Science.gov

Sample records for statistical forensic methodology

  1. Statistical Tools for Forensic Analysis of Toolmarks

    SciTech Connect

    David Baldwin; Max Morris; Stan Bajic; Zhigang Zhou; James Kreiser

    2004-04-22

    Recovery and comparison of toolmarks, footprint impressions, and fractured surfaces connected to a crime scene are of great importance in forensic science. The purpose of this project is to provide statistical tools for the validation of the proposition that particular manufacturing processes produce marks on the work-product (or tool) that are substantially different from tool to tool. The approach to validation involves the collection of digital images of toolmarks produced by various tool manufacturing methods on produced work-products and the development of statistical methods for data reduction and analysis of the images. The developed statistical methods provide a means to objectively calculate a ''degree of association'' between matches of similarly produced toolmarks. The basis for statistical method development relies on ''discriminating criteria'' that examiners use to identify features and spatial relationships in their analysis of forensic samples. The developed data reduction algorithms utilize the same rules used by examiners for classification and association of toolmarks.

  2. Statistical hypothesis testing and common misinterpretations: Should we abandon p-value in forensic science applications?

    PubMed

    Taroni, F; Biedermann, A; Bozza, S

    2016-02-01

    Many people regard the concept of hypothesis testing as fundamental to inferential statistics. Various schools of thought, in particular frequentist and Bayesian, have promoted radically different solutions for taking a decision about the plausibility of competing hypotheses. Comprehensive philosophical comparisons about their advantages and drawbacks are widely available and continue to span over large debates in the literature. More recently, controversial discussion was initiated by an editorial decision of a scientific journal [1] to refuse any paper submitted for publication containing null hypothesis testing procedures. Since the large majority of papers published in forensic journals propose the evaluation of statistical evidence based on the so called p-values, it is of interest to expose the discussion of this journal's decision within the forensic science community. This paper aims to provide forensic science researchers with a primer on the main concepts and their implications for making informed methodological choices. PMID:26743713

  3. Nuclear Forensic Inferences Using Iterative Multidimensional Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Robel, M; Kristo, M J; Heller, M A

    2009-06-09

    Nuclear forensics involves the analysis of interdicted nuclear material for specific material characteristics (referred to as 'signatures') that imply specific geographical locations, production processes, culprit intentions, etc. Predictive signatures rely on expert knowledge of physics, chemistry, and engineering to develop inferences from these material characteristics. Comparative signatures, on the other hand, rely on comparison of the material characteristics of the interdicted sample (the 'questioned sample' in FBI parlance) with those of a set of known samples. In the ideal case, the set of known samples would be a comprehensive nuclear forensics database, a database which does not currently exist. In fact, our ability to analyze interdicted samples and produce an extensive list of precise materials characteristics far exceeds our ability to interpret the results. Therefore, as we seek to develop the extensive databases necessary for nuclear forensics, we must also develop the methods necessary to produce the necessary inferences from comparison of our analytical results with these large, multidimensional sets of data. In the work reported here, we used a large, multidimensional dataset of results from quality control analyses of uranium ore concentrate (UOC, sometimes called 'yellowcake'). We have found that traditional multidimensional techniques, such as principal components analysis (PCA), are especially useful for understanding such datasets and drawing relevant conclusions. In particular, we have developed an iterative partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) procedure that has proven especially adept at identifying the production location of unknown UOC samples. By removing classes which fell far outside the initial decision boundary, and then rebuilding the PLS-DA model, we have consistently produced better and more definitive attributions than with a single pass classification approach. Performance of the iterative PLS-DA method

  4. Statistical Evaluation of Biometric Evidence in Forensic Automatic Speaker Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drygajlo, Andrzej

    Forensic speaker recognition is the process of determining if a specific individual (suspected speaker) is the source of a questioned voice recording (trace). This paper aims at presenting forensic automatic speaker recognition (FASR) methods that provide a coherent way of quantifying and presenting recorded voice as biometric evidence. In such methods, the biometric evidence consists of the quantified degree of similarity between speaker-dependent features extracted from the trace and speaker-dependent features extracted from recorded speech of a suspect. The interpretation of recorded voice as evidence in the forensic context presents particular challenges, including within-speaker (within-source) variability and between-speakers (between-sources) variability. Consequently, FASR methods must provide a statistical evaluation which gives the court an indication of the strength of the evidence given the estimated within-source and between-sources variabilities. This paper reports on the first ENFSI evaluation campaign through a fake case, organized by the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI), as an example, where an automatic method using the Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) and the Bayesian interpretation (BI) framework were implemented for the forensic speaker recognition task.

  5. Nuclear Forensics: A Methodology Applicable to Nuclear Security and to Non-Proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.; Lützenkirchen, K.; Galy, J.; Varga, Z.; Erdmann, N.; Buda, R.; Kratz, J.-V.; Trautmann, N.; Fifield, K.

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear Security aims at the prevention and detection of and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material. Nuclear Forensics is a key element of nuclear security. Nuclear Forensics is defined as a methodology that aims at re-establishing the history of nuclear material of unknown origin. It is based on indicators that arise from known relationships between material characteristics and process history. Thus, nuclear forensics analysis includes the characterization of the material and correlation with production history. To this end, we can make use of parameters such as the isotopic composition of the nuclear material and accompanying elements, chemical impurities, macroscopic appearance and microstructure of the material. In the present paper, we discuss the opportunities for attribution of nuclear material offered by nuclear forensics as well as its limitations. Particular attention will be given to the role of nuclear reactions. Such reactions include the radioactive decay of the nuclear material, but also reactions with neutrons. When uranium (of natural composition) is exposed to neutrons, plutonium is formed, as well as 236U. We will illustrate the methodology using the example of a piece of uranium metal that dates back to the German nuclear program in the 1940's. A combination of different analytical techniques and model calculations enables a nuclear forensics interpretation, thus correlating the material characteristics with the production history.

  6. Statistical methods for the forensic analysis of striated tool marks

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeksema, Amy Beth

    2013-01-01

    In forensics, fingerprints can be used to uniquely identify suspects in a crime. Similarly, a tool mark left at a crime scene can be used to identify the tool that was used. However, the current practice of identifying matching tool marks involves visual inspection of marks by forensic experts which can be a very subjective process. As a result, declared matches are often successfully challenged in court, so law enforcement agencies are particularly interested in encouraging research in more objective approaches. Our analysis is based on comparisons of profilometry data, essentially depth contours of a tool mark surface taken along a linear path. In current practice, for stronger support of a match or non-match, multiple marks are made in the lab under the same conditions by the suspect tool. We propose the use of a likelihood ratio test to analyze the difference between a sample of comparisons of lab tool marks to a field tool mark, against a sample of comparisons of two lab tool marks. Chumbley et al. (2010) point out that the angle of incidence between the tool and the marked surface can have a substantial impact on the tool mark and on the effectiveness of both manual and algorithmic matching procedures. To better address this problem, we describe how the analysis can be enhanced to model the effect of tool angle and allow for angle estimation for a tool mark left at a crime scene. With sufficient development, such methods may lead to more defensible forensic analyses.

  7. STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR EXPLORING ELEVATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN PRECIPITATION CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A statistical methodology for exploring the relationships between elevation and precipitation chemistry is outlined and illustrated. he methodology utilizes maximum likelihood estimates and likelihood ratio tests with contour ellipses of assumed bivariate lognormal distributions ...

  8. An innovative and shared methodology for event reconstruction using images in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Milliet, Quentin; Jendly, Manon; Delémont, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an innovative methodology for forensic science image analysis for event reconstruction. The methodology is based on experiences from real cases. It provides real added value to technical guidelines such as standard operating procedures (SOPs) and enriches the community of practices at stake in this field. This bottom-up solution outlines the many facets of analysis and the complexity of the decision-making process. Additionally, the methodology provides a backbone for articulating more detailed and technical procedures and SOPs. It emerged from a grounded theory approach; data from individual and collective interviews with eight Swiss and nine European forensic image analysis experts were collected and interpreted in a continuous, circular and reflexive manner. Throughout the process of conducting interviews and panel discussions, similarities and discrepancies were discussed in detail to provide a comprehensive picture of practices and points of view and to ultimately formalise shared know-how. Our contribution sheds light on the complexity of the choices, actions and interactions along the path of data collection and analysis, enhancing both the researchers' and participants' reflexivity. PMID:26241165

  9. Applying Statistical Process Quality Control Methodology to Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Carol Joyce

    A subset of Statistical Process Control (SPC) methodology known as Control Charting is introduced. SPC methodology is a collection of graphical and inferential statistics techniques used to study the progress of phenomena over time. The types of control charts covered are the null X (mean), R (Range), X (individual observations), MR (moving…

  10. New Statistical Methodology for Determining Cancer Clusters

    Cancer.gov

    The development of an innovative statistical technique that shows that women living in a broad stretch of the metropolitan northeastern United States, which includes Long Island, are slightly more likely to die from breast cancer than women in other parts of the Northeast.

  11. Improving the statistical methodology in astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Babu, G. J.

    The fields of astronomy and mathematical statistics were once intimately intertwined, later very distant, and now approaching each other with new needs and perspectives. Innovative approaches to astronomical data analysis problems are illustrated with parameter fitting in X-ray spectroscopy. Chi-squared minimization encounters several problems, and alternatives like nonparametric EDF tests, maximum likelihood estimation, finite mixture models and bootstrap resampling are suggested. Increased collaboration and consultation with statisticians is recommended for astronomical projects encountering difficult data analysis challenges.

  12. Using scan statistics for congenital anomalies surveillance: the EUROCAT methodology.

    PubMed

    Teljeur, Conor; Kelly, Alan; Loane, Maria; Densem, James; Dolk, Helen

    2015-11-01

    Scan statistics have been used extensively to identify temporal clusters of health events. We describe the temporal cluster detection methodology adopted by the EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) monitoring system. Since 2001, EUROCAT has implemented variable window width scan statistic for detecting unusual temporal aggregations of congenital anomaly cases. The scan windows are based on numbers of cases rather than being defined by time. The methodology is imbedded in the EUROCAT Central Database for annual application to centrally held registry data. The methodology was incrementally adapted to improve the utility and to address statistical issues. Simulation exercises were used to determine the power of the methodology to identify periods of raised risk (of 1-18 months). In order to operationalize the scan methodology, a number of adaptations were needed, including: estimating date of conception as unit of time; deciding the maximum length (in time) and recency of clusters of interest; reporting of multiple and overlapping significant clusters; replacing the Monte Carlo simulation with a lookup table to reduce computation time; and placing a threshold on underlying population change and estimating the false positive rate by simulation. Exploration of power found that raised risk periods lasting 1 month are unlikely to be detected except when the relative risk and case counts are high. The variable window width scan statistic is a useful tool for the surveillance of congenital anomalies. Numerous adaptations have improved the utility of the original methodology in the context of temporal cluster detection in congenital anomalies. PMID:26026722

  13. Developing Models of Communicative Competence: Conceptual, Statistical, and Methodological Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cziko, Gary A.

    The development of an empirically based model of communicative competence is discussed in terms of conceptual, statistical, and methodological considerations. A distinction is made between descriptive and working models of communicative competence. Working models attempt to show how components of communicative competence are interrelated…

  14. The uniqueness of the human dentition as forensic evidence: a systematic review on the technological methodology.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ademir; Willems, Guy; Souza, Paulo Henrique Couto; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Thevissen, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    The uniqueness of human dentition is routinely approached as identification evidence in forensic odontology. Specifically in bitemark and human identification cases, positive identifications are obtained under the hypothesis that two individuals do not have the same dental features. The present study compiles methodological information from articles on the uniqueness of human dentition to support investigations into the mentioned hypothesis. In April 2014, three electronic library databases (SciELO®, MEDLINE®/PubMed®, and LILACS®) were systematically searched. In parallel, reference lists of relevant studies were also screened. From the obtained articles (n = 1235), 13 full-text articles were considered eligible. They were examined according to the studied parameters: the sample size, the number of examined teeth, the registration technique for data collection, the methods for data analysis, and the study outcomes. Six combinations of studied data were detected: (1) dental shape, size, angulation, and position (n = 1); (2) dental shape, size, and angulation (n = 4); (3) dental shape and size (n = 5); (4) dental angulation and position (n = 2); (5) dental shape and angulation (n = 1); and (6) dental shape (n = 1). The sample size ranged between 10 and 1099 human dentitions. Ten articles examined the six anterior teeth, while three articles examined more teeth. Four articles exclusively addressed three-dimensional (3D) data registration, while six articles used two-dimensional (2D) imaging. In three articles, both imaging registrations were combined. Most articles (n = 9) explored the data using landmark placement. The other articles (n = 4) comprised digital comparison of superimposed dental contours. Although there were large methodological variations within the investigated articles, the uniqueness of human dentition remains unproved. PMID:25398633

  15. Statistical Methodologies to Integrate Experimental and Computational Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. A.; Johnson, R. T.; Montgomery, D. C.

    2008-01-01

    Development of advanced algorithms for simulating engine flow paths requires the integration of fundamental experiments with the validation of enhanced mathematical models. In this paper, we provide an overview of statistical methods to strategically and efficiently conduct experiments and computational model refinement. Moreover, the integration of experimental and computational research efforts is emphasized. With a statistical engineering perspective, scientific and engineering expertise is combined with statistical sciences to gain deeper insights into experimental phenomenon and code development performance; supporting the overall research objectives. The particular statistical methods discussed are design of experiments, response surface methodology, and uncertainty analysis and planning. Their application is illustrated with a coaxial free jet experiment and a turbulence model refinement investigation. Our goal is to provide an overview, focusing on concepts rather than practice, to demonstrate the benefits of using statistical methods in research and development, thereby encouraging their broader and more systematic application.

  16. Improving the Statistical Methodology of Astronomical Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, Gutti Jogesh

    Contemporary observational astronomers are generally unfamiliar with the extensive advances made in mathematical and applied statistics during the past several decades. Astronomical problems can often be addressed by methods developed in statistical fields such as spatial point processes, density estimation, Bayesian statistics, and sampling theory. The common problem of bivariate linear regression illustrates the need for sophisticated methods. Astronomical problems often require combinations of ordinary least-squares lines, double-weighted and errors-in-variables models, censored and truncated regressions, each with its own error analysis procedure. The recent conference Statistical Challenges in Modern Astronomy highlighted issues of mutual interest to statisticians and astronomers including clustering of point processes and time series analysis. We conclude with advice on how the astronomical community can advance its statistical methodology with improvements in education of astrophysicists, collaboration and consultation with professional statisticians, and acquisition of new software.

  17. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  18. Specifying digital forensics: A forensics policy approach

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Carol Louise; Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we present an approach to digital forensics specification based on forensic policy definition. Our methodology borrows from computer security policy specification, which has accumulated a significant body of research over the past 30 years. We first define the process of specifying forensics properties through a forensics policy and then present an example application of the process. This approach lends itself to formal policy specification and verification, which would allow for more clarity and less ambiguity in the specification process

  19. A Hierarchical Statistic Methodology for Advanced Memory System Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, X.-J.; He, D.; Cameron, K.W.; Luo, Y.

    1999-04-12

    Advances in technology have resulted in a widening of the gap between computing speed and memory access time. Data access time has become increasingly important for computer system design. Various hierarchical memory architectures have been developed. The performance of these advanced memory systems, however, varies with applications and problem sizes. How to reach an optimal cost/performance design eludes researchers still. In this study, the authors introduce an evaluation methodology for advanced memory systems. This methodology is based on statistical factorial analysis and performance scalability analysis. It is two fold: it first determines the impact of memory systems and application programs toward overall performance; it also identifies the bottleneck in a memory hierarchy and provides cost/performance comparisons via scalability analysis. Different memory systems can be compared in terms of mean performance or scalability over a range of codes and problem sizes. Experimental testing has been performed extensively on the Department of Energy's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) machines and benchmarks available at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to validate this newly proposed methodology. Experimental and analytical results show this methodology is simple and effective. It is a practical tool for memory system evaluation and design. Its extension to general architectural evaluation and parallel computer systems are possible and should be further explored.

  20. Statistical process control for hospitals: methodology, user education, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Matthes, Nikolas; Ogunbo, Samuel; Pennington, Gaither; Wood, Nell; Hart, Marilyn K; Hart, Robert F

    2007-01-01

    The health care industry is slowly embracing the use of statistical process control (SPC) to monitor and study causes of variation in health care processes. While the statistics and principles underlying the use of SPC are relatively straightforward, there is a need to be cognizant of the perils that await the user who is not well versed in the key concepts of SPC. This article introduces the theory behind SPC methodology, describes successful tactics for educating users, and discusses the challenges associated with encouraging adoption of SPC among health care professionals. To illustrate these benefits and challenges, this article references the National Hospital Quality Measures, presents critical elements of SPC curricula, and draws examples from hospitals that have successfully embedded SPC into their overall approach to performance assessment and improvement. PMID:17627215

  1. Statistical methodologies to pool across multiple intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Bhargava, Alok; O'Connor, Daniel P; Robinson, Thomas N; Michie, Susan; Murray, David M; Stevens, June; Belle, Steven H; Templin, Thomas N; Pratt, Charlotte A

    2016-06-01

    Combining and analyzing data from heterogeneous randomized controlled trials of complex multiple-component intervention studies, or discussing them in a systematic review, is not straightforward. The present article describes certain issues to be considered when combining data across studies, based on discussions in an NIH-sponsored workshop on pooling issues across studies in consortia (see Belle et al. in Psychol Aging, 18(3):396-405, 2003). Several statistical methodologies are described and their advantages and limitations are explored. Whether weighting the different studies data differently, or via employing random effects, one must recognize that different pooling methodologies may yield different results. Pooling can be used for comprehensive exploratory analyses of data from RCTs and should not be viewed as replacing the standard analysis plan for each study. Pooling may help to identify intervention components that may be more effective especially for subsets of participants with certain behavioral characteristics. Pooling, when supported by statistical tests, can allow exploratory investigation of potential hypotheses and for the design of future interventions. PMID:27356993

  2. Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2013-02-01

    The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversary's task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

  3. Genetic identification of horse mackerel and related species in seafood products by means of forensically informative nucleotide sequencing methodology.

    PubMed

    Lago, Fátima C; Herrero, Beatriz; Vieites, Juan M; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2011-03-23

    In the present study, a methodology based on the amplification of a fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome b and subsequent phylogenetic analysis (FINS: forensically informative nucleotide sequencing) to genetically identify horse mackerels have been developed. This methodology makes possible the identification of more than 20 species belonging to the families Carangidae, Mullidae, and Scombridae. The main novelty of this work lies in the longest number of different horse mackerel species included and in the applicability of the developed methods to all kinds of processed products that can be found by consumers in markets around the world, including those that have undergone intensive processes of transformation, as for instance canned foods. Finally, the methods were applied to 15 commercial samples, all of them canned products. Therefore, these methods are useful for checking the fulfillment of labeling regulations for horse mackerels and horse mackerel products, verifying the correct traceability in commercial trade, and fisheries control. PMID:21332203

  4. Dental Evidence in Forensic Identification - An Overview, Methodology and Present Status.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Garg, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Forensic odontology is primarily concerned with the use of teeth and oral structures for identification in a legal context. Various forensic odontology techniques help in the identification of the human remains in incidents such as terrorists' attacks, airplane, train and road accidents, fires, mass murders, and natural disasters such as tsunamis, earth quakes and floods, etc. (Disaster Victim Identification-DVI). Dental structures are the hardest and well protected structures in the body. These structures resist decomposition and high temperatures and are among the last ones to disintegrate after death. The principal basis of the dental identification lies in the fact that no two oral cavities are alike and the teeth are unique to an individual. The dental evidence of the deceased recovered from the scene of crime/occurrence is compared with the ante-mortem records for identification. Dental features such as tooth morphology, variations in shape and size, restorations, pathologies, missing tooth, wear patterns, crowding of the teeth, colour and position of the tooth, rotations and other peculiar dental anomalies give every individual a unique identity. In absence of ante-mortem dental records for comparison, the teeth can help in the determination of age, sex, race/ethnicity, habits, occupations, etc. which can give further clues regarding the identity of the individuals. This piece of writing gives an overview of dental evidence, its use in forensic identification and its limitations. PMID:26312096

  5. Dental Evidence in Forensic Identification – An Overview, Methodology and Present Status

    PubMed Central

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Garg, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Forensic odontology is primarily concerned with the use of teeth and oral structures for identification in a legal context. Various forensic odontology techniques help in the identification of the human remains in incidents such as terrorists’ attacks, airplane, train and road accidents, fires, mass murders, and natural disasters such as tsunamis, earth quakes and floods, etc. (Disaster Victim Identification-DVI). Dental structures are the hardest and well protected structures in the body. These structures resist decomposition and high temperatures and are among the last ones to disintegrate after death. The principal basis of the dental identification lies in the fact that no two oral cavities are alike and the teeth are unique to an individual. The dental evidence of the deceased recovered from the scene of crime/occurrence is compared with the ante-mortem records for identification. Dental features such as tooth morphology, variations in shape and size, restorations, pathologies, missing tooth, wear patterns, crowding of the teeth, colour and position of the tooth, rotations and other peculiar dental anomalies give every individual a unique identity. In absence of ante-mortem dental records for comparison, the teeth can help in the determination of age, sex, race/ethnicity, habits, occupations, etc. which can give further clues regarding the identity of the individuals. This piece of writing gives an overview of dental evidence, its use in forensic identification and its limitations. PMID:26312096

  6. A validation framework for microbial forensic methods based on statistical pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P

    2007-11-12

    This report discusses a general approach to validating microbial forensic methods that attempt to simultaneously distinguish among many hypotheses concerning the manufacture of a questioned biological agent sample. It focuses on the concrete example of determining growth medium from chemical or molecular properties of a bacterial agent to illustrate the concepts involved.

  7. Methodological and statistical considerations for exercise-related hormone evaluations.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, M S; Chu, S Y; Mureika, R

    1995-08-01

    Improvements in laboratory techniques have allowed research related to exercise endocrinology to flourish. The emerging literature, however, is often inconsistent and contradictory. The discrepancies in research findings are possibly the result of poor control of confounding variables and/or inappropriate methodologies or analyses. Environmental and pretesting behavioural conditions must be standardised to minimise the influence of variables not directly related to the investigation. Environmental temperature and relative humidity, alcohol, caffeine and nicotine intake, prandial state, sleep deprivation and previous exercise can each alter hormonal responses to exercise. Both prescription and over-the-counter medications can also modify normal hormonal secretions thereby confusing exercise-induced findings. Specimen collection and analysis procedures must be controlled carefully. Changes in plasma volume related to postural changes or tourniquet-induced stasis can confound attempts to isolate exercise-related endocrine responses. The established circadian and rhythmical variations characteristic of many hormones need to be controlled. The specimen selection (plasma, serum, urine, etc), collection, storage and analysis procedures should be carefully planned and evaluated. The magnitude of haemolysis, analytical and biological variation must also be monitored. Isolating the hormonal perturbations resulting from a particular exercise variable can be very difficult. Exercise intensity, duration, mode, frequency and volume may each have specific effects on the endocrine changes seen with exercise and training. Furthermore, hormonal responses to exercise are dependent upon initial training status and fitness level. The statistical procedures and data presentation options selected to convey experimental findings can bias experimental results. The descriptive and inferential statistics to be used for data analysis should be preplanned and consistent with the underlying

  8. Assessing the quantified impact of a hybrid POGIL methodology on student averages in a forensic science survey course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeks, Tyna L.

    A causal-comparative/quasi experimental study examined the effect of incorporating a hybrid teaching methodology that blended lecture with Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Lessons (POGILs) on the overall academic achievement of a diverse student body in a large lecture setting. Additional considerations included student gender, ethnicity, declared major (STEM or non-STEM), and SAT scores. An evaluation of the effect that these characteristics had on student achievement due to differentiating import placed on the use of POGILs as a learning tool was included. This study used data obtained from a longitudinal examination of eight years of student data from an introductory forensic science survey course offered in a R1 northeastern university. This study addressed the effectiveness of applying a proscribed active learning methodology, one proposed effective in collegiate education, to a new environment, forensic science. The methodology employed combined fourteen POGILs, created specifically for the chosen course, with didactic lecture during the entire semester of a forensic science survey course. This quasi-experimental design used the manipulation of the independent variable, the use of a hybrid lecture instead of exclusive use of traditional didactic lectures, on the students' academic achievement on exams given during the course. Participants in this study (N=1436) were undergraduate students enrolled in the single semester introductory science course. A longitudinal study that incorporated eight years of data was completed, 4 years pre-intervention (2007-2010) and 4 years post-intervention (2011-2014). The forensic science survey course, taught by only one professor during the eight-year period, was a science discipline that had yet to integrate an active learning educational model. Findings indicate four variables significantly contributed to explaining nearly 28% of the variation seen in the student class averages earned during the eight-year period: the

  9. Establishing forensic search methodologies and geophysical surveying for the detection of clandestine graves in coastal beach environments.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Jamie K; Holland, Claire; Szkornik, Katie; Harrison, Mark

    2012-06-10

    A 2010 UK police search for a clandestine burial highlighted the need for more information and quantitative data to aid coastal beach searches. This study aimed to address this by establishing relevant forensic search methodologies to aid the search for clandestine coastal burial sites, using the North West English coastline as a search area. A set of parameters were established, including criteria such as tidal range, proximity to vehicular access points and distance from inhabited areas, which may inform forensic searches by prioritising likely locations of clandestine burials. Three prioritised coastal locations were subsequently identified: (1) coastal dunes at Formby, (2) coastal dunes and (3) beach foreshore at Southport, all sites part of the Liverpool City Region in the United Kingdom. At all locations, simulated clandestine graves were hand-dug by spades into which a naked adult-sized, metal-jointed fiberglass mannequin was buried at 0.5 m below ground level. Trial geophysical surveys were then undertaken with the aim of identifying the optimal geophysical instrumentation and technique to deploy in such environments. GPR data showed 450 MHz frequency antennae to be optimal, with significantly poor data obtained from the foreshore area due to saline seawater. Electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility surveys were successful in coastal environments in target detection (albeit not in non-vegetated sand dunes), with resistivity fixed-offset configurations deemed optimal. The latter survey successes may be due to the recent disturbed 'grave' rather than the target, which itself is of interest in terms of identifying the most recent clandestine burials. PMID:22285503

  10. A statistical approach based on accumulated degree-days to predict decomposition-related processes in forensic studies.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Jean-Philippe; Moreau, Gaétan

    2011-01-01

    Using pig carcasses exposed over 3 years in rural fields during spring, summer, and fall, we studied the relationship between decomposition stages and degree-day accumulation (i) to verify the predictability of the decomposition stages used in forensic entomology to document carcass decomposition and (ii) to build a degree-day accumulation model applicable to various decomposition-related processes. Results indicate that the decomposition stages can be predicted with accuracy from temperature records and that a reliable degree-day index can be developed to study decomposition-related processes. The development of degree-day indices opens new doors for researchers and allows for the application of inferential tools unaffected by climatic variability, as well as for the inclusion of statistics in a science that is primarily descriptive and in need of validation methods in courtroom proceedings. PMID:21198596

  11. Establishing the robustness of short-tandem-repeat statistics for forensic applications.

    PubMed Central

    Evett, I. W.; Gill, P. D.; Scrange, J. K.; Weir, B. S.

    1996-01-01

    Before the introduction of a four-locus multiplex short-tandem-repeat (STR) system into casework, an extensive series of tests were carried out to determine robust procedures for assessing the evidential value of a match between crime and suspect samples. Twelve databases were analyzed from the three main ethnic groups encountered in casework in the United Kingdom: Caucasians, Afro-Caribbeans, and Asians from the Indian subcontinent. Independence tests resulted in a number of significant results, and the impact that these might have on forensic casework was investigated. It is demonstrated that previously published methods provide a simple procedure for correcting allele frequencies--and that this leads to conservative casework estimates of evidential value. PMID:8571967

  12. Methodological difficulties of conducting agroecological studies from a statistical perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Statistical methods for analysing agroecological data might not be able to help agroecologists to solve all of the current problems concerning crop and animal husbandry, but such methods could well help agroecologists to assess, tackle, and resolve several agroecological issues in a more reliable an...

  13. Methodological and Statistical Problems in Discerning Profile Reliability: Comment on Roffe and Bryant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.

    1979-01-01

    A variety of methodological and statistical problems in the Roffe and Bryant study of the McCarthy Scales' profile reliability are pointed out. Alternative procedures and more efficacious use of the Roffe and Bryant data are suggested. (Author)

  14. Statistical methodologies for the control of dynamic remapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltz, J. H.; Nicol, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Following an initial mapping of a problem onto a multiprocessor machine or computer network, system performance often deteriorates with time. In order to maintain high performance, it may be necessary to remap the problem. The decision to remap must take into account measurements of performance deterioration, the cost of remapping, and the estimated benefits achieved by remapping. We examine the tradeoff between the costs and the benefits of remapping two qualitatively different kinds of problems. One problem assumes that performance deteriorates gradually, the other assumes that performance deteriorates suddenly. We consider a variety of policies for governing when to remap. In order to evaluate these policies, statistical models of problem behaviors are developed. Simulation results are presented which compare simple policies with computationally expensive optimal decision policies; these results demonstrate that for each problem type, the proposed simple policies are effective and robust.

  15. Automatic brain tumor detection in MRI: methodology and statistical validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Islam, Mohammad A.; Shaik, Jahangheer; Parra, Carlos; Ogg, Robert

    2005-04-01

    Automated brain tumor segmentation and detection are immensely important in medical diagnostics because it provides information associated to anatomical structures as well as potential abnormal tissue necessary to delineate appropriate surgical planning. In this work, we propose a novel automated brain tumor segmentation technique based on multiresolution texture information that combines fractal Brownian motion (fBm) and wavelet multiresolution analysis. Our wavelet-fractal technique combines the excellent multiresolution localization property of wavelets to texture extraction of fractal. We prove the efficacy of our technique by successfully segmenting pediatric brain MR images (MRIs) from St. Jude Children"s Research Hospital. We use self-organizing map (SOM) as our clustering tool wherein we exploit both pixel intensity and multiresolution texture features to obtain segmented tumor. Our test results show that our technique successfully segments abnormal brain tissues in a set of T1 images. In the next step, we design a classifier using Feed-Forward (FF) neural network to statistically validate the presence of tumor in MRI using both the multiresolution texture and the pixel intensity features. We estimate the corresponding receiver operating curve (ROC) based on the findings of true positive fractions and false positive fractions estimated from our classifier at different threshold values. An ROC, which can be considered as a gold standard to prove the competence of a classifier, is obtained to ascertain the sensitivity and specificity of our classifier. We observe that at threshold 0.4 we achieve true positive value of 1.0 (100%) sacrificing only 0.16 (16%) false positive value for the set of 50 T1 MRI analyzed in this experiment.

  16. Exclusions and attributions of paternity: practical experiences of forensic genetics and statistics.

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, J

    1980-01-01

    The Swedish State Institute for Blood Group Serology is a central government laboratory handling all blood typing in paternity cases in Sweden, each year testing 1,500-2,000 cases using about 13 polymorphisms. Of the accused men, 35%-40% are nonfathers, but in one-man cases (about 78% of all cases), approximately 75% are the true fathers. Exclusions appear to be distributed as expected from allele frequencies, and the paternity probability of nonexcluded men is assessed with a Bayesian approach. Some cases are retested in extended investigations which raise theoretical exclusion capability from about 87% to about 99%. Both the results of extended investigations and the theoretical consideration of the distribution of paternity probabilities support the use of such positive statistical evidence for the attribution of paternity. PMID:6930157

  17. Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  18. Cocaine profiling for strategic intelligence, a cross-border project between France and Switzerland: part II. Validation of the statistical methodology for the profiling of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Lociciro, S; Esseiva, P; Hayoz, P; Dujourdy, L; Besacier, F; Margot, P

    2008-05-20

    Harmonisation and optimization of analytical and statistical methodologies were carried out between two forensic laboratories (Lausanne, Switzerland and Lyon, France) in order to provide drug intelligence for cross-border cocaine seizures. Part I dealt with the optimization of the analytical method and its robustness. This second part investigates statistical methodologies that will provide reliable comparison of cocaine seizures analysed on two different gas chromatographs interfaced with a flame ionisation detectors (GC-FIDs) in two distinct laboratories. Sixty-six statistical combinations (ten data pre-treatments followed by six different distance measurements and correlation coefficients) were applied. One pre-treatment (N+S: area of each peak is divided by its standard deviation calculated from the whole data set) followed by the Cosine or Pearson correlation coefficients were found to be the best statistical compromise for optimal discrimination of linked and non-linked samples. The centralisation of the analyses in one single laboratory is not a required condition anymore to compare samples seized in different countries. This allows collaboration, but also, jurisdictional control over data. PMID:18272309

  19. Forensics Investigator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Careers Career Profiles Forensics Investigator Overview Description Forensic science technicians investigate crimes by collecting and analyzing physical evidence. Often, they specialize in areas such as ...

  20. The Statistical point of view of Quality: the Lean Six Sigma methodology.

    PubMed

    Bertolaccini, Luca; Viti, Andrea; Terzi, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Six Sigma and Lean are two quality improvement methodologies. The Lean Six Sigma methodology is applicable to repetitive procedures. Therefore, the use of this methodology in the health-care arena has focused mainly on areas of business operations, throughput, and case management and has focused on efficiency outcomes. After the revision of methodology, the paper presents a brief clinical example of the use of Lean Six Sigma as a quality improvement method in the reduction of the complications during and after lobectomies. Using Lean Six Sigma methodology, the multidisciplinary teams could identify multiple modifiable points across the surgical process. These process improvements could be applied to different surgical specialties and could result in a measurement, from statistical point of view, of the surgical quality. PMID:25973253

  1. The Statistical point of view of Quality: the Lean Six Sigma methodology

    PubMed Central

    Viti, Andrea; Terzi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Six Sigma and Lean are two quality improvement methodologies. The Lean Six Sigma methodology is applicable to repetitive procedures. Therefore, the use of this methodology in the health-care arena has focused mainly on areas of business operations, throughput, and case management and has focused on efficiency outcomes. After the revision of methodology, the paper presents a brief clinical example of the use of Lean Six Sigma as a quality improvement method in the reduction of the complications during and after lobectomies. Using Lean Six Sigma methodology, the multidisciplinary teams could identify multiple modifiable points across the surgical process. These process improvements could be applied to different surgical specialties and could result in a measurement, from statistical point of view, of the surgical quality. PMID:25973253

  2. Embedding Forensic Capabilities into Networks: Addressing Inefficiencies in Digital Forensics Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deb A.

    2006-08-01

    A typical incident response pits technicians against networks that aren't prepared forensically. [1, 2] If practitioners do consider collecting network forensic data, they face a choice between expending extraordinary effort (time and money) collecting forensically sound data, or simply restoring the network as quickly as possible. In this context, the concept of organizational network forensic readiness has emerged. This paper proposes a methodology for "operationalizing" organizational network forensic readiness. The methodology, and the theoretical analysis that led to its development, are offered as a conceptual framework for thinking about more efficient, proactive approaches to digital forensics on networks.

  3. Fixed-bin analysis for statistical evaluation of continuous distributions of allelic data from VNTR loci, for use in forensic comparisons.

    PubMed Central

    Budowle, B; Giusti, A M; Waye, J S; Baechtel, F S; Fourney, R M; Adams, D E; Presley, L A; Deadman, H A; Monson, K L

    1991-01-01

    The detection of DNA polymorphisms by RFLP analysis is having a major impact on identity testing in forensic science. At present, this approach is the best effort a forensic scientist can make to exclude an individual who has been falsely associated with an evidentiary sample found at a crime scene. When an analysis fails to exclude a suspect as a potential contributor of an evidentiary sample, a means should be provided to assess suitable weight to the putative match. Most important, the statistical analysis should not place undue weight on a genetic profile derived from an unknown sample that is attributed to an accused individual. The method must allow for limitations in conventional agarose-submarine-gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting procedure, limited sample population data, possible subpopulation differences, and potential sampling error. A conservative statistical method was developed based on arbitrarily defined fixed bins. This approach permits classification of continuous allelic data, provides for a simple and portable data-base system, and is unlikely to underestimate the frequency of occurrence of a set of alleles. This will help ensure that undue weight is not placed on a sample attributed to an accused individual. Images Figure 2 PMID:1673286

  4. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, P. G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

  5. Study design, methodology and statistical analyses in the clinical development of sparfloxacin.

    PubMed

    Genevois, E; Lelouer, V; Vercken, J B; Caillon, R

    1996-05-01

    Many publications in the past 10 years have emphasised the difficulties of evaluating anti-infective drugs and the need for well-designed clinical trials in this therapeutic field. The clinical development of sparfloxacin in Europe, involving more than 4000 patients in ten countries, provided the opportunity to implement a methodology for evaluation and statistical analyses which would take into account actual requirements and past insufficiencies. This methodology focused on a rigorous and accurate patient classification for evaluability, subgroups of particular interest, efficacy assessment based on automation (algorithm) and individual case review by expert panel committees. In addition, the statistical analyses did not use significance testing but rather confidence intervals to determine whether sparfloxacin was therapeutically equivalent to the reference comparator antibacterial agents. PMID:8737126

  6. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  7. Forensic Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, William D; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques. PMID:26070716

  8. Forensic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  9. CPR methodology with new steady-state criterion and more accurate statistical treatment of channel bow

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, S.; Bieli, R.; Bergmann, U. C.

    2012-07-01

    An overview is given of existing CPR design criteria and the methods used in BWR reload analysis to evaluate the impact of channel bow on CPR margins. Potential weaknesses in today's methodologies are discussed. Westinghouse in collaboration with KKL and Axpo - operator and owner of the Leibstadt NPP - has developed an optimized CPR methodology based on a new criterion to protect against dryout during normal operation and with a more rigorous treatment of channel bow. The new steady-state criterion is expressed in terms of an upper limit of 0.01 for the dryout failure probability per year. This is considered a meaningful and appropriate criterion that can be directly related to the probabilistic criteria set-up for the analyses of Anticipated Operation Occurrences (AOOs) and accidents. In the Monte Carlo approach a statistical modeling of channel bow and an accurate evaluation of CPR response functions allow the associated CPR penalties to be included directly in the plant SLMCPR and OLMCPR in a best-estimate manner. In this way, the treatment of channel bow is equivalent to all other uncertainties affecting CPR. Emphasis is put on quantifying the statistical distribution of channel bow throughout the core using measurement data. The optimized CPR methodology has been implemented in the Westinghouse Monte Carlo code, McSLAP. The methodology improves the quality of dryout safety assessments by supplying more valuable information and better control of conservatisms in establishing operational limits for CPR. The methodology is demonstrated with application examples from the introduction at KKL. (authors)

  10. Statistical methodology for exploring elevational differences in precipitation chemistry. [Dependence on site and elevation

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, W.G.; Boehm, M.; Link, D.

    1992-01-01

    A statistical methodology for exploring the relationships between elevation and precipitation chemistry is outlined and illustrated. The methodology utilizes maximum likelihood estimates and likelihood ratio tests with contour ellipses of assumed bivariate lognormal distributions used to assist in interpretation. The approach was illustrated using 12 NADP/NTN sites located in six study areas in the Wyoming and Colorado Rockies. These sites are part of the Rocky Mountain Deposition Monitoring Project (RMDMP), which was initiated in 1986 to investigate the relationships between elevation and the chemistry of precipitation. The results indicate differences in sulfate concentrations between airsheds, between snow and rain, and between higher and lower elevations. In general, sulfate concentrations in snow are greater at lower elevations and this difference is independent of concentration. A similar relationship for rain was not well established. In addition there is evidence that, overall, the sulfate concentrations differed between the six study areas, although pairwise differences were not always significant.

  11. Causes of death among detainees: a statistical study on the casework of the Forensic Medicine Institute in Cluj-Napoca during the period 2000–2014

    PubMed Central

    GHERMAN, CRISTIAN; CHIROBAN, OVIDIU

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims The detainees’ right to healthcare is granted by laws, in accordance with EU directives and recommendations to which our country has consented. Prison population is a particularly vulnerable and marginalized group characterized by mortality rates different from the general population. This study aims at providing a picture of the causes of death, quality of healthcare and measures needed to reduce the number of in-prison deaths, including legal medicine expertise in view of sentence postponement/interruption. Methods The present paper is based on the statistical analysis of in-prison deaths casework recorded at the Forensic Medicine Institute of Cluj-Napoca and provided by territorially subordinated counties forensic services. The data collected cover over 15 years (2000–2014), a period long enough for significant retrospective statistical analysis. Results The total number of deaths among the inmates was 113, the majority of male sex (110). Distribution by age groups shows a greater incidence among inmates aged 50 to 59 years (32 cases, 28.31%), followed by those in their 40s’ (30 cases, 26.54%) and 30s’ (25 cases, 22.12%). The most frequent pathological causes of death were cardiovascular (53 cases) followed by tumors (26 cases) and infectious diseases. A significant number of deaths were due to violent causes (14 cases-12,38%). Conclusions Special problems are raised by the high number of deaths among prisoners, especially at a young age, while the high frequency of violent deaths from self- or non-self-inflicted traumatic causes requires supervision, monitoring and continuous analysis. Despite recent improvements, healthcare in prisons still poses some problems, mainly regarding diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases, neurosurgery and cancer. PMID:26609263

  12. New advances in methodology for statistical tests useful in geostatistical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Borgman, L.E.

    1988-05-01

    Methodology for statistical procedures to perform tests of hypothesis pertaining to various aspects of geostatistical investigations has been slow in developing. The correlated nature of the data precludes most classical tests and makes the design of new tests difficult. Recent studies have led to modifications of the classical t test which allow for the intercorrelation. In addition, results for certain nonparametric tests have been obtained. The conclusions of these studies provide a variety of new tools for the geostatistician in deciding questions on significant differences and magnitudes.

  13. Statistical evaluation of metal fill widths for emulated metal fill in parasitic extraction methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J-Me, Teh; Noh, Norlaili Mohd.; Aziz, Zalina Abdul

    2015-05-01

    In the chip industry today, the key goal of a chip development organization is to develop and market chips within a short time frame to gain foothold on market share. This paper proposes a design flow around the area of parasitic extraction to improve the design cycle time. The proposed design flow utilizes the usage of metal fill emulation as opposed to the current flow which performs metal fill insertion directly. By replacing metal fill structures with an emulation methodology in earlier iterations of the design flow, this is targeted to help reduce runtime in fill insertion stage. Statistical design of experiments methodology utilizing the randomized complete block design was used to select an appropriate emulated metal fill width to improve emulation accuracy. The experiment was conducted on test cases of different sizes, ranging from 1000 gates to 21000 gates. The metal width was varied from 1 x minimum metal width to 6 x minimum metal width. Two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least significant difference test were used to analyze the interconnect net capacitance values of the different test cases. This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis for the 45 nm process technology. The recommended emulated metal fill width was found to be 4 x the minimum metal width.

  14. Breast cancer statistics and prediction methodology: a systematic review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar; Gupta, Umesh; Jain, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a menacing cancer, primarily affecting women. Continuous research is going on for detecting breast cancer in the early stage as the possibility of cure in early stages is bright. There are two main objectives of this current study, first establish statistics for breast cancer and second to find methodologies which can be helpful in the early stage detection of the breast cancer based on previous studies. The breast cancer statistics for incidence and mortality of the UK, US, India and Egypt were considered for this study. The finding of this study proved that the overall mortality rates of the UK and US have been improved because of awareness, improved medical technology and screening, but in case of India and Egypt the condition is less positive because of lack of awareness. The methodological findings of this study suggest a combined framework based on data mining and evolutionary algorithms. It provides a strong bridge in improving the classification and detection accuracy of breast cancer data. PMID:26028079

  15. Weather Typing Statistical Downscaling with dsclim: Diagnostic methodology and configuration sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, C.; Albertus, G.

    2013-12-01

    The 8-km output of the statistical downscaling methodology dsclim has been used since a few years to perform impacts and adaptation studies in France. The dsclim method is resampling the Météo-France SAFRAN observation mesoscale analysis. Since then, the SAFRAN observation period has been extended from 1981-2005 to 1958-2012. At the same time, there are strong needs of cross-national impact studies, hence the required use of an European observation dataset in the methodology. In this context, a diagnostic package has been developed to properly evaluate the downscaling methodology and its performance: it enables to evaluate the sensitivity and the impacts of the changes in its configuration, taking also properly into account stochastic aspects. In this study we evaluated the impacts on the results with respect to the extension of the learning period from 1981-2005 to 1958-2012, as well as the comparison on the use of the EOBS dataset instead of SAFRAN, having the objective of running dsclim over a larger region within the EU FP7 SPECS project and the EU COST Action VALUE downscaling methods intercomparison. This study was funded by the EU project SPECS funded by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Research Programme under the grant agreement 243964.

  16. Computer-assisted systems for forensic pathology and forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Druid, H; Holmgren, P; Löwenhielm, P

    1996-09-01

    A computer software, RättsBASE (RB), was developed for all forensic pathology units in Sweden and introduced in 1992. Simultaneously, a corresponding software, ToxBASE (TB), was developed for the Department of Forensic Toxicology, where all forensic toxicology in Sweden is managed. Both of the databases were created using dBASE IV, and the programming was carried out according to specifications from the staff at the forensic toxicology and forensic pathology units. since the development or RB and TB was coordinated, the systems can run together smoothly. The purpose of both systems was to automate the offices and to enable compilation of detailed statistics. Installation of Novell Netware and ISDN-connections (Integrated Service Digital Network) has enabled rapid communication between the units and easy compilation of nationwide statistics of forensic pathology and forensic toxicology. the systems offer a wide spectrum of reports and include a simple module for evaluation of the importance of the forensic efforts for th whole death investigation. The configuration of the softwares has also enabled processing of a large amount of related toxicological and autopsy data that in turn has yielded a base for compilation of toxicology interpretation lists. This article includes a summary of the features of the software and a discussion of its benefits and limitations. PMID:15637819

  17. Demonstration of a software design and statistical analysis methodology with application to patient outcomes data sets

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Charles; Conners, Steve; Warren, Christopher; Miller, Robert; Court, Laurence; Popple, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With emergence of clinical outcomes databases as tools utilized routinely within institutions, comes need for software tools to support automated statistical analysis of these large data sets and intrainstitutional exchange from independent federated databases to support data pooling. In this paper, the authors present a design approach and analysis methodology that addresses both issues. Methods: A software application was constructed to automate analysis of patient outcomes data using a wide range of statistical metrics, by combining use of C#.Net and R code. The accuracy and speed of the code was evaluated using benchmark data sets. Results: The approach provides data needed to evaluate combinations of statistical measurements for ability to identify patterns of interest in the data. Through application of the tools to a benchmark data set for dose-response threshold and to SBRT lung data sets, an algorithm was developed that uses receiver operator characteristic curves to identify a threshold value and combines use of contingency tables, Fisher exact tests, Welch t-tests, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to filter the large data set to identify values demonstrating dose-response. Kullback-Leibler divergences were used to provide additional confirmation. Conclusions: The work demonstrates the viability of the design approach and the software tool for analysis of large data sets. PMID:24320426

  18. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  19. Methodological and Statistical Quality in Research Evaluating Nutritional Attitudes in Sports.

    PubMed

    Kouvelioti, Rozalia; Vagenas, George

    2015-12-01

    The assessment of dietary attitudes and behaviors provides information of interest to sports nutritionists. Although there has been little analysis of the quality of research undertaken in this field, there is evidence of a number of flaws and methodological concerns in some of the studies in the available literature. This review undertook a systematic assessment of the attributes of research assessing the nutritional knowledge and attitudes of athletes and coaches. Sixty questionnaire-based studies were identified by a search of official databases using specific key terms with subsequent analysis by certain inclusion-exclusion criteria. These studies were then analyzed using 33 research quality criteria related to the methods, questionnaires, and statistics used. We found that many studies did not provide information on critical issues such as research hypotheses (92%), the gaining of ethics approval (50%) or informed consent (35%), or acknowledgment of limitations in the implementation of studies or interpretation of data (72%). Many of the samples were nonprobabilistic (85%) and rather small (42%). Many questionnaires were of unknown origin (30%), validity (72%), and reliability (70%) and resulted in low (≤ 60%) response rates (38%). Pilot testing was not undertaken in 67% of the studies. Few studies dealt with sample size (2%), power (3%), assumptions (7%), confidence intervals (3%), or effect sizes (3%). Improving some of these problems and deficits may enhance future research in this field. PMID:26314085

  20. A statistical comparison of protein and carbohydrate characterisation methodology applied on sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Julie; Vedrenne, Fabien; Denis, Cécile; Mottet, Alexis; Déléris, Stephane; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Cacho Rivero, Jesús Andrés

    2013-04-01

    Biochemical characterization of organic matter is becoming of key importance in wastewater treatment. The main objectives are to predict organic matter properties, such as granulation or flocculation, and hence treatment performance. Although standardized methods do exist for some organic molecules, such as volatile fatty acids or lipids, there are no standard methods to measure proteins and carbohydrates content, both biochemical families being the main components of sewage sludge. Consequently, the aim of the present work is to investigate the efficiency of several colorimetric methods to determine proteins and carbohydrates content as well as their compatibility with the sludge matrices. The different methods have been evaluated based on statistical criteria such as sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, rightness, and specificity using standard molecules such as Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), glucose, cellulose and a certified reference product. The Lowry and the Dubois methods have been shown to be the best compromise for the considered criteria after having been tested on sewage sludge samples obtained from different locations in a wastewater treatment plant. In average, the measured volatile fatty acids, lipids, proteins and carbohydrates contents represented 80 ± 7% (% volatile solids) of the organic matter. Proteins and carbohydrates represented in average 69 ± 3%. This study underlined that the choice of a relevant methodology is of great importance for organic matter measurement. PMID:23357791

  1. Development of a simple and low-cost enzymatic methodology for quantitative analysis of carbamates in meat samples of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Bruno Duarte; Torraca, Tathiana Guilliod; Moura, Claudia Melo; Rozenbaum, Hannah Felicia; de Castro Faria, Mauro Velho

    2010-05-01

    Foods contaminated with a granulated material similar to Temik (a commercial pesticide formulation containing the carbamate insecticide aldicarb) are often involved in accidental ingestion, suicides, and homicides in Brazil. We developed a simple technique to detect aldicarb. This technique is based on the inhibition of a stable preparation of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, and it is specially adapted for forensic purposes. It comprises an initial extraction step with the solvent methylene chloride followed by a colorimetric acetylcholinesterase assay. We propose that results of testing contaminated forensic samples be expressed in aldicarb equivalents because, even though all other carbamates are also potent enzyme inhibitors, aldicarb is the contaminant most frequently found in forensic samples. This method is rapid (several samples can be run in a period of 2 h) and low cost. This method also proved to be precise and accurate, detecting concentrations as low as 40 microg/kg of aldicarb in meat samples. PMID:20345797

  2. Integration initiatives for forensic services

    PubMed Central

    ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

    2003-01-01

    Poorly implemented mental health reform policies are often given as reasons for the growth in demands for forensic psychiatric services and the steady increase of mental patients in prison systems. However, in this paper, additional reasons are advanced to explain the growth of forensic psychiatry, such as an expansion in the types of "psychiatric defences" in courts of law; public concerns about violent behaviour attributed to the mentally ill; the community management of paraphilias, especially pedophilia; the development of risk assessment methodologies and the halo of super-specialization. The net result of these developments is that patients who receive a label of "forensic" enter into a mental health ghetto with little connectivity or integration with the general mental health system. The forensic label increases the stigma and decreases opportunities for reintegration and full social recovery. The paper provides guidelines to reverse these trends. PMID:16946932

  3. Statistical analysis of biomechanical properties of the adult sagittal suture using a bending method in a Japanese forensic sample.

    PubMed

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Takano, Tachio; Koizumi, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Yajima, Daisuke; Inokuchi, Go; Makino, Yohsuke; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the mechanical properties of the adult sagittal suture compared with surrounding parietal bones using bending tests and investigated the association between the mechanical properties of the suture and age. We used the heads of 116 Japanese cadavers (76 male cadavers and 40 female cadavers) of known age and sex. A total of 1160 cranial samples, 10 from each skull, were collected. The samples were imaged using multidetector computed tomography, and the sample thickness at the center of each sample (ST) was measured. The failure stress of each sample (FS) was measured by a bending test, and the ratio of failure stress to the square of sample thickness (FS/ST(2)) was calculated. Statistical analyses revealed that the FS and FS/ST(2) values were significantly lower at all suture sites than at all bone sites regardless of sex. There were not significant but slight positive correlations between age and FS and FS/ST(2) values at any suture site in male samples. In female samples, age had significant positive correlations with FS and FS/ST(2) values at the middle suture sites, whereas there were not significant but slight positive correlations between age and FS and FS/ST(2) values at the edges of the suture. Statistical analyses also demonstrated that FS and FS/ST(2) values were significantly greater in male samples than in female samples at the middle suture sites. These findings suggest that the bending strength of the adult sagittal suture is significantly lower than that of surrounding parietal bones. Therefore, avoiding direct impact on cranial sutures may be important for preventing skull fractures and severe complications that can cause death. The results of this study also revealed that the bending strength of the middle sagittal suture significantly increases with age in only female samples, whereas the bending strength is significantly higher in male samples than in female samples at the middle suture sites, indicating the possibility of sex

  4. Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics.

    PubMed

    Ruffell, Alastair

    2010-10-10

    We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. PMID:20430544

  5. [Forensic entomology].

    PubMed

    Açikgöz, Halide Nihal

    2010-01-01

    Odour of the animal or human corpses immediately after death is very attractive for insects and other invertebrates. Blue and green bottle flies from the Calliphoridae family are the first colonizers of cadaver and immediately later necrophagous Diptera from the Sarcophagidae family settle on the same corpse. It is essential to determine the time past after death for elucidating the event in case of the homicide or suspicious death, and it is directly proportional to the post mortem interval expected time, which is based upon the speed of the larval growth. In this article, we purposed to stress the special interest of forensic entomology for the scientists who will apply this science in their forensic researches and case studies, and also to provide information to our judges, prosecutors and law enforcement agents in order to consider the entomological samples to be reliable and applicable evidences as biological stains and hairs. We are of the opinion that if any forensic entomologist is called to the crime scene or if the evidences are collected and then delivered to an entomologist, the forensic cases will be elucidated faster and more accurately. PMID:20954127

  6. Evaluation of Statistical Methodologies Used in U. S. Army Ordnance and Explosive Work

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrouchov, G

    2000-02-14

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center (Huntsville, AL) to evaluate the mathematical basis of existing software tools used to assist the Army with the characterization of sites potentially contaminated with unexploded ordnance (UXO). These software tools are collectively known as SiteStats/GridStats. The first purpose of the software is to guide sampling of underground anomalies to estimate a site's UXO density. The second purpose is to delineate areas of homogeneous UXO density that can be used in the formulation of response actions. It was found that SiteStats/GridStats does adequately guide the sampling so that the UXO density estimator for a sector is unbiased. However, the software's techniques for delineation of homogeneous areas perform less well than visual inspection, which is frequently used to override the software in the overall sectorization methodology. The main problems with the software lie in the criteria used to detect nonhomogeneity and those used to recommend the number of homogeneous subareas. SiteStats/GridStats is not a decision-making tool in the classical sense. Although it does provide information to decision makers, it does not require a decision based on that information. SiteStats/GridStats provides information that is supplemented by visual inspections, land-use plans, and risk estimates prior to making any decisions. Although the sector UXO density estimator is unbiased regardless of UXO density variation within a sector, its variability increases with increased sector density variation. For this reason, the current practice of visual inspection of individual sampled grid densities (as provided by Site-Stats/GridStats) is necessary to ensure approximate homogeneity, particularly at sites with medium to high UXO density. Together with Site-Stats/GridStats override capabilities, this provides a sufficient mechanism for homogeneous sectorization and thus yields representative UXO density

  7. Forensic detection of noise addition in digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Gang; Zhao, Yao; Ni, Rongrong; Ou, Bo; Wang, Yongbin

    2014-03-01

    We proposed a technique to detect the global addition of noise to a digital image. As an anti-forensics tool, noise addition is typically used to disguise the visual traces of image tampering or to remove the statistical artifacts left behind by other operations. As such, the blind detection of noise addition has become imperative as well as beneficial to authenticate the image content and recover the image processing history, which is the goal of general forensics techniques. Specifically, the special image blocks, including constant and strip ones, are used to construct the features for identifying noise addition manipulation. The influence of noising on blockwise pixel value distribution is formulated and analyzed formally. The methodology of detectability recognition followed by binary decision is proposed to ensure the applicability and reliability of noising detection. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed noising detector.

  8. Statistical Techniques Employed in "AERJ" and "JCP" Articles from 1998 to 1997: A Methodological Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Reese, Robert J.; Thompson, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the patterns of statistical usage and reporting in 756 articles published in the "American Educational Research Journal" (AERJ) and the "Journal of Counseling Psychology" (JCP) over 10 years. Evaluated the analytic practices used. Also discusses changes that may be necessary to improve statistics in behavioral research. (SLD)

  9. Forensic geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

  10. STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE TYPES OF OUTCOMES IN NONLINEAR THRESHOLD MODELS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple outcomes are often measured on each experimental unit in toxicology experiments. These multiple observations typically imply the existence of correlation between endpoints, and a statistical analysis that incorporates it may result in improved inference. When both disc...

  11. Statistics and methodology of multiple cell upset characterization under heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebrev, G. I.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Useinov, R. G.; Emeliyanov, V. V.; Ozerov, A. I.; Anashin, V. S.; Kozyukov, A. E.; Zemtsov, K. S.

    2015-03-01

    Mean and partial cross-section concepts and their connections to multiplicity and statistics of multiple cell upsets (MCUs) in highly-scaled digital memories are introduced and discussed. The important role of the experimental determination of the upset statistics is emphasized. It was found that MCU may lead to quasi-linear dependence of cross-sections on linear energy transfer (LET). A new form of function for interpolation of mean cross-section dependences on LET has been proposed.

  12. Investigating Moderator Hypotheses in Aging Research: Statistical, Methodological, and Conceptual Difficulties with Comparing Separate Regressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsom, Jason T.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Schulz, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F., III

    2003-01-01

    Many topics in aging research address questions about group differences in prediction. Such questions can be viewed in terms of interaction or moderator effects, and use of appropriate methods to test these hypotheses are necessary to arrive at accurate conclusions about age differences. This article discusses the conceptual, methodological, and…

  13. The Epistemology of Mathematical and Statistical Modeling: A Quiet Methodological Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2010-01-01

    A quiet methodological revolution, a modeling revolution, has occurred over the past several decades, almost without discussion. In contrast, the 20th century ended with contentious argument over the utility of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). The NHST controversy may have been at least partially irrelevant, because in certain ways the…

  14. A STATISTICAL MODELING METHODOLOGY FOR THE DETECTION, QUANTIFICATION, AND PREDICTION OF ECOLOGICAL THRESHOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study will provide a general methodology for integrating threshold information from multiple species ecological metrics, allow for prediction of changes of alternative stable states, and provide a risk assessment tool that can be applied to adaptive management. The integr...

  15. Five Methodology Errors in Educational Research: The Pantheon of Statistical Significance and Other Faux Pas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    After presenting a general linear model as a framework for discussion, this paper reviews five methodology errors that occur in educational research: (1) the use of stepwise methods; (2) the failure to consider in result interpretation the context specificity of analytic weights (e.g., regression beta weights, factor pattern coefficients,…

  16. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

  17. Forensic Neuropsychology: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Hom, Jim

    2003-12-01

    Forensic Neuropsychology is a new and rapidly evolving subspecialty of clinical neuropsychology that applies neuropsychological principles and practices to matters that pertain to legal decision-making. Forensic neuropsychologists provide the trier of fact with specialized information regarding brain-behavior relationships. The primary responsibility of the forensic neuropsychologist is to provide information based on scientifically-validated neuropsychological principles and clinical methodology that is pertinent to the Forensic Question at hand-which is not just whether the patient has dysfunction, but whether the dysfunction results from the event under consideration. To best answer the Forensic Question, the neuropsychologist must use a methodology that has been scientifically-validated on brain-impaired individuals, and can distinguish various brain conditions from each other as well as from normal variation. The methodology must be able to determine whether any dysfunction found is, in fact, the result of a neurological condition as opposed to non-neurological, psychological, or even factitious disorders. This paper discusses neuropsychological methodology in the context of forensic application and the requirements of the legal process and illustrates these issues with case examples. PMID:14609579

  18. An Interview with David Rindskopf: A Leading Voice on Teaching Statistics and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with David Rindskopf, a Distinguished Professor of Educational Psychology and Psychology at the City University of New York Graduate Center, where he has taught since 1979. His research and teaching are in the area of applied statistics, measurement, and research design. He is a fellow of the American Statistical…

  19. Bayesian Integrated Microbial Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, Kristin H.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wunschel, David S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2008-06-01

    In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax letters, researchers have been exploring ways to predict the production environment of unknown source microorganisms. Different mass spectral techniques are being developed to characterize components of a microbe’s culture medium including water, carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions added, and the presence of agar. Individually, each technique has the potential to identify one or two ingredients in a culture medium recipe. However, by integrating data from multiple mass spectral techniques, a more complete characterization is possible. We present a Bayesian statistical approach to integrated microbial forensics and illustrate its application on spores grown in different culture media.

  20. An evaluation of applied biomechanics as an adjunct to systematic specific causation in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael D; Kohles, Sean S

    2011-10-01

    Biomechanical tests of post hoc probability have been proposed by prior authors as reliable tests of causation in forensic settings. Biomechanical assessment of injury kinetics and kinematics is a potentially important tool in forensic medicine, but there is also the potential for misapplication. The most reliable application is when biomechanical analysis is used to explain injury mechanisms, such as how an injury may have occurred. When a biomechanical analysis is used as a means of determining whether, rather than how an injury has resulted from a traumatic exposure, then a lack of reliability of the methodology limits its application in forensic medicine. Herein, we describe a systematic assessment of causation by adapting established general causation principles to specific causation scenarios, and how biomechanical analysis of injury mechanics is properly used to augment such an approach in conjunction with the principles of forensic epidemiology. An example calculation of relative risk associated with cervical spine injury is provided as a representative probabilistic metric for assessing causation. The statistical benefits and limitations of biomechanical analysis are discussed as an adjunct to forensic medicine. PMID:21792525

  1. Canine DNA Profiling in Forensic Casework: The Tail Wagging the Dog.

    PubMed

    Berger, C; Berger, B; Parson, W

    2009-01-01

    The popularity of dogs as faithful human companions instigates forensically relevant issues on a regular basis. Domestic dogs take an active role as the causes of accidents and as perpetrators of attacks; even more frequently, dogs act as links between victims and suspects in crime cases due to the fact that dog owners/keepers live in an environment rich with canine material. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses of canine cells have been applied successfully in individual cases. However, a review of published casework amply demonstrates great interlaboratory variability not only in methodological but also in general terms. We screened the literature for application of canine DNA analysis in the forensic context and found 12 publications presented by 10 different laboratories. In almost no case did employed DNA markers widely overlap between these studies. Even worse is the situation with respect to allele nomenclature, where a plethora of variants has been reported by the different groups. Despite great technological achievements in the recent past, it seems that in forensic canine DNA analysis the cart was put before the horse. The canine forensic field faces the urgent need for general standardization and harmonization activities such as those that have taken place in the human forensic field in the past years. In particular, the nature and selection of DNA markers to be tested, the implementation of a generally compatible allele nomenclature, and a settlement on standardized statistical calculation methods adopted for the specific genetic peculiarities of dog populations need thorough consideration. PMID:26242237

  2. Manipulating measurement scales in medical statistical analysis and data mining: A review of methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Marateb, Hamid Reza; Mansourian, Marjan; Adibi, Peyman; Farina, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Background: selecting the correct statistical test and data mining method depends highly on the measurement scale of data, type of variables, and purpose of the analysis. Different measurement scales are studied in details and statistical comparison, modeling, and data mining methods are studied based upon using several medical examples. We have presented two ordinal–variables clustering examples, as more challenging variable in analysis, using Wisconsin Breast Cancer Data (WBCD). Ordinal-to-Interval scale conversion example: a breast cancer database of nine 10-level ordinal variables for 683 patients was analyzed by two ordinal-scale clustering methods. The performance of the clustering methods was assessed by comparison with the gold standard groups of malignant and benign cases that had been identified by clinical tests. Results: the sensitivity and accuracy of the two clustering methods were 98% and 96%, respectively. Their specificity was comparable. Conclusion: by using appropriate clustering algorithm based on the measurement scale of the variables in the study, high performance is granted. Moreover, descriptive and inferential statistics in addition to modeling approach must be selected based on the scale of the variables. PMID:24672565

  3. Statistical investigation of Kluyveromyces lactis cells permeabilization with ethanol by response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Janaína T.; Rocha, Pollyana F.; Converti, Attilio; Passos, Flávia M.L.; Minim, Luis A.; Sampaio, Fábio C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to select the optimal operating conditions to permeabilize Kluyveromyces lactis cells using ethanol as a solvent as an alternative to cell disruption and extraction. Cell permeabilization was carried out by a non-mechanical method consisting of chemical treatment with ethanol, and the results were expressed as β-galactosidase activity. Experiments were conducted under different conditions of ethanol concentration, treatment time and temperature according to a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), and the collected results were then worked out by response surface methodology (RSM). Cell permeabilization was improved by an increase in ethanol concentration and simultaneous decreases in the incubation temperature and treatment time. Such an approach allowed us to identify an optimal range of the independent variables within which the β-galactosidase activity was optimized. A maximum permeabilization of 2,816 mmol L−1 oNP min−1 g−1 was obtained by treating cells with 75.0% v/v of ethanol at 20.0 °C for 15.0 min. The proposed methodology resulted to be effective and suited for K. lactis cells permeabilization at a lab-scale and promises to be of possible interest for future applications mainly in the food industry. PMID:24688494

  4. Forensic entomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

  5. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

  6. Forensic Dental Age Estimation: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Lewis, James M; Senn, David R

    2015-06-01

    Forensic age estimation is a scientific process that estimates an individual's true chronologic age by assessing skeletal and dental development and maturation. Although human growth and maturation is unique to each individual, dental techniques for estimating age are currently considered the best in assessing true chronologic age particularly during the age range when the dentition is undergoing morphologic development. This article reviews the principles, methodology and commonly used techniques in forensic age estimation cases. PMID:26126347

  7. Application of statistical experimental methodology to optimize bioremediation of n-alkanes in aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain

    2010-12-15

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for removal of n-alkanes from crude oil contaminated seawater samples in batch reactors. Erlenmeyer flasks were used as bioreactors; each containing 250 mL dispersed crude oil contaminated seawater, indigenous acclimatized microorganism and different amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus based on central composite design (CCD). Samples were extracted and analyzed according to US-EPA protocols using a gas chromatograph. During 28 days of bioremediation, a maximum of 95% total aliphatic hydrocarbons removal was observed. The obtained Model F-value of 267.73 and probability F<0.0001 implied the model was significant. Numerical condition optimization via a quadratic model, predicted 98% n-alkanes removal for a 20-day laboratory bioremediation trial using nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of 13.62 and 1.39 mg/L, respectively. In actual experiments, 95% removal was observed under these conditions. PMID:20837377

  8. A Forensically Sound Adversary Model for Mobile Devices.

    PubMed

    Do, Quang; Martini, Ben; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an adversary model to facilitate forensic investigations of mobile devices (e.g. Android, iOS and Windows smartphones) that can be readily adapted to the latest mobile device technologies. This is essential given the ongoing and rapidly changing nature of mobile device technologies. An integral principle and significant constraint upon forensic practitioners is that of forensic soundness. Our adversary model specifically considers and integrates the constraints of forensic soundness on the adversary, in our case, a forensic practitioner. One construction of the adversary model is an evidence collection and analysis methodology for Android devices. Using the methodology with six popular cloud apps, we were successful in extracting various information of forensic interest in both the external and internal storage of the mobile device. PMID:26393812

  9. A Forensically Sound Adversary Model for Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an adversary model to facilitate forensic investigations of mobile devices (e.g. Android, iOS and Windows smartphones) that can be readily adapted to the latest mobile device technologies. This is essential given the ongoing and rapidly changing nature of mobile device technologies. An integral principle and significant constraint upon forensic practitioners is that of forensic soundness. Our adversary model specifically considers and integrates the constraints of forensic soundness on the adversary, in our case, a forensic practitioner. One construction of the adversary model is an evidence collection and analysis methodology for Android devices. Using the methodology with six popular cloud apps, we were successful in extracting various information of forensic interest in both the external and internal storage of the mobile device. PMID:26393812

  10. Development and application of a statistical methodology to evaluate the predictive accuracy of building energy baseline models

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Price, Phillip N.

    2014-03-01

    This paper documents the development and application of a general statistical methodology to assess the accuracy of baseline energy models, focusing on its application to Measurement and Verification (M&V) of whole-­building energy savings. The methodology complements the principles addressed in resources such as ASHRAE Guideline 14 and the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol. It requires fitting a baseline model to data from a ``training period’’ and using the model to predict total electricity consumption during a subsequent ``prediction period.’’ We illustrate the methodology by evaluating five baseline models using data from 29 buildings. The training period and prediction period were varied, and model predictions of daily, weekly, and monthly energy consumption were compared to meter data to determine model accuracy. Several metrics were used to characterize the accuracy of the predictions, and in some cases the best-­performing model as judged by one metric was not the best performer when judged by another metric.

  11. ViSEN: methodology and software for visualization of statistical epistasis networks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ting; Chen, Yuanzhu; Kiralis, Jeff W; Moore, Jason H

    2013-04-01

    The nonlinear interaction effect among multiple genetic factors, i.e. epistasis, has been recognized as a key component in understanding the underlying genetic basis of complex human diseases and phenotypic traits. Due to the statistical and computational complexity, most epistasis studies are limited to interactions with an order of two. We developed ViSEN to analyze and visualize epistatic interactions of both two-way and three-way. ViSEN not only identifies strong interactions among pairs or trios of genetic attributes, but also provides a global interaction map that shows neighborhood and clustering structures. This visualized information could be very helpful to infer the underlying genetic architecture of complex diseases and to generate plausible hypotheses for further biological validations. ViSEN is implemented in Java and freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/visen/. PMID:23468157

  12. Statistics

    Cancer.gov

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  13. Forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2010-01-01

    Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations, in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine, in road and workplace safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly targeted include amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine and the opiates, but can be any other illicit substance or almost any over-the-counter or prescribed drug, as well as poisons available to the community. The discipline requires high level skills in analytical techniques with a solid knowledge of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Modern techniques rely heavily on immunoassay screening analyses and mass spectrometry (MS) for confirmatory analyses using either high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography as the separation technique. Tandem MS has become more and more popular compared to single-stage MS. It is essential that analytical systems are fully validated and fit for the purpose and the assay batches are monitored with quality controls. External proficiency programs monitor both the assay and the personnel performing the work. For a laboratory to perform optimally, it is vital that the circumstances and context of the case are known and the laboratory understands the limitations of the analytical systems used, including drug stability. Drugs and poisons can change concentration postmortem due to poor or unequal quality of blood and other specimens, anaerobic metabolism and redistribution. The latter provides the largest handicap in the interpretation of postmortem results. PMID:20358697

  14. Reporting of planned statistical methods in published surgical randomised trial protocols: a protocol for a methodological systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Kim; Arseneau, Erika; Evaniew, Nathan; Smith, Christopher S; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor reporting can lead to inadequate presentation of data, confusion regarding research methodology used, selective reporting of results, and other misinformation regarding health research. One of the most recent attempts to improve quality of reporting comes from the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) Group, which makes recommendations for the reporting of protocols. In this report, we present a protocol for a systematic review of published surgical randomised controlled trial (RCT) protocols, with the purpose of assessing the reporting quality and completeness of the statistical aspects. Methods We will include all published protocols of randomised trials that investigate surgical interventions. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL for relevant studies. Author pairs will independently review all titles, abstracts, and full texts identified by the literature search, and extract data using a structured data extraction form. We will extract the following: year of publication, country, sample size, description of study population, description of intervention and control, primary outcome, important methodological qualities, and quality of reporting of planned statistical methods based on the SPIRIT guidelines. Ethics and dissemination The results of this review will demonstrate the quality of statistical reporting of published surgical RCT protocols. This knowledge will inform recommendations to surgeons, researchers, journal editors and peer reviewers, and other knowledge users that focus on common deficiencies in reporting and how to rectify them. Ethics approval for this study is not required. We will disseminate the results of this review in peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations, and at a doctoral independent study of oral defence. PMID:27259528

  15. Doctoral Training in Statistics, Measurement, and Methodology in Psychology: Replication and Extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) Survey of PhD Programs in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2008-01-01

    In a survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada, the authors documented the quantitative methodology curriculum (statistics, measurement, and research design) to examine the extent to which innovations in quantitative methodology have diffused into the training of PhDs in psychology. In all, 201 psychology PhD…

  16. Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheon, I. D.; Grant, P. M.; Moody, K. J.

    A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special nuclear materials and with a description of several actual case studies conducted at Livermore.

  17. Methodologic and statistical approaches to studying human fertility and environmental exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Tingen, Candace; Stanford, Joseph B; Dunson, David B

    2004-01-01

    Although there has been growing concern about the effects of environmental exposures on human fertility, standard epidemiologic study designs may not collect sufficient data to identify subtle effects while properly adjusting for confounding. In particular, results from conventional time to pregnancy studies can be driven by the many sources of bias inherent in these studies. By prospectively collecting detailed records of menstrual bleeding, occurrences of intercourse, and a marker of ovulation day in each menstrual cycle, precise information on exposure effects can be obtained, adjusting for many of the primary sources of bias. This article provides an overview of the different types of study designs, focusing on the data required, the practical advantages and disadvantages of each design, and the statistical methods required to take full advantage of the available data. We conclude that detailed prospective studies allowing inferences on day-specific probabilities of conception should be considered as the gold standard for studying the effects of environmental exposures on fertility. PMID:14698936

  18. Identification of variables and value optimization for optimum lipase production by Bacillus pumilus RK31 using statistical methodology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Mahajan, Shivani; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Deepak

    2011-01-31

    In an effort to optimize the medium components, the statistical methodology was applied to achieve the optimum lipase production under shake flask conditions. The study was conducted in three steps on newly isolated Bacillus pumilus RK 31. In the first step, 12 different variables viz., Glucose, Olive oil, Yeast extract, Peptone, Tween 80, KH(2)PO(4), MgSO(4), NaNO(3), CaCl(2), Temperature, pH and Inoculum size were used to identify the most significant variables affecting lipase production using Plackett-Burman statistical design. Variance analysis showed that Olive oil, Tween 80 and KH(2)PO(4) played significant role in lipase production. In the second step, the values of the above-identified three variables were optimized by central composite design using three-level-three-factor approach. The optimum values of Olive oil, Tween 80 and KH(2)PO(4) were found to be 10.0ml/l, 5.0ml/l and 8.0g/l, respectively. KH(2)PO(4) was found to be responsible for maximum lipase production of 5.59IU/ml, experimental and 5.03IU/ml, predicted. In the third step, the optimum predicted values of the three factors and lipase production were verified by experimental approach. The amount of lipase produced in the designated medium was in agreement with that of predicted values by statistical method. PMID:20601261

  19. Forecasting methodologies for Ganoderma spore concentration using combined statistical approaches and model evaluations.

    PubMed

    Sadyś, Magdalena; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Kennedy, Roy

    2016-04-01

    High concentration levels of Ganoderma spp. spores were observed in Worcester, UK, during 2006-2010. These basidiospores are known to cause sensitization due to the allergen content and their small dimensions. This enables them to penetrate the lower part of the respiratory tract in humans. Establishment of a link between occurring symptoms of sensitization to Ganoderma spp. and other basidiospores is challenging due to lack of information regarding spore concentration in the air. Hence, aerobiological monitoring should be conducted, and if possible extended with the construction of forecast models. Daily mean concentration of allergenic Ganoderma spp. spores in the atmosphere of Worcester was measured using 7-day volumetric spore sampler through five consecutive years. The relationships between the presence of spores in the air and the weather parameters were examined. Forecast models were constructed for Ganoderma spp. spores using advanced statistical techniques, i.e. multivariate regression trees and artificial neural networks. Dew point temperature along with maximum temperature was the most important factor influencing the presence of spores in the air of Worcester. Based on these two major factors and several others of lesser importance, thresholds for certain levels of fungal spore concentration, i.e. low (0-49 s m(-3)), moderate (50-99 s m(-3)), high (100-149 s m(-3)) and very high (150 < n s m(-3)), could be designated. Despite some deviation in results obtained by artificial neural networks, authors have achieved a forecasting model, which was accurate (correlation between observed and predicted values varied from r s = 0.57 to r s = 0.68). PMID:26266481

  20. Forecasting methodologies for Ganoderma spore concentration using combined statistical approaches and model evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadyś, Magdalena; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Kennedy, Roy

    2016-04-01

    High concentration levels of Ganoderma spp. spores were observed in Worcester, UK, during 2006-2010. These basidiospores are known to cause sensitization due to the allergen content and their small dimensions. This enables them to penetrate the lower part of the respiratory tract in humans. Establishment of a link between occurring symptoms of sensitization to Ganoderma spp. and other basidiospores is challenging due to lack of information regarding spore concentration in the air. Hence, aerobiological monitoring should be conducted, and if possible extended with the construction of forecast models. Daily mean concentration of allergenic Ganoderma spp. spores in the atmosphere of Worcester was measured using 7-day volumetric spore sampler through five consecutive years. The relationships between the presence of spores in the air and the weather parameters were examined. Forecast models were constructed for Ganoderma spp. spores using advanced statistical techniques, i.e. multivariate regression trees and artificial neural networks. Dew point temperature along with maximum temperature was the most important factor influencing the presence of spores in the air of Worcester. Based on these two major factors and several others of lesser importance, thresholds for certain levels of fungal spore concentration, i.e. low (0-49 s m-3), moderate (50-99 s m-3), high (100-149 s m-3) and very high (150 < n s m-3), could be designated. Despite some deviation in results obtained by artificial neural networks, authors have achieved a forecasting model, which was accurate (correlation between observed and predicted values varied from r s = 0.57 to r s = 0.68).

  1. Forensic identification of blood in the presence of contaminations using Raman microspectroscopy coupled with advanced statistics: effect of sand, dust, and soil.

    PubMed

    Sikirzhytskaya, Aliaksandra; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; McLaughlin, Gregory; Lednev, Igor K

    2013-09-01

    Body fluid traces recovered at crime scenes are among the most common and important types of forensic evidence. However, the ability to characterize a biological stain at a crime scene nondestructively has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we expand the Raman spectroscopic approach for the identification of dry traces of pure body fluids to address the problem of heterogeneous contamination, which can impair the performance of conventional methods. The concept of multidimensional Raman signatures was utilized for the identification of blood in dry traces contaminated with sand, dust, and soil. Multiple Raman spectra were acquired from the samples via automatic scanning, and the contribution of blood was evaluated through the fitting quality using spectroscopic signature components. The spatial mapping technique allowed for detection of "hot spots" dominated by blood contribution. The proposed method has great potential for blood identification in highly contaminated samples. PMID:23898809

  2. STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING TRANSPORT PARAMETERS: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS TO ONE-DOMENSIONAL ADVECTIVE-DISPERSIVE SYSTEMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Brian J.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation nonlinear multiple-regression methodology for estimating parameters that characterize the transport of contaminants is developed and demonstrated. Finite difference containment transport simulation is combined with a nonlinear weighted least squares multiple-regression procedure. The technique provides optimal parameter estimates and gives statistics for assessing the reliability of these estimates under certain general assumptions about the distributions of the random measurement errors. Monte Carlo analysis is used to estimate parameter reliability for a hypothetical homogeneous soil column for which concentration data contain large random measurement errors. The value of data collected spatially versus data collected temporally was investigated for estimation of velocity, dispersion coefficient, effective porosity, first-order decay rate, and zero-order production. The use of spatial data gave estimates that were 2-3 times more reliable than estimates based on temporal data for all parameters except velocity. (Estimated author abstract) Refs.

  3. Integrating Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  4. Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Murch, Randall; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2005-11-01

    Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics--microbial forensics--has been created, which is focused on characterization of evidence from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, hoax, or an inadvertent release. Forensic microbiological investigations are essentially the same as any other forensic investigation regarding processing. They involve crime scene(s) investigation, chain of custody practices, evidence collection, handling and preservation, evidence shipping, analysis of evidence, interpretation of results, and court presentation. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidence, the forensic investigation will attempt to determine the etiology and identity of the causal agent, often in a similar fashion as in an epidemiologic investigation. However, for attribution, higher-resolution characterization is needed. The tools for attribution include genetic- and nongenetic-based assays and informatics to attempt to determine the unique source of a sample or at least eliminate some sources. In addition, chemical and physical assays may help determine the process used to prepare, store, or disseminate the bioweapon. An effective microbial forensics program will require development and/or validation of all aspects of the forensic investigative process, from sample collection to interpretation of results. Quality assurance (QA) and QC practices, comparable to those used by the forensic DNA science community, are being implemented. Lastly, partnerships with other laboratories will be requisite, because many of the necessary capabilities for analysis will not reside in the traditional forensic laboratory. PMID:15821943

  5. Bayesian networks for evaluation of evidence from forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Andersson, M Gunnar; Sundström, Anders; Lindström, Anders

    2013-09-01

    In the aftermath of a CBRN incident, there is an urgent need to reconstruct events in order to bring the perpetrators to court and to take preventive actions for the future. The challenge is to discriminate, based on available information, between alternative scenarios. Forensic interpretation is used to evaluate to what extent results from the forensic investigation favor the prosecutors' or the defendants' arguments, using the framework of Bayesian hypothesis testing. Recently, several new scientific disciplines have been used in a forensic context. In the AniBioThreat project, the framework was applied to veterinary forensic pathology, tracing of pathogenic microorganisms, and forensic entomology. Forensic entomology is an important tool for estimating the postmortem interval in, for example, homicide investigations as a complement to more traditional methods. In this article we demonstrate the applicability of the Bayesian framework for evaluating entomological evidence in a forensic investigation through the analysis of a hypothetical scenario involving suspect movement of carcasses from a clandestine laboratory. Probabilities of different findings under the alternative hypotheses were estimated using a combination of statistical analysis of data, expert knowledge, and simulation, and entomological findings are used to update the beliefs about the prosecutors' and defendants' hypotheses and to calculate the value of evidence. The Bayesian framework proved useful for evaluating complex hypotheses using findings from several insect species, accounting for uncertainty about development rate, temperature, and precolonization. The applicability of the forensic statistic approach to evaluating forensic results from a CBRN incident is discussed. PMID:23971824

  6. Optimization of Electrospray Ionization by Statistical Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methodology: Protein-Ligand Equilibrium Dissociation Constant Determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Liliana; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2016-09-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) binding studies between proteins and ligands under native conditions require that instrumental ESI source conditions are optimized if relative solution-phase equilibrium concentrations between the protein-ligand complex and free protein are to be retained. Instrumental ESI source conditions that simultaneously maximize the relative ionization efficiency of the protein-ligand complex over free protein and minimize the protein-ligand complex dissociation during the ESI process and the transfer from atmospheric pressure to vacuum are generally specific for each protein-ligand system and should be established when an accurate equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) is to be determined via titration. In this paper, a straightforward and systematic approach for ESI source optimization is presented. The method uses statistical design of experiments (DOE) in conjunction with response surface methodology (RSM) and is demonstrated for the complexes between Plasmodium vivax guanylate kinase ( PvGK) and two ligands: 5'-guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and 5'-guanosine diphosphate (GDP). It was verified that even though the ligands are structurally similar, the most appropriate ESI conditions for KD determination by titration are different for each.

  7. Statistical optimization of ultraviolet irradiate conditions for vitamin D₂ synthesis in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Jie; Ahn, Byung-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum vitamin D2 synthesis conditions in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). Ultraviolet B (UV-B) was selected as the most efficient irradiation source for the preliminary experiment, in addition to the levels of three independent variables, which included ambient temperature (25-45°C), exposure time (40-120 min), and irradiation intensity (0.6-1.2 W/m2). The statistical analysis indicated that, for the range which was studied, irradiation intensity was the most critical factor that affected vitamin D2 synthesis in oyster mushrooms. Under optimal conditions (ambient temperature of 28.16°C, UV-B intensity of 1.14 W/m2, and exposure time of 94.28 min), the experimental vitamin D2 content of 239.67 µg/g (dry weight) was in very good agreement with the predicted value of 245.49 µg/g, which verified the practicability of this strategy. Compared to fresh mushrooms, the lyophilized mushroom powder can synthesize remarkably higher level of vitamin D2 (498.10 µg/g) within much shorter UV-B exposure time (10 min), and thus should receive attention from the food processing industry. PMID:24736742

  8. Statistical optimization of the medium composition by response surface methodology to enhance schizophyllan production by Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbing; Zhou, Pengpeng; Yu, Longjiang

    2011-01-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) involving central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the fermentation medium for the cell growth and schizophllan production by Schizophyllum commune CGMCC 5.113 in submerged culture at pH 6.5 and 26 degrees C. The four variables involved in this study were glucose, yeast extract, ammonium nitrate, and magnesium sulfate. The statistical analysis of the results showed that, in the range studied, glucose and yeast extract had a highly significant effect on schizophyllan production. The optimal medium for schizophyllan production calculated from the regression model of RSM was as follows: glucose, 18 g/l; yeast extract, 0.5 g/l; NH4NO3, 0.48 g/l; and MgSO4, 0.05 g/l, with a predicted maximum schizophyllan production of 11.74 g/l. These predicted values were experimentally validated. The excellent correlation between predicted and measured values justifies the validity of the response model. The results of bioreactor fermentation also show that the optimized medium enhanced schizophyllan production (12.80 g/l) by S. commune in a 5-1 fermenter. PMID:21630592

  9. Statistical Optimization of Ultraviolet Irradiate Conditions for Vitamin D2 Synthesis in Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Jie; Ahn, Byung-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum vitamin D2 synthesis conditions in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). Ultraviolet B (UV-B) was selected as the most efficient irradiation source for the preliminary experiment, in addition to the levels of three independent variables, which included ambient temperature (25–45°C), exposure time (40–120 min), and irradiation intensity (0.6–1.2 W/m2). The statistical analysis indicated that, for the range which was studied, irradiation intensity was the most critical factor that affected vitamin D2 synthesis in oyster mushrooms. Under optimal conditions (ambient temperature of 28.16°C, UV-B intensity of 1.14 W/m2, and exposure time of 94.28 min), the experimental vitamin D2 content of 239.67 µg/g (dry weight) was in very good agreement with the predicted value of 245.49 µg/g, which verified the practicability of this strategy. Compared to fresh mushrooms, the lyophilized mushroom powder can synthesize remarkably higher level of vitamin D2 (498.10 µg/g) within much shorter UV-B exposure time (10 min), and thus should receive attention from the food processing industry. PMID:24736742

  10. Optimization of Electrospray Ionization by Statistical Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methodology: Protein-Ligand Equilibrium Dissociation Constant Determinations.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Liliana; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Quinn, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) binding studies between proteins and ligands under native conditions require that instrumental ESI source conditions are optimized if relative solution-phase equilibrium concentrations between the protein-ligand complex and free protein are to be retained. Instrumental ESI source conditions that simultaneously maximize the relative ionization efficiency of the protein-ligand complex over free protein and minimize the protein-ligand complex dissociation during the ESI process and the transfer from atmospheric pressure to vacuum are generally specific for each protein-ligand system and should be established when an accurate equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) is to be determined via titration. In this paper, a straightforward and systematic approach for ESI source optimization is presented. The method uses statistical design of experiments (DOE) in conjunction with response surface methodology (RSM) and is demonstrated for the complexes between Plasmodium vivax guanylate kinase (PvGK) and two ligands: 5'-guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and 5'-guanosine diphosphate (GDP). It was verified that even though the ligands are structurally similar, the most appropriate ESI conditions for KD determination by titration are different for each. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27225419

  11. Statistical methodology to evaluate food exposure to a contaminant and influence of sanitary limits: application to Ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Tressou, J; Leblanc, J Ch; Feinberg, M; Bertail, P

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents some statistical methodologies to evaluate the food exposure to a contaminant and quantify the outcome of a new maximum limit on a food item. Our application deals with Ochratoxin A (OTA). We focus on the quantitative evaluation of the distribution of exposure based on both consumption data and contamination data. One specific aspect of contamination data is left censorship due to the limits of detection. Three calculation procedures are proposed: [P1] a deterministic method using means of contamination; [P2] a probabilistic method using a parametric adjustment of the distributions of contamination taking into account the left censorship; and [P3] a non-parametric method which consists in randomly selecting the consumption data and the contamination values. Our main result shows that a non-parametric probabilistic approach is well adapted for the purpose of exposure assessment, when large samples are available. In the application to OTA, the probability to exceed a safe level is high, particularly for children. Simulations show that the impact of the existing standards on cereals and the currently proposed standards on wine generally do not significantly reduce the risk to be overexposed to OTA. PMID:15546679

  12. Optimization of Electrospray Ionization by Statistical Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methodology: Protein-Ligand Equilibrium Dissociation Constant Determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Liliana; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2016-05-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) binding studies between proteins and ligands under native conditions require that instrumental ESI source conditions are optimized if relative solution-phase equilibrium concentrations between the protein-ligand complex and free protein are to be retained. Instrumental ESI source conditions that simultaneously maximize the relative ionization efficiency of the protein-ligand complex over free protein and minimize the protein-ligand complex dissociation during the ESI process and the transfer from atmospheric pressure to vacuum are generally specific for each protein-ligand system and should be established when an accurate equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) is to be determined via titration. In this paper, a straightforward and systematic approach for ESI source optimization is presented. The method uses statistical design of experiments (DOE) in conjunction with response surface methodology (RSM) and is demonstrated for the complexes between Plasmodium vivax guanylate kinase (PvGK) and two ligands: 5'-guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and 5'-guanosine diphosphate (GDP). It was verified that even though the ligands are structurally similar, the most appropriate ESI conditions for KD determination by titration are different for each.

  13. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scientific Meeting — New Orleans, Louisiana 2017 Discover More Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) Read More So You Want to Be a Forensic Scientist! Read More ‹ › The American Academy of Forensic ...

  14. Teaching forensic medicine in the University of Porto.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Santos, Agostinho

    2014-07-01

    The University of Porto (UP) provides education in Forensic Medicine (FM) through the 1st, 2nd and 3rd cycle of studies, post-graduation and continuing education courses. This education is related to forensic pathology, clinical forensic medicine (including forensic psychology and psychiatry), forensic chemistry and toxicology, forensic genetics and biology, and criminalistics. With this work we intent to reflect on how we are currently teaching FM in the UP, at all levels of university graduation. We will present our models, regarding the educational objectives, curricular program and teaching/learning methodologies of each cycle of studies as well as in post-graduate and continuing education courses. Historically, and besides related administratively to the Ministry of Justice, the Portuguese Medico-Legal Institutes (since 1918) and more recently the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF) also have educational and research responsibilities. Thus, it lends space and cooperates with academic institutions and this contribution, namely regarding teaching forensic sciences in Portugal has been judged as an example for other Countries. This contribution is so important that in UP, the Department of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of the Faculty of Medicine (FMUP) shares, until now, the same physical space with North Branch of the INMLCF, which represents a notorious advantage, since it makes possible the "learning by doing". PMID:24931860

  15. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  16. Assessment of Reliable Change Using 95% Credible Intervals for the Differences in Proportions: A Statistical Analysis for Case-Study Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unicomb, Rachael; Colyvas, Kim; Harrison, Elisabeth; Hewat, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Case-study methodology studying change is often used in the field of speech-language pathology, but it can be criticized for not being statistically robust. Yet with the heterogeneous nature of many communication disorders, case studies allow clinicians and researchers to closely observe and report on change. Such information is valuable…

  17. AMOVA ["Accumulative Manifold Validation Analysis"]: An Advanced Statistical Methodology Designed to Measure and Test the Validity, Reliability, and Overall Efficacy of Inquiry-Based Psychometric Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, James Edward, II

    2015-01-01

    This monograph provides an epistemological rational for the Accumulative Manifold Validation Analysis [also referred by the acronym "AMOVA"] statistical methodology designed to test psychometric instruments. This form of inquiry is a form of mathematical optimization in the discipline of linear stochastic modelling. AMOVA is an in-depth…

  18. [Taste disorders in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Canale, M; Canale, F; Pallestrini, E; Castello, E

    1994-01-01

    Taste disorders can a rise from lesions of peripheral receptors, taste control pathways or cortical area involvement. Among peripheral lesions, trauma of the tongue and oropharynx are the most common. Iatrogenic lesions of facial and glossopharingeal nerves are very important in Forensic Medicine, while there are different opinions about taste alterations due to head injuries; hypogeusia associated to smell disorders are found in 0.4-0.5% of patient after head trauma with good prognosis (90% healing) while qualitative disorders are more common (30%). The Authors describe clinical methodologies for taste evaluation and their application in Forensic Medicine. Forensic estimation of taste disorders con be classified by two main groups: study of cause relation between the occurrence and damage and quantitative valuation of the damage in three different juridical ambits: Penal, Civil, Insurance and foresight. In Penal Right taste damages could be classified among personal lesion crimes and can be classified as serious (permanent injury of taste) ore very serious (complete lost of taste function). Italian Legislation equipare the 5 sense organs. In Civil Right evaluation the so-called "biologic damage" and working ability are considered; this means very different evaluations. In the most recent baremes, generic damage is estimated by different Authors from 0 to 10% while with regard to specific working capacity, common evaluation criteria does not exist. In Insurance taste disorders evaluation is based only on working ability and not on biologic damage. In the previdenzial ambit, taste disorders are not even included in the most recent tables of permanent invalidity estimation. The Authors propose new and more efficacious valutation criteria for taste disorders in all ambits, hoping for more interest in the Forensic aspects of taste, a too often forgotten sensory function. PMID:7810326

  19. Awareness of forensic odontology among police personnel: A new ray of hope in forensic odontology

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Siddharth; Desai, Dinkar; Jeergal, Prabhakar; Venkatesh, Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Police personnel play an important role in collecting and producing evidence. Knowledge about the various aspects of forensic as well as dental sciences and related evidence in them provide a golden opportunity to forensic odontologists to actively participate in the identification of the accused or victim. They can also act as an expert witness in court to produce forensic dental evidence. Aim: To evaluate the awareness and knowledge about the utilization of forensic odontology during evidence collection by the crime scene investigation (CSI) officers. Materials and Methods: Four hundred police officers were included in this survey. A questionnaire was designed to assess the awareness and knowledge about forensic odontology and application of the known knowledge in identifying and considering the dental evidences. Data were analyzed using the software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, Chicago, Il, USA) version 17.0 by comparing the overall awareness of forensic odontology among the trained SI officers and trainee police personnel. Results: The collected results showed that there is a requirement for changes in the current practice of evidence collection and highlighted the need for better communication between the police personnel and forensic odontologists. A significantly higher number of police officers in both the trained and trainee groups reported knowledge about the subject (P < 0.001) through newspapers and mass media as the sources of knowledge. Conclusion: Even though the respondents have knowledge about forensic odontology, there is a lack of communication and facilities in their system; hence, steps must be taken to educate the police personnel about the application of forensic odontology. PMID:27051225

  20. Forensic psychiatry: contemporary scope, challenges and controversies

    PubMed Central

    ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

    2006-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law, and with the flow of mentally disordered offenders along a continuum of social systems. Modern forensic psychiatry has benefited from four key developments: the evolution in the understanding and appreciation of the relationship between mental illness and criminality; the evolution of the legal tests to define legal insanity; the new methodologies for the treatment of mental conditions providing alternatives to custodial care; and the changes in attitudes and perceptions of mental illness among the public. This paper reviews the current scope of forensic psychiatry and the ethical dilemmas that this subspecialty is facing worldwide. PMID:16946941

  1. DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It…

  2. A hybrid Land Cover Dataset for Russia: a new methodology for merging statistics, remote sensing and in-situ information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepaschenko, D.; McCallum, I.; Shvidenko, A.; Kraxner, F.; Fritz, S.

    2009-04-01

    There is a critical need for accurate land cover information for resource assessment, biophysical modeling, greenhouse gas studies, and for estimating possible terrestrial responses and feedbacks to climate change. However, practically all existing land cover datasets have quite a high level of uncertainty and suffer from a lack of important details that does not allow for relevant parameterization, e.g., data derived from different forest inventories. The objective of this study is to develop a methodology in order to create a hybrid land cover dataset at the level which would satisfy requirements of the verified terrestrial biota full greenhouse gas account (Shvidenko et al., 2008) for large regions i.e. Russia. Such requirements necessitate a detailed quantification of land classes (e.g., for forests - dominant species, age, growing stock, net primary production, etc.) with additional information on uncertainties of the major biometric and ecological parameters in the range of 10-20% and a confidence interval of around 0.9. The approach taken here allows the integration of different datasets to explore synergies and in particular the merging and harmonization of land and forest inventories, ecological monitoring, remote sensing data and in-situ information. The following datasets have been integrated: Remote sensing: Global Land Cover 2000 (Fritz et al., 2003), Vegetation Continuous Fields (Hansen et al., 2002), Vegetation Fire (Sukhinin, 2007), Regional land cover (Schmullius et al., 2005); GIS: Soil 1:2.5 Mio (Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute, 1996), Administrative Regions 1:2.5 Mio, Vegetation 1:4 Mio, Bioclimatic Zones 1:4 Mio (Stolbovoi & McCallum, 2002), Forest Enterprises 1:2.5 Mio, Rivers/Lakes and Roads/Railways 1:1 Mio (IIASA's data base); Inventories and statistics: State Land Account (FARSC RF, 2006), State Forest Account - SFA (FFS RF, 2003), Disturbances in forests (FFS RF, 2006). The resulting hybrid land cover dataset at 1-km resolution comprises

  3. Forensic Science Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  4. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan. PMID:26024984

  5. The use of geoscience methods for terrestrial forensic searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, J. K.; Ruffell, A.; Jervis, J. R.; Donnelly, L.; McKinley, J.; Hansen, J.; Morgan, R.; Pirrie, D.; Harrison, M.

    2012-08-01

    Geoscience methods are increasingly being utilised in criminal, environmental and humanitarian forensic investigations, and the use of such methods is supported by a growing body of experimental and theoretical research. Geoscience search techniques can complement traditional methodologies in the search for buried objects, including clandestine graves, weapons, explosives, drugs, illegal weapons, hazardous waste and vehicles. This paper details recent advances in search and detection methods, with case studies and reviews. Relevant examples are given, together with a generalised workflow for search and suggested detection technique(s) table. Forensic geoscience techniques are continuing to rapidly evolve to assist search investigators to detect hitherto difficult to locate forensic targets.

  6. [Forensic psychotherapy research - status quo, scope, and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Ross, T; Fontao, M I

    2006-05-01

    In the last two decades, forensic psychotherapy has become a specialised area of scholarship, predominantly in the UK and Germany. However, scientific research with respect to set goals, methods and the application of treatments has been heterogeneous and not very extensive. Focussing on offender treatment, the status quo of research schemes based on clinical experience is discussed, and a strategy is suggested as how to develop a research framework for forensic psychotherapy which makes use of the specific methods and treatment interventions applied in this field. It is concluded that forensic psychotherapy research will greatly benefit from the methodological framework of general psychotherapy research, especially when competing for scarce financial resources. PMID:16758539

  7. First Digit Law and Its Application to Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yun Q.

    Digital data forensics, which gathers evidence of data composition, origin, and history, is crucial in our digital world. Although this new research field is still in its infancy stage, it has started to attract increasing attention from the multimedia-security research community. This lecture addresses the first digit law and its applications to digital forensics. First, the Benford and generalized Benford laws, referred to as first digit law, are introduced. Then, the application of first digit law to detection of JPEG compression history for a given BMP image and detection of double JPEG compressions are presented. Finally, applying first digit law to detection of double MPEG video compressions is discussed. It is expected that the first digit law may play an active role in other task of digital forensics. The lesson learned is that statistical models play an important role in digital forensics and for a specific forensic task different models may provide different performance.

  8. Statistical methodology for the evaluation of vaccine efficacy in a phase III multi-centre trial of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been much debate about the appropriate statistical methodology for the evaluation of malaria field studies and the challenges in interpreting data arising from these trials. Methods The present paper describes, for a pivotal phase III efficacy of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine, the methods of the statistical analysis and the rationale for their selection. The methods used to estimate efficacy of the primary course of vaccination, and of a booster dose, in preventing clinical episodes of uncomplicated and severe malaria, and to determine the duration of protection, are described. The interpretation of various measures of efficacy in terms of the potential public health impact of the vaccine is discussed. Conclusions The methodology selected to analyse the clinical trial must be scientifically sound, acceptable to regulatory authorities and meaningful to those responsible for malaria control and public health policy. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00866619 PMID:21816030

  9. Methodologies in forensic and decomposition microbiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culturable microorganisms represent only 0.1-1% of the total microbial diversity of the biosphere. This has severely restricted the ability of scientists to study the microbial biodiversity associated with the decomposition of ephemeral resources in the past. Innovations in technology are bringing...

  10. The forensic psychiatric report.

    PubMed

    Norko, Michael A; Buchanan, Mar Alec

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a written forensic report is a core component of forensic practice, demonstrating the evaluator's skill in conducting the evaluation and in communicating relevant information to the legal audience in an effective manner. Although communication skills and quality of written documentation are important in clinical psychiatry generally, they form the sine qua non of successful forensic work, which consists in telling complex stories in a coherent and compelling fashion. High quality forensic reports require careful preparation from the earliest stages of work on a case. They generally follow an expected structure, which permits the evaluator to provide all the data necessary to form a carefully reasoned opinion that addresses the legal questions posed. Formats and content of reports vary according to the type of case and the circumstances of the evaluation and so require flexibility within customary frameworks. The style and quality of writing are critical to the crafting of forensic reports. The effects on legal decision-makers of various approaches to the presentation of information in reports has not been studied empirically, but guidance from experienced forensic psychiatrists is available. There is a small body of research on quality improvement in forensic writing, and further empiric study is warranted. PMID:25603453

  11. Expansion of Microbial Forensics.

    PubMed

    Schmedes, Sarah E; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-08-01

    Microbial forensics has been defined as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of evidence related to bioterrorism, biocrimes, hoaxes, or the accidental release of a biological agent or toxin for attribution purposes. Over the past 15 years, technology, particularly massively parallel sequencing, and bioinformatics advances now allow the characterization of microorganisms for a variety of human forensic applications, such as human identification, body fluid characterization, postmortem interval estimation, and biocrimes involving tracking of infectious agents. Thus, microbial forensics should be more broadly described as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of microbial evidence in criminal and civil cases for investigative purposes. PMID:26912746

  12. The imported forensic expert

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C.P.

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  13. Statistical Techniques Utilized in Analyzing PISA and TIMSS Data in Science Education from 1996 to 2013: A Methodological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Hung, Yi-Chen

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a methodological review of articles using the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) or Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) data published by the SSCI-indexed science education journals, such as the "International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education," the "International…

  14. A Methodological Review of Statistical Methods for Handling Multilevel Non-Nested Longitudinal Data in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Shuyan; Pan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    As applications of multilevel modelling in educational research increase, researchers realize that multilevel data collected in many educational settings are often not purely nested. The most common multilevel non-nested data structure is one that involves student mobility in longitudinal studies. This article provides a methodological review of…

  15. Forensic Science: Hair Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Elhannan L.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

  16. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison. PMID:26126345

  17. Professionalism in Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Alastair D.; Konstadopoulou, Anastasia

    The paper seeks to address the need to consider issues regarding professionalism in computer forensics in order to allow the discipline to develop and to ensure the credibility of the discipline from the differing perspectives of practitioners, the criminal justice system and in the eyes of the public. There is a need to examine and develop professionalism in computer forensics in order to promote the discipline and maintain the credibility of the discipline.

  18. Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Cliff, John B.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-01-03

    Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special considerations for the forensic arena - quality control, sample integrity, etc. Mark Wilson (retired FBI): Western Carolina University Chapter 4. Physical signatures: Light and electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gravimetry etc. Joseph Michael, Sandia National Laboratory Chapter 5. Lipids: FAME, PLFA, steroids, LPS, etc. James Robertson, Federal Bureau of Investigation Chapter 6. Carbohydrates: Cell wall components, cytoplasm components, methods Alvin Fox, University of South Carolina School of Medicine David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 7. Peptides: Peptides, proteins, lipoproteins David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 8. Elemental content: CNOHPS (treated in passing), metals, prospective cell types John Cliff, International Atomic Energy Agency Chapter 9. Isotopic signatures: Stable isotopes C,N,H,O,S, 14C dating, potential for heavy elements. Helen Kreuzer-Martin, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Michaele Kashgarian, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Chapter 10. Extracellular signatures: Cellular debris, heme, agar, headspace, spent media, etc Karen Wahl, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 11. Data Reduction and Integrated Microbial Forensics: Statistical concepts, parametric and multivariate statistics, integrating signatures Kristin Jarman, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  19. Transporting Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Dike, Charles C; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Young, John L

    2015-12-01

    Patients in a forensic psychiatric facility often require escorted transport to medical facilities for investigations or treatments of physical health ailments. Transporting these patients presents significant safety and custody challenges because of the nature of patients housed in forensic psychiatric facilities. A significant proportion of these patients may be transfers from the Department of Corrections (DOC) under legal mandates for psychiatric evaluation and treatment better provided in a hospital setting, and most of them will return to the DOC. Although departments of correction have protocols for escorting these potentially dangerous individuals, it is unclear whether receiving psychiatric hospitals have established procedures for maintaining the safety of others and custody of these individuals during transportation outside the hospital facility. The literature is sparse on precautions to be observed when transporting dangerous forensic psychiatric patients, including those with high escape risk. In this article, we describe one forensic inpatient facility's procedure for determining the appropriate level needed to transport these individuals outside of the forensic facility. We also describe the risk assessment procedure for determining level of transport. These are quality improvement measures resulting from a critical review of an incident of escape from the forensic facility several years ago. PMID:26668224

  20. Internet and forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamakura, Reddy P.

    1997-02-01

    The Internet is a very powerful and inexpensive tool that was created for the free distribution of knowledge and information. The Internet is a learning tool, a research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a journal with instant publication, a help desk, and a newspaper/journal with current information. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet also will be a live classroom and everyday conference. Forensic scientists, laboratories and colleges should make use of information already available on the Internet. They also should actively participate and contribute. Very few forensic scientists and laboratories have made their presence felt by setting up their home pages/web pages. But, there is tremendous growth during the past year. Immense benefits from Internet to forensic community are discussed along with the author's personal experience. Creating on-line searchable data bases in all specialties of forensic science is an urgent need. Leading forensic journals should take a lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. On line electronic publishing, collaborative research/paper publishing or editing is easy, fast, economical and convenient through the use of the Internet. Creation of Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Internet also can be used to give training, re-training or advanced training to students/forensic scientists.

  1. Nuclear forensic investigations: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Wallenius, M; Mayer, K; Ray, I

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and analytical methods used in nuclear forensic investigations. Two case studies are taken as examples to illustrate this. These examples represent typical cases that have been analysed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) since last 10 years, i.e. the beginning of the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Results of the various analytical techniques are shown, which, together with other type of information, reveal the origin of the material. PMID:16410154

  2. Forensic Hair Differentiation Using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Manheim, Jeremy; Doty, Kyle C; McLaughlin, Gregory; Lednev, Igor K

    2016-07-01

    Hair and fibers are common forms of trace evidence found at crime scenes. The current methodology of microscopic examination of potential hair evidence is absent of statistical measures of performance, and examiner results for identification can be subjective. Here, attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to analyze synthetic fibers and natural hairs of human, cat, and dog origin. Chemometric analysis was used to differentiate hair spectra from the three different species, and to predict unknown hairs to their proper species class, with a high degree of certainty. A species-specific partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) model was constructed to discriminate human hair from cat and dog hairs. This model was successful in distinguishing between the three classes and, more importantly, all human samples were correctly predicted as human. An external validation resulted in zero false positive and false negative assignments for the human class. From a forensic perspective, this technique would be complementary to microscopic hair examination, and in no way replace it. As such, this methodology is able to provide a statistical measure of confidence to the identification of a sample of human, cat, and dog hair, which was called for in the 2009 National Academy of Sciences report. More importantly, this approach is non-destructive, rapid, can provide reliable results, and requires no sample preparation, making it of ample importance to the field of forensic science. PMID:27412186

  3. Exploiting Statistical Methodologies and Controlled Vocabularies for Prioritized Functional Analysis of Genomic Experiments: the StRAnGER Web Application

    PubMed Central

    Chatziioannou, Aristotelis A.; Moulos, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    StRAnGER is a web application for the automated statistical analysis of annotated gene profiling experiments, exploiting controlled biological vocabularies, like the Gene Ontology or the KEGG pathways terms. Starting from annotated lists of differentially expressed genes and gene enrichment scores, regarding the terms of each vocabulary, StRAnGER repartitions and reorders the initial distribution of terms to define a new distribution of elements. Each element pools terms holding the same enrichment score. The new distribution thus derived, is reordered in a decreasing order to the right, according to the observation score of the elements, while elements with the same score, are sorted again in a decreasing order of their enrichment scores. By applying bootstrapping techniques, a corrected measure of the statistical significance of these elements is derived, which enables the selection of terms mapped to these elements, unambiguously associated with respective significant gene sets. The selected terms are immunized against the bias infiltrating statistical enrichment analyses, producing technically very high statistical scores, due to the finite nature of the data population. Besides their high statistical score, another selection criterion for the terms is the number of their members, something that incurs a biological prioritization in line with a Systems Biology context. The output derived, represents a detailed ranked list of significant terms, which constitute a starting point for further functional analysis. PMID:21293737

  4. Statistical methodologies for tree-ring research to understand the climate-growth relationships over time and space

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Tree-Ring Database is a valuable resource for studying climate change and its effects on terrestrial ecosystems over time and space. We examine the statistical methods in current use in dendroclimatology and dendroecology to process the tree-ring data and make ...

  5. A supervised vibration-based statistical methodology for damage detection under varying environmental conditions & its laboratory assessment with a scale wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez González, A.; Fassois, S. D.

    2016-03-01

    The problem of vibration-based damage detection under varying environmental conditions and uncertainty is considered, and a novel, supervised, PCA-type statistical methodology is postulated. The methodology employs vibration data records from the healthy and damaged states of a structure under various environmental conditions. Unlike standard PCA-type methods in which a feature vector corresponding to the least important eigenvalues is formed in a single step, the postulated methodology uses supervised learning in which damaged-state data records are employed to sequentially form a feature vector by appending a transformed scalar element at a time under the condition that it optimally, among all remaining elements, improves damage detectability. This leads to the formulation of feature vectors with optimized sensitivity to damage, and thus high damage detectability. Within this methodology three particular methods, two non-parametric and one parametric, are formulated. These are validated and comparatively assessed via a laboratory case study focusing on damage detection on a scale wind turbine blade under varying temperature and the potential presence of sprayed water. Damage detection performance is shown to be excellent based on a single vibration response sensor and a limited frequency bandwidth.

  6. Digital Forensics Using Local Signal Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Xunyu

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the Internet and the popularity of digital imaging devices, digital imagery has become our major information source. Meanwhile, the development of digital manipulation techniques employed by most image editing software brings new challenges to the credibility of photographic images as the definite records of events. We…

  7. Optimization of medium composition for keratinase production on feather by Bacillus licheniformis RG1 using statistical methods involving response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ramnani, Priya; Gupta, Rani

    2004-10-01

    A 3.5-fold increase in keratinase production by Bacillus licheniformis RG1 was achieved by using statistical methods involving Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. Eight variables were screened using Plackett-Burman design. Of these, glucose, peptone and glutathione were found to affect the response signal positively, whereas CaCl(2) had a negative effect. Further interaction of these factors, along with phosphate and incubation time, was studied using response surface methodology. An optimum keratinase production of 1295 units/mg dry weight was obtained with the following medium composition: 1% glucose, 1% peptone, 1% phosphate, 0.05% glutathione, 0.5% feather and 2% inoculum under shaking at 250 rev./min with an incubation period of 72 h at 37 degrees C. Keratinase production was found to be a function of biomass and maximum production occurred during the stationary phase. PMID:14871173

  8. Dynamics of Forensic Interviews with Suspected Abuse Victims Who Do Not Disclose Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkowitz, Irit; Orbach, Yael; Lamb, Michael E.; Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Horowitz, Dvora

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was designed to explore structural differences between forensic interviews in which children made allegations and those in which children did not make allegations. Methodology: Fifty forensic interviews of 4- to 13-year-old suspected victims of abuse who did not disclose abuse during the interview were compared with…

  9. Forensic trace DNA: a review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

  10. Diagnosis of anaphylactic death in forensics: Review and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Rossana

    2016-09-01

    The diagnosis of anaphylaxis in a pre- or post-mortal phase involves the formulation of problems not yet solved by the international scientific literature, due to the complexity of pathogenic factors and pathophysiological processes that characterizes it. For forensic autopsies, further problems of differential diagnosis arise and often leave the forensic pathologist unable to express an opinion of certainty, as a result of lack of case history, circumstantial and autoptical-histopathological data. Nevertheless, in routine cases the postmortem diagnosis of anaphylactic death continues to be based on exclusion and circumstantial evidence. The author, after an extensive review of the literature relating to deaths from anaphylaxis of forensic pathological interest, and a discussion of the microscopical and biochemical findings, proposes a diagnostic protocol for forensic purposes and evaluates the diagnostic perspectives enabled by the newly available analytic techniques and markers. Maybe, the application of omics methodologies could help in the future for anaphylaxis diagnosis. PMID:27591544

  11. Curriculum and course materials for a forensic DNA biology course.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Kelly M

    2014-01-01

    The Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) requires accredited programs offer a "coherent curriculum" to ensure each student gains a "thorough grounding of the natural…sciences." Part of this curriculum includes completion of a minimum of 15 semester-hours forensic science coursework, nine of which can involve a class in forensic DNA biology. Departments that have obtained or are pursuing FEPAC accreditation can meet this requirement by offering a stand-alone forensic DNA biology course; however, materials necessary to instruct students are often homegrown and not standardized; in addition, until recently, the community lacked commercially available books, lab manuals, and teaching materials, and many of the best pedagogical resources were scattered across various peer-reviewed journals. The curriculum discussed below is an attempt to synthesize this disparate information, and although certainly not the only acceptable methodology, the below discussion represents "a way" for synthesizing and aggregating this information into a cohesive, comprehensive whole. PMID:24591042

  12. Statistical methodology and assessment of seismic event characterization capability. Final report, 2 June 1993-2 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, M.D.; Gray, H.L.; McCartor, G.D.

    1995-10-31

    This project has focused on developing and applying statistical methods to perform seismic event characterization/identification and on quantifying capabilities with regard to monitoring of a Comprehensive Test Ban. An automated procedure is described to categorize seismic events, based on multivariate analysis of features derived from seismic waveforms. Second, preliminary event identification results are presented for a seismic event which occurred on 5 January 1995 in the Southern Ural Mountains region. Third, various statistics are compiled regarding 1786 seismic events which occurred between 11 January 1995 and 12 February 1995 and were detected by a set of 30 GSETT-3 Alpha stations. Fourth, a fundamental problem is addressed of how to utilize multivariate discriminant data from a multistation network in order to optimize the power of the outlier test for fixed false alarm rate.

  13. Production of glutaminase (E.C.3.2.1.5) from Zygosaccharomyces rouxii: statistical optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Padma; Singhal, Rekha S

    2008-07-01

    A face centered central composite design was employed to investigate the interactive effects of four variables, viz. concentrations of sucrose, yeast extract, sodium chloride, and glutamine, identified earlier by one-factor-at-a-time approach, on glutaminase production by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. A significant influence of yeast extract on glutaminase production was noted. Response surface methodology (RSM) showed that a medium containing (g/l) sucrose, 17.8; yeast extract, 48.0; glutamine, 5.0 and sodium chloride, 55.6 to be optimum for the production of glutaminase. This medium was projected to produce, theoretically, an enzyme activity of 149.98 U/l and a specific activity of 0.488 U/mg protein. The applied methodology was validated using this optimized media and enzyme activity 155.89+/-1.68 U/l and specific activity of 0.468+/-0.088 U/mg protein was obtained. Further, this optimization strategy combined with an increase in inoculum enhanced the enzyme activity and specific activity by 2.94 and 3.58 fold, respectively, as compared to the unoptimized media. PMID:17951056

  14. Distinguishing between forensic science and forensic pseudoscience: testing of validity and reliability, and approaches to forensic voice comparison.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

    2014-05-01

    In this paper it is argued that one should not attempt to directly assess whether a forensic analysis technique is scientifically acceptable. Rather one should first specify what one considers to be appropriate principles governing acceptable practice, then consider any particular approach in light of those principles. This paper focuses on one principle: the validity and reliability of an approach should be empirically tested under conditions reflecting those of the case under investigation using test data drawn from the relevant population. Versions of this principle have been key elements in several reports on forensic science, including forensic voice comparison, published over the last four-and-a-half decades. The aural-spectrographic approach to forensic voice comparison (also known as "voiceprint" or "voicegram" examination) and the currently widely practiced auditory-acoustic-phonetic approach are considered in light of this principle (these two approaches do not appear to be mutually exclusive). Approaches based on data, quantitative measurements, and statistical models are also considered in light of this principle. PMID:24796954

  15. A methodology using in-chair movements as an objective measure of discomfort for the purpose of statistically distinguishing between similar seat surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cascioli, Vincenzo; Liu, Zhuofu; Heusch, Andrew; McCarthy, Peter W

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a method for objectively measuring in-chair movement (ICM) that shows correlation with subjective ratings of comfort and discomfort. Employing a cross-over controlled, single blind design, healthy young subjects (n = 21) sat for 18 min on each of the following surfaces: contoured foam, straight foam and wood. Force sensitive resistors attached to the sitting interface measured the relative movements of the subjects during sitting. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ICM could statistically distinguish between each seat material, including two with subtle design differences. In addition, this study investigated methodological considerations, in particular appropriate threshold selection and sitting duration, when analysing objective movement data. ICM appears to be able to statistically distinguish between similar foam surfaces, as long as appropriate ICM thresholds and sufficient sitting durations are present. A relationship between greater ICM and increased discomfort, and lesser ICM and increased comfort was also found. PMID:26851469

  16. Forensics on a Shoestring Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

  17. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  18. Development of Statistical Process Control Methodology for an Environmentally Compliant Surface Cleaning Process in a Bonding Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Dale E.; Doan, Patrick A.; Boothe, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Bonding labs at both MSFC and the northern Utah production plant prepare bond test specimens which simulate or witness the production of NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The current process for preparing the bonding surfaces employs 1,1,1-trichloroethane vapor degreasing, which simulates the current RSRM process. Government regulations (e.g., the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act) have mandated a production phase-out of a number of ozone depleting compounds (ODC) including 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In order to comply with these regulations, the RSRM Program is qualifying a spray-in-air (SIA) precision cleaning process using Brulin 1990, an aqueous blend of surfactants. Accordingly, surface preparation prior to bonding process simulation test specimens must reflect the new production cleaning process. The Bonding Lab Statistical Process Control (SPC) program monitors the progress of the lab and its capabilities, as well as certifies the bonding technicians, by periodically preparing D6AC steel tensile adhesion panels with EA-91 3NA epoxy adhesive using a standardized process. SPC methods are then used to ensure the process is statistically in control, thus producing reliable data for bonding studies, and identify any problems which might develop. Since the specimen cleaning process is being changed, new SPC limits must be established. This report summarizes side-by-side testing of D6AC steel tensile adhesion witness panels and tapered double cantilevered beams (TDCBs) using both the current baseline vapor degreasing process and a lab-scale spray-in-air process. A Proceco 26 inches Typhoon dishwasher cleaned both tensile adhesion witness panels and TDCBs in a process which simulates the new production process. The tests were performed six times during 1995, subsequent statistical analysis of the data established new upper control limits (UCL) and lower control limits (LCL). The data also demonstrated that the new process was equivalent to the vapor

  19. Forensic geology exhumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Joseph Didier

    Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term “forensic” is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as “pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and debate.” The American Geological Institute's Glossary of Geology defines forensic geology as “the application of the Earth sciences to the law.” The cited reference to Murray and Tedrow [1975], however, deals mostly if not exclusively with the gathering and use of evidence in criminal cases, despite the widespread involvement of geologists in more general legal matters. It seems appropriate to “exhume” geology's wider application to the law, which is encompassed by forensic geology.

  20. A Methodology for Determining Statistical Performance Compliance for Airborne Doppler Radar with Forward-Looking Turbulence Detection Capability. Second Corrected Copy Issued May 23, 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.; Buck, Bill K.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the research developed and presented in this document was to statistically assess turbulence hazard detection performance employing airborne pulse Doppler radar systems. The FAA certification methodology for forward looking airborne turbulence radars will require estimating the probabilities of missed and false hazard indications under operational conditions. Analytical approaches must be used due to the near impossibility of obtaining sufficient statistics experimentally. This report describes an end-to-end analytical technique for estimating these probabilities for Enhanced Turbulence (E-Turb) Radar systems under noise-limited conditions, for a variety of aircraft types, as defined in FAA TSO-C134. This technique provides for one means, but not the only means, by which an applicant can demonstrate compliance to the FAA directed ATDS Working Group performance requirements. Turbulence hazard algorithms were developed that derived predictive estimates of aircraft hazards from basic radar observables. These algorithms were designed to prevent false turbulence indications while accurately predicting areas of elevated turbulence risks to aircraft, passengers, and crew; and were successfully flight tested on a NASA B757-200 and a Delta Air Lines B737-800. Application of this defined methodology for calculating the probability of missed and false hazard indications taking into account the effect of the various algorithms used, is demonstrated for representative transport aircraft and radar performance characteristics.

  1. An innovative methodological approach in the frame of Marine Strategy Framework Directive: a statistical model based on ship detection SAR data for monitoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Pieralice, Francesca; Proietti, Raffaele; La Valle, Paola; Giorgi, Giordano; Mazzolena, Marco; Taramelli, Andrea; Nicoletti, Luisa

    2014-12-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) is focused on protection, preservation and restoration of the marine environment by achieving and maintaining Good Environmental Status (GES) by 2020. Within this context, this paper presents a methodological approach for a fast and repeatable monitoring that allows quantitative assessment of seabed abrasion pressure due to recreational boat anchoring. The methodology consists of two steps: a semi-automatic procedure based on an algorithm for the ship detection in SAR imagery and a statistical model to obtain maps of spatial and temporal distribution density of anchored boats. Ship detection processing has been performed on 36 ASAR VV-pol images of Liguria test site, for the three years 2008, 2009 and 2010. Starting from the pointwise distribution layer produced by ship detection in imagery, boats points have been subdivided into 4 areas where a constant distribution density has been assumed for the entire period 2008-2010. In the future, this methodology will be applied also to higher resolution data of Sentinel-1 mission, specifically designed for the operational needs of the European Programme Copernicus. PMID:25096752

  2. Forensic Science Center

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.; Grant, P.M.

    1994-03-01

    Since 1991, the Laboratory's Forensic Science Center has focused a comprehensive range of analytical expertise on issues related to non proliferation, counterterrorism, and domestic law enforcement. During this short period, LLNL's singular combination of human and technological resources has made the Center among the best of its kind in the world. The Forensic Science Center houses a variety of state-of-the-art analytical tools ranging from gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers to ultratrace DNA detection techniques. The Center's multidisciplinary staff provides expertise in organic and inorganic analytical chemistry, nuclear science, biochemistry, and genetics useful for supporting law enforcement and for verifying compliance with international treaties and agreements.

  3. Research in forensic odontology.

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    Forensic odontology has established itself as an important and often indispensable science in medicolegal matters and in particular in identification of the dead. Much of its expertise is drawn from clinical experience based on basic research and advances in knowledge in dentistry in general. There has also been, particularly during the past two decades, an increasing body of research in specifically forensic dental matters and these studies form the subject of this review. Progress in this field, as in others, will depend upon development of training pathways and research facilities in our dental schools. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:7044254

  4. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  5. Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Srikanth Meka, Venkata; Ee Li, Chew; Sheshala, Ravi

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this research was to formulate effervescent floating drug delivery systems of theophylline using different release retarding polymers such as ethyl cellulose, Eudragit® L100, xanthan gum and polyethylene oxide (PEO) N12K. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a gas generating agent. Direct compression was used to formulate floating tablets and the tablets were evaluated for their physicochemical and dissolution characteristics. PEO based formulations produced better drug release properties than other formulations. Hence, it was further optimized by central composite design. Further subjects of research were the effect of formulation variables on floating lag time and the percentage of drug released at the seventh hour (D7h). The optimum quantities of PEO and sodium bicarbonate, which had the highest desirability close to 1.0, were chosen as the statistically optimized formulation. No interaction was found between theophylline and PEO by Fourier Transformation Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) studies. PMID:26959542

  6. Bayesian Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Donald L.

    Bayesian statistical methodology and its possible uses in the behavioral sciences are discussed in relation to the solution of problems in both the use and teaching of fundamental statistical methods, including confidence intervals, significance tests, and sampling. The Bayesian model explains these statistical methods and offers a consistent…

  7. Blurriness in Live Forensics: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoldi, Antonio; Gubian, Paolo

    The Live Forensics discipline aims at answering basic questions related to a digital crime, which usually involves a computer-based system. The investigation should be carried out with the very goal to establish which processes were running, when they were started and by whom, what specific activities those processes were doing and the state of active network connections. Besides, a set of tools needs to be launched on the running system by altering, as a consequence of the Locard’s exchange principle [2], the system’s memory. All the methodologies for the live forensics field proposed until now have a basic, albeit important, weakness, which is the inability to quantify the perturbation, or blurriness, of the system’s memory of the investigated computer. This is the very last goal of this paper: to provide a set of guidelines which can be effectively used for measuring the uncertainty of the collected volatile memory on a live system being investigated.

  8. Exploring Trends in Forensic Odontology

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Ain, Tasneem S.; Sultan, Saima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Materials and Methods: Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. Results: A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. Results showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Conclusion: Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology. PMID:25654026

  9. Statistical methodology for the detection of small changes in distances by EXAFS: application to the antimalarial ruthenoquine.

    PubMed

    Curis, Emmanuel; Dubar, Faustine; Nicolis, Ioannis; Bénazeth, Simone; Biot, Christophe

    2012-06-14

    Antimalarial compounds ruthenoquine and methylruthenoquine were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy both in solid state and in solution, in normal (aqueous or CH(2)Cl(2) solutions) and oxidative (aqueous solution with H(2)O(2), either equimolar or in large excess) conditions, to detect small changes in the coordination sphere of the ruthenium atom. Since changes in the EXAFS spectra of these compounds are quite subtle, a complete procedure was developed to assess the different sources of uncertainties in fitted structural parameters, including the use of multivariate statistic methods for simultaneous comparison of edge energy correction ΔE(0) and distances, which can take into account the very strong correlation between these two parameters. Factors limiting the precision of distance determination depend on the recording mode. In transmission mode, the main source of uncertainty is the data reduction process, whereas in fluorescence mode, experimental noise is the main source of variability in the fitted parameters. However, it was shown that the effects of data reduction are systematic and almost identical for all compounds; hence, they can be ignored when comparing distances. Consequently, for both fluorescence and transmission recorded spectra, experimental noise is the limiting factor for distance comparisons, which leads to the use of statistical methods for comparing distances. Univariate methods, focusing on the distance only, are shown to be less powerful in detecting changes in distances than bivariate methods making a simultaneous comparison of ΔE(0) and distances. This bivariate comparison can be done either by using the Hotelling's T(2) test or by using a graphical comparison of Monte Carlo simulation results. We have shown that using these methods allows for the detection of very subtle changes in distances. When applied to ruthenoquine compounds, it suggests that the implication of the nonbinding doublet of the aminoquine nitrogen in either

  10. Statistical analysis of spectral data: a methodology for designing an intelligent monitoring system for the diabetic foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van Netten, Jaap J.; Klein, Marvin E.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Bus, Sicco A.; van der Heijden, Ferdi

    2013-12-01

    Early detection of (pre-)signs of ulceration on a diabetic foot is valuable for clinical practice. Hyperspectral imaging is a promising technique for detection and classification of such (pre-)signs. However, the number of the spectral bands should be limited to avoid overfitting, which is critical for pixel classification with hyperspectral image data. The goal was to design a detector/classifier based on spectral imaging (SI) with a small number of optical bandpass filters. The performance and stability of the design were also investigated. The selection of the bandpass filters boils down to a feature selection problem. A dataset was built, containing reflectance spectra of 227 skin spots from 64 patients, measured with a spectrometer. Each skin spot was annotated manually by clinicians as "healthy" or a specific (pre-)sign of ulceration. Statistical analysis on the data set showed the number of required filters is between 3 and 7, depending on additional constraints on the filter set. The stability analysis revealed that shot noise was the most critical factor affecting the classification performance. It indicated that this impact could be avoided in future SI systems with a camera sensor whose saturation level is higher than 106, or by postimage processing.

  11. Forensic medicine in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Muhammad Nurul; Islam, Mohammed Nasimul

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the current medico-legal practice and future plan to improve the medico-legal service of Bangladesh which is rooted in the remnants of British medical jurisprudence. It includes clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. In Bangladesh all unnatural deaths are to be reported at the nearest police station and an appointed police officer should visit the scene of crime for investigation and to arrange postmortem if required. The forensic services of the country are delivered partly by academic staffs of Government Medical Colleges and the rest by the Civil Surgeons. Sometimes, residential medical officers in the district hospitals perform the medico-legal work. Most of them have no forensic qualifications except a long exposure in the medico-legal field. Currently academic and professional postgraduate courses are available. The chemical examiner's laboratory is situated at Dhaka with the facility of quantitative tests only. The Government of Bangladesh is trying to standardize the existing system. A Workshop on medico-legal services has been organized regularly by The Medico-legal Society of Bangladesh. A DNA profiling laboratory at the Dhaka Medical College is in the process of being set up. Such progress will be a milestone in the development of the medico-legal service in Bangladesh. However, with a few exceptions, teaching and training facilities are still lacking. PMID:12935633

  12. Forensic Applications of LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

    Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

  13. Changing Concepts in Forensics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarefsky, David

    This paper discusses five theoretical concepts in general and two theoretical models in particular that are involved in forensics. The five concepts are: (1) causation, an inquiry into the reasons for ongoing processes or problems; (2) inherency, the division of a universe into its necessary features and its accidental features; (3) presumption, a…

  14. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  15. Reduction of Complications of Local Anaesthesia in Dental Healthcare Setups by Application of the Six Sigma Methodology: A Statistical Quality Improvement Technique

    PubMed Central

    Khatoon, Farheen

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care faces challenges due to complications, inefficiencies and other concerns that threaten the safety of patients. Aim The purpose of his study was to identify causes of complications encountered after administration of local anaesthesia for dental and oral surgical procedures and to reduce the incidence of complications by introduction of six sigma methodology. Materials and Methods DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control) process of Six Sigma was taken into consideration to reduce the incidence of complications encountered after administration of local anaesthesia injections for dental and oral surgical procedures using failure mode and effect analysis. Pareto analysis was taken into consideration to analyse the most recurring complications. Paired z-sample test using Minitab Statistical Inference and Fisher’s exact test was used to statistically analyse the obtained data. The p-value <0.05 was considered as significant value. Results Total 54 systemic and 62 local complications occurred during three months of analyse and measure phase. Syncope, failure of anaesthesia, trismus, auto mordeduras and pain at injection site was found to be most recurring complications. Cumulative defective percentage was 7.99 in case of pre-improved data and decreased to 4.58 in the control phase. Estimate for difference was 0.0341228 and 95% lower bound for difference was 0.0193966. p-value was found to be highly significant with p= 0.000. Conclusion The application of six sigma improvement methodology in healthcare tends to deliver consistently better results to the patients as well as hospitals and results in better patient compliance as well as satisfaction. PMID:26816989

  16. Forensic identification in teeth with caries.

    PubMed

    Alia-García, Esther; Parra-Pecharromán, David; Sánchez-Díaz, Ana; Mendez, Susy; Royuela, Ana; Gil-Alberdi, Laura; López-Palafox, Juan; del Campo, Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Human teeth are biological structures that resist extreme conditions thus becoming a useful source of DNA for human forensic identification purposes. When it is possible, forensic prefer only non-damaged teeth whereas those with cavities are usually rejected to avoid both external and internal bacterial contamination. Cavities are one of the most prevalent dental pathology and its incidence increases with ageing. The aim of this study was to validate the use of teeth with cavities for forensic identification. A total of 120 individual teeth from unrelated patients (60 healthy and 60 with cavities, respectively) extracted by a dentist as part of the normal process of treatment, were submitted for further analysis. Dental pulp was obtained after tooth fragmentation, complete DNA was extracted and the corresponding human identification profile was obtained by the AmpFlSTR® NGM SElect™ kit. Cariogenic microbiota was determined by PCR-DGGE with bacterial universal primers and bands were excised, re-amplified and sequenced. From the 120 dental pieces analyzed, a defined genetic profile was obtained in 81 (67.5%) of them, with no statistical differences between the healthy and the cavities-affected teeth. Statistical association between teeth status, DNA content and genetic profiles was not observed. Complex bacterial communities were only detected in the cavities group, being the Streptococcus/Enterococcus, and Lactobacillus genera the most represented. We conclude that teeth with cavities are as valid as healthy dental pieces for forensic human identification. Moreover, the severity of the cariogenic lesion as well as associated bacterial communities seems not to influence the establishment of human dental profiles. PMID:26386340

  17. Analytical and Radiochemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert Ernest; Dry, Donald E.; Kinman, William Scott; Podlesak, David; Tandon, Lav

    2015-05-26

    Information about nonproliferation nuclear forensics, activities in forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory, radio analytical work at LANL, radiochemical characterization capabilities, bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities, and future interests in forensics interactions.

  18. Embracing the Complexity of Valid Assessments of Clinicians' Performance: A Call for In-Depth Examination of Methodological and Statistical Contexts That Affect the Measurement of Change.

    PubMed

    Boerebach, Benjamin C M; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H

    2016-02-01

    Assessments of clinicians' professional performance have become more entrenched in clinical practice globally. Systems and tools have been developed and implemented, and factors that impact performance in response to assessments have been studied. The validity and reliability of data yielded by assessment tools have been studied extensively. However, there are important methodological and statistical issues that can impact the assessment of performance and change that are often omitted or ignored by research and practice. In this article, the authors aim to address five of these issues and show how they can impact the validity of performance and change assessments, using empirical illustrations based on longitudinal data of clinicians' teaching performance. Specifically, the authors address the following: characteristics of a measurement scale that affect the performance data yielded by an assessment tool; different summary statistics of the same data that lead to opposing conclusions about performance and performance change; performance at the item level that does not easily translate to overall performance; how estimating performance change from two time-indexed measurements and assessing change retrospectively yield different results; and the context that affects performance and performance assessments. The authors explain how these issues affect the validity of performance assessments and offer suggestions for how to correct these issues. PMID:26200579

  19. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. PMID:27090769

  20. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Manigandan, T.; Sumathy, C.; Elumalai, M.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.; Kannan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster. PMID:26015728

  1. Forensic Data Carving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povar, Digambar; Bhadran, V. K.

    File or data carving is a term used in the field of Cyber forensics. Cyber forensics is the process of acquisition, authentication, analysis and documentation of evidence extracted from and/or contained in a computer system, computer network and digital media. Extracting data (file) out of undifferentiated blocks (raw data) is called as carving. Identifying and recovering files based on analysis of file formats is known as file carving. In Cyber Forensics, carving is a helpful technique in finding hidden or deleted files from digital media. A file can be hidden in areas like lost clusters, unallocated clusters and slack space of the disk or digital media. To use this method of extraction, a file should have a standard file signature called a file header (start of the file). A search is performed to locate the file header and continued until the file footer (end of the file) is reached. The data between these two points will be extracted and analyzed to validate the file. The extraction algorithm uses different methods of carving depending on the file formats.

  2. Parricide: a forensic approach.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Soraia; Santos, Agostinho; Dias, Isabel; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2014-02-01

    Parricide is the act of murdering one's father (patricide), mother (matricide) or other close relative, but usually not children (infanticide). It is a rare event and little information is available on this topic. This study aims to increase knowledge about this phenomenon, promoting the timely detection of problematic cases and avoiding fatalities. A retrospective study based on the autopsy reports of parricide victims performed by the North Services of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal between 2003 and 2011, as well as on the judicial outcome of each case, was performed. Seven cases of parricide were found, corresponding to 1.7% of all the homicides undergoing forensic evaluated. Victims and perpetrators were typically males. The assaults occurred all at home, in the presence of witnesses, and the perpetrator remained at the scene after the crime. The main alleged reasons were untreated psychiatric illness and financial conflicts in the cases of adult parricide, and attempts to protect the mother from intimate partner violence in younger ones. The judicial outcomes ranged from acquittal for nonimputability to conviction for murder, manslaughter or involuntary manslaughter. This study was carried out on a forensic sample and it is useful to implement strategies to prevent parricide. PMID:24485411

  3. Forensic web watch 4.

    PubMed

    Lumb, P; Rutty, G N

    2000-06-01

    Finding dedicated sites on the World Wide Web (WWW) touching upon issues related to the autopsy which could be of use to forensic practitioners is, as with other areas of forensic medicine and science, a time-consuming task. Unfortunately, one has to wade through lists related to 'Alien autopsy' sites and even 'Furby autopsy' sites that are generated by the most commonly used web search engines, which have been featured in earlier web reviews. Numerous sites containing large archives of autopsy photographs are available on the web. However, many of these sites represent the darker side of the WWW as they are often presented purely for titillation. Unfortunately, one can equate these sites to the modern-day version of the Victorian 'freak show'--Typically, these sites ask for your Visa card number to view their contents, and several have links to pornography sites; one even links to a Satanist site. Luckily a few of these sites do now require age confirmation codes. As many of these sites show autopsy photographs from real cases one has to ask how these were obtained and who is placing them on the WWW. This review does not list any of these sites for obvious reasons, but it does draw the reader's attention to sites touching upon issues related to autopsies which forensic practitioners may wish to visit or use. PMID:15274989

  4. Forensic web watch.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N

    1999-12-01

    Now that one has logged onto the world wide web (WWW) and utilized one or more of the home pages listed previously (or used another equally good home page) to seek out basic information available to forensic practitioners, the question now arises of how to go about making the most of the information available. One feature consistent to most home pages is links to the home pages of Associations and Societies, one or more of which most practitioners will be members of. With access to the WWW not only have you access to your own association/society, but you can also keep up to date with all the others to which you have not paid subscriptions. Although an internet search using a WWW search engine or the 'top 6' home pages may assist in identifying a large number of association and society sites, one of the most useful places to start is the home page of the Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine (IAFM). This, to date, lists a total of 139 such sites. To access all the home pages listed may take in excess of 6 h so the following review looks at the range of sites available and recommends some places the author considers many people may wish to know and visit. Again, this is inevitably a personal choice and it is recognized that those sites not listed may, in fact, be the preferred choice for other users of the forensic WWW. PMID:15335474

  5. Statistical methodology for pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Ogliari, Paulo José; de Andrade, Dalton Francisco; Pacheco, Juliano Anderson; Franchin, Paulo Rogério; Batista, Cleide Rosana Vieira

    2007-08-01

    The main goal of the present study was to discuss the application of the McNemar test to the comparison of proportions in dependent samples. Data were analyzed from studies conducted to verify the suitability of replacing a conventional method with a new one for identifying the presence of Salmonella. It is shown that, in most situations, the McNemar test does not provide all the elements required by the microbiologist to make a final decision and that appropriate functions of the proportions need to be considered. Sample sizes suitable to guarantee a test with a high power in the detection of significant differences regarding the problem studied are obtained by simulation. Examples of functions that are of great value to the microbiologist are presented. PMID:17803152

  6. The Use of Response Surface Methodology as a Statistical Tool for Media Optimization in Lipase Production from the Dairy Effluent Isolate Fusarium solani

    PubMed Central

    Kanmani, P.; Karthik, S.; Aravind, J.; Kumaresan, K.

    2013-01-01

    The optimization of extracellular lipase production by Fusarium isolani strain SKWF7 isolated from dairy wastewater was carried out in this study. Initially, the physicochemical factors significantly influencing enzyme production were studied by varying one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT). A mesophilic temperature of 40°C, alkaline pH of 8, and incubation period of 72 hours were found to be the optimal conditions for lipase production. Among the media components, the disaccharide sucrose acted as the best carbon source; palm oil as the best inducing lipid substrate; casein and (NH4)2SO4 as the best organic and inorganic nitrogen sources; Ca2+ ion as the best trace element. In the next phase of work, statistical optimization of medium components was performed by employing the Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum concentrations of three significant factors, namely, palm oil, (NH4)2SO4, and CaCO3 were determined by this method to be 5% (v/v), 5.5 g/L, and 0.1 g/L, respectively. RSM-guided design of experiments resulted in a maximum lipase production of 73.3 U/ml, which is a 1.7-fold increase in comparison with that obtained in the unoptimized medium. These results point towards the success of the model in developing a process for the production of lipase, an enzyme of enormous industrial significance. PMID:25969775

  7. Encoded evidence: DNA in forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Jobling, Mark A; Gill, Peter

    2004-10-01

    Sherlock Holmes said "it has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important", but never imagined that such a little thing, the DNA molecule, could become perhaps the most powerful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Twenty years after the development of DNA fingerprinting, forensic DNA analysis is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects and the identification of victims of crimes, accidents and disasters, driving the development of innovative methods in molecular genetics, statistics and the use of massive intelligence databases. PMID:15510165

  8. Forensic standardizations in torture and death in custody investigations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Torture and death in custody have incurred rapid development as juridical subject in recent years in Europe, with the implementation of the European Convention of Human Rights. Evaluation of sufferance severity, which is the consequence of pathology with chronic evolution, the predictability of decompensation of a subclinical pathology, and translating these medical information on a scale measuring the severity of detention consequences, are all challenges for the modern detention healthcare system, in which most allegations of torture are due to lack of appropriate medical treatment administered to inmates. Where ethics are concerned, the main data difficulties are addressed in ethical conflicts between officials and experts of the parties and also between experts and judiciary officials who handle cases of torture or death in detention; this is why standardization is very important in such cases both in clinical expertise and in autopsies or exhumations. Discussions: We must improve the forensic expertise methodology, the process of collecting data with statistical purposes, and sound evaluation criteria, all in a strong connection with the need for a balanced legal framework applied in the case of civil compensations granted after death in custody, and the biunique relation between medico-legal expertise and case investigation has to be standardized. PMID:24265878

  9. Oxygen isotopic measurements by secondary ion mass spectrometry in uranium oxide microparticles: a nuclear forensic diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, G; Phinney, D; Blidstein, O; Betti, M

    2002-12-01

    To exploit oxygen isotopic measurement by SIMS as a diagnostic tool in nuclear forensics, the magnitude and reproducibility of 0-isotope instrumental mass discrimination for O-isotope standards in the SIMS laboratory at the Institute for Transuranium Elements has been evaluated. Tests for matrix-dependent discrimination effects on three different O-isotope standards with substantially different matrix compositions have been performed. The results were checked by an interlaboratory comparison of O-isotope discrimination with those obtained in the SIMS laboratory at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on two standards. The results from the two laboratories are in very good agreement, indicating statistically indistinguishable instrumental mass discrimination factors for 180/160 ratios on the Cameca 6f and 3f, when the analyses are performed under the experimental conditions described. The 2sigma(mean) uncertainties of these factors are in the range of 0.3-0.9%. In accordance with the tested methodology, 0-isotope compositions were measured in three particulate uranium oxide samples of nuclear forensics interest. PMID:12498207

  10. Bio-forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Trewhella, J.

    2004-01-01

    Bioforensics presents significant technical challenges. Determining if an outbreak is natural or not, and then providing evidence to trace an outbreak to its origin is very complex. Los Alamos scientists pioneered research and development that has generated leading edge strain identification methods based on sequence data. Molecular characterization of environmental background samples enable development of highly specific pathogen signatures. Economic impacts of not knowing the relationships at the molecular level Many different kinds of data are needed for DNA-based bio-forensics.

  11. Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

  12. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  13. Nanoparticles in forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantu, Antonio A.

    2008-10-01

    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  14. Forensic Analysis of Cathinones.

    PubMed

    Gautam, L; Shanmuganathan, A; Cole, M D

    2013-03-01

    In the past decade there has been a significant increase in the popularity of synthetic cathinones in the illegal drug market. They have been easily available from Internet-based vendors as well as at "head shops" and "smart shops". The recent prominence of synthetic cathinones can be attributed to their stimulatory properties similar to those of amphetamines. This paper provides a review on the current popular cathinone derivatives, their history and prevalence in the illegal drug market, legislation of these drugs in various countries, pharmacology, toxicology, and metabolism studies, analysis of toxicology samples (blood, urine, and hair) and criminalistic samples (seized, purchased via the Internet, and synthesized). From the reviewed literature, it is concluded that the products sold as "legal highs" do not only contain cathinone but also cathinone derivatives, and adulterants such as caffeine, lidocaine, and inorganic materials. Full toxicity data is currently unavailable for this drug class and hence more research is required with regard to their analysis and metabolism. Moreover, clandestine chemists are constantly synthesizing new derivatives and hence forensic chemists often need to synthesize and characterize these drugs to confirm the identity of the seized samples. This is expensive as well as time-consuming. Therefore, there is a need for national and international collaboration among forensic chemists to overcome this difficulty. PMID:26226850

  15. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  16. Forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jessica; Lehman, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    Before the routine use of DNA profiling, blood typing was an important forensic tool. However, blood typing was not very discriminating. For example, roughly 30% of the United States population has type A-positive blood. Therefore, if A-positive blood were found at a crime scene, it could have come from 30% of the population. DNA profiling has a much better ability for discrimination. Forensic laboratories no longer routinely determine blood type. If blood is found at a crime scene, DNA profiling is performed. From Jeffrey's discovery of DNA fingerprinting to the development of PCR of STRs to the formation of DNA databases, our knowledge of DNA and DNA profiling have expanded greatly. Also, the applications for which we use DNA profiling have increased. DNA profiling is not just used for criminal case work, but it has expanded to encompass paternity testing, disaster victim identification, monitoring bone marrow transplants, detecting fetal cells in a mother's blood, tracing human history, and a multitude of other areas. The future of DNA profiling looks expansive with the development of newer instrumentation and techniques. PMID:22693781

  17. Forensic web watch 3.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N

    2000-03-01

    Since the publication of the first 'Forensic Web Watch' article a new search engine has become available, free of charge at the time of writing, to surfers of the Internet (Net). Fast Search claims to seek out sites of interest for the user from 'all the Web, all the time trade mark ' as opposed to parts of the Net as is more common with other search machines. It is easy to use, extremely fast but as it searches so much more of the Net, the end result is considerably larger. This, in turn, may lead to a longer time to seek out useful information as opposed to the obscure. Having said this, it is recommended to add to your search engine bookmarks. A search for sites on issues related to 'Police Surgeons' will yield limited information, as each country will have a different person filling this role, all referred to by different terms. The one common feature, however, to all such groups as well as forensic pathologists and scientists, is that they will work with, or in some cases for, the police services of their respective country. Thus, in this article we will look at sites related to the police which may have useful information related to their work, specific cases of interest and research and development which may effect our practice. PMID:15274993

  18. Scope of practice issues in forensic nursing.

    PubMed

    Evans, A M; Wells, D

    2001-01-01

    1. There is significant role variation, across the Western world, in relation to how forensic nurses practice. 2. The authors conducted a pilot survey of forensic nurses in Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and the United Kingdom to examine forensic nursing practice, role definition, and role boundaries. 3. Issues arising from the data include the visibility of forensic nurses, the client group, forensic-specific education, and role development. PMID:11197994

  19. Next generation sequencing and its applications in forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2015-09-01

    It has been almost a decade since the first next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies emerged and quickly changed the way genetic research is conducted. Today, full genomes are mapped and published almost weekly and with ever increasing speed and decreasing costs. NGS methods and platforms have matured during the last 10 years, and the quality of the sequences has reached a level where NGS is used in clinical diagnostics of humans. Forensic genetic laboratories have also explored NGS technologies and especially in the last year, there has been a small explosion in the number of scientific articles and presentations at conferences with forensic aspects of NGS. These contributions have demonstrated that NGS offers new possibilities for forensic genetic case work. More information may be obtained from unique samples in a single experiment by analyzing combinations of markers (STRs, SNPs, insertion/deletions, mRNA) that cannot be analyzed simultaneously with the standard PCR-CE methods used today. The true variation in core forensic STR loci has been uncovered, and previously unknown STR alleles have been discovered. The detailed sequence information may aid mixture interpretation and will increase the statistical weight of the evidence. In this review, we will give an introduction to NGS and single-molecule sequencing, and we will discuss the possible applications of NGS in forensic genetics. PMID:25704953

  20. Genetic analysis and attribution of microbial forensics evidence.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Johnson, Martin D; Fraser, Claire M; Leighton, Terrance J; Murch, Randall S; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2005-01-01

    Because of the availability of pathogenic microorganisms and the relatively low cost of preparing and disseminating bioweapons, there is a continuing threat of biocrime and bioterrorism. Thus, enhanced capabilities are needed that enable the full and robust forensic exploitation and interpretation of microbial evidence from acts of bioterrorism or biocrimes. To respond to the need, greater resources and efforts are being applied to the burgeoning field of microbial forensics. Microbial forensics focuses on the characterization, analysis and interpretation of evidence for attributional purposes from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, hoax or inadvertent agent release. To enhance attribution capabilities, a major component of microbial forensics is the analysis of nucleic acids to associate or eliminate putative samples. The degree that attribution can be addressed depends on the context of the case, the available knowledge of the genetics, phylogeny, and ecology of the target microorganism, and technologies applied. The types of genetic markers and features that can impact statistical inferences of microbial forensic evidence include: single nucleotide polymorphisms, repetitive sequences, insertions and deletions, mobile elements, pathogenicity islands, virulence and resistance genes, house keeping genes, structural genes, whole genome sequences, asexual and sexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer, conjugation, transduction, lysogeny, gene conversion, recombination, gene duplication, rearrangements, and mutational hotspots. Nucleic acid based typing technologies include: PCR, real-time PCR, MLST, MLVA, whole genome sequencing, and microarrays. PMID:16417203

  1. The state of nuclear forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  2. Compulsory Education: Statistics, Methodology, Reforms and New Tendencies. Conference Papers for the 8th Session of the International Standing Conference for the History of Education (Parma, Italy, September 3-6, 1986). Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genovesi, Giovanni, Ed.

    This collection, the last of four volumes on the history of compulsory education among the nations of Europe and the western hemisphere, analyzes statistics, methodology, reforms, and new tendencies. Twelve of the document's 18 articles are written in English, 3 are written in French and 3 are in Italian. Summaries accompany most articles; three…

  3. NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.

    2011-02-07

    The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

  4. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  5. Forensic analysis of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Michael R; Kaley, Elizabeth A; Finney, Eric E

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of four different biodiesel blends, as well as homemade biodiesel prepared from vegetable oil, has been performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identification of methyl esters within the biodiesel along with any background components is made possible by recognizing their mass spectral fragmentation patterns. These fuels were subjected to typical fire scene environments, specifically weathering and microbial degradation, to investigate how these environments affect the analysis. A matrix study was also performed on wood, carpet, and clothing in order to identify any interferences from these substrates. The data obtained herein will provide the forensic science community with the data needed to help recognize these increasingly common ignitable liquids. PMID:27060442

  6. Neuroimaging, culture, and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    The spread of neuroimaging technologies around the world has led to diverse practices of forensic psychiatry and the emergence of neuroethics and neurolaw. This article surveys the neuroethics and neurolegal literature on the use of forensic neuroimaging within the courtroom. Next, the related literature within medical anthropology and science and technology studies is reviewed to show how debates about forensic neuroimaging reflect cultural tensions about attitudes regarding the self, mental illness, and medical expertise. Finally, recommendations are offered on how forensic psychiatrists can add to this research, given their professional interface between law and medicine. At stake are the fundamental concerns that surround changing conceptions of the self, sickness, and expectations of medicine. PMID:19535562

  7. Forensic historiography: narratives and science.

    PubMed

    Drukteinis, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. PMID:25492068

  8. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  9. Age Estimation in Forensic Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L.

    2010-01-01

    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955–1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 (14C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2 = 0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 1.0 ± 0.6 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 ± 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification. PMID:19965905

  10. Forensics in dermatology: part II.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kalpana; Lowenstein, Eve J

    2011-05-01

    The evaluation of skin findings is critical in identifying many types of injury, whether self- inflicted or accidentally or intentionally inflicted. Specific causes of injury include homicide, abuse, neglect, assault, self-inflicted injury, suicide, torture, poisoning, and bioterrorism. Forensic findings in hair and nails are also discussed. This overview of dermatologic findings in forensic pathology highlights the significance of the cutaneous manifestations of injury. PMID:21496700

  11. Forensic hash for multimedia information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  12. Forensic document analysis using scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Douglas K.

    2009-05-01

    The authentication and identification of the source of a printed document(s) can be important in forensic investigations involving a wide range of fraudulent materials, including counterfeit currency, travel and identity documents, business and personal checks, money orders, prescription labels, travelers checks, medical records, financial documents and threatening correspondence. The physical and chemical characterization of document materials - including paper, writing inks and printed media - is becoming increasingly relevant for law enforcement agencies, with the availability of a wide variety of sophisticated commercial printers and copiers which are capable of producing fraudulent documents of extremely high print quality, rendering these difficult to distinguish from genuine documents. This paper describes various applications and analytical methodologies using scanning electron miscoscopy/energy dispersive (x-ray) spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and related technologies for the characterization of fraudulent documents, and illustrates how their morphological and chemical profiles can be compared to (1) authenticate and (2) link forensic documents with a common source(s) in their production history.

  13. Forensic seismology revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in

  14. Extending a context model for microphone forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraetzer, Christian; Qian, Kun; Dittmann, Jana

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we extend an existing context model for statistical pattern recognition based microphone forensics by: first, generating a generalized model for this process and second, using this general model to construct a complex new application scenario model for microphone forensic investigations on the detection of playback recordings (a.k.a. replays, re-recordings, double-recordings). Thereby, we build the theoretical basis for answering the question whether an audio recording was made to record a playback or natural sound. The results of our investigations on the research question of playback detection imply that it is possible with our approach on our evaluation set of six microphones. If the recorded sound is not modified prior to playback, we achieve in our tests 89.00% positive indications on the correct two microphones involved. If the sound is post-processed (here, by normalization) this figure decreases (in our normalization example to 36.00%, while another 50.67% of the tests still indicate two microphones, of which one has actually not been involved in the recording and playback recording process).

  15. Forensic aspects of starvation.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Ortmann, Jan; Doberentz, Elke

    2016-09-01

    Fatal starvation is a rare cause of death in industrialized countries. However, it may have major medicolegal importance if death results from the deliberate withholding of food, especially from infants. In such cases, the task of the forensic pathologist and the medical examiner, respectively, is to clarify the cause of death and give an expert opinion on the degree and duration of starvation. Several classification systems have been developed to estimate protein-energy malnutrition in developing countries. Simpler classifications, such as the Gomez classification, use the weight expected for the respective age group as the standard. However, smaller infants will be lighter, and therefore the classification may not be accurate in this case. Following the Waterlow classification, the extent of stunted growth (referring to growth retardation in cases of chronic malnutrition) is calculated using the ratio of the measured body height to that expected for the age. Using such classification systems, grading of stunting and wasting can be achieved and may greatly help in the assessment of a given child's nutritional status in legal cases. The application of the Waterlow classification to the authors' case material and previously published cases in the literature is herein demonstrated. The Waterlow classification is not only of importance for grading the final stage of fatal starvation, but also for the chronological development of the nutritional status if anthropometrical data have been repeatedly recorded from the affected individual in vivo. PMID:27145935

  16. Forensic psychiatry in Chile.

    PubMed

    St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu

    2012-01-01

    Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. PMID:23102739

  17. Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

    Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

  18. Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

  19. Steganography forensics method for detecting least significant bit replacement attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Wei, Chengcheng; Han, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We present an image forensics method to detect least significant bit replacement steganography attack. The proposed method provides fine-grained forensics features by using the hierarchical structure that combines pixels correlation and bit-planes correlation. This is achieved via bit-plane decomposition and difference matrices between the least significant bit-plane and each one of the others. Generated forensics features provide the susceptibility (changeability) that will be drastically altered when the cover image is embedded with data to form a stego image. We developed a statistical model based on the forensics features and used least square support vector machine as a classifier to distinguish stego images from cover images. Experimental results show that the proposed method provides the following advantages. (1) The detection rate is noticeably higher than that of some existing methods. (2) It has the expected stability. (3) It is robust for content-preserving manipulations, such as JPEG compression, adding noise, filtering, etc. (4) The proposed method provides satisfactory generalization capability.

  20. Forensic Occupational Therapy in Canada: The Current State of Practice.

    PubMed

    Chui, Adora L Y; Wong, Chantal Isabelle; Maraj, Sara A; Fry, Danielle; Jecker, Justine; Jung, Bonny

    2016-09-01

    Although occupational therapists have been practicing in forensic settings for many years, there is a paucity of literature regarding the nature of this practice in Canada. The purpose of this study was to describe the practices of Canadian occupational therapists in forensic mental health. An online survey was designed based on the Canadian Practice Process Framework. Following purposive and snowball sampling, responses were analysed with descriptive statistics and content analysis. Twenty-seven clinicians responded (56% response rate). Respondents indicated commonalities in workplaces, client caseloads and practice challenges. The outstanding need in Canada to demonstrate client outcomes through the use of evaluation instruments reflects those practice gaps identified internationally. Education, advocacy and research are critical areas for the development of Canadian forensic occupational therapy. Although findings heavily reflect one provincial context and may not be generalizable to nonhospital settings, a number of priority areas were identified. Future efforts should clarify the role of forensic occupational therapy to stakeholders, and validate their contributions through research that evaluates intervention efficacy and meaningful outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26890357

  1. Forensic radiology and personal identification of unidentified bodies: a review.

    PubMed

    Ciaffi, R; Gibelli, D; Cattaneo, C

    2011-09-01

    Personal identification of unidentified bodies is crucial for ethical, juridical and civil reasons and is performed through comparison between biological data obtained from the cadaver and antemortem material from one or more missing persons to whom the body may have belonged in life. The increasing applications of forensic radiology and the wide use of conventional radiography and computed tomography (CT) in routine clinical practice demonstrate the potential of these technologies as tools for verifying the correspondence between an unidentified body and an identity suspect. This paper reviews the literature concerning the application of forensic radiology to the difficult issue of personal identification. Despite the increasing importance of the comparison between radiographic and CT findings, numerous limitations still need to be overcome, including the fact that few forensic centres have access to sophisticated X-ray technologies and that the reliability of those technologies for detecting specific morphological traits and bone lesions is a matter of intense debate. In addition, as with other morphological methods for identification, comparisons between antemortem and postmortem data require standardisation and statistical analysis, especially in Europe where there are very few indications concerning the admission in court of evidence obtained by anthropological and radiological methods. In the future, with developments in radiographic technologies and increasing numbers of studies on their application to the forensic setting, radiology will become one of the most useful tools in the field of personal identification. PMID:21509554

  2. System Support for Forensic Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan

    Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.

  3. Forensic Botany: Evidence and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Coyle, H M

    2009-01-01

    Forensic botany is the use of plant evidence in matters of law. While plant fragments are often collected as trace evidence, they are only occasionally identified using microscopy and are still more rarely assessed using molecular biology techniques for individualization and sourcing of a sample. There are many different methods useful for DNA typing of plants; this review focuses on those techniques (DNA sequencing, STR, AFLP, RAPD) most relevant to the forensic science community and on those methods currently in practice. Plant evidence is commonly associated with homicides, with clandestine graves, as trace pollen on clothing, vehicles, or packaging, or in the transport of illicit drugs. DNA can be especially useful for the identification of minute quantity of samples, for differentiation of plants that lack distinguishing morphological features, and for generating a unique identifier for associative forensic evidence. PMID:26242238

  4. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

    2012-10-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  5. Neurobiological Correlates in Forensic Assessment: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    van der Gronde, Toon; Kempes, Maaike; van El, Carla; Rinne, Thomas; Pieters, Toine

    2014-01-01

    Background With the increased knowledge of biological risk factors, interest in including this information in forensic assessments is growing. Currently, forensic assessments are predominantly focused on psychosocial factors. A better understanding of the neurobiology of violent criminal behaviour and biological risk factors could improve forensic assessments. Objective To provide an overview of the current evidence about biological risk factors that predispose people to antisocial and violent behaviour, and determine its usefulness in forensic assessment. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using articles from PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed published between 2000 and 2013. Results This review shows that much research on the relationship between genetic predisposition and neurobiological alterations with aggression is performed on psychiatric patients or normal populations. However, the number of studies comparing offenders is limited. There is still a great need to understand how genetic and neurobiological alterations and/or deficits are related to violent behaviour, specifically criminality. Most studies focus on only one of the genetic or neurobiological fields related to antisocial and/or violent behaviour. To reliably correlate the findings of these fields, a standardization of methodology is urgently needed. Conclusion Findings from the current review suggest that violent aggression, like all forms of human behaviour, both develops under specific genetic and environmental conditions, and requires interplay between these conditions. Violence should be considered as the end product of a chain of life events, during which risks accumulate and potentially reinforce each other, displaying or triggering a specific situation. This systematic review did not find evidence of predispositions or neurobiological alterations that solely explain antisocial or violent behaviour. With better designed studies, more correlation between diverse fields, and more

  6. Forensic discrimination of blue ballpoint pens on documents by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Alamilla, Francisco; Calcerrada, Matías; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Torre, Mercedes

    2013-05-10

    The differentiation of blue ballpoint pen inks written on documents through an LA-ICP-MS methodology is proposed. Small common office paper portions containing ink strokes from 21 blue pens of known origin were cut and measured without any sample preparation. In a first step, Mg, Ca and Sr were proposed as internal standards (ISs) and used in order to normalize elemental intensities and subtract background signals from the paper. Then, specific criteria were designed and employed to identify target elements (Li, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Sn, W and Pb) which resulted independent of the IS chosen in a 98% of the cases and allowed a qualitative clustering of the samples. In a second step, an elemental-related ratio (ink ratio) based on the targets previously identified was used to obtain mass independent intensities and perform pairwise comparisons by means of multivariate statistical analyses (MANOVA, Tukey's HSD and T2 Hotelling). This treatment improved the discrimination power (DP) and provided objective results, achieving a complete differentiation among different brands and a partial differentiation within pen inks from the same brands. The designed data treatment, together with the use of multivariate statistical tools, represents an easy and useful tool for differentiating among blue ballpoint pen inks, with hardly sample destruction and without the need for methodological calibrations, being its use potentially advantageous from a forensic-practice standpoint. To test the procedure, it was applied to analyze real handwritten questioned contracts, previously studied by the Department of Forensic Document Exams of the Criminalistics Service of Civil Guard (Spain). The results showed that all questioned ink entries were clustered in the same group, being those different from the remaining ink on the document. PMID:23597731

  7. The Clinician and Forensic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Root, Irving; Scott, Wayne

    1973-01-01

    Although it is an intrinsic part of all medical practice forensic medicine often is either unrecognized as such or is consciously or subconsciously evaded. The failure to apply some rather basic and simple forensic principles that only the physician is capable of doing may result in problems to the patient ranging from frustration to near catastrophe. For physicians who are reasonably well equipped to understand the legal system, the successful conclusion of a legal case, including, sometimes, an appearance in court, can be stimulating and interesting. PMID:4733272

  8. Forensic seismology revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in

  9. Forensic methods and the podiatric physician.

    PubMed

    Nirenberg, M S

    1989-05-01

    This is an introductory study of forensic podiatry. To elevate forensic podiatry to the level of forensic odontology and forensic anthropology, the podiatric medical profession must begin educational programs and research. A system for monitoring the activities of podiatrists involved in forensic medicine must be established to ensure that the high degree of integrity to which the profession is committed is maintained. By following these guidelines, the author believes that sometime in the future a podiatrist will be on the staff of every major police department in the country. At that point, the podiatric medical profession will have achieved unsurpassed status, recognition, and prestige. PMID:2664129

  10. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature.

    PubMed

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B

    2015-01-01

    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int. PMID:26227138

  11. Towards a Formalization of Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slay, Jill; Lin, Yi-Chi; Turnbull, Benjamin; Beckett, Jason; Lin, Paul

    While some individuals have referred to digital forensics as an art, the literature of the discipline suggests a trend toward the formalization of digital forensics as a forensic science. Questions about the quality of digital evidence and forensic soundness continue to be raised by researchers and practitioners in order to ensure the trustworthiness of digital evidence and its value to the courts. This paper reviews the development of digital forensic models, procedures and standards to lay a foundation for the discipline. It also points to new work that provides validation models through a complete mapping of the discipline.

  12. A Control Framework for Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Solms, Sebastiaan; Louwrens, Cecil; Reekie, Colette; Grobler, Talania

    This paper introduces a control framework for digital forensics. It proposes a taxonomy for control objectives, categorized within the phases of the digital forensic process: planning and preparation, incident response, investigation and juridical/evidentiary. Using the taxonomy as a basis, a digital forensic reference framework, consisting of control groupings, control objectives and detailed control objectives, is defined. The control framework is intended to provide a sound theoretical basis for digital forensics as well as a reference framework for digital forensics governance within organizations.

  13. Forensic Evidence in Homicide Investigations and Prosecutions.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Tom; Regoeczi, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Even though forensic evidence is collected at virtually every homicide scene, only a few studies have examined its role in investigation and prosecution. This article adds to the literature by providing the results of a study of 294 homicide cases (315 victims) occurring in Cleveland, Ohio, between 2008 and 2011. Through a logistic regression on open versus closed cases, the collection of knives, administration of gunshot residue (GSR) kits, and clothing at the scene were positively and significantly related to case closures, while collection of ballistics evidence and DNA evidence were statistically significant in the opposite direction. With regard to analysis, the clearance rate for cases with probative results (i.e., matches or exclusions) was 63.1% compared to a closure rate of 56.3% for cases without probative results. However, only 23 cases had probative results prior to arrest compared to 128 cases with probative results after arrest. PMID:26174557

  14. Potential Applications of Scanning Probe Microscopy in Forensic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, G. S.; Watson, J. A.

    2007-04-01

    The forensic community utilises a myriad of techniques to investigate a wide range of materials, from paint flakes to DNA. The various microscopic techniques have provided some of the greatest contributions, e.g., FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared) microspectroscopy utilised in copy toner discrimination, multi-layer automobile paint fragment examination, etc, SEM-EDA (scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis) used to investigate glass fragments, fibers, and explosives, and SEM in microsampling for elemental analysis, just to name a few. This study demonstrates the ability of the Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) to analyse human fingerprints on surfaces utilising a step-and-scan feature, enabling analysis of a larger field-of-view. We also extend a line crossings study by incorporating height analysis and surface roughness measurements. The study demonstrates the potential for SPM techniques to be utilised for forensic analysis which could complement the more traditional methodologies used in such investigations.

  15. Forensic odontology in the disaster victim identification process.

    PubMed

    Pittayapat, P; Jacobs, R; De Valck, E; Vandermeulen, D; Willems, G

    2012-07-01

    Disaster victim identification (DVI) is an intensive and demanding task involving specialists from various disciplines. The forensic dentist is one of the key persons who plays an important role in the DVI human identification process. In recent years, many disaster incidents have occurred that challenged the DVI team with various kinds of difficulties related to disaster management and unique situations in each disaster. New technologies have been developed to make the working process faster and more effective and the different DVI protocols have been evaluated and improved. The aim of this article is to collate all information regarding diagnostic tools and methodologies pertaining to forensic odontological DVI, both current and future. It can be concluded that lessons learned from previous disaster incidents have helped to optimize working protocols and to develop new tools that can be applied in future DVI operation. The working procedures have been greatly improved by newly developed technologies. PMID:23000806

  16. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. PMID:27515387

  17. Concepts and possibilities in forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Bell, Chris

    2006-10-16

    Forensic intelligence can be viewed as comprising two parts, one directly concerning intelligence delivery in forensic casework, the other considering performance aspects of forensic work, loosely termed here as business intelligence. Forensic casework can be viewed as processes that produce an intelligence product useful to police investigations. Traditionally, forensic intelligence production has been confined to discipline-specific activity. This paper examines the concepts, processes and intelligence products delivered in forensic casework, the information repositories available from forensic examinations, and ways to produce within- and across-discipline casework correlations by using information technology to capitalise on the information sets available. Such analysis presents opportunities to improve forensic intelligence services as well as challenges for technical solutions to deliver appropriate data-mining capabilities for available information sets, such as digital photographs. Business intelligence refers primarily to examination of efficiency and effectiveness of forensic service delivery. This paper discusses measures of forensic activity and their relationship to crime outcomes as a measure of forensic effectiveness. PMID:16893621

  18. Introducing a semi-automatic method to simulate large numbers of forensic fingermarks for research on fingerprint identification.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Crystal M; de Jongh, Arent; Meuwly, Didier

    2012-03-01

    Statistical research on fingerprint identification and the testing of automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) performances require large numbers of forensic fingermarks. These fingermarks are rarely available. This study presents a semi-automatic method to create simulated fingermarks in large quantities that model minutiae features or images of forensic fingermarks. This method takes into account several aspects contributing to the variability of forensic fingermarks such as the number of minutiae, the finger region, and the elastic deformation of the skin. To investigate the applicability of the simulated fingermarks, fingermarks have been simulated with 5-12 minutiae originating from different finger regions for six fingers. An AFIS matching algorithm was used to obtain similarity scores for comparisons between the minutiae configurations of fingerprints and the minutiae configurations of simulated and forensic fingermarks. The results showed similar scores for both types of fingermarks suggesting that the simulated fingermarks are good substitutes for forensic fingermarks. PMID:22103733

  19. Poetic Interventions with Forensic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Art; Giovan, Marti

    1990-01-01

    Describes the use of poetry, music, and creative writing with forensic patients at a state mental health institute. Demonstrates that expressive interventions were helpful in group treatment by promoting verbalization, decision making, and the recognition of personal responsibility for incarceration. (SR)

  20. Forensics: Enhancing Civic Literacy & Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Shawn F.

    2009-01-01

    Forensics--interpretation, speech, and debate--can and should be a meaningful part of every school's curriculum. To put it simply, the course of study, alongside cocurricular competition, promotes civic education and enhances the standard curriculum by helping students explore myriad topics from multiple angles and find the truth in each,…

  1. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  2. Genetic structure of forensic populations.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, N E

    1992-01-01

    DNA-based identification depends on the probability that two different individuals have the same phenotype, which is given by kinship theory. Together with the large and consistent body of evidence on human population structure, kinship theory provides a sound basis for forensic use of DNA markers. PMID:1557360

  3. Curriculum Guidelines on Forensic Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curriculum design explain the scope of forensic dentistry and interrelationships with other fields, give an overview of the curriculum, and outline suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty and facility…

  4. Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be…

  5. Respect in forensic psychiatric nurse-patient relationships: a practical compromise.

    PubMed

    Rose, Donald N; Peter, Elizabeth; Gallop, Ruth; Angus, Jan E; Liaschenko, Joan

    2011-03-01

    The context of forensic psychiatric nursing is distinct from other psychiatric settings as, it involves placement of patients in secure environments with restrictions determined by the courts. Previous literature has identified that nurses morally struggle with respecting patients who have committed heinous offences, which can lead to the patient being depersonalized and dehumanized. Although respect is fundamental to ethical nursing practice, it has not been adequately explored conceptually or empirically. As a result, little knowledge exists that identifies how nurses develop, maintain, and express respect for patients. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concept of respect systematically, from a forensic psychiatric nurse's perspective using the qualitative methodology of focused ethnography. Forensic psychiatric nurses were recruited from two medium secure forensic rehabilitation units. In the first interview, 13 registered nurses (RNs) and two registered practical nurses (RPNs) participated, and although all informants were invited to the second interview, six RNs were lost to follow-up. Despite this loss, saturation was achieved and the data were interpreted through a feminist philosophical lens. Respect was influenced by factors categorized into four themes: (1) emotive-cognitive reactions, (2) nonjudgmental approach, (3) social identity and power, and (4) context. The data from the themes indicate that forensic psychiatric nurses strike a practical compromise, in their understanding and enactment of respect in therapeutic relationships with forensic psychiatric patients. PMID:21348929

  6. A Research Methodology for Future Summative Evaluation Studies: Incorporating the Component of Multiple Sets of Matched Samples into the Statistical Control Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan H.; Modarresi, Shahpar; Yang, Yu N.

    2006-01-01

    Summative evaluations have often been undertaken to determine the impact of educational programs on student academic achievement employing a quasi-experimental design. The summative finding is expected to be less misleading if a statistical model is performed on a dataset including a sound matched sample as a control group. This is because an…

  7. On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community.

    PubMed

    van Asten, Arian C

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today. PMID:24630329

  8. A Skeleton Tells Its Own Story: Forensic Analyses of Skeletal Elements for the Science Classroom Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naples, Virginia L.; Breed, David; Miller, Jon S.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques of forensic anthropology and pathology can provide new information to increase student interest in studying the structural details of the human skeleton. We present a simplified methodology for assessing skeletal ethnicity, sex, age, and stature. An inexpensive method has been devised for constructing an osteometric board to allow…

  9. Genetics and attribution issues that confront the microbial forensics field.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce

    2004-12-01

    The commission of an act of bioterrorism or biocrime is a real concern for law enforcement and society. Efforts are underway to develop a strong microbial forensic program to assist in identifying perpetrators of acts of bioterrorism and biocrimes, as well as serve as a deterrent for those who might commit such illicit acts. Genetic analyses of microbial organisms will likely be a powerful tool for attribution of criminal acts. There are some similarities to forensic human DNA analysis practices, such as: molecular biology technology, use of population databases, qualitative conclusions of test results, and the application of QA/QC practices. Differences include: database size and composition, statistical interpretation methods, and confidence/uncertainty in the outcome of an interpretation. PMID:15639572

  10. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1992-07-01

    , soil) adhering to a meteorite are samples of the actual physical environment in which the meteorite rested. Adhesion may derive from chemical cementation (incl. rust from the meteorite), biologic activity (incl. desert varnish?), or impact processes [2]. Given the wide diversity of geological materials and processes on the Earth, adhering geological materials may be useful forensic tools. For instance, fall in a volcanic terrane may be inconsistent with adhering sediments of clean quartz sand. Biologic matter on meteorites includes animal and vegetable matter mixed with the adhering geological materials, lichens and other plants growing in place, and purposefully attached animal matter (e.g. insect eggs). The most useful biological data may be provided by pollen, which can often be referred unambiguously to genera and species of plants. For example, sediments adhering to meteorites from the central Nullabor Plain (W. Australia) are different from sediments from the Plain's margin in S. Australia. Sediment on meteorites from the central Nullabor (e.g. Mundrabilla) lacks quartz sand and consists almost entirely of clay-sized particles, consistent with derivation from the local saprolitic soil. Sediment on meteorites from the eastern Nullabor (e.g. Hughes and Cook, S.A.) contains a significant fraction of quartz sand, 1/4- to 1/2-mm grains, probably blown from the Great Victoria Desert to the north and northwest. However, sedimentologic data alone may be misleading. For instance, sediments adhering to Nuevo Mercurio stones (H5; Zacatecas, Mexico) are clay-sized and lack coarser material. But sediment on Nuevo Mercurio (b), a ureilite found in the Nuevo Mercurio strewn field, consists of quartz sand and clay pellets, 1/4 to 1/2 mm diameter. Clearly, local environments may affect the character of sediment adhering to a meteorite, and careful detailed study may be required to determine whether a meteorite has been transported. I am grateful to R. Farrell and D. New for

  11. [Forensic entomology and globalisation].

    PubMed

    Turchetto, M; Vanin, S

    2004-06-01

    The main aim of Forensic Entomology has always been, and is today, to establish the time of death (P.M.I.: Postmortem Period) or, more exactly, how long a carrion has been exposed in the environment. Most of the invertebrate fauna occurring on corpses consists of insects (mostly Diptera and Coleoptera). They are selectively attracted by the decomposing status of the carrion, and form complex communities or biocenosis within necrophagous or sarcophagous species and their predators, parasites and parasitoids, competing each one another. The rapid and continuos changes of the micro-ecosystem (the body), until its breakdown, does not permit the achievement of a steady state or an equilibrium in the animal communities. These continuous modifications give us the possibility to estimate when (and where) the death has occurred, by the identification of the species feeding on the corpse, the knowledge of their life history, and the length of each stage of their cycle at varying the temperature and the other abiotic factors, external to the carrion ecosystem. The P.M.I. today is still largely based on the tables of faunal succession on human cadavers recognised by Mégin in 1894, with few changes proposed by Authors from other countries. In the last years, however, it happens more and more often, that the natural communities are subverted by the presence of allocton species, which can compete, predate or parasite the most common local sarcophagous insects, modifying, this way, the succession waves and the trophic nets. The immission in the environment of foreign species may be voluntary or casual, but in any case is due to anthropic activities. The voluntary immission happens when some species, employed in the biological struggle against pest or dangerous insects, for pollination of allocton plants, or for other commercial utilities, are beyond man's control and swarm onto the environment; the casual spread is due to the globalisation phenomenon, that distributes the "little

  12. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, Paul

    2003-02-17

    Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating procedures and training to

  13. Microanalytical Methods for Bio-Forensics Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, L N; Weber, P K; Grant, R P; Ghosal, S; Michael, J R

    2006-02-10

    Forensics investigations of bio-crime or bio-terrorism incidents require careful analysis of collected evidentiary material. Although the biological markers in the evidentiary material are important (e.g. genomic signatures, protein markers), the elemental make-up of the organisms themselves and the surrounding non-biological material is extremely useful for attributing a specific process and, perhaps, specific persons to the production of the biological agent. This talk will describe the coordinated use of microanalytical techniques such as SEM-EDX, STEM-EDX, and NanoSIMS for generating compositional signatures for bio-forensics investigations. These analytical techniques span length scales from the 50 {micro}m range to the 5nm range. The range of analytical sensitivities spans from {approx}.5wt% for EDX down to parts per billion for SIMS techniques. In addition, we will discuss the use of spectrum imaging techniques for rapidly extracting the key elemental signatures from large scale data sets. Spectrum imaging techniques combined with multivariate statistical analysis allow for the collection and interrogation or enormous quantities of data without pre-biasing the answer.[1] Spectrum imaging has been used successfully in EDX microanalysis[1] (both in the SEM and TEM) and TOF-SIMS[2]. In this study, a set of test biological agents, ?-irradiated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were examined using the aforementioned microanalytical techniques. The sample set included a number of processing conditions to gauge the ability of these techniques to identify the production methods of these simulated agents. Complementary but distinct forensic signatures were obtained by all three analytical techniques. Figure 1 shows two types of silicate particles observed among the spore material itself. At this length scale, the spores themselves cannot be resolved, but the presence of these silicates is key marker for distinguishing this production route. A STEM-EDX spectrum image from

  14. Incidence and Risk Factors of Thromboembolism with Multiple Myeloma in the Presence of Death as a Competing Risk: An Empirical Comparison of Statistical Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joshua D.; Adams, Val R.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) has an inherent high risk of thromboembolic events associated with patient as well as disease- and treatment-related factors. Previous studies have assessed the association of MM-related thromboembolism using “traditional” Kaplan–Meier (KM) and/or Cox proportional hazard (PH) regression. In the presence of high incidence of death, as would be the case in cancer patients with advanced age, these statistical models will produce bias estimates. Instead, a competing risk framework should be used. This study assessed the baseline patient demographic and clinical characteristics associated with MM-related thromboembolism and compared the cumulative incidence and the measures of association obtained using each statistical approach. The cumulative incidence of thromboembolism was 9.2% using the competing risk framework and nearly 12% using the KM approach. Bias in the measures of covariate risk associations was highest for factors related to risk of death such as increased age (75% bias) and severe liver disease (50%) for the Cox PH model compared to the competing risk model. These results show that correct specification of statistical techniques can have a large impact on the results obtained. PMID:27417604

  15. Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi

    2007-10-25

    Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations. PMID:17300893

  16. Identification using face regions: application and assessment in forensic scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tome, Pedro; Fierrez, Julian; Vera-Rodriguez, Ruben; Ramos, Daniel

    2013-12-10

    This paper reports an exhaustive analysis of the discriminative power of the different regions of the human face on various forensic scenarios. In practice, when forensic examiners compare two face images, they focus their attention not only on the overall similarity of the two faces. They carry out an exhaustive morphological comparison region by region (e.g., nose, mouth, eyebrows, etc.). In this scenario it is very important to know based on scientific methods to what extent each facial region can help in identifying a person. This knowledge obtained using quantitative and statical methods on given populations can then be used by the examiner to support or tune his observations. In order to generate such scientific knowledge useful for the expert, several methodologies are compared, such as manual and automatic facial landmarks extraction, different facial regions extractors, and various distances between the subject and the acquisition camera. Also, three scenarios of interest for forensics are considered comparing mugshot and Closed-Circuit TeleVision (CCTV) face images using MORPH and SCface databases. One of the findings is that depending of the acquisition distances, the discriminative power of the facial regions change, having in some cases better performance than the full face. PMID:24314504

  17. Forensics and mitochondrial DNA: applications, debates, and foundations.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Allard, Marc W; Wilson, Mark R; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2003-01-01

    Debate on the validity and reliability of scientific methods often arises in the courtroom. When the government (i.e., the prosecution) is the proponent of evidence, the defense is obliged to challenge its admissibility. Regardless, those who seek to use DNA typing methodologies to analyze forensic biological evidence have a responsibility to understand the technology and its applications so a proper foundation(s) for its use can be laid. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), an extranuclear genome, has certain features that make it desirable for forensics, namely, high copy number, lack of recombination, and matrilineal inheritance. mtDNA typing has become routine in forensic biology and is used to analyze old bones, teeth, hair shafts, and other biological samples where nuclear DNA content is low. To evaluate results obtained by sequencing the two hypervariable regions of the control region of the human mtDNA genome, one must consider the genetically related issues of nomenclature, reference population databases, heteroplasmy, paternal leakage, recombination, and, of course, interpretation of results. We describe the approaches, the impact some issues may have on interpretation of mtDNA analyses, and some issues raised in the courtroom. PMID:14527299

  18. Review: domestic animal forensic genetics - biological evidence, genetic markers, analytical approaches and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kanthaswamy, S

    2015-10-01

    handling, evidence testing, statistical analysis and reporting that meet the rules of scientific acceptance, reliability and human forensic identification standards. PMID:26364867

  19. The Non-Forensics After-Life of a Forensics Director.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolai, Michael T.

    A study investigated the personal and career choices that motivate an educator's departure from active involvement in forensics activities, and what trends, if any, exist concerning what former directors do in place of forensics. The study also investigated how forensics participation as a coach/director impacted on the individual, and what…

  20. Sex determination in forensic odontology: A review.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, K; Sharma, Subramanya; Sreeja, C; Pratima, D Bhavani; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology and it is very important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters crime investigations, and ethnic studies. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination. PMID:26538886

  1. Distinction between forensic evidence and dermatological findings.

    PubMed

    Hammer, U; Boy, D; Rothaupt, D; Büttner, A

    2015-07-01

    The external examination after death requires knowledge in forensics/pathology, dermatology, as well as associated diseases and age-related alterations of the skin. This article highlights some findings with forensic evidence versus dermatological findings. The lectures in forensic medicine should be structured interdisciplinarily, especially to dermatology, internal medicine, surgery, pathology, and toxicology in order to train the overlapping skills required for external and internal postmortem examinations. PMID:26048487

  2. Client-side Skype forensics: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meißner, Tina; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. In the present study, a client-side Skype forensics is performed. It is designed to explain which kind of user data are stored on a computer and which tools allow the extraction of those data for a forensic investigation. There are described both methods - a manual analysis and an analysis with (mainly) open source tools, respectively.

  3. Sex determination in forensic odontology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, K.; Sharma, Subramanya; Sreeja, C.; Pratima, D. Bhavani; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology and it is very important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters crime investigations, and ethnic studies. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination. PMID:26538886

  4. Validation of probabilistic genotyping software for use in forensic DNA casework: Definitions and illustrations.

    PubMed

    Haned, Hinda; Gill, Peter; Lohmueller, Kirk; Inman, Keith; Rudin, Norah

    2016-03-01

    A number of new computer programs have recently been developed to facilitate the interpretation and statistical weighting of complex DNA profiles in forensic casework. Acceptance of such software in the user community, and subsequent acceptance by the court, relies heavily upon their validation. To date, few guidelines exist that describe the appropriate and sufficient validation of such software used in forensic DNA casework. In this paper, we discuss general principles of software validation and how they could be applied to the interpretation software now being introduced into the forensic community. Importantly, we clarify the relationship between a statistical model and its implementation via software. We use the LRmix program to provide specific examples of how these principles can be implemented. PMID:26976468

  5. Forensic osteological investigations in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Rainio, J; Hedman, M; Karkola, K; Lalu, K; Peltola, P; Ranta, H; Sajantila, A; Söderholm, N; Penttilä, A

    2001-10-01

    A team of Finnish forensic experts performed investigations of alleged mass graves in Kosovo under the mandate of the European Union (EU). Human skeletal remains from two locations were examined. The remains contained three almost complete skeletons, and individual bones and bone fragments, part of which were burned. Injuries, pathological changes, and findings for identification purposes were examined and documented using standard methods of forensic pathology and osteology. Gunshot injuries were found in some cases, but reliable determination of the cause and manner of death was not possible. A discrepancy arose between the number of victims reported in information received from the presiding district court, and results of the investigations. The estimation of the minimum number of victims was mostly acquired by DNA analysis. PMID:11566420

  6. Forensic Implications of Neuroscientific Advancements.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Lori L

    2016-06-01

    Im draws a parallel between the neurobiology of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that of trauma survivors, to explain why individuals with ASD may be more vulnerable to trauma as a risk factor for violence. This commentary raises questions about how we use this information in a forensic context, including its potential misuses. It urges caution in not overstating the data before we have a more nuanced understanding of how our neural circuitry influences specific behaviors and mental states, while not allowing the science to advance faster than we can harness it, overstepping its bounds in decisions we make regarding fairness and justice. It raises these concerns against a backdrop of the diametrically opposed assumptions about human behavior embraced by the two disciplines, mental health and the law, that come together in the forensic arena. PMID:27236174

  7. Neurobehavioral assessment in forensic practice

    PubMed Central

    Woods, George W.; Freedman, David; Greenspan, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing awareness among mental health practitioners that many mental disorders previously believed to be primarily behavioral in nature, reflecting character and environment, are actually grounded in brain mal-development or brain disorder. This growing awareness, influenced by the advent of new diagnostic procedures and measures, is also found among forensic practitioners. In this paper, we describe some of the elements involved in conducting a neurobehavioral assessment of cognitive functioning, particularly in capital cases, organizing this material in terms of the professional disciplines – social work, mitigation investigation, psychological, and medical – with which these methods are mainly identified. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of how to integrate the multiple areas of expertise to create an accurate understanding of the neurobehavioral functioning and capacity of the subject. This is the basis from which civil and criminal forensic opinions must emanate. PMID:23059206

  8. Forensic DNA Profiling and Database

    PubMed Central

    Panneerchelvam, S.; Norazmi, M.N.

    2003-01-01

    The incredible power of DNA technology as an identification tool had brought a tremendous change in crimnal justice . DNA data base is an information resource for the forensic DNA typing community with details on commonly used short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers. This article discusses the essential steps in compilation of COmbined DNA Index System (CODIS) on validated polymerase chain amplified STRs and their use in crime detection. PMID:23386793

  9. Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

  10. Audit Log for Forensic Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

    We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  11. Evolution of forensic odontology: An overview.

    PubMed

    Balachander, N; Babu, N Aravindha; Jimson, Sudha; Priyadharsini, C; Masthan, K M K

    2015-04-01

    Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology admits dentists' participation or identification of the victim and assisting legal and criminal issues. It refers to the proper handling, examination, identification and evaluation of dental evidence. This article summarizes the evolution of forensic odontology that started right from Garden of Eden to the modern scenario in identification of the gang rape case which happened in the state capital. Forensic dentistry plays a significant role in identifying the victims of crime, deceased individuals through the examination of anatomical structures, dental appliances and dental restorations. PMID:26015703

  12. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting. PMID:24245688

  13. Evolution of forensic odontology: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Balachander, N.; Babu, N. Aravindha; Jimson, Sudha; Priyadharsini, C.; Masthan, K. M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology admits dentists’ participation or identification of the victim and assisting legal and criminal issues. It refers to the proper handling, examination, identification and evaluation of dental evidence. This article summarizes the evolution of forensic odontology that started right from Garden of Eden to the modern scenario in identification of the gang rape case which happened in the state capital. Forensic dentistry plays a significant role in identifying the victims of crime, deceased individuals through the examination of anatomical structures, dental appliances and dental restorations. PMID:26015703

  14. USE OF DNA TECHNOLOGY IN FORENSIC DENTISTRY

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; de Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira; de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    The established importance of Forensic Dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article presents a literature review referring to the main studies on Forensic Dentistry that involve the use of DNA for human identification, and makes an overview of the evolution of this technology in the last years, highlighting the importance of molecular biology in forensic sciences. PMID:19089123

  15. [Recent advances of amplified fragment length polymorphism and its applications in forensic botany].

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Tao; Li, Li

    2008-10-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a new molecular marker to detect genomic polymorphism. This new technology has advantages of high resolution, good stability, and reproducibility. Great achievements have been derived in recent years in AFLP related technologies with several AFLP expanded methodologies available. AFLP technology has been widely used in the fields of plant, animal, and microbes. It has become one of the hotspots in Forensic Botany. This review focuses on the recent advances of AFLP and its applications in forensic biology. PMID:18979924

  16. Forensic entomology: applications and limitations.

    PubMed

    Amendt, J; Richards, C S; Campobasso, C P; Zehner, R; Hall, M J R

    2011-12-01

    Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the corpse. In addition, toxicological and molecular examinations of these insects may help reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim, by associating a larva with its last meal, for example, in cases where insect evidence is left at a scene after human remains have been deliberately removed. Some fly species can develop not only on corpses but on living bodies too, causing myiasis. Analysis of larvae in such cases can demonstrate the period of neglect of humans or animals. Without the appropriate professional collection of insect evidence, an accurate and convincing presentation of such evidence in court will be hampered or even impossible. The present paper describes the principles and methods of forensic entomology and the optimal techniques for collecting insect evidence. PMID:21213072

  17. Forensic neuropsychology: a selective introduction.

    PubMed

    Gilandas, A J; Touyz, S W

    1983-07-01

    During the last decade, neuropsychology has emerged as one of the fastest growing disciplines within clinical psychology. One of the most important roles for neuropsychologists is their contribution to the forensic sciences. The present paper reviews how lawyers may best utilize the services of clinical neuropsychologists. Suggestions are also offered to neuropsychologists on how better to meet the needs of lawyers. The following forensic science issues are discussed: the legal framework in which neuropsychologists function; contributions psychologists may make towards answering basic medicolegal questions such as the elucidation of the nature, extent, and duration of head injury sequelae; criteria for acceptable neuropsychological reports; medicolegal aspects of severe head injury, minor head injury (posttraumatic syndrome), and pseudo-head injury (malingering). There are many causes of damage to the nervous system (for example, industrial toxins and medical malpractice) that are eligible for compensation. Examples will be confined to head injury since the basic forensic science principles remain the same, whatever the etiology of such brain damage. PMID:6619781

  18. Statistical relationship between surface PM10 concentration and aerosol optical depth over the Sahel as a function of weather type, using neural network methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahi, H.; Marticorena, B.; Thiria, S.; Chatenet, B.; Schmechtig, C.; Rajot, J. L.; Crepon, M.

    2013-12-01

    work aims at assessing the capability of passive remote-sensed measurements such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) to monitor the surface dust concentration during the dry season in the Sahel region (West Africa). We processed continuous measurements of AODs and surface concentrations for the period (2006-2010) in Banizoumbou (Niger) and Cinzana (Mali). In order to account for the influence of meteorological condition on the relationship between PM10 surface concentration and AOD, we decomposed the mesoscale meteorological fields surrounding the stations into five weather types having similar 3-dimensional atmospheric characteristics. This classification was obtained by a clustering method based on nonlinear artificial neural networks, the so-called self-organizing map. The weather types were identified by processing tridimensional fields of meridional and zonal winds and air temperature obtained from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output centered on each measurement station. Five similar weather types have been identified at the two stations. Three of them are associated with the Harmattan flux; the other two correspond to northward inflow of the monsoon flow at the beginning or the end of the dry season. An improved relationship has been found between the surface PM10 concentrations and the AOD by using a dedicated statistical relationship for each weather type. The performances of the statistical inversion computed on the test data sets show satisfactory skills for most of the classes, much better than a linear regression. This should permit the inversion of the mineral dust concentration from AODs derived from satellite observations over the Sahel.

  19. Forensic audio watermark detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinebach, Martin; Zmudzinski, Sascha; Petrautzki, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    Digital audio watermarking detection is often computational complex and requires at least as much audio information as required to embed a complete watermark. In some applications, especially real-time monitoring, this is an important drawback. The reason for this is the usage of sync sequences at the beginning of the watermark, allowing a decision about the presence only if at least the sync has been found and retrieved. We propose an alternative method for detecting the presence of a watermark. Based on the knowledge of the secret key used for embedding, we create a mark for all potential marking stages and then use a sliding window to test a given audio file on the presence of statistical characteristics caused by embedding. In this way we can detect a watermark in less than 1 second of audio.

  20. Social network forensics: using commercial software in a university forensics lab environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halkin, Pavel; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this article is to give a practical overview of forensic investigation of social networks cases using certain commercial software packages in a university forensics lab environment. Students have to learn the usefulness of forensic procedures to ensure evidence collection, evidence preservation, forensic analysis, and reporting. It is demonstrated how to investigate important data from social network users. Different scenarios of investigations are presented that are well-suited for forensics lab work in university. In particular, we focus on the new version of Belkasoft Evidence Center and compare it with other well-known tools regarding functionality, usability and capabilities.

  1. The logical foundations of forensic science: towards reliable knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Evett, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The generation of observations is a technical process and the advances that have been made in forensic science techniques over the last 50 years have been staggering. But science is about reasoning—about making sense from observations. For the forensic scientist, this is the challenge of interpreting a pattern of observations within the context of a legal trial. Here too, there have been major advances over recent years and there is a broad consensus among serious thinkers, both scientific and legal, that the logical framework is furnished by Bayesian inference (Aitken et al. Fundamentals of Probability and Statistical Evidence in Criminal Proceedings). This paper shows how the paradigm has matured, centred on the notion of the balanced scientist. Progress through the courts has not been always smooth and difficulties arising from recent judgments are discussed. Nevertheless, the future holds exciting prospects, in particular the opportunities for managing and calibrating the knowledge of the forensic scientists who assign the probabilities that are at the foundation of logical inference in the courtroom. PMID:26101288

  2. The logical foundations of forensic science: towards reliable knowledge.

    PubMed

    Evett, Ian

    2015-08-01

    The generation of observations is a technical process and the advances that have been made in forensic science techniques over the last 50 years have been staggering. But science is about reasoning-about making sense from observations. For the forensic scientist, this is the challenge of interpreting a pattern of observations within the context of a legal trial. Here too, there have been major advances over recent years and there is a broad consensus among serious thinkers, both scientific and legal, that the logical framework is furnished by Bayesian inference (Aitken et al. Fundamentals of Probability and Statistical Evidence in Criminal Proceedings). This paper shows how the paradigm has matured, centred on the notion of the balanced scientist. Progress through the courts has not been always smooth and difficulties arising from recent judgments are discussed. Nevertheless, the future holds exciting prospects, in particular the opportunities for managing and calibrating the knowledge of the forensic scientists who assign the probabilities that are at the foundation of logical inference in the courtroom. PMID:26101288

  3. Research issues in forensic pathology: a survey of academic institutions employing forensic pathologists.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B

    2004-05-01

    In an effort to characterize research efforts in forensic pathology, a questionnaire was sent to a representative of each of the 14 academic medical centers that employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Responses were received from all 14 (100%) of the institutions queried, representing a total of 39 forensic pathology faculty positions; 21 positions were tenure track and 18 positions were clinical or other tracks. Of the 39 positions, 25 positions (64%) at 10 institutions required some degree of research or scholarly output. Of the 25 forensic pathologists with a research imperative, only 3 (12%) were principal investigators or co-investigators on funded forensic pathology-based projects. The major limitation cited by respondents on the performance of forensic pathology research was the lack of protected time from service responsibilities. Fellowship training in forensic pathology was available at 6 of the 14 respondent institutions. Of these institutions, 4 (67%) had a research requirement for trainees, and 4 (67%) provided research training. In conclusion, very few US medical schools currently employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Of these, only a small number of institutions prioritize research by these faculty members. Scant federal funds are available to support research in forensic pathology. Few forensic pathology fellowship programs provide research training. To achieve a robust research agenda in forensic pathology that is sufficient to support the needs of the criminal justice and public health systems will require a paradigm shift in the medicolegal death investigative system and investment by federal agencies. PMID:15138925

  4. Forensic focused treatment planning: a new standard for forensic mental health systems.

    PubMed

    Schaufenbil, Robert J; Kornbluh, Rebecca; Stahl, Stephen M; Warburton, Katherine D

    2015-06-01

    Almost no literature addresses treatment planning for the forensic psychiatric patient. In the absence of such guidance, recovery-oriented multifocal treatment planning has been imported into forensic mental health systems from community psychiatric settings, despite the fact that conditions of admission and discharge are vastly different for forensic psychiatry inpatients. We propose that instead of focusing on recovery, forensic treatment planning should prioritize forensic outcomes, such as restoration of trial competence or mitigation of violence risk, as the first steps in a continuum of care that eventually leads to the patient's ability to resolve forensic issues and return to the community for recovery-oriented care. Here we offer a model for treatment planning in the forensic setting. PMID:25801440

  5. A statistical-dynamical scheme for reconstructing ocean forcing in the Atlantic. Part II: methodology, validation and application to high-resolution ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minvielle, Marie; Cassou, Christophe; Bourdallé-Badie, Romain; Terray, Laurent; Najac, Julien

    2011-02-01

    A novel statistical-dynamical scheme has been developed to reconstruct the sea surface atmospheric variables necessary to force an ocean model. Multiple linear regressions are first built over a so-called learning period and over the entire Atlantic basin from the observed relationship between the surface wind conditions, or predictands, and the anomalous large scale atmospheric circulations, or predictors. The latter are estimated in the extratropics by 500 hPa geopotential height weather regimes and in the tropics by low-level wind classes. The transfer function further combined to an analog step is then used to reconstruct all the surface variables fields over 1958-2002. We show that the proposed hybrid scheme is very skillful in reproducing the mean state, the seasonal cycle and the temporal evolution of all the surface ocean variables at interannual timescale. Deficiencies are found in the level of variance especially in the tropics. It is underestimated for 2-m temperature and humidity as well as for surface radiative fluxes in the interannual frequency band while it is slightly overestimated at higher frequency. Decomposition in empirical orthogonal function (EOF) shows that the spatial and temporal coherence of the forcing fields is however very well captured by the reconstruction method. For dynamical downscaling purposes, reconstructed fields are then interpolated and used to carry out a high-resolution oceanic simulation using the NATL4 (1/4°) model integrated over 1979-2001. This simulation is compared to a reference experiment where the original observed forcing fields are prescribed instead. Mean states between the two experiments are virtually undistinguishable both in terms of surface fluxes and ocean dynamics estimated by the barotropic and the meridional overturning streamfunctions. The 3-dimensional variance of the simulated ocean is well preserved at interannual timescale both for temperature and salinity except in the tropics where it is

  6. A Simple Cost-Effective Framework for iPhone Forensic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Mohammad Iftekhar; Baggili, Ibrahim; Sridhar, Ramalingam

    Apple iPhone has made significant impact on the society both as a handheld computing device and as a cellular phone. Due to the unique hardware system as well as storage structure, iPhone has already attracted the forensic community in digital investigation of the device. Currently available commercial products and methodologies for iPhone forensics are somewhat expensive, complex and often require additional hardware for analysis. Some products are not robust and often fail to extract optimal evidence without modifying the iPhone firmware which makes the analysis questionable in legal platforms. In this paper, we present a simple and inexpensive framework (iFF) for iPhone forensic analysis. Through experimental results using real device, we have shown the effectiveness of this framework in extracting digital evidence from an iPhone.

  7. The use of mass spectrometry for analysing metabolite biomarkers in epidemiology: methodological and statistical considerations for application to large numbers of biological samples.

    PubMed

    Lind, Mads V; Savolainen, Otto I; Ross, Alastair B

    2016-08-01

    Data quality is critical for epidemiology, and as scientific understanding expands, the range of data available for epidemiological studies and the types of tools used for measurement have also expanded. It is essential for the epidemiologist to have a grasp of the issues involved with different measurement tools. One tool that is increasingly being used for measuring biomarkers in epidemiological cohorts is mass spectrometry (MS), because of the high specificity and sensitivity of MS-based methods and the expanding range of biomarkers that can be measured. Further, the ability of MS to quantify many biomarkers simultaneously is advantageously compared to single biomarker methods. However, as with all methods used to measure biomarkers, there are a number of pitfalls to consider which may have an impact on results when used in epidemiology. In this review we discuss the use of MS for biomarker analyses, focusing on metabolites and their application and potential issues related to large-scale epidemiology studies, the use of MS "omics" approaches for biomarker discovery and how MS-based results can be used for increasing biological knowledge gained from epidemiological studies. Better understanding of the possibilities and possible problems related to MS-based measurements will help the epidemiologist in their discussions with analytical chemists and lead to the use of the most appropriate statistical tools for these data. PMID:27230258

  8. Practical relevance of pattern uniqueness in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, Paul T

    2013-09-10

    Uniqueness being unprovable, it has recently been argued that individualization in forensic science is irrelevant and, probability, as applied for DNA profiles, should be applied for all identifications. Critiques against uniqueness have omitted physical matching, a realistic and tangible individualization that supports uniqueness. Describing case examples illustrating pattern matches including physical matching, it is indicated that individualizations are practically relevant for forensic science as they establish facts on a definitive basis providing firm leads benefitting criminal investigation. As a tenet of forensic identification, uniqueness forms a fundamental paradigm relevant for individualization. Evidence on the indeterministic and stochastic causal pathways of characteristics in patterns available in the related fields of science sufficiently supports the proposition of uniqueness. Characteristics involved in physical matching and matching achieved in patterned evidence existing in the state of nature are not events amenable for counting; instead these are ensemble of visible units occupying the entire pattern area stretching the probability of re-occurrence of a verisimilitude pattern into infinity offering epistemic support to uniqueness. Observational methods are as respectable as instrumental or statistical methods since they are capable of generating results that are tangible and obviously valid as in physical matching. Applying the probabilistic interpretation used for DNA profiles to the other patterns would be unbefitting since these two are disparate, the causal pathways of the events, the loci, in the manipulated DNA profiles being determinable. While uniqueness enables individualizations, it does not vouch for eliminating errors. Instead of dismissing uniqueness and individualization, accepting errors as human or system failures and seeking remedial measures would benefit forensic science practice and criminal investigation. PMID:23849815

  9. A Proposal for Training in Forensic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Graduate programs are lagging behind in developing courses to prepare psychologists to function with expertise in forensic (law-related) matters. Paradoxically, the courts are now finding increasing use for the forensic psychologist, while current journals express wide skepticism about the quality of available expertise. (Author/RLV)

  10. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  11. Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

  12. Human resources and their possible forensic meanings.

    PubMed

    Russo, Andrea; Urlić, Ivan; Kasum, Josip

    2015-09-01

    Forensics (forensic--before the Forum) means the application of knowledge from different scientific fields in order to define facts in judicial and/or administrative procedures. Nowadays forensics, besides this, finds its application even in different economic processes. For example, forensics enters the commercial areas of business intelligence and of different security areas. The European Commission recognized the importance of forensics, and underscored the importance of development of its scientific infrastructure in member States. We are witnessing the rise of various tragedies in economic and other kinds of processes. Undoubtedly, the world is increasingly exposed to various forms of threats whose occurrences regularly involve people. In this paper we are proposing the development of a new approach in the forensic assessment of the state of human resources. We are suggesting that in the focus should be the forensic approach in the psychological assessment of awareness of the individual and of the critical infrastructure sector operator (CISO) in determining the level of actual practical, rather than formal knowledge of an individual in a particular field of expertise, or in a specific scientific field, and possible forensic meanings. PMID:26417747

  13. Suicide by drowning: A forensic challenge.

    PubMed

    Todt, Melanie; Ast, Friedrich; Wolff-Maras, Roman; Roesler, Birte; Germerott, Tanja

    2014-07-01

    In the case of suicidal drowning forensic examination is difficult, particularly with regard to differentiating between suicide, accident, homicide and natural death. Bondage and weighting with objects, putrescence and attendant lesions aggravate interpretation and investigation of postmortal forensic findings. In this respect, two cases of seemingly homicidal drowning with leg and arm bondage and weighting, to prevent resurfacing, are presented and discussed. PMID:24793320

  14. Neurotoxin Exposure and MMPI Forensic Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Heidi A.

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) has been widely used as an objective personality test, in addition to being used in forensic assessments, especially involving claims of physical or emotional damage. It now appears that questions must be raised concerning the MMPI's forensic implications given the advent of new disease…

  15. Taxonomy of Challenges for Digital Forensics.

    PubMed

    Karie, Nickson M; Venter, Hein S

    2015-07-01

    Since its inception, over a decade ago, the field of digital forensics has faced numerous challenges. Despite different researchers and digital forensic practitioners having studied and analysed various known digital forensic challenges, as of 2013, there still exists a need for a formal classification of these challenges. This article therefore reviews existing research literature and highlights the various challenges that digital forensics has faced for the last 10 years. In conducting this research study, however, it was difficult for the authors to review all the existing research literature in the digital forensic domain; hence, sampling and randomization techniques were employed to facilitate the review of the gathered literature. Taxonomy of the various challenges is subsequently proposed in this paper based on our review of the literature. The taxonomy classifies the large number of digital forensic challenges into four well-defined and easily understood categories. The proposed taxonomy can be useful, for example, in future developments of automated digital forensic tools by explicitly describing processes and procedures that focus on addressing specific challenges identified in this paper. However, it should also be noted that the purpose of this paper was not to propose any solutions to the individual challenges that digital forensics face, but to serve as a survey of the state of the art of the research area. PMID:26175261

  16. A review of sex estimation techniques during examination of skeletal remains in forensic anthropology casework.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Chatterjee, Preetika M; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kaur, Sandeep; Baryah, Neha; Singh, R K

    2016-04-01

    Sex estimation is considered as one of the essential parameters in forensic anthropology casework, and requires foremost consideration in the examination of skeletal remains. Forensic anthropologists frequently employ morphologic and metric methods for sex estimation of human remains. These methods are still very imperative in identification process in spite of the advent and accomplishment of molecular techniques. A constant boost in the use of imaging techniques in forensic anthropology research has facilitated to derive as well as revise the available population data. These methods however, are less reliable owing to high variance and indistinct landmark details. The present review discusses the reliability and reproducibility of various analytical approaches; morphological, metric, molecular and radiographic methods in sex estimation of skeletal remains. Numerous studies have shown a higher reliability and reproducibility of measurements taken directly on the bones and hence, such direct methods of sex estimation are considered to be more reliable than the other methods. Geometric morphometric (GM) method and Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste (DSP) method are emerging as valid methods and widely used techniques in forensic anthropology in terms of accuracy and reliability. Besides, the newer 3D methods are shown to exhibit specific sexual dimorphism patterns not readily revealed by traditional methods. Development of newer and better methodologies for sex estimation as well as re-evaluation of the existing ones will continue in the endeavour of forensic researchers for more accurate results. PMID:26926105

  17. Digital and multimedia forensics justified: An appraisal on professional policy and legislation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popejoy, Amy Lynnette

    Recent progress in professional policy and legislation at the federal level in the field of forensic science constructs a transformation of new outcomes for future experts. An exploratory and descriptive qualitative methodology was used to critique and examine Digital and Multimedia Science (DMS) as a justified forensic discipline. Chapter I summarizes Recommendations 1, 2, and 10 of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Report 2009 regarding disparities and challenges facing the forensic science community. Chapter I also delivers the overall foundation and framework of this thesis, specifically how it relates to DMS. Chapter II expands on Recommendation 1: "The Promotion and Development of Forensic Science," and focuses chronologically on professional policy and legislative advances through 2014. Chapter III addresses Recommendation 2: "The Standardization of Terminology in Reporting and Testimony," and the issues of legal language and terminology, model laboratory reports, and expert testimony concerning DMS case law. Chapter IV analyzes Recommendation 10: "Insufficient Education and Training," identifying legal awareness for the digital and multimedia examiner to understand the role of the expert witness, the attorney, the judge and the admission of forensic science evidence in litigation in our criminal justice system. Finally, Chapter V studies three DME specific laboratories at the Texas state, county, and city level, concentrating on current practice and procedure.

  18. Payment by results in forensic mental health

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Luke; McCarthy, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Forensic mental health services are low-volume, high-cost services. Payment by results (PbR) is the UK s latest attempt to improve efficiency and controls pending behaviours within the secure services. This article discusses the utility of the PbR mechanic in forensic mental health. It explores PbR implementation in non-forensic mental health settings, similar funding processes internationally, and early PbR implementation work in the UK's secure services. Finally, the article discusses the challenges faced when implementing PbR in forensic mental health services and puts forward possible next steps in determining the utility of PbR in forensic mental health. PMID:26755962

  19. Payment by results in forensic mental health.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Luke; McCarthy, Lucy

    2015-10-01

    Forensic mental health services are low-volume, high-cost services. Payment by results (PbR) is the UK s latest attempt to improve efficiency and controls pending behaviours within the secure services. This article discusses the utility of the PbR mechanic in forensic mental health. It explores PbR implementation in non-forensic mental health settings, similar funding processes internationally, and early PbR implementation work in the UK's secure services. Finally, the article discusses the challenges faced when implementing PbR in forensic mental health services and puts forward possible next steps in determining the utility of PbR in forensic mental health. PMID:26755962

  20. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  1. Authentication of forensic DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

    2010-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system. PMID:20129467

  2. Accreditation standards for undergraduate forensic science programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Marilyn Tebbs

    Undergraduate forensic science programs are experiencing unprecedented growth in numbers of programs offered and, as a result, student enrollments are increasing. Currently, however, these programs are not subject to professional specialized accreditation. This study sought to identify desirable student outcome measures for undergraduate forensic science programs that should be incorporated into such an accreditation process. To determine desirable student outcomes, three types of data were collected and analyzed. All the existing undergraduate forensic science programs in the United States were examined with regard to the input measures of degree requirements and curriculum content, and for the output measures of mission statements and student competencies. Accreditation procedures and guidelines for three other science-based disciplines, computer science, dietetics, and nursing, were examined to provide guidance on accreditation processes for forensic science education programs. Expert opinion on outcomes for program graduates was solicited from the major stakeholders of undergraduate forensic science programs-forensic science educators, crime laboratory directors, and recent graduates. Opinions were gathered by using a structured Internet-based survey; the total response rate was 48%. Examination of the existing undergraduate forensic science programs revealed that these programs do not use outcome measures. Of the accreditation processes for other science-based programs, nursing education provided the best model for forensic science education, due primarily to the balance between the generality and the specificity of the outcome measures. From the analysis of the questionnaire data, preliminary student outcomes, both general and discipline-specific, suitable for use in the accreditation of undergraduate forensic science programs were determined. The preliminary results were reviewed by a panel of experts and, based on their recommendations, the outcomes

  3. Models for regionalizing economic data and their applications within the scope of forensic disaster analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Hanns-Maximilian; Wiens, rer. pol. Marcus, , Dr.; Schultmann, rer. pol. Frank, Prof. _., Dr.

    2015-04-01

    The impact of natural hazards on the economic system can be observed in many different regions all over the world. Once the local economic structure is hit by an event direct costs instantly occur. However, the disturbance on a local level (e.g. parts of city or industries along a river bank) might also cause monetary damages in other, indirectly affected sectors. If the impact of an event is strong, these damages are likely to cascade and spread even on an international scale (e.g. the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull and its impact on the automotive sector in Europe). In order to determine these special impacts, one has to gain insights into the directly hit economic structure before being able to calculate these side effects. Especially, regarding the development of a model used for near real-time forensic disaster analyses any simulation needs to be based on data that is rapidly available or easily to be computed. Therefore, we investigated commonly used or recently discussed methodologies for regionalizing economic data. Surprisingly, even for German federal states there is no official input-output data available that can be used, although it might provide detailed figures concerning economic interrelations between different industry sectors. In the case of highly developed countries, such as Germany, we focus on models for regionalizing nationwide input-output table which is usually available at the national statistical offices. However, when it comes to developing countries (e.g. South-East Asia) the data quality and availability is usually much poorer. In this case, other sources need to be found for the proper assessment of regional economic performance. We developed an indicator-based model that can fill this gap because of its flexibility regarding the level of aggregation and the composability of different input parameters. Our poster presentation brings up a literature review and a summary on potential models that seem to be useful for this specific task

  4. International forensic automotive paint database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishea, Gregory A.; Buckle, Joe L.; Ryland, Scott G.

    1999-02-01

    The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current, validated, searchable, automotive paint database that is used to identify make(s), model(s), and year(s) of questioned paint samples in hit-and-run fatalities and other associated investigations involving automotive paint.

  5. Clinical myths of forensic neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Greiffenstein, Manfred F

    2009-02-01

    Clinical myths and lore are unfounded beliefs that still influence practice decisions. I examine the validity of six beliefs commonly encountered in forensic neuropsychology practice: the admissibility of test batteries; avoidance of practice effects; forewarning insures good effort; average deficits in bright persons; 15% chronic impairment in mild brain injury; and examiner bias causing malingering. I show these beliefs are invalid because of material misunderstandings of case law and literature, falsification by empirical findings, and lack of authoritative sources. The benefits, costs, and persistence of clinical myths are discussed. PMID:18609338

  6. An Empirical Investigation of the Relevant Skills of Forensic Accountants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGabriele, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The author investigated whether views of the relevant skills of forensic accountants differ among forensic accounting practitioners, accounting academics, and users of forensic accounting services. Universities and colleges are currently considering adding forensic accounting courses to their curriculum. The results of the present study provide…

  7. Automatic forensic analysis of automotive paints using optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Thoonen, Guy; Nys, Bart; Vander Haeghen, Yves; De Roy, Gilbert; Scheunders, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The timely identification of vehicles involved in an accident, such as a hit-and-run situation, bears great importance in forensics. To this end, procedures have been defined for analyzing car paint samples that combine techniques such as visual analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This work proposes a new methodology in order to automate the visual analysis using image retrieval. Specifically, color and texture information is extracted from a microscopic image of a recovered paint sample, and this information is then compared with the same features for a database of paint types, resulting in a shortlist of candidate paints. In order to demonstrate the operation of the methodology, a test database has been set up and two retrieval experiments have been performed. The first experiment quantifies the performance of the procedure for retrieving exact matches, while the second experiment emulates the real-life situation of paint samples that experience changes in color and texture over time. PMID:26774250

  8. Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Henry C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

  9. Forensic Proteomics of Poxvirus Production

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Tulman, Edan; Engelmann, Heather E.; Clowers, Brian H.; Geary, Steven J.; Robinson, Aaron C.; Liao, Xiaofen

    2013-08-27

    The field of microbial forensics has recently sought to develop methods to discern biological signatures to indicate production methods for biological agents. Viral agents have received less attention to date. Their obligate propagation in living cells makes purification from cellular material a challenge. This leads to potential carryover of protein-rich signature of their production system. Here we have explored a proteomic analysis of Vaccinia virus as a model poxvirus system in which to compare samples of virus propagated in different cell lines and subjected to different purification schemes. The proteomic data sets indicated viral, host cell and culture medium proteins, and several layers of data analysis were applied to build confidence in the peptide identification and capture information on the taxonomic utility of each. The analysis showed clear shifts in protein profiles with virus purification, with successive gradient purification steps showing different levels of viral protein enrichment. Peptides from cellular proteins, including those present in purified virus preparations, provided signatures which enabled discrimination of cell line substrates, including distinguishing between cells derived from different primate species. The ability to discern multiple aspects of viral production demonstrates the potential value of proteomic analysis as tool for microbial forensics.

  10. Vocal Forgery in Forensic Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Patrick; Morel, Mathieu; Razik, Joseph; Chollet, Gérard

    This article describes techniques of vocal forgery able to affect automatic speaker recognition system in a forensic context. Vocal forgery covers two main aspects: voice transformation and voice conversion. Concerning voice transformation, this article proposes an automatic analysis of four specific disguised voices in order to detect the forgery and, for voice conversion, different ways to automatically imitate a target voice. Vocal forgery appears as a real and relevant question for forensic expertise. In most cases, criminals who make a terrorist claim or a miscellaneous call, disguise their voices to hide their identity or to take the identity of another person. Disguise is considered in this paper as a deliberate action of the speaker who wants to conceal or falsify his identity. Different techniques exist to transform one’s own voice. Some are sophisticated as software manipulation, some others are simpler as using an handkerchief over the mouth. In voice transformation, the presented work is dedicated to the study of disguise used in the most common cases. In voice conversion, different techniques will be presented, compared, and applied on an original example of the French President voice.

  11. Electron microscopy and forensic practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrlý, Marek; Turková, Ivana

    2013-05-01

    Electron microanalysis in forensic practice ranks among basic applications used in investigation of traces (latents, stains, etc.) from crime scenes. Applying electron microscope allows for rapid screening and receiving initial information for a wide range of traces. SEM with EDS/WDS makes it possible to observe topography surface and morphology samples and examination of chemical components. Physical laboratory of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague use SEM especially for examination of inorganic samples, rarely for biology and other material. Recently, possibilities of electron microscopy have been extended considerably using dual systems with focused ion beam. These systems are applied mainly in study of inner micro and nanoparticles , thin layers (intersecting lines in graphical forensic examinations, analysis of layers of functional glass, etc.), study of alloys microdefects, creating 3D particles and aggregates models, etc. Automated mineralogical analyses are a great asset to analysis of mineral phases, particularly soils, similarly it holds for cathode luminescence, predominantly colour one and precise quantitative measurement of their spectral characteristics. Among latest innovations that are becoming to appear also at ordinary laboratories are TOF - SIMS systems and micro Raman spectroscopy with a resolution comparable to EDS/WDS analysis (capable of achieving similar level as through EDS/WDS analysis).

  12. Forensic Analysis of Compromised Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Directory Tree Analysis File Generator is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) script that simplifies and automates the collection of information for forensic analysis of compromised computer systems. During such an analysis, it is sometimes necessary to collect and analyze information about files on a specific directory tree. Directory Tree Analysis File Generator collects information of this type (except information about directories) and writes it to a text file. In particular, the script asks the user for the root of the directory tree to be processed, the name of the output file, and the number of subtree levels to process. The script then processes the directory tree and puts out the aforementioned text file. The format of the text file is designed to enable the submission of the file as input to a spreadsheet program, wherein the forensic analysis is performed. The analysis usually consists of sorting files and examination of such characteristics of files as ownership, time of creation, and time of most recent access, all of which characteristics are among the data included in the text file.

  13. A Survey of Attitudes of Board-Certified Veterinary Pathologists to Forensic Veterinary Pathology.

    PubMed

    McEwen, B J; McDonough, S P

    2016-09-01

    An electronic survey was conducted to determine the attitudes of veterinary pathologists toward forensic pathology and the adequacy of their training in the discipline. The survey was sent to 1933 diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and 311 completed responses were analyzed. Of respondents, 80% report receiving at least 1 type of medicolegal case, with cases from law enforcement received most frequently. Most (74%) of the respondents indicated that their previous training did not prepare them adequately to handle forensic cases and almost half of the respondents (48%) indicated that they needed more training on serving as an expert witness. Relative risk ratios (RRR) and odds ratios (OR) were generated to determine the strength of a statistically significant association. Responses from a free-text entry question determining additional training needs could be grouped into 3 main categories: (1) veterinary forensic pathology science and procedures, (2) documentation, evidence collection and handling, and (3) knowledge of the medicolegal system. Last, a field for additional comments or suggestions regarding veterinary forensic pathology was completed by 107 respondents and many reinforced the need for training in the categories previously described. The survey highlights that a significant proportion of diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists are currently engaged in veterinary forensic pathology but feel their training has not adequately prepared them for these cases. Hopefully, the survey results will inform the college and residency training coordinators as they address the training requirements for an important emerging discipline. PMID:26926083

  14. Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Christiana J.

    Over the last several decades, forensic science---the application of science to civil and criminal legal matters---has become of increasing popularity with the public. The range of disciplines within the field is immense, offering individuals the potential for a unique career, regardless of their specific interests or expertise. In response to this growth, many organizations, both public and private, have recognized the need to create forensic science programs that strive to maintain and enhance the quality of forensic science education. Unfortunately, most of the emphasis placed on developing these materials relates to post-secondary education, and creates a significant lack of forensic science educational materials available in the U.S., especially in Oklahoma. The purpose of this project was to create a high school curriculum that provides the foundation for building a broad, yet comprehensive, overview of the field of forensic science and its associated disciplines. The overall goal was to create and provide course materials to high school teachers in order to increase their knowledge of forensic science such that they are able to teach its disciplines effectively and with accuracy. The Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students includes sample lesson plans, PowerPoint presentations, and lab activities with step-by-step instructions.

  15. Forensic Entomologists: An Evaluation of their Status

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences (2009) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists. PMID:24219583

  16. Testing methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs.

  17. National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentis, Samantha E.; Ulicny, William D.

    2009-08-01

    Over the course of the 2009 Federal Fiscal Year the United States (U.S.) Department of Homeland Security (DHS), in partnership with the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Energy (DOE), is continuing existing programs and introducing new programs designed to maintain a highly qualified, enduring workforce capable of performing the technical nuclear forensics mission. These student and university programs are designed to recruit the best and brightest students, develop university faculty and research capabilities, and engage the national laboratories in fields of study with application in nuclear forensics. This comprehensive effort constitutes the National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program.

  18. The four faces of microbial forensics.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jonathan B; Koblentz, Gregory D

    2009-12-01

    The emerging field of microbial forensics played a major role in the investigation of the 2001 anthrax mailings and has been closely associated with the process of attribution, or identifying the perpetrator of a biological attack for purposes of criminal prosecution or military retaliation. Nevertheless, microbial forensics has other potential applications in intelligence, nonproliferation, and verification. This article describes the relevance of microbial forensics for a variety of law enforcement and national security missions, examines the obstacles to its broader use, and concludes with some policy recommendations. PMID:20028247

  19. Open Source Live Distributions for Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustini, Giancarlo; Andreolini, Mauro; Colajanni, Michele

    Current distributions of open source forensic software provide digital investigators with a large set of heterogeneous tools. Their use is not always focused on the target and requires high technical expertise. We present a new GNU/Linux live distribution, named CAINE (Computer Aided INvestigative Environment) that contains a collection of tools wrapped up into a user friendly environment. The CAINE forensic framework introduces novel important features, aimed at filling the interoperability gap across different forensic tools. Moreover, it provides a homogeneous graphical interface that drives digital investigators during the acquisition and analysis of electronic evidence, and it offers a semi-automatic mechanism for the creation of the final report.

  20. Concept Mapping for Digital Forensic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, April; Dampier, David

    Research in digital forensics has yet to focus on modeling case domain information involved in investigations. This paper shows how concept mapping can be used to create an excellent alternative to the popular checklist approach used in digital forensic investigations. Concept mapping offers several benefits, including creating replicable, reusable techniques, simplifying and guiding the investigative process, capturing and reusing specialized forensic knowledge, and supporting training and knowledge management activities. The paper also discusses how concept mapping can be used to integrate case-specific details throughout the investigative process.

  1. Use of Stable Isotopes in Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.

    2012-01-18

    The use of isotopic signatures for forensic analysis of biological materials is well-established, and the same general principles that apply to interpretation of stable isotope content of C, N, O, and H apply to the analysis of microorganisms. Heterotrophic microorganisms derive their isotopic content from their growth substrates, which are largely plant and animal products, and the water in their culture medium. Thus the isotope signatures of microbes are tied to their growth environment. The C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of spores have been demonstrated to constitute highly discriminating signatures for sample matching. They can rule out specific samples of media and/or water as possible production media, and can predict isotope ratio ranges of the culture media and water used to produce a given sample. These applications have been developed and tested through analyses of approximately 250 samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and over 500 samples of culture media, providing a strong statistical basis for data interpretation. A Bayesian statistical framework for integrating stable isotope data with other types of signatures derived from microorganisms has been able to characterize the culture medium used to produce spores of various Bacillus species, leveraging isotopic differences in different medium types and demonstrating the power of data integration for forensic investigations.

  2. Resolution in forensic microbial genotyping

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P

    2005-08-30

    Resolution is a key parameter for differentiating among the large number of strain typing methods that could be applied to pathogens involved in bioterror events or biocrimes. In this report we develop a first-principles analysis of strain typing resolution using a simple mathematical model to provide a basis for the rational design of microbial typing systems for forensic applications. We derive two figures of merit that describe the resolving power and phylogenetic depth of a strain typing system. Rough estimates of these figures-of-merit for MLVA, MLST, IS element, AFLP, hybridization microarrays, and other bacterial typing methods are derived from mutation rate data reported in the literature. We also discuss the general problem of how to construct a ''universal'' practical typing system that has the highest possible resolution short of whole-genome sequencing, and that is applicable with minimal modification to a wide range of pathogens.

  3. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  4. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  5. Cybersex with minors: forensic implications.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, M E; Sharma, K K

    2001-11-01

    This paper is designed to assist forensic psychiatrists/psychologists who evaluate adults who commit sexual crimes against children on the Internet. The typical offender is an adult male who logs onto the Internet and enters a chat room in which children congregate. Unbeknownst to the offender, undercover police officers are posing as minors in the chat rooms. The undercover officer (pretend kid) and offender engage in increasingly explicit, sexual conversation; the offender may transmit erotic photographs to the undercover officer and/or arrange to meet at a motel in order to have sexual intercourse. The authors will discuss the relevant legal, clinical, and ethical aspects of examining these offenders, and describe specific cases that the author (2) evaluated. PMID:11714151

  6. Contemporary practice in forensic odontology

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shalini; Agnihotri, Archana; Chandra, Akhilesh; Gupta, Om Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Forensic odontology plays a major role in the identification of those individuals who cannot be identified visually or by other means. The unique nature of dental anatomy and placement of custom restorations ensure accuracy when the techniques are correctly employed. It is evident that identification of victims in accidents and natural calamities is of utmost importance and is a challenging task. The teeth may also be used as weapons and under certain circumstances; they may provide information regarding the identity of the biter. Dental professionals play a major role in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize malpractices, negligence, fraud child abuse and also, identify an individual. In this article, we will discuss such evolvement of the subject. PMID:25328306

  7. Forensic Medicine: An Aid to Criminal Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Deadman, William J.

    1965-01-01

    Forensic medicine is medicine as applied to the problems of the law. The origins of both are hidden in the mists of antiquity, dating from the beginnings of family and tribal life. Recorded human history goes back for 6000 years. Sumeria, Babylon and Egypt all contributed to the development of forensic medicine. Imhotep was probably the first real medicolegal expert. Hippocrates, the Greek physician, and Galen, the Roman, made considerable contributions. Little advance was made during the millenium of the Dark Ages. But Renaissance medicine gave this branch of medicine an impetus in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and in the twentieth, interest in forensic medicine is worldwide. The physician, the coroner, the pathologist, the medical specialist and the forensic laboratory contribute to the investigation of crimes against the person, and to the solution of such problems as identification, untoward deaths, apparent drowning and many others. PMID:14269437

  8. FORENSIC MEDICINE: AN AID TO CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION.

    PubMed

    DEADMAN, W J

    1965-03-27

    Forensic medicine is medicine as applied to the problems of the law. The origins of both are hidden in the mists of antiquity, dating from the beginnings of family and tribal life. Recorded human history goes back for 6000 years. Sumeria, Babylon and Egypt all contributed to the development of forensic medicine. Imhotep was probably the first real medicolegal expert. Hippocrates, the Greek physician, and Galen, the Roman, made considerable contributions. Little advance was made during the millenium of the Dark Ages. But Renaissance medicine gave this branch of medicine an impetus in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and in the twentieth, interest in forensic medicine is worldwide. The physician, the coroner, the pathologist, the medical specialist and the forensic laboratory contribute to the investigation of crimes against the person, and to the solution of such problems as identification, untoward deaths, apparent drowning and many others. PMID:14269437

  9. Spectroscopic Sleuthing. An Introduction to Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, Vera; Cunniff, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a program in which students learn about spectroscopy and instrumentation to solve a chemical forensic mystery. Infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, refractometry, and chromatographic techniques were used. An example of a mystery case is included. (KR)

  10. [Forensic medicine and the overlap with pathology].

    PubMed

    Riepert, T

    2010-07-01

    Forensic medicine incorporates research, teaching and professional service. In the routine practice this encompasses interdisciplinary cooperation with physicians, natural scientists and the legal profession. Lectures in forensic medicine include the correct performance of an external examination of corpses, which every physician must be capable of, just as medical questions and the evidential documentation of injuries. Clinical forensic medicine encompasses the examination and documentation of living victims of physical and/or sexual violence. For further training to become a specialist for forensic medicine it is mandatory to undertake a 6-month training period in pathology. Fatalities with an unclear or unnatural manner of death must be registered with the police. On suspicion of third party involvement the public prosecutor will request a legal autopsy, which is carried out and documented by two physicians in accordance with the penal code. Imaging procedures are standard for an autopsy. Extensive samples are taken for additional testing, such as toxicological and molecular biological investigations. PMID:20424845

  11. An Improved Forensic Science Information Search.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, J

    2015-01-01

    Although thousands of search engines and databases are available online, finding answers to specific forensic science questions can be a challenge even to experienced Internet users. Because there is no central repository for forensic science information, and because of the sheer number of disciplines under the forensic science umbrella, forensic scientists are often unable to locate material that is relevant to their needs. The author contends that using six publicly accessible search engines and databases can produce high-quality search results. The six resources are Google, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google Books, WorldCat, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Carefully selected keywords and keyword combinations, designating a keyword phrase so that the search engine will search on the phrase and not individual keywords, and prompting search engines to retrieve PDF files are among the techniques discussed. PMID:26227137

  12. [Ethological approaches concerning forensic animal welfare].

    PubMed

    Zeeb, K

    1996-11-01

    Two cases of jurisdiction lay open the practicability of ethological approaches as to answer forensical questions of animal welfare. Two concepts were presented: The concept of satisfaction of requirements and a new concept for the assessment of feelings. PMID:9081822

  13. Development of a forensic evidence protection kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, Brian; Kelly, Roy

    1999-02-01

    A kit has been developed for the preservation of vital forensic evidence on a suspect following a serious assault, murder or other offense where contamination may occur. This also includes the handling of firearms, explosives and/or drugs.

  14. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anoop K; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709

  15. Role of forensic pathologists in mass disasters.

    PubMed

    Schuliar, Yves; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis

    2012-06-01

    The forensic pathologist has always had a central role in the identification of the dead in every day practice, in accidents, and in disasters involving hundreds or thousands of victims. This role has changed in recent years, as advances in forensic odontology, genetics and anthropology have improved the chances of identifying victims beyond recognition. According to the Interpol DVI Guide, fingerprints, dental examination and DNA are the primary identifiers, and this has given new emphasis to the role of the forensic pathologist as the leader of a multidisciplinary team of experts in a disaster situation, based on his or her qualifications and the experience gained from doing the same work in the everyday situation of an institute of forensic medicine. PMID:22160735

  16. Enhancing forensic science with spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Camilla; Kazarian, Sergei G.

    2006-09-01

    This presentation outlines the research we are developing in the area of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging with the focus on materials of forensic interest. FTIR spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a powerful tool for characterisation of heterogeneous materials. FTIR imaging relies on the ability of the military-developed infrared array detector to simultaneously measure spectra from thousands of different locations in a sample. Recently developed application of FTIR imaging using an ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) mode has demonstrated the ability of this method to achieve spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of infrared light in air. Chemical visualisation with enhanced spatial resolution in micro-ATR mode broadens the range of materials studied with FTIR imaging with applications to pharmaceutical formulations or biological samples. Macro-ATR imaging has also been developed for chemical imaging analysis of large surface area samples and was applied to analyse the surface of human skin (e.g. finger), counterfeit tablets, textile materials (clothing), etc. This approach demonstrated the ability of this imaging method to detect trace materials attached to the surface of the skin. This may also prove as a valuable tool in detection of traces of explosives left or trapped on the surfaces of different materials. This FTIR imaging method is substantially superior to many of the other imaging methods due to inherent chemical specificity of infrared spectroscopy and fast acquisition times of this technique. Our preliminary data demonstrated that this methodology will provide the means to non-destructive detection method that could relate evidence to its source. This will be important in a wider crime prevention programme. In summary, intrinsic chemical specificity and enhanced visualising capability of FTIR spectroscopic imaging open a window of opportunities for counter-terrorism and crime-fighting, with applications ranging

  17. Computer Forensics Education - the Open Source Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Ewa; Bem, Derek; Cheung, Hon

    In this chapter we discuss the application of the open source software tools in computer forensics education at tertiary level. We argue that open source tools are more suitable than commercial tools, as they provide the opportunity for students to gain in-depth understanding and appreciation of the computer forensic process as opposed to familiarity with one software product, however complex and multi-functional. With the access to all source programs the students become more than just the consumers of the tools as future forensic investigators. They can also examine the code, understand the relationship between the binary images and relevant data structures, and in the process gain necessary background to become the future creators of new and improved forensic software tools. As a case study we present an advanced subject, Computer Forensics Workshop, which we designed for the Bachelor's degree in computer science at the University of Western Sydney. We based all laboratory work and the main take-home project in this subject on open source software tools. We found that without exception more than one suitable tool can be found to cover each topic in the curriculum adequately. We argue that this approach prepares students better for forensic field work, as they gain confidence to use a variety of tools, not just a single product they are familiar with.

  18. Forensic nursing - Global scenario and Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Dash, Shreemanta Kumar; Patel, Shailendra; Chavali, Krishnadutt

    2016-08-01

    Sexual violence is a significant cause of physical and psychological harm and suffering for women and children. Although sexual violence mostly affects women and girls, boys are also subject to child sexual abuse. Nurse is the person who attends the victim first. In order to meet the rigid and ever-changing demands of providing care to the victim and complying with our confusing system of laws, the nursing should has been forced to expand into a Forensic nursing, specialty of its own. Nursing roles in the criminal justice service known by many names worldwide-Custody nursing, Prison/Correctional nursing, Immigration centre nursing, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) or Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner (SAFE), SARTs (Sexual assault response team), SARCs (Sexual assault referral centre) and FNDIs (Forensic nurse death investigator). In India the premier institutes like AIIMS New Delhi and The PGI Chandigarh, do not have forensic content in their nursing curriculum manuals. The WHO and IAFN have urged inclusion of forensic content in both undergraduate and postgraduate nursing programs. Forensic Nurse Specialist can provide direct services to individual clients, consultation services to nursing, medical and law-related agencies, as well as providing expert court testimony in areas dealing with trauma and/or questioned death investigative processes, adequacy of services delivered, and specialized diagnoses of specific medical conditions. Research Findings on the Effectiveness of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs suggests various improvements in each and every step in care of victim of sexual assault. PMID:27314972

  19. A new standard of care for forensic mental health treatment: prioritizing forensic intervention.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Katherine D

    2015-06-01

    Many forensic psychiatric settings serve unique populations who have, in addition to traditional psychiatric symptoms, diverse legal and criminogenic needs. A lack of clear treatment standards that address all aspects of forensic care can lead to inefficient or inappropriate interventions and contribute to institutional violence. PMID:25882228

  20. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: A Legal Study Concerning the Forensic Sciences Personnel. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Oliver, Jr.

    The place and function of forensic sciences personnel in American criminal law and court procedure, and the criteria used by criminal trial judges and lawyers to assess the value of forensic sciences personnel were investigated. Federal, state, Virgin Island, and Puerto Rican laws were examined, and a search of the medical and legal literature…

  1. The contribution of forensic science to crime analysis and investigation: forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ribaux, Olivier; Walsh, Simon J; Margot, Pierre

    2006-01-27

    The debate in forensic science concentrates on issues such as standardisation, accreditation and de-contextualisation, in a legal and economical context, in order to ensure the scientific objectivity and efficiency that must guide the process of collecting, analysing, interpreting and reporting forensic evidence. At the same time, it is recognised that forensic case data is still poorly integrated into the investigation and the crime analysis process, despite evidence of its great potential in various situations and studies. A change of attitude is needed in order to accept an extended role for forensic science that goes beyond the production of evidence for the court. To stimulate and guide this development, a long-term intensive modelling activity of the investigative and crime analysis process that crosses the boundaries of different disciplines has been initiated. A framework that fully integrates forensic case data shows through examples the capital accumulated that may be put to use systematically. PMID:16099615

  2. [Role of forensic medicine and forensic psychiatry in solving the problem of organized crime].

    PubMed

    Kokavec, M; Dobrotka, G

    2001-01-01

    Term--organized crime is not satisfactorily defined todate neither in forensic sciences, nor in lexical formulations. It is necessary to come to grips with the criminalistic and social pathological meaning of three terms--individual crime, grouped and organized crime as well as participation of forensic sciences including forensic medicine on solving problems of organized crime. Forensic medicine and forensic psychology can help to solve this acute problem of present development of social life. It can help in criminalistic expertize and insider activity in profiliation of perpetrators and victims. Mainly it will be about searching and improving of methodical approaches in solving of incriminated cases and its analysis for investigative organs and courts. Important asset in this problem must be also preventive portion in preclusion of criminality. PMID:11269022

  3. Midwest Forensics Resource Center Project Summary June 2005

    SciTech Connect

    David Baldwin

    2005-06-01

    The mission of the MFRC Research and Development Program, is to provide technological advances in forensic science for the benefit of our regional partners as well as the forensic community at large. Key areas of forensic science need are identified through our interactions with our Midwest partners and our R&D advisory group, as well as through our participation in national meetings in forensic science. Under the sponsorship of the National Institute of Justice, the MFRC solicits proposals for the development of practical and useful technology, instrumentation, and methodology that address needs in areas related to forensic science and its application to operational crime laboratories. The MFRC facilitates proposal development by working to establish partnerships between researchers and our regional partners. The MFRC administers a peer-review of the proposals and then funds the selected projects at a cost of approximately $55,000 each, with a 12-month period of performance. The process for selection of these projects includes the following steps: (1) drafting of a call for proposals by MFRC staff, (2) review of the draft call by members of the R&D advisory committee, (3) review and approval of the call by NIJ, (4) issuance of the call to ISU, Ames Laboratory, regional partners, and research organizations, (5) receipt of proposals, (6) review of proposals by R&D advisory committee, (7) ranking and selection by MFRC staff using advisory committee reviews, with concurrence by NIJ, (8) notification of proposers, (9) receipt and review of progress reports by MFRC, (10) receipt and review of final reports by MFRC, R&D advisory committee, and NIJ. The decision to fund any specific project is based upon a peer-reviewed call-for-proposal system administered by the MFRC. The reviewers are crime laboratory specialists and scientists who are asked to rate the proposals on four criteria areas including: (1) relevance to the mission of the MFRC, (2) technical approach and

  4. Adherence of forensic odontologists to the ABFO guidelines for victim evidence collection.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Anne H; Sweet, David

    2003-03-01

    Certifying boards for different professions have the duty to help establish standards and guidelines for methodologies routinely performed within the discipline. For forensic dentists, this responsibility is placed upon the American Board of Forensic Odontology (ABFO). The purpose of this study was to examine whether board certified and noncertified forensic odontologists adhere to the ABFO Guidelines outlined in the collection of victim bitemark evidence. A questionnaire was developed to assess the compliance and attitudes towards the typical evidence collected, the photographic documentation, and the handling of the bite site injury. The results indicate the majority of the respondents in both representative groups routinely follow the guidelines set forth by the ABFO. The lack of personally photographing the bite injury on a consistent basis is an area of concern for all examiners. The photographic evidence is an instrumental part of the investigation and often cannot be utilized due to improper procedures being followed. The film type utilized, bite site impression techniques, and excision of any tissue samples remain an individual choice and vary significantly among each forensic odontologist. PMID:12664999

  5. Geriatric forensics - Part 2 “Prevalence of elder abuse and their potential forensic markers among medical and dental patients”

    PubMed Central

    Mattoo, Khurshid A.; Garg, Rishabh; Kumar, Shalabh

    2015-01-01

    Context: This study is a continuation of the earlier studies and has been extended to investigate the potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Aims: To determine the prevalence of elder abuse in various outpatient departments (OPDs). To study the associated parameters related to the abuser and the abused. To determine the existence of potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Settings and Design: The subjects were randomly selected from the medical and the dental OPDs of the university. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and thirty two elderly subjects in the age range 40-60 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine the existence of elder abuse. The subjects were investigated and examined for weight, nutrition and hydration, vital signs, habits, existing visual and auditory capabilities, medications, disclosure of wills/deeds, signs of depression, and documented cleanliness. The mini-mental state examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Clock drawing test, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were used to determine the potential forensic markers. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values in percentage were determined by dividing the number of determined subjects by the total number of subjects for that parameter. Results: About 37% in medical and 41% in dental OPDs were found to have suffered from abuse, mostly in the age group 60-70 years. Females received more abuse and a combination of son and daughter-in-law constituted most abusers. Various potential markers of elder abuse and neglect investigated among the elder abuse victims included depression (89%), signs of improper feeding (83%), changes in personal hygiene (69%), need for medical/dental treatment (78%), medication misuse (67%), changes in wills/deeds (26%), decubiti (10%), bruises (17%), skin tears (27%), and confusion (23%). Conclusions: Elder abuse exists in one or more forms in both medical and dental OPDs among both males and females in all age groups. PMID:26816460

  6. [Forensic medical estimation of gunshot fractures of the flat bones].

    PubMed

    Dubrovin, I A; Dubrovina, I A

    2012-01-01

    The principal characteristics of the investigations into the mechanisms of gunshot injuries are considered. The general and peculiar features of gunshot fractures and the pathological processes underlying them are discussed. The theory of bullet impact effect put forward by the Russian surgeons in the late XIXth century is verified. The explanation is proposed for the physical nature of direct and side impacts and the phenomenon of a temporary oscillating cavity from the standpoint of the theory of bullet impact effect. The new forensic medical criteria for the gunshot origin of an injury have been developed that allow the gunshot distance and the geometric characteristics of the bullet to be determined. A methodological basis for the determination of the long-range gunshot distance has been created. The results of the present study may be of interest for criminal lawyers and military specialists. PMID:22567957

  7. A short account of forensic dentistry in France.

    PubMed

    Riaud, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The earliest records and more recent cases where forensic dentistry has been used to identify bodies in France are described. The establishment of the French Society of Forensic Odontology is detailed. PMID:26930882

  8. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  9. Present and foreseeable future of metabolomics in forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Peinado, L S; Luque de Castro, M D

    2016-06-21

    The revulsive publications during the last years on the precariousness of forensic sciences worldwide have promoted the move of major steps towards improvement of this science. One of the steps (viz. a higher involvement of metabolomics in the new era of forensic analysis) deserves to be discussed under different angles. Thus, the characteristics of metabolomics that make it a useful tool in forensic analysis, the aspects in which this omics is so far implicit, but not mentioned in forensic analyses, and how typical forensic parameters such as the post-mortem interval or fingerprints take benefits from metabolomics are critically discussed in this review. The way in which the metabolomics-forensic binomial succeeds when either conventional or less frequent samples are used is highlighted here. Finally, the pillars that should support future developments involving metabolomics and forensic analysis, and the research required for a fruitful in-depth involvement of metabolomics in forensic analysis are critically discussed. PMID:27188312

  10. Estimating JPEG2000 compression for image forensics using Benford's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadir, Ghulam; Zhao, Xi; Ho, Anthony T. S.

    2010-05-01

    With the tremendous growth and usage of digital images nowadays, the integrity and authenticity of digital content is becoming increasingly important, and a growing concern to many government and commercial sectors. Image Forensics, based on a passive statistical analysis of the image data only, is an alternative approach to the active embedding of data associated with Digital Watermarking. Benford's Law was first introduced to analyse the probability distribution of the 1st digit (1-9) numbers of natural data, and has since been applied to Accounting Forensics for detecting fraudulent income tax returns [9]. More recently, Benford's Law has been further applied to image processing and image forensics. For example, Fu et al. [5] proposed a Generalised Benford's Law technique for estimating the Quality Factor (QF) of JPEG compressed images. In our previous work, we proposed a framework incorporating the Generalised Benford's Law to accurately detect unknown JPEG compression rates of watermarked images in semi-fragile watermarking schemes. JPEG2000 (a relatively new image compression standard) offers higher compression rates and better image quality as compared to JPEG compression. In this paper, we propose the novel use of Benford's Law for estimating JPEG2000 compression for image forensics applications. By analysing the DWT coefficients and JPEG2000 compression on 1338 test images, the initial results indicate that the 1st digit probability of DWT coefficients follow the Benford's Law. The unknown JPEG2000 compression rates of the image can also be derived, and proved with the help of a divergence factor, which shows the deviation between the probabilities and Benford's Law. Based on 1338 test images, the mean divergence for DWT coefficients is approximately 0.0016, which is lower than DCT coefficients at 0.0034. However, the mean divergence for JPEG2000 images compression rate at 0.1 is 0.0108, which is much higher than uncompressed DWT coefficients. This result

  11. Maintaining dental records: Are we ready for forensic needs?

    PubMed Central

    Astekar, Madhusudan; Saawarn, Swati; Ramesh, Gayathri; Saawarn, Nisheeth

    2011-01-01

    Context: Dental remains are usually the last to get destroyed among body parts after death. They may be useful for personal identification in cases of mass disasters and decomposed unidentified bodies. Dental records may help in the identification of suspects in criminal investigations and in medicolegal cases. Maintenance of dental records is legally mandatory in most of the European and American countries. Unfortunately, the law is not very clear in India, and the awareness is very poor. Aims: To assess the awareness regarding the dental record maintenance among dentists in Rajasthan, to deduce the quality of average dental records kept by them and to evaluate the potential use of their maintained records, in any of forensic or medicolegal cases. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 dental practitioners of different cities in Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, which was responded by the study population in the course of a telephonic interview. The questionnaire addressed on the mode of maintaining dental records in their regular practice. Statistical Analysis Used: The data so gathered were subjected for descriptive analysis. Results: As for knowledge or awareness about maintaining dental records, surprisingly a very low percentile (about 38%) of surveyed dentists maintained records. Sixty-two percent of the dentists were maintaining no records at all. Conclusion: Nonmaintenance or poor quality of records maintained indicates that the dentists in Rajasthan are not prepared for any kind of forensic and medicolegal need if it arises. PMID:22408320

  12. Development of a forensic identity SNP panel for Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Augustinus, Daniel; Gahan, Michelle E; McNevin, Dennis

    2015-07-01

    Genetic markers included in forensic identity panels must exhibit Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium (HWE and LE). "Universal" panels designed for global use can fail these tests in regional jurisdictions exhibiting high levels of genetic differentiation such as the Indonesian archipelago. This is especially the case where a single DNA database is required for allele frequency estimates to calculate random match probabilities (RMPs) and associated likelihood ratios (LRs). A panel of 65 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a reduced set of 52 SNPs have been selected from 15 Indonesian subpopulations in the HUGO Pan Asian SNP database using a SNP selection strategy that could be applied to any panel of forensic identity markers. The strategy consists of four screening steps: (1) application of a G test for HWE; (2) ranking for high heterozygosity; (3) selection for LE; and (4) selection for low inbreeding depression. SNPs in our Indonesian panel perform well in comparison to some other universal SNP and short tandem repeat (STR) panels as measured by Fisher's exact test for HWE and LE and Wright's F statistics. PMID:25104323

  13. Child neglect and forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Benecke, M; Lessig, R

    2001-08-15

    Close co-operation between forensic scientists, medico-legal doctors, and police forces made it possible to estimate not only the post-mortem interval but also the time since a child was neglected. On the skin surface under the diaper (anal-genital area), third instar larvae of the false stable fly Muscina stabulans FALLEN, and the lesser house fly Fannia canicularis L. were found. F. canicularis adults are attracted to both feces and urine. From the face, larvae of the bluebottle fly Calliphora vomitoria L. were collected. C. vomitoria maggots are typical early inhabitants of corpses. From the developmental times of the flies, it was estimated that the anal-genital area of the child had not been cleaned for about 14 days (7-21 day range), and that death occurred only 6-8 days prior to discovery of the body. This is the first report where an examination of the maggot fauna on a person illustrated neglect that had occurred prior to death. PMID:11457624

  14. [Forensic psychiatry and Islamic law].

    PubMed

    Geferakos, G; Lykouras, L; Douzenis, A

    2014-01-01

    Islam is the second most popular monotheistic religion in the world. Its followers, the Muslims, are about 1.2 billion people and are the majority in 56 countries around the globe. Islam is an holistic way and model of life and its rules, according to a large proportion of Muslims, should have more power than the laws deriving from any secular authority. This means that the divine laws, as depicted from Islam's holy scripts, should be the laws of the land. In the strict Islamic states, as Saudi Arabia, the Islamic law or the Shari'ah prevails. Shari'ah means the path, the road each faithful Muslim should follow according to the rules of God. The Islamic views on mental health have some interesting characteristics: on the one hand, the moral necessity for the protection and care of the vulnerable individuals is very strong, but on the other hand superstitions and stigmatization influence the peoples' attitude against mental health patients. At the beginning of its historical course, Islamic world was a pioneer concerning mental health care. Unfortunately, as time passed by, we have observed considerable regression. In our days mental health services provided in most of the Islamic states cannot be considered adequate according to modern Western standards. The same course characterizes the Forensic Psychiatric services and the relevant legislation in the Islamic world. PMID:25630549

  15. [Infanticide. Social and forensic aspects].

    PubMed

    Bätje, C; Schläfke, D; Nedopil, N; Hässler, F

    2011-07-01

    Infanticides are not specifically classified in German criminal records. Thus, the number of infanticides varies depending on different sources of information. Reports from expert witnesses (n=48, 1980-2007) from the German regions around Munich and Rostock were analyzed retrospectively in order to identify sociodemographic, clinical and forensic characteristics of child murders. In 87.5% of the cases the victims were the natural children of which 25 were younger than 1 year old. Female offenders outnumbered male offenders by 3:1 and on average females were 8 years younger than males (26.5 years for females and 34.2 years for males). The motives included unwanted pregnancy/child, altruistic deeds, acute psychoses, child abuse (sexual abuse, neglect or negligence), drug or alcohol abuse, sadistic punishment of the child and revenge on partners. In 27 cases a restricted or exemption from criminal responsibility was acknowledged. About one third of the offenders consulted a physician before the crime. For an improvement in primary prevention, support networks should be integrated and sensitized to the problem. PMID:20617427

  16. Nuclear Forensics: A Holistic Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Luksic, Andrzej T.; Friese, Judah I.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Starner, Jason R.; Wacker, John F.

    2010-08-11

    Discussions of nuclear forensics are often restricted to work performed by radio-chemists measuring nuclear material attributes in the laboratory. However, this represents only one portion of the work required to answer critical questions. Laboratory analysis results in measurements that need to be evaluated. The results of those evaluations must be put into their proper context in order for them to be useful to others and often require merging those results with additional information. This may contribute to attribution, by virtue of inclusion or exclusion. Finally, the end product must be presented such that appropriate actions can be taken. This could include prosecution by law enforcement, policy initiatives on the part of legislative bodies, or military action in the case of nuclear attack (whether that attack is preempted or not). Using the discovery of a sample of plutonium during cleanup activities at Hanford in 2004, we will step through the process of discovery (representing an interdiction), initial field analysis, laboratory analysis, data evaluation and merging with additional data (similar to law enforcement and/or all source), thereby providing an example of an integrated approach.

  17. Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view

    PubMed Central

    Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth

    2012-01-01

    The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster. PMID:23087581

  18. [Application of DNA labeling technology in forensic botany].

    PubMed

    Znang, Xian; Li, Jing-Lin; Zhang, Xiang-Yu

    2008-12-01

    Forensic botany is a study of judicial plant evidence. Recently, researches on DNA labeling technology have been a mainstream of forensic botany. The article systematically reviews various types of DNA labeling techniques in forensic botany with enumerated practical cases, as well as the potential forensic application of each individual technique. The advantages of the DNA labeling technology over traditional morphological taxonomic methods are also summarized. PMID:19241976

  19. Molecular approaches for forensic cell type identification: On mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation and microbial markers.

    PubMed

    Sijen, Titia

    2015-09-01

    Human biological traces have the potential to present strong evidence for placing a suspect at a crime scene. In cases, the activity that led to deposition of an individual's cellular material is increasingly disputed, for which the identification of cell types could be crucial. This review aims to give an overview of the possibilities of the employment of mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation and microbial markers for tissue identification in a forensic context. The biological background that renders these markers tissue-specificity is considered, as this can affect data interpretation. Furthermore, the forensic relevance of inferring certain cell types is discussed, as are the various methodologies that can be applied. Forensic stains can carry minute amounts of cell material that may be degraded or polluted and most likely cell material of multiple sources will be present. The interpretational challenges that are imposed by this compromised state will be discussed as well. PMID:25488609

  20. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  1. Forensic Analysis using Geological and Geochemical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogewerff, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the globalisation of legal (and illegal) trade there is an increasing demand for techniques which can verify the geographical origin and transfer routes of many legal and illegal commodities and products. Although geological techniques have been used in forensic investigations since the emergence of forensics as a science in the late eighteen hundreds, the last decade has seen a marked increase in geo-scientists initiating concept studies using the latest analytical techniques, including studying natural abundance isotope variations, micro analysis with laser ablation ICPMS and geochemical mapping. Most of the concept studies have shown a good potential but uptake by the law enforcement and legal community has been limited due to concerns about the admissibility of the new methods. As an introduction to the UGU2009 session "Forensic Provenancing using Geological and Geochemical Techniques" I will give an overview of the state of the art of forensic geology and the issues that concern the admissibility of geological forensic evidence. I will use examples from the NITECRIME and FIRMS networks, the EU TRACE project and other projects and literature to illustrate the important issues at hand.

  2. Organ procurement in forensic deaths: French developments.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Yann; Jousset, Nathalie; Averland, Benoit; Hedouin, Valéry; Ludes, Bertrand; Gosset, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Organ procurement and transplantation have grown steadily, and the need for organs will only rise in the future. Increasing the number of potential donors is therefore paramount. However, transplant coordination teams face refusals that can be linked to the contexts of the deaths, especially when they involve legal issues. In France, deaths involving legal proceedings are not uncommon (7-10%). In these cases, the prosecutor is immediately contacted, and makes the decision of whether to remove the involved organs. Refusals of this type represent 4% (approximately 30 cases per year) of obstacles to organ removals, and are governed by specific legislation. Thus, the prosecutor must arrange contact with a forensic pathologist and with the organ transplant teams to assemble all of the necessary elements for him to take the decision. To assist prosecutors in their decision making and to ensure them scientific rigour, the French Society of Forensic Medicine sought to develop a national recommendation to harmonise practices; it emerged in early 2013. The guideline makes practical recommendations, including among others: nominating local referents; writing regional protocols between judicial authorities, forensic pathologists and transplant teams; establishing terms for the forensic pathologist's intervention on the donor's body before and after a procurement. This recommendation by the French Society of Forensic Medicine aimed to combine two interests: addressing the shortage of organs, and fulfilling the requisites of a criminal investigation by standardising practices and encouraging communication. PMID:25413488

  3. Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Dallas David

    Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

  4. Forensic science, genetics and wildlife biology: getting the right mix for a wildlife DNA forensics lab.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Rob

    2010-09-01

    Wildlife DNA forensics is receiving increasing coverage in the popular press and has begun to appear in the scientific literature in relation to several different fields. Recognized as an applied subject, it rests on top of very diverse scientific pillars ranging from biochemistry through to evolutionary genetics, all embedded within the context of modern forensic science. This breadth of scope, combined with typically limited resources, has often left wildlife DNA forensics hanging precariously between human DNA forensics and academics keen to seek novel applications for biological research. How best to bridge this gap is a matter for regular debate among the relatively few full-time practitioners in the field. The decisions involved in establishing forensic genetic services to investigate wildlife crime can be complex, particularly where crimes involve a wide range of species and evidential questions. This paper examines some of the issues relevant to setting up a wildlife DNA forensics laboratory based on experiences of working in this area over the past 7 years. It includes a discussion of various models for operating individual laboratories as well as options for organizing forensic testing at higher national and international levels. PMID:20593251

  5. Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist

    PubMed Central

    Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D.; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C.; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public. PMID:23162478

  6. Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist.

    PubMed

    Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public. PMID:23162478

  7. Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

  8. Computer Forensics: Is It the Next Hot IT Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Victor G.; Revels, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Digital Forensics is not just the recovery of data or information from computer systems and their networks. It is not a procedure that can be accomplished by software alone, and most important, it is not something that can be accomplished by other than a trained IT forensic professional. Digital Forensics is an emerging science and was developed…

  9. Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    "Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics to…

  10. Practice Parameter for Child and Adolescent Forensic Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This Parameter addresses the key concepts that differentiate the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents from a clinical assessment. There are ethical issues unique to the forensic evaluation, because the forensic evaluator's duty is to the person, court, or agency requesting the evaluation, rather than to the patient. The forensic…

  11. Setting Course: The Case for the Credentialing of Forensic Interviewers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Mike; Vieth, Victor I.; Campos, Hector M.

    2010-01-01

    The article provides a history of efforts to develop a credentialing or certification process for forensic interviewers and reviews the multitiered credentialing process offered by the National Association of Certified Child Forensic Interviewers. The authors argue the benefits of a credentialing process for forensic interviewers and respond to…

  12. Forensic Spanish allele and haplotype database for a 17 X-STR panel.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Fernández, Endika; Núñez, Carolina; Baeta, Miriam; Jiménez-Moreno, Susana; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2016-09-01

    The currently developed 17 X-STR panel (DXS8378, DXS9898, DXS7133, GATA31E08, GATA172D05, DXS6801, DXS7423, DXS6809, DXS6799, DXS7132, DXS9902, DXS6800, DXS6789, DXS10075, DXS10079, DXS6807, and DXS6803) offers a highly discriminative tool for forensic identification and kinship testing. With the aim of providing a global Spanish population X-STR database, we present haplotype and allele frequencies and parameters of forensic interest for the 17 X-STR panel obtained from 593 unrelated individuals from Alicante, Aragon, the Basque Country, Andalusia, Galicia, Madrid, and Barcelona that represent the most populated regions of the Spanish Peninsular territory. The seven populations were compared to test possible population genetic substructures. The lack of significant differences among the studied Spanish populations supports the use of the allele and haplotype frequency database presented herein as a global Spanish population sample useful for statistical evaluation in forensic casework. After conducting the LD plots derived from HapMap and pairwise linkage disequilibrium tests, DXS7132, DXS10075, and DXS10079 markers were included in a cluster and haplotype frequencies were calculated. The improvement in the forensic parameters for the Spanish population using 17 X-STRs in comparison to the previous 10 X-STR allele frequencies database is also shown. PMID:27388427

  13. Forensic neuropsychology and expert witness testimony: An overview of forensic practice.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Elizabeth L

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychologists are frequently asked to serve as expert witnesses in an increasing number of legal contexts for civil and criminal proceedings. The skills required to practice forensic neuropsychology expand upon the knowledge, skills, and abilities developed by clinical neuropsychologists. Forensic neuropsychologists acquire expertise in understanding the roles and various functions of the legal system, as well as their role in addressing psycholegal questions to assist fact finders in making legal decisions. The required skills and the unique circumstances for clinical neuropsychologists pursing forensic work are reviewed. PMID:26409570

  14. Forensic terrestrial photogrammetry from a single image.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Aguilera, Diego; Gomez-Lahoz, Javier

    2009-11-01

    Forensic terrestrial photogrammetry is one of the most valuable and low-cost resources of spatial data available today. Due to the ephemeral crime scene characteristics, these photographs can often capture information that is never to be seen again. This paper presents a novelty approach for the documentation, analysis, and visualization of crime scenes for which only a single perspective image is available. The photogrammetric process consists of a few well-known steps in close-range photogrammetry: features extraction, vanishing points computation, camera self-calibration, 3D metric reconstruction, dimensional analysis, and interactive visualization. Likewise, the method incorporates a quality control of the different steps accomplished sequentially. As a result, several cases of study are presented in the experimental results section in order to test their viability. The full approach can be applied easily through the free software, sv3DVision, which has been evaluated by a number of police officers, forensic scientists, and forensic educators satisfactorily. PMID:19804526

  15. Applying Machine Trust Models to Forensic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Marika; Venter, Hein; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin

    Digital forensics involves the identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of electronic evidence for use in legal proceedings. In the presence of contradictory evidence, forensic investigators need a means to determine which evidence can be trusted. This is particularly true in a trust model environment where computerised agents may make trust-based decisions that influence interactions within the system. This paper focuses on the analysis of evidence in trust-based environments and the determination of the degree to which evidence can be trusted. The trust model proposed in this work may be implemented in a tool for conducting trust-based forensic investigations. The model takes into account the trust environment and parameters that influence interactions in a computer network being investigated. Also, it allows for crimes to be reenacted to create more substantial evidentiary proof.

  16. A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

    2010-08-11

    The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

  17. The future of forensic DNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    Butler, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The author's thoughts and opinions on where the field of forensic DNA testing is headed for the next decade are provided in the context of where the field has come over the past 30 years. Similar to the Olympic motto of ‘faster, higher, stronger’, forensic DNA protocols can be expected to become more rapid and sensitive and provide stronger investigative potential. New short tandem repeat (STR) loci have expanded the core set of genetic markers used for human identification in Europe and the USA. Rapid DNA testing is on the verge of enabling new applications. Next-generation sequencing has the potential to provide greater depth of coverage for information on STR alleles. Familial DNA searching has expanded capabilities of DNA databases in parts of the world where it is allowed. Challenges and opportunities that will impact the future of forensic DNA are explored including the need for education and training to improve interpretation of complex DNA profiles. PMID:26101278

  18. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Susmita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences. This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites. There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids. This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology. PMID:26604508

  19. Usefulness: forensic photo documentation after sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E J; Speck, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J

    2011-01-01

    The forensic medical legal evaluation following sexual assault establishes evidence for law enforcement's investigation and criminal prosecution by the legal system. The sexual assault nurse examiner performs the forensic evaluation and uses digital photography to document physical injuries after sexual assault. Photographs have varying degrees of usefulness, but for a photograph to be useful, it must exhibit technical elements for the viewer. There was no tool available to evaluate the usefulness of digital photographs taken during forensic evaluation of genital injuries after sexual assault. The Photo Documentation Image Quality Scoring System (PDIQSS) tool was developed to rate photographic technical elements for usefulness. Using this tool, three experts on two separate occasions evaluated a series of digital photographs taken following sexual assault. The PDIQSS tool predicted usefulness in digital photography of female genital injuries following sexual assault when measured in all dimensions. PMID:21317696

  20. Plant Pathogen Forensics: Capabilities, Needs, and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, J.; Bender, C.; Budowle, B.; Cobb, W. T.; Gold, S. E.; Ishimaru, C. A.; Luster, D.; Melcher, U.; Murch, R.; Scherm, H.; Seem, R. C.; Sherwood, J. L.; Sobral, B. W.; Tolin, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    A biological attack on U.S. crops, rangelands, or forests could reduce yield and quality, erode consumer confidence, affect economic health and the environment, and possibly impact human nutrition and international relations. Preparedness for a crop bioterror event requires a strong national security plan that includes steps for microbial forensics and criminal attribution. However, U.S. crop producers, consultants, and agricultural scientists have traditionally focused primarily on strategies for prevention and management of diseases introduced naturally or unintentionally rather than on responding appropriately to an intentional pathogen introduction. We assess currently available information, technologies, and resources that were developed originally to ensure plant health but also could be utilized for postintroduction plant pathogen forensics. Recommendations for prioritization of efforts and resource expenditures needed to enhance our plant pathogen forensics capabilities are presented. PMID:16760310

  1. Plant pathogen forensics: capabilities, needs, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J; Bender, C; Budowle, B; Cobb, W T; Gold, S E; Ishimaru, C A; Luster, D; Melcher, U; Murch, R; Scherm, H; Seem, R C; Sherwood, J L; Sobral, B W; Tolin, S A

    2006-06-01

    A biological attack on U.S. crops, rangelands, or forests could reduce yield and quality, erode consumer confidence, affect economic health and the environment, and possibly impact human nutrition and international relations. Preparedness for a crop bioterror event requires a strong national security plan that includes steps for microbial forensics and criminal attribution. However, U.S. crop producers, consultants, and agricultural scientists have traditionally focused primarily on strategies for prevention and management of diseases introduced naturally or unintentionally rather than on responding appropriately to an intentional pathogen introduction. We assess currently available information, technologies, and resources that were developed originally to ensure plant health but also could be utilized for postintroduction plant pathogen forensics. Recommendations for prioritization of efforts and resource expenditures needed to enhance our plant pathogen forensics capabilities are presented. PMID:16760310

  2. Validating the use of Hospital Episode Statistics data and comparison of costing methodologies for economic evaluation: an end-of-life case study from the Cluster randomised triAl of PSA testing for Prostate cancer (CAP)

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, Joanna C; Turner, Emma L; Hounsome, Luke; Walsh, Eleanor; Down, Liz; Verne, Julia; Donovan, Jenny L; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Martin, Richard M; Noble, Sian M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the accuracy of routine data for costing inpatient resource use in a large clinical trial and to investigate costing methodologies. Design Final-year inpatient cost profiles were derived using (1) data extracted from medical records mapped to the National Health Service (NHS) reference costs via service codes and (2) Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data using NHS reference costs. Trust finance departments were consulted to obtain costs for comparison purposes. Setting 7 UK secondary care centres. Population A subsample of 292 men identified as having died at least a year after being diagnosed with prostate cancer in Cluster randomised triAl of PSA testing for Prostate cancer (CAP), a long-running trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. Results Both inpatient cost profiles showed a rise in costs in the months leading up to death, and were broadly similar. The difference in mean inpatient costs was £899, with HES data yielding ∼8% lower costs than medical record data (differences compatible with chance, p=0.3). Events were missing from both data sets. 11 men (3.8%) had events identified in HES that were all missing from medical record review, while 7 men (2.4%) had events identified in medical record review that were all missing from HES. The response from finance departments to requests for cost data was poor: only 3 of 7 departments returned adequate data sets within 6 months. Conclusions Using HES routine data coupled with NHS reference costs resulted in mean annual inpatient costs that were very similar to those derived via medical record review; therefore, routinely available data can be used as the primary method of costing resource use in large clinical trials. Neither HES nor medical record review represent gold standards of data collection. Requesting cost data from finance departments is impractical for large clinical trials. Trial registration number ISRCTN92187251

  3. Use of Statistics by Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, John O.

    1988-01-01

    Description of common errors found in the statistical methodologies of research carried out by librarians, focuses on sampling and generalizability. The discussion covers the need to either adapt library research to the statistical abilities of librarians or to educate librarians in the proper use of statistics. (15 references) (CLB)

  4. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession. A Survey of Educational Offerings in the Forensic Sciences. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kenneth S.; And Others

    This survey of the educational offerings in the Forensic Sciences was initiated to identify institutions and agencies offering educational courses and/or programs in the forensic sciences and to evaluate the availability of these programs. The information gathered by surveying members of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences reveals that…

  5. A forensic science perspective on the role of images in crime investigation and reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Milliet, Quentin; Delémont, Olivier; Margot, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    This article presents a global vision of images in forensic science. The proliferation of perspectives on the use of images throughout criminal investigations and the increasing demand for research on this topic seem to demand a forensic science-based analysis. In this study, the definitions of and concepts related to material traces are revisited and applied to images, and a structured approach is used to persuade the scientific community to extend and improve the use of images as traces in criminal investigations. Current research efforts focus on technical issues and evidence assessment. This article provides a sound foundation for rationalising and explaining the processes involved in the production of clues from trace images. For example, the mechanisms through which these visual traces become clues of presence or action are described. An extensive literature review of forensic image analysis emphasises the existing guidelines and knowledge available for answering investigative questions (who, what, where, when and how). However, complementary developments are still necessary to demystify many aspects of image analysis in forensic science, including how to review and select images or use them to reconstruct an event or assist intelligence efforts. The hypothetico-deductive reasoning pathway used to discover unknown elements of an event or crime can also help scientists understand the underlying processes involved in their decision making. An analysis of a single image in an investigative or probative context is used to demonstrate the highly informative potential of images as traces and/or clues. Research efforts should be directed toward formalising the extraction and combination of clues from images. An appropriate methodology is key to expanding the use of images in forensic science. PMID:25498936

  6. Location tracking forensics on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Stefan; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    The spread of navigation devices has increased significantly over the last 10 years. With the help of the current development of even smaller navigation receiver units it is to navigate with almost any current smart phone. Modern navigation systems are no longer limited to satellite navigation, but use current techniques, e.g. WLAN localization. Due to the increased use of navigation devices their relevance to forensic investigations has risen rapidly. Because navigation, for example with navigation equipment and smartphones, have become common place these days, also the amount of saved navigation data has risen rapidly. All of these developments lead to a necessary forensic analysis of these devices. However, there are very few current procedures for investigating of navigation devices. Navigation data is forensically interesting because by the position of the devices in most cases the location and the traveled path of the owner can be reconstructed. In this work practices for forensic analysis of navigation devices are developed. Different devices will be analyzed and it is attempted, by means of forensic procedures to restore the traveled path of the mobile device. For analysis of the various devices different software and hardware is used. There will be presented common procedures for securing and testing of mobile devices. Further there will be represented the specials in the investigation of each device. The different classes considered are GPS handhelds, mobile navigation devices and smartphones. It will be attempted, wherever possible, to read all data of the device. The aim is to restore complete histories of the navigation data and to forensically study and analyze these data. This is realized by the usage of current forensic software e.g. TomTology or Oxygen Forensic Suite. It is also attempted to use free software whenever possible. Further alternative methods are used (e.g. rooting) to access locked data of the unit. To limit the practical work the

  7. Magnetic scanner for forensic examination of audiotapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Michael E.; Schwarz, Willi G.; Malsawma, Lex; Wallace, Robert B.; Ryan, James J.

    1999-02-01

    The use of a new Magnetic Media Imaging Instrument (MMII) as applied to the forensic investigation of audio tapes is reported. The MMII is an instrument that produces a 2D image of the magnetic fields on a segment of tape up to 5 cm long, with a resolution of about 3 microns. The dynamic range exceeds 40 dB. This allows the visualization of important characteristics such as stop marks with much greater detail than is possible with conventional means such as ferrofluids. Results of tests representing typical forensic examinations are presented.

  8. Elements of Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, G.

    2016-05-01

    This chapter is devoted to two objectives. The first one is to answer the request expressed by attendees of the first Astrostatistics School (Annecy, October 2013) to be provided with an elementary vademecum of statistics that would facilitate understanding of the given courses. In this spirit we recall very basic notions, that is definitions and properties that we think sufficient to benefit from courses given in the Astrostatistical School. Thus we give briefly definitions and elementary properties on random variables and vectors, distributions, estimation and tests, maximum likelihood methodology. We intend to present basic ideas in a hopefully comprehensible way. We do not try to give a rigorous presentation, and due to the place devoted to this chapter, can cover only a rather limited field of statistics. The second aim is to focus on some statistical tools that are useful in classification: basic introduction to Bayesian statistics, maximum likelihood methodology, Gaussian vectors and Gaussian mixture models.

  9. Counter-forensics in machine learning based forgery detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Francesco; Poggi, Giovanni; Roli, Fabio; Sansone, Carlo; Verdoliva, Luisa

    2015-03-01

    With the powerful image editing tools available today, it is very easy to create forgeries without leaving visible traces. Boundaries between host image and forgery can be concealed, illumination changed, and so on, in a naive form of counter-forensics. For this reason, most modern techniques for forgery detection rely on the statistical distribution of micro-patterns, enhanced through high-level filtering, and summarized in some image descriptor used for the final classification. In this work we propose a strategy to modify the forged image at the level of micro-patterns to fool a state-of-the-art forgery detector. Then, we investigate on the effectiveness of the proposed strategy as a function of the level of knowledge on the forgery detection algorithm. Experiments show this approach to be quite effective especially if a good prior knowledge on the detector is available.

  10. Use of Embryos Extracted from Individual Cannabis sativa Seeds for Genetic Studies and Forensic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soler, Salvador; Borràs, Dionís; Vilanova, Santiago; Sifres, Alicia; Andújar, Isabel; Figàs, Maria R; Llosa, Ernesto R; Prohens, Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Legal limits on the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in Cannabis sativa plants have complicated genetic and forensic studies in this species. However, Cannabis seeds present very low THC levels. We developed a method for embryo extraction from seeds and an improved protocol for DNA extraction and tested this method in four hemp and six marijuana varieties. This embryo extraction method enabled the recovery of diploid embryos from individual seeds. An improved DNA extraction protocol (CTAB3) was used to obtain DNA from individual embryos at a concentration and quality similar to DNA extracted from leaves. DNA extracted from embryos was used for SSR molecular characterization in individuals from the 10 varieties. A unique molecular profile for each individual was obtained, and a clear differentiation between hemp and marijuana varieties was observed. The combined embryo extraction-DNA extraction methodology and the new highly polymorphic SSR markers facilitate genetic and forensic studies in Cannabis. PMID:27404624

  11. Elementary! A Nuclear Forensics Workshop Teaches Vital Skills to International Practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Cornelia P.; Minnema, Lindsay T.

    2014-04-01

    The article describes the Nuclear Forensics Workshop sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) and hosted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory October 28-November 8, 2013 in Richland,Washington. Twenty-six participants from 10 countries attended the workshop. Experts from from Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Pacific Northwest national laboratories collaborated with an internationally recognized cadre of experts from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and other U.S. agencies, IAEA, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the United Kingdom Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), and the European Union Joint Research Center Institute for Transuranium Elements, to train practitioners in basic methodologies of nuclear forensic examinations.

  12. Conceptualizing the forensic psychiatry report as performative narrative.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Ezra E H; Stankovic, Aleksandra; Baranoski, Madelon

    2010-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry has evolved into a recognized specialty. Two core competencies, often overlooked but commonplace in forensic psychiatry, are the constructing of forensic reports and the presenting of oral testimony. This article concerns the written forensic report and conceptualizes it as performative writing. We first review the development of the forensic report's structure over the past 30 years or so and then apply constructs from other disciplines as we propose a process for creating narrative forensic reports. Such writing is grounded in the discipline of psychiatry, relies on ethics-based principles of respect for persons and truth-telling, and uses language to tell a story that persuades the legal audience. We examine the impact of voice, pitfalls to avoid, and the concepts of witnessing and labeling, as we describe the process of formulating the narrative through the voice of the forensic expert. PMID:20305072

  13. [Forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yun-Liang; Peng, Ming-Qi

    2013-12-01

    As an important component of judicial expertise, forensic science is broad and highly specialized. With development of network technology, increasement of information resources, and improvement of people's legal consciousness, forensic scientists encounter many new problems, and have been required to meet higher evidentiary standards in litigation. In view of this, evidence-based concept should be established in forensic medicine. We should find the most suitable method in forensic science field and other related area to solve specific problems in the evidence-based mode. Evidence-based practice can solve the problems in legal medical field, and it will play a great role in promoting the progress and development of forensic science. This article reviews the basic theory of evidence-based medicine and its effect, way, method, and evaluation in the forensic medicine in order to discuss the application value of forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks. PMID:24665620

  14. Differentiation of five body fluids from forensic samples by expression analysis of four microRNAs using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Eva; Reinke, Ann-Kathrin; Courts, Cornelius

    2016-05-01

    Applying molecular genetic approaches for the identification of forensically relevant body fluids, which often yield crucial information for the reconstruction of a potential crime, is a current topic of forensic research. Due to their body fluid specific expression patterns and stability against degradation, microRNAs (miRNA) emerged as a promising molecular species, with a range of candidate markers published. The analysis of miRNA via quantitative Real-Time PCR, however, should be based on a relevant strategy of normalization of non-biological variances to deliver reliable and biologically meaningful results. The herein presented work is the as yet most comprehensive study of forensic body fluid identification via miRNA expression analysis based on a thoroughly validated qPCR procedure and unbiased statistical decision making to identify single source samples. PMID:26878708

  15. Comparison of performance of the test of memory malingering and word memory test in a criminal forensic sample.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Rachel L; Sanders, James Forrest; Denney, Robert L

    2015-06-01

    Compared with the amount of neuropsychological literature surrounding response bias in civil litigation, there is little regarding criminal cases. This study adds to the criminal forensic neuropsychological literature by comparing the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the Word Memory Test (WMT) in a criminal forensic setting utilizing a criterion-groups design. Subjects were classified into two groups based on their performance on at least two other freestanding performance validity tests. The WMT demonstrated good sensitivity (95.1%) but poor specificity (68.4%) when Genuine Memory Impaired Profiles (GMIPs) were not considered. Inclusion of GMIPs reduced the sensitivity to 56.1% but increased the specificity to 94.7%. The TOMM evidenced better sensitivity but poorer specificity than the WMT with GMIPs. Conjoint use of the tests was also considered. Receiver operating characteristics and other classification statistics for each measure are presented. Results support the use of these measures in a criminal forensic population. PMID:25948293

  16. The Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Technical Nuclear Forensics Research and Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Technical Nuclear Forensics (TNF) Research and Development (R&D) Program's overarching goal is to design, develop, demonstrate, and transition advanced technologies and methodologies that improve the interagency operational capability to provide forensics conclusions after the detonation of a nuclear device. This goal is attained through the execution of three focus areas covering the span of the TNF process to enable strategic decision-making (attribution): Nuclear Forensic Materials Exploitation - Development of targeted technologies, methodologies and tools enabling the timely collection, analysis and interpretation of detonation materials.Prompt Nuclear Effects Exploitation - Improve ground-based capabilities to collect prompt nuclear device outputs and effects data for rapid, complementary and corroborative information.Nuclear Forensics Device Characterization - Development of a validated and verified capability to reverse model a nuclear device with high confidence from observables (e.g., prompt diagnostics, sample analysis, etc.) seen after an attack. This presentation will outline DTRA's TNF R&D strategy and current investments, with efforts focusing on: (1) introducing new technical data collection capabilities (e.g., ground-based prompt diagnostics sensor systems; innovative debris collection and analysis); (2) developing new TNF process paradigms and concepts of operations to decrease timelines and uncertainties, and increase results confidence; (3) enhanced validation and verification (V&V) of capabilities through technology evaluations and demonstrations; and (4) updated weapon output predictions to account for the modern threat environment. A key challenge to expanding these efforts to a global capability is the need for increased post-detonation TNF international cooperation, collaboration and peer reviews.

  17. The Rise of Forensic Pathology in Human Medicine: Lessons for Veterinary Forensic Pathology.

    PubMed

    Pollanen, M S

    2016-09-01

    The rise of forensic pathology in human medicine has greatly contributed to the administration of justice, public safety and security, and medical knowledge. However, the evolution of human forensic pathology has been challenging. Veterinary forensic pathologists can learn from some of the lessons that have informed the growth and development of human forensic pathology. Three main observations have emerged in the past decade. First, wrongful convictions tell us to use a truth-seeking stance rather than an a priori "think dirty" stance when investigating obscure death. Second, missed homicides and concealed homicides tell us that training and certification are the beginning of reliable forensic pathology. Third, failure of a sustainable institutional arrangement that fosters a combination of service, research, and teaching will lead to stagnation of knowledge. Forensic pathology of humans and animals will flourish, help protect society, and support justice if we embrace a modern biomedical scientific model for our practice. We must build training programs, contribute to the published literature, and forge strong collaborative institutions. PMID:27281015

  18. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Butler, John M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. PMID:26164236

  19. Characteristics of forensic imaging performance--an analysis of forensic imaging bottlenecks.

    PubMed

    Branigan, Steven

    2013-05-01

    Disk imaging involves copying all of the data from a source disk drive to a target. Typically, the target for the copy is another disk drive. Forensic processes developed years ago do not appear to be adequate for current storage technology. For example, with disk drive capacities now exceeding 1 Terabyte, a typical disk imaging can take over 8 hours at typical rates. With disk drive capacities increasing, forensic copying is expected to take even longer. Along with increase in disk capacity, the industry has also seen an increase in data transfer rates. In many cases, forensic imaging is taking longer than necessary. To identify the bottlenecks, an examination of different methods used to transfer data from a source disk was performed. Factors considered were differing disk access technologies. One finding is that the USB disk access technology (version 2.0 and earlier) is a significant bottleneck for data transfer rates, especially when the USB device is a write-blocker. Other factors that contribute to the efficiency of a forensic copy are the file system used to write a forensic image and the data transfer size used when reading from a disk drive. Optimal parameters for performing a forensic acquisition from a disk drive are identified. PMID:23458238

  20. Developing Forensic Mental Healthcare in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Salize, Hans Joachim; Lavikainen, Juha; Seppänen, Allan; Gjocaj, Milazim

    2014-01-01

    In many economically struggling societies, forensic psychiatry is still in its initial developmental stages and thus forensic patients pose an ongoing challenge for the healthcare and juridical systems. In this article, we present the various issues and problems that arose when establishing the first forensic psychiatric institute in Kosovo – a country whose population has constantly been reported as suffering from a high psychiatric morbidity due to long-lasting traumatic experiences during the war of 1999. The implementation of a new forensic psychiatric institute in the developing mental healthcare system of Kosovo, still characterized by considerable shortages, required substantial effort on various levels. On the policy and financial level, it was made possible by a clear intent and coordinated commitment of all responsible national stakeholders and authorities, such as the Ministries of Health and Justice, and by the financial contribution of the European Commission. Most decisive in terms of the success of the project was capacity building in human resources, i.e., the recruitment and training of motivated staff. Training included essential clinical and theoretical issues as well as clearly defined standard operation procedures, guidelines, and checklists to aid daily routine work and the management of challenging situations. PMID:24779004

  1. Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Alease

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)

  2. Review of Forensic Tools for Smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahankhani, Hamid; Azam, Amir

    The technological capability of mobile devices in particular Smartphones makes their use of value to the criminal community as a data terminal in the facilitation of organised crime or terrorism. The effective targeting of these devices from criminal and security intelligence perspectives and subsequent detailed forensic examination of the targeted device will significantly enhance the evidence available to the law enforcement community. When phone devices are involved in crimes, forensic examiners require tools that allow the proper retrieval and prompt examination of information present on these devices. Smartphones that are compliant to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) standards, will maintains their identity and user's personal information on Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). Beside SIM cards, substantial amount of information is stored on device's internal memory and external memory modules. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the currently available forensic software tools that are developed to carry out forensic investigation of mobile devices and point to current weaknesses within this process.

  3. Sexual assault examinations and forensic medical samples.

    PubMed

    Ranson, David

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies and a review in the United States have identified that tens of thousands of used but untested sexual assault examination kits containing medical examination specimens are to be found in police station evidence rooms, forensic science laboratories, hospitals and rape crisis centres. A 2007 survey undertaken by the National Institute of Justice in the United States explored some of the reasons why forensic specimens are not tested by forensic science laboratories. Many of these relate to lack of knowledge on the part of investigators as to how scientific information can assist the investigation process, even if not used subsequently at trial. Cost factors and laboratory casework overload were also identified as significant. For the medical practitioner, the lack of testing poses issues that include quality management of the forensic medical examination and informed consent in a setting requiring the balancing of public and private benefits for the examinee. Limiting scientific testing, even with intelligence-led triaging of sample testing, could have an adverse effect on both prosecution and defence decision-making and ultimately could adversely affect trial outcomes. PMID:21988007

  4. Multi-Database Searching in Forensic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Perdue, Robert W.

    Traditional library skills have been augmented since the introduction of online computerized database services. Because of the complexity of the field, forensic psychology can benefit enormously from the application of comprehensive bibliographic search strategies. The study reported here demonstrated the bibliographic results obtained when a…

  5. Findings from an Elder Abuse Forensic Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiglesworth, Aileen; Mosqueda, Laura; Burnight, Kerry; Younglove, Ted; Jeske, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The first Elder Abuse Forensic Center (EAFC) in the United States was instituted in 2003. People from a variety of disciplines, including Adult Protective Services social workers, law enforcement, the district attorney's office, a medical response team, public guardian deputies, ombudsmen, mental health services, a victim advocate, and a…

  6. Online Database Coverage of Forensic Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Bonnie; Ifshin, Steven L.

    1984-01-01

    Online seaches of sample topics in the area of forensic medicine were conducted in the following life science databases: Biosis Previews, Excerpta Medica, Medline, Scisearch, and Chemical Abstracts Search. Search outputs analyzed according to criteria of recall, uniqueness, overlap, and utility reveal the need for a cross-database approach to…

  7. Ethical Considerations in Building a Forensic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Sandra

    There are three systems of ethics applicable to forensics programs. The classical conception borrows from Quintilian's reference to a "good man speaking well." A second approach starts from the context of a democratic society and builds on the principles that should govern a speaker in that setting, among which are the obligation to select and…

  8. Prosecuting Assaultive Forensic and Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Kerri C.; Reddon, John R.; Chudleigh, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Inpatient assault of forensic and psychiatric staff is a complex and multifaceted issue. Hence, the consequences reported in the literature regarding prosecuting assaultive inpatients are quite variable. In this article, issues pertaining to the prosecution of violent inpatients are reviewed. Illustrative cases, challenges of prosecution,…

  9. A forensic application of PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, I. I.; Dunnam, F. E.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Warren, M. W.; Falsetti, A. B.

    2001-07-01

    PIXE measurements were performed on various calcareous materials including identified bone residues, human cremains, and samples of disputed origin. In a forensic application, the elemental analysis suggests that the origin of a sample suspectly classified as human cremains can tentatively be identified as a mixture of sandy soil and dolomitic limestone.

  10. Perceptual expertise in forensic facial image comparison

    PubMed Central

    White, David; Phillips, P. Jonathon; Hahn, Carina A.; Hill, Matthew; O'Toole, Alice J.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic facial identification examiners are required to match the identity of faces in images that vary substantially, owing to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance. These identifications affect the course and outcome of criminal investigations and convictions. Despite calls for research on sources of human error in forensic examination, existing scientific knowledge of face matching accuracy is based, almost exclusively, on people without formal training. Here, we administered three challenging face matching tests to a group of forensic examiners with many years' experience of comparing face images for law enforcement and government agencies. Examiners outperformed untrained participants and computer algorithms, thereby providing the first evidence that these examiners are experts at this task. Notably, computationally fusing responses of multiple experts produced near-perfect performance. Results also revealed qualitative differences between expert and non-expert performance. First, examiners' superiority was greatest at longer exposure durations, suggestive of more entailed comparison in forensic examiners. Second, experts were less impaired by image inversion than non-expert students, contrasting with face memory studies that show larger face inversion effects in high performers. We conclude that expertise in matching identity across unfamiliar face images is supported by processes that differ qualitatively from those supporting memory for individual faces. PMID:26336174

  11. Criminal Forensic Psychiatry: A Primer for Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott A

    2016-06-01

    Many mentally ill people are currently held in correctional settings, and general psychiatrists should be familiar with criminal forensic psychiatry in order to understand the legal aspects of the evaluation and treatment of these individuals, especially with regard to competency to stand trial and insanity. This educational activity briefly explains these evaluations and reviews relevant landmark legal cases. PMID:27337424

  12. Forensic applications of ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ifa, Demian R; Jackson, Ayanna U; Paglia, Giuseppe; Cooks, R Graham

    2009-08-01

    This review highlights and critically assesses forensic applications in the developing field of ambient ionization mass spectrometry. Ambient ionization methods permit the ionization of samples outside the mass spectrometer in the ordinary atmosphere, with minimal sample preparation. Several ambient ionization methods have been created since 2004 and they utilize different mechanisms to create ions for mass-spectrometric analysis. Forensic applications of these techniques--to the analysis of toxic industrial compounds, chemical warfare agents, illicit drugs and formulations, explosives, foodstuff, inks, fingerprints, and skin--are reviewed. The minimal sample pretreatment needed is illustrated with examples of analysis from complex matrices (e.g., food) on various substrates (e.g., paper). The low limits of detection achieved by most of the ambient ionization methods for compounds of forensic interest readily offer qualitative confirmation of chemical identity; in some cases quantitative data are also available. The forensic applications of ambient ionization methods are a growing research field and there are still many types of applications which remain to be explored, particularly those involving on-site analysis. Aspects of ambient ionization currently undergoing rapid development include molecular imaging and increased detection specificity through simultaneous chemical reaction and ionization by addition of appropriate chemical reagents. PMID:19241065

  13. A Forensic Approach to Consumer Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Selman A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a forensic-oriented, college-level course in consumer chemistry. Includes course goals, topical outline, and list of chemical ingredients in consumer products useful for student research projects. The first section of the course focuses on mathematics since students in introductory courses may fear doing the most rudimentary mathematical…

  14. [Preparation of forensic reports of injuries].

    PubMed

    Bórquez V, Pamela

    2012-03-01

    This article makes recommendations, based on good clinical practice, for the elaboration of forensic reports of injuries, required during the administration of justice. According to the new legislature in Chile, physicians must participate in the examination of victims of violent acts or accidents. PMID:22689122

  15. Cosmic statistics of statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szapudi, István; Colombi, Stéphane; Bernardeau, Francis

    1999-12-01

    The errors on statistics measured in finite galaxy catalogues are exhaustively investigated. The theory of errors on factorial moments by Szapudi & Colombi is applied to cumulants via a series expansion method. All results are subsequently extended to the weakly non-linear regime. Together with previous investigations this yields an analytic theory of the errors for moments and connected moments of counts in cells from highly non-linear to weakly non-linear scales. For non-linear functions of unbiased estimators, such as the cumulants, the phenomenon of cosmic bias is identified and computed. Since it is subdued by the cosmic errors in the range of applicability of the theory, correction for it is inconsequential. In addition, the method of Colombi, Szapudi & Szalay concerning sampling effects is generalized, adapting the theory for inhomogeneous galaxy catalogues. While previous work focused on the variance only, the present article calculates the cross-correlations between moments and connected moments as well for a statistically complete description. The final analytic formulae representing the full theory are explicit but somewhat complicated. Therefore we have made available a fortran program capable of calculating the described quantities numerically (for further details e-mail SC at colombi@iap.fr). An important special case is the evaluation of the errors on the two-point correlation function, for which this should be more accurate than any method put forward previously. This tool will be immensely useful in the future for assessing the precision of measurements from existing catalogues, as well as aiding the design of new galaxy surveys. To illustrate the applicability of the results and to explore the numerical aspects of the theory qualitatively and quantitatively, the errors and cross-correlations are predicted under a wide range of assumptions for the future Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The principal results concerning the cumulants ξ, Q3 and Q4 is that

  16. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  17. Statistics: A Brief Overview

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ryan; Winters, Andrew; Amedee, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education sets forth a number of required educational topics that must be addressed in residency and fellowship programs. We sought to provide a primer on some of the important basic statistical concepts to consider when examining the medical literature. It is not essential to understand the exact workings and methodology of every statistical test encountered, but it is necessary to understand selected concepts such as parametric and nonparametric tests, correlation, and numerical versus categorical data. This working knowledge will allow you to spot obvious irregularities in statistical analyses that you encounter. PMID:21603381

  18. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-08-01

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. PMID:26101280

  19. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anil K.; Ross, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. PMID:26101280

  20. A generalized Benford's law for JPEG coefficients and its applications in image forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dongdong; Shi, Yun Q.; Su, Wei

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, a novel statistical model based on Benford's law for the probability distributions of the first digits of the block-DCT and quantized JPEG coefficients is presented. A parametric logarithmic law, i.e., the generalized Benford's law, is formulated. Furthermore, some potential applications of this model in image forensics are discussed in this paper, which include the detection of JPEG compression for images in bitmap format, the estimation of JPEG compression Qfactor for JPEG compressed bitmap image, and the detection of double compressed JPEG image. The results of our extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed statistical model.

  1. Forensic revolution need maintenance of dental records of patients by the dentists: A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anamika; Mishra, Gaurav; Bhutani, Hemant; Hoshing, Chetan; Bhalla, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: With the growth of forensic odontology, dental records have become an essential source of information, especially for medicolegal cases in general practice. It is mandated by the law that every dentist must keep some kind of records for every patient they treat. After the death of an individual, remnants of teeth are usually damaged at the last among all body parts. Dental records assist in personal identification in cases of mass disasters, criminal investigations, and medicolegal issues. However, in India, rules for maintaining dental records are not very strictly followed. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge regarding the maintenance of dental records among dentists in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Data collection was performed via a questionnaire. The study population responded to the questions pertaining to knowledge regarding forensic odontology methods and the mode of maintaining dental records in their regular practice through a personal interview. A descriptive analysis was carried out for the data. The data were summarized and analyzed using the statistical software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18.0. Results: A very low percentage (22%) of the dentists were seen to be maintaining records on a regular basis. Seventy-eight percent of the dentists were not maintaining any records. Conclusion: This study clearly indicates that the dentists in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh need to be properly trained for any kind of forensic and medicolegal needs. PMID:27583219

  2. Shifts in soil biodiversity-A forensic comparison between Sus scrofa domesticus and vegetation decomposition.

    PubMed

    Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    In a forensic context, microbial-mediated cadaver decomposition and nutrient recycling cannot be overlooked. As a result, forensic ecogenomics research has intensified to gain a better understanding of cadaver/soil ecology interactions as a powerful potential tool for forensic practitioners. For this study, domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) (4g) and grass (Agrostis/Festuca spp) cuttings (4g) were buried (July 2013 to July 2014) in sandy clay loam (80 g) triplicates in sealed microcosms (127 ml; 50 × 70 cm) with parallel soil only controls. The effects of the two carbon sources were determined by monitoring key environmental factors and changes in soil bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal (18S rRNA gene) biodiversity. Soil pH changes showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between the treatments. The measured ecological diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener, HꞋ; Simpson, D; and richness, S) of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene profiles also revealed differences between the treatments, with bacterial and fungal community dominance recorded in the presence of S. scrofa domesticus and grass trimming decomposition, respectively. In contrast, no statistically significant difference in evenness (p>0.05) was observed between the treatments. PMID:26654074

  3. A study of composite restorations as a tool in forensic identification

    PubMed Central

    Hemasathya, Bahavathi Ananthan; Balagopal, Sundaresan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Comparing ante-mortem and post-mortem dental data is a principal method of identification in forensic odontology. Radiographic images of amalgam have been used in dental forensics for identification due to their unique appearance. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether radio-opaque composite restorations have a potential for identification in forensic odontology. Materials and Methods: Thirty typodont mandibular first molar teeth were prepared with Class-II (proximo-occlusal) cavities and restored with a radio-opaque composite (Tetric N-Ceram). Two sets of standardized radiographs were taken from the 30 teeth, keeping the radiological parameters constant. One set of these 30 radiographs was named as SET 1. Ten randomly chosen radiographs from the other set and two other radiographs of Class-II composite restorations in typodont teeth constituted SET 2. Thirty dentally trained examiners were asked to match the 12 radiographic images of SET 2 with those of SET 1. Results: The results show that 15 examiners were able to correctly match all the 12 images. Statistical analysis was done using kappa statistical test. Conclusion: This study shows that, if the post-mortem radiographs are accurate duplicates of ante-mortem radiographs of composite restorations, then the shape of the composite restoration is unique and can be used for identification. PMID:23960413

  4. Forensic discrimination of photocopy toners by FT-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartick, Edward G.; Merrill, Rena A.; Egan, William J.; Kochanowski, Brian K.; Morgan, Stephen L.

    1998-06-01

    Because of the speed, simplicity, and accessibility of photocopying, forensic examiners are encountering photocopies as often as original questioned documents. We investigated the ability of FT-infrared microscopy coupled with pattern recognition methods to discriminate among copy toner samples from a variety of manufacturers. Infrared microscopy is a preferred method due to its non-destructive nature, however, visual comparison is difficult because the observer may not be able to fully utilize the fine structure of the complex patterns. Principal component analysis and canonical variate analysis were used to visualize clustering of samples and to assess the statistical validity of the observed differences. The results illustrate the potential for computer-assisted data interpretation to provide decisive forensic identification of questioned samples.

  5. Strengthen forensic entomology in court--the need for data exploration and the validation of a generalised additive mixed model.

    PubMed

    Baqué, Michèle; Amendt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Developmental data of juvenile blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are typically used to calculate the age of immature stages found on or around a corpse and thus to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval (PMI(min)). However, many of those data sets don't take into account that immature blow flies grow in a non-linear fashion. Linear models do not supply a sufficient reliability on age estimates and may even lead to an erroneous determination of the PMI(min). According to the Daubert standard and the need for improvements in forensic science, new statistic tools like smoothing methods and mixed models allow the modelling of non-linear relationships and expand the field of statistical analyses. The present study introduces into the background and application of these statistical techniques by analysing a model which describes the development of the forensically important blow fly Calliphora vicina at different temperatures. The comparison of three statistical methods (linear regression, generalised additive modelling and generalised additive mixed modelling) clearly demonstrates that only the latter provided regression parameters that reflect the data adequately. We focus explicitly on both the exploration of the data--to assure their quality and to show the importance of checking it carefully prior to conducting the statistical tests--and the validation of the resulting models. Hence, we present a common method for evaluating and testing forensic entomological data sets by using for the first time generalised additive mixed models. PMID:22370995

  6. Evaluation of dental expertise with intra-oral peri-apical view radiographs for forensic identification

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Kanwalpreet Kaur; Bhullar, Ramandeep S.; Balagopal, Sundaresan; Ganesh, Arathi; Rajan, Mathan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Identification of a dead person is important in starting the investigation into the circumstances of death. In the absence of forensic odontologist, it is vital that general dentists are able to compare the ante mortem-post mortem (AM-PM) records and with their ability, correctly interpret the individuality of the person. Aims: This study wascarried out to find out the accuracy with which undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate dentists can do this comparison, using the simulated AM-PM intra-oral peri-apical (IOPA) view radiographs. Setting and Design: A total of 60 investigators of which 20 undergraduate students, 20 general dentists, 20 post-graduate dentists viewed 10 pairs of simulated AM and PM radiographs and recorded their findings. Materials and Methods: Ten pairs of simulated AM-PM IOPA view radiographs were given to 60 dentists to investigate their discriminatory potential for dental identification purposes. The results were statistically analyzed. Statistical Analysis: χ2 -test and Mann-Whitney U-test were carried out to compare the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the three types of examiners (UG, G, PG). Results: The results showed sensitivity of 59.8%, specificity of 62.6%, accuracy of 61% for undergraduate students, sensitivity of 86.6%, specificity of 87.5%, accuracy of 87% for graduate doctors, sensitivity of 89.3%, specificity of 92.3% and accuracy of 90.5% for post-graduate doctors respectively. Conclusion: Inexperienced investigators in forensic identification showed fairly acceptable results, therefore, introduction of forensic odontology in an undergraduate course may help general dentists to provide better service, if required, in the absence of a forensic odontologist. PMID:25177139

  7. Trace Analytical Techniques for Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, J.E.

    1999-04-28

    Over the history of the Savannah River Site, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has developed high sensitivity analytical capabilities in support of the Site's Environmental Monitoring Program and nuclear material protection process. Many of these techniques are applicable to the developing need for nuclear forensic analysis capabilities. Radiological and critically control procedures are in place at the SRTC, as well as clean room practices, to minimize the potential for a radiological evidentiary sample to contaminate personnel and the facility, as well as to minimize contaminating the sample thus rendering it useless by law enforcement agencies. Some of the trace analytical techniques available at the SRTC include ultra-low-level gamma and alpha spectrometry, high-sensitivity thermal ionization mass spectrometry, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and trace organic analyses. These techniques have been tested during a planned domestic smuggling exercise and in the analysis of an unknown sample.In the event of an interdiction involving the illegal use or movement of radioactive material by U.S. law enforcement agencies (local, state or federal) forensic analyses will be used in developing and building a legal case against the perpetrators. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a former nuclear production site currently conducting nuclear material stabilization missions, located in Aiken South Carolina, has a long history of performing trace analytical analyses for environmental monitoring. Many of these techniques are also applicable to nuclear forensic analyses. A summary of the trace analytical techniques used at the SRTC, which are applicable to Nuclear Forensics, is presented in this paper.Contamination control, of facilities and personnel involved in the analytical analyses, as well as preventing contamination of the sample, is a unique challenge for nuclear forensic analyses

  8. Cognitive neuroscience in forensic science: understanding and utilizing the human element

    PubMed Central

    Dror, Itiel E.

    2015-01-01

    The human element plays a critical role in forensic science. It is not limited only to issues relating to forensic decision-making, such as bias, but also relates to most aspects of forensic work (some of which even take place before a crime is ever committed or long after the verification of the forensic conclusion). In this paper, I explicate many aspects of forensic work that involve the human element and therefore show the relevance (and potential contribution) of cognitive neuroscience to forensic science. The 10 aspects covered in this paper are proactive forensic science, selection during recruitment, training, crime scene investigation, forensic decision-making, verification and conflict resolution, reporting, the role of the forensic examiner, presentation in court and judicial decisions. As the forensic community is taking on the challenges introduced by the realization that the human element is critical for forensic work, new opportunities emerge that allow for considerable improvement and enhancement of the forensic science endeavour. PMID:26101281

  9. Cognitive neuroscience in forensic science: understanding and utilizing the human element.

    PubMed

    Dror, Itiel E

    2015-08-01

    The human element plays a critical role in forensic science. It is not limited only to issues relating to forensic decision-making, such as bias, but also relates to most aspects of forensic work (some of which even take place before a crime is ever committed or long after the verification of the forensic conclusion). In this paper, I explicate many aspects of forensic work that involve the human element and therefore show the relevance (and potential contribution) of cognitive neuroscience to forensic science. The 10 aspects covered in this paper are proactive forensic science, selection during recruitment, training, crime scene investigation, forensic decision-making, verification and conflict resolution, reporting, the role of the forensic examiner, presentation in court and judicial decisions. As the forensic community is taking on the challenges introduced by the realization that the human element is critical for forensic work, new opportunities emerge that allow for considerable improvement and enhancement of the forensic science endeavour. PMID:26101281

  10. STATISTICAL MODELS FOR WATER MAIN FAILURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed statistical analysis of pipe break records from New Haven, Connecticut, and Cincinnati, Ohio, water distribution systems focussed on deriving predictive models for pipe failure probabilities at the individual pipe level. The statistical methodology of the proportional ...

  11. Reconsidering Data Logging in Light of Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Bin-Hui; Takahashi, Kenichi; Hori, Yoshiaki; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Logs record the events that have happened within in a system so they are considered the history of system activities. They are one of the objects that digital forensic investigators would like to examine when a security incident happens. However, logs were initially created for trouble shooting, and are not purposefully designed for digital forensics. Thus, enormous and redundant log data make analysis tasks complicated and time-consuming to find valuable information, and make logging-related techniques difficult utilized in some systems such as embedded systems. In this paper, we reconsider a data logging mechanism in terms of forensics and consequently, we propose purpose-based forensic logging. In purpose-based forensic logging, we only collect the required logs according to a specific purpose, which could decrease the space that logs occupy and may mitigate the analysis tasks during forensic investigations.

  12. Chain of evidence generation for contrast enhancement in digital image forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Messina, Giuseppe; Strano, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The quality of the images obtained by digital cameras has improved a lot since digital cameras early days. Unfortunately, it is not unusual in image forensics to find wrongly exposed pictures. This is mainly due to obsolete techniques or old technologies, but also due to backlight conditions. To extrapolate some invisible details a stretching of the image contrast is obviously required. The forensics rules to produce evidences require a complete documentation of the processing steps, enabling the replication of the entire process. The automation of enhancement techniques is thus quite difficult and needs to be carefully documented. This work presents an automatic procedure to find contrast enhancement settings, allowing both image correction and automatic scripting generation. The technique is based on a preprocessing step which extracts the features of the image and selects correction parameters. The parameters are thus saved through a JavaScript code that is used in the second step of the approach to correct the image. The generated script is Adobe Photoshop compliant (which is largely used in image forensics analysis) thus permitting the replication of the enhancement steps. Experiments on a dataset of images are also reported showing the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  13. Respect for patient autonomy in forensic psychiatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Rose, Donald N

    2005-01-01

    A fundamental issue that forensic psychiatric nurses struggle with is respect for patient autonomy, as the two liberal prerequisites for autonomy, liberty and rationality, are either absent or compromised in forensic psychiatric settings. In this paper, a contemporary feminist perspective of autonomy, relational autonomy, will be advanced as an alternative approach to the traditional liberalist, Kantian, perspective of autonomy. The concepts of autonomy, paternalism, and justice will be discussed in relation to forensic psychiatric nursing. PMID:17073051

  14. Undergraduate teaching of forensic medicine in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Madadin, Mohammed; Al-Saif, Dalia M; Khamis, Amar Hassan; Taha, Attia Z; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Alsayyah, Ahmed; Alfehaid, Suha; Yaghmour, Khalid; Hakami, Ahmad Yahia; Bamousa, Manal S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Almadani, Osama M

    2016-07-01

    Medico-legal tasks are not exclusive to forensic medical experts -any physician may face medico-legal issues in his career. Hence, the practice of medicine requires education in legal issues. In Saudi Arabia, there are 30 universities with medical colleges, but we do not know how they teach undergraduate forensic medicine and medico-legal issues. The aim of this study was to discover undergraduate training courses in forensic medicine in Saudi universities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving all colleges of medicine in Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 13 items relating to the undergraduate forensic medicine course was distributed. Out of a total of 30 universities, 27 universities responded. Of these 27 universities, 16 (59.26%) teach forensic medicine to undergraduate medical students, and 11 (40.74%) do not teach forensic medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. Of the 27 universities that responded, none has a department of forensic medicine. Eleven universities that do not teach forensic medicine have no forensic medicine unit/division or faculty at all. Forensic medicine belongs to the pathology department in 11 universities, while it belongs to different departments in five universities. There is variation in teaching methods, years where the course is taught and length of the course. Practical and morgue visits take place in 7/16 (43.8%) universities, while 9/16 (56.3%) universities only teach the theoretical aspects of forensic medicine. All 16 universities teach forensic medicine only to medical students and do not teach it to students in other colleges such as dentistry and nursing. PMID:27354384

  15. iPhone examination with modern forensic software tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höne, Thomas; Kröger, Knut; Luttenberger, Silas; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to show the usefulness of modern forensic software tools for iPhone examination. In particular, we focus on the new version of Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit and compare it with Oxygen Forensics Suite 2012 regarding functionality, usability and capabilities. It is shown how these software tools works and how capable they are in examining non-jailbreaked and jailbreaked iPhones.

  16. The forensic significance of various reference population databases for estimating the rarity of variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci profiles.

    PubMed

    Budowle, B; Monson, K L

    1993-01-01

    The likelihood of occurrence of 1,964-HaeIII-generated target DNA profiles was estimated using fixed bin VNTR frequencies from various Caucasian, Black, and Hispanic databases and the product rule. The data in this study demonstrate that for forensic purposes there are smaller differences in statistical estimates of DNA profile frequencies among subgroup databases than among estimates across major population databases. This observation does not support the premise asserted by the NCR Report (1992) that the differences among subgroups within a race would be greater than between races (at least for forensic purposes). Therefore, the data do not support the need for alternative procedures, such as the ceiling principle approach (NRC Reports, 1992), for deriving statistical estimates of DNA profile frequencies. Comparisons across major population groups provide reasonable, reliable, and meaningful estimates of DNA profile frequencies without forensically significant consequences. PMID:8400688

  17. Combination of Face Regions in Forensic Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tome, Pedro; Fierrez, Julian; Vera-Rodriguez, Ruben; Ortega-Garcia, Javier

    2015-07-01

    This article presents an experimental analysis of the combination of different regions of the human face on various forensic scenarios to generate scientific knowledge useful for the forensic experts. Three scenarios of interest at different distances are considered comparing mugshot and CCTV face images using MORPH and SC face databases. One of the main findings is that inner facial regions combine better in mugshot and close CCTV scenarios and outer facial regions combine better in far CCTV scenarios. This means, that depending of the acquisition distance, the discriminative power of the facial regions change, having in some cases better performance than the full face. This effect can be exploited by considering the fusion of facial regions which results in a very significant improvement of the discriminative performance compared to just using the full face. PMID:26189995

  18. Bacterial Population Genetics in a Forensic Context

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P

    2009-11-02

    This report addresses the recent Department of Homeland Security (DHS) call for a Phase I study to (1) assess gaps in the forensically relevant knowledge about the population genetics of eight bacterial agents of concern, (2) formulate a technical roadmap to address those gaps, and (3) identify new bioinformatics tools that would be necessary to analyze and interpret population genetic data in a forensic context. The eight organisms that were studied are B. anthracis, Y. pestis, F. tularensis, Brucella spp., E. coli O157/H7, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, and C. botulinum. Our study focused on the use of bacterial population genetics by forensic investigators to test hypotheses about the possible provenance of an agent that was used in a crime or act of terrorism. Just as human population genetics underpins the calculations of match probabilities for human DNA evidence, bacterial population genetics determines the level of support that microbial DNA evidence provides for or against certain well-defined hypotheses about the origins of an infecting strain. Our key findings are: (1) Bacterial population genetics is critical for answering certain types of questions in a probabilistic manner, akin (but not identical) to 'match probabilities' in DNA forensics. (2) A basic theoretical framework for calculating likelihood ratios or posterior probabilities for forensic hypotheses based on microbial genetic comparisons has been formulated. This 'inference-on-networks' framework has deep but simple connections to the population genetics of mtDNA and Y-STRs in human DNA forensics. (3) The 'phylogeographic' approach to identifying microbial sources is not an adequate basis for understanding bacterial population genetics in a forensic context, and has limited utility, even for generating 'leads' with respect to strain origin. (4) A collection of genotyped isolates obtained opportunistically from international locations augmented by phylogenetic representations

  19. Adult Hirschsprung's disease diagnosed during forensic autopsy.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Denis; Manaouil, Cécile; Marc, Bernard; Ricard, Jannick; Brevet, Marie; Montpellier, Dominique; Defouilloy, Christian; Jardé, Olivier

    2006-09-01

    We report a case of fatal Hirschsprung's disease (HD) discovered at autopsy. A 20-year-old man collapsed at home. Emergency medical personnel found him in cardiac arrest and all resuscitative efforts failed. He had a past history of chronic constipation since infancy. Forensic autopsy revealed a megacolon full of gas and stools. Microscopic examination showed absence of ganglion cells in a short segment of the rectum and enterocolitis in the left and transverse colon. HD is rarely described in adults. In many cases, patients complained of constipation since infancy but the affection remained misdiagnosed. The relative good tolerance of the disease is usually due to a short aganglionic bowel segment. Enterocolitis is a frequent and severe complication of HD in children but is rarely described in adults. This case suggests the importance of HD diagnosis in childhood in order to avoid fatal complications with forensic consequences. PMID:17018101

  20. Advances in chemistry applied to forensic science.

    PubMed

    Rendle, David F

    2005-12-01

    Acts of terrorism, an increase in the use of firearms, drug abuse, the use of so-called date-rape drugs, and driving whilst under the influence of drugs, are just some of the subjects frequently in the news. In the absence of fingermarks and of material leading to the recovery of DNA, the forensic scientist has to rely upon chemical analysis of trace amounts of materials including explosives, drugs, toxicological specimens, firearms discharge residues, fibres, glass, paint, soil etc., in order to establish or eliminate links between suspect and victim and/or scene. This tutorial review describes analytical problems facing the forensic chemist, and the current methods and techniques employed to tackle them. PMID:16284668

  1. Next generation DRM: cryptography or forensics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Arnaud

    2009-02-01

    Current content protection systems rely primarily on applied cryptographic techniques but there is an increased use of forensic solutions in images, music and video distribution alike. The two approaches differ significantly, both in terms of technology and in terms of strategy, and thus it begs the question: will one approach take over in the long run, and if so which one? Discussing the evolution of both cryptographic and forensic solutions, we conclude that neither approach is ideal for all constituents, and that in the video space at least they will continue to co-exist for the foreseeable future - even if this may not be the case for other media types. We also analyze shortcomings of these approaches, and suggest that new solutions are necessary in this still emerging marketplace.

  2. Bone finds: a challenge to forensic science.

    PubMed

    Ganswindt, Melanie; Ehrlich, Edwin; Klostermann, Peter; Troike, Wolf-Gunther; Schneider, Volkmar

    2003-03-01

    The study presented here is based on 176 forensic dental reports compiled between 1993 and 2001. The bulk of the research took place in 1997, when major construction at Potsdamer Platz and Lehrter Bahnhof in central Berlin required the excavation of considerable quantities of earth. As building proceeded here, at 'Europe's biggest construction site', it revealed not only a large number of long bones, but also a great many skulls and skull fragments. In five instances, complete skeletons were unearthed. Many of the bones ultimately proved to be of animal origin. The police were not instructed to open a single criminal investigation. Identifying and piecing together the material in this context makes tremendous demands of forensic osteology. Establishing the nature of these finds beyond reasonable doubt, and putting a name and date to them, calls for interdisciplinary co-operation between experts in odontology, anthropology, anatomy, radiology and veterinary medicine, not to mention historians. PMID:12935638

  3. [Forensic aspects of gunshot suicides in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Meyer, Harald J; Kraus, Sybille

    2013-12-01

    Suicidal gunshot wounds are a common appearance in forensic casework. The main task of the coroner lies in the detection of typical pathomorphological correlates, thus differentiating between homicide, suicide and accident. Apart from characteristic bloodstain patterns on the gun and shooting hand, the localisation of the entrance wound and the position of the weapon, additional details such as family background or medical history are important aspects of forensic investigation. An uncommon choice of weaponry and its unusual morphological manifestation often complicate the examination and reconstruction of such cases. Furthermore, due to social stigmatisation, the possibility of secondary changes by relatives at the crime scene should be considered. In addition to autopsy findings, a careful crime scene investigation and bloodstain pattern analysis, a ballistic reconstruction can be an essential tool to gain knowledge of the shooting distance and position of the gun. PMID:23857247

  4. Forensic patients with organic brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Bastert, E; Schläfke, D

    2011-09-01

    Present literature states that people with acquired organic brain dysfunctions face problems with attention, executive functions and social interaction. During the past years an increasing number of patients with organic brain disorders have been committed into our forensic psychiatry. In current literature studies on this group of patients are underrepresented. This study wanted to verify the impairment of cognitive functions of this specific group of patients. Included were all patients of the forensic psychiatry in Rostock (Mecklenburg-Western-Pomerania) with a primary or secondary organic brain dysfunction who have been committed into the clinic since 2009. These patients went through an extensive neuropsychological test battery. It was found that patients affected by organic brain dysfunction achieve lower results in the neuropsychological testing than non impaired patients, but their results are not as below average than it would have been expected. Further studies should show, if these patients are able to improve their performance while successfully undergoing psychotherapy. PMID:21905991

  5. Respect for dignity and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Alec

    2015-01-01

    Respect for persons is one of forensic psychiatry's ethical principles. It is a principle that is usually laid down without conditions, raising the question of what aspect of someone's "personhood" might deserve our unconditional respect. This paper nominates dignity. One argument against respect for dignity as a principle is that anything it stands for can be subsumed into respecting people's autonomy. This seems not to be correct. Another argument has been that the term dignity has too often been used loosely and vaguely. This does not mean that the term itself is necesarily without value. Dignity seems to refer to something close to the moral meaning of "worth". Respecting dignity has a role in protecting the vulnerable. Respecting a client's dignity is an important aspect of the ethical practice of forensic psychiatry. PMID:25888501

  6. Spectroscopic analysis of bones for forensic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofanelli, Mirko; Pardini, Lorenzo; Borrini, Matteo; Bartoli, Fulvio; Bacci, Alessandra; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Pitzalis, Emanuela; Mascherpa, Marco Carlo; Legnaioli, Stefano; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Pagnotta, Stefano; de Holanda Cavalcanti, Gildo; Lezzerini, Marco; Palleschi, Vincenzo

    2014-09-01

    The elemental analysis of human bones can give information about the dietary habits of the deceased, especially in the last years of their lives, which can be useful for forensic studies. The most important requirement that must be satisfied for this kind of analysis is that the concentrations of analyzed elements are the same as ante mortem. In this work, a set of bones was analyzed using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and validated using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), in order to compare those two techniques and to investigate the effect of possible alterations in the elemental concentrations' proportion resulting from the treatment usually applied for preparing the bones for traditional forensic analysis. The possibility that elemental concentrations' changes would occur after accidental or intentional burning of the bones was also studied.

  7. Alleged biological father incest: a forensic approach.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Vânia; Jardim, Patrícia; Taveira, Francisco; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo J; Magalhães, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Paternal incest is one of the most serious forms of intrafamilial sexual abuse with clinical, social, and legal relevance. A retrospective study was performed, based on forensic reports and judicial decisions of alleged cases of biological paternal incest of victims under 18 years old (n = 215) from 2003 to 2008. Results highlight that in a relevant number of cases: victims were female; the abuse begun at an early age with reiteration; the alleged perpetrator presented a history of sexual crimes against children; sexual practices were physically poorly intrusive, which associated with a forensic medical evaluation performed more than 72 h after the abuse, explain partially the absence of physical injuries or other evidence-these last aspects are different from extrafamilial cases. In conclusion, observations about paternal incest are likely to exacerbate the psychosocial consequences of the abuse and may explain the difficulty and delay in detect and disclose these cases. Few cases were legally prosecuted and convicted. PMID:24180349

  8. Forensic science: the truth is out there

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Lynne D.

    2002-06-01

    Criminalistics, one of the many sub-divisions of forensic science, is an applied science in which items of evidence are analyzed to provide investigative information and scientific evidence to be used in courts of law. Laboratories associated with governmental public agencies are typically involved in criminal cases as opposed to civil cases, and those types of cases that fall within the jurisdiction of the particular agency. Common analytical divisions within criminalistics laboratories include blood alcohol testing, toxicology, narcotics, questioned documents, biology, firearms, latent fingerprints, physical and trace evidence sections. Specialized field investigative services may be provided in the areas of clandestine drug laboratories and major crimes (firearms, biology, trace, arson/explosives). Forensic science best practice requires the use of non-destructive testing whenever reasonably possible. Several technically difficult situations (bodies and evidence encased in cement and metal) are presented as a challenge to audience.

  9. Is liability possible for forensic psychiatrists?

    PubMed

    Weinstock, R; Garrick, T

    1995-01-01

    Forensic psychiatrists are not as vulnerable to liability as general psychiatrists. The absence of a traditional physician-patient relationship and judicial and quasijudicial immunity are all protective against malpractice actions. Although the absence of a doctor-patient relationship removes an essential element of malpractice, other types of liability such as defamation and ordinary negligence are possible and may not be covered by malpractice insurance. A model is proposed for forensic psychiatry of a partial secondary doctor-patient relationship out-weighted in most circumstances by duties to truth and/or the hiring attorney. Such a model seems most consistent with conflicting duties currently forced on all psychiatrists. This model has advantages of a duty, a violation of which is likely to be covered by malpractice insurance. Rather than deemphasizing partial secondary physician-patient responsibilities, it is advised to stress the important protection provided by judicial and quasijudicial immunity. PMID:8605402

  10. An IP Traceback Model for Network Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilli, Emmanuel S.; Joshi, R. C.; Niyogi, Rajdeep

    Network forensics deals with capture, recording, analysis and investigation of network traffic to traceback the attackers. Its ultimate goal is to provide sufficient evidence to allow the perpetrator to be prosecuted. IP traceback is an important aspect in the investigation process where the real attacker is identified by tracking source address of the attack packets. In this paper we classify the various approaches to network forensics to list the requirements of the traceback. We propose a novel model for traceback based on autonomous systems (AS) and deterministic packet marking (DPM) to enable traceback even with a single packet. The model is analyzed against various evaluation metrics. The traceback solution will be a major step in the direction of attack attribution and investigation.

  11. Traumatic brain injury and forensic neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Brooks, Michael

    2009-01-01

    As part of a special issue of The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, forensic neuropsychology is reviewed as it applies to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other types of acquired brain injury in which clinical neuropsychologists and rehabilitation psychologists may be asked to render professional opinions about the neurobehavioral effects and outcome of a brain injury. The article introduces and overviews the topic focusing on the process of forensic neuropsychological consultation and practice as it applies to patients with TBI or other types of acquired brain injury. The emphasis is on the application of scientist-practitioner standards as they apply to legal questions about the status of a TBI patient and how best that may be achieved. This article introduces each topic area covered in this special edition. PMID:19333063

  12. Forensic aspects of fraternity hazing.

    PubMed

    Leslie, J; Taff, M L; Mulvihill, M

    1985-03-01

    Although the news media has occasionally reported deaths and injuries related to fraternity hazing in the past, little, if any, attention has been given to the subject in the medical literature. In light of the medicolegal implications surrounding many of these incidents, it is important that medical examiners be aware of the problem. One hundred sixty-eight (168) cases of injuries and deaths related to fraternity hazing activities occurring in the past 60 years in the United States have been collected from secondary sources. A descriptive statistical analysis of the data is presented. PMID:3885720

  13. Descriptive statistics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications. PMID:19891281

  14. Approach of forensic medicine to gossypiboma

    PubMed Central

    Karakaya, M. Arif; Koç, Okay; Ekiz, Feza; Ağaçhan, A. Feran

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors and preventive measures for gossypibomas and their medico-legal implications in forensic medicine in the Turkish legal system. Material and Methods: This study involved a retrospective analysis of the records of 39 patients with gossypiboma. Records were available from the Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institution and were surveyed for faulty treatment between 2008 and 2012. Parameters such as distribution of the cases according to specializations, elective and emergency procedures, surgical procedures, radio-opaque sponge and fluoroscopy availability, routine sponge and instrument counting, number of nurses for counting, and control of the operative field by a second surgeon were investigated. Results: All cases were evaluated by the Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institute 3rd Expertise Committee. This committee comprised of specialists from the departments of forensic medicine, orthopedics and traumatology, general surgery, neurology, internal medicine, pediatrics, chest disease, and infectious diseases. All cases were considered as poor medical practice (malpractice) and surgeons were found to be responsible. In 16 of these 39 cases (41%) emergency procedures were performed. No unexpected event was reported in any procedure. In 16 cases (41%), sponge count was performed and was reported to be complete. Operation notes were available in 16 (41%) cases. Control of the operative field was performed by 1 surgeon, and sponge and instrument count was performed by 1 scrub nurse. Radio-opaque sponge and fluoroscopy were available in 9 (23%) centers in these cases. Conclusion: Gossypiboma can be prevented not only with surgeons’ care but also with adequate support of medical device and material. However, it is considered as a poor medical practice. Presence of only 1 general surgeon in the expertise committee and ignorance of the working conditions by the surgeons should be questioned. PMID:26170754

  15. Advancing the science of forensic data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Timothy S.

    2002-07-01

    Many individual elements comprise a typical forensics process. Collecting evidence, analyzing it, and using results to draw conclusions are all mutually distinct endeavors. Different physical locations and personnel are involved, juxtaposed against an acute need for security and data integrity. Using digital technologies and the Internet's ubiquity, these diverse elements can be conjoined using digital data as the common element. This result is a new data management process that can be applied to serve all elements of the community. The first step is recognition of a forensics lifecycle. Evidence gathering, analysis, storage, and use in legal proceedings are actually just distinct parts of a single end-to-end process, and thus, it is hypothesized that a single data system that can also accommodate each constituent phase using common network and security protocols. This paper introduces the idea of web-based Central Data Repository. Its cornerstone is anywhere, anytime Internet upload, viewing, and report distribution. Archives exist indefinitely after being created, and high-strength security and encryption protect data and ensure subsequent case file additions do not violate chain-of-custody or other handling provisions. Several legal precedents have been established for using digital information in courts of law, and in fact, effective prosecution of cyber crimes absolutely relies on its use. An example is a US Department of Agriculture division's use of digital images to back up its inspection process, with pictures and information retained on secure servers to enforce the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act. Forensics is a cumulative process. Secure, web-based data management solutions, such as the Central Data Repository postulated here, can support each process step. Logically marrying digital technologies with Internet accessibility should help nurture a thought process to explore alternatives that make forensics data accessible to authorized individuals

  16. Forensic pathology of companion animal abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, J A; McDonough, S P

    2013-11-01

    Submission of cases of suspected animal abuse and neglect (AAN) to veterinary pathologists is increasingly frequent. These cases require modification of postmortem procedures and written reports, as the questions asked by courts typically differ from those asked in routine diagnostic cases. Here we review the practice of veterinary forensic pathology as it applies to cases of companion AAN, as well as the fundamental principles of forensic pathology, the components of a forensic necropsy, and the goals of the necropsy in cases of blunt-force trauma, projectile wounds, and starvation. Future directions and endeavors in veterinary forensic pathology are broached. PMID:23686766

  17. Founding editorial--forensics and TheScientificWorld.

    PubMed

    Rowe, W

    2001-10-30

    At the beginning of a new millennium it seems a good idea to stop for a moment and take stock of the current state of forensic science. As a field of scientific research and scientific application, forensic science is a little more than a century old. Forensic science may be said to have begun in 1887 with the simultaneous publication of A. Conan Doyle's A Study in Scarlet and Hans Gross's Handbuch f1/4r Untersuchungsrichter. Conan Doyle's novel introduced to the world the character of Sherlock Holmes, whose literary career would popularize the use of physical evidence in criminal investigations. Gross's manual for examining magistrates suggests ways in which the expertise of chemists, biologists, geologists, and other natural scientists could contribute to investigations. Gross's book was translated into a number of languages and went through various updated editions during the course of the century. The intervening century saw the development and application of fingerprinting, firearm and tool mark identification, forensic chemistry, forensic biology, forensic toxicology, forensic odontology, forensic pathology, and forensic engineering. Increasingly, the judicial systems of the industrial nations of the world have come to rely upon the expertise of scientists in a variety of disciplines. In most advanced countries, virtually all criminal prosecutions now involve the presentation of scientific testimony. This has had the beneficial effect of diminishing the reliance of courts on eyewitness testimony and defendant confessions. PMID:12805857

  18. Commentary: the place of performative writing in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Ezra E H; Baranoski, Madelon V

    2007-01-01

    In this issue of the Journal, Robert Simon has explored the subject of the place that writing should occupy in the professional life of forensic psychiatrists. We have taken the platform so elegantly constructed by this erudite and prolific author and used it to discuss the quotidian and concrete task of writing the customary forensic psychiatry report. We look to other disciplines for mechanisms to analyze the written forensic report: concepts of voice, portraiture, and narrative. We ultimately conclude that preparing these reports is a complex undertaking and that writing with clarity, precision, and artistry in forensic psychiatry should be viewed as a core competency. PMID:17389341

  19. Statistical Diversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2008-01-01

    As a branch of knowledge, Statistics is ubiquitous and its applications can be found in (almost) every field of human endeavour. In this article, the authors track down the possible source of the link between the "Siren song" and applications of Statistics. Answers to their previous five questions and five new questions on Statistics are presented.

  20. Statistical Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callamaras, Peter

    1983-01-01

    This buyer's guide to seven major types of statistics software packages for microcomputers reviews Edu-Ware Statistics 3.0; Financial Planning; Speed Stat; Statistics with DAISY; Human Systems Dynamics package of Stats Plus, ANOVA II, and REGRESS II; Maxistat; and Moore-Barnes' MBC Test Construction and MBC Correlation. (MBR)

  1. Folie a trois in a multilevel security forensic treatment center: forensic and ethics-related implications.

    PubMed

    Melà, Mansfield

    2005-01-01

    Shared (Induced) Delusional Disorder commonly occurs in close relationships and involves a varying number of participants who may be nonconsanguineous. The disorder has been associated with forensic and fatal consequences. Its occurrence in three nonrelated, incarcerated individuals is described in this article. This case of folie à trois has forensic implications and raises several questions of ethics that relate to autonomy, confidentiality, safety, and risk estimation. The presentation, management, and outcome of the patients suggest that a high index of suspicion is needed to detect cases in similar settings. The report concludes that the rarity of the disorder in a forensic mental health population may be the result of underdetection, given that conditions are conducive to the development of the disorder. Telltale signs of its manifestation are hypothesized as being responsible for some events in incarcerated populations. Physical separation and antipsychotic medications remain the mainstay of treatment. PMID:16186193

  2. The medicolegal and forensic aspects of fires.

    PubMed

    Eckert, W G

    1981-12-01

    Fires, their consequences and their investigations, continue to provide forensic scientists, especially those involved in medicolegal investigation (the medical examiner or forensic pathologist), with constant work and variations in problems. The recent history of mass disasters involving high-rise buildings, transport accidents, and arson-related accidents in nightclubs and prisons has emphasized the necessity for corrective and preventive means to ensure safety to the occupants of any of these areas. Problems presented by fires include the determination of the cause of the fire, the identification of the victims, and the cause and manner of their deaths. The motivation of the fire setter and the settlement by the insurance company or legal means are also aspects to be considered. The imperceptible effects of the fires include many other aspects, among which loss of loved ones and family providers and loss of industrial revenue and job potential are all felt. The most frightening development of all, however, is the insidious surfacing of arson as a possible factor in many major fires. The most recent tragedies involving the Stouffer Inn fire and the Hilton International Hotel fire were both related to arsonous acts. The scope of this article is to review the subject as it affects the forensic medical practitioner directly or indirectly so that his or her investigation may be brought to completion in conjunction with other authorities involved in the case. PMID:7340512

  3. Molecular forensic science of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxides materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, process history, or transport of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science required to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensics science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  4. Forensic evaluation of problematic Internet use.

    PubMed

    Recupero, Patricia R

    2008-01-01

    Problematic Internet use appears to be a growing concern in many criminal and civil legal proceedings. Problems range from inappropriate personal use of the Internet in the workplace and excessive use of online games, pornography, and gambling, to cyberbullying among children and adolescents and numerous forms of criminal activity. Forensic psychiatric evaluations may help courts or other agencies to understand individual cases and to discern whether a psychiatric disability may be involved. Furthermore, the forensic psychiatrist may be asked to formulate a prognosis or to suggest which treatments may be helpful. Among the multiple underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that explain problematic Internet use are: addiction, compulsion, impulse-control problems, and mood disorders. There is no definitive or standard treatment protocol for evaluation or treatment of problematic Internet use per se. A comprehensive evaluation should address the underlying psychopathology or personal problems that prompt or contribute to the problematic Internet use. This article suggests approaches that may help forensic psychiatrists to conduct a thorough evaluation with reasonable treatment recommendations. Different formulations of the problem and a discussion of DSM-IV factors are offered to provide starting points for the evaluation and to help psychiatrists to understand how problematic Internet use may relate to Axis I disorders or other factors. PMID:19092069

  5. Forensic Facial Reconstruction: The Final Frontier

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vineeta; Vij, Hitesh; Vij, Ruchieka; Tyagi, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    Forensic facial reconstruction can be used to identify unknown human remains when other techniques fail. Through this article, we attempt to review the different methods of facial reconstruction reported in literature. There are several techniques of doing facial reconstruction, which vary from two dimensional drawings to three dimensional clay models. With the advancement in 3D technology, a rapid, efficient and cost effective computerized 3D forensic facial reconstruction method has been developed which has brought down the degree of error previously encountered. There are several methods of manual facial reconstruction but the combination Manchester method has been reported to be the best and most accurate method for the positive recognition of an individual. Recognition allows the involved government agencies to make a list of suspected victims’. This list can then be narrowed down and a positive identification may be given by the more conventional method of forensic medicine. Facial reconstruction allows visual identification by the individual’s family and associates to become easy and more definite. PMID:26501035

  6. Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2005-11-04

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of nuclear terrorism; it also supports the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its investigative mission to prevent and respond to nuclear terrorism. Development of the capability involves two major elements: (1) the ability to collect evidence and make forensic measurements, and (2) the ability to interpret the forensic data. The Program leverages the existing capability throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory complex in a way that meets the requirements of the FBI and other government users. At the same time the capability is being developed, the Program also conducts investigations for a variety of sponsors using the current capability. The combination of operations and R&D in one program helps to ensure a strong linkage between the needs of the user community and the scientific development.

  7. Bayesian calibration for forensic age estimation.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Luigi; Skrami, Edlira; Gesuita, Rosaria; Cameriere, Roberto

    2015-05-10

    Forensic medicine is increasingly called upon to assess the age of individuals. Forensic age estimation is mostly required in relation to illegal immigration and identification of bodies or skeletal remains. A variety of age estimation methods are based on dental samples and use of regression models, where the age of an individual is predicted by morphological tooth changes that take place over time. From the medico-legal point of view, regression models, with age as the dependent random variable entail that age tends to be overestimated in the young and underestimated in the old. To overcome this bias, we describe a new full Bayesian calibration method (asymmetric Laplace Bayesian calibration) for forensic age estimation that uses asymmetric Laplace distribution as the probability model. The method was compared with three existing approaches (two Bayesian and a classical method) using simulated data. Although its accuracy was comparable with that of the other methods, the asymmetric Laplace Bayesian calibration appears to be significantly more reliable and robust in case of misspecification of the probability model. The proposed method was also applied to a real dataset of values of the pulp chamber of the right lower premolar measured on x-ray scans of individuals of known age. PMID:25645903

  8. Extracting forensic evidence from biometric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geradts, Zeno J.; Ruifrok, Arnout C.

    2003-08-01

    Over the past few years, both large multinationals and governments have begun to contribute to even larger projects on biometric devices. Terrorist attacks in America and in other countries have highlighted the need for better identification systems for people as well as improved systems for controlling access to buildings. Another reason for investment in Research and Development in Biometric Devices, is the massive growth in internet-based systems -- whether for e-commerce, e-government or internal processes within organizations. The interface between the system and the user is routinely abused, as people have to remember many complex passwords and handle tokens of various types. In this paper an overview is given of the information that is important to know before an examination of such is systems can be done in a forensic proper way. In forensic evidence with biometric devices the forensic examiner should consider the possibilities of tampering with the biometric systems or the possibilities of unauthorized access before drawing conclusions.

  9. Implant bone integration importance in forensic identification.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Odontological identification consists of the comparison of antemortem dental information regarding a missing person with postmortem data from an unidentified corpse or human remains. Usually, the comparison concerns morphologic features that the operator chooses among all the visible characteristics because of inter-individual uniqueness; for this reason, implants can be of enormous assistance. A case concerning the recovery of a burnt oral implant, connected to a bone fragment, among 2780 charred bone fragments, suspected to have belonged to a victim of homicide, is presented to demonstrate that dental implants and their site of bone integration represent a very precious element for personal forensic identification. Because of their morphological invariability in time and because of their morphologic uniqueness, they were used as evidence to associate unidentified human charred remains to a missing person where DNA analysis failed to do so. The case illustrates the fundamental contribution, not yet described in literature, given by the clinical aspects of tooth replacement with dental implants to a forensic discipline. Clinical practitioners should therefore be aware of the great importance of their work and of dental records in a forensic identification scenario. PMID:25387697

  10. Forensic Entomology in Animal Cruelty Cases.

    PubMed

    Brundage, A; Byrd, J H

    2016-09-01

    Forensic entomology can be useful to the veterinary professional in cases of animal cruelty. A main application of forensic entomology is to determine the minimum postmortem interval by estimating the time of insect colonization, based on knowledge of the rate of development of pioneer colonizers and on insect species succession during decomposition of animal remains. Since insect development is temperature dependent, these estimates require documentation of the environmental conditions, including ambient temperature. It can also aid in the detection and recognition of wounds, as well as estimate the timing of periods of neglect. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of insects that colonize animal remains may suggest that there has been movement or concealment of the carcass or can create associations between a suspect, a victim, and a crime scene. In some instances, it can aid in the detection of drugs or toxins within decomposed or skeletonized remains. During animal cruelty investigations, it may become the responsibility of the veterinary professional to document and collect entomological evidence from live animals or during the necropsy. The applications of forensic entomology are discussed. A protocol is described for documenting and collecting entomological evidence at the scene and during the necropsy, with additional emphasis on recording geographic location, meteorological data, and collection and preservation of insect specimens. PMID:27480760

  11. Data mining in forensic image databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geradts, Zeno J.; Bijhold, Jurrien

    2002-07-01

    Forensic Image Databases appear in a wide variety. The oldest computer database is with fingerprints. Other examples of databases are shoeprints, handwriting, cartridge cases, toolmarks drugs tablets and faces. In these databases searches are conducted on shape, color and other forensic features. There exist a wide variety of methods for searching in images in these databases. The result will be a list of candidates that should be compared manually. The challenge in forensic science is to combine the information acquired. The combination of the shape of a partial shoe print with information on a cartridge case can result in stronger evidence. It is expected that searching in the combination of these databases with other databases (e.g. network traffic information) more crimes will be solved. Searching in image databases is still difficult, as we can see in databases of faces. Due to lighting conditions and altering of the face by aging, it is nearly impossible to find a right face from a database of one million faces in top position by a image searching method, without using other information. The methods for data mining in images in databases (e.g. MPEG-7 framework) are discussed, and the expectations of future developments are presented in this study.

  12. Mitochondria in anthropology and forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Tomasz; Rogalla, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria's role in crucial metabolic pathways is probably the first answer which comes to our minds for the question: what do these tiny organelles serve for? However, specific features of their DNA made them extremely useful also in the field of anthropology and forensics. MtDNA analyses became a milestone in the complex task of unraveling earliest human migrations. Evidence provided by these experiments left no doubts on modern humans origins pointing to Africa being our cradle. It also contributed to interpretation of putative ways of our dispersal around Asia and Americas thousands years ago. On the other hand, analysis of mtDNA is well established and valuable tool in forensic genetics. When other definitely more popular markers give no answer on identity, it is the time to employ information carried by mitochondria. This chapter summarizes not only current reports on the role of mitochondria in forensics and reconstruction of modern humans phylogeny, but also calls one's attention to a broad range of difficulties and constraints associated with mtDNA analyses. PMID:22399435

  13. Digital Forensics as a Surreal Narrative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollitt, Mark

    Digital forensics is traditionally approached either as a computer science problem or as an investigative problem. In both cases, the goal is usually the same: attempt to locate discrete pieces of information that are probative. In the computer science approach, characteristics of the data are utilized to include or exclude objects, data or metadata. The investigative approach reviews the content of the evidence to interpret the data in the light of known facts and elements of the crime in order to determine probative information or information of lead value. This paper explores two literary theories, narrative theory and surrealism, for potential application to the digital forensic process. Narrative theory focuses on the “story” that is represented by text. At some level, a storage device may be viewed as a series of interweaving, possibly multi-dimensional, narratives. Furthermore, the narratives themselves, coupled with the metadata from the file system and applications, may form a meta-narrative. The literary theory of surrealism, the notion of disjointed elements, can be utilized to derive meaning from forensic evidence. This paper uses a technique known as surrealist games to illustrate the point.

  14. Design and evaluation of a bioreactor with application to forensic burial environments.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Melissa A; Weisensee, Katherine E; Mikhailova, Elena A; Harman, Melinda K

    2015-12-01

    Existing forensic taphonomic methods lack specificity in estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in the period following active decomposition. New methods, such as the use of citrate concentration in bone, are currently being considered; however, determining the applicability of these methods in differing environmental contexts is challenging. This research aims to design a forensic bioreactor that can account for environmental factors known to impact decomposition, specifically temperature, moisture, physical damage from animals, burial depth, soil pH, and organic matter content. These forensically relevant environmental variables were characterized in a soil science context. The resulting metrics were soil temperature regime, soil moisture regime, slope, texture, soil horizon, cation exchange capacity, soil pH, and organic matter content. Bioreactor chambers were constructed using sterilized thin-walled polystyrene boxes housed in calibrated temperature units. Gravesoil was represented using mineral soil (Ultisols), and organic soil proxy for Histosols, horticulture mix. Gravesoil depth was determined using mineral soil horizons A and Bt2 to simulate surface scatter and shallow grave burial respectively. A total of fourteen different environmental conditions were created and controlled successfully over a 90-day experiment. These results demonstrate successful implementation and control of forensic bioreactor simulating precise environments in a single research location, rather than site-specific testing occurring in different geographic regions. Bone sections were grossly assessed for weathering characteristics, which revealed notable differences related to exposure to different temperature regimes and soil types. Over the short 90-day duration of this experiment, changes in weathering characteristics were more evident across the different temperature regimes rather than the soil types. Using this methodology, bioreactor systems can be created to replicate many

  15. New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science: Part III: Operational applications and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Cedric; Margot, Pierre

    2009-11-20

    The research reported in this series of article aimed at (1) automating the search of questioned ink specimens in ink reference collections and (2) at evaluating the strength of ink evidence in a transparent and balanced manner. These aims require that ink samples are analysed in an accurate and reproducible way and that they are compared in an objective and automated way. This latter requirement is due to the large number of comparisons that are necessary in both scenarios. A research programme was designed to (a) develop a standard methodology for analysing ink samples in a reproducible way, (b) comparing automatically and objectively ink samples and (c) evaluate the proposed methodology in forensic contexts. This report focuses on the last of the three stages of the research programme. The calibration and acquisition process and the mathematical comparison algorithms were described in previous papers [C. Neumann, P. Margot, New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science-Part I: Development of a quality assurance process for forensic ink analysis by HPTLC, Forensic Sci. Int. 185 (2009) 29-37; C. Neumann, P. Margot, New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science-Part II: Development and testing of mathematical algorithms for the automatic comparison of ink samples analysed by HPTLC, Forensic Sci. Int. 185 (2009) 38-50]. In this paper, the benefits and challenges of the proposed concepts are tested in two forensic contexts: (1) ink identification and (2) ink evidential value assessment. The results show that different algorithms are better suited for different tasks. This research shows that it is possible to build digital ink libraries using the most commonly used ink analytical technique, i.e. high-performance thin layer chromatography, despite its reputation of lacking reproducibility. More importantly, it is possible to assign evidential value to ink evidence in a transparent way using a probabilistic model. It is therefore

  16. Emergence of forensic podiatry--A novel sub-discipline of forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; DiMaggio, John A

    2015-10-01

    "Forensic podiatry is defined as the application of sound and researched podiatric knowledge and experience in forensic investigations; to show the association of an individual with a scene of crime, or to answer any other legal question concerned with the foot or footwear that requires knowledge of the functioning foot". Forensic podiatrists can contribute to forensic identification by associating the pedal evidence with the criminal or crime scene. The most common pedal evidence collected from the crime scene is in the form of footprints, shoeprints and their tracks and trails. Forensic podiatrists can establish identity of the individuals from the footprints in many ways. The analysis of bare footprints involves the identification based on the individualistic features like flat footedness, ridges, humps, creases, an extra toe, missing toe, corns, cuts, cracks, pits, deformities, and various features of the toe and heel region. All these individualistic features can link the criminal with the crime. In addition to these, parameters of body size like stature and body weight as well as sex can also be estimated by using anthropometric methods. If a series of footprints are recovered from the crime scene, then parameters of the gait analysis such as stride/step length and general movement of the criminal can be traced. Apart from these, a newly established biometric parameter of the footprints i.e. footprint ridge density can also be evaluated for personal identification. Careful analysis of the footprint ridge density can give an idea about the sex of the criminal whose footprints are recovered at the scene which can further help to reduce the burden of the investigating officer as the investigations then may be directed toward either a male suspect or a female suspect accordingly. This paper highlights various aspects of Forensic Podiatry and discusses the different methods of personal identification related to pedal evidence. PMID:26163192

  17. Error rates in forensic DNA analysis: definition, numbers, impact and communication.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Ate; Sjerps, Marjan; Quak, Astrid

    2014-09-01

    . These should be reported, separately from the match probability, when requested by the court or when there are internal or external indications for error. It should also be made clear that there are various other issues to consider, like DNA transfer. Forensic statistical models, in particular Bayesian networks, may be useful to take the various uncertainties into account and demonstrate their effects on the evidential value of the forensic DNA results. PMID:24905336

  18. NanoSIMS analysis of Bacillus spores for forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P K; Davisson, M L; Velsko, S P

    2010-02-23

    The threat associated with the potential use of radiological, nuclear, chemical and biological materials in terrorist acts has resulted in new fields of forensic science requiring the application of state-of-the-science analytical techniques. Since the anthrax letter attacks in the United States in the fall of 2001, there has been increased interest in physical and chemical characterization of bacterial spores. While molecular methods are powerful tools for identifying genetic differences, other methods may be able to differentiate genetically identical samples based on physical and chemical properties, as well as provide complimentary information, such as methods of production and approximate date of production. Microanalysis has the potential to contribute significantly to microbial forensics. Bacillus spores are highly structured, consisting of a core, cortex, coat, and in some species, an exosporium. This structure provides a template for constraining elemental abundance differences at the nanometer scale. The primary controls on the distribution of major elements in spores are likely structural and physiological. For example, P and Ca are known to be abundant in the spore core because that is where P-rich nucleic acids and Cadipicolinic acid are located, respectively. Trace elements are known to bind to the spore coat but the controls on these elements are less well understood. Elemental distributions and abundances may be directly related to spore production, purification and stabilization methodologies, which are of particular interest for forensic investigation. To this end, we are developing a high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry method using a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 to study the distribution and abundance of trace elements in bacterial spores. In this presentation we will review and compare methods for preparing and analyzing samples, as well as review results on the distribution and abundance of elements in bacterial spores. We use NanoSIMS to

  19. Belgian canine population and purebred study for forensics by improved mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Desmyter, Stijn; Gijsbers, Leonie

    2012-01-01

    In canine population studies for forensics, the mitochondrial DNA is profiled by sequencing the two hyper variable regions, HV1 and HV2 of the control region. In a first effort to create a Belgian population database some samples showed partially poor sequence quality. We demonstrated that a nuclear pseudogene was co-amplified with the mtDNA control region. Using a new combination of primers this adverse result was no longer observed and sequencing quality was improved. All former samples with poor sequence data were reanalyzed. Furthermore, the forensic canine population study was extended to 208 breed and mixed dogs. In total, 58 haplotypes were identified, resulting in an exclusion capacity of 0.92. The profile distribution of the Belgian population sample was not significantly different from those observed in population studies of three other countries. In addition to the total population study 107 Belgian registered pedigree dogs of six breeds were profiled. Per breed, the obtained haplotypes were supplemented with those from population and purebred studies. The combined data revealed that some haplotypes were more or less prominent present in particular dog breeds. The statistically significant differences in haplotype distribution between breeds and population sample can have consequences on mtDNA databasing and matching probabilities in forensics. PMID:21489897

  20. Femoral subtrochanteric shape variation in Albania: implications for use in forensic applications.

    PubMed

    McIlvaine, B K; Schepartz, L A

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates temporal trends in femoral subtrochanteric shape in Albanian skeletal material to evaluate levels of platymeria in a set of populations with European ancestry. Although flattening of the diaphysis in the subtrochanteric region has been associated with individuals of Native American and Asian ancestry, high levels of platymeria may not be unique to those groups. The forensic utility of Gilbert and Gill's (Skeletal Attribution of Race: Methods for Forensic Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, 1990) method for identifying ancestry from femoral subtrochanteric shape is examined using non-American skeletons of European ancestry. Femoral subtrochanteric anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters for Albanian skeletons from Apollonia (n=117) and Lofkënd (n=50) are assessed for temporal trends and then compared with published data using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests. High degrees of subtrochanteric flattening are identified in the Albanian samples and statistically significant temporal trends of decreasing platymeria are documented. Although recent publications suggest that subtrochanteric shape is less effective in identifying ancestry then was initially proposed, forensic anthropologists still commonly use femoral subtrochanteric shape to determine ancestry among skeletonized remains. This paper's findings support the assertion that proximal femoral morphology is functionally related, and more likely to be influenced by biomechanical adaptation and body proportions than genetic constraints. PMID:25500529

  1. Staff Beliefs about Why People with Learning Disabilities Self-Harm: A Q-Methodology Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Katie; Gleeson, Kate; Johnstone, Lucy; Weston, Clive

    2011-01-01

    Staff beliefs about self-harm can influence staff responses to the behaviour. Existing research into staff beliefs about self-harm by people with learning disabilities is limited, with qualitative research restricted to forensic services. The aim of this study was to use Q-methodology to explore staff beliefs about why people with learning…

  2. Caring potentials in the shadows of power, correction, and discipline—Forensic psychiatric care in the light of the work of Michel Foucault

    PubMed Central

    Hörberg, Ulrica; Dahlberg, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on contemporary forensic psychiatric care through a philosophical examination of the empirical results from two lifeworld phenomenological studies from the perspective of patients and carers, by using the French philosopher Michel Foucault's historical–philosophical work. Both empirical studies were conducted in a forensic psychiatric setting. The essential results of the two empirical studies were reexamined in a phenomenological meaning analysis to form a new general structure in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. This general structure shows how the caring on the forensic psychiatric wards appears to be contradictory, in that it is characterized by an unreflective (non-)caring attitude and contributes to an inconsistent and insecure existence. The caring appears to have a corrective approach and thus lacks a clear caring structure, a basic caring approach that patients in forensic psychiatric services have a great need of. To gain a greater understanding of forensic psychiatric caring, the new empirical results were further examined in the light of Foucault's historical–philosophical work. The philosophical examination is presented in terms of the three meaning constituents: Caring as correction and discipline, The existence of power, and Structures and culture in care. The philosophical examination illustrates new meaning nuances of the corrective and disciplinary nature of forensic psychiatric care, its power, and how this is materialized in caring, and what this does to the patients. The examination reveals embedded difficulties in forensic psychiatric care and highlights a need to revisit the aim of such care. PMID:26319100

  3. Caring potentials in the shadows of power, correction, and discipline - Forensic psychiatric care in the light of the work of Michel Foucault.

    PubMed

    Hörberg, Ulrica; Dahlberg, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on contemporary forensic psychiatric care through a philosophical examination of the empirical results from two lifeworld phenomenological studies from the perspective of patients and carers, by using the French philosopher Michel Foucault's historical-philosophical work. Both empirical studies were conducted in a forensic psychiatric setting. The essential results of the two empirical studies were reexamined in a phenomenological meaning analysis to form a new general structure in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. This general structure shows how the caring on the forensic psychiatric wards appears to be contradictory, in that it is characterized by an unreflective (non-)caring attitude and contributes to an inconsistent and insecure existence. The caring appears to have a corrective approach and thus lacks a clear caring structure, a basic caring approach that patients in forensic psychiatric services have a great need of. To gain a greater understanding of forensic psychiatric caring, the new empirical results were further examined in the light of Foucault's historical-philosophical work. The philosophical examination is presented in terms of the three meaning constituents: Caring as correction and discipline, The existence of power, and Structures and culture in care. The philosophical examination illustrates new meaning nuances of the corrective and disciplinary nature of forensic psychiatric care, its power, and how this is materialized in caring, and what this does to the patients. The examination reveals embedded difficulties in forensic psychiatric care and highlights a need to revisit the aim of such care. PMID:26319100

  4. [Forensic medicine aspects of resuscitation].

    PubMed

    Bauer, G

    1987-12-15

    Nowadays, in almost all cases of clinical death, there is at least a remote chance of resuscitation, of restoring breathing and circulation by means of modern methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Statistically, there are more cases of cardiocirculatory arrest due to an internal cause than to a traumatic cause. Just as medical activity in general, resuscitation is increasingly discussed in its legal and ethical aspects. The duty to exercise due care and proper qualification require a very specific approach in the case of resuscitation, as the chain of persons potentially involved in life saving stretches from the medical layman to the specialist trained to deal with emergency situations. As opposed to conditions in other countries, in Austria the duty to render aid and assistance as statutory provision of the penal code can be of great importance in such cases. Criteria and definition, especially in the ad hoc establishment of death, assume a special significance in resuscitation. Over the past years, resuscitation measures within the complex of the procurement of death have repeatedly been put up for discussion. Examples from US judicature may help to define the problem more clearly and also to offer solutions for similar cases. Such decisions should essentially be guided by the consideration of the presumed will of the patient who no longer is in a position to exercise the right of self-determination. PMID:3326291

  5. Statistical databases

    SciTech Connect

    Kogalovskii, M.R.

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents a review of problems related to statistical database systems, which are wide-spread in various fields of activity. Statistical databases (SDB) are referred to as databases that consist of data and are used for statistical analysis. Topics under consideration are: SDB peculiarities, properties of data models adequate for SDB requirements, metadata functions, null-value problems, SDB compromise protection problems, stored data compression techniques, and statistical data representation means. Also examined is whether the present Database Management Systems (DBMS) satisfy the SDB requirements. Some actual research directions in SDB systems are considered.

  6. Morbidity statistics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alwyn

    1969-01-01

    This paper is based on an analysis of questionnaires sent to the health ministries of Member States of WHO asking for information about the extent, nature, and scope of morbidity statistical information. It is clear that most countries collect some statistics of morbidity and many countries collect extensive data. However, few countries relate their collection to the needs of health administrators for information, and many countries collect statistics principally for publication in annual volumes which may appear anything up to 3 years after the year to which they refer. The desiderata of morbidity statistics may be summarized as reliability, representativeness, and relevance to current health problems. PMID:5306722

  7. Forensic science in the context of Islamic law: A review.

    PubMed

    Alkahtani, Theeb; Aljerian, Khaldoon; Golding, Bartholomew; Alqahtani, Sakher

    2015-08-01

    Even though it is still in its nascent phase, forensic science has already encountered strong resistance in Saudi Arabia due to its incompatibility with their present legal system. What follow is a review on the status of forensic medicine and its future in terms of acceptance and use in legal action. PMID:26165681

  8. DNA Fingerprinting Using PCR: A Practical Forensic Science Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hyun-Jung; Ahn, Jung Hoon; Ko, Minsu

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a forensic science simulation programme applicable for use in colleges. Students were asked to find a putative suspect by DNA fingerprinting using a simple protocol developed in this study. DNA samples were obtained from a hair root and a drop of blood, common sources of DNA in forensic science. The DNA fingerprinting protocol…

  9. Victims Deserve More: The Building of a Forensics Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lili K.

    2007-01-01

    Because victims deserve more, The American Academy of Applied Forensics at Central Piedmont Community College was created to link cutting-edge forensics research to its field applications. It does this by enhancing the knowledge, skill, and ability levels of crime scene investigators, thereby increasing the likelihood that truth will be revealed…

  10. Plants & Perpetrators: Forensic Investigation in the Botany Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amy E.

    2006-01-01

    Applying botanical knowledge to a simulated forensic investigation provides inquiry-based and problem-based learning in the botany classroom. This paper details one such forensic investigation in which students use what they have learned about plant morphology and anatomy to analyze evidence and solve a murder mystery. (Contains 1 table.)

  11. Cross-Cultural Issues in Forensic Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layde, Joseph B.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Forensic psychiatry was officially recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties in the 1990's. In 1994, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) gave its first written examination to certify forensic psychiatrists. In 1996, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) began…

  12. A Term Project for a Course on Computer Forensics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Warren

    2006-01-01

    The typical approach to creating an examination disk for exercises and projects in a course on computer forensics is for the instructor to populate a piece of media with evidence to be retrieved. While such an approach supports the simple use of forensic tools, in many cases the use of an instructor-developed examination disk avoids utilizing some…

  13. Personality Characteristics of Undergraduates with Career Interests in Forensic Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberti, Jonathan W.

    2004-01-01

    The author assessed personality scores for 47 undergraduates enrolled in a forensic identification program. Results revealed no difference between men and women enrolled in the Forensic Identification Program on subscales of the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V), with the exception of Experience Seeking. Participants had lower Disinhibition scores…

  14. Forensic applications of microscopical infrared internal reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungol, Mary W.; Bartick, Edward G.; Reffner, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Applications of microscopical infrared internal reflection spectroscopy in forensic science are discussed. Internal reflection spectra of single fibers, hairs, paint chips, vehicle rubber bumpers, photocopy toners, carbon copies, writing ink on paper, lipstick on tissue, black electrical tape, and other types of forensic evidence have been obtained. The technique is convenient, non-destructive, and may permit smeared materials to be analyzed in situ.

  15. Current and future directions of DNA in wildlife forensic science.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca N; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Linacre, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Wildlife forensic science may not have attained the profile of human identification, yet the scale of criminal activity related to wildlife is extensive by any measure. Service delivery in the arena of wildlife forensic science is often ad hoc, unco-ordinated and unregulated, yet many of those currently dedicated to wildlife conservation and the protection of endangered species are striving to ensure that the highest standards are met. The genetic markers and software used to evaluate data in wildlife forensic science are more varied than those in human forensic identification and are rarely standardised between species. The time and resources required to characterise and validate each genetic maker is considerable and in some cases prohibitive. Further, issues are regularly encountered in the construction of allelic databases and allelic ladders; essential in human identification studies, but also applicable to wildlife criminal investigations. Accreditation and certification are essential in human identification and are currently being strived for in the forensic wildlife community. Examples are provided as to how best practice can be demonstrated in all areas of wildlife crime analysis and ensure that this field of forensic science gains and maintains the respect it deserves. This review is aimed at those conducting human identification to illustrate how research concepts in wildlife forensic science can be used in the criminal justice system, as well as describing the real importance of this type of forensic analysis. PMID:24680123

  16. History, research and practice of forensic anthropology in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Traithepchanapai, Pongpon; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Kranioti, Elena F

    2016-04-01

    Forensic anthropology is an increasingly developing discipline born about a century ago in the United States with the objective to contribute the knowledge of bone biology and physical anthropology to the emerging needs of the court of law. The development of research in biological and forensic anthropology has made rapid progress worldwide in the past few years, however, in most countries--with the exception of the United States--forensic anthropology work is still considered within the duties of the forensic pathologist. This paper attempts to summarise the history and development of forensic anthropology in Thailand by providing information on past and current research and practice that can help forensic practitioners to apply existing methods in forensic cases and mass disasters. It is hoped that the lessons learned from the tsunami catastrophe and the emerging need for positive identification in medicolegal settings will lead to rapid advances in education, training and professional engagement of anthropologists from the forensic departments and the law enforcement agencies in Thailand. PMID:26949023

  17. Forensics as a Laboratory Experience in Small Group Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeuschner, Raymond Bud

    Forensics programs can be laboratories for small group processes, whether or not they are explicitly recognized by either the participants or their teachers. Small group dynamics, as identified by M. Shaw (1981), are present and clearly define the forensic activity as a small group experience. The combination of being a small group, spending…

  18. Partners in Crime: Integrating Forensic Science and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Forensic science lends itself to many academic areas. Aside from the science itself, writing plays a major role in the investigation process as well as in the courtroom. It is paramount that students learn how to write proficiently when recording results or writing evaluations and reports, just as forensic scientists do. This can also be done…

  19. Linking Department and Forensics Directing in the Small College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derryberry, Bob R.

    Department chairmanship responsibilities are becoming heavier in the face of the demands associated with issues that challenge academic communities at the close of the 20th century. A director of forensics is occupied with decisions about the forensics program's philosophy, to provide understanding and impetus for team and individual goals, and…

  20. Forensic Friends Voice a Helping Hand in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodenhamer, Julia A.

    Volunteers are those who find that they have the ability to change at least one other person's life for the better. Public service programs can be established within the forensics medium. Such programs as "Kids on the Block," which uses puppetry to teach about individual differences, can benefit from forensics experience. Dramatic expertise,…