

394

Significant genetic correlations among Caucasians at forensic DNA loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the effect of population differentiation on the forensic use of DNA profiles has been the subject of controversy for some years now, the debate has largely failed to focus on the genetical questions directly relevant to the forensic context. We re-analyse two published data sets and find that they convey much the same message for forensic inference, in contrast

DAVID J. BALDING; RICHARD A. NICHOLS

1997-01-01

395

Change during forensic treatment in psychopathic versus nonpsychopathic offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychopathy in forensic psychiatric patients and other criminal offenders is associated with higher criminal recidivism rates. Moreover, many forensic mental health professionals believe that psychopaths are not amenable to treatment. The present study examines whether patients with psychopathy demonstrate change during forensic psychiatric treatment. Seventy-four personality disordered offenders who had been convicted for serious violence were rated on the the

Farid Chakhssi; Corine de Ruiter; David Bernstein

2010-01-01

396

Remarks on forensically interesting Sony Playstation 3 console features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with forensically interesting features of the Sony Playstation 3 game console. The construction and the internal structure are analyzed more precisely. Interesting forensic features of the operating system and the file system are presented. Differences between a PS3 with and without jailbreak are introduced and possible forensic attempts when using an installed Linux are discussed.

Daugs, Gunnar; Kr鰃er, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2012-02-01

397

Remarks on forensically interesting Microsoft XBox 360 console features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with forensically interesting features of the Microsoft Xbox 360 game console. The construction and the internal structure are analysed more precisely. One of the main aspects of the study is to analyse the used file system which was examined for forensic features. Possible difficulties that might be of importance to the forensic investigator are discussed.

Luttenberger, Silas; Kr鰃er, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2012-02-01

398

Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics to

Shmaefsky, Brian R.

2006-01-01

399

Human tandem repeat sequences in forensic DNA typing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been 20 years since the first development of DNA fingerprinting and the start of forensic DNA typing. Ever since, human tandem repeat DNA sequences have been the main targets for forensic DNA analysis. These repeat sequences are classified into minisatellites (or VNTRs) and microsatellites (or STRs). In this brief review, we discuss the historical and current forensic applications

Keiji Tamaki; Alec J. Jeffreys

2005-01-01

400

Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist  

PubMed Central

The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public. PMID:23162478

Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D.; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C.; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

2012-01-01

401

Forensic sciences and forensic odontology: issues for dental hygienists and therapists.  

PubMed

The scientific literature contains very little about the role of the dental hygienist/therapist in the specific areas of forensic investigations and collection of evidence. The authors examine how the contribution of a highly qualified dental hygienist can be particularly helpful during human forensic identification operations and non-accidental traumas like domestic violence, child abuse, neglect and bitemarks. Forensic dental identification of human remains is a highly complex multidisciplinary challenge. It requires the involvement of several professionals who are expert in forensic science. Among these, one or more adequately trained dental hygienists could be involved. Dental hygienists/therapists may also be asked to record cutaneous lesions in two different situations. The first may be the dental office where she/he may detect oval, elliptic, or semicircular lesions on the skin of the uncovered neck, shoulder and arms of a patient. The second is the crime scene or the morgue (if one is involved), which may require a visit by the forensic odontologist called by the medical examiner or the coroner to perform an odontological autopsy. The purpose of our study is to highlight procedures that should be followed by the dental hygienist/therapist in collecting forensic information in the above-mentioned scenarios. As a valuable resource, the authors recommend training of dental hygienists in the area of forensic sciences, with particular attention to information technology and photography. PMID:19145795

Nuzzolese, E; Lepore, M M; Cukovic-Bagic, I; Montagna, F; Di Vella, G

2008-12-01

402

A forensic science perspective on the role of images in crime investigation and reconstruction.  

PubMed

This article presents a global vision of images in forensic science. The proliferation of perspectives on the use of images throughout criminal investigations and the increasing demand for research on this topic seem to demand a forensic science-based analysis. In this study, the definitions of and concepts related to material traces are revisited and applied to images, and a structured approach is used to persuade the scientific community to extend and improve the use of images as traces in criminal investigations. Current research efforts focus on technical issues and evidence assessment. This article provides a sound foundation for rationalising and explaining the processes involved in the production of clues from trace images. For example, the mechanisms through which these visual traces become clues of presence or action are described. An extensive literature review of forensic image analysis emphasises the existing guidelines and knowledge available for answering investigative questions (who, what, where, when and how). However, complementary developments are still necessary to demystify many aspects of image analysis in forensic science, including how to review and select images or use them to reconstruct an event or assist intelligence efforts. The hypothetico-deductive reasoning pathway used to discover unknown elements of an event or crime can also help scientists understand the underlying processes involved in their decision making. An analysis of a single image in an investigative or probative context is used to demonstrate the highly informative potential of images as traces and/or clues. Research efforts should be directed toward formalising the extraction and combination of clues from images. An appropriate methodology is key to expanding the use of images in forensic science. PMID:25498936

Milliet, Quentin; Del閙ont, Olivier; Margot, Pierre

2014-12-01

403

Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession. A Survey of Educational Offerings in the Forensic Sciences. Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of the educational offerings in the Forensic Sciences was initiated to identify institutions and agencies offering educational courses and/or programs in the forensic sciences and to evaluate the availability of these programs. The information gathered by surveying members of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences reveals that

Field, Kenneth S.; And Others

404

A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

2010-08-11

405

Plant Pathogen Forensics: Capabilities, Needs, and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

A biological attack on U.S. crops, rangelands, or forests could reduce yield and quality, erode consumer confidence, affect economic health and the environment, and possibly impact human nutrition and international relations. Preparedness for a crop bioterror event requires a strong national security plan that includes steps for microbial forensics and criminal attribution. However, U.S. crop producers, consultants, and agricultural scientists have traditionally focused primarily on strategies for prevention and management of diseases introduced naturally or unintentionally rather than on responding appropriately to an intentional pathogen introduction. We assess currently available information, technologies, and resources that were developed originally to ensure plant health but also could be utilized for postintroduction plant pathogen forensics. Recommendations for prioritization of efforts and resource expenditures needed to enhance our plant pathogen forensics capabilities are presented. PMID:16760310

Fletcher, J.; Bender, C.; Budowle, B.; Cobb, W. T.; Gold, S. E.; Ishimaru, C. A.; Luster, D.; Melcher, U.; Murch, R.; Scherm, H.; Seem, R. C.; Sherwood, J. L.; Sobral, B. W.; Tolin, S. A.

2006-01-01

406

Forensic odontology involvement in disaster victim identification.  

PubMed

Forensic odontology is one of three primary identifiers designated by Interpol to identify victims of mass casualty events. Forensic odontology is involved in all five phases-Scene, Postmortem, Antemortem, Reconciliation and Debrief. Forward planning, adequate funding, international cooperation and standardization are essential to guarantee an effective response. A Standard Operation Procedure should be utilized to maximize quality, facilitate occupation and health issues, maintain security and form a structure to the relief program. Issues that must be considered in the management of the forensic odontology component of disaster victim identification are given in "Appendix 1". Each stage of the disaster, from initial notification to debrief, is analyzed and a comprehensive checklist of actions suggested. PMID:21952930

Berketa, John William; James, Helen; Lake, Anthony W

2012-06-01

407

Application of STR markers in wildlife forensic casework involving Australian black-cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus spp.).  

PubMed

Parrots and cockatoos are highly prized aviary birds and the demands for such species has fuelled their illegal trade and harvest from the wild. Here we report on three forensic case studies involving black-cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus spp.) endemic to Australia. These cases involve suspected poaching and illegal killing of endangered red- and white-tailed black-cockatoos. Through the prior development of 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci and population databases for white- and red-tailed black-cockatoos, the tools are available to conduct high-resolution paternity and individual identity testing. In one case, we matched a red-tailed black-cockatoo nestling to a tree hollow from which it was poached through the use of DNA from eggshell recovered from the nest. For the second case, we utilized our provenance population database (nest sites), and identified the kinship and geographic origin of a white-tailed black-cockatoo, which was illegally harvested from the wild. The third case determined the number individual white-tailed black-cockatoos allegedly shot at a fruit grower's orchard from body part remains. These genetic investigations highlight the significance and statistical confidence of DNA profiling and associated databases for endangered taxa, such as exotic birds. Our cockatoo population databases are the first of their kind in Australia, and demonstrate the efficacy of such approaches to identify such illegal activity. With a robust set of genetic markers and methodologies in place, we aim to broaden our population databases to include other cockatoo species of conservation concern. PMID:22101117

White, Nicole E; Dawson, Rick; Coghlan, Megan L; Tridico, Silvana R; Mawson, Peter R; Haile, James; Bunce, Michael

2012-09-01

408

Elementary! A Nuclear Forensics Workshop Teaches Vital Skills to International Practitioners  

SciTech Connect

The article describes the Nuclear Forensics Workshop sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) and hosted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory October 28-November 8, 2013 in Richland,Washington. Twenty-six participants from 10 countries attended the workshop. Experts from from Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Pacific Northwest national laboratories collaborated with an internationally recognized cadre of experts from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and other U.S. agencies, IAEA, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the United Kingdom Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), and the European Union Joint Research Center Institute for Transuranium Elements, to train practitioners in basic methodologies of nuclear forensic examinations.

Brim, Cornelia P.; Minnema, Lindsay T.

2014-03-03

409

Elementary! A Nuclear Forensics Workshop Teaches Vital Skills to International Practitioners  

SciTech Connect

The article describes the Nuclear Forensics Workshop sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) and hosted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory October 28-November 8, 2013 in Richland,Washington. Twenty-six participants from 10 countries attended the workshop. Experts from from Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Pacific Northwest national laboratories collaborated with an internationally recognized cadre of experts from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and other U.S. agencies, IAEA, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the United Kingdom Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), and the European Union Joint Research Center Institute for Transuranium Elements, to train practitioners in basic methodologies of nuclear forensic examinations.

Brim, Cornelia P.; Minnema, Lindsay T.

2014-04-01

410

Developing a one-semester course in forensic chemical science for university undergraduates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to research, develop and validate a one-semester course for the general education of university undergraduates in forensic chemical education. The course outline was developed using the research and development (R&D) methodology recommended by Gall, Borg, and Gall, (2003) and Dick and Carey, (2001) through a three step developmental cycle. Information was gathered and analyzed through review of literature and proof of concept interviews, laying the foundation for the framework of the course outline. A preliminary course outline was developed after a needs assessment showed need for such a course. Professors expert in the area of forensic science participated in the first field test of the course. Their feedback was recorded, and the course was revised for a main field test. Potential users of the guide served as readers for the main field test and offered more feedback to improve the course.

Salem, Roberta Sue

411

Dem Bones Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case study, a forensic anthropologist must determine the age and sex as well as look for signs of trauma to a skeleton found in a shallow grave in a state park. Students simulate the actual procedures used in a forensics lab and learn to identify bones, landmarks, and anatomical features associated with sex, age, height, and pathology. The case was developed for use in a freshman-level human anatomy and physiology course. It could also be used in biology, anatomy, and anthropology courses.

Alease S. Bruce

2001-01-01

412

Location tracking forensics on mobile devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spread of navigation devices has increased significantly over the last 10 years. With the help of the current development of even smaller navigation receiver units it is to navigate with almost any current smart phone. Modern navigation systems are no longer limited to satellite navigation, but use current techniques, e.g. WLAN localization. Due to the increased use of navigation devices their relevance to forensic investigations has risen rapidly. Because navigation, for example with navigation equipment and smartphones, have become common place these days, also the amount of saved navigation data has risen rapidly. All of these developments lead to a necessary forensic analysis of these devices. However, there are very few current procedures for investigating of navigation devices. Navigation data is forensically interesting because by the position of the devices in most cases the location and the traveled path of the owner can be reconstructed. In this work practices for forensic analysis of navigation devices are developed. Different devices will be analyzed and it is attempted, by means of forensic procedures to restore the traveled path of the mobile device. For analysis of the various devices different software and hardware is used. There will be presented common procedures for securing and testing of mobile devices. Further there will be represented the specials in the investigation of each device. The different classes considered are GPS handhelds, mobile navigation devices and smartphones. It will be attempted, wherever possible, to read all data of the device. The aim is to restore complete histories of the navigation data and to forensically study and analyze these data. This is realized by the usage of current forensic software e.g. TomTology or Oxygen Forensic Suite. It is also attempted to use free software whenever possible. Further alternative methods are used (e.g. rooting) to access locked data of the unit. To limit the practical work the data extraction is focused on the frequently used device sample of a specific class, as the procedure for many groups of devices can be similar. In the present work a Garmin Dakota 10, a TomTom GO 700, an iPhone 4 (iOS) and a Samsung Galaxy S Plus (Android) is used because they have a wide circulation.

Sack, Stefan; Kr鰃er, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2013-03-01

413

Blind forensics in medical imaging based on Tchebichef image moments.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a blind forensic approach for the detection of global image modifications like filtering, lossy compression, scaling and so on. It is based on a new set of image features we proposed, called Histogram statistics of Reorganized Block-based Tchebichef moments (HRBT) features, and which are used as input of a set of classifiers we learned to discriminate tampered images from original ones. In this article, we compare the performances of our features with others proposed schemes from the literature in application to different medical image modalities (MRI, X-Ray ). Experimental results show that our HRBT features perform well and in some cases better than other features. PMID:22255332

Huang, H; Coatrieux, G; Shu, H Z; Luo, L M; Roux, Ch

2011-01-01

414

Forensic analysis of Venezuelan elections during the Ch醰ez presidency.  

PubMed

Hugo Ch醰ez dominated the Venezuelan electoral landscape since his first presidential victory in 1998 until his death in 2013. Nobody doubts that he always received considerable voter support in the numerous elections held during his mandate. However, the integrity of the electoral system has come into question since the 2004 Presidential Recall Referendum. From then on, different sectors of society have systematically alleged electoral irregularities or biases in favor of the incumbent party. We have carried out a thorough forensic analysis of the national-level Venezuelan electoral processes held during the 1998-2012 period to assess these complaints. The second-digit Benford's law and two statistical models of vote distributions, recently introduced in the literature, are reviewed and used in our case study. In addition, we discuss a new method to detect irregular variations in the electoral roll. The outputs obtained from these election forensic tools are examined taking into account the substantive context of the elections and referenda under study. Thus, we reach two main conclusions. Firstly, all the tools uncover anomalous statistical patterns, which are consistent with election fraud from 2004 onwards. Although our results are not a concluding proof of fraud, they signal the Recall Referendum as a turning point in the integrity of the Venezuelan elections. Secondly, our analysis calls into question the reliability of the electoral register since 2004. In particular, we found irregular variations in the electoral roll that were decisive in winning the 50% majority in the 2004 Referendum and in the 2012 Presidential Elections. PMID:24971462

Jim閚ez, Ra鷏; Hidalgo, Manuel

2014-01-01

415

Forensic Analysis of Venezuelan Elections during the Ch醰ez Presidency  

PubMed Central

Hugo Ch醰ez dominated the Venezuelan electoral landscape since his first presidential victory in 1998 until his death in 2013. Nobody doubts that he always received considerable voter support in the numerous elections held during his mandate. However, the integrity of the electoral system has come into question since the 2004 Presidential Recall Referendum. From then on, different sectors of society have systematically alleged electoral irregularities or biases in favor of the incumbent party. We have carried out a thorough forensic analysis of the national-level Venezuelan electoral processes held during the 19982012 period to assess these complaints. The second-digit Benford's law and two statistical models of vote distributions, recently introduced in the literature, are reviewed and used in our case study. In addition, we discuss a new method to detect irregular variations in the electoral roll. The outputs obtained from these election forensic tools are examined taking into account the substantive context of the elections and referenda under study. Thus, we reach two main conclusions. Firstly, all the tools uncover anomalous statistical patterns, which are consistent with election fraud from 2004 onwards. Although our results are not a concluding proof of fraud, they signal the Recall Referendum as a turning point in the integrity of the Venezuelan elections. Secondly, our analysis calls into question the reliability of the electoral register since 2004. In particular, we found irregular variations in the electoral roll that were decisive in winning the 50% majority in the 2004 Referendum and in the 2012 Presidential Elections. PMID:24971462

Jim閚ez, Ra鷏; Hidalgo, Manuel

2014-01-01

416

Statistical relationship between surface PM10 concentration and aerosol optical depth over the Sahel as a function of weather type, using neural network methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

work aims at assessing the capability of passive remote-sensed measurements such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) to monitor the surface dust concentration during the dry season in the Sahel region (West Africa). We processed continuous measurements of AODs and surface concentrations for the period (2006-2010) in Banizoumbou (Niger) and Cinzana (Mali). In order to account for the influence of meteorological condition on the relationship between PM10 surface concentration and AOD, we decomposed the mesoscale meteorological fields surrounding the stations into five weather types having similar 3-dimensional atmospheric characteristics. This classification was obtained by a clustering method based on nonlinear artificial neural networks, the so-called self-organizing map. The weather types were identified by processing tridimensional fields of meridional and zonal winds and air temperature obtained from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output centered on each measurement station. Five similar weather types have been identified at the two stations. Three of them are associated with the Harmattan flux; the other two correspond to northward inflow of the monsoon flow at the beginning or the end of the dry season. An improved relationship has been found between the surface PM10 concentrations and the AOD by using a dedicated statistical relationship for each weather type. The performances of the statistical inversion computed on the test data sets show satisfactory skills for most of the classes, much better than a linear regression. This should permit the inversion of the mineral dust concentration from AODs derived from satellite observations over the Sahel.

Yahi, H.; Marticorena, B.; Thiria, S.; Chatenet, B.; Schmechtig, C.; Rajot, J. L.; Crepon, M.

2013-12-01

417

Investigation of quartz grain surface textures by atomic force microscopy for forensic analysis.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study of quartz sand grain surface textures using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image the surface. Until now scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has provided the primary technique used in the forensic surface texture analysis of quartz sand grains as a means of establishing the provenance of the grains for forensic reconstructions. The ability to independently corroborate the grain type classifications is desirable and provides additional weight to the findings of SEM analysis of the textures of quartz grains identified in forensic soil/sediment samples. AFM offers a quantitative means of analysis that complements SEM examination, and is a non-destructive technique that requires no sample preparation prior to scanning. It therefore has great potential to be used for forensic analysis where sample preservation is highly valuable. By taking quantitative topography scans, it is possible to produce 3D representations of microscopic surface textures and diagnostic features for examination. Furthermore, various empirical measures can be obtained from analysing the topography scans, including arithmetic average roughness, root-mean-square surface roughness, skewness, kurtosis, and multiple gaussian fits to height distributions. These empirical measures, combined with qualitative examination of the surfaces can help to discriminate between grain types and provide independent analysis that can corroborate the morphological grain typing based on the surface textures assigned using SEM. Furthermore, the findings from this study also demonstrate that quartz sand grain surfaces exhibit a statistically self-similar fractal nature that remains unchanged across scales. This indicates the potential for a further quantitative measure that could be utilised in the discrimination of quartz grains based on their provenance for forensic investigations. PMID:23088825

Konopinski, D I; Hudziak, S; Morgan, R M; Bull, P A; Kenyon, A J

2012-11-30

418

Three Certificate Programs in Sponsored by the UWM Center for Forensic Science  

E-print Network

Three Certificate Programs in Sponsored by the UWM Center for Forensic Science www Investigation Forensic Toxicology Forensic Science Forensic Science #12;POLICE LINE DO Have you ever thought? The skills you acquire in Forensic Science Programs can be used at modern day crime scenes or anthropological

Saldin, Dilano

419

Photo Fakery and Forensics Dartmouth College  

E-print Network

Photo Fakery and Forensics Hany Farid Dartmouth College Photographs can no longer be trusted. From hoaxes that land in our email in-boxes, doctored photographs are appearing with a growing frequency and sophistication. I will briefly describe the impact of all of this photographic tampering and recent technological

Farid, Hany

420

Trial by Science: A Forensic Extravaganza  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This intriguing crime-solving activity for middle level students demonstrates some of the basics of forensic science; including the analysis of fingerprints, hair, fiber, and soil evidence. The realism of the scenario is enhanced by recruiting adult volunteers to serve as suspects that can be questioned and tried by students through the process of scientific inquiry.

Vanessa Hunt

2004-05-01

421

Online Database Coverage of Forensic Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online seaches of sample topics in the area of forensic medicine were conducted in the following life science databases: Biosis Previews, Excerpta Medica, Medline, Scisearch, and Chemical Abstracts Search. Search outputs analyzed according to criteria of recall, uniqueness, overlap, and utility reveal the need for a cross-database approach to

Snow, Bonnie; Ifshin, Steven L.

1984-01-01

422

Encoded evidence: DNA in forensic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sherlock Holmes said 搃t has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important, but never imagined that such a little thing, the DNA molecule, could become perhaps the most powerful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Twenty years after the development of DNA fingerprinting, forensic DNA analysis is key to the

Mark A. Jobling; Peter Gill

2004-01-01

423

Martin Hall Lecture on Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Martin Hall, of the entomology department at the Natural History Museum in London, lectures on forensic entomology. He covers maggot behavior, the blow fly life cycle, how blow flies find a body and how to collect maggots. Requires QuickTime or Windows Media Player.

0000-00-00

424

Prosecuting Assaultive Forensic and Psychiatric Inpatients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inpatient assault of forensic and psychiatric staff is a complex and multifaceted issue. Hence, the consequences reported in the literature regarding prosecuting assaultive inpatients are quite variable. In this article, issues pertaining to the prosecution of violent inpatients are reviewed. Illustrative cases, challenges of prosecution,

Angus, Kerri C.; Reddon, John R.; Chudleigh, Michele D.

2008-01-01

425

On Maggots and Murders: Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a very short and cursory introduction to forensic entomology. It is downloaded as a PDF and is a four-page article about how insects can be used to assess time of death. There is an emphasis on the role of blow flies. There are some color photos of marginal quality included.

0000-00-00

426

Forensic Entomology & Taphonomy Smith Hall Room 125  

E-print Network

ENTM 295T Forensic Entomology & Taphonomy Smith Hall Room 125 Monday 8:30 颅 11:20 a.m. Fall and on the postmortem fate of human remains. Ralph Williams, Ph.D. D-ABFE Professor of Entomology Entomology, Smith B9

Ginzel, Matthew

427

Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)

Bruce, Alease

2001-01-01

428

Forensic applications of ambient ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This review highlights and critically assesses forensic applications in the developing field of ambient ionization mass spectrometry. Ambient ionization methods permit the ionization of samples outside the mass spectrometer in the ordinary atmosphere, with minimal sample preparation. Several ambient ionization methods have been created since 2004 and they utilize different mechanisms to create ions for mass-spectrometric analysis. Forensic applications of these techniques--to the analysis of toxic industrial compounds, chemical warfare agents, illicit drugs and formulations, explosives, foodstuff, inks, fingerprints, and skin--are reviewed. The minimal sample pretreatment needed is illustrated with examples of analysis from complex matrices (e.g., food) on various substrates (e.g., paper). The low limits of detection achieved by most of the ambient ionization methods for compounds of forensic interest readily offer qualitative confirmation of chemical identity; in some cases quantitative data are also available. The forensic applications of ambient ionization methods are a growing research field and there are still many types of applications which remain to be explored, particularly those involving on-site analysis. Aspects of ambient ionization currently undergoing rapid development include molecular imaging and increased detection specificity through simultaneous chemical reaction and ionization by addition of appropriate chemical reagents. PMID:19241065

Ifa, Demian R; Jackson, Ayanna U; Paglia, Giuseppe; Cooks, R Graham

2009-08-01

429

Developing forensic mental healthcare in kosovo.  

PubMed

In many economically struggling societies, forensic psychiatry is still in its initial developmental stages and thus forensic patients pose an ongoing challenge for the healthcare and juridical systems. In this article, we present the various issues and problems that arose when establishing the first forensic psychiatric institute in Kosovo - a country whose population has constantly been reported as suffering from a high psychiatric morbidity due to long-lasting traumatic experiences during the war of 1999. The implementation of a new forensic psychiatric institute in the developing mental healthcare system of Kosovo, still characterized by considerable shortages, required substantial effort on various levels. On the policy and financial level, it was made possible by a clear intent and coordinated commitment of all responsible national stakeholders and authorities, such as the Ministries of Health and Justice, and by the financial contribution of the European Commission. Most decisive in terms of the success of the project was capacity building in human resources, i.e., the recruitment and training of motivated staff. Training included essential clinical and theoretical issues as well as clearly defined standard operation procedures, guidelines, and checklists to aid daily routine work and the management of challenging situations. PMID:24779004

Salize, Hans Joachim; Lavikainen, Juha; Sepp鋘en, Allan; Gjocaj, Milazim

2014-01-01

430

Investigating demodex in forensic autopsy cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demodex is an ectoparasite living in the skin as a nonpathogen or a pathogen. It is also known that demodex acts as a vector of pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we have investigated the rate of occurrence and vitality of demodex in forensic autopsies that have a high risk of contamination by infected organisms.The study, which was cross-sectional, conducted on

M. Hakan 謟demir; Umit Aksoy; 莍ler Akisu; Ersel S鰊mez; M. Ali 莂kmak

2003-01-01

431

Review of Forensic Tools for Smartphones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technological capability of mobile devices in particular Smartphones makes their use of value to the criminal community as a data terminal in the facilitation of organised crime or terrorism. The effective targeting of these devices from criminal and security intelligence perspectives and subsequent detailed forensic examination of the targeted device will significantly enhance the evidence available to the law enforcement community. When phone devices are involved in crimes, forensic examiners require tools that allow the proper retrieval and prompt examination of information present on these devices. Smartphones that are compliant to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) standards, will maintains their identity and user's personal information on Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). Beside SIM cards, substantial amount of information is stored on device's internal memory and external memory modules. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the currently available forensic software tools that are developed to carry out forensic investigation of mobile devices and point to current weaknesses within this process.

Jahankhani, Hamid; Azam, Amir

432

Forensic analysis of a pile foundation failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of the forensic analysis carried out on a set of buildings located on the same block in the center of Gij髇 (NW of Spain). The foundations of these buildings were laid between the years 1944 and 1945, using wooden piles. These wooden piles may have been affected by a subsequent reduction in the groundwater table,

F. L髉ez Gayarre; C. Gonz醠ez-Nicieza; M. I. Alvarez-Fern醤dez; A. E. 羖varez-Vigil

2010-01-01

433

Developing Forensic Mental Healthcare in Kosovo  

PubMed Central

In many economically struggling societies, forensic psychiatry is still in its initial developmental stages and thus forensic patients pose an ongoing challenge for the healthcare and juridical systems. In this article, we present the various issues and problems that arose when establishing the first forensic psychiatric institute in Kosovo a country whose population has constantly been reported as suffering from a high psychiatric morbidity due to long-lasting traumatic experiences during the war of 1999. The implementation of a new forensic psychiatric institute in the developing mental healthcare system of Kosovo, still characterized by considerable shortages, required substantial effort on various levels. On the policy and financial level, it was made possible by a clear intent and coordinated commitment of all responsible national stakeholders and authorities, such as the Ministries of Health and Justice, and by the financial contribution of the European Commission. Most decisive in terms of the success of the project was capacity building in human resources, i.e., the recruitment and training of motivated staff. Training included essential clinical and theoretical issues as well as clearly defined standard operation procedures, guidelines, and checklists to aid daily routine work and the management of challenging situations. PMID:24779004

Salize, Hans Joachim; Lavikainen, Juha; Sepp鋘en, Allan; Gjocaj, Milazim

2014-01-01

434

A Critical (Legal) View of Forensic Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic Computing is a relatively new academic discipline that in its current form seems very much geared towards the production of professionals who are likely to be active in law enforcement. It is generally predicated on the idea that computers can be misused for criminal purposes and such activities need to be prosecuted. For such prosecution technical expertise in computer

Bernd Carsten Stahl

435

3D imaging in forensic odontology.  

PubMed

This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated. PMID:20557154

Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

2010-06-16

436

National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS)  

E-print Network

NIST Role 颅 administer "guidance groups" OSAC Criminal Justice and Forensic Science Reform Act (Leahy Committees) 路 Pending Legislation (Senate) 颅 Leahy Bill (Justice) 颅 Rockefeller Bill (Commerce) 路 FY14 New Attorney General DOJ Co-Chair www.justice.gov/ncfs Patrick D. Gallagher NIST Director (2009-2014) Initial

437

ForNet: A Distributed Forensics Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces ForNet, a distributed network logging mecha- nism to aid digital forensics over wide area networks. We describe the need for such a system, review related work, present the architecture of the system, and discuss key research issues.

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram; Nasir D. Memon; Anubhav Savant; Herv Br鰊nimann

2003-01-01

438

A generalized Benford's law for JPEG coefficients and its applications in image forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a novel statistical model based on Benford's law for the probability distributions of the first digits of the block-DCT and quantized JPEG coefficients is presented. A parametric logarithmic law, i.e., the generalized Benford's law, is formulated. Furthermore, some potential applications of this model in image forensics are discussed in this paper, which include the detection of JPEG compression for images in bitmap format, the estimation of JPEG compression Qfactor for JPEG compressed bitmap image, and the detection of double compressed JPEG image. The results of our extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed statistical model.

Fu, Dongdong; Shi, Yun Q.; Su, Wei

2007-02-01

439

A study of composite restorations as a tool in forensic identification  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Comparing ante-mortem and post-mortem dental data is a principal method of identification in forensic odontology. Radiographic images of amalgam have been used in dental forensics for identification due to their unique appearance. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether radio-opaque composite restorations have a potential for identification in forensic odontology. Materials and Methods: Thirty typodont mandibular first molar teeth were prepared with Class-II (proximo-occlusal) cavities and restored with a radio-opaque composite (Tetric N-Ceram). Two sets of standardized radiographs were taken from the 30 teeth, keeping the radiological parameters constant. One set of these 30 radiographs was named as SET 1. Ten randomly chosen radiographs from the other set and two other radiographs of Class-II composite restorations in typodont teeth constituted SET 2. Thirty dentally trained examiners were asked to match the 12 radiographic images of SET 2 with those of SET 1. Results: The results show that 15 examiners were able to correctly match all the 12 images. Statistical analysis was done using kappa statistical test. Conclusion: This study shows that, if the post-mortem radiographs are accurate duplicates of ante-mortem radiographs of composite restorations, then the shape of the composite restoration is unique and can be used for identification. PMID:23960413

Hemasathya, Bahavathi Ananthan; Balagopal, Sundaresan

2013-01-01

440

STATISTICAL METHODS STATISTICAL METHODS  

E-print Network

STATISTICAL METHODS 1 STATISTICAL METHODS Arnaud Delorme, Swartz Center for Computational@salk.edu. Keywords: statistical methods, inference, models, clinical, software, bootstrap, resampling, PCA, ICA Abstract: Statistics represents that body of methods by which characteristics of a population are inferred

Delorme, Arnaud

441

The role of university-based forensic clinics.  

PubMed

As forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology have grown and matured, the range of specialized services provided by each has expanded. In addition to traditional services such as forensic mental health assessments in criminal, family, and civil contexts, forensic specialists are now involved in delivering services in the community that include (in the criminal justice context) assessment for diversion into specialized probation or problem-solving courts, rehabilitation needs upon reentry (including specialized parole), and risk assessment for particular populations such as sexual offenders. Specialized forensic treatment services include those provided to clients under the jurisdiction of problem-solving courts or parole/probation. Similar specialized assessment and treatment services may be provided for juveniles. The nature of such service needs underscores the importance of the university-based forensic clinic as one source of specialized forensic services in the community. Such clinics are based in universities, directed by supervising faculty, and offer services provided in part by forensic trainees (psychiatric residents and forensic fellows; psychology doctoral students, interns, and post-doctoral fellows). The structure and operations of such clinics are described, with different models provided. Implications for specialized training, forensic practice, and research are discussed. PMID:23631922

Heilbrun, Kirk; Kelley, Sharon Messenheimer; Koller, Julie Present; Giallella, Christy; Peterson, Lindsey

2013-01-01

442

Particle size analysis of sediments, soils and related particulate materials for forensic purposes using laser granulometry.  

PubMed

Particle size is a fundamental property of any sediment, soil or dust deposit which can provide important clues to nature and provenance. For forensic work, the particle size distribution of sometimes very small samples requires precise determination using a rapid and reliable method with a high resolution. The Coulter trade mark LS230 laser granulometer offers rapid and accurate sizing of particles in the range 0.04-2000 microm for a variety of sample types, including soils, unconsolidated sediments, dusts, powders and other particulate materials. Reliable results are possible for sample weights of just 50 mg. Discrimination between samples is performed on the basis of the shape of the particle size curves and statistical measures of the size distributions. In routine forensic work laser granulometry data can rarely be used in isolation and should be considered in combination with results from other techniques to reach an overall conclusion. PMID:15240017

Pye, Kenneth; Blott, Simon J

2004-08-11

443

78 FR 40737 - Notification of Deletion of System of Records; Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Records; Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics & Training, National Enforcement Investigations...Center, Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics & Training at (303) 462-9051 or Tammy...Center, Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics & Training at (303) 462-9054,...

2013-07-08

444

Elsevier Editorial System(tm) for Forensic Science International Manuscript Draft  

E-print Network

Elsevier Editorial System(tm) for Forensic Science International Manuscript Draft Manuscript Number: Title: Laryngeal teflonoma identified by Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy after forensic autopsy: An interesting tool for foreign material identification in forensic cases Article Type: Case

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

445

Review article Entomotoxicology, experimental set-up and interpretation for forensic  

E-print Network

Review article Entomotoxicology, experimental set-up and interpretation for forensic toxicologists-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.4. Interpretation in forensic cases a useful tool in forensic investigations [1,2]. Although this science has permitted to provide answers

Rasmont, Pierre

446

78 FR 12355 - Notice of Establishment of the National Commission on Forensic Science and Solicitation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission on Forensic Science (``Commission...necessary and in the public interest. The Commission will...assurance in forensic science units. The duties of...and Local forensic science service providers...2) a statement of interest describing the...

2013-02-22

447

Development of the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology disaster victim identification forensic odontology guide.  

PubMed

The need for documented procedures and protocols are important in every specialist group to ensure a consistent service to the community. They provide guidance to members of the specialist group about responsibilities and appropriate practices, and confidence to the community that the services are of the highest possible standard. In a Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) incident, by enabling the process to be audited, they also serve to ensure that identifications are reliable. Following the Bali Bombings of 2002 and the 2004 Asian Tsunami the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology recognised the need for a practice guide to assist the management of their members in DVI incidents. 31 members of the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology participated in the development of a guideline document for Disaster Victim Identification using a Delphi based model. The advantage of using the iterative Delphi process is that it encouraged participants to think about the processes used in the forensic odontology aspects of a DVI incident and their expectations of a guiding document. The document developed as a result of this project is comprehensive in coverage and places the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology at the vanguard of professionalism in the forensic odontology and DVI community. PMID:22785098

Taylor, J

2009-12-01

448

Should or should not forensic psychiatrists think about free will?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forensic psychiatrist抯 task is often considered to be tightly connected to the concept of free will. Yet, there is also\\u000a a lack of clarity about the role of the concept of free will in forensic psychiatry. Recently, Morse has argued that forensic\\u000a psychiatrists should not mention free will in their reports or testimonies, and, moreover, that they should not

Gerben Meynen

2009-01-01

449

iPhone examination with modern forensic software tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the paper is to show the usefulness of modern forensic software tools for iPhone examination. In particular, we focus on the new version of Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit and compare it with Oxygen Forensics Suite 2012 regarding functionality, usability and capabilities. It is shown how these software tools works and how capable they are in examining non-jailbreaked and jailbreaked iPhones.

H鰊e, Thomas; Kr鰃er, Knut; Luttenberger, Silas; Creutzburg, Reiner

2012-06-01

450

Using Forensics Science Problems As Teaching Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As teachers of high school students, we constantly struggle to engage students in scientific exploration so they can master concepts and appreciate the nature of science. By providing an air of mystery and glamour, forensic science engages even reluctant students in the scientific process and helps them think like scientists about authentic problems--one of the ultimate goals of science education (Williams et al. 2004). Therefore, the project described here uses the umbrella of forensics to teach biology concepts and skills in a setting that students would find engaging. The CSI television show was used to set up a "myth-busting" environment in the classroom and to investigate the relationship between popular media and students' attitudes about science.

Kanesa Duncan

2006-11-01

451

Next generation DRM: cryptography or forensics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current content protection systems rely primarily on applied cryptographic techniques but there is an increased use of forensic solutions in images, music and video distribution alike. The two approaches differ significantly, both in terms of technology and in terms of strategy, and thus it begs the question: will one approach take over in the long run, and if so which one? Discussing the evolution of both cryptographic and forensic solutions, we conclude that neither approach is ideal for all constituents, and that in the video space at least they will continue to co-exist for the foreseeable future - even if this may not be the case for other media types. We also analyze shortcomings of these approaches, and suggest that new solutions are necessary in this still emerging marketplace.

Robert, Arnaud

2009-02-01

452

[Forensic aspects of gunshot suicides in Germany].  

PubMed

Suicidal gunshot wounds are a common appearance in forensic casework. The main task of the coroner lies in the detection of typical pathomorphological correlates, thus differentiating between homicide, suicide and accident. Apart from characteristic bloodstain patterns on the gun and shooting hand, the localisation of the entrance wound and the position of the weapon, additional details such as family background or medical history are important aspects of forensic investigation. An uncommon choice of weaponry and its unusual morphological manifestation often complicate the examination and reconstruction of such cases. Furthermore, due to social stigmatisation, the possibility of secondary changes by relatives at the crime scene should be considered. In addition to autopsy findings, a careful crime scene investigation and bloodstain pattern analysis, a ballistic reconstruction can be an essential tool to gain knowledge of the shooting distance and position of the gun. PMID:23857247

Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Meyer, Harald J; Kraus, Sybille

2013-12-01

453

The forensic importance of frontal sinus radiographs.  

PubMed

The identification of unidentified human remains through the comparison of antemortem and postmortem radiographs has found wide acceptance in recent years. Reported here is the forensic case of an unidentified adult male who had died as the result of a traffic accident, after which the body was identified by matching images of ante- and postmortem radiographs of the frontal sinus. A general discussion on identification using frontal sinus radiographs is presented, highlighting the reliability of this method, in reference to the uniqueness of the frontal sinus in humans. However, it also notes a few difficulties, especially in reference to the X-ray technique in cases where antemortem radiographs are available and a potentially larger number of anatomical, pathological or traumatic features are present. The comparison of frontal sinus outlines is recommended when it may become necessary to provide quantitative substantiation for forensic identification based on these structures. PMID:19061844

da Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua; Caputo, Isamara Geandra Cavalcanti; Devito, Karina Lopes; Botelho, Tessa de Luscena; Daruge J鷑ior, Eduardo

2009-01-01

454

Forensic Anthropology and Human Osteology Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Providing educators, practitioners and students with resources and materials related to forensic anthropology and its sister science osteology this site links users to related books, resources and educational opportunities. The resources section provides tutorials, study guides and the like; handy for students or for an educator to integrate into a classroom environment. The book portion of the site is nicely laid out - listing over one hundred books often with a brief description along with a link to buy the book online. The education and association sections will be of especial interest to students, providing both a solid list of programs in forensic anthropology and human osteology as well as an array of professional associations.

Adamson, Marci

455

Alleged biological father incest: a forensic approach.  

PubMed

Paternal incest is one of the most serious forms of intrafamilial sexual abuse with clinical, social, and legal relevance. A retrospective study was performed, based on forensic reports and judicial decisions of alleged cases of biological paternal incest of victims under 18 years old (n = 215) from 2003 to 2008. Results highlight that in a relevant number of cases: victims were female; the abuse begun at an early age with reiteration; the alleged perpetrator presented a history of sexual crimes against children; sexual practices were physically poorly intrusive, which associated with a forensic medical evaluation performed more than 72 h after the abuse, explain partially the absence of physical injuries or other evidence-these last aspects are different from extrafamilial cases. In conclusion, observations about paternal incest are likely to exacerbate the psychosocial consequences of the abuse and may explain the difficulty and delay in detect and disclose these cases. Few cases were legally prosecuted and convicted. PMID:24180349

Gomes, V鈔ia; Jardim, Patr韈ia; Taveira, Francisco; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo J; Magalh鉫s, Teresa

2014-01-01

456

Diagnostic values of polysomnography in forensic medicine.  

PubMed

A man accused of a first-degree murder of a two-year-old girl claimed that he had not been conscious during the time of the alleged murder. The possibility that he may have committed the crime while "sleepwalking" was raised. The forensic psychiatrist looked to the sleep disorders facility to conduct polysomnographic investigation of the accused in order to investigate the possibility that he had a parasomnia. Overnight sleep recordings with video surveillance carried out for two consecutive nights showed no evidence of parasomnia. On the basis of the full assessment, the final report of the forensic psychiatrist did not support a legal defense of non-insane automatism and "sleepwalking" was withdrawn as a possible defense by the lawyer of the accused. PMID:10641938

Kayumov, L; Pandi-Perumal, S R; Fedoroff, P; Shapiro, C M

2000-01-01

457

Forensic science: the truth is out there  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Criminalistics, one of the many sub-divisions of forensic science, is an applied science in which items of evidence are analyzed to provide investigative information and scientific evidence to be used in courts of law. Laboratories associated with governmental public agencies are typically involved in criminal cases as opposed to civil cases, and those types of cases that fall within the jurisdiction of the particular agency. Common analytical divisions within criminalistics laboratories include blood alcohol testing, toxicology, narcotics, questioned documents, biology, firearms, latent fingerprints, physical and trace evidence sections. Specialized field investigative services may be provided in the areas of clandestine drug laboratories and major crimes (firearms, biology, trace, arson/explosives). Forensic science best practice requires the use of non-destructive testing whenever reasonably possible. Several technically difficult situations (bodies and evidence encased in cement and metal) are presented as a challenge to audience.

Herold, Lynne D.

2002-06-01

458

SPECTROSCOPY METHODOLOGY -  

E-print Network

SPECTROSCOPY METHODOLOGY - Communication Quantitative Measurement of N-Acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate at 3 T Using TE-Averaged PRESS Spectroscopy and Regularized Lineshape Deconvolution Yan Zhang,1 Shizhe in conjunction with TE-averaged PRESS spectroscopy to measure N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG). Averaging

Shen, Jun

459

Forensic epidemiology: a method for investigating and quantifying specific causation.  

PubMed

The field of forensic epidemiology was initially introduced as a systematic approach to the investigation of acts of bioterrorism. In recent years, however, the applications of forensic epidemiology have expanded greatly, covering a wide range of medicolegal issues routinely encountered in both criminal and civil court settings. Forensic epidemiology provides a method of evaluating causation in groups and individuals based in the application of the Hill Criteria, with conclusions given in terms of relative or comparative risk, or as a Probability of Causation. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief overview of the methods and applications of forensic epidemiology. PMID:24272789

Koehler, Steven A; Freeman, Michael D

2014-06-01

460

Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.  

PubMed

Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations. PMID:21337957

Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

2011-01-01

461

Digital Forensics II: Course Outline and Syllabus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Systems Security and Information Assurance (CSSIA) provides this zip file with a course outline and syllabus document for an advanced computer forensics course. The syllabus is a sample one, which could be adapted to suit any course on this topic. It includes information about the course, required textbook and other materials, course goals, outline, classroom policies and grading policies. An additional document with a course outline is also included in the zip file.

462

Advancing the science of forensic data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many individual elements comprise a typical forensics process. Collecting evidence, analyzing it, and using results to draw conclusions are all mutually distinct endeavors. Different physical locations and personnel are involved, juxtaposed against an acute need for security and data integrity. Using digital technologies and the Internet's ubiquity, these diverse elements can be conjoined using digital data as the common element. This result is a new data management process that can be applied to serve all elements of the community. The first step is recognition of a forensics lifecycle. Evidence gathering, analysis, storage, and use in legal proceedings are actually just distinct parts of a single end-to-end process, and thus, it is hypothesized that a single data system that can also accommodate each constituent phase using common network and security protocols. This paper introduces the idea of web-based Central Data Repository. Its cornerstone is anywhere, anytime Internet upload, viewing, and report distribution. Archives exist indefinitely after being created, and high-strength security and encryption protect data and ensure subsequent case file additions do not violate chain-of-custody or other handling provisions. Several legal precedents have been established for using digital information in courts of law, and in fact, effective prosecution of cyber crimes absolutely relies on its use. An example is a US Department of Agriculture division's use of digital images to back up its inspection process, with pictures and information retained on secure servers to enforce the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act. Forensics is a cumulative process. Secure, web-based data management solutions, such as the Central Data Repository postulated here, can support each process step. Logically marrying digital technologies with Internet accessibility should help nurture a thought process to explore alternatives that make forensics data accessible to authorized individuals, whenever and wherever they need it.

Naughton, Timothy S.

2002-07-01

463

A brief history of forensic entomology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from an early case report from China (13th century) and later artistic contributions, the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the late 1880s by Reinhard and Hofmann, whom we propose recognizing as co-founders of the discipline. After the French publication of M間nin抯 popular book on

Mark Benecke

2001-01-01

464

Suspicious childhood injury: formulation of forensic opinion.  

PubMed

Child protection paediatricians have a role as forensic experts in the context of suspicious childhood injury. The task of forensic evaluation of suspicious injury is to reach a conclusion to support legal proceedings. For each injury, one of four conclusions should be reached: 1 The injury has been caused by another person and is considered to have been inflicted. 2 The injury is adequately explained by the circumstances of the injury event provided (by the carer or other witnesses). 3 The injury is self-inflicted - has been caused by the child's own behaviour as a result of normal childhood activity (with no other person actively involved). 4 The mechanism or sequence of events leading to the injury remains indeterminate or unclear. An additional consideration is determining the extent to which an injury incident was foreseeable and therefore preventable, to form an opinion on whether lack of care (neglect) is involved. Opinions reflect a body of knowledge in forensic and medical literature of known mechanisms of injury including biomechanical aspects of tissue injury in trauma scenarios. Limitations in using research documenting injury type and prevalence at different developmental stages is discussed and in particular, the application of such research to support a conclusion that the injury must have been inflicted. Emerging recognition of research documenting injuries that overlap with those found in populations of children thought to have been physically assaulted creates some doubt on previous opinions regarding exclusivity of certain findings in children definitively indicating 'abuse'. Forensic paediatricians should remain objective, limit their opinions to what can be confidently stated and exercise caution where reasonable doubt exists and avoid speculation. PMID:20598073

Skellern, Catherine; Donald, Terence

2011-11-01

465

The Dual Nature of Forensic Psychiatric Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter the dual nature of forensic psychiatry as a medical profession on the one hand and a juridical specialism\\u000a on the other will be the frame of reference from which several aspects of the treatment and risk management of mentally disordered\\u000a offenders in the Netherlands will be discussed. First, we will focus on the legal provisions that apply

Corine Ruiter; Martin Hildebrand

466

Forensics 1: Course Outline and Syllabus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Systems Security and Information Assurance (CSSIA) provides this zip file with a course outline and syllabus document for an introductory computer forensics course. The syllabus is a sample one, which could be adapted to suit any course on this topic. It includes information about the course, required textbook and other materials, course goals, outline, classroom policies and grading policies. A Unix file with an additional course outline is also included in the ZIP file.

467

Allowing independent forensic evaluations for Guant醤amo detainees.  

PubMed

President Obama has pledged to review all cases prosecuted through the Guant醤amo Military Commissions established under President George N. Bush. Such commissions, however, may have limited independent psychiatric evaluations for Guant醤amo defendants. This article explores the legal foundations for evaluating Guant醤amo detainees, analyzes the decisions of commissions through discussions with defense attorneys involved in the cases, and considers the medicolegal consequences of the Guant醤amo commissions. Recommendations are offered to safeguard the ethical soundness of future forensic consultations. PMID:20019001

Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

2009-01-01

468

Cyber Forensics Ontology for Cyber Criminal Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed Cyber Forensics Ontology for the criminal investigation in cyber space. Cyber crime is classified into cyber\\u000a terror and general cyber crime, and those two classes are connected with each other. The investigation of cyber terror requires\\u000a high technology, system environment and experts, and general cyber crime is connected with general crime by evidence from\\u000a digital data and cyber

Heum Park; Sunho Cho; Hyuk-Chul Kwon

2009-01-01

469

Prearraignment forensic evaluations: toward a new policy.  

PubMed

Prearraignment forensic evaluations are forensic psychiatric evaluations performed on a suspect soon after his or her arrest. In the guise of ethics, the committee members who originated this code have imposed apparently personal and political views on all members of respective professional organizations in order to circumvent rulings of the judiciary, including the U.S. Supreme Court. The prohibition against prearraignment evaluations represents a misapplication of physician-as-healer-based medical ethics--in which the core principle is the physician's beneficence to the patient--to the forensic arena, where no physician-patient relationship exists and healing is not the purpose. The ethical code prohibiting prearraignment evaluations reflects misguided paternalism and political bias, as well as being in direct conflict with current law. Whether or not prearraignment evaluations should be permitted is primarily a Fifth and Sixth Constitutional Amendment issue more than a traditional medical-ethical one. Ethics and the law, when both are examined carefully, suggest prearraignment evaluations are proper when performed responsibly. PMID:9001743

Ornish, S A; Mills, M J; Ornish, M C

1996-01-01

470

Visible Proofs: Forensic Views of the Body  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It seems that the field of forensic medicine is everywhere, particularly in the arena of popular television programs and such. This field has a long and distinguished history, and this engaging story is told rather effectively by this online exhibit created by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. First-time visitors may want to begin by looking through the "Exhibition" area. Within its six subsections, visitors can learn about the emerging technologies of forensic surveillance in the late 19th century and also learn about recent innovations in the field. Along with accessible and lucid essays, visitors will be treated to a number of medical illustrations from the period. The "Galleries" section presents another treasure trove of material, including detailed examinations of famous early forensics cases. While most of the material on the site may be about as graphic as the average prime-time television program that deals with similar material, users should use discretion when allowing younger children look through the site.

2006-01-01

471

Bayesian calibration for forensic age estimation.  

PubMed

Forensic medicine is increasingly called upon to assess the age of individuals. Forensic age estimation is mostly required in relation to illegal immigration and identification of bodies or skeletal remains. A variety of age estimation methods are based on dental samples and use of regression models, where the age of an individual is predicted by morphological tooth changes that take place over time. From the medico-legal point of view, regression models, with age as the dependent random variable entail that age tends to be overestimated in the young and underestimated in the old. To overcome this bias, we describe a new full Bayesian calibration method (asymmetric Laplace Bayesian calibration) for forensic age estimation that uses asymmetric Laplace distribution as the probability model. The method was compared with three existing approaches (two Bayesian and a classical method) using simulated data. Although its accuracy was comparable with that of the other methods, the asymmetric Laplace Bayesian calibration appears to be significantly more reliable and robust in case of misspecification of the probability model. The proposed method was also applied to a real dataset of values of the pulp chamber of the right lower premolar measured on x-ray scans of individuals of known age. Copyright 2015?John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25645903

Ferrante, Luigi; Skrami, Edlira; Gesuita, Rosaria; Cameriere, Roberto

2015-05-10

472

Molecular forensic science of nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect

We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxides materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, process history, or transport of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science required to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensics science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

Wilkerson, Marianne Perry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

473

Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of nuclear terrorism; it also supports the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its investigative mission to prevent and respond to nuclear terrorism. Development of the capability involves two major elements: (1) the ability to collect evidence and make forensic measurements, and (2) the ability to interpret the forensic data. The Program leverages the existing capability throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory complex in a way that meets the requirements of the FBI and other government users. At the same time the capability is being developed, the Program also conducts investigations for a variety of sponsors using the current capability. The combination of operations and R&D in one program helps to ensure a strong linkage between the needs of the user community and the scientific development.

Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

2005-11-04

474

Implant bone integration importance in forensic identification.  

PubMed

Odontological identification consists of the comparison of antemortem dental information regarding a missing person with postmortem data from an unidentified corpse or human remains. Usually, the comparison concerns morphologic features that the operator chooses among all the visible characteristics because of inter-individual uniqueness; for this reason, implants can be of enormous assistance. A case concerning the recovery of a burnt oral implant, connected to a bone fragment, among 2780 charred bone fragments, suspected to have belonged to a victim of homicide, is presented to demonstrate that dental implants and their site of bone integration represent a very precious element for personal forensic identification. Because of their morphological invariability in time and because of their morphologic uniqueness, they were used as evidence to associate unidentified human charred remains to a missing person where DNA analysis failed to do so. The case illustrates the fundamental contribution, not yet described in literature, given by the clinical aspects of tooth replacement with dental implants to a forensic discipline. Clinical practitioners should therefore be aware of the great importance of their work and of dental records in a forensic identification scenario. PMID:25387697

De Angelis, Danilo; Cattaneo, Cristina

2015-03-01

475

STR polymorphisms in Philippine ethnolinguistic groups: evaluation of forensic utility.  

PubMed

Population data was collected for the STR loci F13AO1, FES/FPS, HUMvWA, and HUMTHO1, in three major Philippine ethnolinguistic groups and used to estimate statistical parameters for identity testing in forensic work on Filipinos. The Cebuano, Ilocano, and Pampango populations in the Philippines were studied because they are among the biggest linguistic groups in the country, thus their genotypic profiles should substantially represent those of many Filipinos. The number of alleles varied from 4 to 9 at all loci, falling within the range observed for other local and world populations. Pairwise comparisons of the allele frequency distributions showed no statistical differences among the populations. The test for linkage equilibrium showed no evidence of non-random association of alleles across the physically unlinked loci in any of the three populations. The four loci combined gave an exclusion power of > or =0.9995 and a power of paternity exclusion of 0.8859-0.9389. PMID:14960771

Miranda, Jasmin Jiji; Halos, Saturnina C

2004-01-01

476

NanoSIMS analysis of Bacillus spores for forensics  

SciTech Connect

The threat associated with the potential use of radiological, nuclear, chemical and biological materials in terrorist acts has resulted in new fields of forensic science requiring the application of state-of-the-science analytical techniques. Since the anthrax letter attacks in the United States in the fall of 2001, there has been increased interest in physical and chemical characterization of bacterial spores. While molecular methods are powerful tools for identifying genetic differences, other methods may be able to differentiate genetically identical samples based on physical and chemical properties, as well as provide complimentary information, such as methods of production and approximate date of production. Microanalysis has the potential to contribute significantly to microbial forensics. Bacillus spores are highly structured, consisting of a core, cortex, coat, and in some species, an exosporium. This structure provides a template for constraining elemental abundance differences at the nanometer scale. The primary controls on the distribution of major elements in spores are likely structural and physiological. For example, P and Ca are known to be abundant in the spore core because that is where P-rich nucleic acids and Cadipicolinic acid are located, respectively. Trace elements are known to bind to the spore coat but the controls on these elements are less well understood. Elemental distributions and abundances may be directly related to spore production, purification and stabilization methodologies, which are of particular interest for forensic investigation. To this end, we are developing a high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry method using a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 to study the distribution and abundance of trace elements in bacterial spores. In this presentation we will review and compare methods for preparing and analyzing samples, as well as review results on the distribution and abundance of elements in bacterial spores. We use NanoSIMS to directly image samples as well as depth profile samples. The directly imaged samples are sectioned to present a flat surface for analysis. We use focused ion beam (FIB) milling to top-cut individual spores to create flat surfaces for NanoSIMS analysis. Depth profiling can be used on whole spores, which are consumed in the process of analysis. The two methods generate comparable results, with the expected distribution of P and Ca. Ca-compatible elements, such as Mg and Mn, are found to follow the distribution of Ca. The distribution of other elements will be discussed. We envision the first application of this methodology will be to sample matching for trace samples. Towards this end, we are generating a baseline data set for samples produced by multiple laboratories. Preliminary results suggest that this method provides significant probative value for identifying samples produced by the same method in the same laboratory, as well as coming from the same initial production run. The results of this study will be presented.

Weber, P K; Davisson, M L; Velsko, S P

2010-02-23

477

Wildlife molecular forensics: identification of the Sardinian mouflon using STR profiling and the Bayesian assignment test.  

PubMed

A forensic short tandem repeat (STR) typing test using a population database was developed to investigate an instance of poaching on the protected Sardinian mouflon. The case study involves a suspected poacher found in possession of a carcass, which he claimed was that of a sheep from his flock and had died accidentally. His claim was refuted by the molecular forensic analyses as DNA typing and the Bayesian assignment test revealed the carcass to be mouflon-derived; the genetic profile of the carcass matched also that of additional trace evidence collected by forestry officers at the scene of the kill. The matching evidence led to the poacher being charged with the illegal harvest of protected wildlife. Molecular techniques, in combination with a reference population database, and the appropriate statistical evaluation of genetic information, are fundamental to wildlife forensics. This approach allows DNA testing to be accepted in court as submissible evidence in the fight against poaching and other crimes involving wildlife. PMID:21371958

Lorenzini, Rita; Cabras, Pierangela; Fanelli, Rita; Carboni, Giuseppe L

2011-08-01

478

MMPI-2 based classification of forensic psychiatric outpatients: an exploratory cluster analytic study.  

PubMed

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), and now the MMPI-2, are the most widely researched personality assessment tools in correctional and related forensic settings (MMPI; Hathaway & McKinley, 1940; MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989). Using the original MMPI, Megargee (1977a) and colleagues (Megargee & Bohn, 1977; Megargee & Dorhout, 1977) developed an extensive and meaningful classification system for correctional inmates. However, few studies, with the exception of Toch and Adams (1994) cluster analytic study of emotionally disturbed violent offenders, have explored possibilities of a statistically derived categorical classification paradigm within the growing population of forensic psychiatric patients awaiting discharge into the community (Bannatyne, 1996). The present exploratory study investigates the utility of a commonly employed and replicable cluster analytic method in establishing an MMPI-2-based categorical classification system within a substantial forensic psychiatric outpatient sample (N = 300). Here, we present results of a seven-cluster solution, augmented by contemporaneous Rorschach inkblot data utilizing Exner's Comprehensive System (Exner, 1991; Exner et al., 1995). Descriptive cluster characteristics are provided along with potential clinical correlates in an attempt to move closer to the goal of pairing informed assessment with effective treatment in this growing, but unique, population. PMID:12945058

Nieberding, Ron J; Gacono, Carl B; Pirie, Mark; Bannatyne, Lynne A; Viglione, Donald J; Cooper, Bruce; Bodholdt, Robert H; Frackowiak, Marita

2003-09-01

479

SNP-microarrays can accurately identify the presence of an individual in complex forensic DNA mixtures.  

PubMed

Common forensic and mass disaster scenarios present DNA evidence that comprises a mixture of several contributors. Identifying the presence of an individual in such mixtures has proven difficult. In the current study, we evaluate the practical usefulness of currently available "off-the-shelf" SNP microarrays for such purposes. We found that a set of 3000 SNPs specifically selected for this purpose can accurately identify the presence of an individual in complex DNA mixtures of various compositions. For example, individuals contributing as little as 5% to a complex DNA mixture can be robustly identified even if the starting DNA amount was as little as 5.0ng and had undergone whole-genome amplification (WGA) prior to SNP analysis. The work presented in this study represents proof-of-principle that our previously proposed approach, can work with real "forensic-type" samples. Furthermore, in the absence of a low-density focused forensic SNP microarray, the use of standard, currently available high-density SNP microarrays can be similarly used and even increase statistical power due to the larger amount of available information. PMID:25682311

Voskoboinik, Lev; Ayers, Sheri B; LeFebvre, Aaron K; Darvasi, Ariel

2015-05-01

480

Femoral subtrochanteric shape variation in Albania: implications for use in forensic applications.  

PubMed

This paper investigates temporal trends in femoral subtrochanteric shape in Albanian skeletal material to evaluate levels of platymeria in a set of populations with European ancestry. Although flattening of the diaphysis in the subtrochanteric region has been associated with individuals of Native American and Asian ancestry, high levels of platymeria may not be unique to those groups. The forensic utility of Gilbert and Gill's (Skeletal Attribution of Race: Methods for Forensic Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, 1990) method for identifying ancestry from femoral subtrochanteric shape is examined using non-American skeletons of European ancestry. Femoral subtrochanteric anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters for Albanian skeletons from Apollonia (n=117) and Lofk雗d (n=50) are assessed for temporal trends and then compared with published data using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests. High degrees of subtrochanteric flattening are identified in the Albanian samples and statistically significant temporal trends of decreasing platymeria are documented. Although recent publications suggest that subtrochanteric shape is less effective in identifying ancestry then was initially proposed, forensic anthropologists still commonly use femoral subtrochanteric shape to determine ancestry among skeletonized remains. This paper's findings support the assertion that proximal femoral morphology is functionally related, and more likely to be influenced by biomechanical adaptation and body proportions than genetic constraints. PMID:25500529

McIlvaine, B K; Schepartz, L A

2015-02-01

481

Bacterial Population Genetics in a Forensic Context  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the recent Department of Homeland Security (DHS) call for a Phase I study to (1) assess gaps in the forensically relevant knowledge about the population genetics of eight bacterial agents of concern, (2) formulate a technical roadmap to address those gaps, and (3) identify new bioinformatics tools that would be necessary to analyze and interpret population genetic data in a forensic context. The eight organisms that were studied are B. anthracis, Y. pestis, F. tularensis, Brucella spp., E. coli O157/H7, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, and C. botulinum. Our study focused on the use of bacterial population genetics by forensic investigators to test hypotheses about the possible provenance of an agent that was used in a crime or act of terrorism. Just as human population genetics underpins the calculations of match probabilities for human DNA evidence, bacterial population genetics determines the level of support that microbial DNA evidence provides for or against certain well-defined hypotheses about the origins of an infecting strain. Our key findings are: (1) Bacterial population genetics is critical for answering certain types of questions in a probabilistic manner, akin (but not identical) to 'match probabilities' in DNA forensics. (2) A basic theoretical framework for calculating likelihood ratios or posterior probabilities for forensic hypotheses based on microbial genetic comparisons has been formulated. This 'inference-on-networks' framework has deep but simple connections to the population genetics of mtDNA and Y-STRs in human DNA forensics. (3) The 'phylogeographic' approach to identifying microbial sources is not an adequate basis for understanding bacterial population genetics in a forensic context, and has limited utility, even for generating 'leads' with respect to strain origin. (4) A collection of genotyped isolates obtained opportunistically from international locations augmented by phylogenetic representations of relatedness will not and enzootic outbreaks noted through international outbreak surveillance systems, and 'representative' genetic sequences from each outbreak. (5) Interpretation of genetic comparisons between an attack strain and reference strains requires a model for the network structure of maintenance foci, enzootic outbreaks, and human outbreaks of that disease, coupled with estimates of mutational rate constants. Validation of the model requires a set of sequences from exemplary outbreaks and laboratory data on mutation rates during animal passage. The necessary number of isolates in each validation set is determined by disease transmission network theory, and is based on the 'network diameter' of the outbreak. (6) The 8 bacteria in this study can be classified into 4 categories based on the complexity of the transmission network structure of their natural maintenance foci and their outbreaks, both enzootic and zoonotic. (7) For B. anthracis, Y. pestis, E. coli O157, and Brucella melitensis, and their primary natural animal hosts, most of the fundamental parameters needed for modeling genetic change within natural host or human transmission networks have been determined or can be estimated from existing field and laboratory studies. (8) For Burkholderia mallei, plausible approaches to transmission network models exist, but much of the fundamental parameterization does not. In addition, a validated high-resolution typing system for characterizing genetic change within outbreaks or foci has not yet been demonstrated, although a candidate system exists. (9) For Francisella tularensis, the increased complexity of the transmission network and unresolved questions about maintenance and transmission suggest that it will be more complex and difficult to develop useful models based on currently available data. (10) For Burkholderia pseudomallei and Clostridium botulinum, the transmission and maintenance networks involve complex soil communities and metapopulations about which very little is known. It is not clear that these pathogens can be brought into the in

Velsko, S P

2009-11-02

482

TESF Methodology for Statistics Education Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for universities to achieve excellence in the services they provide has been the subject of research for several decades. The idea of involving students and recognizing the importance of their opinions has led to the creation of various models and tools. This paper focuses on teaching, a central service from which improvement actions of

Barone, Stefano; Lo Franco, Eva

2010-01-01

483

Toward a general collection methodology for Android devices Timothy Vidas a,  

E-print Network

Toward a general collection methodology for Android devices Timothy Vidas a, *, Chengye Zhang b , Nicolas Christin b a Carnegie Mellon ECE/CyLab, USA b Carnegie Mellon INI/CyLab, USA Keywords: Android framework Mobile devices Digital forensics Collection Acquisition a b s t r a c t The Android platform has

Almulhem, Ahmad

484

[The markers of wound vitality in forensic pathology].  

PubMed

Skin wounds datation is one of the most challenging problems in forensic pathology. The vitality of a recent wound cannot be affirmed when no inflammatory cell is visible. There are in the literature numerous studies about wound vitality, looking for markers involved in coagulation or inflammation, using various methods such as enzymology, molecular biology or immunohistochemistry. In this update, we first introduce some methodological principles to respect. Then, we review the main studies available in the literature. We insist on immunohistochemistry, which seems to be the more valuable method, given its easiness to perform and the possibility to analyze the localization of the molecules of interest. Some markers are promising, such as TNF?, IL-6, IL-1?, TGF? or TGF?1. Before using them in daily practice, these first results need to be confirmed with other studies, driven by independent teams and integrating multiple controls. Most notably, the antibodies have to be tested in numerous post-mortem wounds. Indeed, there is a critical risk of overexpression in post-mortem wounds, and some interesting markers have been secondary invalidated because of post-mortem false positivity (e.g. fibronectin, P-selectin). Finally, optimal sensibility and specificity values would be probably reached by combining several markers, validated with large groups of pre- and post-mortem wounds. PMID:23582835

Gauchotte, Guillaume; Martrille, Laurent; Pl閚at, Fran鏾is; Vignaud, Jean-Michel

2013-04-01

485

Statistical Science Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains links in several statistical categories, including other meta-sites (catalogs), universities, statistics departments, software, journals, data sets, methodology, conferences, and teaching, among others. It has an Australian flavor, but is international in scope. Gordon K. Smyth, Research scientist and mathematician, maintains this site.

1998-01-01

486

Forensic Rhetoric: A Strategy for Cross-Cultural Conflict Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A foundation for human communication was laid down with the basics of classical rhetorical persuasion. A key element of this persuasive foundation was preserved through the teachings of Aristotle, particularly in his definitions and descriptions of forensic rhetoric. He argued that effective forensic rhetoric provides a positive persuasive model for resolving conflicts. This paper's purpose is to delineate the Aristotelian

William B. Chapel

487

Activity of the forensic entomology department of the French Gendarmerie  

Microsoft Academic Search

The criminal research Institute of the French Gendarmerie deals with several disciplines which are part of forensic science. Forensic entomology is one of the last laboratories created in Rosny-Sous-Bois. As with all other departments of the Institute, its main mission is carrying out its expertise on behalf of justice. Another important mission is to educate on one hand the 搒cene

Emmanuel Gaudry; Jean-Bernard Myskowiak; Bernard Chauvet; Thierry Pasquerault; Fabrice Lefebvre; Yvan Malgorn

2001-01-01

488

Forensic applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry桝 review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key role of a forensic scientist is to assist in determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so, assist in the identification of the offender. Many people hold the belief that a particular item can be conclusively linked to a specific person, place or object. Unfortunately, this is often not achievable in forensic science. In performing their

Sarah Benson; Chris Lennard; Philip Maynard; Claude Roux

2006-01-01

489

A Term Project for a Course on Computer Forensics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The typical approach to creating an examination disk for exercises and projects in a course on computer forensics is for the instructor to populate a piece of media with evidence to be retrieved. While such an approach supports the simple use of forensic tools, in many cases the use of an instructor-developed examination disk avoids utilizing some

Harrison, Warren

2006-01-01

490

Defining Digital Forensic Examination and Analysis Tools Using Abstraction Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the theory of abstraction layers to describe the purpose and goals of digital forensic analysis tools. Using abstraction layers, we identify where tools can introduce errors and provide requirements that the tools must follow. Categories of forensic analysis types are also defined based on the abstraction layers. Abstraction layers are not a new concept, but their usage

Brian Carrier

2002-01-01

491

Victims Deserve More: The Building of a Forensics Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because victims deserve more, The American Academy of Applied Forensics at Central Piedmont Community College was created to link cutting-edge forensics research to its field applications. It does this by enhancing the knowledge, skill, and ability levels of crime scene investigators, thereby increasing the likelihood that truth will be revealed

Johnson, Lili K.

2007-01-01

492

Nature and place of crime scene management within forensic sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short paper presents the preliminary results of a recent study aimed at appreciating the relevant parameters required to qualify forensic science as a science through an epistemological analysis. The reader is invited to reflect upon references within a historical and logical framework which assert that forensic science is based upon two fundamental principles (those of Locard and Kirk). The

Frank Crispino

2008-01-01

493

Personality Characteristics of Undergraduates with Career Interests in Forensic Identification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author assessed personality scores for 47 undergraduates enrolled in a forensic identification program. Results revealed no difference between men and women enrolled in the Forensic Identification Program on subscales of the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V), with the exception of Experience Seeking. Participants had lower Disinhibition scores

Roberti, Jonathan W.

2004-01-01

494

Current and future directions of DNA in wildlife forensic science.  

PubMed

Wildlife forensic science may not have attained the profile of human identification, yet the scale of criminal activity related to wildlife is extensive by any measure. Service delivery in the arena of wildlife forensic science is often ad hoc, unco-ordinated and unregulated, yet many of those currently dedicated to wildlife conservation and the protection of endangered species are striving to ensure that the highest standards are met. The genetic markers and software used to evaluate data in wildlife forensic science are more varied than those in human forensic identification and are rarely standardised between species. The time and resources required to characterise and validate each genetic maker is considerable and in some cases prohibitive. Further, issues are regularly encountered in the construction of allelic databases and allelic ladders; essential in human identification studies, but also applicable to wildlife criminal investigations. Accreditation and certification are essential in human identification and are currently being strived for in the forensic wildlife community. Examples are provided as to how best practice can be demonstrated in all areas of wildlife crime analysis and ensure that this field of forensic science gains and maintains the respect it deserves. This review is aimed at those conducting human identification to illustrate how research concepts in wildlife forensic science can be used in the criminal justice system, as well as describing the real importance of this type of forensic analysis. PMID:24680123

Johnson, Rebecca N; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Linacre, Adrian

2014-05-01

495

Computer Forensics In Forensis # Sean Peisert + and Matt Bishop #  

E-print Network

. Finally, we present some recommendations about how computer scientists, forensic practitioners, lawyers, and judges could build more complete models of forensics that take into account appropriate legal details, the definition, almost, is the following: The test of all knowledge is experiment. Experiment is the sole judge

Bishop, Matt

496

Plants & Perpetrators: Forensic Investigation in the Botany Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applying botanical knowledge to a simulated forensic investigation provides inquiry-based and problem-based learning in the botany classroom. This paper details one such forensic investigation in which students use what they have learned about plant morphology and anatomy to analyze evidence and solve a murder mystery. (Contains 1 table.)

Boyd, Amy E.

2006-01-01

497

Social Snapshots: Digital Forensics for Online Social Networks  

E-print Network

Social Snapshots: Digital Forensics for Online Social Networks Markus Huber Martin Mulazzani by pub- lishing our implementation as an open-source project. Keywords: online social networks, forensics, security 1. INTRODUCTION Over the past years, Online Social Networks (OSNs) have become the largest

498

Dynamic recreation of kernel data structures for live forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of live forensics in digital forensic investigations has become vital due to the importance of volatile data such as encryption keys, network activity, currently running processes, in memory only malware, and other key pieces of data that are lost when a device is powered down. While the technology to perform the first steps of a live investigation, physical

Andrew Case; Lodovico Marziale; Golden G. Richard III

2010-01-01

499

Justifying Forensic Programs to Administrators: An Experiential Education Opportunity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiential education provides an excellent justificatory framework for the forensics program as an educational opportunity. The three major tenets of experiential education are: (1) connecting theoretical knowledge to real life experiences; (2) valuing and fostering different "ways of knowing"; and (3) encouraging lifelong learning. Forensics

Sellnow, Deanna D.; Seekins, Lisa L.

500

Cross-Cultural Issues in Forensic Psychiatry Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Forensic psychiatry was officially recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties in the 1990's. In 1994, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) gave its first written examination to certify forensic psychiatrists. In 1996, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) began

Layde, Joseph B.

2004-01-01