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1

Statistical Tools for Digital Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digitally altered photograph, often leaving no visual clues of having been tampered with, can be indistinguishable from an authentic photograph. As a result, photographs no longer hold the unique stature as a denitive recording of events. We describe several statistical techniques for detecting traces of digital tampering in the absence of any digital watermark or signature. In particular, we

Alin C. Popescu; Hany Farid

2004-01-01

2

Forensic anthropology casework-essential methodological considerations in stature estimation.  

PubMed

The examination of skeletal remains is a challenge to the medical examiner's/coroner's office and the forensic anthropologist conducting the investigation. One of the objectives of the medico-legal investigation is to estimate stature or height from various skeletal remains and body parts brought for examination. Various skeletal remains and body parts bear a positive and linear correlation with stature and have been successfully used for stature estimation. This concept is utilized in estimation of stature in forensic anthropology casework in mass disasters and other forensic examinations. Scientists have long been involved in standardizing the anthropological data with respect to various populations of the world. This review deals with some essential methodological issues that need to be addressed in research related to estimation of stature in forensic examinations. These issues have direct relevance in the identification of commingled or unknown remains and therefore it is essential that forensic nurses are familiar with the theories and techniques used in forensic anthropology. PMID:22372398

Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Menezes, Ritesh G; Ghosh, Abhik

2012-03-01

3

Methodology, Measurement, and Statistics  

NSF Publications Database

... economic, and statistical sciences. The primary goal of the fellowships are to facilitate the ... statistical sciences. In fulfillment of the primary goal, proposals must concretely demonstrate how ...

4

SNPs in forensic genetics: a review on SNP typing methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing interest in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing in the forensic field, not only for the usefulness of SNPs for defining Y chromosome or mtDNA haplogroups or for analyzing the geographical origin of samples, but also for the potential applications of autosomal SNPs. The interest of forensic researchers in autosomal SNPs has been attracted due to the

Beatriz Sobrino; María Brión; Angel Carracedo

2005-01-01

5

Non-Parametric Statistical Techniques for Computational Forensic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational forensic engineering is the process of identification of the tool or algorithm that was used to produce a particular output or solution by examining the structural properties of the output. We introduce a new Relative Generic Forensic Engineering (RGFE)technique that has several advantages over the previously proposed approaches. From the quantitative point of view, the new RGFE technique performs

Jennifer Lee Wong

6

Attitudes of relatives and staff towards family intervention in forensic services using Q methodology.  

PubMed

Attitudes about family interventions have been identified as a possible reason for the poor implementation of such treatments. The current study used Q methodology to investigate the attitudes of relatives of forensic service users and clinical staff towards family interventions in medium secure forensic units, particularly when facilitated by a web camera. Eighteen relatives and twenty-nine staff completed a sixty-one item Q sort to obtain their idiosyncratic views about family intervention. The results indicated that relatives and staff mostly held positive attitudes towards family intervention. Relatives showed some uncertainty towards family intervention that may reflect the lack of involvement they receive from the forensic service. Staff highlighted key barriers to successful implementation such as lack of dedicated staff time for family work and few staff adequately trained in family intervention. Despite agreement with the web-based forensic family intervention technique and its benefits, both staff and relatives predicted problems in the technique. PMID:22070759

Absalom-Hornby, V; Hare, D J; Gooding, P; Tarrier, N

2012-03-01

7

Higher-order Wavelet Statistics and their Application to Digital Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a statistical model for natural images that is built upon a multi-scale wavelet decomposition. The model consists of first- and higher-order statistics that capture certain statistical regularities of natural images. We show how this model can be useful in several digital forensic applications, specifically in detecting various types of digital tampering.

Hany Faridy; Siwei Lyu

2003-01-01

8

Escape from Psychiatrization: A Statistical Analysis of Referrals to a Forensic Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors offer a pertinent review of statistical studies concerning the psychiatric disorders in jail populations and present their statistical analysis of a group of 272 mentally ill inmates seen for competency evaluation at the Milwaukee County Mental Health Forensic Unit during a period of three years. The mentally ill pseudo-offenders have been divided by type of offense and typology

George B. Palermo; Edward J. Gumz; Maurice B. Smith; Frank J. Liska

1992-01-01

9

Statistical methodology in general psychiatric journals.  

PubMed

Development of psychiatric research methods requires systematic review of their status. This study describes the frequency with which various statistical research designs and methods are reported in general psychiatric journals. All original research articles in four psychiatric journals in 1996 were reviewed: The American Journal of Psychiatry (AJP), The Archives of General Psychiatry (AGP), The British Journal of Psychiatry (BJP) and the Nordic Journal of Psychiatry (NJP). Evaluation included 448 regular articles, which reported original research findings based on systematic collection and statistical analysis of research data. Aspects measured were research design, statistical methodology, description of procedures and presentation of results. Percentage frequencies of reported statistical procedures were compared between the journals. The policy of determining statistical significance was still the most generally used method of conducting research. Compared to earlier reviews, readers of psychiatric reports in 1996 more frequently encountered computer-dependent multivariate techniques. There were differences in the utilization and reporting of statistical procedures among the journals. The authors of psychiatric journals might apply these results in designing their psychiatric research to present intelligible and compact analysis combined with a high quality presentation technique, thus being in line with the policy and presentation of the leading psychiatric journals. PMID:12079575

Miettunen, Jouko; Nieminen, Pentti; Isohanni, Matti

2002-01-01

10

Statistical analyses to support forensic interpretation for a new ten-locus STR profiling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new ten-locus STR (short tandem repeat) profiling system was recently introduced into casework by the Forensic Science\\u000a Service (FSS) and statistical analyses are described here based on data collected using this new system for the three major\\u000a racial groups of the UK: Caucasian, Afro-Caribbean and Asian (of Indo-Pakistani descent). Allele distributions are compared\\u000a and the FSS position with regard

L. A. Foreman; I. W. Evett

2001-01-01

11

Blood species identification for forensic purposes using Raman spectroscopy combined with advanced statistical analysis.  

PubMed

Forensic analysis has become one of the most growing areas of analytical chemistry in recent years. The ability to determine the species of origin of a body fluid sample is a very important and crucial part of a forensic investigation. We introduce here a new technique which utilizes a modern analytical method based on the combination of Raman spectroscopy and advanced statistics to analyze the composition of blood traces from different species. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy (NIR) was used to analyze multiple dry samples of human, canine, and feline blood for the ultimate application to forensic species identification. All of the spectra were combined into a single data matrix, and the number of principle components that described the system was determined using multiple statistical methods such as significant factor analysis (SFA), principle component analysis (PCA), and several cross-validation methods. Of the six principle components that were determined to be present, the first three, which contributed over 90% to the spectral data of the system, were used to form a three-dimensional scores plot that clearly showed significant separation between the three groups of species. Ellipsoids representing a 99% confidence interval surrounding each species group showed no overlap. This technique using Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive and quick and can potentially be performed at the scene of a crime. PMID:19670872

Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

2009-09-15

12

Applying Statistical Process Quality Control Methodology to Educational Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A subset of Statistical Process Control (SPC) methodology known as Control Charting is introduced. SPC methodology is a collection of graphical and inferential statistics techniques used to study the progress of phenomena over time. The types of control charts covered are the null X (mean), R (Range), X (individual observations), MR (moving…

Blumberg, Carol Joyce

13

Process improvement methodology based on multivariate statistical analysis methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic procedure for process improvement methodology is proposed based on multivariate statistical process control methods. To take advantage of a large amount of historical data, the procedure employs a combination of hierarchical clustering method and statistical process control methods to detect and analyze the key factors that significantly affect the performance of processes. This methodology consists of four sequential

Young-Hak Lee; Kwang Gi Min; Chonghun Han; Kun Soo Chang; Tae Hwa Choi

2004-01-01

14

Multivariate statistical methods for the environmental forensic classification of coal tars from former manufactured gas plants.  

PubMed

Compositional disparity within a set of 23 coal tar samples (obtained from 15 different former manufactured gas plants) was compared and related to differences between historical on-site manufacturing processes. Samples were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction prior to analysis by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A suite of statistical techniques, including univariate analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, two-dimensional cluster analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA), were investigated to determine the optimal method for source identification of coal tars. The results revealed that multivariate statistical analysis (namely, PCA of normalized, preprocessed data) has the greatest potential for environmental forensic source identification of coal tars, including the ability to predict the processes used to create unknown samples. PMID:22335394

McGregor, Laura A; Gauchotte-Lindsay, Caroline; Daéid, Niamh Nic; Thomas, Russell; Kalin, Robert M

2012-04-01

15

A Statistical Framework for the Interpretation of mtDNA Mixtures: Forensic and Medical Applications  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation is commonly analyzed in a wide range of different biomedical applications. Cases where more than one individual contribute to a stain genotyped from some biological material give rise to a mixture. Most forensic mixture cases are analyzed using autosomal markers. In rape cases, Y-chromosome markers typically add useful information. However, there are important cases where autosomal and Y-chromosome markers fail to provide useful profiles. In some instances, usually involving small amounts or degraded DNA, mtDNA may be the only useful genetic evidence available. Mitochondrial DNA mixtures also arise in studies dealing with the role of mtDNA variation in tumorigenesis. Such mixtures may be generated by the tumor, but they could also originate in vitro due to inadvertent contamination or a sample mix-up. Methods/Principal Findings We present the statistical methods needed for mixture interpretation and emphasize the modifications required for the more well-known methods based on conventional markers to generalize to mtDNA mixtures. Two scenarios are considered. Firstly, only categorical mtDNA data is assumed available, that is, the variants contributing to the mixture. Secondly, quantitative data (peak heights or areas) on the allelic variants are also accessible. In cases where quantitative information is available in addition to allele designation, it is possible to extract more precise information by using regression models. More precisely, using quantitative information may lead to a unique solution in cases where the qualitative approach points to several possibilities. Importantly, these methods also apply to clinical cases where contamination is a potential alternative explanation for the data. Conclusions/Significance We argue that clinical and forensic scientists should give greater consideration to mtDNA for mixture interpretation. The results and examples show that the analysis of mtDNA mixtures contributes substantially to forensic casework and may also clarify erroneous claims made in clinical genetics regarding tumorigenesis.

Egeland, Thore; Salas, Antonio

2011-01-01

16

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

1973-01-01

17

Contingency Model: Some Implications of Its Statistical and Methodological Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statistical and methodological adequacy of several aspects of Fiedler's (1967) contingency model of leadership effectiveness is considered. It is suggested that the use of rank order correlations, instead of product moment correlations, produces disto...

S. C. Shiflett

1972-01-01

18

Assessment of the methodology for estimating ridge density in fingerprints and its forensic application.  

PubMed

In recent times, some studies have explored the forensic application of dermatoglyphic traits such as the epidermal ridge breadth or ridge density (RD) toward the inference of sex and population from fingerprints of unknown origin, as it has been demonstrated that there exist significant differences of fingerprints between sexes and between populations. Part of the population differences found between these studies could be of methodological nature, due both to the lack of standardisation in the position of the counting area, as well as to the differences in the method used for obtaining the fingerprint. Therefore, the aim of this study was to check whether there are differences between the RD of fingerprints depending on where the counting area is placed and how the fingerprints are obtained. Fingerprints of each finger were obtained from 102 adult Spanish subjects (50 females and 52 males), using two methods (plain and rolled). The ridge density of each fingerprint was assessed in five different areas of the dactylogram: two closer to the core area (one on the radial and the other on the ulnar side), two closer to the outermost area of each of the sides (radial and ulnar), and another one in the proximal region of the fingertip. Regardless of the method used and of the position of the counting area, thumbs and forefingers show a higher RD than middle, ring, and little fingers in both sexes, and females present a higher RD than males in all areas and fingers. In both males and females, RD values on the core region are higher than those on the outer region, irrespective of the technique of fingerprinting used (rolled or plain). Regardless of the sex and location of the count area (core or outer), the rolled fingerprints exhibit RD greater than that of the plain ones in both radial and proximal areas, whereas the trend is inverted in the ulnar area, where rolled fingerprints demonstrate RD lesser than that of the plain ones. Therefore, in order for the results of different studies to be comparable, it is necessary to standardise the position of the count area and to use the same method of obtaining the fingerprint, especially when involving a forensic application. PMID:24796949

Gutiérrez-Redomero, Esperanza; Rivaldería, Noemí; Alonso-Rodríguez, Concepción; Sánchez-Andrés, Ángeles

2014-05-01

19

STP Textbook Chapter 4: The Methodology of Statistical Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We develop the basic methodology of statistical mechanics and provide a microscopic foundation for the concepts of temperature and entropy. We use computer simulations will be to explore these concepts. These simulations can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan

2008-05-28

20

Forensic Audit Methodologies Used To Collect and Analyze Electronic Disbursements of Iraq Reconstruction Funds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Public Law 108-106, as amended, requires that the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR) prepare a final forensic audit report on all funding appropriated for the reconstruction of Iraq To address part of this requirement, we developed ...

A. T. Hatton B. H. Comfort D. Childress G. D. Furbish W. F. Bedwell

2010-01-01

21

Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part I: discrimination from related Salvia species.  

PubMed

Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic herb that is internationally regulated. In this study, salvinorin A, the active compound in S. divinorum, was extracted from S. divinorum plant leaves using a 5-min extraction with dichloromethane. Four additional Salvia species (Salvia officinalis, Salvia guaranitica, Salvia splendens, and Salvia nemorosa) were extracted using this procedure, and all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Differentiation of S. divinorum from other Salvia species was successful based on visual assessment of the resulting chromatograms. To provide a more objective comparison, the total ion chromatograms (TICs) were subjected to principal components analysis (PCA). Prior to PCA, the TICs were subjected to a series of data pretreatment procedures to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. Successful discrimination of S. divinorum from the other four Salvia species was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot. To provide a numerical assessment of the discrimination, a series of statistical procedures such as Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores. The statistical procedures were then compared to determine the advantages and disadvantages for forensic applications. PMID:22038586

Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

2012-01-01

22

A New Methodology to Rank Projects Using Multivariate Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational evaluation is a complex activity which demands a lot of effort. In order to accomplish this activity it is necessary to identify good and bad projects to treat problems and to consider improvements. This paper presents a new methodology to rank projects using principal component analysis, a simple and efficient multivariate statistical method. This method aggregates project measurement indicators

Karlson B. de Oliveira; J. Melo Moreira de Oliveira; Raimir Holanda Filho; A. D. Belchior

2007-01-01

23

A review of the methodological aspects of aspartic acid racemization analysis for use in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate age determination of adult cadavers and human remains is a key requirement in forensic practice. The current morphological methods lack accuracy and precision, require specialist training and are costly. The use of aspartic acid racemization (AAR) in human dentine provides a simple, cost-effective solution and the method can achieve accuracies of ±3 years at best. Currently, there are differences

E. R Waite; M. J Collins; S Ritz-Timme; H-W Schutz; C Cattaneo; H. I. M Borrman

1999-01-01

24

Taxonomy of computer forensics methodologies and procedures for digital evidence seizure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase risk and incidence of computer misuse has raised awareness in public and private sectors of the need to develop defensive and offensives responses. Such increase in incidence of criminal, illegal and inappropriate computer behavior has resulted in organizations forming specialist teams to investigate these behaviors. There is now widespread recognition of the importance of specialised forensic computing investigation

Krishnun Sansurooah

2006-01-01

25

Forensic Computing Theory & Practice: Towards developing a methodology for a standardised approach to Computer misuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing risk and incidence of computer misuse has raised awareness in the public and private sectors of the need to develop defensive and offensive responses. There is now widespread recognition of the importance of specialised forensic computing investigation (FCI) teams able to operate across conventional boundaries of law enforcement and national defence. More specifically, recent research on Australian FCI

Paul Turner; Sandra Frings; Mathew Hannan; Vlasti Broucek

2003-01-01

26

Statistical Methodologies to Integrate Experimental and Computational Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of advanced algorithms for simulating engine flow paths requires the integration of fundamental experiments with the validation of enhanced mathematical models. In this paper, we provide an overview of statistical methods to strategically and efficiently conduct experiments and computational model refinement. Moreover, the integration of experimental and computational research efforts is emphasized. With a statistical engineering perspective, scientific and engineering expertise is combined with statistical sciences to gain deeper insights into experimental phenomenon and code development performance; supporting the overall research objectives. The particular statistical methods discussed are design of experiments, response surface methodology, and uncertainty analysis and planning. Their application is illustrated with a coaxial free jet experiment and a turbulence model refinement investigation. Our goal is to provide an overview, focusing on concepts rather than practice, to demonstrate the benefits of using statistical methods in research and development, thereby encouraging their broader and more systematic application.

Parker, P. A.; Johnson, R. T.; Montgomery, D. C.

2008-01-01

27

Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part II: association of adulterated samples to S. divinorum.  

PubMed

Salvia divinorum is a plant material that is of forensic interest due to the hallucinogenic nature of the active ingredient, salvinorin A. In this study, S. divinorum was extracted and spiked onto four different plant materials (S. divinorum, Salvia officinalis, Cannabis sativa, and Nicotiana tabacum) to simulate an adulterated sample that might be encountered in a forensic laboratory. The adulterated samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting total ion chromatograms were subjected to a series of pretreatment procedures that were used to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. The data were then analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) to investigate association of the adulterated extracts to unadulterated S. divinorum. While association was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot, additional procedures including Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores to provide a statistical evaluation of the association observed. The advantages and limitations of each statistical procedure in a forensic context were compared and are presented herein. PMID:22160202

Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

2012-01-01

28

A validation framework for microbial forensic methods based on statistical pattern recognition  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses a general approach to validating microbial forensic methods that attempt to simultaneously distinguish among many hypotheses concerning the manufacture of a questioned biological agent sample. It focuses on the concrete example of determining growth medium from chemical or molecular properties of a bacterial agent to illustrate the concepts involved.

Velsko, S P

2007-11-12

29

Mexican mestizo population sub-structure: effects on genetic and forensic statistical parameters.  

PubMed

Since Mexican mestizos are an admixed population, it is necessary to determine the effects that the substructure of the population has on genetic and forensic parameters. With this aim, a study was performed with 15 STR loci (CODIS plus D2S1338 and D19S433) on 1,640 unrelated Mexican mestizos. We determine allele and genotypic frequencies observing departure from Hardy-Weinberg expectation (12 out of 15 loci, with an excess of homozygotes, Fis > 0), as well as pairs of loci in an apparent linkage disequilibrium (13 of 92 loci). We conducted a test for genetic population stratification, the results show that the Mexican mestizo population is substructured into three subgroups, which are in HW and linkage equilibrium. The combination of the 15 loci in the whole population has high forensic efficiency with the capacity to genetically discriminate one individual in one quintillion (1/10(18)). Our data potentially validates the use of these 15 STR loci to establish forensic identity and parentage testing for legal purposes, and offers a powerful tool for genetic variation analysis. However, given that the population is stratified, we highly recommend applying a correction with the inbreeding coefficient in calculations of paternity and forensic studies to avoid erroneous assumptions. PMID:22983890

Noris, Gino; Santana, Carla; Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio; de Lourdes Munoz, María; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Magaña, Jonathan J; Granados, Julio; Quezada, Rosa; Revilla, María Cristina; Martínez-Salas, Sergio; Xihuitl, Salvador; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Díaz-Badillo, Alvaro; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S; Gómez, Rocío

2012-12-01

30

A Hierarchical Statistic Methodology for Advanced Memory System Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Advances in technology have resulted in a widening of the gap between computing speed and memory access time. Data access time has become increasingly important for computer system design. Various hierarchical memory architectures have been developed. The performance of these advanced memory systems, however, varies with applications and problem sizes. How to reach an optimal cost/performance design eludes researchers still. In this study, the authors introduce an evaluation methodology for advanced memory systems. This methodology is based on statistical factorial analysis and performance scalability analysis. It is two fold: it first determines the impact of memory systems and application programs toward overall performance; it also identifies the bottleneck in a memory hierarchy and provides cost/performance comparisons via scalability analysis. Different memory systems can be compared in terms of mean performance or scalability over a range of codes and problem sizes. Experimental testing has been performed extensively on the Department of Energy's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) machines and benchmarks available at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to validate this newly proposed methodology. Experimental and analytical results show this methodology is simple and effective. It is a practical tool for memory system evaluation and design. Its extension to general architectural evaluation and parallel computer systems are possible and should be further explored.

Sun, X.-J.; He, D.; Cameron, K.W.; Luo, Y.

1999-04-12

31

Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.  

SciTech Connect

The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversary's task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

2013-02-01

32

A Methodology for the Development of Price Adjustment Systems for Statistically Based Restricted Performance Specifications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a methodology which can be used to develop price adjustment systems suited for statistically based, restricted performance specifications. An example of the use of this methodology for a specific situation, that of bituminous concrete...

J. H. Willenbrock P. A. Kopac

1976-01-01

33

Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

1989-01-01

34

Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A succinct but clear introduction to forensic entomology with an emphasis on the role of the forensic investigator. Covers life cycles, protocols, information to collect at the scene. Also provides links to other forensic entomology websites and resources.

0002-11-30

35

Improving the Statistical Methodology of Astronomical Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary observational astronomers are generally unfamiliar with the extensive advances made in mathematical and applied statistics during the past several decades. Astronomical problems can often be addressed by methods developed in statistical fields such as spatial point processes, density estimation, Bayesian statistics, and sampling theory. The common problem of bivariate linear regression illustrates the need for sophisticated methods. Astronomical problems

Eric D. Feigelson; Gutti Jogesh Babu

1992-01-01

36

Forensic Psychology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction to forensic psychology; Psychological structure of the administration of justice; The methods of forensic psychology; Psychological fundamentals of preliminary investigation; Psychological fundamentals of court proceedings; Psycholo...

A. V. Dulov

1976-01-01

37

Comparative forensic soil analysis of New Jersey state parks using a combination of simple techniques with multivariate statistics.  

PubMed

This study has shown that the combination of simple techniques with the use of multivariate statistics offers the potential for the comparative analysis of soil samples. Five samples were obtained from each of twelve state parks across New Jersey in both the summer and fall seasons. Each sample was examined using particle-size distribution, pH analysis in both water and 1 M CaCl2 , and a loss on ignition technique. Data from each of the techniques were combined, and principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) were used for multivariate data transformation. Samples from different locations could be visually differentiated from one another using these multivariate plots. Hold-one-out cross-validation analysis showed error rates as low as 3.33%. Ten blind study samples were analyzed resulting in no misclassifications using Mahalanobis distance calculations and visual examinations of multivariate plots. Seasonal variation was minimal between corresponding samples, suggesting potential success in forensic applications. PMID:24502530

Bonetti, Jennifer; Quarino, Lawrence

2014-05-01

38

The Power of Teaching Activities: Statistical and Methodological Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers rarely mention statistical power in "Teaching of Psychology" teaching activity studies. Insufficiently powered tests promote uncertainty in the decision to accept or reject the tested null hypothesis and influence the interpretation of results. We analyzed the a priori power of statistical tests from 197 teaching activity effectiveness…

Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob

2009-01-01

39

Ordnance and Explosives Site Statistical Sampling Methodology (SiteStats).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SiteStats/GridStats is a statistical sampling decision support tool that statistically characterizes the density of ordnance at FUD sites. SiteStats/GridStats was jointly developed by the Huntsville Division Corps of Engineers and QuantiTech Inc. This too...

A. Fanning J. L. Riggs

1996-01-01

40

Improving manufacturing quality through planned experiments: statistical methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Planned experimentation is a powerful tool to improve quality of industrial manufacturing processes, in an environment placing prime concern on top quality. The goals are to manufacture products that function best possible, to achieve a minimum variability of the production process, and to secure product robustness against noise in the customer's environment. Statistically planned experiments are a tool to

Markus Abt; Friedrich Pukelsheim

41

Forensic DNA testing.  

PubMed

Forensic DNA testing has a number of applications, including parentage testing, identifying human remains from natural or man-made disasters or terrorist attacks, and solving crimes. This article provides background information followed by an overview of the process of forensic DNA testing, including sample collection, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, short tandem repeat (STR) allele separation and sizing, typing and profile interpretation, statistical analysis, and quality assurance. The article concludes with discussions of possible problems with the data and other forensic DNA testing techniques. PMID:22135660

Butler, John M

2011-12-01

42

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

Cobb, P. G. W.

1973-01-01

43

Statistical methodologies for the control of dynamic remapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following an initial mapping of a problem onto a multiprocessor machine or computer network, system performance often deteriorates with time. In order to maintain high performance, it may be necessary to remap the problem. The decision to remap must take into account measurements of performance deterioration, the cost of remapping, and the estimated benefits achieved by remapping. We examine the tradeoff between the costs and the benefits of remapping two qualitatively different kinds of problems. One problem assumes that performance deteriorates gradually, the other assumes that performance deteriorates suddenly. We consider a variety of policies for governing when to remap. In order to evaluate these policies, statistical models of problem behaviors are developed. Simulation results are presented which compare simple policies with computationally expensive optimal decision policies; these results demonstrate that for each problem type, the proposed simple policies are effective and robust.

Saltz, J. H.; Nicol, D. M.

1986-01-01

44

Forensic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is

Suzanne Bell

2009-01-01

45

Forensic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Academy of Forensic Engineers (1) provides a short definition of forensic engineering as: "the application of the art and science of engineering in matters which are in, or may possibly relate to the jurisprudence system, inclusive of alternative dispute resolution." Specialty areas in forensic engineering include fire investigation, industrial accidents, product liability, traffic accidents, civil engineering and transportation disasters, and environmental systems failures. For example, forensic engineers investigate structural collapses, such as the 2004 Paris Airport collapse described in this article from the Institution of Structural Engineers (2) This website from Materials Evaluation and Engineering, Inc. (3) points out that materials engineering is useful in product failure analysis because many products fail due to materials problems. Given the role forensic engineers play in legal disputes, research in forensic engineering is also a topic on this engineering ethics website (4). Forensic-Evidence.com (5 ) offers The Forensic Center Newsletter, which aims "to stimulate interdisciplinary efforts and research that unite, explore, and advance knowledge in the broad areas of law, medicine, and forensic sciences." This website from the Engineering Forensics Research Institute provides some examples of current research in forensic engineering (6). Finally, Glendale High School offers this Civil Structures Module (7) as a resource for teaching about topics related to forensic engineering, using the 1981 Kansas City Hyatt Regency walkway collapse as an example for analysis.

46

Statistical methodological issues in mapping historical schistosomiasis survey data.  

PubMed

For schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases for which resources for control are still limited, model-based maps are needed for prioritising spatial targeting of control interventions and surveillance of control programmes. Bayesian geostatistical modelling has been widely and effectively used to generate smooth empirical risk maps. In this paper, we review important issues related to the modelling of schistosomiasis risk, including Bayesian computation of large datasets, heterogeneity of historical survey data, stationary and isotropy assumptions and novel approaches for Bayesian geostatistical variable selection. We provide an example of advanced Bayesian geostatistical variable selection based on historical prevalence data of Schistosoma mansoni in Côte d'Ivoire. We include a "parameter expanded normal mixture of inverse-gamma" prior for the regression coefficients, which in turn allows selection of blocks of covariates, particularly categorical variables. The implemented Bayesian geostatistical variable selection provided a rigorous approach for the selection of predictors within a Bayesian geostatistical framework, identified the most important predictors of S. mansoni infection risk and led to a more parsimonious model compared to traditional selection approaches that ignore the spatial structure in the data. In conclusion, statistical advances in Bayesian geostatistical modelling offer unique opportunities to account for important inherent characteristics of the Schistosoma infection, and hence Bayesian geostatistical models can guide the spatial targeting of control interventions. PMID:23648217

Chammartin, Frédérique; Hürlimann, Eveline; Raso, Giovanna; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

2013-11-01

47

Automatic brain tumor detection in MRI: methodology and statistical validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated brain tumor segmentation and detection are immensely important in medical diagnostics because it provides information associated to anatomical structures as well as potential abnormal tissue necessary to delineate appropriate surgical planning. In this work, we propose a novel automated brain tumor segmentation technique based on multiresolution texture information that combines fractal Brownian motion (fBm) and wavelet multiresolution analysis. Our wavelet-fractal technique combines the excellent multiresolution localization property of wavelets to texture extraction of fractal. We prove the efficacy of our technique by successfully segmenting pediatric brain MR images (MRIs) from St. Jude Children"s Research Hospital. We use self-organizing map (SOM) as our clustering tool wherein we exploit both pixel intensity and multiresolution texture features to obtain segmented tumor. Our test results show that our technique successfully segments abnormal brain tissues in a set of T1 images. In the next step, we design a classifier using Feed-Forward (FF) neural network to statistically validate the presence of tumor in MRI using both the multiresolution texture and the pixel intensity features. We estimate the corresponding receiver operating curve (ROC) based on the findings of true positive fractions and false positive fractions estimated from our classifier at different threshold values. An ROC, which can be considered as a gold standard to prove the competence of a classifier, is obtained to ascertain the sensitivity and specificity of our classifier. We observe that at threshold 0.4 we achieve true positive value of 1.0 (100%) sacrificing only 0.16 (16%) false positive value for the set of 50 T1 MRI analyzed in this experiment.

Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Islam, Mohammad A.; Shaik, Jahangheer; Parra, Carlos; Ogg, Robert

2005-04-01

48

Forensic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

Bell, Suzanne

2009-07-01

49

Forensic chemistry.  

PubMed

Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence. PMID:20636064

Bell, Suzanne

2009-01-01

50

Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1992 the National Research Council issued DNA Technology in Forensic Science, a book that documented the state of the art in this field. The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence reports on developments in population genetics and statistics since the ori...

1996-01-01

51

Application of statistical methodology to the optimization of fermentative medium for carotenoids production by Rhodobacter sphaeroides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical methodology, combining Plackett–Burman design (PBD) with uniform design (UD), was applied to optimize the concentrations of different inorganic salt components in liquid fermentative medium for carotenoids production by Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Among eleven inorganic salts investigated with PBD, MgSO4, Na2HPO4, FeSO4 and Na2CO3 were selected out based on their statistically significant (P<0.05) and positive effects on carotenoids yield. UD

Deming Chen; Yonbin Han; Zhenxin Gu

2006-01-01

52

E-learning initiatives in forensic interpretation: report on experiences from current projects and outlook.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the purpose, design, methodology and target audience of E-learning courses in forensic interpretation offered by the authors since 2010, including practical experiences made throughout the implementation period of this project. This initiative was motivated by the fact that reporting results of forensic examinations in a logically correct and scientifically rigorous way is a daily challenge for any forensic practitioner. Indeed, interpretation of raw data and communication of findings in both written and oral statements are topics where knowledge and applied skills are needed. Although most forensic scientists hold educational records in traditional sciences, only few actually followed full courses that focussed on interpretation issues. Such courses should include foundational principles and methodology - including elements of forensic statistics - for the evaluation of forensic data in a way that is tailored to meet the needs of the criminal justice system. In order to help bridge this gap, the authors' initiative seeks to offer educational opportunities that allow practitioners to acquire knowledge and competence in the current approaches to the evaluation and interpretation of forensic findings. These cover, among other aspects, probabilistic reasoning (including Bayesian networks and other methods of forensic statistics, tools and software), case pre-assessment, skills in the oral and written communication of uncertainty, and the development of independence and self-confidence to solve practical inference problems. E-learning was chosen as a general format because it helps to form a trans-institutional online-community of practitioners from varying forensic disciplines and workfield experience such as reporting officers, (chief) scientists, forensic coordinators, but also lawyers who all can interact directly from their personal workplaces without consideration of distances, travel expenses or time schedules. In the authors' experience, the proposed learning initiative supports participants in developing their expertise and skills in forensic interpretation, but also offers an opportunity for the associated institutions and the forensic community to reinforce the development of a harmonized view with regard to interpretation across forensic disciplines, laboratories and judicial systems. PMID:23122648

Biedermann, A; Hicks, T; Voisard, R; Taroni, F; Champod, C; Aitken, C G G; Evett, I W

2013-07-10

53

1. TRAINING REGULAR EDUCATION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS IN THE USE OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND STATISTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blumberg's paper gives a most comprehensive overview of the research skills researchers in any social science, and in particular education, should be familiar with before carrying out their own research. The author is to be congratulated for such an informative and well-researched paper. In discussing the research methodology and statistics needs of primary and secondary level teachers seeking Master's for

BRIAN PHILLIPS

54

Forensic Anthropology and Forensic Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents a critical analysis of forensic anthropology. An evaluation of the conception of forensic anthropology\\u000a across European and American countries is attempted. Furthermore, the authors set out to identify the growing fields in which\\u000a the anthropologist is involved, alone or together with forensic pathologists.\\u000a \\u000a Certification, training requirements, and teaching are rather heterogeneous across the several countries analyzed. Yet,

Eugénia Cunha; Cristina Cattaneo

55

The frequency of apparent acetone in a group of breath alcohol data: statistical treatment and forensic implications.  

PubMed

The potential presence of interfering substances (specifically acetone) is a concern in the forensic reporting of evidential breath alcohol analysis. As a result, manufacturers have designed instruments to monitor its occurrence through various hardware and software features. This paper is a retrospective study where 35,945 duplicate breath samples from BAC Verifier DataMaster instruments are evaluated for the frequency of 'interferant' values > or = 0.010 g per 210 l ethanol equivalent. A total of 264 (0.74%) of the duplicate samples had an interferant value on the first sample only, while 235 (0.66%) had interferant values on the second samples only. A total of 77 (0.21%) of the duplicate samples had in interferant values on both breath samples and only in these cases could the presence of measurable acetone even be considered. The occurrence of interferant results appeared also to be instrument-dependent with 55.7% of the interferant values on the first breath sample occurring on nine (13%) of the instruments displaying such results. The occurrences of interferant values on the first breath sample did not conform to the Poisson distribution (P < 0.0001) for the instrument with the largest number of occurrences, while there was conformance for other instruments evaluated. Finally, approximately 23 cases (0.064%) remained where the presence of acetone is a possible consideration. Several issues are presented that the forensic scientist should consider when attempting to explain an apparent interferant result in an individual case. It should be remembered that measurement results need to be interpreted in their context, and data analysis concerning an instrument's performance should be considered. PMID:8082863

Gullberg, R G

1994-06-28

56

Forensic Web Watch Forensic Podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search for forensic podiatry sites on the Internet revealed thousands of ‘hits’, of which very few were of any educational merit. Following extensive sifting of these addresses, it was found that only a few of the associations for human identification included any information on forensic podiatry methods. The search was also made difficult by many websites failing to make

T Brown; G. N Rutty

2003-01-01

57

Promises and challenges of pharmacogenetics: an overview of study design, methodological and statistical issues  

PubMed Central

Pharmacogenetics is the study of inherited variation in drug response. The goal of pharmacogenetics is to develop novel ways of maximizing drug efficacy and minimizing toxicity for individual patients. Personalized medicine has the potential to allow for a patient's genetic information to predict optimal dosage for a drug with a narrow therapeutic index, to select the most appropriate pharmacological agent for a given patient and to develop cost-effective treatments. Although there is supporting evidence in favour of pharmacogenetics, its adoption in clinical practice has been slow because of sometimes conflicting findings among studies. This failure to replicate findings may result from a lack of high-quality pharmacogenetic studies, as well as unresolved methodological and statistical issues. The objective of this review is to discuss the benefits of incorporating pharmacogenetics into clinical practice. We will also address outstanding methodological and statistical issues that may lead to heterogeneity among reported pharmacogenetic studies and how they may be addressed.

Ross, Stephanie; Anand, Sonia S; Joseph, Philip; Pare, Guillaume

2012-01-01

58

Medium Optimization Based on Statistical Methodologies for Pristinamycins Production by Streptomyces pristinaespiralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimization of nutrient levels for the production of pristinamycins by Streptomyces pristinaespiralis CGMCC 0957 in submerged fermentation was carried out using the statistical methodologies based on the Plackett–Burman design,\\u000a the steepest ascent method, and the central composite design (CCD). First, the Plackett–Burman design was applied to evaluate\\u000a the influence of related nutrients in the medium. Soluble starch and MgSO4·7H2O

B. Jia; Z. H. Jin; L. H. Mei

2008-01-01

59

Forensic Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic pathology is a branch of medicine that deals with the determination of the cause and manner of death in cases in\\u000a which death occurred under suspicious or unknown circumstances. Identification of the decedent and interpretation of postmortem\\u000a changes are duties of the forensic pathologist. Sudden death from natural disease frequently involves vascular disease, obstructive\\u000a or reactive lung disease, diabetes

Frank P. Miller; Jeffrey J. Barnard

60

CPR methodology with new steady-state criterion and more accurate statistical treatment of channel bow  

SciTech Connect

An overview is given of existing CPR design criteria and the methods used in BWR reload analysis to evaluate the impact of channel bow on CPR margins. Potential weaknesses in today's methodologies are discussed. Westinghouse in collaboration with KKL and Axpo - operator and owner of the Leibstadt NPP - has developed an optimized CPR methodology based on a new criterion to protect against dryout during normal operation and with a more rigorous treatment of channel bow. The new steady-state criterion is expressed in terms of an upper limit of 0.01 for the dryout failure probability per year. This is considered a meaningful and appropriate criterion that can be directly related to the probabilistic criteria set-up for the analyses of Anticipated Operation Occurrences (AOOs) and accidents. In the Monte Carlo approach a statistical modeling of channel bow and an accurate evaluation of CPR response functions allow the associated CPR penalties to be included directly in the plant SLMCPR and OLMCPR in a best-estimate manner. In this way, the treatment of channel bow is equivalent to all other uncertainties affecting CPR. Emphasis is put on quantifying the statistical distribution of channel bow throughout the core using measurement data. The optimized CPR methodology has been implemented in the Westinghouse Monte Carlo code, McSLAP. The methodology improves the quality of dryout safety assessments by supplying more valuable information and better control of conservatisms in establishing operational limits for CPR. The methodology is demonstrated with application examples from the introduction at KKL. (authors)

Baumgartner, S. [Axpo AG, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Bieli, R. [Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt AG, CH-5325 Leibstadt (Switzerland); Bergmann, U. C. [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, SE-721 63 Vaesteraas (Sweden)

2012-07-01

61

An Examination of Digital Forensic Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law enforcement is in a perpetual race with criminals in the application of digital technologies, and requires the development of tools to systematically search digital devices for pertinent evidence. Another part of this race, and perhaps more crucial, is the development of a methodology in digital forensics that encompasses the forensic analysis of all genres of digital crime scene investigations.

Mark Reith; Clint Carr; Gregg H. Gunsch

2002-01-01

62

A PIV Methodology for High-Resolution Measurement of Flow Statistics  

SciTech Connect

Particle-image velocimetry (PIV) is a flow-diagnostic technique that provides velocity fields from a comparison of images of particulate-laden flow. We have developed a PIV processing methodology that extracts measurements of the particle-displacement histogram from a flow video or ensemble of flow-image pairs. Single-pixel measurement of mean velocity can be obtained from an ensemble of {Omicron}10{sup 3} images. Measurements of higher-order moments of the velocity histogram require spatial averaging (i.e., lower spatial resolution), larger ensembles of images, or a combination of the two. We present single-pixel-resolution PIV measurements of a steady microflow and high-resolution measurements of the velocity histogram of a stationary turbulent flow. This methodology has applications in quantifying velocity statistics in other stochastic flows, e.g., bulk and near-wall boiling.

Eric B. Cummings; Robert W. Schefer; Jacob N. Chung

2000-11-05

63

New advances in methodology for statistical tests useful in geostatistical studies  

SciTech Connect

Methodology for statistical procedures to perform tests of hypothesis pertaining to various aspects of geostatistical investigations has been slow in developing. The correlated nature of the data precludes most classical tests and makes the design of new tests difficult. Recent studies have led to modifications of the classical t test which allow for the intercorrelation. In addition, results for certain nonparametric tests have been obtained. The conclusions of these studies provide a variety of new tools for the geostatistician in deciding questions on significant differences and magnitudes.

Borgman, L.E.

1988-05-01

64

Statistical methodological issues in handling of fatty acid data: percentage or concentration, imputation and indices.  

PubMed

Basic aspects in the handling of fatty acid-data have remained largely underexposed. Of these, we aimed to address three statistical methodological issues, by quantitatively exemplifying their imminent confounding impact on analytical outcomes: (1) presenting results as relative percentages or absolute concentrations, (2) handling of missing/non-detectable values, and (3) using structural indices for data-reduction. Therefore, we reanalyzed an example dataset containing erythrocyte fatty acid-concentrations of 137 recurrently depressed patients and 73 controls. First, correlations between data presented as percentages and concentrations varied for different fatty acids, depending on their correlation with the total fatty acid-concentration. Second, multiple imputation of non-detects resulted in differences in significance compared to zero-substitution or omission of non-detects. Third, patients' chain length-, unsaturation-, and peroxidation-indices were significantly lower compared to controls, which corresponded with patterns interpreted from individual fatty acid tests. In conclusion, results from our example dataset show that statistical methodological choices can have a significant influence on outcomes of fatty acid analysis, which emphasizes the relevance of: (1) hypothesis-based fatty acid-presentation (percentages or concentrations), (2) multiple imputation, preventing bias introduced by non-detects; and (3) the possibility of using (structural) indices, to delineate fatty acid-patterns thereby preventing multiple testing. PMID:22446846

Mocking, Roel J T; Assies, Johanna; Lok, Anja; Ruhé, Henricus G; Koeter, Maarten W J; Visser, Ieke; Bockting, Claudi L H; Schene, Aart H

2012-05-01

65

Development of a simple and low-cost enzymatic methodology for quantitative analysis of carbamates in meat samples of forensic interest.  

PubMed

Foods contaminated with a granulated material similar to Temik (a commercial pesticide formulation containing the carbamate insecticide aldicarb) are often involved in accidental ingestion, suicides, and homicides in Brazil. We developed a simple technique to detect aldicarb. This technique is based on the inhibition of a stable preparation of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, and it is specially adapted for forensic purposes. It comprises an initial extraction step with the solvent methylene chloride followed by a colorimetric acetylcholinesterase assay. We propose that results of testing contaminated forensic samples be expressed in aldicarb equivalents because, even though all other carbamates are also potent enzyme inhibitors, aldicarb is the contaminant most frequently found in forensic samples. This method is rapid (several samples can be run in a period of 2 h) and low cost. This method also proved to be precise and accurate, detecting concentrations as low as 40 microg/kg of aldicarb in meat samples. PMID:20345797

Sabino, Bruno Duarte; Torraca, Tathiana Guilliod; Moura, Claudia Melo; Rozenbaum, Hannah Felicia; de Castro Faria, Mauro Velho

2010-05-01

66

Forensic entomology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques,

Jens Amendt; Roman Krettek; Richard Zehner

2004-01-01

67

Forensic microbiology.  

PubMed

The field of forensic microbiology is fairly new and still evolving. With a threat of bioterror and biocrime, the rapid identification and subtyping of infectious agents is of upmost importance. Microbial genetic analysis is a valuable tool in this arena. The cost to sequence a microbial genome has fallen dramatically in recent years making this method more widely available. Surveillance and vigilance are important as is further research. The United States Department of Homeland Security established the Bioforensics Analysis Center to become the foremost U.S. biodefense research institution involved with bioforensics. Many countries are better prepared for biologic events than ever before, but more work is needed. Most medical laboratory scientists are not familiar with forensic principles or testifying in court. Demonstrating chain of custody and quality assurance are critical so that test results will be admissible in a court of law. The Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics has published guidelines for forensic microbiology laboratories. Incorporating these guidelines help to provide test results that are useful in legal proceedings. If a laboratory scientist suspects bioterror or biocrime, or other legal case, law enforcement agents must be notified and diagnostic samples preserved. Additional sample testing might be necessary in court cases. PMID:22693782

Lehman, Donald C

2012-01-01

68

Forensic Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Brigham, J., & Grisso, T. (2003). Forensic Psychology. In D.K. Friedheim & I.B. Weiner (eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychology. Vol. 1: The history of psychology, (pp. 391-411). New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0471383201, 9780471383208.\\u000aLimited preview available via Google Books.

John C. Brigham; Thomas Grisso

2003-01-01

69

Graduate training in statistics, methodology, and measurement in psychology: A survey of PhD programs in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada assessed the extent to which advances in statistics, measurement, and method- ology have been incorporated into doctoral training. In all, 84% of the 222 departments responded. The statistical and methodological curriculum has advanced little in 20 years; measurement has experienced a substantial decline. Typical first-year courses

Leona S. Aiken; Stephen G. West; Lee Sechrest; Raymond R. Reno; Henry L. Roediger; Sandra Scarr; Alan E. Kazdin; Steven J. Sherman

1990-01-01

70

Forensic science – A true science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the US jurisprudence of the 1993 Daubert hearing requires judges to question not only the methodology behind, but also the principles governing, a body of knowledge to qualify it as scientific, can forensic science, based on Locard's and Kirk's Principles, pretend to this higher status in the courtroom? Moving away from the disputable American legal debate, this historical and

Frank Crispino; Olivier Ribaux; Max Houck; Pierre Margot

2011-01-01

71

Forensic detection of noise addition in digital images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed a technique to detect the global addition of noise to a digital image. As an anti-forensics tool, noise addition is typically used to disguise the visual traces of image tampering or to remove the statistical artifacts left behind by other operations. As such, the blind detection of noise addition has become imperative as well as beneficial to authenticate the image content and recover the image processing history, which is the goal of general forensics techniques. Specifically, the special image blocks, including constant and strip ones, are used to construct the features for identifying noise addition manipulation. The influence of noising on blockwise pixel value distribution is formulated and analyzed formally. The methodology of detectability recognition followed by binary decision is proposed to ensure the applicability and reliability of noising detection. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed noising detector.

Cao, Gang; Zhao, Yao; Ni, Rongrong; Ou, Bo; Wang, Yongbin

2014-03-01

72

A statistical methodology to improve accuracy in differentiating schizophrenia patients from healthy controls.  

PubMed

We present a methodology to statistically discriminate among univariate and multivariate indices to improve accuracy in differentiating schizophrenia patients from healthy controls. Electroencephalogram data from 71 subjects (37 controls/34 patients) were analyzed. Data included P300 event-related response amplitudes and latencies as well as amplitudes and sensory gating indices derived from the P50, N100, and P200 auditory-evoked responses resulting in 20 indices analyzed. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analyses identified significant univariate indices; these underwent principal component analysis (PCA). Logistic regression of PCA components created a multivariate composite used in the final ROC. Eleven univariate ROCs were significant with area under the curve (AUC) >0.50. PCA of these indices resulted in a three-factor solution accounting for 76.96% of the variance. The first factor was defined primarily by P200 and P300 amplitudes, the second by P50 ratio and difference scores, and the third by P300 latency. ROC analysis using the logistic regression composite resulted in an AUC of 0.793 (0.06), p<0.001 (CI=0.685-0.901). A composite score of 0.456 had a sensitivity of 0.829 (correctly identifying schizophrenia patients) and a specificity of 0.703 (correctly identifying healthy controls). Results demonstrated the usefulness of combined statistical techniques in creating a multivariate composite that improves diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24613007

Peters, Rosalind M; Gjini, Klevest; Templin, Thomas N; Boutros, Nash N

2014-05-30

73

Xbox Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsoft's Xbox game console is little more than a low-end personal computer; with a small amount of effort it can be modified to run additional operating systems, enabling it to store gigabytes worth of non-game-related files in addition to allowing it to run various computer services. Little has been published, however, on the proper forensic procedures to determine whether an

Paul K. Burke; Philip Craiger

2006-01-01

74

Forensic Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic assessment has grown and advanced significantly during the last twenty years in particular. The present chapter has\\u000a reviewed and critically analyzed conceptual and empirical developments, as well as the addition of a variety of FAIs and FRIs\\u000a that are relevant to the legal decision-making process. Despite the important advances that we have described in this chapter,\\u000a however, there is

Kirk Heilbrun; Richard Rogers; Randy K. Otto

75

Microbial Forensics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how microbial forensics is a relatively new field that can help in solving cases such as: bioterrorism attacks, medical negligence, and outbreaks of foodborne diseases. The paper is suitable for undergraduate and beyond levels. Excerpts from the paper are provided in a companion article at http://www.actionbioscience.org/newfrontiers/salyersarticle.html, suitable for middle school and lower division high school reading.

Abigail Salyers (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign;)

2004-01-01

76

Molecular Forensics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can we establish the origin of an infection by looking at DNA? In the 1990âÂÂs, suspicion that HIV in several individuals could be linked to a local dentist was investigated. We will take a closer look at sequence data from this dentist and other HIV positive individuals including patients who believed they were exposed to HIV during dental procedures. * examine viral DNA sequence data as forensic evidence

Sam Donovan (University of Pittsburgh;Biology)

2006-05-20

77

FORENSIC OBSTETRICS  

PubMed Central

Some of the more important and current aspects of forensic obstetrics are, broadly, 1. Fulfillment of basic criteria in all cases of alleged traumatic abortion. 2. Utilization of therapeutic abortion review boards, as well as sterilization committees, in all hospitals, with the active support of such committees by all those physicians interested in advancing the art and practice of obstetrics. 3. Early and active joint study of professional liability problems by combined groups of physicians and lawyers in every community.

Russell, Keith P.

1959-01-01

78

Forensic geomorphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

2014-02-01

79

Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics—microbial forensics—has been created, which is focused

Bruce Budowle; Randall Murch; Ranajit Chakraborty

2005-01-01

80

Forensic Science: Best Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All about forensic science Forensic Science for High School Do you watch CSI? You should look at related Web site! How about this one? FORENSIC SCIENCE and have a look at what the Scout Report has to say: Court TV: Forensic Files And don\\'t forget about CSI CSI: The TV Show ...

M., Marcia

2007-03-08

81

Bayesian Integrated Microbial Forensics  

SciTech Connect

In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax letters, researchers have been exploring ways to predict the production environment of unknown source microorganisms. Different mass spectral techniques are being developed to characterize components of a microbe’s culture medium including water, carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions added, and the presence of agar. Individually, each technique has the potential to identify one or two ingredients in a culture medium recipe. However, by integrating data from multiple mass spectral techniques, a more complete characterization is possible. We present a Bayesian statistical approach to integrated microbial forensics and illustrate its application on spores grown in different culture media.

Jarman, Kristin H.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wunschel, David S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.

2008-06-01

82

Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*  

PubMed Central

This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice.

Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2009-01-01

83

Exploring relationship between asthma and air pollution: a geospatial methodology using dasymetric mapping, GIS analysis, and spatial statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents methodology using dasymetric mapping from remotely sensed imagery, geographic information system (GIS), spatial analysis and spatial statistics to explore relationship between asthma and air pollution in the Pensacola metropolitan region of Florida. Health outcome indicators thought to be sensitive to increased exposure of airborne environmental hazards are mortality and morbidity rates for total population asthma patients. Environmental

Z. Hu; Johan Liebens; Ranga Rao

2007-01-01

84

Advances in the Statistical Methodology for the Selection of Image Descriptors for Visual Pattern Representation and Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the statistical methodology for selectingoptimal subsets of features (image descriptors) for visual pattern representationand classification are presented. The paper attempts to providea guideline about which approach to choose with respect to the a prioriknowledge of the problem. Two basic approaches are reviewed and theconditions under which they should be used are specified. References tomore detailed material about

Pavel Pudil; Jana Novovicová; Francesc J. Ferri; Josef Kittler

1995-01-01

85

Statistical methodology to evaluate food exposure to a contaminant and influence of sanitary limits: application to Ochratoxin A  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some statistical methodologies to evaluate the food exposure to a contaminant and quantify the outcome of a new maximum limit on a food item. Our application deals with Ochratoxin A (OTA). We focus on the quantitative evaluation of the distribution of exposure based on both consumption data and contamination data. One specific aspect of contamination data is

J. Tressou; J. Ch. Leblanc; M. Feinberg; P. Bertail

2004-01-01

86

Reporting characteristics of meta-analyses in orthodontics: methodological assessment and statistical recommendations.  

PubMed

Ideally meta-analyses (MAs) should consolidate the characteristics of orthodontic research in order to produce an evidence-based answer. However severe flaws are frequently observed in most of them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the statistical methods, the methodology, and the quality characteristics of orthodontic MAs and to assess their reporting quality during the last years. Electronic databases were searched for MAs (with or without a proper systematic review) in the field of orthodontics, indexed up to 2011. The AMSTAR tool was used for quality assessment of the included articles. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test, one-way ANOVA, and generalized linear modelling. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to represent changes during the years in reporting of key items associated with quality. A total of 80 MAs with 1086 primary studies were included in this evaluation. Using the AMSTAR tool, 25 (27.3%) of the MAs were found to be of low quality, 37 (46.3%) of medium quality, and 18 (22.5%) of high quality. Specific characteristics like explicit protocol definition, extensive searches, and quality assessment of included trials were associated with a higher AMSTAR score. Model selection and dealing with heterogeneity or publication bias were often problematic in the identified reviews. The number of published orthodontic MAs is constantly increasing, while their overall quality is considered to range from low to medium. Although the number of MAs of medium and high level seems lately to rise, several other aspects need improvement to increase their overall quality. PMID:23493385

Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Papadopoulos, Moschos A; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

2014-02-01

87

Chemical profiling of different hashish seizures by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and statistical methodology: a case report.  

PubMed

Limited information is available regarding the methodology required to characterize hashish seizures for assessing the presence or the absence of a chemical link between two seizures. This casework report presents the methodology applied for assessing that two different police seizures were coming from the same block before this latter one was split. The chemical signature was extracted using GC-MS analysis and the implemented methodology consists in a study of intra- and inter-variability distributions based on the measurement of the chemical profiles similarity using a number of hashish seizures and the calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficient. Different statistical scenarios (i.e., a combination of data pretreatment techniques and selection of target compounds) were tested to find the most discriminating one. Seven compounds showing high discrimination capabilities were selected on which a specific statistical data pretreatment was applied. Based on the results, the statistical model built for comparing the hashish seizures leads to low error rates. Therefore, the implemented methodology is suitable for the chemical profiling of hashish seizures. PMID:24008198

Cadola, Liv; Broséus, Julian; Esseiva, Pierre

2013-10-10

88

Evaluation of Statistical Methodologies Used in U. S. Army Ordnance and Explosive Work  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center (Huntsville, AL) to evaluate the mathematical basis of existing software tools used to assist the Army with the characterization of sites potentially contaminated with unexploded ordnance (UXO). These software tools are collectively known as SiteStats/GridStats. The first purpose of the software is to guide sampling of underground anomalies to estimate a site's UXO density. The second purpose is to delineate areas of homogeneous UXO density that can be used in the formulation of response actions. It was found that SiteStats/GridStats does adequately guide the sampling so that the UXO density estimator for a sector is unbiased. However, the software's techniques for delineation of homogeneous areas perform less well than visual inspection, which is frequently used to override the software in the overall sectorization methodology. The main problems with the software lie in the criteria used to detect nonhomogeneity and those used to recommend the number of homogeneous subareas. SiteStats/GridStats is not a decision-making tool in the classical sense. Although it does provide information to decision makers, it does not require a decision based on that information. SiteStats/GridStats provides information that is supplemented by visual inspections, land-use plans, and risk estimates prior to making any decisions. Although the sector UXO density estimator is unbiased regardless of UXO density variation within a sector, its variability increases with increased sector density variation. For this reason, the current practice of visual inspection of individual sampled grid densities (as provided by Site-Stats/GridStats) is necessary to ensure approximate homogeneity, particularly at sites with medium to high UXO density. Together with Site-Stats/GridStats override capabilities, this provides a sufficient mechanism for homogeneous sectorization and thus yields representative UXO density estimates. Objections raised by various parties to the use of a numerical ''discriminator'' in SiteStats/GridStats were likely because of the fact that the concerned statistical technique is customarily applied for a different purpose and because of poor documentation. The ''discriminator'', in Site-Stats/GridStats is a ''tuning parameter'' for the sampling process, and it affects the precision of the grid density estimates through changes in required sample size. It is recommended that sector characterization in terms of a map showing contour lines of constant UXO density with an expressed uncertainty or confidence level is a better basis for remediation decisions than a sector UXO density point estimate. A number of spatial density estimation techniques could be adapted to the UXO density estimation problem.

Ostrouchov, G

2000-02-14

89

A review of current statistical methodologies for in-storage sampling and surveillance in the grains industry.  

PubMed

Effective, statistically robust sampling and surveillance strategies form an integral component of large agricultural industries such as the grains industry. Intensive in-storage sampling is essential for pest detection, integrated pest management (IPM), to determine grain quality and to satisfy importing nation's biosecurity concerns, while surveillance over broad geographic regions ensures that biosecurity risks can be excluded, monitored, eradicated or contained within an area. In the grains industry, a number of qualitative and quantitative methodologies for surveillance and in-storage sampling have been considered. Primarily, research has focussed on developing statistical methodologies for in-storage sampling strategies concentrating on detection of pest insects within a grain bulk; however, the need for effective and statistically defensible surveillance strategies has also been recognised. Interestingly, although surveillance and in-storage sampling have typically been considered independently, many techniques and concepts are common between the two fields of research. This review aims to consider the development of statistically based in-storage sampling and surveillance strategies and to identify methods that may be useful for both surveillance and in-storage sampling. We discuss the utility of new quantitative and qualitative approaches, such as Bayesian statistics, fault trees and more traditional probabilistic methods and show how these methods may be used in both surveillance and in-storage sampling systems. PMID:23009886

Elmouttie, D; Hammond, N E B; Hamilton, G

2013-04-01

90

Computer Forensics Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of science and education to computer-related crime forensics is still largely limited to law enforcement organizations. Building a suitable workforce development program could support the rapidly growing field of computer and network forensics.

Alec Yasinsac; Robert F. Erbacher; Donald G. Marks; Mark Pollitt; Peter M. Sommer

2003-01-01

91

Integrating Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

2000-01-01

92

A STATISTICAL MODELING METHODOLOGY FOR THE DETECTION, QUANTIFICATION, AND PREDICTION OF ECOLOGICAL THRESHOLDS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study will provide a general methodology for integrating threshold information from multiple species ecological metrics, allow for prediction of changes of alternative stable states, and provide a risk assessment tool that can be applied to adaptive management. The integr...

93

Forensic-Evidence.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forensic-Evidence.com offers The Forensic Center Newsletter, which aims "to stimulate interdisciplinary efforts and research that unite, explore, and advance knowledge in the broad areas of law, medicine, and forensic sciences." The site is organized into sections by topic, which include "Evidence Law News," "Identification Evidence," "Behavioral Evidence," "Biological Evidence," and "Law Enforcement Procedures." This is an excellent resource for news and other current information in forensics.

Moenssens, Andre A.

2008-04-03

94

Forensic entomology in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project ‘Forensic Entomology’ was started in Frankfurt\\/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is

Jens Amendt; Roman Krettek; Constanze Niess; Richard Zehner; Hansjürgen Bratzke

2000-01-01

95

An Interview with David Rindskopf: A Leading Voice on Teaching Statistics and Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with David Rindskopf, a Distinguished Professor of Educational Psychology and Psychology at the City University of New York Graduate Center, where he has taught since 1979. His research and teaching are in the area of applied statistics, measurement, and research design. He is a fellow of the American Statistical

Bembenutty, Hefer

2011-01-01

96

Successive oxide breakdown statistics: correlation effects, reliability methodologies, and their limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the statistics of successive oxide breakdown (BD) events in MOS devices. Correlation effects between these successive events are experimentally related to the statistics of BD current jumps, thus suggesting that they are related to lateral propagation of the BD path. The application of the successive BD theory to chip reliability assessment is discussed. Several failure criteria

Jordi Suñé; Ernest Y. Wu; Wing L. Lai

2004-01-01

97

Statistical optimization of immunoaffinity purification of hepatitis B surface antigen using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology (RSM) was successfully applied to find an elution condition enhancing the performance of immunoaffinity (IAF) purification of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), conducted in batch chromatography. The immunosorbent efficiency measured as HBsAg eluted per milliliter of immunosorbent was selected as the response. Two numerical independent variables were studied: concentration of potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) and ethanol, and a

Jorge Sánchez-Romeu; José Manuel País-Chanfrau; Yanelys Pestana-Vila; Ivette López-Larraburo; Yamile Masso-Rodríguez; Marbelis Linares-Domínguez; Gabriel Márquez-Perera

2008-01-01

98

The Epistemology of Mathematical and Statistical Modeling: A Quiet Methodological Revolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quiet methodological revolution, a modeling revolution, has occurred over the past several decades, almost without discussion. In contrast, the 20th century ended with contentious argument over the utility of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). The NHST controversy may have been at least partially irrelevant, because in certain ways the…

Rodgers, Joseph Lee

2010-01-01

99

Some Methodological Problems of Statistical Comparison of National Incomes and Price Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the problems involved in comparing economic indices of different countries, the problem of working out a scientific methodology for international comparison of national incomes and price levels has become especially pressing. Since the index of national income is a single overall index of society's labor outlays and it is not affected by any double counting, it reflects correctly the

V. M. Kudrov

1964-01-01

100

Genetic considerations for interpreting molecular microbial forensic evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analyses of microbial evidence will be employed to assist in attribution of perpetrators of bioterrorism and biocrimes. There are some similarities and differences between human forensic and microbial forensic DNA analysis practices to consider. These population genetic and statistical interpretation issues center on the different genetic make-up, different inheritance mechanisms, different regulation mechanisms, and lineage-based analyses. In some cases,

B Budowle; R Chakraborty

2004-01-01

101

Selecting forensic features for robust source camera identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical image features play an important role in forensic identification. Current source camera identification schemes select image features mainly based on classification accuracy and computational efficiency. For forensic investigation purposes, however, these selection criteria are not enough. Consider most real-world photos may have undergone common image processing due to various reasons, source camera classifiers must have the capability to deal

Yongjian Hu; Chang-Tsun Li; Changhui Zhou

2010-01-01

102

A new methodology for generating and combining statistical forecasting models to enhance competitive event prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forecasting methods are routinely employed to predict the outcome of competitive events (CEs) and to shed light on the factors that influence participants’ winning prospects (e.g., in sports events, political elections). Combining statistical models’ forecasts, shown to be highly successful in other settings, has been neglected in CE prediction. Two particular difficulties arise when developing model-based composite forecasts of CE

Stefan Lessmann; Ming-Chien Sung; Johnnie E. V. Johnson; Tiejun Ma

2012-01-01

103

The Incremental Validity of Psychological Testing and Assessment: Conceptual, Methodological, and Statistical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been insufficient effort in most areas of applied psychology to evaluate incremental validity. To further this kind of validity research, the authors examined applicable research designs, including those to assess the incremental validity of test instruments, of test-informed clinical inferences, and of newly developed measures. The authors also considered key statistical and measurement issues that can influence incremental

John Hunsley; Gregory J. Meyer

2003-01-01

104

Methodological artifacts in moderated multiple regression and their effects on statistical power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to examine the degree to which the statistical power of moderated multiple regression (MMR) to detect the effects of a dichotomous moderator variable was affected by the main and interactive effects of (a) predictor variable range restriction, (b) total sample size, (c) sample sizes for 2 moderator variable- based subgroups, (d) predictor variable intercorrelation, and

Herman Aguinis; Eugene F. Stone-Romero

1997-01-01

105

Methodological Artifacts in Moderated Multiple Regression and Their Effects on Statistical Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to examine the degree to which the statistical power of moderated multiple regression (MMR) to detect the effects of a dichotomous moderator variable was affected by the main and interactive effects of (a) predictor variable range restriction, (b) total sample size, (c) sample sizes for 2 moderator variable-based subgroups, (d) predictor variable intercorrelation, and (e)

Herman Aguinis; Eugene F Stone-Romero

1997-01-01

106

Teaching forensic medicine in the University of Porto.  

PubMed

The University of Porto (UP) provides education in Forensic Medicine (FM) through the 1st, 2nd and 3rd cycle of studies, post-graduation and continuing education courses. This education is related to forensic pathology, clinical forensic medicine (including forensic psychology and psychiatry), forensic chemistry and toxicology, forensic genetics and biology, and criminalistics. With this work we intent to reflect on how we are currently teaching FM in the UP, at all levels of university graduation. We will present our models, regarding the educational objectives, curricular program and teaching/learning methodologies of each cycle of studies as well as in post-graduate and continuing education courses. Historically, and besides related administratively to the Ministry of Justice, the Portuguese Medico-Legal Institutes (since 1918) and more recently the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF) also have educational and research responsibilities. Thus, it lends space and cooperates with academic institutions and this contribution, namely regarding teaching forensic sciences in Portugal has been judged as an example for other Countries. This contribution is so important that in UP, the Department of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of the Faculty of Medicine (FMUP) shares, until now, the same physical space with North Branch of the INMLCF, which represents a notorious advantage, since it makes possible the "learning by doing". PMID:24931860

Magalhães, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Santos, Agostinho

2014-07-01

107

Statistical Analysis of Metal Chelating Activity of Centella asiatica and Erythroxylum cuneatum Using Response Surface Methodology  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the extraction parameters and the metal chelating activity of Centella asiatica (CA) and Erythroxylum cuneatum (EC). The response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters of methanolic extract of CA and EC with respect to the metal chelating activity. For CA, Run 17 gave optimum chelating activity with IC50 = 0.93?mg/mL at an extraction temperature of 25°C, speed of agitation at 200?rpm, ratio of plant material to solvent at 1?g?:?45?mL and extraction time at 1.5 hour. As for EC, Run 13 with 60°C, 200?rpm, 1?g?:?35?mL and 1 hour had metal chelating activity at IC50 = 0.3817?mg/mL. Both optimized extracts were further partitioned using a solvent system to evaluate the fraction responsible for the chelating activity of the plants. The hexane fraction of CA showed potential activity with chelating activity at IC50 = 0.090 and the ethyl acetate fraction of EC had IC50 = 0.120?mg/mL. The study showed that the response surface methodology helped to reduce the extraction time, temperature and agitation and subsequently improve the chelating activity of the plants in comparison to the conventional method.

Mohd Salim, R. J.; Adenan, M. I.; Amid, A.; Jauri, M. H.; Sued, A. S.

2013-01-01

108

Long range aerosol transport in Southern Sweden: An example of multtvariate statistical evaluation methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of multivariate statistical techniques is discussed with emphasis on the rather new method SIMCA, when applied to multielemental data. The procedures of scaling and normalizing are described. The data base used is from a project studying long range aerosol transport to southern Sweden. SIMCA reveals low variability in fine mode elemental composition in southerly air masses being clearly different from the elemental compositions found in northerly air masses.

Hansson, Hans-Christen; Martinsson, Bengt G.; Lannefors, Hans O.

1984-04-01

109

Ask a Forensic Artist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How exactly does one become a forensic artist? It is not easy, and this website provides some rather direct and frank advice about the profession. The Ask a Forensic Artist (AAFA) site is well organized, and first-time visitors should make a beeline for the "FAQ" section. Here they will find answers to questions like "What is 'Forensic Art'?" and "What training is available in Forensic Art?" The remaining sections include "Careers", "Gallery", "Artist Interviews" and the thematic "Categories" area on the right-hand side of the page. The "Artist Interviews" includes profiles with forensic artists working in many fields of law enforcement. The "Gallery" features a few samples of forensic art, and the "Careers" area includes some basic information for those who wish to get started in the field. The site is rounded out by a list of career-related sites and helpful blogs.

110

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

111

Manipulating measurement scales in medical statistical analysis and data mining: A review of methodologies  

PubMed Central

Background: selecting the correct statistical test and data mining method depends highly on the measurement scale of data, type of variables, and purpose of the analysis. Different measurement scales are studied in details and statistical comparison, modeling, and data mining methods are studied based upon using several medical examples. We have presented two ordinal–variables clustering examples, as more challenging variable in analysis, using Wisconsin Breast Cancer Data (WBCD). Ordinal-to-Interval scale conversion example: a breast cancer database of nine 10-level ordinal variables for 683 patients was analyzed by two ordinal-scale clustering methods. The performance of the clustering methods was assessed by comparison with the gold standard groups of malignant and benign cases that had been identified by clinical tests. Results: the sensitivity and accuracy of the two clustering methods were 98% and 96%, respectively. Their specificity was comparable. Conclusion: by using appropriate clustering algorithm based on the measurement scale of the variables in the study, high performance is granted. Moreover, descriptive and inferential statistics in addition to modeling approach must be selected based on the scale of the variables.

Marateb, Hamid Reza; Mansourian, Marjan; Adibi, Peyman; Farina, Dario

2014-01-01

112

Computer Forensics and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on theory gained from the science and culture research domain, this paper considers the relationship between computer\\u000a forensic science and culture. In order to develop a theoretical relationship between computer forensics and culture, this\\u000a paper examines computer forensics as science and discusses the universal nature of science. It points to an ongoing cross-cultural\\u000a work being carried out among computer

Yi-chi Lin; Jill Slay; I.-Long Lin

2008-01-01

113

The decade 1989-1998 in Spanish psychology: an analysis of research in statistics, methodology, and psychometric theory.  

PubMed

This paper presents an analysis of research published in the decade 1989-1998 by Spanish faculty members in the areas of statistical methods, research methodology, and psychometric theory. Database search and direct correspondence with faculty members in Departments of Methodology across Spain rendered a list of 193 papers published in these broad areas by 82 faculty members. These and other faculty members had actually published 931 papers over the decade of analysis, but 738 of them addressed topics not appropriate for description in this report. Classification and analysis of these 193 papers revealed topics that have attracted the most interest (psychophysics, item response theory, analysis of variance, sequential analysis, and meta-analysis) as well as other topics that have received less attention (scaling, factor analysis, time series, and structural models). A significant number of papers also dealt with various methodological issues (software, algorithms, instrumentation, and techniques). A substantial part of this report is devoted to describing the issues addressed across these 193 papers--most of which are written in the Spanish language and published in Spanish journals--and some representative references are given. PMID:11723638

García-Pérez, M A

2001-11-01

114

Optimization of Input Pattern for Semi Non-Intrusive Component Forensics of Digital Cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of semi non-intrusive component forensics and proposes a methodology to identify the algorithms and parameters employed by various processing modules inside a digital camera. The proposed analysis techniques assume the availability of the camera; and introduce a forensic methodology to estimate the parameters of the color interpolation and white balancing algorithms employed in cameras. We

Ashwin Swaminathan; Min wu; K. J. Ray Liu

2007-01-01

115

Court TV: Forensic Files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This companion Web site to the Court TV series _Forensic Files_ offers a virtual forensics lab where visitors can learn more about the different techniques experts use to "put together the pieces of the crime puzzle." Each room of the virtual 3-story lab is dedicated to a different forensic technique, including DNA evidence, bite marks, blood splatter, time of death, and more. Each room offers an explanatory video presentation, as well as an annotated slide show or video of forensics scientists at work.

116

Functional optical topography analysis using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) methodology with and without physiological confounds  

PubMed Central

Functional optical topography (OT) measures the changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2, HHb) across multiple brain sites which occur in response to neuronal activation of the cerebral cortex. However, identification of areas of cortical activation is a complex task due to intrinsic physiological noise and systemic interference and careful statistical analysis is therefore required. A total of 10 young healthy adults were studied. The activation paradigm comprised of anagrams followed by finger tapping. 12 channels of the OT system were positioned over the frontal cortex and 12 channels over the motor cortex while the systemic physiology (mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), scalp flux) was simultaneously monitored. Analysis was done using the functional Optical Signal Analysis (fOSA) software and Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), where we utilized two approaches: (i) using only HbO2 as a regressor in the general linear model (GLM) and (ii) using all of the explanatory variables (HbO2, MBP, HR and scalp flux) as regressors. Group analysis using SPM showed significant correlation in a large number of OT channels between HbO2 and systemic regressors; however no differences in activation areas were seen between the two approaches.

Tachtsidis, Ilias; Koh, Peck H.; Stubbs, Charlotte; Elwell, Clare E.

2010-01-01

117

Statistical methodology to determine kinetically derived maximum tolerated dose in repeat dose toxicity studies.  

PubMed

Several statistical approaches were evaluated to identify an optimum method for determining a point of nonlinearity (PONL) in toxicokinetic data. (1) A second-order least squares regression model was fit iteratively starting with data from all doses. If the second order term was significant (?<0.05), the dataset was reevaluated with successive removal of the highest dose until the second-order term became non-significant. This dose, whose removal made the second order term non-significant, is an estimate of the PONL. (2) A least squares linear model was fit iteratively starting with data from all doses except the highest. The mean response for the omitted dose was compared to the 95% prediction interval. If the omitted dose falls outside the confidence interval it is an estimate of the PONL. (3) Slopes of least squares linear regression lines for sections of contiguous doses were compared. Nonlinearity was suggested when slopes of compared sections differed. A total of 33 dose-response datasets were evaluated. For these toxicokinetic data, the best statistical approach was the least squares regression analysis with a second-order term. Changing the ? level for the second-order term and weighting the second-order analysis by the inverse of feed consumption were also considered. This technique has been shown to give reproducible identification of nonlinearities in TK datasets. PMID:22487418

McFadden, Lisa G; Bartels, Michael J; Rick, David L; Price, Paul S; Fontaine, Donald D; Saghir, Shakil A

2012-07-01

118

Craniofacial reconstruction using a combined statistical model of face shape and soft tissue depths: Methodology and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic facial reconstruction aims at estimating the facial outlook associated with an unidentified skull specimen. Estimation is generally based on tabulated average values of soft tissue thicknesses measured at a sparse set of landmarks on the skull. Traditional ‘plastic’ methods apply modeling clay or plasticine on a cast of the skull, approximating the estimated tissue depths at the landmarks and

Peter Claes; Dirk Vandermeulen; Sven De Greef; Guy Willems; Paul Suetens

2006-01-01

119

ViSEN: methodology and software for visualization of statistical epistasis networks.  

PubMed

The nonlinear interaction effect among multiple genetic factors, i.e. epistasis, has been recognized as a key component in understanding the underlying genetic basis of complex human diseases and phenotypic traits. Due to the statistical and computational complexity, most epistasis studies are limited to interactions with an order of two. We developed ViSEN to analyze and visualize epistatic interactions of both two-way and three-way. ViSEN not only identifies strong interactions among pairs or trios of genetic attributes, but also provides a global interaction map that shows neighborhood and clustering structures. This visualized information could be very helpful to infer the underlying genetic architecture of complex diseases and to generate plausible hypotheses for further biological validations. ViSEN is implemented in Java and freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/visen/. PMID:23468157

Hu, Ting; Chen, Yuanzhu; Kiralis, Jeff W; Moore, Jason H

2013-04-01

120

Biosensors in forensic analysis. A review.  

PubMed

Forensic analysis is an important branch of modern Analytical Chemistry with many legal and socially relevant implications. Biosensors can play an important role as efficient tools in this field considering their well known advantages of sensitivity, selectivity, easy functioning, affordability and capability of miniaturization and automation. This article reviews the latest advances in the use of biosensors for forensic analysis. The different methodologies for the transduction of the produced biological events are considered and the applications to forensic toxicological analysis, classified by the nature of the target analytes, as well as those related with chemical and biological weapons critically commented. The article provides several Tables where the more relevant analytical characteristics of the selected reported methods are gathered. PMID:24746348

Yáñez-Sedeño, P; Agüí, L; Villalonga, R; Pingarrón, J M

2014-05-01

121

Forensic Science Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

Tech Directions, 2010

2010-01-01

122

Fieldnotes: a forensic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This poetic investigation probes the linguistic and epistemological effects of the increasingly widespread circulation of forensic discourses in the media and popular culture. Further consideration is given to the disproportionate availability of forensic expertise and technologies when the bodies under investigation are White and located in industrialized nations. A brief preface, “Notes on an Investigation,” situates this project in relationship

Kate Eichhorn

2010-01-01

123

Forensic Science Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1991, the Laboratory's Forensic Science Center has focused a comprehensive range of analytical expertise on issues related to non proliferation, counterterrorism, and domestic law enforcement. During this short period, LLNL's singular combination of human and technological resources has made the Center among the best of its kind in the world. The Forensic Science Center houses a variety of state-of-the-art

B. Andresen; P.M. Grant

1994-01-01

124

DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It…

Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

2008-01-01

125

Advances in forensic toxicology.  

PubMed

Over the last 15 years there have been many changes in the practice of forensic toxicology. One of the most noteworthy has been the recognition of the need for good laboratory practices in the forensic toxicology laboratory. This has resulted in the development of an accreditation program for laboratories. Increasingly, forensic toxicologists are asked to interpret results in driving under the influence of drug cases. These interpretations are also difficult because of the lack of data correlating blood (or plasma) concentrations with impairment. The development of newer immunoassays and hyphenated mass spectrometric techniques now allow the forensic toxicologist to assay a large number of drugs (both traditional and products of the biotechnology revolution) with increasing sensitivity. This article focuses on these changes and some of the challenges facing the forensic toxicologists of the 21st century. PMID:9614587

Peat, M A

1998-06-01

126

National Academy of Forensic Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Academy of Forensic Engineers provides a short definition of forensic engineering here. After reading through the definition, click the "Menu" link at the bottom of the page to access the site's main menu. From here, you can find more information on the National Academy of Forensic Engineers, and forensic engineering in general.

2008-04-07

127

Lecture Notes On Forensic Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers lecture notes relating to an introductory survey course on forensic science. It is designed to provide a comprehensive understanding and analysis of technical and legal issues involving forensic techniques. The lectures, focus on traditional subjects relating to the services of crime laboratories,but also deals with allied subjects,including forensic psychiatry, forensic pathology, and social science.

O'Connor, Tom

2011-07-14

128

Microbial Forensics: Applications in Bioterrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial forensics is a new discipline combining microbiology and forensic science. Unlike public health investigations, microbial forensics goes further to associate the source of the causative agent with a specific individual or group. Microbial forensics measures molecular variations between related microbial strains and their use to infer the origin, relationship, or transmission route of a particular microbial strain. Several advanced

Priyabrata Pattnaik; Asha Mukul Jana

2005-01-01

129

Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic

American Psychologist, 2013

2013-01-01

130

A statistical methodology for the comparison of blue gel pen inks analyzed by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A statistical methodology for the objective comparison of LDI-MS mass spectra of blue gel pen inks was evaluated. Thirty-three blue gel pen inks previously studied by RAMAN were analyzed directly on the paper using both positive and negative mode. The obtained mass spectra were first compared using relative areas of selected peaks using the Pearson correlation coefficient and the Euclidean distance. Intra-variability among results from one ink and inter-variability between results from different inks were compared in order to choose a differentiation threshold minimizing the rate of false negative (i.e. avoiding false differentiation of the inks). This yielded a discriminating power of up to 77% for analysis made in the negative mode. The whole mass spectra were then compared using the same methodology, allowing for a better DP in the negative mode of 92% using the Pearson correlation on standardized data. The positive mode results generally yielded a lower differential power (DP) than the negative mode due to a higher intra-variability compared to the inter-variability in the mass spectra of the ink samples. PMID:21889108

Weyermann, Céline; Bucher, Lukas; Majcherczyk, Paul

2011-09-01

131

Topic in Depth - Forensic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The field of forensic engineering involves the study of products, materials, and structures that fail to function properly. Forensic engineers investigate the problem to locate the source of the failure in order to improve the product or structure. Principles of forensic engineering are applied broadly across many different disciplines. Evidence from forensic engineering investigations is often used in both civil and criminal courts. The resources in this folder provide an overview of many different aspects of the forensic engineering discipline.

2010-09-10

132

Physics and forensics  

SciTech Connect

This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources.

Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.

2001-12-15

133

Forensics Science Classroom Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These classroom activities on forensics science from the University of Colorado at Boulder were designed to help students understand the process of scientific investigation and develop better laboratory and data-collection techniques.

Leslie Leinwand (University of Colorado at Boulder;)

2010-05-28

134

Forensic Chemistry Lab Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Any aspect of forensic science can be quite tricky, and educators will be delighted to learn about this helpful educational resource designed just for them. Created by Professor Robert Thompson of Oberlin College this online forensic chemistry lab manual is designed to help chemistry faculty in developing forensic chemistry project laboratories for both undergraduate and graduate courses. In this manual, visitors will find sample preparations, procedural details, instructions for students, and typical results in a variety of formats. Along the left-hand side of the homepage, visitors can look through the forensic chemistry analyses, which include explosives, fabric, glass, and arson. The site is rounded out by a selection of "Stories", which are meant to provide the background for chemical analyses of crime scene samples.

Thompson, Robert

135

Forensic Facial Reconstruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a background of forensic facial reconstruction with a process description on how to give students a reliable laboratory experience from which to learn the origins and insertions of the muscles of facial expression.

Sarah Cooper (Arcadia University)

2008-07-01

136

Gold is going forensic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not long ago, forensic science was mainly focused on fingerprint detection. With the advance in science and technology, forensics\\u000a has become an increasingly interesting scientific field to explore, and gold is playing an increasingly important role in\\u000a this area. Gold compounds and gold nanoparticles contribute to fingerprint detection and illicit drug testing. Fingerprints\\u000a can be detected on diverse suspected articles

Ahmed A. Mohamed

137

Exploring relationship between asthma and air pollution: a geospatial methodology using dasymetric mapping, GIS analysis, and spatial statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents methodology using dasymetric mapping from remotely sensed imagery, geographic information system (GIS), spatial analysis and spatial statistics to explore relationship between asthma and air pollution in the Pensacola metropolitan region of Florida. Health outcome indicators thought to be sensitive to increased exposure of airborne environmental hazards are mortality and morbidity rates for total population asthma patients. Environmental data for the time around the year 1999 include point source pollution sites and emissions, traffic count with emission estimates, and a Landsat ETM+ image. Standardized mortality/morbility ratios (SMRs) were used as dependent variables for the analysis. A centroid map was created from the zip code map with each centroid assigned the corresponding SMR values. Then spatial interpolation using the Kriging method was used to generate continuous SMR surfaces. An emission or point count based kernel density raster map was created from each of the air pollution maps. A raster layer 'greenness' was extracted using tasseled cap transformation from the Landsat ETM+ image. The dasymetric mapping technique was employed to limit the analysis and modeling to the area where human activities occur. The ETM+ image was classified into a thematic land use/cover map and the developed area extracted. A road network was combined with the developed area to generate a buffer (buffer distance=1.5 km). A random sample with enough number of points was generated across the study area and 505 points were found within the developed area and the buffer. Data values at these sample points were extracted and used for statistical modeling. Two spatial autoregressive models (spatial error and spatial lag) were fitted. Both models show relationship between the asthmas outcome indicators and air pollution (positive) and 'greenness' (negative).

Hu, Z.; Liebens, Johan; Rao, Ranga

2007-07-01

138

Internet and forensic science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet is a very powerful and inexpensive tool that was created for the free distribution of knowledge and information. The Internet is a learning tool, a research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a journal with instant publication, a help desk, and a newspaper/journal with current information. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet also will be a live classroom and everyday conference. Forensic scientists, laboratories and colleges should make use of information already available on the Internet. They also should actively participate and contribute. Very few forensic scientists and laboratories have made their presence felt by setting up their home pages/web pages. But, there is tremendous growth during the past year. Immense benefits from Internet to forensic community are discussed along with the author's personal experience. Creating on-line searchable data bases in all specialties of forensic science is an urgent need. Leading forensic journals should take a lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. On line electronic publishing, collaborative research/paper publishing or editing is easy, fast, economical and convenient through the use of the Internet. Creation of Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Internet also can be used to give training, re-training or advanced training to students/forensic scientists.

Chamakura, Reddy P.

1997-02-01

139

Nuclear forensic investigations: two case studies.  

PubMed

This paper describes the methodology and analytical methods used in nuclear forensic investigations. Two case studies are taken as examples to illustrate this. These examples represent typical cases that have been analysed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) since last 10 years, i.e. the beginning of the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Results of the various analytical techniques are shown, which, together with other type of information, reveal the origin of the material. PMID:16410154

Wallenius, M; Mayer, K; Ray, I

2006-01-01

140

Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics  

SciTech Connect

Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special considerations for the forensic arena - quality control, sample integrity, etc. Mark Wilson (retired FBI): Western Carolina University Chapter 4. Physical signatures: Light and electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gravimetry etc. Joseph Michael, Sandia National Laboratory Chapter 5. Lipids: FAME, PLFA, steroids, LPS, etc. James Robertson, Federal Bureau of Investigation Chapter 6. Carbohydrates: Cell wall components, cytoplasm components, methods Alvin Fox, University of South Carolina School of Medicine David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 7. Peptides: Peptides, proteins, lipoproteins David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 8. Elemental content: CNOHPS (treated in passing), metals, prospective cell types John Cliff, International Atomic Energy Agency Chapter 9. Isotopic signatures: Stable isotopes C,N,H,O,S, 14C dating, potential for heavy elements. Helen Kreuzer-Martin, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Michaele Kashgarian, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Chapter 10. Extracellular signatures: Cellular debris, heme, agar, headspace, spent media, etc Karen Wahl, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 11. Data Reduction and Integrated Microbial Forensics: Statistical concepts, parametric and multivariate statistics, integrating signatures Kristin Jarman, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Cliff, John B.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Wunschel, David S.

2012-01-03

141

Statistical optimization of ultraviolet irradiate conditions for vitamin D? synthesis in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum vitamin D2 synthesis conditions in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). Ultraviolet B (UV-B) was selected as the most efficient irradiation source for the preliminary experiment, in addition to the levels of three independent variables, which included ambient temperature (25-45°C), exposure time (40-120 min), and irradiation intensity (0.6-1.2 W/m2). The statistical analysis indicated that, for the range which was studied, irradiation intensity was the most critical factor that affected vitamin D2 synthesis in oyster mushrooms. Under optimal conditions (ambient temperature of 28.16°C, UV-B intensity of 1.14 W/m2, and exposure time of 94.28 min), the experimental vitamin D2 content of 239.67 µg/g (dry weight) was in very good agreement with the predicted value of 245.49 µg/g, which verified the practicability of this strategy. Compared to fresh mushrooms, the lyophilized mushroom powder can synthesize remarkably higher level of vitamin D2 (498.10 µg/g) within much shorter UV-B exposure time (10 min), and thus should receive attention from the food processing industry. PMID:24736742

Wu, Wei-Jie; Ahn, Byung-Yong

2014-01-01

142

Statistical optimization of fibrinolytic enzyme production by Pseudoalteromonas sp. IND11 using cow dung substrate by response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Fibrinolytic enzymes are agents that dissolve fibrin clots. These fibrinolytic agents have potential use to treat cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke. In the present article, a fibrinolytic enzyme producing Pseudoalteromonas sp. IND11 was isolated from the fish scales and optimized for enzyme production. Cow dung was used as a substrate for the production of fibrinolytic enzyme in solid-state culture. A two-level full factorial design was used for the screening of key ingredients while further optimization was carried out using the central composite design. Statistical analysis revealed that the second-order model is significant with model F-value of 6.88 and R (2) value of 0.860. Enzyme production was found to be high at pH 7.0, and the supplementation of 1% (w/w) maltose and 0.1% (w/w) sodium dihydrogen phosphate enhanced fibrinolytic enzyme production. The optimization of process parameters using response surface methodology resulted in a three-fold increase in the yield of fibrinolytic enzyme. This is the first report on production of fibrinolytic enzyme using cow dung substrate in solid-state fermentation. PMID:24516788

Vijayaraghavan, Ponnuswamy; Vincent, Samuel Gnana Prakash

2014-01-01

143

Dynamics of Forensic Interviews with Suspected Abuse Victims Who Do Not Disclose Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The present study was designed to explore structural differences between forensic interviews in which children made allegations and those in which children did not make allegations. Methodology: Fifty forensic interviews of 4- to 13-year-old suspected victims of abuse who did not disclose abuse during the interview were compared with…

Hershkowitz, Irit; Orbach, Yael; Lamb, Michael E.; Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Horowitz, Dvora

2006-01-01

144

Forensic trace DNA: a review  

PubMed Central

DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements.

2010-01-01

145

Forensics on a Shoestring Budget  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

Greco, Joseph A.

2005-01-01

146

Forensic psychiatry in iran.  

PubMed

In Iran, department of forensic psychiatry is one of the special units of Legal Medicine Organization concerned with individuals who demonstrate psychological and psychiatric problems. The duties of forensic psychiatrists in the department are, performing psychiatric examinations and determining mental competence of two major groups of referrals: Individuals who are involved in a legal problem related to civil law and individuals who are involved in criminal responsibility and/or forbearance of punishment such as offenders and prisoners. One of the worries of the Iran jurisdiction system is the absence of a secure mental hospital devoted to the irresponsible mentally ill criminals. In fact, there is no forensic inpatient unit available in the country. PMID:24644492

Saberi, Seyed Mehdi; Mirsepassi, Gholam Reza

2013-01-01

147

Forensic Psychiatry in Iran  

PubMed Central

In Iran, department of forensic psychiatry is one of the special units of Legal Medicine Organization concerned with individuals who demonstrate psychological and psychiatric problems. The duties of forensic psychiatrists in the department are, performing psychiatric examinations and determining mental competence of two major groups of referrals: Individuals who are involved in a legal problem related to civil law and individuals who are involved in criminal responsibility and/or forbearance of punishment such as offenders and prisoners. One of the worries of the Iran jurisdiction system is the absence of a secure mental hospital devoted to the irresponsible mentally ill criminals. In fact, there is no forensic inpatient unit available in the country.

Saberi, Seyed Mehdi; Mirsepassi, Gholam Reza

2013-01-01

148

Handbook of Forensic Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious about the procedures used in documenting a crime scene and gathering evidence? Look no further than the official handbook of the FBI Laboratory, "one of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world." The full text of the handbook may be read online in HTML format, divided by chapter. Topics discussed include guidelines for conducting a crime scene search, crime scene safety, guidelines for various types of evidence, and how to pack and ship evidence, among others. Also included at the site are links to the full text of the journal, Forensic Science Communications and to the official sites of the FBI Lab and Library.

2005-11-01

149

Handbook of Forensic Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious about the procedures used in documenting a crime scene and gathering evidence? Look no further than the official handbook of the FBI Laboratory, "one of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world." The full text of the handbook may be read online in HTML format, divided by chapter. Topics discussed include guidelines for conducting a crime scene search, crime scene safety, guidelines for various types of evidence, and how to pack and ship evidence, among others. Also included at the site are links to the full text of the journal, Forensic Science Communications and to the official sites of the FBI Lab and Library.

1999-01-01

150

Basic Concepts, Current Practices, and Available Resources for Forensic Investigations on Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project, entitled 'Development of a Methodology for Identifying Pavement Design and Construction Data Needed to Support a Forensic Investigation,' is to develop a database containing information useful in identifying the premature fail...

T. A. Victorine Z. Zhang D. W. Fowler W. R. Hudson

1997-01-01

151

Forensic importance of jealousy.  

PubMed

The aim of the investigation is to define as clearly as possible specific forensic psychiatric characteristics of persons who committed homicide and or attempted due to jealousy (the nature and severity of psychopathology, the level of responsibility, danger for the community, intensity and nature of aggression, the victimologic dimension, the relation of alcohol and jealousy). A retrospective method based on forensic psychiatric expertises in the period 1975-1999 was used. They encompassed 200 examinees that committed murder or attempted it. The results show the connection of psychotic jealousy with the highest degree of danger in diagnostic categories of paranoid psychosis and paranoid schizophrenia. The time span from the first manifestations of jealousy until the actual commitment of a crime is the longest in personality disorders and the shortest in schizophrenia. Exogenous provoking situations were dominant for committing homicide due to jealousy in personality disorders. Acute alcohol intoxication has a specific significance in crime due to jealousy in the same diagnostic category. Clear criteria were designed for forensic psychiatric evaluation of murder and attempts of homicide caused by jealousy, which will be of help in everyday practice in the field forensic work and treatment. PMID:12974159

Muzini?, Lana; Goreta, Miroslav; Juki?, Vlado; Dordevi?, Veljko; Koi?, Elvira; Herceg, Miroslav

2003-06-01

152

Nanoparticles in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image.

Antonio A. Cantu

2008-01-01

153

Forensic Case Formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formulation is the process or product of gathering and integrating diverse information to develop a concise account of the nature and etiology of the problems affecting a person's mental health to guide idiographic treatment design and other decision-making. Formulation is a core competency in mental health practice, including forensic mental health; however, there is no agreement concerning the details of

Stephen Hart; Peter Sturmey; Caroline Logan; Mary McMurran

2011-01-01

154

Forensically relevant SNP classes.  

PubMed

Forensic samples that contain too little template DNA or are too degraded require alternate genetic marker analyses or approaches to what is currently used for routine casework. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) offer promise to support forensic DNA analyses because of an abundance of potential markers, amenability to automation, and potential reduction in required fragment length to only 60-80 bp. The SNP markers will serve an important role in analyzing challenging forensic samples, such as those that are very degraded, for augmenting the power of kinship analyses and family reconstructions for missing persons and unidentified human remains, as well as for providing investigative lead value in some cases without a suspect (and no genetic profile match in CODIS). The SNPs for forensic analyses can be divided into four categories: identity-testing SNPs; lineage informative SNPs; ancestry informative SNPs; and phenotype informative SNPs. In addition to discussing the applications of these different types of SNPs, this article provides some discussion on privacy issues so that society and policymakers can be more informed. PMID:18474034

Budowle, Bruce; van Daal, Angela

2008-04-01

155

Virtual Tour of a Forensic Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour of a forensic laboratory has three floors. Each floor has a number of rooms devoted to a particular forensic specialty. Each room has a slide show of forensic scientists performing their work. All rooms have a video explanation detailing the forensic specialty being visited. Some rooms also have videos of forensic scientists demonstrating analytical techniques.

2012-09-28

156

Statistical optimization of process parameters for lipase-catalyzed synthesis of triethanolamine-based esterquats using response surface methodology in 2-liter bioreactor.  

PubMed

Lipase-catalyzed production of triethanolamine-based esterquat by esterification of oleic acid (OA) with triethanolamine (TEA) in n-hexane was performed in 2 L stirred-tank reactor. A set of experiments was designed by central composite design to process modeling and statistically evaluate the findings. Five independent process variables, including enzyme amount, reaction time, reaction temperature, substrates molar ratio of OA to TEA, and agitation speed, were studied under the given conditions designed by Design Expert software. Experimental data were examined for normality test before data processing stage and skewness and kurtosis indices were determined. The mathematical model developed was found to be adequate and statistically accurate to predict the optimum conversion of product. Response surface methodology with central composite design gave the best performance in this study, and the methodology as a whole has been proven to be adequate for the design and optimization of the enzymatic process. PMID:24324389

Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Basri, Mahiran; Kassim, Anuar; Abdullah, Dzulkefly Kuang; Abdollahi, Yadollah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Rezaee, Malahat

2013-01-01

157

Statistical methodology for the evaluation of vaccine efficacy in a phase III multi-centre trial of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African children  

PubMed Central

Background There has been much debate about the appropriate statistical methodology for the evaluation of malaria field studies and the challenges in interpreting data arising from these trials. Methods The present paper describes, for a pivotal phase III efficacy of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine, the methods of the statistical analysis and the rationale for their selection. The methods used to estimate efficacy of the primary course of vaccination, and of a booster dose, in preventing clinical episodes of uncomplicated and severe malaria, and to determine the duration of protection, are described. The interpretation of various measures of efficacy in terms of the potential public health impact of the vaccine is discussed. Conclusions The methodology selected to analyse the clinical trial must be scientifically sound, acceptable to regulatory authorities and meaningful to those responsible for malaria control and public health policy. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00866619

2011-01-01

158

Statistical Optimization of Process Parameters for Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Triethanolamine-Based Esterquats Using Response Surface Methodology in 2-Liter Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Lipase-catalyzed production of triethanolamine-based esterquat by esterification of oleic acid (OA) with triethanolamine (TEA) in n-hexane was performed in 2?L stirred-tank reactor. A set of experiments was designed by central composite design to process modeling and statistically evaluate the findings. Five independent process variables, including enzyme amount, reaction time, reaction temperature, substrates molar ratio of OA to TEA, and agitation speed, were studied under the given conditions designed by Design Expert software. Experimental data were examined for normality test before data processing stage and skewness and kurtosis indices were determined. The mathematical model developed was found to be adequate and statistically accurate to predict the optimum conversion of product. Response surface methodology with central composite design gave the best performance in this study, and the methodology as a whole has been proven to be adequate for the design and optimization of the enzymatic process.

Basri, Mahiran; Kassim, Anuar; Kuang Abdullah, Dzulkefly; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa

2013-01-01

159

A new methodology for detection of counterfeit Viagra ® and Cialis ® tablets by image processing and statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new approach for automatic classification of counterfeit Viagra® and Cialis® tablets using image processing and statistical analysis. A high resolution VSC 5000 is used for image acquisition in a controlled environment, and the combination of a thresholding technique with morphological operators is used to segment the tablet from the background. A statistical model based on the

Claudio R. Jung; Rafael S. Ortiz; Renata Limberger; Paulo Mayorga

160

[Two anniversaries in Czech forensic medicine].  

PubMed

The authors commemorate the 100th anniversary of the publication of Slavíks textbook Forensic Pathology for Medical and Legal Students and the 125th anniversary of the 1st Czech forensic autopsy. They introduce professor V. Slavík and describe his personal qualities and expertise. The content of the textbook is described. The topicality of Slavíks explanations and the tradition of Czech forensic pathology are discussed. Key words: forensic pathology - history of Czech forensic pathology - textbooks of forensic pathology. PMID:23121041

Ne?as, P; Hejna, P

2012-10-01

161

Biological Science Initative- Forensic Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides middle and high school teachers and students with concepts and techniques of forensic evidence analysis commonly employed in forensic laboratories. This site contains a series of laboratory exercises that can be downloaded for use in middle and high school settings. Experiments are designed to teach students basic principles and methods of forensic science and to motivate the teaching of science in the classroom. Experiments are designed to teach laboratory and data-collection techniques.

2011-06-09

162

Controversies in pediatric forensic pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric forensic pathology is an emerging medical subspecialty that spans the area between pediatric and forensic pathology.\\u000a Advances in both of these fields have increased the sophistication of diagnoses, with overlap of disorders that might present\\u000a to either the pediatric or forensic pathologist, adding further layers of complexity. Not surprisingly, therefore, there are\\u000a important ethical and medical controversies in pediatric

Henry F. Krous; Roger W. Byard

2005-01-01

163

Patients' experiences of forensic psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In forensic psychotherapy there may be competing goals and agendas, influenced respectively by concerns about mental health and well-being, risk reduction and psychodynamically-significant change. There has, to date, been no published study of the goals and concerns of forensic patients undergoing therapy. Semi-structured interviews with ten patients considered by their therapists as having gained from forensic psychotherapy were analysed thematically.

Jessica Yakeley; Heather Wood

2011-01-01

164

Statistical optimization of medium for the production of recombinant hirudin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient fermentation medium producing a colourless product with high yields has been developed for the production of recombinant hirudin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the medium constituents. A 25-1 fractional factorial central composite design has been chosen to explain the combined effect of the six medium constituents, viz. yeast extract, peptone, casamino acids, ammonium

K. Jagannadha Rao; Chul-Ho Kim; Sang-Ki Rhee

2000-01-01

165

Statistical optimization of the medium components by response surface methodology to enhance phytase production by Pichia anomala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced phytase yield was attained with the yeast Pichia anomala using response surface methodology. Interactions were studied with three variables, viz. glucose, beef extract and inoculum density using Central Composite Design. Highest enzyme yields were obtained when the glucose and beef extract concentrations in the medium were 2 and 0.5%, respectively. The inoculum density was found to be an insignificant

Ashima Vohra; T. Satyanarayana

2002-01-01

166

Statistical optimization of medium components and growth conditions by response surface methodology to enhance phenol degradation by Pseudomonas putida  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a four-level Box–Behnken factorial design was employed combining with response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the medium composition for the degradation of phenol by pseudomonas putida (ATCC 31800). A mathematical model was then developed to show the effect of each medium composition and their interactions on the biodegradation of phenol. Response surface method was using four levels

Gurusamy Annadurai; Lai Yi Ling; Jiunn-Fwu Lee

2008-01-01

167

Forensic Evaluation of Juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Grisso, T. (1998). Forensic evaluation of juveniles. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press. ISBN 156887037X, 9781568870373\\u000aPublisher summary: In recent years, juvenile courts and juvenile attorneys have come to rely heavily on mental health professionals for evaluations of youths in delinquency cases. Evaluation questions include the youth's competence to stand trial, competence to waive Miranda rights prior to giving a

Thomas Grisso

1998-01-01

168

RNA in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA analysis offers insight into diseases and mechanisms leading to death and could develop into a valuable tool for diagnosis of the cause of death in forensic pathology. Other possible applications include the determination of the age of wounds and injuries and of the post-mortem interval. The molecular identification of body fluids by analysis of cell-specific mRNA expression already represents

M. Bauer

2007-01-01

169

Tattoos: forensic considerations.  

PubMed

Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations. PMID:23846907

Byard, Roger W

2013-12-01

170

A new methodology for detection of counterfeit Viagra® and Cialis® tablets by image processing and statistical analysis.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a new approach for automatic classification of counterfeit Viagra(®) and Cialis(®) tablets using image processing and statistical analysis. A high resolution VSC 5000 is used for image acquisition in a controlled environment, and the combination of a thresholding technique with morphological operators is used to segment the tablet from the background. A statistical model based on the RGB color components of original samples is built, and the detection of counterfeit tablets was performed by checking the adherence of a test sample to the obtained distribution using the Bhattacharyya distance. Our experimental results indicated that counterfeit tablets can be effective detected using the proposed approach. PMID:21955571

Jung, Claudio R; Ortiz, Rafael S; Limberger, Renata; Mayorga, Paulo

2012-03-10

171

Statistical and methodological challenges for disaster preparedness and medical needs assessment in Rio Grande Valley of Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, disaster preparedness through assessment of medical and special needs persons (MSNP) has taken a center place in public eye in effect of frequent natural disasters such as hurricanes, storm surge or tsunami due to climate change and increased human activity on our planet. Statistical methods complex survey design and analysis have equally gained significance as a consequence.

Sartaj Alam

2009-01-01

172

Statistical methodologies for tree-ring research to understand the climate-growth relationships over time and space  

EPA Science Inventory

The International Tree-Ring Database is a valuable resource for studying climate change and its effects on terrestrial ecosystems over time and space. We examine the statistical methods in current use in dendroclimatology and dendroecology to process the tree-ring data and make ...

173

Statistical and methodological issues in the analysis of complex sample survey data: Practical guidance for trauma researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard methods for the analysis of survey data assume that the data arise from a simple random sample of the target population. In practice, analysts of survey data sets collected from nationally representative probability samples often pay little attention to important properties of the survey data. Standard statistical software procedures do not allow analysts to take these properties of survey

Brady T. West

2008-01-01

174

New developments in forensic psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Briefly introduces the concept of forensic psychology, looking at areas such as stalking behaviour, self-mutilation, and execution competency. Suggests that the forensic psychiatrist needs to remain up to date with recent sexual harassment legislation, the use of neuropsychological testing and the assessment of child abuse. Covers other subjects including hate crime on the Internet, and psychological autopsy. Concludes that to

Suzanne David; Brian H. Kleiner

2001-01-01

175

Forensic Practice: Pride and Prejudice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of forensic psychology and psychiatry has evolved rapidly and our research instruments and experts command growing respect among both the scientific community and lay audiences. We have, however, focused almost exclusively on assessment rather than treatment and, in doing this, have fostered the perception that most forensic clients are not amenable to treatment. The author discusses the role

Jay Adams

2003-01-01

176

What Is Forensic Psychology, Anyway?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of how “forensic psychology” is defined has taken on a new urgency in the context of an application to have forensic psychology designated a “specialty” by the American Psychological Association. To provide a historical perspective, I briefly review early attempts to apply psychological concepts to legal issues, beginning with the McNaughten trial in England in 1843. I then

John C. Brigham

1999-01-01

177

Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

Torpey, Elka Maria

2009-01-01

178

A practical tutorial on the use of nonparametric statistical tests as a methodology for comparing evolutionary and swarm intelligence algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest in nonparametric statistical analysis has grown recently in the field of computational intelligence. In many experimental studies, the lack of the required properties for a proper application of parametric procedures–independence, normality, and homoscedasticity–yields to nonparametric ones the task of performing a rigorous comparison among algorithms.In this paper, we will discuss the basics and give a survey of a

Joaquín Derrac; Salvador García; Daniel Molina; Francisco Herrera

2011-01-01

179

Integrating Statistical Techniques with the Reliability Engineering Methodology of 'Failure Mode and Effects Analysis' for Continuous Improvement of Manufacturing Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

School ofElectrical andElectronicsEngineering Universiti Sains Malaysia, EngineeringCampus SASeK. 'Failure Mode andEffects Analysis' (FMEA) is a reliability engineeringmethodologyfor increasing the level ofcustomer satisfaction in a company'sproducts andservices. This is achievedby identifying andeliminatingor reducing knownor potential problems in the case ofexistingproducts, processes, or services or in the case ofwhen new products, processes or services are being designed Statistical techniques can also be

Zalina Abdul Aziz; Chee Peng Lim; Yin Leong Cheow

2003-01-01

180

Evaluating traditional Chinese medicine using modern clinical trial design and statistical methodology: application to a randomized controlled acupuncture trial.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in China and other Asian counties for thousands of years, is increasingly utilized in Western countries. However, due to inherent differences in how Western medicine and this ancient modality are practiced, employing the so-called Western medicine-based gold standard research methods to evaluate TCM is challenging. This paper is a discussion of the obstacles inherent in the design and statistical analysis of clinical trials of TCM. It is based on our experience in designing and conducting a randomized controlled clinical trial of acupuncture for post-operative dental pain control in which acupuncture was shown to be statistically and significantly better than placebo in lengthening the median survival time to rescue drug. We demonstrate here that PH assumptions in the common Cox model did not hold in that trial and that TCM trials warrant more thoughtful modeling and more sophisticated models of statistical analysis. TCM study design entails all the challenges encountered in trials of drugs, devices, and surgical procedures in the Western medicine. We present possible solutions to some but leave many issues unresolved. PMID:21344469

Lao, Lixing; Huang, Yi; Feng, Chiguang; Berman, Brian M; Tan, Ming T

2012-03-30

181

Evaluating Traditional Chinese Medicine Using Modern Clinical Trial Design and Statistical Methodology: Application to a Randomized Controlled Acupuncture Trial  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in China and other Asian counties for thousands of years, is increasingly utilized in Western countries. However, due to inherent differences in how Western medicine and this ancient modality are practiced, employing so-called Western medicine-based gold standard research methods to evaluate TCM is challenging. This article is a discussion of the obstacles inherent in the design and statistical analysis of clinical trials of TCM. It is based on our experience in designing and conducting a randomized controlled clinical trial of acupuncture for post-operative dental pain control in which acupuncture was shown to be statistically and significantly better than placebo in lengthening the median survival time to rescue drug. We demonstrate here that PH assumptions in the common Cox model did not hold in that trial and that TCM trials warrant more thoughtful modeling and more sophisticated models of statistical analysis. TCM study design entails all the challenges encountered in trials of drugs, devices, and surgical procedures in Western medicine. We present possible solutions to some but leave many issues unresolved.

Lao, Lixing; Huang, Yi; Feng, Chiguang; Berman, Brian M; Tan, Ming T.

2010-01-01

182

Encoded evidence: DNA in forensic analysis.  

PubMed

Sherlock Holmes said "it has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important", but never imagined that such a little thing, the DNA molecule, could become perhaps the most powerful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Twenty years after the development of DNA fingerprinting, forensic DNA analysis is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects and the identification of victims of crimes, accidents and disasters, driving the development of innovative methods in molecular genetics, statistics and the use of massive intelligence databases. PMID:15510165

Jobling, Mark A; Gill, Peter

2004-10-01

183

Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science.  

PubMed

This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. PMID:23021588

Cole, Simon A

2013-03-01

184

Forensic standardizations in torture and death in custody investigations  

PubMed Central

Torture and death in custody have incurred rapid development as juridical subject in recent years in Europe, with the implementation of the European Convention of Human Rights. Evaluation of sufferance severity, which is the consequence of pathology with chronic evolution, the predictability of decompensation of a subclinical pathology, and translating these medical information on a scale measuring the severity of detention consequences, are all challenges for the modern detention healthcare system, in which most allegations of torture are due to lack of appropriate medical treatment administered to inmates. Where ethics are concerned, the main data difficulties are addressed in ethical conflicts between officials and experts of the parties and also between experts and judiciary officials who handle cases of torture or death in detention; this is why standardization is very important in such cases both in clinical expertise and in autopsies or exhumations. Discussions: We must improve the forensic expertise methodology, the process of collecting data with statistical purposes, and sound evaluation criteria, all in a strong connection with the need for a balanced legal framework applied in the case of civil compensations granted after death in custody, and the biunique relation between medico-legal expertise and case investigation has to be standardized.

2012-01-01

185

A Methodology for Determining Statistical Performance Compliance for Airborne Doppler Radar with Forward-Looking Turbulence Detection Capability. Second Corrected Copy Issued May 23, 2011  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the research developed and presented in this document was to statistically assess turbulence hazard detection performance employing airborne pulse Doppler radar systems. The FAA certification methodology for forward looking airborne turbulence radars will require estimating the probabilities of missed and false hazard indications under operational conditions. Analytical approaches must be used due to the near impossibility of obtaining sufficient statistics experimentally. This report describes an end-to-end analytical technique for estimating these probabilities for Enhanced Turbulence (E-Turb) Radar systems under noise-limited conditions, for a variety of aircraft types, as defined in FAA TSO-C134. This technique provides for one means, but not the only means, by which an applicant can demonstrate compliance to the FAA directed ATDS Working Group performance requirements. Turbulence hazard algorithms were developed that derived predictive estimates of aircraft hazards from basic radar observables. These algorithms were designed to prevent false turbulence indications while accurately predicting areas of elevated turbulence risks to aircraft, passengers, and crew; and were successfully flight tested on a NASA B757-200 and a Delta Air Lines B737-800. Application of this defined methodology for calculating the probability of missed and false hazard indications taking into account the effect of the various algorithms used, is demonstrated for representative transport aircraft and radar performance characteristics.

Bowles, Roland L.; Buck, Bill K.

2009-01-01

186

Development of Statistical Process Control Methodology for an Environmentally Compliant Surface Cleaning Process in a Bonding Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bonding labs at both MSFC and the northern Utah production plant prepare bond test specimens which simulate or witness the production of NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The current process for preparing the bonding surfaces employs 1,1,1-trichloroethane vapor degreasing, which simulates the current RSRM process. Government regulations (e.g., the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act) have mandated a production phase-out of a number of ozone depleting compounds (ODC) including 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In order to comply with these regulations, the RSRM Program is qualifying a spray-in-air (SIA) precision cleaning process using Brulin 1990, an aqueous blend of surfactants. Accordingly, surface preparation prior to bonding process simulation test specimens must reflect the new production cleaning process. The Bonding Lab Statistical Process Control (SPC) program monitors the progress of the lab and its capabilities, as well as certifies the bonding technicians, by periodically preparing D6AC steel tensile adhesion panels with EA-91 3NA epoxy adhesive using a standardized process. SPC methods are then used to ensure the process is statistically in control, thus producing reliable data for bonding studies, and identify any problems which might develop. Since the specimen cleaning process is being changed, new SPC limits must be established. This report summarizes side-by-side testing of D6AC steel tensile adhesion witness panels and tapered double cantilevered beams (TDCBs) using both the current baseline vapor degreasing process and a lab-scale spray-in-air process. A Proceco 26 inches Typhoon dishwasher cleaned both tensile adhesion witness panels and TDCBs in a process which simulates the new production process. The tests were performed six times during 1995, subsequent statistical analysis of the data established new upper control limits (UCL) and lower control limits (LCL). The data also demonstrated that the new process was equivalent to the vapor degreasing process.

Hutchens, Dale E.; Doan, Patrick A.; Boothe, Richard E.

1997-01-01

187

Nanoparticles in forensic science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

Cantu, Antonio A.

2008-10-01

188

Uncertainty propagation in nuclear forensics.  

PubMed

Uncertainty propagation formulae are presented for age dating in support of nuclear forensics. The age of radioactive material in this context refers to the time elapsed since a particular radionuclide was chemically separated from its decay product(s). The decay of the parent radionuclide and ingrowth of the daughter nuclide are governed by statistical decay laws. Mathematical equations allow calculation of the age of specific nuclear material through the atom ratio between parent and daughter nuclides, or through the activity ratio provided that the daughter nuclide is also unstable. The derivation of the uncertainty formulae of the age may present some difficulty to the user community and so the exact solutions, some approximations, a graphical representation and their interpretation are presented in this work. Typical nuclides of interest are actinides in the context of non-proliferation commitments. The uncertainty analysis is applied to a set of important parent-daughter pairs and the need for more precise half-life data is examined. PMID:24607529

Pommé, S; Jerome, S M; Venchiarutti, C

2014-07-01

189

Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

Gaensslen, Robert E.

2002-01-01

190

NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

Nichols, T.

2011-02-07

191

An Interdisciplinary Approach to Forensic IT and Forensic Psychology Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In WISE 4, Armstrong [1] presented a multidisciplinary view in computer forensics education. The view was primarily focusing solely on the education\\u000a of computer forensics students, which was indeed along the lines of multidisciplinarity. However, this view does not involve\\u000a integration between the different disciplines. In this paper, the scope of the approach is extended in order to allow a

Clare Wilson; Vasilios Katos; Caroline Strevens

2007-01-01

192

Statistical analysis of spectral data: a methodology for designing an intelligent monitoring system for the diabetic foot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection of (pre-)signs of ulceration on a diabetic foot is valuable for clinical practice. Hyperspectral imaging is a promising technique for detection and classification of such (pre-)signs. However, the number of the spectral bands should be limited to avoid overfitting, which is critical for pixel classification with hyperspectral image data. The goal was to design a detector/classifier based on spectral imaging (SI) with a small number of optical bandpass filters. The performance and stability of the design were also investigated. The selection of the bandpass filters boils down to a feature selection problem. A dataset was built, containing reflectance spectra of 227 skin spots from 64 patients, measured with a spectrometer. Each skin spot was annotated manually by clinicians as "healthy" or a specific (pre-)sign of ulceration. Statistical analysis on the data set showed the number of required filters is between 3 and 7, depending on additional constraints on the filter set. The stability analysis revealed that shot noise was the most critical factor affecting the classification performance. It indicated that this impact could be avoided in future SI systems with a camera sensor whose saturation level is higher than 106, or by postimage processing.

Liu, Chanjuan; van Netten, Jaap J.; Klein, Marvin E.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Bus, Sicco A.; van der Heijden, Ferdi

2013-12-01

193

Forensic Information Warfare Requirement Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study presents an analysis of the state of the art in computer forensic technologies employed by the military, law enforcement, and business and industry sectors. Additionally, it charts the observed deficiencies in this area, by providing a research ...

C. Hosmer G. Gordon

2002-01-01

194

Professional convergence in forensic practice.  

PubMed

This paper outlines the development and convergence of forensic science and secure psychiatric services in the UK, locating the professionalization of forensic nursing within a complex web of political, economic, and ideological structures. It is suggested that a stagnation of the therapeutic enterprise in high and medium security provision has witnessed an intrusion of medical power into the societal body. Expanding technologies of control and surveillance are discussed in relation to the move from modernity to postmodernity and the ongoing dynamic of medicalized offending. Four aspects of globalization are identified as impacting upon the organization and application of forensic practice: (i) organized capitalism and the exhaustion of the welfare state; (ii) security versus danger and trust versus risk; (iii) science as a meta-language; and (iv) foreclosure as a mechanism of censorship. Finally, as a challenge for the profession, some predictions are offered about the future directions or demise of forensic nursing. PMID:11421978

Mercer, D; Mason, T; Richman, J

2001-06-01

195

Forensic Science--A Proposal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

1973-01-01

196

National Forensic League  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over its eighty year history, the NFL has graduated such notable alumni as President Lyndon Baines Johnson, Oprah Winfrey, Jane Pauley, and Don Ameche. They never played a moment in the NFL that celebrates the legends of the gridiron, but rather they honed their powers of persuasion and oratory in the National Forensic League. Over one million additional alums have joined these well-known personages, and persons who wish to know more about the organization and its operations will want to take a close look at their site. From the homepage, visitors can move through sections that provide hands-on resources that will help both students and coaches get familiar with the world of debate. Most of these resources are located in the "Coaching Resources" area, and are divided into such topics as speech assignments, vocabulary, and peer evaluations.

197

National Forensic League  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over its eighty year history, the NFL has graduated such notable alumni as President Lyndon Baines Johnson, Oprah Winfrey, Jane Pauley, and Don Ameche. They never played a moment in the NFL that celebrates the legends of the gridiron, but rather they honed their powers of persuasion and oratory in the National Forensic League. Over one million additional alums have joined these well-known personages, and persons who wish to know more about the organization and its operations will want to take a close look at their site. From the homepage, visitors can move through sections that provide hands-on resources that will help both students and coaches get familiar with the world of debate. Most of these resources are located in the "Coaching Resources" area, and are divided into such topics as speech assignments, vocabulary, and peer evaluations.

2007-03-01

198

Forensics in dermatology: part II.  

PubMed

The evaluation of skin findings is critical in identifying many types of injury, whether self- inflicted or accidentally or intentionally inflicted. Specific causes of injury include homicide, abuse, neglect, assault, self-inflicted injury, suicide, torture, poisoning, and bioterrorism. Forensic findings in hair and nails are also discussed. This overview of dermatologic findings in forensic pathology highlights the significance of the cutaneous manifestations of injury. PMID:21496700

Reddy, Kalpana; Lowenstein, Eve J

2011-05-01

199

Forensic entomology: applications and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main\\u000a application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the\\u000a age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the\\u000a corpse. In

J. AmendtC; C. S. Richards; C. P. Campobasso; R. Zehner; M. J. R. Hall

200

How to Improve Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some institutional structures for inquiry produce better approximations to truth than others. The current institutional structure\\u000a of police forensics gives each lab a monopoly in the analysis of the police evidence it receives. Forensic workers have inadequate\\u000a incentives to produce reliable analyses of police evidence. Competition would create such incentives. I outline a system of\\u000a “competitive self regulation” for police

Roger Koppl

2005-01-01

201

Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be

Georgios Pangalos; Vasilios Katos

2010-01-01

202

Age Estimation in Forensic Sciences  

PubMed Central

Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955–1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 (14C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2 = 0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 1.0 ± 0.6 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 ± 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification.

Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L.

2010-01-01

203

Freeware Live Forensics tools evaluation and operation tips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highlighted by a digital forensics investigation specialists from FBI in DFRWS 2006, live forensics investigations already become one of the most important procedures in digital forensics investigations. Many digital forensics investigation product companies have already joint the battlefield in developing their only live forensics tools. However, similar to the development trend in traditional digital forensics, evaluation criteria for Live Digital

Ricci Ieong

2006-01-01

204

Anti-Forensics: Techniques, Detection and Countermeasures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer Forensic Tools (CFTs) allow investigators to recover deleted files, reconstruct an intruder's activities, and gain intelligence about a computer's user. Anti-Forensics (AF) tools and techniques frustrate CFTs by erasing or altering information; c...

S. Garfinkel

2007-01-01

205

Active Traffic Capture for Network Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network traffic capture is an integral part of network forensics, but current traffic capture techniques are typically passive in nature. Under heavy loads, it is possible for a sniffer to miss packets, which affects the quality of forensic evidence.

Slaviero, Marco; Granova, Anna; Olivier, Martin

206

Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating procedures and training to meet these initial challenges so as minimize disturbance of the evidence. While epidemiology and forensics are similar sciences with similar goals when applied to biocrimes, forensics has additional and more stringent requirements. Maintaining a chain of custody on evidentiary samples is one example of an extra requirement imposed on an investigation of a biocrime. Another issue is the intent in microbial forensics to identify a bioattack organism in greatest detail. If possible, forensic investigations will strive to identify the precise strain and substrain, rather than just to the species level, which might be sufficient in an epidemiological investigation. Although multiple groups have developed lists of bioterrorism target pathogens, these lists are too narrow. An expansion of microorganisms relevant to food and water threats should be considered. Computerized networks should be established to track infectious disease outbreaks in real time. These systems could alert public health and agricultural officials to the existence of a potential bioattack earlier than simply waiting for a report of a suspicious cluster of similar patients. Once a biocrime is suspected, a wide variety of methods are available to identify the microorganism used in the bioattack and to analyze features that might lead to the source of the event. A multi-pronged approach to such an investigation may be preferable, using many available methods-ranging from genomics to sequencing to physiology to analysis of substances in the sample. Microbial forensics will be most effective if there is sufficient basic scientific information concerning microbial genetics, evolution, physiology, and ecology. Strain subtyping analysis will be difficult to interpret if we do not understand some of the basic evolutionary mechanisms and population diversity of pathogens. Phenotypic features associated with evidentiary pathogens also may provide investigative leads, but full exploitation of these features can only be accomplished if we understand basic principles that control microbial physiology. Finally

Keim, Paul

2003-02-17

207

Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

208

The organization of pretrial forensic evaluation services  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey obtained standardized data to provide a description of the approaches used in the 50 states and the District of Columbia for obtaining court-ordered competence to stand trial and crimial responsibility evaluations. Respondents were forensic mental health administrators and forensic mental health professionals. Data were obtained for variables describing the organizational characteristics of the states' pretrial forensic evaluation systems.

Thomas Grisso; Joseph J. Cocozza; Henry J. Steadman; William H. Fisher; Alexander Greert

1994-01-01

209

Aggression toward forensic evaluators: a statewide survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing body of literature regarding violence toward mental health professionals in clinical settings, but little is known about the frequency of assaults on forensic evaluators. Forensic evaluators play a very different role in the evaluee's life than do treating clinicians. This study examined the incidence of aggressive behavior specifically directed toward forensic clinicians. Psychologists and psychiatrists (n

Naomi Leavitt; Helene Presskreischer; Patricia L. Maykuth; Thomas Grisso

2006-01-01

210

Educational and Training Models in Forensic Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of forensic psychology has experienced remarkable growth over the past three decades. Perhaps the best evidence of this growth is the number of forensic psychology training programs currently enrolling students. Those interested in forensic psychology can choose from several types of programs aimed at different educational outcomes. In addition, opportunities for postdoctoral fellowships, continuing education, and respecialization have

David DeMatteo; Geoffrey Marczyk; Daniel A. Krauss; Jeffrey Burl

2009-01-01

211

The development and practice of forensic podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic podiatry a small, but potentially useful specialty using clinical podiatric knowledge for the purpose of person identification. The practice of forensic podiatry began in the early 1970s in Canada and the UK, although supportive research commenced later in the 1990s. Techniques of forensic podiatry include identification from podiatry records, the human footprint, footwear, and the analysis of gait forms

Wesley Vernon

2006-01-01

212

Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

1985-01-01

213

6 Forensic Security and the Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction to forensic security Historical overview of forensic sciences In ancient Rome, a forum was a public place where important governmental debates were held. Sometimes it was a town square or even a marketplace. Gradually, the forum also became a sort of public 'courthouse,' where various trials of importance to the citizenry were held. Etymologically, the word forensic may be

Daniel B. Kennedy

214

Method ontology for intelligent network forensics analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network forensics is an after the fact process to investigate malicious activities conducted over computer networks by gathering useful intelligence. Recently, several machine learning techniques have been proposed to automate and develop intelligent network forensics systems. An intelligent network forensics system that reconstructs intrusion scenarios and makes attack attributions requires knowledge about intrusions signatures, evidences, impacts, and objectives. In addition,

Sherif Saad; Issa Traore

2010-01-01

215

Bovine and equine forensic DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal forensic DNA analysis is being used for human criminal investigations (e.g traces from cats and dogs), wildlife management, breeding and food safety. The most common DNA markers used for such forensic casework are short tandem repeats (STR). Rules and guidelines concerning quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) have been well established for human forensic STR DNA testing, which

L. H. P. van de Goor

2011-01-01

216

The differences between forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology.  

PubMed

Forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology face a common threat: the erosion of their credibility. It is proposed that they can combat this threat better by collaboration than by independent efforts. Similarities between the two professions are reviewed to examine their potential for collaboration. Their differences are reviewed to demonstrate the value of that which they can contribute collaboratively, beyond that which either can contribute independently, to increasing their credibility in the eyes of the public and the courts. Three specific areas for collaboration are proposed: individual practice, quality control of expert testimony, and training. PMID:8364232

Grisso, T

1993-01-01

217

The role of spatial aggregation in forensic entomology.  

PubMed

A central concept in forensic entomology is that arthropod succession on carrion is predictable and can be used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of human remains. However, most studies have reported significant variation in successional patterns, particularly among replicate carcasses, which has complicated estimates of PMIs. Several forensic entomology researchers have proposed that further integration of ecological and evolutionary theory in forensic entomology could help advance the application of succession data for producing PMI estimates. The purpose of this essay is to draw attention to the role of spatial aggregation of arthropods among carrion resources as a potentially important aspect to consider for understanding and predicting the assembly of arthropods on carrion over time. We review ecological literature related to spatial aggregation of arthropods among patchy and ephemeral resources, such as carrion, and when possible integrate these results with published forensic literature. We show that spatial aggregation of arthropods across resources is commonly reported and has been used to provide fundamental insight for understanding regional and local patterns of arthropod diversity and coexistence. Moreover, two suggestions are made for conducting future research. First, because intraspecific aggregation affects species frequency distributions across carcasses, data from replicate carcasses should not be combined, but rather statistically quantified to generate occurrence probabilities. Second, we identify a need for studies that tease apart the degree to which community assembly on carrion is spatially versus temporally structured, which will aid in developing mechanistic hypotheses on the ecological factors shaping community assembly on carcasses. PMID:24605447

Fiene, Justin G; Sword, Gregory A; Van Laerhoven, Sherah L; Tarone, Aaron M

2014-01-01

218

DNA Forensics and Color Pigments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students perform DNA forensics using food coloring to enhance their understanding of DNA fingerprinting, restriction enzymes, genotyping and DNA gel electrophoresis. They place small drops of different food coloring ("water-based paint") on strips of filter paper and then place one paper strip end in water. As water travels along the paper strips, students observe the pigments that compose the paint decompose into their color components. This is an example of the chromatography concept applied to DNA forensics, with the pigments in the paint that define the color being analogous to DNA fragments of different lengths.

University Of Houston

219

Forensic discrimination of blue ballpoint pens on documents by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis.  

PubMed

The differentiation of blue ballpoint pen inks written on documents through an LA-ICP-MS methodology is proposed. Small common office paper portions containing ink strokes from 21 blue pens of known origin were cut and measured without any sample preparation. In a first step, Mg, Ca and Sr were proposed as internal standards (ISs) and used in order to normalize elemental intensities and subtract background signals from the paper. Then, specific criteria were designed and employed to identify target elements (Li, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Sn, W and Pb) which resulted independent of the IS chosen in a 98% of the cases and allowed a qualitative clustering of the samples. In a second step, an elemental-related ratio (ink ratio) based on the targets previously identified was used to obtain mass independent intensities and perform pairwise comparisons by means of multivariate statistical analyses (MANOVA, Tukey's HSD and T2 Hotelling). This treatment improved the discrimination power (DP) and provided objective results, achieving a complete differentiation among different brands and a partial differentiation within pen inks from the same brands. The designed data treatment, together with the use of multivariate statistical tools, represents an easy and useful tool for differentiating among blue ballpoint pen inks, with hardly sample destruction and without the need for methodological calibrations, being its use potentially advantageous from a forensic-practice standpoint. To test the procedure, it was applied to analyze real handwritten questioned contracts, previously studied by the Department of Forensic Document Exams of the Criminalistics Service of Civil Guard (Spain). The results showed that all questioned ink entries were clustered in the same group, being those different from the remaining ink on the document. PMID:23597731

Alamilla, Francisco; Calcerrada, Matías; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Torre, Mercedes

2013-05-10

220

Concepts and possibilities in forensic intelligence.  

PubMed

Forensic intelligence can be viewed as comprising two parts, one directly concerning intelligence delivery in forensic casework, the other considering performance aspects of forensic work, loosely termed here as business intelligence. Forensic casework can be viewed as processes that produce an intelligence product useful to police investigations. Traditionally, forensic intelligence production has been confined to discipline-specific activity. This paper examines the concepts, processes and intelligence products delivered in forensic casework, the information repositories available from forensic examinations, and ways to produce within- and across-discipline casework correlations by using information technology to capitalise on the information sets available. Such analysis presents opportunities to improve forensic intelligence services as well as challenges for technical solutions to deliver appropriate data-mining capabilities for available information sets, such as digital photographs. Business intelligence refers primarily to examination of efficiency and effectiveness of forensic service delivery. This paper discusses measures of forensic activity and their relationship to crime outcomes as a measure of forensic effectiveness. PMID:16893621

Bell, Chris

2006-10-16

221

Forensic analysis of dyed textile fibers.  

PubMed

Textile fibers are a key form of trace evidence, and the ability to reliably associate or discriminate them is crucial for forensic scientists worldwide. While microscopic and instrumental analysis can be used to determine the composition of the fiber itself, additional specificity is gained by examining fiber color. This is particularly important when the bulk composition of the fiber is relatively uninformative, as it is with cotton, wool, or other natural fibers. Such analyses pose several problems, including extremely small sample sizes, the desire for nondestructive techniques, and the vast complexity of modern dye compositions. This review will focus on more recent methods for comparing fiber color by using chromatography, spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The increasing use of multivariate statistics and other data analysis techniques for the differentiation of spectra from dyed fibers will also be discussed. PMID:19543886

Goodpaster, John V; Liszewski, Elisa A

2009-08-01

222

Forensic anthropology in the 1990s.  

PubMed

Forensic anthropology has undergone considerable change over the past 10 years. Today it is utilized by most law enforcement, coroner, and medical examiner systems. The techniques for determination of age at death, sex, race, and stature from skeletal remains have been modified and greatly expanded. The role of the forensic anthropologist within a medicolegal context is much broader than in previous years. In addition to establishing individual identity, forensic anthropologists are now consulted for trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Not all physical anthropologists are forensic anthropologists. Qualified individuals are certified, through rigorous examination, by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. A list of board-certified forensic anthropologists may be obtained through the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. PMID:1510066

Reichs, K J

1992-06-01

223

Compulsory Education: Statistics, Methodology, Reforms and New Tendencies. Conference Papers for the 8th Session of the International Standing Conference for the History of Education (Parma, Italy, September 3-6, 1986). Volume IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection, the last of four volumes on the history of compulsory education among the nations of Europe and the western hemisphere, analyzes statistics, methodology, reforms, and new tendencies. Twelve of the document's 18 articles are written in English, 3 are written in French and 3 are in Italian. Summaries accompany most articles; three…

Genovesi, Giovanni, Ed.

224

Behind the Scenes: Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short Canadian article about insurance claim investigation and forensic entomology. Most of the usual crime investigation procedures are clearly described, including maggot collection, weather data logging, and a discussion of post-mortem interval (though, without an actual calculation example). This is a commercial site.

0002-11-30

225

Resolution in forensic microbial genotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resolution is a key parameter for differentiating among the large number of strain typing methods that could be applied to pathogens involved in bioterror events or biocrimes. In this report we develop a first-principles analysis of strain typing resolution using a simple mathematical model to provide a basis for the rational design of microbial typing systems for forensic applications. We

Velsko

2005-01-01

226

Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a

Keim

2003-01-01

227

Forensic entomology and climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology establishes the postmortem interval (PMI) by studying cadaveric fauna. The PMI today is still largely based on tables of insect succession on human cadavers compiled in the late 19th- or mid-20th centuries. In the last few years, however, the gradual warming of the climate has been changing faunal communities by favouring the presence of thermophilous species. To demonstrate

Margherita Turchetto; Stefano Vanin

2004-01-01

228

The Rorschach in Forensic Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rorschach is one of the most widely used, openly accepted, and frequently requested tests in forensic psychology practice (Piotrowski, 1996; Meloy, 1991; Weiner, Exner, & Sciara, 1996). Well-trained psychologists with a sophisticated understanding of the individual, psychological constructs, base rates, and conditional probabilities, derive information from the Rorschach beyond what is available from diagnosis, self-report, and interview. The Rorschach

Carl B. Gacono; F. Barton Evans III; Donald J. Viglione

2002-01-01

229

Forensics: Enhancing Civic Literacy & Democracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensics--interpretation, speech, and debate--can and should be a meaningful part of every school's curriculum. To put it simply, the course of study, alongside cocurricular competition, promotes civic education and enhances the standard curriculum by helping students explore myriad topics from multiple angles and find the truth in each,…

Briscoe, Shawn F.

2009-01-01

230

Forensic applications of signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights some problems encountered by forensic signal processing experts in the area of speech and video processing. We have demonstrated that there is a need for speech, video, and other signal processing experts within the IEEE community to work together to provide standardized guidelines to court systems around the world to assist them in dealing with this complex

J. Tibbitts; Yibin Lu

2009-01-01

231

Forensic archaeology as mortuary anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that forensic anthropology is more than just physical anthropology, but should incorporate several subdisciplinary perspectives into a framework of mortuary anthropology. The advantage of this holistic approach is to provide context for the primary roles of physical anthropologists; identification of victims, and assessing manner of death. Mortuary anthropology provides information on processes of disposal and site formation,

William A. Lovis

1992-01-01

232

Forensic osteological investigations in Kosovo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A team of Finnish forensic experts performed investigations of alleged mass graves in Kosovo under the mandate of the European Union (EU). Human skeletal remains from two locations were examined. The remains contained three almost complete skeletons, and individual bones and bone fragments, part of which were burned. Injuries, pathological changes, and findings for identification purposes were examined and documented

Juha Rainio; Minttu Hedman; Kari Karkola; Kaisa Lalu; Petteri Peltola; Helena Ranta; Antti Sajantila; Niklas Söderholm; Antti Penttilä

2001-01-01

233

New Method Underlying Forensic Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic science education at universities in Poland has only recently been established. Binding provisions on university education did not grant any wider possibilities of establishing interdisciplinary institutes or research units and instead attached individual academics to their original departments. After the new law was passed in 2003, the Faculty of Law in conjunction with the Biology, Chemistry and Physics faculties,

Piotr A. Girdwoyn; Tadeusz J. Tomaszewski

2009-01-01

234

Fratricide: A Forensic Psychiatric Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of fratricide rates based on national homicide data have provided some general information pertaining to offenders and victims of sibling homicide but are limited by data constraints to examining a few major variables. Exploring fratricide from a forensic psychiatric perspective could uncover other related factors and provide insight into why some individuals murder their siblings. In a retrospective study

Dominique Bourget; Pierre Gagne ´

235

[Ethical aspects of forensic psychiatry].  

PubMed

Ethical aspects of forensic psychiatry disclose a tension between complementary and conflicting issues. The field of tension extends from offenders and their criminal offence to experts, therapists and conditions of inpatient treatment. In addition, there are legal and political aspects as well as aspects concerning the public, the victims and their next of kins and finally the media. PMID:24983577

Muysers, Jutta

2014-07-01

236

ISFG: recommendations regarding the use of non-human (animal) DNA in forensic genetic investigations.  

PubMed

The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only. PMID:21106449

Linacre, A; Gusmão, L; Hecht, W; Hellmann, A P; Mayr, W R; Parson, W; Prinz, M; Schneider, P M; Morling, N

2011-11-01

237

American Academy of Forensic Science: Choosing a Career  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides information on careers in forensic science. Topics include what forensic science is and what forensic scientists do, educational requirements, and what graduates in this field might expect in terms of work locations and pay. There are also brief overviews of different branches of forensic science (criminalistics, jurisprudence, pathology, anthropology, and others), and a list of online resources for forensic science.

238

Forensic anthropology in Latin America.  

PubMed

Forensic anthropology has been one of the fastest growing medico-legal disciplines both in its contribution to the practical needs of the legal system and research accomplishments. New anthropological standards were developed to apply to a specific population of a region. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a large sample of anthropological forensic cases and to review pertinent literature that deals with anthropological standards developed for the population of the continent of Central and South America. Using Uruguay as an example, there was not a single office or anthropologist assigned to analyze human skeletal remains in Uruguay. In 1991 the Laboratorio de Antropología Forense at the Morgue Judicial of Montevideo was created. A total of 189 forensic anthropological cases (276 individuals) were analyzed since this date. Twenty six percent of cases involving human remains were positively identified. The majority came from the Departamento de Montevideo, the largest population district of the country. Most of the cases fell into the 60 to 69 years old age range (35%). Females represented 32% of the total. Since the establishment of the laboratory, the number of forensic cases increased considerably from 20 in 1991 to 40 in 1997. The case studies were accompanied with skull-photo superimposition and facial reconstruction when no other evidence for positive identification was available. This service provided by the laboratory was quickly known to coroners, law enforcement agencies, and other legal authorities and thus utilized not only in Uruguay but also in several other countries in the continent. Because of the obvious need for an anthropologist, there are now university programs to provide forensic anthropological education. Yet, research has lagged behind considerably. Deficiencies are obvious in basic osteological standards of estimating age, calculating stature, determining sex and assessing race that can be applied to populations of the continent. Regional standards are also needed to estimate postmortem interval, to identify culture specific causes of trauma and other forensic phenomena. Some of these can be remedied if there is a database where the available literature is stored and osteometric information is shared. PMID:10759068

I?can, M Y; Olivera, H E

2000-03-13

239

On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community.  

PubMed

In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today. PMID:24630329

van Asten, Arian C

2014-03-01

240

Further validation of a multiplex STR system for use in routine forensic identity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymerase chain reaction- (PCR) based short tandem repeat (STR) system has recently been developed for use in routine forensic identity testing [1]. The methodology involves the simultaneous amplification of alleles at four loci on different chromosomes, followed by the fluorescent detection of products using an automated DNA sequencer. The adoption of this technology into operational casework offers several advantages

Julia F. Andersen; M. J. Greenhalgh; H. R. Butler; S. R. Kilpatrick; R. C. Piercy; H. S. Myhill; J. C. Wright; R. Hallett; B. H. Parkin

1996-01-01

241

A forensic examination of the causal mechanisms of rework in a structural steel supply chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to take a forensic approach to identify the causal mechanisms of rework in a structural steel supply chain. Rework is an area that has received limited attention, yet it is a major contributor to time and cost overruns in projects. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research uses an interpretative case study approach to gain an understanding about

Peter E. D. Love; David J. Edwards; Jim Smith

2005-01-01

242

COMPONENT FORENSICS OF DIGITAL CAMERAS: A NON-INTRUSIVE AP PROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of component forensics and proposes a methodology to identify the algorithms and parameters employed by various processing modules inside a digital camera. The proposed analysis techniques are non- intrusive, using only sample output images collected from the camera to find the color filter array pattern; and the al- gorithm and parameters of color interpolation employed

Ashwin Swaminathan; Min Wu; K. J. Ray Liu

243

A Skeleton Tells Its Own Story: Forensic Analyses of Skeletal Elements for the Science Classroom Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The techniques of forensic anthropology and pathology can provide new information to increase student interest in studying the structural details of the human skeleton. We present a simplified methodology for assessing skeletal ethnicity, sex, age, and stature. An inexpensive method has been devised for constructing an osteometric board to allow…

Naples, Virginia L.; Breed, David; Miller, Jon S.

2010-01-01

244

[Forensic entomology and globalisation].  

PubMed

The main aim of Forensic Entomology has always been, and is today, to establish the time of death (P.M.I.: Postmortem Period) or, more exactly, how long a carrion has been exposed in the environment. Most of the invertebrate fauna occurring on corpses consists of insects (mostly Diptera and Coleoptera). They are selectively attracted by the decomposing status of the carrion, and form complex communities or biocenosis within necrophagous or sarcophagous species and their predators, parasites and parasitoids, competing each one another. The rapid and continuos changes of the micro-ecosystem (the body), until its breakdown, does not permit the achievement of a steady state or an equilibrium in the animal communities. These continuous modifications give us the possibility to estimate when (and where) the death has occurred, by the identification of the species feeding on the corpse, the knowledge of their life history, and the length of each stage of their cycle at varying the temperature and the other abiotic factors, external to the carrion ecosystem. The P.M.I. today is still largely based on the tables of faunal succession on human cadavers recognised by Mégin in 1894, with few changes proposed by Authors from other countries. In the last years, however, it happens more and more often, that the natural communities are subverted by the presence of allocton species, which can compete, predate or parasite the most common local sarcophagous insects, modifying, this way, the succession waves and the trophic nets. The immission in the environment of foreign species may be voluntary or casual, but in any case is due to anthropic activities. The voluntary immission happens when some species, employed in the biological struggle against pest or dangerous insects, for pollination of allocton plants, or for other commercial utilities, are beyond man's control and swarm onto the environment; the casual spread is due to the globalisation phenomenon, that distributes the "little organisms" by chance, together with travellers, goods and food items. Together with human migratory flows, raw materials and vegetal foodstuffs travelling from Tropical developing Countries to the North of the world, also many tropical and subtropical insects can be carried out from their original lands. Eurioecious and polyphagous species, and species that evolved mechanisms (as diapausa or hibernation) to get over critical environmental conditions have the highest probability of survival. Saprophagous insects, and flies in particular, evolved such capabilities. The mortality of foreign species due to the difference of temperature and seasonally between tropical and temperate areas was, in the past, the most effective factor limiting the geographic propagation of insects. The ongoing global climate changes induce insect populations, now confined to the tropics, to most likely spread towards middle latitudes, where their specific competitors, predators and parasites, which regulate the population growth, are often absent. The lack of a biological control, the warming up of atmosphere temperature and the fall of the differences among seasons induce a more rapid development and an increased number of generations in new species, that often displace the autocton ones. This phenomenon is much more clear in little and simple ecosystems (such as carrion), mostly occur than in large and complex ecosystems, where many more components, vegetal organisms and phytophagous animals included, are present. To demonstrate how globalisation and climate changes are breaking the geographic barriers, we present some cases in which, during our entomoforensic investigations, performed mainly in North-eastern Italy, Neotropical, African and Asiatic necrophagous flies, beetles and wasp parasitoids have been collected, some of which rare or new for Italy or Paleartic Region. In particular, we report our studies on the american black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), that is showing a heavy competition with the local saprophagous species and is reaching

Turchetto, M; Vanin, S

2004-06-01

245

Aggression toward forensic evaluators: a statewide survey.  

PubMed

There is an increasing body of literature regarding violence toward mental health professionals in clinical settings, but little is known about the frequency of assaults on forensic evaluators. Forensic evaluators play a very different role in the evaluee's life than do treating clinicians. This study examined the incidence of aggressive behavior specifically directed toward forensic clinicians. Psychologists and psychiatrists (n = 190) in Massachusetts were surveyed regarding their experience of verbal threats, harassment/intimidation (H/I), and physical assault. Respondents were asked about the most distressing incident (MDI) in their forensic practices. This study found no more risk of aggressive behavior in the forensic context than the nonforensic context and concluded that forensic clinicians' concerns about their safety may be somewhat misplaced. In the 76 reported MDIs, physical injury was minimal, yet emotional distress was pronounced. Training programs and work settings should validate the legitimacy of these reactions, and help clinicians to cope with their emotional reactions. PMID:16844804

Leavitt, Naomi; Presskreischer, Helene; Maykuth, Patricia L; Grisso, Thomas

2006-01-01

246

Understanding of forensic expert reports by judges, defense lawyers and forensic professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic scientists strongly advocate the use of likelihood ratios for expressing the diagnostic value of evidence in technical forensic reports. They call this the logically correct approach. The correct comprehension of such likelihood ratios by jurists, however, appears to be particularly problematic. The present research has empirically investigated this issue for defense lawyers and criminal judges. For comparative purposes forensic

Jan de Keijser; Henk Elffers

2012-01-01

247

Understanding of forensic expert reports by judges, defense lawyers and forensic professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic scientists strongly advocate the use of likelihood ratios for expressing the diagnostic value of evidence in technical forensic reports. They call this the logically correct approach. The correct comprehension of such likelihood ratios by jurists, however, appears to be particularly problematic. The present research has empirically investigated this issue for defense lawyers and criminal judges. For comparative purposes forensic

Jan de Keijser; Henk Elffers

2010-01-01

248

The contribution of forensic science to crime analysis and investigation: Forensic intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate in forensic science concentrates on issues such as standardisation, accreditation and de-contextualisation, in a legal and economical context, in order to ensure the scientific objectivity and efficiency that must guide the process of collecting, analysing, interpreting and reporting forensic evidence. At the same time, it is recognised that forensic case data is still poorly integrated into the investigation

Olivier Ribaux; Simon J. Walsh; Pierre Margot

2006-01-01

249

Building Bridges Between Criminal Justice and the Forensic Sciences to Create Forensic Studies Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

u The ever-increasing role of the forensic sciences in the criminal justice system requires criminal justice educators to integrate the study of forensic science into a traditional social science curriculum. Yet, most professors in criminal justice lack forensic science expertise sufficient to meet the educational demands of the field, as it is intertwined with natural science disciplines, especially biology and

Henry F. Fradella; Stephen S. Owen; Tod W. Burke

2007-01-01

250

How do I become a forensic scientist? Educational pathways to forensic science careers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic science is a broad, interdisciplinary group of applications of physical and biological sciences and various technologies to issues in civil and criminal justice. To discuss the educational preparation necessary for entry into the forensic sciences, we have to define their scope. In the broadest sense – the one we will adopt for purposes of this discussion – the forensic

R. E. Gaensslen

2003-01-01

251

Detecting content adaptive scaling of images for forensic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Content-aware resizing methods have recently been developed, among which, seam-carving has achieved the most widespread use. Seam-carving's versatility enables deliberate object removal and benign image resizing, in which perceptually important content is preserved. Both types of modifications compromise the utility and validity of the modified images as evidence in legal and journalistic applications. It is therefore desirable that image forensic techniques detect the presence of seam-carving. In this paper we address detection of seam-carving for forensic purposes. As in other forensic applications, we pose the problem of seam-carving detection as the problem of classifying a test image in either of two classes: a) seam-carved or b) non-seam-carved. We adopt a pattern recognition approach in which a set of features is extracted from the test image and then a Support Vector Machine based classifier, trained over a set of images, is utilized to estimate which of the two classes the test image lies in. Based on our study of the seam-carving algorithm, we propose a set of intuitively motivated features for the detection of seam-carving. Our methodology for detection of seam-carving is then evaluated over a test database of images. We demonstrate that the proposed method provides the capability for detecting seam-carving with high accuracy. For images which have been reduced 30% by benign seam-carving, our method provides a classification accuracy of 91%.

Fillion, Claude; Sharma, Gaurav

2010-02-01

252

Commentary: psychotherapy in a forensic hospital.  

PubMed

Very little is written in American forensic journals about psychodynamic psychotherapy for patients committed to forensic hospitals. Relatively little is known of the process of helping these patients cope with their mental illnesses, to gain insight into their crimes and their unconscious dynamics, or simply to cope with the dreary landscape of the forensic maximum-security institution. In this commentary, the author hopes to shed light on some of those processes. PMID:19092078

Papapietro, Daniel J

2008-01-01

253

American Board of Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Robert Hall of the University of Missouri-Columbia has taken a rather unsavory subfield of entomology and compiled an interesting and comprehensive collection of information. From this site we learn that forensic entomology is the science of using insect evidence to reveal circumstances of interest to the law, often related to a crime. Such key information as time of death, whether a body was moved, and the conditions under which a body was kept can be revealed by examination of the organisms found on a corpse and their stage of development. Scientists and criminal investigators have utilized such information for well over one hundred years, but the field has only recently gained widespread use. Sections cover history, case studies, the profession, and a list of members of the American Board of Forensic Entomology.

Hall, Robert D.

254

Fratricide: a forensic psychiatric perspective.  

PubMed

Analyses of fratricide rates based on national homicide data have provided some general information pertaining to offenders and victims of sibling homicide but are limited by data constraints to examining a few major variables. Exploring fratricide from a forensic psychiatric perspective could uncover other related factors and provide insight into why some individuals murder their siblings. In a retrospective study of data from coroners' files on domestic homicide pertaining to individuals killed by their siblings over a 10-year period in Quebec, Canada, we identified several specific offender and victim characteristics and circumstances surrounding offenses. The impact of mental illness and substance abuse on fratricidal behavior is indicated, underscoring the importance of identifying existing psychopathology. From a forensic psychiatric perspective, we identify characteristic patterns and discuss potential dynamics operating in fratricide. We raise some issues relevant to treatment and prevention, including the fact that most cases are alcohol-related, impulsive, and unpredictable until the moment they occur. PMID:17185484

Bourget, Dominique; Gagné, Pierre

2006-01-01

255

Forensic osteological investigations in Kosovo.  

PubMed

A team of Finnish forensic experts performed investigations of alleged mass graves in Kosovo under the mandate of the European Union (EU). Human skeletal remains from two locations were examined. The remains contained three almost complete skeletons, and individual bones and bone fragments, part of which were burned. Injuries, pathological changes, and findings for identification purposes were examined and documented using standard methods of forensic pathology and osteology. Gunshot injuries were found in some cases, but reliable determination of the cause and manner of death was not possible. A discrepancy arose between the number of victims reported in information received from the presiding district court, and results of the investigations. The estimation of the minimum number of victims was mostly acquired by DNA analysis. PMID:11566420

Rainio, J; Hedman, M; Karkola, K; Lalu, K; Peltola, P; Ranta, H; Sajantila, A; Söderholm, N; Penttilä, A

2001-10-01

256

"Arguers as Lovers": Implications for Forensics Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes briefly Wayne Brockriede's observations on argumentation in his essay, "Arguers as Lovers," and uses this framework to provide forensic educators with guidance for improving competitive debate. (PD)

Dowling, Ralph E.

1983-01-01

257

DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future.  

PubMed

DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting. PMID:24245688

Roewer, Lutz

2013-01-01

258

Forensic DNA Profiling and Database  

PubMed Central

The incredible power of DNA technology as an identification tool had brought a tremendous change in crimnal justice . DNA data base is an information resource for the forensic DNA typing community with details on commonly used short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers. This article discusses the essential steps in compilation of COmbined DNA Index System (CODIS) on validated polymerase chain amplified STRs and their use in crime detection.

Panneerchelvam, S.; Norazmi, M.N.

2003-01-01

259

Child neglect and forensic entomology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Close co-operation between forensic scientists, medico-legal doctors, and police forces made it possible to estimate not only the post-mortem interval but also the time since a child was neglected. On the skin surface under the diaper (anal-genital area), third instar larvae of the false stable fly Muscina stabulans FALLÉN, and the lesser house fly Fannia canicularis L. were found. F.

Mark Benecke; Rüdiger Lessig

2001-01-01

260

Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

261

Using Forensics: Wildlife Crime Scene!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A crime wave has hit the animal kingdom--and your students can help put a stop to it even as they investigate the science behind animal-species identification and threats against wild animals. Using Forensics: Wildlife Crime Scene! opens with an overview of crimes that threaten different wild animal species around the world. Next come eight forensic training lessons about antlers and horns, blood typing, DNA fingerprinting, fingerprints, hair identification, pH and pH indicators, mammal skulls, and tracks of animals. Students then transform into detectives for a classroom simulation based on a real wildlife crime: the illegal shooting and dismemberment of a bear. They work in teams to review crime scene reports, conduct interviews of suspects and witnesses, analyze evidence, and bring charges before a "prosecuting attorney." To close the unit, the book provides teachers strategies for evaluating individual students and student teams. Using Forensics: Wildlife Crime Scene! is an ideal complement to middle and high school courses in biology, environmental science, general science, and criminology. It provides a high-interest, real-life format for learning a variety of scientific concepts and skills that correlate with the Standards. It also gives students reason to genuinely care about preserving the wildlife and ecosystems they're studying.

Arndt, Laura M.

2007-07-01

262

Classification of spent reactor fuel for nuclear forensics.  

PubMed

In this paper we demonstrate the use of pattern recognition and machine learning techniques to determine the reactor type from which spent reactor fuel has originated. This has been done using the isotopic and elemental measurements of the sample and proves to be very useful in the field of nuclear forensics. Nuclear materials contain many variables (impurities and isotopes) that are very difficult to consider individually. A method that considers all material parameters simultaneously is advantageous. Currently the field of nuclear forensics focuses on the analysis of key material properties to determine details about the materials processing history, for example, utilizing known half-lives of isotopes can determine when the material was last processed ( Stanley, F. E. J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 2012 , 27 , 1821 ; Varga, Z.; Wallenius, M.; Mayer, K.; Keegan, E.; Millet, S. Anal. Chem. 2009 , 81 , 8327 - 8334 ). However, it has been demonstrated that multivariate statistical analysis of isotopic concentrations can complement these method and are able to make use of a greater level of information through dimensionality reduction techniques ( Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J. J. Environ. Radioact. 2008 , 99 , 1789 - 1797 ; Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J.; Heller, M. A. Nuclear Forensic Inferences Using Iterative Multidimensional Statistics. In Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management 50th Annual Meeting , Tucson, AZ, July 2009 ; 12 pages ; Nicolaou, G. J. Environ. Radioact. 2006 , 86 , 313 - 318 ; Pajo, L.; Mayer, K.; Koch, L. Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 2001 , 371 , 348 - 352 ). There has been some success in using such multidimensional statistical methods to determine details about the history of spent reactor fuel ( Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J. J. Environ. Radioact. 2008 , 99 , 1789 - 1797 ). Here, we aim to expand on these findings by pursuing more robust dimensionality reduction techniques based on manifold embedding which are able to better capture the intrinsic data set information. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a number of classification algorithms to reliably determine the reactor type in which a spent fuel material has been irradiated. A number of these classification techniques are novel applications in nuclear forensics and expand on the existing knowledge in this field by creating a reliable and robust classification model. The results from this analysis show that our techniques have been very successful and further ascertain the excellent potential of these techniques in the field of nuclear forensics at least with regard to spent reactor fuel. PMID:24805973

Jones, Andrew E; Turner, Phillip; Zimmerman, Colin; Goulermas, John Y

2014-06-01

263

Social network forensics: using commercial software in a university forensics lab environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to give a practical overview of forensic investigation of social networks cases using certain commercial software packages in a university forensics lab environment. Students have to learn the usefulness of forensic procedures to ensure evidence collection, evidence preservation, forensic analysis, and reporting. It is demonstrated how to investigate important data from social network users. Different scenarios of investigations are presented that are well-suited for forensics lab work in university. In particular, we focus on the new version of Belkasoft Evidence Center and compare it with other well-known tools regarding functionality, usability and capabilities.

Halkin, Pavel; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2013-05-01

264

The use of insects in forensic investigations: An overview on the scope of forensic entomology  

PubMed Central

Forensic entomology is the study of insects/arthropods in criminal investigation. Right from the early stages insects are attracted to the decomposing body and may lay eggs in it. By studying the insect population and the developing larval stages, forensic scientists can estimate the postmortem index, any change in position of the corpse as well as the cause of death. Forensic odontologists are called upon more frequently to collaborate in criminal investigations and hence should be aware of the possibilities that forensic entomology have to offer and use it as an adjunct to the conventional means of forensic investigation.

Joseph, Isaac; Mathew, Deepu G; Sathyan, Pradeesh; Vargheese, Geetha

2011-01-01

265

The use of insects in forensic investigations: An overview on the scope of forensic entomology.  

PubMed

Forensic entomology is the study of insects/arthropods in criminal investigation. Right from the early stages insects are attracted to the decomposing body and may lay eggs in it. By studying the insect population and the developing larval stages, forensic scientists can estimate the postmortem index, any change in position of the corpse as well as the cause of death. Forensic odontologists are called upon more frequently to collaborate in criminal investigations and hence should be aware of the possibilities that forensic entomology have to offer and use it as an adjunct to the conventional means of forensic investigation. PMID:22408328

Joseph, Isaac; Mathew, Deepu G; Sathyan, Pradeesh; Vargheese, Geetha

2011-07-01

266

A Simple Cost-Effective Framework for iPhone Forensic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apple iPhone has made significant impact on the society both as a handheld computing device and as a cellular phone. Due to the unique hardware system as well as storage structure, iPhone has already attracted the forensic community in digital investigation of the device. Currently available commercial products and methodologies for iPhone forensics are somewhat expensive, complex and often require additional hardware for analysis. Some products are not robust and often fail to extract optimal evidence without modifying the iPhone firmware which makes the analysis questionable in legal platforms. In this paper, we present a simple and inexpensive framework (iFF) for iPhone forensic analysis. Through experimental results using real device, we have shown the effectiveness of this framework in extracting digital evidence from an iPhone.

Husain, Mohammad Iftekhar; Baggili, Ibrahim; Sridhar, Ramalingam

267

Students' conceptions of evidence during a university introductory forensic science course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' Conceptions of Science, Scientific Evidence, and Forensic Evidence during a University Introductory Forensic Science Course This study was designed to examine and understand what conceptions undergraduate students taking an introductory forensic science course had about scientific evidence. Because the relationships between the nature of science, the nature of evidence, and the nature of forensic evidence are not well understood in the science education literature, this study sought to understand how these concepts interact and affect students' understanding of scientific evidence. Four participants were purposefully selected for this study from among 89 students enrolled in two sections of an introductory forensic science course taught during the fall 2005 semester. Of the 89 students, 84 were criminal justice majors with minimal science background and five were chemistry majors with academic backgrounds in the natural and physical sciences. All 89 students completed a biographical data sheet and a pre-instruction Likert scale survey consisting of twenty questions relating to the nature of scientific evidence. An evaluation of these two documents resulted in a purposeful selection of four varied student participants, each of whom was interviewed three times throughout the semester about the nature of science, the nature of evidence, and the nature of forensic evidence. The same survey was administered to the participants again at the end of the semester-long course. This study examined students' assumptions, prior knowledge, their understanding of scientific inference, scientific theory, and methodology. Examination of the data found few differences with regard to how the criminal justice majors and the chemistry majors responded to interview questions about forensic evidence. There were qualitative differences, however, when the same participants answered interview questions relating to traditional scientific evidence. Furthermore, suggestions are offered for undergraduate science teachers, science teaching programs, and future research.

Yeshion, Theodore Elliot

268

Suicide by drowning: A forensic challenge.  

PubMed

In the case of suicidal drowning forensic examination is difficult, particularly with regard to differentiating between suicide, accident, homicide and natural death. Bondage and weighting with objects, putrescence and attendant lesions aggravate interpretation and investigation of postmortal forensic findings. In this respect, two cases of seemingly homicidal drowning with leg and arm bondage and weighting, to prevent resurfacing, are presented and discussed. PMID:24793320

Todt, Melanie; Ast, Friedrich; Wolff-Maras, Roman; Roesler, Birte; Germerott, Tanja

2014-07-01

269

Challenges to Developing Forensic Assertive Community Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited information currently exists about forensic assertive community treatment (FACT) and how it serves persons with mental illness involved with the criminal justice system. This study screened 28 forensic mental health programs to identify 12 FACT teams for site visits about their consumers, their interface with the criminal justice system, and implementation and sustainability challenges. Site visit findings were reviewed

GARY S. CUDDEBACK; JOSEPH P. MORRISSEY; KAREN J. CUSACK; PIPER S. MEYER

2009-01-01

270

Irreconcilable conflict between therapeutic and forensic roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite being contrary to good patient care and existing clinical and forensic practice guidelines, some therapists nevertheless engage in dual clinical and forensic roles. Perhaps because an injured litigant seeking treatment is required to engage in 2 distinct roles (litigant and patient), care providers may be tempted to meet both sets of that person's needs. Through the presentation of 10

Stuart A. Greenberg; Daniel W. Shuman

1997-01-01

271

The Thin Blue Line-Forensic Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site draws on, and brings together, many scientific disciplines-identification of hairs and fibers, forensic psychology, DNA testing, photography, bloodstain pattern analysis, and computer forensics- that contribute to the integrated analysis of a crime and the physical evidence left at a crime scene.

2012-11-15

272

Advanced digital forensics with Open Source tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Often advanced topics require high cost tools which may put them out of reach for many programs but several advanced topics in digital forensics may be presented using readily available Open Source tools. This exposes students to developing areas in digital forensics and may also suggest fruitful areas for their own research. This tutorial will present live memory collection and

Richard Austin

2011-01-01

273

Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special

John B. Cliff; Helen W. Kreuzer; Christopher J. Ehrhardt; David S. Wunschel

2012-01-01

274

A Proposal for Training in Forensic Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graduate programs are lagging behind in developing courses to prepare psychologists to function with expertise in forensic (law-related) matters. Paradoxically, the courts are now finding increasing use for the forensic psychologist, while current journals express wide skepticism about the quality of available expertise. (Author/RLV)

Poythress, Norman G., Jr.

1979-01-01

275

A proposal for training in forensic psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Documents the need for specialized training in forensic psychology. Several areas of specialty training are identified, and concrete and hypothetical examples are used to document the kinds of problems that emerge when mental health professionals without specialized training practice in the forensic area. Such specialties include legal tests and concepts, proper assessment, familiarity with relevant literature, and courtroom orientation. A

Norman G. Poythress

1979-01-01

276

Tools and techniques for Network Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network forensics deals with the capture, recording and analysis of network events in order to discover evidential information about the source of security attacks in a court of law. This paper discusses the different tools and techniques available to conduct network forensics. Some of the tools discussed include: eMailTrackerPro to identify the physical location of an email sender; Web Historian

Natarajan Meghanathan; Sumanth Reddy Allam; Loretta A. Moore

2010-01-01

277

Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

Lewis, Catherine F.

2004-01-01

278

Radiology in forensic expert team operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiological methods are widely used in forensic pathology. Their most common applications are in complementing human identification, particularly in investigations of mass disasters and decomposed bodies, and in searching for foreign material inside corpses. A team of Finnish forensic experts investigated human skeletal remains in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1996) and in Kosovo, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1998). It also

Juha Rainio; Kaisa Lalu; Helena Ranta; Antti Penttilä

2001-01-01

279

Investigating the Worldwide Popularity of Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of forensic science has increased dramatically over the past decade throughout the United States. However, has this popularity spread to other countries around the world and to what extent? In the United States, there are numerous television shows focusing on the law and crime scene analysis, including “CSI,” “Law and Order,” “24,” “Crossing Jordan,” and “Forensic Files,” just

Heather Stankiewicz

2007-01-01

280

Saleem Shah's contributions to forensic clinical assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes Saleem Shah's vision for specialized methods that were needed to perform more reliable and valid forensic clinical assessments. He contributed to their development by his consultantion and support as Director of the Center for Studies of Crime and Delinquency at NIMH, and the played a major role in their implementation in forensic mental health systems nationwide.

Thomas Grisso

1995-01-01

281

Designer Amphetamines in Forensic Toxicology Casework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2C, 2C-T and DO-series of designer drugs pose a number of challenges to forensic toxicology laboratories. Although these drugs are seized by law enforcement agencies throughout the United States, they are not readily detected in forensic toxicology la...

S. Kerrigan

2013-01-01

282

Scientific standards for studies in forensic genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic molecular genetics has evolved from a rapidly developing field with changing technologies into a highly recognized and generally accepted forensic science, leading to the establishment of national DNA databases with DNA profiles from suspects and convicted offenders. DNA evidence has taken a central role by carrying a significant weight for convictions, as well as by excluding innocent suspects early

Peter M. Schneider

2007-01-01

283

Forensic surface metrology: tool mark evidence.  

PubMed

Over the last several decades, forensic examiners of impression evidence have come under scrutiny in the courtroom due to analysis methods that rely heavily on subjective morphological comparisons. Currently, there is no universally accepted system that generates numerical data to independently corroborate visual comparisons. Our research attempts to develop such a system for tool mark evidence, proposing a methodology that objectively evaluates the association of striated tool marks with the tools that generated them. In our study, 58 primer shear marks on 9?mm cartridge cases, fired from four Glock model 19 pistols, were collected using high-resolution white light confocal microscopy. The resulting three-dimensional surface topographies were filtered to extract all "waviness surfaces"-the essential "line" information that firearm and tool mark examiners view under a microscope. Extracted waviness profiles were processed with principal component analysis (PCA) for dimension reduction. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to make the profile-gun associations, and conformal prediction theory (CPT) for establishing confidence levels. At the 95% confidence level, CPT coupled with PCA-SVM yielded an empirical error rate of 3.5%. Complementary, bootstrap-based computations for estimated error rates were 0%, indicating that the error rate for the algorithmic procedure is likely to remain low on larger data sets. Finally, suggestions are made for practical courtroom application of CPT for assigning levels of confidence to SVM identifications of tool marks recorded with confocal microscopy. PMID:21710632

Gambino, Carol; McLaughlin, Patrick; Kuo, Loretta; Kammerman, Frani; Shenkin, Peter; Diaczuk, Peter; Petraco, Nicholas; Hamby, James; Petraco, Nicholas D K

2011-01-01

284

Accreditation standards for undergraduate forensic science programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate forensic science programs are experiencing unprecedented growth in numbers of programs offered and, as a result, student enrollments are increasing. Currently, however, these programs are not subject to professional specialized accreditation. This study sought to identify desirable student outcome measures for undergraduate forensic science programs that should be incorporated into such an accreditation process. To determine desirable student outcomes, three types of data were collected and analyzed. All the existing undergraduate forensic science programs in the United States were examined with regard to the input measures of degree requirements and curriculum content, and for the output measures of mission statements and student competencies. Accreditation procedures and guidelines for three other science-based disciplines, computer science, dietetics, and nursing, were examined to provide guidance on accreditation processes for forensic science education programs. Expert opinion on outcomes for program graduates was solicited from the major stakeholders of undergraduate forensic science programs-forensic science educators, crime laboratory directors, and recent graduates. Opinions were gathered by using a structured Internet-based survey; the total response rate was 48%. Examination of the existing undergraduate forensic science programs revealed that these programs do not use outcome measures. Of the accreditation processes for other science-based programs, nursing education provided the best model for forensic science education, due primarily to the balance between the generality and the specificity of the outcome measures. From the analysis of the questionnaire data, preliminary student outcomes, both general and discipline-specific, suitable for use in the accreditation of undergraduate forensic science programs were determined. The preliminary results were reviewed by a panel of experts and, based on their recommendations, the outcomes identified were revised and refined. The results of this study were used to identify student outcomes and to suggest accreditation standards and an accreditation process for undergraduate forensic science programs based on those outcomes.

Miller, Marilyn Tebbs

285

Battling Anti-Forensics: Beating the U3 Stick  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing knowledge of digital forensics there is also a growing knowledge in the field of anti-forensics. More software and products see the light each day, which can make digital forensic investigations more difficult to do. One new product in the world of anti-forensics is a USB stick, which can be used to take your favorite programs and files

Thijs Bosschert

2006-01-01

286

Guidance for Improving Forensic Reports: A Review of Common Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employed a national sample of forensic reports that had been critiqued by a panel of advanced forensic mental-health practitioners serving as reviewers for the American Board of Forensic Psychology. The study describes all of the discrete types of faults that reviewers encountered in the reports, and then converts them to prescriptive statements to guide forensic report writing. The

Thomas Grisso

2010-01-01

287

Authentication of forensic DNA samples.  

PubMed

Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system. PMID:20129467

Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

2010-02-01

288

[Incest--forensic genetic approach].  

PubMed

The paper presents intimate relationships between biologically and legally close relatives, complicated in the social, culture and religion perspective. (art. 201 of the Penal Code), but it chiefly addresses problems associated with giving opinion on the fatherhood towards the incestuous child. The report calls for a broader interest in this issue from expert witnesses in forensic genetics, as well as encourages them to publish examples taken from their own professional experience that may unquestionably be helpful to other practitioners in this field and above all will lead to extending educational methods related to widely understood DNA analysis in giving an opinion on arguable fatherhood. PMID:23424940

Raczek, Ewa

2012-01-01

289

Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

Lee, Henry C.

1980-01-01

290

Forensic Analysis of Compromised Computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Directory Tree Analysis File Generator is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) script that simplifies and automates the collection of information for forensic analysis of compromised computer systems. During such an analysis, it is sometimes necessary to collect and analyze information about files on a specific directory tree. Directory Tree Analysis File Generator collects information of this type (except information about directories) and writes it to a text file. In particular, the script asks the user for the root of the directory tree to be processed, the name of the output file, and the number of subtree levels to process. The script then processes the directory tree and puts out the aforementioned text file. The format of the text file is designed to enable the submission of the file as input to a spreadsheet program, wherein the forensic analysis is performed. The analysis usually consists of sorting files and examination of such characteristics of files as ownership, time of creation, and time of most recent access, all of which characteristics are among the data included in the text file.

Wolfe, Thomas

2004-01-01

291

Forensic Proteomics of Poxvirus Production  

SciTech Connect

The field of microbial forensics has recently sought to develop methods to discern biological signatures to indicate production methods for biological agents. Viral agents have received less attention to date. Their obligate propagation in living cells makes purification from cellular material a challenge. This leads to potential carryover of protein-rich signature of their production system. Here we have explored a proteomic analysis of Vaccinia virus as a model poxvirus system in which to compare samples of virus propagated in different cell lines and subjected to different purification schemes. The proteomic data sets indicated viral, host cell and culture medium proteins, and several layers of data analysis were applied to build confidence in the peptide identification and capture information on the taxonomic utility of each. The analysis showed clear shifts in protein profiles with virus purification, with successive gradient purification steps showing different levels of viral protein enrichment. Peptides from cellular proteins, including those present in purified virus preparations, provided signatures which enabled discrimination of cell line substrates, including distinguishing between cells derived from different primate species. The ability to discern multiple aspects of viral production demonstrates the potential value of proteomic analysis as tool for microbial forensics.

Wunschel, David S.; Tulman, Edan; Engelmann, Heather E.; Clowers, Brian H.; Geary, Steven J.; Robinson, Aaron C.; Liao, Xiaofen

2013-08-27

292

Forensic proteomics of poxvirus production.  

PubMed

The field of microbial forensics has recently sought to develop methods to discern biological signatures to indicate production methods for biological agents. Viral agents have received less attention to date. Their obligate propagation in living cells makes purification from cellular material a challenge. This leads to potential carryover of protein-rich signatures of their production system. Here we have explored a proteomic analysis of vaccinia virus as a model poxvirus system in which to compare samples of virus propagated in different cell lines and subjected to different purification schemes. The proteomic data sets indicated viral, host cell and culture medium proteins. Several layers of data analysis were applied to build confidence in the peptide identification and capture information on the taxonomic utility of each. The analysis showed clear shifts in protein profiles with virus purification, with successive gradient purification steps showing different levels of viral protein enrichment. Peptides from cellular proteins, including those present in purified virus preparations, provided signatures which enabled discrimination of cell line substrates, including distinguishing between cells derived from different primate species. The ability to discern multiple aspects of viral production demonstrates the potential value of proteomic analysis as tool for microbial forensics. PMID:23979794

Wunschel, David; Tulman, Edan; Engelmann, Heather; Clowers, Brian H; Geary, Steven; Robinson, Aaron; Liao, Xiaofen

2013-11-01

293

Vocal Forgery in Forensic Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes techniques of vocal forgery able to affect automatic speaker recognition system in a forensic context. Vocal forgery covers two main aspects: voice transformation and voice conversion. Concerning voice transformation, this article proposes an automatic analysis of four specific disguised voices in order to detect the forgery and, for voice conversion, different ways to automatically imitate a target voice. Vocal forgery appears as a real and relevant question for forensic expertise. In most cases, criminals who make a terrorist claim or a miscellaneous call, disguise their voices to hide their identity or to take the identity of another person. Disguise is considered in this paper as a deliberate action of the speaker who wants to conceal or falsify his identity. Different techniques exist to transform one’s own voice. Some are sophisticated as software manipulation, some others are simpler as using an handkerchief over the mouth. In voice transformation, the presented work is dedicated to the study of disguise used in the most common cases. In voice conversion, different techniques will be presented, compared, and applied on an original example of the French President voice.

Perrot, Patrick; Morel, Mathieu; Razik, Joseph; Chollet, Gérard

294

Electron microscopy and forensic practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron microanalysis in forensic practice ranks among basic applications used in investigation of traces (latents, stains, etc.) from crime scenes. Applying electron microscope allows for rapid screening and receiving initial information for a wide range of traces. SEM with EDS/WDS makes it possible to observe topography surface and morphology samples and examination of chemical components. Physical laboratory of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague use SEM especially for examination of inorganic samples, rarely for biology and other material. Recently, possibilities of electron microscopy have been extended considerably using dual systems with focused ion beam. These systems are applied mainly in study of inner micro and nanoparticles , thin layers (intersecting lines in graphical forensic examinations, analysis of layers of functional glass, etc.), study of alloys microdefects, creating 3D particles and aggregates models, etc. Automated mineralogical analyses are a great asset to analysis of mineral phases, particularly soils, similarly it holds for cathode luminescence, predominantly colour one and precise quantitative measurement of their spectral characteristics. Among latest innovations that are becoming to appear also at ordinary laboratories are TOF - SIMS systems and micro Raman spectroscopy with a resolution comparable to EDS/WDS analysis (capable of achieving similar level as through EDS/WDS analysis).

Kotrlý, Marek; Turková, Ivana

2013-05-01

295

Forensic Entomologists: An Evaluation of their Status  

PubMed Central

The National Academy of Sciences (2009) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists.

Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian

2013-01-01

296

Idea Bank: Forensics on a Shoestring Budget  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into the 10th-grade biology curriculum while staying within the budget. This activity involves estimating a time of death based on fictitious police and medical examiner reports. Students are challenged to apply their knowledge using inquiry in lieu of elaborate equipment or supplies.

Greco, Joseph A.

2005-07-01

297

Modeling Forensic Evidence Systems Using Design Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an overview of the application of design science research to the tactical management of forensic evidence processing. The opening discussion addresses the application of design science techniques to specific socio-technical information systems research in regard to processing forensic evidence. The discussion then presents the current problems faced by those dealing with evidence and a conceptual meta-model for a unified approach to forensic evidence is developed. Any practical application of the suggested model would be predominantly law enforcement driven; evaluation of sections of the model has been carried out by law enforcement participants in several international jurisdictions.

Armstrong, Colin; Armstrong, Helen

298

Statistical investigation on the effects of starting xylose concentration and oxygen mass flowrate on xylitol production from rice straw hydrolyzate by response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 32 full-factorial design combined with response surface methodology was used to investigate the simultaneous effects of starting xylose concentration (S0) and oxygen mass flowrate (qO2) on xylitol production from rice straw hydrolyzate. Fermentations were performed at 30 °C, using Debaryomyces hansenii NRRL Y-7426 as xylitol producer and varying S0 between 50 and 150 g\\/l and qO2 between 2.5 and

Danilo De Faveri; Paolo Torre; Patrizia Perego; Attilio Converti

2004-01-01

299

Current issues in species identification for forensic science and the validity of using the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.  

PubMed

Species identification techniques commonly utilized in Australian Forensic Science laboratories are gel immunodifussion antigen antibody reactions and hair comparison analysis. Both of these techniques have significant limitations and should be considered indicative opinion based tests. The Barcode of Life Initiative aims to sequence a section of DNA (~648 base pairs) for the Cytochrome Oxidase I mitochondrial gene (COI) in all living species on Earth, with the data generated being uploaded to the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) which can then be used for species identification. The COI gene therefore offers forensics scientists an opportunity to use the marker to analyze unknown samples and compare sequences generated in BOLD. Once sequences from enough species are on the database, it is anticipated that routine identification of an unknown species may be possible. However, most forensic laboratories are not yet suited to this type of analysis and do not have the expertise to fully interpret the implications of matches and non matches involving a poorly sampled taxa (for example where there are cryptic species) and in providing the required opinion evidence. Currently, the use of BOLD is limited by the number of relevant species held in the database and the quality assurance and regulation of sequences that are there. In this paper, the COI methodology and BOLD are tested on a selection of introduced and Australian mammals in a forensic environment as the first step necessary in the implementation of this approach in the Australian context. Our data indicates that the COI methodology performs well on distinct species but needs further exploration when identifying more closely related species. It is evident from our study that changes will be required to implement DNA based wildlife forensics using the BOLD approach for forensic applications and recommendations are made for the future adoption of this technology into forensic laboratories. PMID:20563888

Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Norman, Janette; Robertson, James; Sarre, Stephen; Georges, Arthur

2010-09-01

300

A Research Methodology for Future Summative Evaluation Studies: Incorporating the Component of Multiple Sets of Matched Samples into the Statistical Control Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summative evaluations have often been undertaken to determine the impact of educational programs on student academic achievement employing a quasi-experimental design. The summative finding is expected to be less misleading if a statistical model is performed on a dataset including a sound matched sample as a control group. This is because an…

Li, Yuan H.; Modarresi, Shahpar; Yang, Yu N.

2006-01-01

301

Use of Stable Isotopes in Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

The use of isotopic signatures for forensic analysis of biological materials is well-established, and the same general principles that apply to interpretation of stable isotope content of C, N, O, and H apply to the analysis of microorganisms. Heterotrophic microorganisms derive their isotopic content from their growth substrates, which are largely plant and animal products, and the water in their culture medium. Thus the isotope signatures of microbes are tied to their growth environment. The C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of spores have been demonstrated to constitute highly discriminating signatures for sample matching. They can rule out specific samples of media and/or water as possible production media, and can predict isotope ratio ranges of the culture media and water used to produce a given sample. These applications have been developed and tested through analyses of approximately 250 samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and over 500 samples of culture media, providing a strong statistical basis for data interpretation. A Bayesian statistical framework for integrating stable isotope data with other types of signatures derived from microorganisms has been able to characterize the culture medium used to produce spores of various Bacillus species, leveraging isotopic differences in different medium types and demonstrating the power of data integration for forensic investigations.

Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.

2012-01-18

302

Bacterial Population Genetics in a Forensic Context.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses the recent Department of Homeland Security (DHS) call for a Phase I study to (1) assess gaps in the forensically relevant knowledge about the population genetics of eight bacterial agents of concern, (2) formulate a technical roadmap...

S. P. Velsko

2009-01-01

303

Spectroscopic Sleuthing. An Introduction to Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a program in which students learn about spectroscopy and instrumentation to solve a chemical forensic mystery. Infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, refractometry, and chromatographic techniques were used. An example of a mystery case is included. (KR)

Zdravkovich, Vera; Cunniff, Patricia A.

1991-01-01

304

Development of a forensic evidence protection kit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kit has been developed for the preservation of vital forensic evidence on a suspect following a serious assault, murder or other offense where contamination may occur. This also includes the handling of firearms, explosives and\\/or drugs.

Brian Acton; Roy Kelly

1999-01-01

305

Resolution in forensic microbial genotyping  

SciTech Connect

Resolution is a key parameter for differentiating among the large number of strain typing methods that could be applied to pathogens involved in bioterror events or biocrimes. In this report we develop a first-principles analysis of strain typing resolution using a simple mathematical model to provide a basis for the rational design of microbial typing systems for forensic applications. We derive two figures of merit that describe the resolving power and phylogenetic depth of a strain typing system. Rough estimates of these figures-of-merit for MLVA, MLST, IS element, AFLP, hybridization microarrays, and other bacterial typing methods are derived from mutation rate data reported in the literature. We also discuss the general problem of how to construct a ''universal'' practical typing system that has the highest possible resolution short of whole-genome sequencing, and that is applicable with minimal modification to a wide range of pathogens.

Velsko, S P

2005-08-30

306

Engineering forensics at Youngstown State University  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buildings collapse, vehicles crash, cranes and bridges collapse. Why? Who is responsible? Forensic engineers must analyze\\u000a failures to determine causes, origins, and legal responsibilities of accidents, fires, and explosions. This is the subject\\u000a of a new course offered in spring 2005 at Youngstown State University (YSU) entitled Engineering Forensics Using the Scanning Electron Microscope. The course included a lab in

Robert A. McCoy

2005-01-01

307

Tools and techniques for Network Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network forensics deals with the capture, recording and analysis of network\\u000aevents in order to discover evidential information about the source of security\\u000aattacks in a court of law. This paper discusses the different tools and\\u000atechniques available to conduct network forensics. Some of the tools discussed\\u000ainclude: eMailTrackerPro to identify the physical location of an email sender;\\u000aWeb Historian

Natarajan Meghanathan; Sumanth Reddy Allam; Loretta A. Moore

2010-01-01

308

Bacterial Deposition of Gold on Hair: Archeological, Forensic and Toxicological Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTrace metal analyses in hair are used in archeological, forensic and toxicological investigations as proxies for metabolic processes. We show metallophilic bacteria mediating the deposition of gold (Au), used as tracer for microbial activity in hair post mortem after burial, affecting results of such analyses.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHuman hair was incubated for up to six months in auriferous soils, in natural soil

Genevieve Phillips; Frank Reith; Clifford Qualls; Abdul-Mehdi Ali; Mike Spilde; Otto Appenzeller; Niyaz Ahmed

2010-01-01

309

Statistical and Data Mining Methodologies for Behavioral Analysis in Transgenic Mouse Models of Alzheimer’s Disease: Parallels with Human AD Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the\\u000aleading cause of human senile dementia. Alzheimer’s represents a significant public\\u000ahealth concern, having widespread social and economic implications. Consequently,\\u000aprotocols for early detection and therapeutic intervention (both behavioral and pharmacologic)\\u000aconstitute important targets for medical investigation. Furthermore, contemporary\\u000aresearch depends upon comprehensive neurobehavioral assessment and\\u000aadvanced statistical and computational

Ralph E. Leighty

2009-01-01

310

The child and adolescent track in the forensic fellowship.  

PubMed

Exposure to child and adolescent forensic issues is limited in general psychiatry residency and child and adolescent psychiatry residency programs. There is no Graduate Medical Education Program for child and adolescent forensic psychiatry that is approved by the American Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). Forensic psychiatry residency directors can create a child-focused forensic training opportunity that meets the needs of the ACGME program in forensic psychiatry. By creating didactic, clinical, and research experiences relevant to child and adolescent forensic psychiatric issues, this much-needed training can be provided to qualified psychiatrists. PMID:21683921

Scott, Charles

2011-07-01

311

Research and Training in Forensic Psychology: National Survey of Forensic Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was sent to the 103 directors of public forensic facilities in the United States. Responses were received from 68, a response rate of 66%. Information on the facilities' involvement in training and research in forensic psychology was obtained. A number of facilities reported involvement in psychology training at different levels; graduate practicum (43%) and predoctoral internship (41%) were

Kirk S. Heilbrun; Lawrence V. Annis

1988-01-01

312

Forensic drug intelligence: an important tool in law enforcement.  

PubMed

Organised criminality is a great concern for national/international security. The demonstration of complex crimes is increasingly dependant on knowledge distributed within law-enforcement agencies and scientific disciplines. This separation of knowledge creates difficulties in reconstructing and prosecuting such crimes. Basic interdisciplinary research in drug intelligence combined with crime analysis, forensic intelligence, and traditional law enforcement investigation is leading to important advances in crime investigation support. Laboratory results constitute one highly dependable source of information that is both reliable and testable. Their operational use can support investigation and even provide undetected connections or organisation of structure. The foremost difficulties encountered by drug analysts are not principally of a chemical or analytical nature, but methodologies to extract parameters or features that are deemed to be crucial for handling and contextualising drug profiling data. An organised memory has been developed in order to provide accurate, timely, useful and meaningful information for linking spatially and temporally distinct events on a national and international level (including cross-border phenomena). Literature has already pointed out that forensic case data are amenable for use in an intelligence perspective if data and knowledge of specialised actors are appropriately organised, shared and processed. As a particular form of forensic case data, the authors' research focuses on parameters obtained through the systematic physical and chemical profiling of samples of illicit drugs. The procedure is used to infer and characterise links between samples that originate from the same and different seizures. The discussion will not, however, focus on how samples are actually analysed and compared as substantial literature on this topic already exists. Rather, attention is primarily drawn to an active and close collaboration between magistrates, forensic scientists, law enforcement investigators and crime analysts from different institutions with the aim of generating, using and validating relevant profiling case data as integral part of investigative and crime analysis processes. Original advances are highlighted through experiences from criminal investigations of offences related to the unlawful importation, exportation, supply and possession of illicit drugs. PMID:16872770

Esseiva, Pierrre; Ioset, Sylvain; Anglada, Frédéric; Gasté, Laëtitia; Ribaux, Olivier; Margot, Pierre; Gallusser, Alain; Biedermann, Alex; Specht, Yves; Ottinger, Edmond

2007-04-11

313

[Forensic telepsychiatry in Portugal: a few reflections].  

PubMed

Forensic Telepsychiatry has had growing usage in countries such as the USA and England in the last decade, due to ongoing development of technologies which allow a better access to mental health care in needed populations, and improve the outcome of technicians' work, while facing a more demanding performance of Mental Health facilities. In this article we make a revision of literature concerning applications of Forensic Telepsychiatry, analyzing its potencialities and limits in Portugal. The literature shows positive evidence about efficiency, cost and acceptance, to both patients and doctors. On the other hand, several authors rise issues related to technical, ethical and legal aspects, such as restrictions to its application in forensics; privacy, confidentiality, safety, consent, diagnostic skills and professional responsibility. Forensic Telepsychiatry has shown special utility in remote rural populations with poor access to mental health care, victims of domestic violence, victims of sexual abuse, minor inpatients in correctional facilities and convicts in prisons. It may improve exchange of information with courts and penitentiaries, and production of evidence through quick and efficacious auditing. It has also been used in court to communicate forensic reports concerning mental health patients, to clarify issues related to psychiatric evaluations and testify in criminal and civil courts. Besides the literature revision, three areas of applicability for Forensic Telepsychiatry in Portugal are discussed in this article: teleconference for experts - psychiatrists and psychologists - testifying in court sessions; psychiatric and psychological evaluations through teleconference; expert auditions through a hotline, designed to provide specialized support to courts - both for urgent guidance and clarification. The reflections and proposals included in this article aim to make way to empirical studies which could evaluate the applicability of a more widespread usage of Forensic Telepsychiatry in Portugal in the near future. PMID:22521017

Pereira, Bruno; Cintra, Pedro; Vieira, Fernando; Santos, Jorge Costa

2011-01-01

314

DNA Technology in Forensic Science - A Seminar Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From May 31-June 2, 1988, the FBI Laboratory Division hosted this seminar at the Forensic Science Research and Training Center, FBI Academy, Quantico, VA. The subject matters of the panel discussions were the standardization and validation of forensic DNA...

1994-01-01

315

VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

316

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Regional Computer Forensics Laboratories (RCFL) Program provided critical digital forensics expertise, services, and training to thousands of law enforcement officers and hundreds of agencies nationwide during Fiscal Year 2010 (FY10). This year's achi...

2010-01-01

317

Forensic Science: A Bibliography of Activation Analysis Papers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives references to activation analysis in forensic science and is indexed into 32 categories for precise literature searching by the forensic scientist. An author index is included. (Author)

G. J. Lutz

1970-01-01

318

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recognizing that significant improvements are needed in forensic science, Congress directed the National Academy of Sciences to undertake the study that led to this report. There are scores of talented and dedicated people in the forensic science communit...

2009-01-01

319

Developmental Considerations for Forensic Assessment in Delinquency Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Borum, R., & Grisso, T. (2007). Developmental considerations for forensic assessment in delinquency cases. In A. Goldstein (ed.), Forensic psychology: Emerging topics and expanding roles\\u000aLimited preview available via Google Books.

Randy Borum; Thomas Grisso

2007-01-01

320

Forensic services for victims of sexual abuse and assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a practical review of the premises, facilities and supplies for victim examination suites. It outlines the conduct of the forensic medical examination and training currently provided for forensic medical examiners in London.

Frances Ryder Lewington; Deborah Jayne Rogers

1995-01-01

321

Statistical relationship between surface PM10 concentration and aerosol optical depth over the Sahel as a function of weather type, using neural network methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

work aims at assessing the capability of passive remote-sensed measurements such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) to monitor the surface dust concentration during the dry season in the Sahel region (West Africa). We processed continuous measurements of AODs and surface concentrations for the period (2006-2010) in Banizoumbou (Niger) and Cinzana (Mali). In order to account for the influence of meteorological condition on the relationship between PM10 surface concentration and AOD, we decomposed the mesoscale meteorological fields surrounding the stations into five weather types having similar 3-dimensional atmospheric characteristics. This classification was obtained by a clustering method based on nonlinear artificial neural networks, the so-called self-organizing map. The weather types were identified by processing tridimensional fields of meridional and zonal winds and air temperature obtained from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output centered on each measurement station. Five similar weather types have been identified at the two stations. Three of them are associated with the Harmattan flux; the other two correspond to northward inflow of the monsoon flow at the beginning or the end of the dry season. An improved relationship has been found between the surface PM10 concentrations and the AOD by using a dedicated statistical relationship for each weather type. The performances of the statistical inversion computed on the test data sets show satisfactory skills for most of the classes, much better than a linear regression. This should permit the inversion of the mineral dust concentration from AODs derived from satellite observations over the Sahel.

Yahi, H.; Marticorena, B.; Thiria, S.; Chatenet, B.; Schmechtig, C.; Rajot, J. L.; Crepon, M.

2013-12-01

322

Gray Areas in Forensic Psychiatry  

PubMed Central

The field of forensic psychiatry is not always compatible with legalities in our court system, causing some cases to be in a “gray” area. A case is presented, demonstrating shortcomings of the M'Naghten rule, which is meant to protect the mentally ill person from being incarcerated when he is not aware of the nature or the seriousness of the crime of which he stands accused. However, this rule is not applicable when there is awareness, even if the patient is laboring under a delusional system. In the case to be considered, the individual suffers by being given a criminal record instead of being found not guilty by reason of insanity, although the end result is the same. The author feels there should be a much broader interpretation of the M'Naghten rule to encompass the full intent of protecting the mentally ill person but to exclude the sociopath and those with character disorders. The Durham rule is not workable because of this inclusion.

Ryans, Miller M.

1978-01-01

323

Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view  

PubMed Central

The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster.

Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth

2012-01-01

324

Nuclear Forensics: A Holistic Overview  

SciTech Connect

Discussions of nuclear forensics are often restricted to work performed by radio-chemists measuring nuclear material attributes in the laboratory. However, this represents only one portion of the work required to answer critical questions. Laboratory analysis results in measurements that need to be evaluated. The results of those evaluations must be put into their proper context in order for them to be useful to others and often require merging those results with additional information. This may contribute to attribution, by virtue of inclusion or exclusion. Finally, the end product must be presented such that appropriate actions can be taken. This could include prosecution by law enforcement, policy initiatives on the part of legislative bodies, or military action in the case of nuclear attack (whether that attack is preempted or not). Using the discovery of a sample of plutonium during cleanup activities at Hanford in 2004, we will step through the process of discovery (representing an interdiction), initial field analysis, laboratory analysis, data evaluation and merging with additional data (similar to law enforcement and/or all source), thereby providing an example of an integrated approach.

Luksic, Andrzej T.; Friese, Judah I.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Starner, Jason R.; Wacker, John F.

2010-08-11

325

Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.  

PubMed

Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil. PMID:17352063

Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

2006-01-01

326

Forensic Analysis using Geological and Geochemical Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the globalisation of legal (and illegal) trade there is an increasing demand for techniques which can verify the geographical origin and transfer routes of many legal and illegal commodities and products. Although geological techniques have been used in forensic investigations since the emergence of forensics as a science in the late eighteen hundreds, the last decade has seen a marked increase in geo-scientists initiating concept studies using the latest analytical techniques, including studying natural abundance isotope variations, micro analysis with laser ablation ICPMS and geochemical mapping. Most of the concept studies have shown a good potential but uptake by the law enforcement and legal community has been limited due to concerns about the admissibility of the new methods. As an introduction to the UGU2009 session "Forensic Provenancing using Geological and Geochemical Techniques" I will give an overview of the state of the art of forensic geology and the issues that concern the admissibility of geological forensic evidence. I will use examples from the NITECRIME and FIRMS networks, the EU TRACE project and other projects and literature to illustrate the important issues at hand.

Hoogewerff, J.

2009-04-01

327

Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

Reilly, Dallas David

328

Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment, United States Postal Inspection Service, Forensic and Technical Services Division, National Forensic Laboratory, Dulles, Virginia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, describes the findings of the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment of the United States Postal Inspection Service, Forensic and Technical Services Division's National Forensic Laboratory in Dulles, Virginia. The mission of each of the ...

C. O. Bell J. Conrick J. Nuckels M. Hoel

1996-01-01

329

28 CFR 90.14 - Forensic medical examination payment requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forensic medical examination payment requirement...Women Formula Grant Program § 90.14 Forensic medical examination payment requirement...incurs the full out-of-pocket costs of forensic medical examinations for victims...

2013-07-01

330

28 CFR 90.14 - Forensic medical examination payment requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Forensic medical examination payment requirement...Women Formula Grant Program § 90.14 Forensic medical examination payment requirement...incurs the full out-of-pocket costs of forensic medical examinations for victims...

2009-07-01

331

28 CFR 90.14 - Forensic medical examination payment requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forensic medical examination payment requirement...Women Formula Grant Program § 90.14 Forensic medical examination payment requirement...incurs the full out-of-pocket costs of forensic medical examinations for victims...

2010-07-01

332

Memory Forensics: Review of Acquisition and Analysis Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents an overview of the most common memory forensics techniques used in the acquisition and analysis of a system's volatile memory. Memory forensics rose from obscurity in 2005 in response to a challenge issued by the Digital Forensics R...

G. Osbourne

2013-01-01

333

Computer Forensics: Is It the Next Hot IT Subject?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital Forensics is not just the recovery of data or information from computer systems and their networks. It is not a procedure that can be accomplished by software alone, and most important, it is not something that can be accomplished by other than a trained IT forensic professional. Digital Forensics is an emerging science and was developed…

Williams, Victor G.; Revels, Ken

2006-01-01

334

Crime Scene Genetics: Transforming Forensic Science through Molecular Technologies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Advances in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) technology over the past 25 years have led to spectacularly precise forensic identification techniques, although some applications have also unleashed controversies regarding genetic privacy. Current molecular forensic work is pushing these technologies even further by analyzing extremely damaged DNA and by introducing RNA (ribonucleic acid) techniques to forensics.

Melissa Lee Phillips (Freelance Science Writer;)

2008-06-01

335

Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics to…

Shmaefsky, Brian R.

2006-01-01

336

Significant genetic correlations among Caucasians at forensic DNA loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the effect of population differentiation on the forensic use of DNA profiles has been the subject of controversy for some years now, the debate has largely failed to focus on the genetical questions directly relevant to the forensic context. We re-analyse two published data sets and find that they convey much the same message for forensic inference, in contrast

DAVID J. BALDING; RICHARD A. NICHOLS

1997-01-01

337

Forensic entomology: application, education and research in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology as a science and a tool for investigation has had slow beginnings in Australia. A number of small animal decomposition trials have been recorded in the literature but mostly from an ecological rather than a forensic entomology perspective. In the last 20 years, a number of more forensically orientated field trials on small pigs and some fly developmental

I. R. Dadour; D. F. Cook; J. N. Fissioli; W. J. Bailey

2001-01-01

338

The role of forensic geoscience in wildlife crime detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in both automation and precision in the analysis of geological materials has had significant impact upon forensic investigations in the last 10 years. There is however, a fundamental philosophical difference between forensic and geological enquiry. This paper presents the results of forensic geoscientific investigations of three cases of wildlife crime. Two cases involve the analysis of soils recovered

Ruth M. Morgan; Patricia Wiltshire; Adrian Parker; Peter A. Bull

2006-01-01

339

Remarks on forensically interesting Sony Playstation 3 console features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with forensically interesting features of the Sony Playstation 3 game console. The construction and the internal structure are analyzed more precisely. Interesting forensic features of the operating system and the file system are presented. Differences between a PS3 with and without jailbreak are introduced and possible forensic attempts when using an installed Linux are discussed.

Daugs, Gunnar; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2012-02-01

340

Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.

2009-01-01

341

Setting Course: The Case for the Credentialing of Forensic Interviewers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article provides a history of efforts to develop a credentialing or certification process for forensic interviewers and reviews the multitiered credentialing process offered by the National Association of Certified Child Forensic Interviewers. The authors argue the benefits of a credentialing process for forensic interviewers and respond to…

Haney, Mike; Vieth, Victor I.; Campos, Hector M.

2010-01-01

342

Review The development and practice of forensic podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic podiatry a small, but potentially useful specialty using clinical podiatric knowledge for the purpose of person identification. The practice of forensic podiatry began in the early 1970s in Canada and the UK, although supportive research commenced later in the 1990s. Techniques of forensic podiatry include identification from podiatry records, the human footprint, footwear, and the analysis of gait forms

Wesley Vernon

343

Midwest Forensics Resource Center Project Summary June 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mission of the MFRC Research and Development Program, is to provide technological advances in forensic science for the benefit of our regional partners as well as the forensic community at large. Key areas of forensic science need are identified through our interactions with our Midwest partners and our R&D advisory group, as well as through our participation in national

David Baldwin

2005-01-01

344

Forensic sexology versus clinical sexology: Some cautionary comments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen an increased need and interest in the field of forensic sexology. As a result, many clinicians may have been asked to serve as forensic evaluators even though they may have little or no training in this area. This editorial focuses on some of the significant differences between the practice of clinical sexology versus that of forensic

Daniel N. Watter Ed. D

2006-01-01

345

Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist  

PubMed Central

The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public.

Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D.; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C.; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

2012-01-01

346

Forensic investigations in Kosovo: experiences of the European Union Forensic Expert Team.  

PubMed

The international community has intervened ethnic hostilities in Kosovo, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. A team of Finnish forensic experts worked in December 1998 and January 1999 in Kosovo under the mandate of the European Union. The team investigated human remains from three locations of alleged ethnic violence. Concerning the events in Klecka, Volujak and Racak, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia received documents of great gravity. The standard methods of forensic pathology were complemented with radiological, forensic odontological, physical anthropological and molecular genetic investigations. PMID:16083688

Rainio, J; Karkola, K; Lalu, K; Ranta, H; Takamaa, K; Penttilä, A

2001-12-01

347

On compensation of mismatched recording conditions in the Bayesian approach for forensic automatic speaker recognition.  

PubMed

This paper deals with a procedure to compensate for mismatched recording conditions in forensic speaker recognition, using a statistical score normalization. Bayesian interpretation of the evidence in forensic automatic speaker recognition depends on three sets of recordings in order to perform forensic casework: reference (R) and control (C) recordings of the suspect, and a potential population database (P), as well as a questioned recording (QR) . The requirement of similar recording conditions between suspect control database (C) and the questioned recording (QR) is often not satisfied in real forensic cases. The aim of this paper is to investigate a procedure of normalization of scores, which is based on an adaptation of the Test-normalization (T-norm) [2] technique used in the speaker verification domain, to compensate for the mismatch. Polyphone IPSC-02 database and ASPIC (an automatic speaker recognition system developed by EPFL and IPS-UNIL in Lausanne, Switzerland) were used in order to test the normalization procedure. Experimental results for three different recording condition scenarios are presented using Tippett plots and the effect of the compensation on the evaluation of the strength of the evidence is discussed. PMID:15639552

Botti, F; Alexander, A; Drygajlo, A

2004-12-01

348

A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

2010-08-11

349

Plant Pathogen Forensics: Capabilities, Needs, and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

A biological attack on U.S. crops, rangelands, or forests could reduce yield and quality, erode consumer confidence, affect economic health and the environment, and possibly impact human nutrition and international relations. Preparedness for a crop bioterror event requires a strong national security plan that includes steps for microbial forensics and criminal attribution. However, U.S. crop producers, consultants, and agricultural scientists have traditionally focused primarily on strategies for prevention and management of diseases introduced naturally or unintentionally rather than on responding appropriately to an intentional pathogen introduction. We assess currently available information, technologies, and resources that were developed originally to ensure plant health but also could be utilized for postintroduction plant pathogen forensics. Recommendations for prioritization of efforts and resource expenditures needed to enhance our plant pathogen forensics capabilities are presented.

Fletcher, J.; Bender, C.; Budowle, B.; Cobb, W. T.; Gold, S. E.; Ishimaru, C. A.; Luster, D.; Melcher, U.; Murch, R.; Scherm, H.; Seem, R. C.; Sherwood, J. L.; Sobral, B. W.; Tolin, S. A.

2006-01-01

350

Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession. A Survey of Educational Offerings in the Forensic Sciences. Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of the educational offerings in the Forensic Sciences was initiated to identify institutions and agencies offering educational courses and/or programs in the forensic sciences and to evaluate the availability of these programs. The information gathered by surveying members of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences reveals that…

Field, Kenneth S.; And Others

351

Statistical Software Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report spotlights problem areas in software engineering to which the application of modern statistical methodology can be fruitfully applied. It was produced by an expert cross-disciplinary National Research Council panel. The panel deliberated, disc...

J. R. Tucker

1998-01-01

352

A brief history of forensic entomology.  

PubMed

Apart from an early case report from China (13th century) and later artistic contributions, the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the late 1880s by Reinhard and Hofmann, whom we propose recognizing as co-founders of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and the US. At the time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of forensically important insects stood in the way of their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy, and ecology helped close this gap over the following decades. Many early case reports dealt with alleged child homicides, including the suspected use of sulphuric acid. In this context, it was shown that ants, cockroaches, and freshwater arthropods could produce postmortem artifacts suggestive of child abuse. After the World Wars, few forensic entomology cases entered the scientific literature. From the 1960s to the 1980s, Leclecq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, with a focus on case work. Since then, basic research in the US, Russia and Canada has opened the way to the routine use of entomology in forensic investigations. The following article gives a brief overview of historic developments in the field. A major focus is on the work done between 1850 and 1950. Since sources from that time remain difficult to track down, the article also includes a historic bibliographical overview on forensic entomology of that era. PMID:11457602

Benecke, M

2001-08-15

353

Forensic evaluation of the AmpFlSTR® NGM™ loci in Lodz region of Poland population sample.  

PubMed

The paper is focused on population data for 15 polymorphic STR loci included in the NGM(TM) amplification kit, obtained from a sample of 800 individuals from the Lodz region of Poland. Main statistical parameters of forensic interest were calculated and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was verified for each locus. Departure from HWE was not significant after applying Bonferroni corrected significance level for multiple testing (p?=?0.0033). Comparative analysis between chosen populations was performed and some significant differences were found among investigated populations. Obtained values of parameters for NGM™ multiplex amplification kit point to wide range of possible applications of investigated STR markers to forensic genetics. PMID:23760603

Jedrzejczyk, Maciej; Jacewicz, Renata; Berent, Jaroslaw

2013-09-01

354

Lumbosacral transitional vertebra: clinical and forensic implications.  

PubMed

The identification of skeletal remains is one of the classic problems faced by forensic experts. Congenital and acquired malformations can prove to be an important tool for identification, provided antemortem records are available. A lumbosacral transitional vertebra is one such rare congenital anomaly that has clinical and medicolegal implications. We report a case of unilateral lumbosacral transitional vertebra, detected during medicolegal examination of skeletal remains that were recovered from a forested area in coastal Karnataka, India. The congenital anomaly of the transitional vertebra helped in the forensic identification of the deceased. PMID:19296021

Kanchan, T; Shetty, M; Nagesh, K R; Menezes, R G

2009-02-01

355

Dem Bones Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case study, a forensic anthropologist must determine the age and sex as well as look for signs of trauma to a skeleton found in a shallow grave in a state park. Students simulate the actual procedures used in a forensics lab and learn to identify bones, landmarks, and anatomical features associated with sex, age, height, and pathology. The case was developed for use in a freshman-level human anatomy and physiology course. It could also be used in biology, anatomy, and anthropology courses.

Bruce, Alease S.

2001-01-01

356

An Architecture for SCADA Network Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems are widely used in industrial control and automation. Modern SCADA protocols often employ TCP/IP to transport sensor data and control signals. Meanwhile, corporate IT infrastructures are interconnecting with previously isolated SCADA networks. The use of TCP/IP as a carrier protocol and the interconnection of IT and SCADA networks raise serious security issues. This paper describes an architecture for SCADA network forensics. In addition to supporting forensic investigations of SCADA network incidents, the architecture incorporates mechanisms for monitoring process behavior, analyzing trends and optimizing plant performance.

Kilpatrick, Tim; Gonzalez, Jesus; Chandia, Rodrigo; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

357

Statistical Applets: Statistical Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman of Co., this applet is designed to help students visualize the rejection region of a statistical test by allowing them to set null and alternate hypotheses, population parameters, sample statistics, and significance level. It accompanies "ÃÂÃÂPractice of Business Statistics," but can be used without this text. Even though brief, this is a nice interactive resource for an introductory statistics course.

Duckworth, William; Mccabe, George; Moore, David; Sclove, Stanley

2009-03-05

358

Education and Training in Forensic Science: A Guide for Forensic Science Laboratories, Educational Institutions and Students.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Technical Working Group on Education and Training in Forensic Science (TWGED) is a multidisciplinary group of content area experts from across the United States and Canada, from both urban and rural jurisdictions, each representing his or her respecti...

2004-01-01

359

Developing a one-semester course in forensic chemical science for university undergraduates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to research, develop and validate a one-semester course for the general education of university undergraduates in forensic chemical education. The course outline was developed using the research and development (R&D) methodology recommended by Gall, Borg, and Gall, (2003) and Dick and Carey, (2001) through a three step developmental cycle. Information was gathered and analyzed through review of literature and proof of concept interviews, laying the foundation for the framework of the course outline. A preliminary course outline was developed after a needs assessment showed need for such a course. Professors expert in the area of forensic science participated in the first field test of the course. Their feedback was recorded, and the course was revised for a main field test. Potential users of the guide served as readers for the main field test and offered more feedback to improve the course.

Salem, Roberta Sue

360

From schadenfreude to contemplation: lessons for forensic experts.  

PubMed

In 2005, the Chief Coroner of Ontario instituted a review into 45 cases of criminally suspicious child deaths about which a prominent pediatric forensic pathologist had expressed an opinion that the cause was homicide. Subsequently, a provincial inquiry was called to review the practice and oversight of pediatric forensic pathology in Ontario and to make recommendations to restore and enhance public confidence in forensic pathology. Recommendations from the inquiry addressed medical subspecialization, the evidentiary basis for expert opinion, oversight of the profession, and development of best forensic practices. Although the inquiry focused on pathologists, it is clear that these recommendations have significant implications for all forensic professions, including forensic psychiatry. This article summarizes the inquiry report and considers the potentially important implications for forensic psychiatry. PMID:22396345

Glancy, Graham D; Regehr, Cheryl

2012-01-01

361

[Forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks].  

PubMed

As an important component of judicial expertise, forensic science is broad and highly specialized. With development of network technology, increasement of information resources, and improvement of people's legal consciousness, forensic scientists encounter many new problems, and have been required to meet higher evidentiary standards in litigation. In view of this, evidence-based concept should be established in forensic medicine. We should find the most suitable method in forensic science field and other related area to solve specific problems in the evidence-based mode. Evidence-based practice can solve the problems in legal medical field, and it will play a great role in promoting the progress and development of forensic science. This article reviews the basic theory of evidence-based medicine and its effect, way, method, and evaluation in the forensic medicine in order to discuss the application value of forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks. PMID:24665620

Qiu, Yun-Liang; Peng, Ming-Qi

2013-12-01

362

[Assessment of personality disorders with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II) in a forensic sample].  

PubMed

In this paper, the presence of personality disorders in a forensic sample is analysed using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II). The sample was made up of 86 individuals from both civil and criminal settings: plaintiffs in family cases and complainants and defendants in various crimes, especially in partner abuse. The results reveal a great number of records of Compulsive Personality Disorder, reaching 70%, regardless of whether they were from the civil or the criminal setting or whether they were a plaintiff or a defendant. It is concluded that this inventory seems to lack statistical validity for this purpose. Moreover, this test may only describe the typical characteristics of forensic evaluation rather than the personality of the individuals assessed, and it is oversensitive to context; hence, the conclusions derived from the use of the MCMI-II in the forensic field may accept as valid a great deal of distorted or unspecific profiles. PMID:19861107

Winberg Nodal, Máximo; Vilalta Suárez, Ramón J

2009-11-01

363

Forensic Analysis of Venezuelan Elections during the Chávez Presidency.  

PubMed

Hugo Chávez dominated the Venezuelan electoral landscape since his first presidential victory in 1998 until his death in 2013. Nobody doubts that he always received considerable voter support in the numerous elections held during his mandate. However, the integrity of the electoral system has come into question since the 2004 Presidential Recall Referendum. From then on, different sectors of society have systematically alleged electoral irregularities or biases in favor of the incumbent party. We have carried out a thorough forensic analysis of the national-level Venezuelan electoral processes held during the 1998-2012 period to assess these complaints. The second-digit Benford's law and two statistical models of vote distributions, recently introduced in the literature, are reviewed and used in our case study. In addition, we discuss a new method to detect irregular variations in the electoral roll. The outputs obtained from these election forensic tools are examined taking into account the substantive context of the elections and referenda under study. Thus, we reach two main conclusions. Firstly, all the tools uncover anomalous statistical patterns, which are consistent with election fraud from 2004 onwards. Although our results are not a concluding proof of fraud, they signal the Recall Referendum as a turning point in the integrity of the Venezuelan elections. Secondly, our analysis calls into question the reliability of the electoral register since 2004. In particular, we found irregular variations in the electoral roll that were decisive in winning the 50% majority in the 2004 Referendum and in the 2012 Presidential Elections. PMID:24971462

Jiménez, Raúl; Hidalgo, Manuel

2014-01-01

364

Investigation of quartz grain surface textures by atomic force microscopy for forensic analysis.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study of quartz sand grain surface textures using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image the surface. Until now scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has provided the primary technique used in the forensic surface texture analysis of quartz sand grains as a means of establishing the provenance of the grains for forensic reconstructions. The ability to independently corroborate the grain type classifications is desirable and provides additional weight to the findings of SEM analysis of the textures of quartz grains identified in forensic soil/sediment samples. AFM offers a quantitative means of analysis that complements SEM examination, and is a non-destructive technique that requires no sample preparation prior to scanning. It therefore has great potential to be used for forensic analysis where sample preservation is highly valuable. By taking quantitative topography scans, it is possible to produce 3D representations of microscopic surface textures and diagnostic features for examination. Furthermore, various empirical measures can be obtained from analysing the topography scans, including arithmetic average roughness, root-mean-square surface roughness, skewness, kurtosis, and multiple gaussian fits to height distributions. These empirical measures, combined with qualitative examination of the surfaces can help to discriminate between grain types and provide independent analysis that can corroborate the morphological grain typing based on the surface textures assigned using SEM. Furthermore, the findings from this study also demonstrate that quartz sand grain surfaces exhibit a statistically self-similar fractal nature that remains unchanged across scales. This indicates the potential for a further quantitative measure that could be utilised in the discrimination of quartz grains based on their provenance for forensic investigations. PMID:23088825

Konopinski, D I; Hudziak, S; Morgan, R M; Bull, P A; Kenyon, A J

2012-11-30

365

Forensic neutron activation analysis the Japanese scene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation

T. Kishi

1987-01-01

366

Findings from an Elder Abuse Forensic Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The first Elder Abuse Forensic Center (EAFC) in the United States was instituted in 2003. People from a variety of disciplines, including Adult Protective Services social workers, law enforcement, the district attorney's office, a medical response team, public guardian deputies, ombudsmen, mental health services, a victim advocate, and a…

Wiglesworth, Aileen; Mosqueda, Laura; Burnight, Kerry; Younglove, Ted; Jeske, Daniel

2006-01-01

367

Forensic Filtering of Cell Phone Protocols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phone managers are non-forensic software tools designed to carry out a range of tasks for the user, such as reading and updating the contents of a phone, using one or more of the communications protocols supported by the phone. Phone managers are sometime...

A. Delaitre W. Jansen

2008-01-01

368

Encoded evidence: DNA in forensic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sherlock Holmes said “it has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important”, but never imagined that such a little thing, the DNA molecule, could become perhaps the most powerful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Twenty years after the development of DNA fingerprinting, forensic DNA analysis is key to the

Mark A. Jobling; Peter Gill

2004-01-01

369

Enhancing forensic science with spectroscopic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation outlines the research we are developing in the area of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging with the focus on materials of forensic interest. FTIR spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a powerful tool for characterisation of heterogeneous materials. FTIR imaging relies on the ability of the military-developed infrared array detector to simultaneously measure spectra from thousands of

Camilla Ricci; Sergei G. Kazarian

2006-01-01

370

Forensic analysis of black coral (Order Antipatharia).  

PubMed

Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), discriminate analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and stereoscopic microscopy were used to separate black coral forensic evidence items from similarly appearing items manufactured from plastics, bovid keratin, and mangrove wood. In addition, novel observations were made of bromine and iodine relationships in black coral that have not been previously reported. PMID:21925814

Espinoza, Edgard O; Scanlan, Michael D; McClure, Pamela J; Baker, Barry W

2012-03-10

371

Lumbosacral transitional vertebra: clinical and forensic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of skeletal remains is one of the classic problems faced by forensic experts. Congenital and acquired malformations can prove to be an important tool for identification, provided antemortem records are available. A lumbosacral transitional vertebra is one such rare congenital anomaly that has clinical and medicolegal implications. We report a case of unilateral lumbosacral transitional vertebra, detected during

Kanchan T; Shetty M; Nagesh K R

372

Martin Hall Lecture on Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Martin Hall, of the entomology department at the Natural History Museum in London, lectures on forensic entomology. He covers maggot behavior, the blow fly life cycle, how blow flies find a body and how to collect maggots. Requires QuickTime or Windows Media Player.

0002-11-30

373

On Maggots and Murders: Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a very short and cursory introduction to forensic entomology. It is downloaded as a PDF and is a four-page article about how insects can be used to assess time of death. There is an emphasis on the role of blow flies. There are some color photos of marginal quality included.

0002-11-30

374

Forensic radiochemistry of PUBLIC site inspection samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past two years, the Isotope Sciences Division (formerly Nuclear Chemistry) has been developing a program to extract forensic information from samples of plutonium or highly-enriched uranium. In the case of Pu, it is possible to determine the date of chemical separation, the date of its casting as metal, the enrichment of the uranium starting material, the length and

Moody

1995-01-01

375

Review of Forensic Tools for Smartphones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technological capability of mobile devices in particular Smartphones makes their use of value to the criminal community as a data terminal in the facilitation of organised crime or terrorism. The effective targeting of these devices from criminal and security intelligence perspectives and subsequent detailed forensic examination of the targeted device will significantly enhance the evidence available to the law enforcement community. When phone devices are involved in crimes, forensic examiners require tools that allow the proper retrieval and prompt examination of information present on these devices. Smartphones that are compliant to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) standards, will maintains their identity and user's personal information on Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). Beside SIM cards, substantial amount of information is stored on device's internal memory and external memory modules. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the currently available forensic software tools that are developed to carry out forensic investigation of mobile devices and point to current weaknesses within this process.

Jahankhani, Hamid; Azam, Amir

376

Bacterial Population Genetics in a Forensic Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report addresses the recent Department of Homeland Security (DHS) call for a Phase I study to (1) assess gaps in the forensically relevant knowledge about the population genetics of eight bacterial agents of concern, (2) formulate a technical roadmap to address those gaps, and (3) identify new bioinformatics tools that would be necessary to analyze and interpret population genetic

Velsko

2009-01-01

377

Quantification of DNA in forensic samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantification of DNA in a forensic sample is of major importance for proper DNA amplification and STR profiling. Several methods have been developed to quantify DNA, from basic UV spectrometry, through gel-based techniques, to dye staining, blotting techniques, and, very recently, DNA amplification methods (polymerase chain reaction, PCR). Early techniques simply measured total DNA, but newer techniques can specifically measure

Janice A. Nicklas; Eric Buel

2003-01-01

378

SCADA systems: Challenges for forensic investigators  

Microsoft Academic Search

SCADA systems run 24\\/7 to control and monitor industrial and infrastructure processes. In case of potential security incidents, several challenges exist for conducting an effective forensic investigation. This paper discusses these challenges and investigates potential solutions. It shows the limitations of traditional IT-based approaches and also presents research challenges for initiating and continuing research in SCADA systems. Furthermore, it discusses

Irfan Ahmed; Sebastian Obermeier; Martin Naedele; Golden G. Richard

2012-01-01

379

Ethics in child and adolescent forensic psychiatry.  

PubMed

Ethical concerns are ever present in the practice of all branches of psychiatry. They are likely to be more acute and commonplace in the practice of child and adolescent psychiatry because of the complication introduced by the immaturity of the patient. Children, depending on their age and developmental stage, may be incapable of giving meaningful consent, and situations in which breaking confidentiality must be considered arise more often. The field of forensic psychiatry is fundamentally different from clinical psychiatry because of the universal involvement of third parties and because interactions with evaluees do not occur within the context of a doctor patient relationship. Arguably, these conditions compel the forensic psychiatrist to function as a double agent. According to Appelbaum, an influential psychiatric ethicist, forensic practice calls for a different set of ethical guidelines that, while humane, do not either imply or derive from the existence of a doctor patient relationship. Others argue that a mix of forensic and clinical ethics is more appropriate. New developments in psychiatry, including the use of the Internet for E-mail and telepsychiatry, require continuing vigilance by the profession so that ethical standards can evolve to cover new circumstances at the frontiers of psychiatric practice. PMID:12397904

Ratner, Richard A

2002-10-01

380

Multi-Database Searching in Forensic Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional library skills have been augmented since the introduction of online computerized database services. Because of the complexity of the field, forensic psychology can benefit enormously from the application of comprehensive bibliographic search strategies. The study reported here demonstrated the bibliographic results obtained when a…

Piotrowski, Chris; Perdue, Robert W.

381

Values in forensic and correctional psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the practice of forensic and correctional psychology has been understood in relation to certain sets of values that have been articulated in codes of ethical practice or organisational mission statements, there has been little consideration of how the values of offenders can inform the rehabilitative process. In this paper the criminogenic nature of values is discussed and how these

Andrew Day; Sharon Casey

2009-01-01

382

Cybercrime forensic system in cloud computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cloud is a virtual computing environment that provides applications, platforms and software support as services. The applications are extended over the Internet domain to the cloud service provider (CSP) with greater flexibility and availability at lower cost. Unfortunately, the cloud computing service also provides a better environment for criminals and increases the difficulties of cybercrime forensics. In this paper,

ChengYan

2011-01-01

383

Prosecuting Assaultive Forensic and Psychiatric Inpatients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inpatient assault of forensic and psychiatric staff is a complex and multifaceted issue. Hence, the consequences reported in the literature regarding prosecuting assaultive inpatients are quite variable. In this article, issues pertaining to the prosecution of violent inpatients are reviewed. Illustrative cases, challenges of prosecution,…

Angus, Kerri C.; Reddon, John R.; Chudleigh, Michele D.

2008-01-01

384

A Critical (Legal) View of Forensic Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic Computing is a relatively new academic discipline that in its current form seems very much geared towards the production of professionals who are likely to be active in law enforcement. It is generally predicated on the idea that computers can be misused for criminal purposes and such activities need to be prosecuted. For such prosecution technical expertise in computer

Bernd Carsten Stahl

385

Evaluating Competencies: Forensic Assessments and Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Grisso, T. (1986). Evaluating competencies: Forensic assessments and instruments. New York: Plenum. (Volume 7 of Perspectives in law & psychology). ISBN 0306421267, 9780306421266\\u000aPublisher summary: This book offers a conceptual model for understanding the nature of legal competencies. The model is interpreted to assist mental health professionals in designing and performing assessments for legal competencies defined in criminal and

Thomas Grisso

1986-01-01

386

Psychological Test Use in Criminal Forensic Evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors surveyed forensic psychologists and psychiatrists (about 80% of whom were board certified) regarding their use of psychological testing in evaluations for competence to stand trial (CST; n = 102) and criminal responsibility (CR; n = 96), as well as their opinions about the importance of psychological testing for these evaluations. Psychological testing was perceived as either essential or

Randy Borum; Thomas Grisso

1995-01-01

387

Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)

Bruce, Alease

2001-01-01

388

DoD Forensic Science Committee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Instruction, issued under the authority of DoD Directive 5106.1, establishes the DoD Forensic Science Committee as a joint DoD committee under the provisions of DoD Directive 5105.18 (hereafter referred to as 'the Committee'); assigns responsibilitie...

B. McVay

1996-01-01

389

Advances in chemistry applied to forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acts of terrorism, an increase in the use of firearms, drug abuse, the use of so-called date-rape drugs, and driving whilst under the influence of drugs, are just some of the subjects frequently in the news. In the absence of fingermarks and of material leading to the recovery of DNA, the forensic scientist has to rely upon chemical analysis of

David F. Rendle

2005-01-01

390

A Forensic Approach to Consumer Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a forensic-oriented, college-level course in consumer chemistry. Includes course goals, topical outline, and list of chemical ingredients in consumer products useful for student research projects. The first section of the course focuses on mathematics since students in introductory courses may fear doing the most rudimentary mathematical…

Berger, Selman A.

1983-01-01

391

Alexithymia in Dutch violent forensic psychiatric outpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until now alexithymia has not been investigated in Dutch low-educated offenders who are known for their violent behaviour. We therefore investigated a sample of aggressive forensic psychiatric outpatients, who are characterized by emotional dysregulation in conflict situations. For that purpose we used a Dutch questionnaire, the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ; Vorst & Bermond, 2001), which we also administered in a

R. H. J. Hornsveld; F. W. Kraaimaat

2011-01-01

392

Generalising Event Forensics Across Multiple Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cases involving computer related crime, event oriented evidence such as computer event logs, and telephone call records are coming under increased scrutiny. The amount of technical knowledge required to manually interpret event logs encompasses multiple domains of expertise, ranging from computer networking to forensic accounting. Automated methods of classifying events and patterns of events into higher level terminology and

Bradley Schatz; George M. Mohay; Andrew Clark

2004-01-01

393

Prosecuting Assaultive Forensic and Psychiatric Inpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inpatient assault of forensic and psychiatric staff is a complex and multifaceted issue. Hence, the consequences reported in the literature regarding prosecuting assaultive inpatients are quite variable. In this article, issues pertaining to the prosecution of violent inpatients are reviewed. Illustrative cases, challenges of prosecution, potential policies, therapeutic jurisprudence, pocket probation, and mental health courts are discussed.

KERRI C. ANGUS; JOHN R. REDDON; MICHELE D. CHUDLEIGH

2008-01-01

394

Statistical Science Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains links in several statistical categories, including other meta-sites (catalogs), universities, statistics departments, software, journals, data sets, methodology, conferences, and teaching, among others. It has an Australian flavor, but is international in scope. Gordon K. Smyth, Research scientist and mathematician, maintains this site.

1998-01-01

395

A study of composite restorations as a tool in forensic identification  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Comparing ante-mortem and post-mortem dental data is a principal method of identification in forensic odontology. Radiographic images of amalgam have been used in dental forensics for identification due to their unique appearance. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether radio-opaque composite restorations have a potential for identification in forensic odontology. Materials and Methods: Thirty typodont mandibular first molar teeth were prepared with Class-II (proximo-occlusal) cavities and restored with a radio-opaque composite (Tetric N-Ceram). Two sets of standardized radiographs were taken from the 30 teeth, keeping the radiological parameters constant. One set of these 30 radiographs was named as SET 1. Ten randomly chosen radiographs from the other set and two other radiographs of Class-II composite restorations in typodont teeth constituted SET 2. Thirty dentally trained examiners were asked to match the 12 radiographic images of SET 2 with those of SET 1. Results: The results show that 15 examiners were able to correctly match all the 12 images. Statistical analysis was done using kappa statistical test. Conclusion: This study shows that, if the post-mortem radiographs are accurate duplicates of ante-mortem radiographs of composite restorations, then the shape of the composite restoration is unique and can be used for identification.

Hemasathya, Bahavathi Ananthan; Balagopal, Sundaresan

2013-01-01

396

TESF Methodology for Statistics Education Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for universities to achieve excellence in the services they provide has been the subject of research for several decades. The idea of involving students and recognizing the importance of their opinions has led to the creation of various models and tools. This paper focuses on teaching, a central service from which improvement actions of…

Barone, Stefano; Lo Franco, Eva

2010-01-01

397

Final Reports Submitted Under Forensic DNA Backlog Reduction Program Fiscal Year 2010 Awards .  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of NIJ's FY 2010 Forensic DNA Backlog Reduction Program is to assist eligible States and units of local government to reduce forensic DNA sample turnaround time, increase the throughput of public DNA laboratories, and reduce DNA forensic casework...

2012-01-01

398

28 CFR 115.121 - Evidence protocol and forensic medical examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Evidence protocol and forensic medical examinations. 115.121 ...§ 115.121 Evidence protocol and forensic medical examinations. (a...National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations,...

2013-07-01

399

76 FR 38430 - Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TECHNOLOGY POLICY Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National...2009 report: ``Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path...SUMMARY: The Subcommittee on Forensic Science (SoFS) of the National...

2011-06-30

400

75 FR 10845 - Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TECHNOLOGY POLICY Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National...SUMMARY: The Subcommittee on Forensic Science of the National Science and...Co-Chair, Subcommittee on Forensic Science. [FR Doc. 2010-4899...

2010-03-09

401

78 FR 12355 - Notice of Establishment of the National Commission on Forensic Science and Solicitation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the National Commission on Forensic Science and Solicitation of Applications...establishing the National Commission on Forensic Science. This notice establishes criteria...establishing the National Commission on Forensic Science (``Commission'')....

2013-02-22

402

75 FR 4882 - Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TECHNOLOGY POLICY Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National...2009 report: ``Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path...SUMMARY: The Subcommittee on Forensic Science (SOFS) of the National...

2010-01-29

403

76 FR 6163 - Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TECHNOLOGY POLICY Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National...2009 report: ``Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path...SUMMARY: The Subcommittee on Forensic Science (SoFS) of the National...

2011-02-03

404

78 FR 40737 - Notification of Deletion of System of Records; Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Deletion of System of Records; Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics & Training...Enforcement Investigations Center, Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics & Training at...Enforcement Investigations Center, Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics & Training...

2013-07-08

405

Cameriere's approach modified for pelvic radiographs: a novel method to assess apophyseal iliac crest ossification for the purpose of forensic age diagnostics.  

PubMed

According to a modified method originally developed by Cameriere et al. (Int J Legal Med 120:143-146, 2006; J Forensic Sci 52:1151-1155, 2007; Forensic Sci Int 174:59-62, 2008; Forensic Sci Int 174:178-181, 2008; Forensic Sci Int 193:128.e1-128.e6, 2009), the suitability of the iliac crest apophysis (ICA) for the purpose of forensic age estimation in living individuals was investigated by means of area measurements in 643 pelvic radiographs of patients aged between 10 and 30 years. The area of the ossification centre(s) of the iliac crest and the area of the iliac wing (IW) were determined by manual segmentation. In 116 cases, area measurements were possible. ICA/IW ratios were calculated and used for regression analyses, yielding different regression equations. Depending on sex, pelvic side and ratio considered, R (2) ranged between 0.20 and 0.38 and the standard error of the estimate, between 1.91 and 2.00 years. No statistical significant differences were found between the right and the left pelvic sides. In conclusion, this method is potentially applicable for forensic age estimation in living individuals. However, further studies under more standardised conditions and with higher case numbers are needed in order to decide whether the iliac crest apophysis might become suitable for routine age diagnostics. PMID:23420261

Wittschieber, Daniel; Vieth, Volker; Wierer, Traugott; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Schmeling, Andreas

2013-07-01

406

Practice parameter for child and adolescent forensic evaluations.  

PubMed

This Parameter addresses the key concepts that differentiate the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents from a clinical assessment. There are ethical issues unique to the forensic evaluation, because the forensic evaluator's duty is to the person, court, or agency requesting the evaluation, rather than to the patient. The forensic evaluator clarifies the legal questions to be answered and structures the evaluation to address those issues. The forensic examination may include a review of collateral information, interviews and other assessments of the child or adolescent, and interviews with other relevant informants. The principles in this Parameter suggest the general approach to the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents and are relevant to delinquency, child custody, child maltreatment, personal injury, and other court-ordered and noncourt-ordered evaluations. PMID:22115153

Kraus, Louis J; Thomas, Christopher R; Bukstein, Oscar G; Walter, Heather J; Benson, R Scott; Chrisman, Allan; Farchione, Tiffany R; Hamilton, John; Keable, Helene; Kinlan, Joan; Schoettle, Ulrich; Siegel, Matthew; Stock, Saundra; Ptakowski, Kristin Kroeger; Medicus, Jennifer

2011-12-01

407

Methodological Gravitism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author presents the case of the exchange marriage system to delineate a model of methodological gravitism. Such a model is not a deviation from or alteration to the existing qualitative research approaches. I have adopted culturally specific methodology to investigate spouse selection in line with the Grounded Theory Method. This…

Zaman, Muhammad

2011-01-01

408

Injury Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Data Consumer Opinion Surveys Home / Research & Statistics Injury Statistics This is the statistic reports page for scientific ... Home Appliances, Maintenance and Construction Injury Statistics Injury Statistics September 30, 2012 Submersions Related to Non-Pool ...

409

iPhone examination with modern forensic software tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the paper is to show the usefulness of modern forensic software tools for iPhone examination. In particular, we focus on the new version of Elcomsoft iOS Forensic Toolkit and compare it with Oxygen Forensics Suite 2012 regarding functionality, usability and capabilities. It is shown how these software tools works and how capable they are in examining non-jailbreaked and jailbreaked iPhones.

Höne, Thomas; Kröger, Knut; Luttenberger, Silas; Creutzburg, Reiner

2012-05-01

410

Best practice in forensic entomology—standards and guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology, the use of insects and other arthropods in forensic investigations, is becoming increasingly more important\\u000a in such investigations. To ensure its optimal use by a diverse group of professionals including pathologists, entomologists\\u000a and police officers, a common frame of guidelines and standards is essential. Therefore, the European Association for Forensic\\u000a Entomology has developed a protocol document for best

Jens Amendt; Carlo P. Campobasso; Emmanuel Gaudry; Christian Reiter; Hélène N. LeBlanc; Martin J. R. Hall

2007-01-01

411

Should or should not forensic psychiatrists think about free will?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forensic psychiatrist’s task is often considered to be tightly connected to the concept of free will. Yet, there is also\\u000a a lack of clarity about the role of the concept of free will in forensic psychiatry. Recently, Morse has argued that forensic\\u000a psychiatrists should not mention free will in their reports or testimonies, and, moreover, that they should not

Gerben Meynen

2009-01-01

412

Recurrent self-injurious behavior in forensic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high prevalence of self-injurious behavior has been reported in the forensic psychiatric population and the correctional psychiatric population. Severely and recurrently self-destructive patients pose great therapeutic challenges. The present study examined forensic patients who engaged in multiple acts of self-injury while hospitalized and compared them to forensic patients who engaged in a single act of self-injury. The groups did

Marc Hillbrand; John L. Young; John H. Krystal

1996-01-01

413

Forensic Anthropology and Human Osteology Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Providing educators, practitioners and students with resources and materials related to forensic anthropology and its sister science osteology this site links users to related books, resources and educational opportunities. The resources section provides tutorials, study guides and the like; handy for students or for an educator to integrate into a classroom environment. The book portion of the site is nicely laid out - listing over one hundred books often with a brief description along with a link to buy the book online. The education and association sections will be of especial interest to students, providing both a solid list of programs in forensic anthropology and human osteology as well as an array of professional associations.

Adamson, Marci

2007-02-01

414

Radiology in forensic expert team operations.  

PubMed

Radiological methods are widely used in forensic pathology. Their most common applications are in complementing human identification, particularly in investigations of mass disasters and decomposed bodies, and in searching for foreign material inside corpses. A team of Finnish forensic experts investigated human skeletal remains in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1996) and in Kosovo, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1998). It also investigated more recently deceased victims in Kosovo (1999). In these investigations, the benefit of X-ray was in the detection of foreign material inside victims and their remains. For identification purposes, X-rays were mainly used to provide the best evidence possible of any pathological changes, physical characteristics, and injuries present. PMID:12935731

Rainio, J; Lalu, K; Ranta, H; Penttilä, A

2001-03-01

415

Next generation DRM: cryptography or forensics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current content protection systems rely primarily on applied cryptographic techniques but there is an increased use of forensic solutions in images, music and video distribution alike. The two approaches differ significantly, both in terms of technology and in terms of strategy, and thus it begs the question: will one approach take over in the long run, and if so which one? Discussing the evolution of both cryptographic and forensic solutions, we conclude that neither approach is ideal for all constituents, and that in the video space at least they will continue to co-exist for the foreseeable future - even if this may not be the case for other media types. We also analyze shortcomings of these approaches, and suggest that new solutions are necessary in this still emerging marketplace.

Robert, Arnaud

2009-02-01

416

Using Forensics Science Problems As Teaching Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As teachers of high school students, we constantly struggle to engage students in scientific exploration so they can master concepts and appreciate the nature of science. By providing an air of mystery and glamour, forensic science engages even reluctant students in the scientific process and helps them think like scientists about authentic problems--one of the ultimate goals of science education (Williams et al. 2004). Therefore, the project described here uses the umbrella of forensics to teach biology concepts and skills in a setting that students would find engaging. The CSI television show was used to set up a "myth-busting" environment in the classroom and to investigate the relationship between popular media and students' attitudes about science.

Duncan, Kanesa; Daly-Engel, Toby

2006-11-01

417

Alleged biological father incest: a forensic approach.  

PubMed

Paternal incest is one of the most serious forms of intrafamilial sexual abuse with clinical, social, and legal relevance. A retrospective study was performed, based on forensic reports and judicial decisions of alleged cases of biological paternal incest of victims under 18 years old (n = 215) from 2003 to 2008. Results highlight that in a relevant number of cases: victims were female; the abuse begun at an early age with reiteration; the alleged perpetrator presented a history of sexual crimes against children; sexual practices were physically poorly intrusive, which associated with a forensic medical evaluation performed more than 72 h after the abuse, explain partially the absence of physical injuries or other evidence-these last aspects are different from extrafamilial cases. In conclusion, observations about paternal incest are likely to exacerbate the psychosocial consequences of the abuse and may explain the difficulty and delay in detect and disclose these cases. Few cases were legally prosecuted and convicted. PMID:24180349

Gomes, Vânia; Jardim, Patrícia; Taveira, Francisco; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo J; Magalhães, Teresa

2014-01-01

418

Forensic epidemiology: a method for investigating and quantifying specific causation.  

PubMed

The field of forensic epidemiology was initially introduced as a systematic approach to the investigation of acts of bioterrorism. In recent years, however, the applications of forensic epidemiology have expanded greatly, covering a wide range of medicolegal issues routinely encountered in both criminal and civil court settings. Forensic epidemiology provides a method of evaluating causation in groups and individuals based in the application of the Hill Criteria, with conclusions given in terms of relative or comparative risk, or as a Probability of Causation. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief overview of the methods and applications of forensic epidemiology. PMID:24272789

Koehler, Steven A; Freeman, Michael D

2014-06-01

419

Founding editorial--forensics and TheScientificWorld.  

PubMed

At the beginning of a new millennium it seems a good idea to stop for a moment and take stock of the current state of forensic science. As a field of scientific research and scientific application, forensic science is a little more than a century old. Forensic science may be said to have begun in 1887 with the simultaneous publication of A. Conan Doyle's A Study in Scarlet and Hans Gross's Handbuch f1/4r Untersuchungsrichter. Conan Doyle's novel introduced to the world the character of Sherlock Holmes, whose literary career would popularize the use of physical evidence in criminal investigations. Gross's manual for examining magistrates suggests ways in which the expertise of chemists, biologists, geologists, and other natural scientists could contribute to investigations. Gross's book was translated into a number of languages and went through various updated editions during the course of the century. The intervening century saw the development and application of fingerprinting, firearm and tool mark identification, forensic chemistry, forensic biology, forensic toxicology, forensic odontology, forensic pathology, and forensic engineering. Increasingly, the judicial systems of the industrial nations of the world have come to rely upon the expertise of scientists in a variety of disciplines. In most advanced countries, virtually all criminal prosecutions now involve the presentation of scientific testimony. This has had the beneficial effect of diminishing the reliance of courts on eyewitness testimony and defendant confessions. PMID:12805857

Rowe, W

2001-10-30

420

The Role of NDT in Forensic Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic engineering refers to a comprehensive investigation of the root cause of failures in structures and operating equipment, usually dealing with the relation and application of engineering facts to legal problems and product liability. The first and often most critical step is to use NDT to fully define the size, shape, and possible nature of all defects in the failed item prior to performing destructive tests. An example of a case where NDT played a critical role is presented.

Leon-Salamanca, Teodoro

2007-03-01

421

Evaluating Competencies: Forensic Assessments and Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Grisso, T. (2003). Evaluating competencies: Forensic assessments and instruments (2nd edition). Kluwer Academic\\/Plenum Publishers. (Perspectives in law & psychology, vol. 16). ISBN 0306473437.\\u000aSummary: As in its first edition, this book offers a conceptual model for understanding the nature of legal competencies. The model is interpreted to assist mental health professionals in designing and performing assessments for legal competencies

Thomas Grisso

2003-01-01

422

Digital image forensics: a booklet for beginners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital visual media represent nowadays one of the principal means for communication. Lately, the reliability of digital visual\\u000a information has been questioned, due to the ease in counterfeiting both its origin and content. Digital image forensics is\\u000a a brand new research field which aims at validating the authenticity of images by recovering information about their history.\\u000a Two main problems are

Judith A. Redi; Wiem Taktak; Jean-Luc Dugelay

2011-01-01

423

A brief history of forensic entomology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from an early case report from China (13th century) and later artistic contributions, the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the late 1880s by Reinhard and Hofmann, whom we propose recognizing as co-founders of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin’s popular book on

Mark Benecke

2001-01-01

424

Psychodiagnostic Testing in Forensic Psychology: A Commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article comments on five articles in a series designed to provide some current guidelines concerning the forensic applicability of five widely used psychological tests: the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III), the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM). The author's observations and recommendations make a valuable

Irving B. Weiner

2002-01-01

425

Digital Forensics II: Course Outline and Syllabus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Systems Security and Information Assurance (CSSIA) provides this zip file with a course outline and syllabus document for an advanced computer forensics course. The syllabus is a sample one, which could be adapted to suit any course on this topic. It includes information about the course, required textbook and other materials, course goals, outline, classroom policies and grading policies. An additional document with a course outline is also included in the zip file.

2013-07-24

426

Suspicious childhood injury: formulation of forensic opinion.  

PubMed

Child protection paediatricians have a role as forensic experts in the context of suspicious childhood injury. The task of forensic evaluation of suspicious injury is to reach a conclusion to support legal proceedings. For each injury, one of four conclusions should be reached: 1 The injury has been caused by another person and is considered to have been inflicted. 2 The injury is adequately explained by the circumstances of the injury event provided (by the carer or other witnesses). 3 The injury is self-inflicted - has been caused by the child's own behaviour as a result of normal childhood activity (with no other person actively involved). 4 The mechanism or sequence of events leading to the injury remains indeterminate or unclear. An additional consideration is determining the extent to which an injury incident was foreseeable and therefore preventable, to form an opinion on whether lack of care (neglect) is involved. Opinions reflect a body of knowledge in forensic and medical literature of known mechanisms of injury including biomechanical aspects of tissue injury in trauma scenarios. Limitations in using research documenting injury type and prevalence at different developmental stages is discussed and in particular, the application of such research to support a conclusion that the injury must have been inflicted. Emerging recognition of research documenting injuries that overlap with those found in populations of children thought to have been physically assaulted creates some doubt on previous opinions regarding exclusivity of certain findings in children definitively indicating 'abuse'. Forensic paediatricians should remain objective, limit their opinions to what can be confidently stated and exercise caution where reasonable doubt exists and avoid speculation. PMID:20598073

Skellern, Catherine; Donald, Terence

2011-11-01

427

Advances in forensic toxicology for establishing causality between Great Lakes epizootics and specific persistent toxic chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Populations of fish, wildlife, and humans in the Great Lakes basin have been injured during this century by exposures to organochlorine pollutants such as PCBs and dioxin. The evidence presented by scientists working on these outbreaks of chemically induced disease has been received with skepticism among officials, who have expressed a desire for a proven cause and effect before further costly regulatory and remedial action is taken. Scientists have adapted epidemiological criteria to infer causal relationships between the injury and exposures to specific chemicals. These forensic statements are different from traditional toxicological statements about potential effects. There is a priority need to institutionalize this methodology within governments to complement established risk assessment techniques.

Gilbertson, M. [International Joint Commission, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

1997-09-01

428

Visible Proofs: Forensic Views of the Body  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It seems that the field of forensic medicine is everywhere, particularly in the arena of popular television programs and such. This field has a long and distinguished history, and this engaging story is told rather effectively by this online exhibit created by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. First-time visitors may want to begin by looking through the "Exhibition" area. Within its six subsections, visitors can learn about the emerging technologies of forensic surveillance in the late 19th century and also learn about recent innovations in the field. Along with accessible and lucid essays, visitors will be treated to a number of medical illustrations from the period. The "Galleries" section presents another treasure trove of material, including detailed examinations of famous early forensics cases. While most of the material on the site may be about as graphic as the average prime-time television program that deals with similar material, users should use discretion when allowing younger children look through the site.

2006-01-01

429

Extracting forensic evidence from biometric devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few years, both large multinationals and governments have begun to contribute to even larger projects on biometric devices. Terrorist attacks in America and in other countries have highlighted the need for better identification systems for people as well as improved systems for controlling access to buildings. Another reason for investment in Research and Development in Biometric Devices, is the massive growth in internet-based systems -- whether for e-commerce, e-government or internal processes within organizations. The interface between the system and the user is routinely abused, as people have to remember many complex passwords and handle tokens of various types. In this paper an overview is given of the information that is important to know before an examination of such is systems can be done in a forensic proper way. In forensic evidence with biometric devices the forensic examiner should consider the possibilities of tampering with the biometric systems or the possibilities of unauthorized access before drawing conclusions.

Geradts, Zeno J.; Ruifrok, Arnout C.

2003-08-01

430

Forensic evaluation of problematic Internet use.  

PubMed

Problematic Internet use appears to be a growing concern in many criminal and civil legal proceedings. Problems range from inappropriate personal use of the Internet in the workplace and excessive use of online games, pornography, and gambling, to cyberbullying among children and adolescents and numerous forms of criminal activity. Forensic psychiatric evaluations may help courts or other agencies to understand individual cases and to discern whether a psychiatric disability may be involved. Furthermore, the forensic psychiatrist may be asked to formulate a prognosis or to suggest which treatments may be helpful. Among the multiple underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that explain problematic Internet use are: addiction, compulsion, impulse-control problems, and mood disorders. There is no definitive or standard treatment protocol for evaluation or treatment of problematic Internet use per se. A comprehensive evaluation should address the underlying psychopathology or personal problems that prompt or contribute to the problematic Internet use. This article suggests approaches that may help forensic psychiatrists to conduct a thorough evaluation with reasonable treatment recommendations. Different formulations of the problem and a discussion of DSM-IV factors are offered to provide starting points for the evaluation and to help psychiatrists to understand how problematic Internet use may relate to Axis I disorders or other factors. PMID:19092069

Recupero, Patricia R

2008-01-01

431

Data mining in forensic image databases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic Image Databases appear in a wide variety. The oldest computer database is with fingerprints. Other examples of databases are shoeprints, handwriting, cartridge cases, toolmarks drugs tablets and faces. In these databases searches are conducted on shape, color and other forensic features. There exist a wide variety of methods for searching in images in these databases. The result will be a list of candidates that should be compared manually. The challenge in forensic science is to combine the information acquired. The combination of the shape of a partial shoe print with information on a cartridge case can result in stronger evidence. It is expected that searching in the combination of these databases with other databases (e.g. network traffic information) more crimes will be solved. Searching in image databases is still difficult, as we can see in databases of faces. Due to lighting conditions and altering of the face by aging, it is nearly impossible to find a right face from a database of one million faces in top position by a image searching method, without using other information. The methods for data mining in images in databases (e.g. MPEG-7 framework) are discussed, and the expectations of future developments are presented in this study.

Geradts, Zeno J.; Bijhold, Jurrien

2002-07-01

432

Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of nuclear terrorism; it also supports the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its investigative mission to prevent and respond to nuclear terrorism. Development of the capability involves two major elements: (1) the ability to collect evidence and make forensic measurements, and (2) the ability to interpret the forensic data. The Program leverages the existing capability throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory complex in a way that meets the requirements of the FBI and other government users. At the same time the capability is being developed, the Program also conducts investigations for a variety of sponsors using the current capability. The combination of operations and R&D in one program helps to ensure a strong linkage between the needs of the user community and the scientific development.

Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

2005-11-04

433

Forensic Science Methods Called Into Question by National Academies Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Study Calls for Oversight of Forensics in Crime Labs http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/19/us/19forensics.htmlCall For Forensics Overhaul Linked to 'CSI' Effecthttp://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=100831831Forensics under the microscopehttp://www.chicagotribune.com/news/specials/chi-forensics-specialpackage,0,4244313.specialStrengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forwardhttp://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12589#tocForensic Magazinehttp://www.forensicmag.com/DNA Forensics [Flash Player, pdf]http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtmlU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory [pdf, Flash Player]http://www.lab.fws.gov/The average person watching any number of procedural crime television shows might be forgiven if he or she believed that every piece of carpet fiber or DNA can lead to a "case closed" finale. In real life, forensic science isn't nearly as infallible as it appears on television, and that is something that has troubled many at the National Academy of Sciences. In a report released this Wednesday, the National Academy of Sciences research team found that in 2005 there was a backlog of 359,000 requests for forensic analysis and that 80 percent of all crime laboratories are understaffed. The report went on to call into question the scientific merit of practically every commonly used forensic method of analysis, including the analysis of ballistics, arson, hair, and fingerprints. The team of scholars who wrote the report also recommended that the United States should standardize forensic tests and assume responsibility for the certification of forensic experts. These findings have garnered attention from the general public, the law enforcement community, and elected officials such as Senator Patrick Leahy (D) of Vermont. In a recent interview with the New York Times, Leahy commented, "I am troubled by the report's general finding that far too many forensic disciplines lack the standards necessary to ensure their scientific reliability in court."The first link will take users to a New York Times article from this Wednesday, which talks a bit about this recent report. The second link leads to an audio piece from National Public Radio about the report and how it might transform forensic science. Moving on, the third link leads to a very fine set of investigative articles on forensic science from the Chicago Tribune. The fourth link will whisk users away to the full-text of the Academies' recent report on the state of forensic science. The fifth link leads to the homepage of Forensic Science magazine. Here, visitors can learn more about the field and read articles from current and past editions of the publication. The sixth link leads to a set of resources on DNA forensic analysis offered by the Human Genome Project. Finally, the last link leads to the homepage of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory, which is "the only lab in the world dedicated to crimes against wildlife."

Grinnell, Max

2009-02-20

434

Error rates in forensic DNA analysis: Definition, numbers, impact and communication.  

PubMed

Forensic DNA casework is currently regarded as one of the most important types of forensic evidence, and important decisions in intelligence and justice are based on it. However, errors occasionally occur and may have very serious consequences. In other domains, error rates have been defined and published. The forensic domain is lagging behind concerning this transparency for various reasons. In this paper we provide definitions and observed frequencies for different types of errors at the Human Biological Traces Department of the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) over the years 2008-2012. Furthermore, we assess their actual and potential impact and describe how the NFI deals with the communication of these numbers to the legal justice system. We conclude that the observed relative frequency of quality failures is comparable to studies from clinical laboratories and genetic testing centres. Furthermore, this frequency is constant over the five-year study period. The most common causes of failures related to the laboratory process were contamination and human error. Most human errors could be corrected, whereas gross contamination in crime samples often resulted in irreversible consequences. Hence this type of contamination is identified as the most significant source of error. Of the known contamination incidents, most were detected by the NFI quality control system before the report was issued to the authorities, and thus did not lead to flawed decisions like false convictions. However in a very limited number of cases crucial errors were detected after the report was issued, sometimes with severe consequences. Many of these errors were made in the post-analytical phase. The error rates reported in this paper are useful for quality improvement and benchmarking, and contribute to an open research culture that promotes public trust. However, they are irrelevant in the context of a particular case. Here case-specific probabilities of undetected errors are needed. These should be reported, separately from the match probability, when requested by the court or when there are internal or external indications for error. It should also be made clear that there are various other issues to consider, like DNA transfer. Forensic statistical models, in particular Bayesian networks, may be useful to take the various uncertainties into account and demonstrate their effects on the evidential value of the forensic DNA results. PMID:24905336

Kloosterman, Ate; Sjerps, Marjan; Quak, Astrid

2014-09-01

435

Health Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... a medical procedure. These are all types of health statistics. Health statistics are numbers about some aspect of health. Statistics about births, deaths, marriages, and divorces are sometimes ...

436

Bacterial Population Genetics in a Forensic Context  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the recent Department of Homeland Security (DHS) call for a Phase I study to (1) assess gaps in the forensically relevant knowledge about the population genetics of eight bacterial agents of concern, (2) formulate a technical roadmap to address those gaps, and (3) identify new bioinformatics tools that would be necessary to analyze and interpret population genetic data in a forensic context. The eight organisms that were studied are B. anthracis, Y. pestis, F. tularensis, Brucella spp., E. coli O157/H7, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, and C. botulinum. Our study focused on the use of bacterial population genetics by forensic investigators to test hypotheses about the possible provenance of an agent that was used in a crime or act of terrorism. Just as human population genetics underpins the calculations of match probabilities for human DNA evidence, bacterial population genetics determines the level of support that microbial DNA evidence provides for or against certain well-defined hypotheses about the origins of an infecting strain. Our key findings are: (1) Bacterial population genetics is critical for answering certain types of questions in a probabilistic manner, akin (but not identical) to 'match probabilities' in DNA forensics. (2) A basic theoretical framework for calculating likelihood ratios or posterior probabilities for forensic hypotheses based on microbial genetic comparisons has been formulated. This 'inference-on-networks' framework has deep but simple connections to the population genetics of mtDNA and Y-STRs in human DNA forensics. (3) The 'phylogeographic' approach to identifying microbial sources is not an adequate basis for understanding bacterial population genetics in a forensic context, and has limited utility, even for generating 'leads' with respect to strain origin. (4) A collection of genotyped isolates obtained opportunistically from international locations augmented by phylogenetic representations of relatedness will not and enzootic outbreaks noted through international outbreak surveillance systems, and 'representative' genetic sequences from each outbreak. (5) Interpretation of genetic comparisons between an attack strain and reference strains requires a model for the network structure of maintenance foci, enzootic outbreaks, and human outbreaks of that disease, coupled with estimates of mutational rate constants. Validation of the model requires a set of sequences from exemplary outbreaks and laboratory data on mutation rates during animal passage. The necessary number of isolates in each validation set is determined by disease transmission network theory, and is based on the 'network diameter' of the outbreak. (6) The 8 bacteria in this study can be classified into 4 categories based on the complexity of the transmission network structure of their natural maintenance foci and their outbreaks, both enzootic and zoonotic. (7) For B. anthracis, Y. pestis, E. coli O157, and Brucella melitensis, and their primary natural animal hosts, most of the fundamental parameters needed for modeling genetic change within natural host or human transmission networks have been determined or can be estimated from existing field and laboratory studies. (8) For Burkholderia mallei, plausible approaches to transmission network models exist, but much of the fundamental parameterization does not. In addition, a validated high-resolution typing system for characterizing genetic change within outbreaks or foci has not yet been demonstrated, although a candidate system exists. (9) For Francisella tularensis, the increased complexity of the transmission network and unresolved questions about maintenance and transmission suggest that it will be more complex and difficult to develop useful models based on currently available data. (10) For Burkholderia pseudomallei and Clostridium botulinum, the transmission and maintenance networks involve complex soil communities and metapopulations about which very little is known. It is not clear that these pathogens can be brought into the in

Velsko, S P

2009-11-02

437

Bayesian-Integrated Microbial Forensics?  

PubMed Central

In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax letters, researchers have been exploring ways to predict the production environment of unknown-source microorganisms. Culture medium, presence of agar, culturing temperature, and drying method are just some of the broad spectrum of characteristics an investigator might like to infer. The effects of many of these factors on microorganisms are not well understood, but the complex way in which microbes interact with their environments suggests that numerous analytical techniques measuring different properties will eventually be needed for complete characterization. In this work, we present a Bayesian statistical framework for integrating disparate analytical measurements. We illustrate its application to the problem of characterizing the culture medium of Bacillus spores using three different mass spectral techniques. The results of our study suggest that integrating data in this way significantly improves the accuracy and robustness of the analyses.

Jarman, Kristin H.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wunschel, David S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.

2008-01-01

438

Forensic evaluation of 11 non-standard STR loci in Bangladeshi population.  

PubMed

Allele frequencies and forensic efficiency parameters of 11 non-standard autosomal STR loci, D21S1437, D22S683, D8S1110, D10S2325, D12S1090, D17S1294, D3S1744, D14S608, D20S470, D18S536 and D13S765 were evaluated in a sample of 102 unrelated Bangladeshi individuals. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in any of the loci studied. Statistical parameters of forensic importance, the power of discrimination (PD), observed and expected heterozygosity (H), polymorphism information content (PIC), matching probability (MP), power of exclusion (PE) and typical paternity index (TPI) were calculated for the loci. The most informative locus among the 11 STR loci was D10S2325 (PD=0.958), while the least informative was D17S129 (PD=0.876). The combined PD (1-PM) and MP was calculated to be 0.9999999999997 and 2.23×10(-23), respectively. These parameters indicated the usefulness of the loci in forensic personal identification and parentage testing among Bangladeshi population. PMID:23043954

Akhteruzzaman, Sharif; Ferdous, Ahmad; Momtaz, Pilu; Sultana, Rebeka

2013-03-01

439

Wildlife molecular forensics: identification of the Sardinian mouflon using STR profiling and the Bayesian assignment test.  

PubMed

A forensic short tandem repeat (STR) typing test using a population database was developed to investigate an instance of poaching on the protected Sardinian mouflon. The case study involves a suspected poacher found in possession of a carcass, which he claimed was that of a sheep from his flock and had died accidentally. His claim was refuted by the molecular forensic analyses as DNA typing and the Bayesian assignment test revealed the carcass to be mouflon-derived; the genetic profile of the carcass matched also that of additional trace evidence collected by forestry officers at the scene of the kill. The matching evidence led to the poacher being charged with the illegal harvest of protected wildlife. Molecular techniques, in combination with a reference population database, and the appropriate statistical evaluation of genetic information, are fundamental to wildlife forensics. This approach allows DNA testing to be accepted in court as submissible evidence in the fight against poaching and other crimes involving wildlife. PMID:21371958

Lorenzini, Rita; Cabras, Pierangela; Fanelli, Rita; Carboni, Giuseppe L

2011-08-01

440

Caput succedaneum and facial petechiae--birth-associated injuries in healthy newborns under forensic aspects.  

PubMed

In cases of suspected neonaticide, the results of a forensic autopsy might be important for conviction or acquittal. But autopsy findings in dead newborns are often unspecific and can rarely provide corroborative evidence of inflicted injury, as they are known to occur during normal birth as well. In our study, we examined 59 vaginally delivered, healthy newborns within the first 30 min after birth to know more about the prevalence and possible correlations of a caput succedaneum and facial petechiae. Caput succedaneum occurred in 33.9%, facial petechiae in 20.3%. As for the occurrence of caput succedaneum, statistically significant differences could be shown for the duration of delivery and the mother's parity. These correlations could not be shown for the occurrence of facial petechiae. Within the scope of our study, we could demonstrate that neither caput succedaneum nor facial petechiae are rare findings in healthy newborns. In the forensic investigation of suspected neonaticide, their potential significance can only be ascertained together with further investigations of the circumstances of death and a thorough forensic pathological autopsy. PMID:22120972

Wisser, Matthias; Rothschild, Markus A; Schmolling, Jan C; Banaschak, Sibylle

2012-05-01

441

Adoption Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Role Our Leadership Newsroom Publications Statistics Contact Us Statistics All statistics correspond with the U.S. Government fiscal year, which ... and ends on September 30. For example, adoption statistics for FY2013 show the period from October 1, ...

442

Cancer Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... 1975-2010 Did You Know? Video Series Cancer Statistics Understanding Cancer Statistics Learn definitions of statistical terms, ... and software tools. Did You Know? Colorectal Cancer Statistics You will need Adobe Flash Player 8 or ...

443

Applications of supercritical fluid extraction and chromatography in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid technology is a rapidly expanding analytical technique. Here we give a brief insight into the background of supercritical fluid technology and how supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography work in analysis. The applications of these two techniques in forensic science are known to be important. The main area of forensic use of supercritical fluid technology is in

Charlotte Radcliffe; Kristie Maguire; Brian Lockwood

2000-01-01

444

Establishing standards for criminal forensic reports: an empirical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic psychologists and forensic psychiatrists (about 80% of whom were certified by a specialty board) were surveyed regarding their beliefs about the necessary and appropriate content for reports on competency to stand trial (CST) (N = 102) and criminal responsibility\\/not guilty by reason of insanity (CR) (N = 96). Report elements concerning the identification of the defendant and evaluation methods

R. Borum; Thomas Grisso

1996-01-01

445

Therapeutic alliance in forensic psychiatric hospitals: An empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first results of an application of empirical research methods of psychotherapy in forensic psychiatric hospitals in Germany. Data were collected in a study on therapeutic alliance conducted in four forensic facilities in Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg and Hesse in the summer of 1994, comprising 137 patients and their therapists. Quality of therapeutic alliance was rated by therapists and

Martin Krupinski; Claudia Schöchlin; Alfred Fischer; Norbert Nedopil

1997-01-01

446

Victims Deserve More: The Building of a Forensics Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because victims deserve more, The American Academy of Applied Forensics at Central Piedmont Community College was created to link cutting-edge forensics research to its field applications. It does this by enhancing the knowledge, skill, and ability levels of crime scene investigators, thereby increasing the likelihood that truth will be revealed…

Johnson, Lili K.

2007-01-01

447

Defining Digital Forensic Examination and Analysis Tools Using Abstraction Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the theory of abstraction layers to describe the purpose and goals of digital forensic analysis tools. Using abstraction layers, we identify where tools can introduce errors and provide requirements that the tools must follow. Categories of forensic analysis types are also defined based on the abstraction layers. Abstraction layers are not a new concept, but their usage

Brian Carrier

2002-01-01

448

An overview of digital security forensics approach and modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital Forensics has rapidly evolved over the last decade and continues to gain significance in both the law enforcement and the scientific community. It has now become an intrinsically interdisciplinary field, and research work has been established in various areas such as information & communication technologies, law, social sciences and business administration. This paper provides an overview of Digital Forensics

A. Hellany; H. Achi; M. Nagrial

2008-01-01

449

DDCFS: A Distributed Dynamic Computer Forensic System Based on Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing development of information technology, the computer crime problem is getting even serious. However traditional computer forensic that employs the static investigation after security events has inherent limitations. The authenticity, effectiveness and timeliness of the evidence are difficult to meet real needs. In order to solve the existing problems which static forensics technology has, this paper presents the

Liang Hu; Kuo Tang; Guangkun Shi; Nurbol; Kuo Zhao

2009-01-01

450

DNA Fingerprinting Using PCR: A Practical Forensic Science Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a forensic science simulation programme applicable for use in colleges. Students were asked to find a putative suspect by DNA fingerprinting using a simple protocol developed in this study. DNA samples were obtained from a hair root and a drop of blood, common sources of DNA in forensic science. The DNA fingerprinting protocol…

Choi, Hyun-Jung; Ahn, Jung Hoon; Ko, Minsu

2008-01-01

451

Partners in Crime: Integrating Forensic Science and Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensic science lends itself to many academic areas. Aside from the science itself, writing plays a major role in the investigation process as well as in the courtroom. It is paramount that students learn how to write proficiently when recording results or writing evaluations and reports, just as forensic scientists do. This can also be done…

Hein, Erik

2006-01-01

452

Plants & Perpetrators: Forensic Investigation in the Botany Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applying botanical knowledge to a simulated forensic investigation provides inquiry-based and problem-based learning in the botany classroom. This paper details one such forensic investigation in which students use what they have learned about plant morphology and anatomy to analyze evidence and solve a murder mystery. (Contains 1 table.)

Boyd, Amy E.

2006-01-01

453

Forensic Rhetoric: A Strategy for Cross-Cultural Conflict Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A foundation for human communication was laid down with the basics of classical rhetorical persuasion. A key element of this persuasive foundation was preserved through the teachings of Aristotle, particularly in his definitions and descriptions of forensic rhetoric. He argued that effective forensic rhetoric provides a positive persuasive model for resolving conflicts. This paper's purpose is to delineate the Aristotelian

William B. Chapel

454

Cross-Cultural Issues in Forensic Psychiatry Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Forensic psychiatry was officially recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties in the 1990's. In 1994, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) gave its first written examination to certify forensic psychiatrists. In 1996, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) began…

Layde, Joseph B.

2004-01-01

455

Developing an Innovative Baccalaureate Program in Computer Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the demand of the industry and the increasing concern in homeland security, a baccalaureate program in computer forensics has been developed and begun in fall 2005. This 124-credit multidisciplinary program consists of courses in criminal justice, law enforcement, political science, mathematics, computer science, and computer forensics. A year since its implementation, the program has shown its potentials and

Jigang Liu

2006-01-01

456

Innovative Forensic Assessment and Remediation Strategies for Polluted Aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the use of innovative techniques to evaluate and remediate polluted aquifer layers. While environmental forensic techniques offer valuable innovative tools for site characterization and evaluation, bioremediation approaches provide innovative remedial solutions applicable to a large variety of contaminants and environmental conditions. In this study, a literature review of the main forensic techniques has been performed and

Ioan Bica; Ion Nicolae Alboiu; Iulian Iancu; Alexandru Dimache; Mugur Stefanescu; Anca Voicu; Mihaela Lazaroaie; Doina Cirstea; Ion Onutu; Ioana Gloria Petrisor

2009-01-01

457

Criteria for Validation of Methods in Microbial Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for validation is essential in the development of methods that microbial forensics uses to generate reliable and defensible results. Law enforcement investigators need to re- spond quickly to the best leads to counter ever-increasing threats and will rely upon results generated from the analyses of any microbial forensic evidence to attempt to attribute any attack to a person(s)

Bruce Budowle; Steven E. Schutzer; Stephen A. Morse; Kenneth F. Martinez; Ranajit Chakraborty; Babetta L. Marrone; Sharon L. Messenger; Randall S. Murch; Paul J. Jackson; Phillip Williamson; Rockne Harmon; Stephan P. Velsko

2008-01-01

458

Microbial forensics—Taking diagnostic microbiology to the next level  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the diagnostic needs of medical practice and the epidemiologic needs of public health, microbial forensics for legal proceedings requires much more detailed characterization of microbial isolates and special processing procedures for producing legal evidence. Microbial forensic analyses for biocrimes and acts of bioterrorism ultimately are needed in court to answer the following questions: where did the specific

Ronald M Atlas

2004-01-01

459

Enhancing Computer Forensics Investigation through Visualisation and Data Exploitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on establishing the need for new architectures on which to build visualisation systems that enhance computer forensic investigation of digital evidence. The issues surrounding processing of large quantities of digital evidence are established. In addition, the current state of visualisation and data analysis techniques for computer forensics are highlighted. This paper suggests need for new visualisation techniques

Grant Osborne; Benjamin Turnbull

2009-01-01

460

Burnout and Secondary Trauma Among Forensic Interviewers of Abused Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined factors associated with burnout and secondary trauma among forensic interviewers of abused children. Sixty-six forensic interviewers who are affiliated with advocacy centers across the United States completed an online survey. The Oldenburg Burnout Inventory and Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale were used to measure burnout and secondary trauma, respectively. Results indicate that organizational satisfaction has a moderate inverse

Brian E. Perron; Barbara S. Hiltz

2006-01-01

461

Neglect of the elderly: forensic entomology cases and considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wounds of living persons are a potential target for the same flies that live, or feed early on corpses. This can lead to complications in estimation of PMI but also allows to determine additional information that might be valuable in a trial, or during the investigations [e.g., M. Benecke, R. Lessig, Child neglect and forensic entomology, Forensic Sci. Int. 120

Mark Benecke; Eberhard Josephi; Ralf Zweihoff

2004-01-01

462

Application of DNA-Based Methods in Forensic Entomology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A forensic entomological investigation can benefit from a variety of widely practiced molecular genotyping methods. The most commonly used is DNA-based specimen identification. Other applications include the identification of insect gut contents and the characterization of the population genetic structure of a forensically important insect species. The proper application of these procedures demands that the analyst be technically expert. However,

Jeffrey D. Wells; Jamie R. Stevens

2008-01-01

463

Activity of the forensic entomology department of the French Gendarmerie  

Microsoft Academic Search

The criminal research Institute of the French Gendarmerie deals with several disciplines which are part of forensic science. Forensic entomology is one of the last laboratories created in Rosny-Sous-Bois. As with all other departments of the Institute, its main mission is carrying out its expertise on behalf of justice. Another important mission is to educate on one hand the “scene

Emmanuel Gaudry; Jean-Bernard Myskowiak; Bernard Chauvet; Thierry Pasquerault; Fabrice Lefebvre; Yvan Malgorn

2001-01-01

464

Utility of cognitive malingering measures in a forensic psychiatric sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the motivations within forensic psychiatric evaluations for defendants to feign cognitive deficits (e.g., memory and concentration problems, low intelligence), there is virtually no research that has assessed the utility of cognitive malingering measures in forensic settings. Consequently, there are few guidelines to inform psychologists about the utility of these measures to detect malingering, the impact of psychiatric symptoms and

Debbie Green

2010-01-01

465

Curriculum and Course Materials for a Forensic DNA Biology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) requires accredited programs offer a "coherent curriculum" to ensure each student gains a "thorough grounding of the natural…sciences." Part of this curriculum includes completion of a minimum of 15 semester-hours forensic science coursework, nine of which…

Elkins, Kelly M.

2014-01-01

466

Professional and ethical challenges of forensic clinical psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the ethical and professional challenges encountered by two experienced forensic clinical psychologists in the course of their daily work. Five examples are chosen from a typical working week which illustrate and explain a particular professional dilemma and the forensic or organisational context The paper concludes that professional guidance from the British and Australian Psychological Societies and the

Kevin Howells

1996-01-01

467

A Term Project for a Course on Computer Forensics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The typical approach to creating an examination disk for exercises and projects in a course on computer forensics is for the instructor to populate a piece of media with evidence to be retrieved. While such an approach supports the simple use of forensic tools, in many cases the use of an instructor-developed examination disk avoids utilizing some…

Harrison, Warren

2006-01-01

468

Current and future directions of DNA in wildlife forensic science.  

PubMed

Wildlife forensic science may not have attained the profile of human identification, yet the scale of criminal activity related to wildlife is extensive by any measure. Service delivery in the arena of wildlife forensic science is often ad hoc, unco-ordinated and unregulated, yet many of those currently dedicated to wildlife conservation and the protection of endangered species are striving to ensure that the highest standards are met. The genetic markers and software used to evaluate data in wildlife forensic science are more varied than those in human forensic identification and are rarely standardised between species. The time and resources required to characterise and validate each genetic maker is considerable and in some cases prohibitive. Further, issues are regularly encountered in the construction of allelic databases and allelic ladders; essential in human identification studies, but also applicable to wildlife criminal investigations. Accreditation and certification are essential in human identification and are currently being strived for in the forensic wildlife community. Examples are provided as to how best practice can be demonstrated in all areas of wildlife crime analysis and ensure that this field of forensic science gains and maintains the respect it deserves. This review is aimed at those conducting human identification to illustrate how research concepts in wildlife forensic science can be used in the criminal justice system, as well as describing the real importance of this type of forensic analysis. PMID:24680123

Johnson, Rebecca N; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Linacre, Adrian

2014-05-01

469

The Empirical Limits of Forensic Mental Health Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a special issue of Law and Human Behavior, including five articles describing the limits of forensic mental health assessments of (a) risk of violence in female adolescents, (b) sexually violent predators, (c) dangerousness in capital murder cases, (d) child sexual abuse, and (e) PTSD litigants. Knowing the limits of forensic mental health assessment methods is essential in

Thomas Grisso; Gina M. Vincent

2005-01-01

470

Forensic Evidence Findings in Prepubertal Victims of Sexual Assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends forensic evidence collection when sexual abuse has occurred within 72 hours, or when there is bleeding or acute injury. It is not known whether these recommendations are appropriate for prepubertal children, because few data exist regarding the utility of forensic evidence collection in cases of child sexual as- sault. This study describes the

Cindy W. Christian; Jane M. Lavelle; Allan R. De Jong; John Loiselle; Lewis Brenner; Mark Joffe

2000-01-01

471

Analysis of forensic samples in Banco Nacional de Datos Genéticos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of forensic samples to evaluate the rate of success for molecular markers: autosomal STRs, Y chromosome, and mitochondrial DNA. Since 2006 to date a total of 390 forensic samples were analyzed: bones, teeth, hairs, swabs, stains and paraffin embedded tissue. Bones and teeth, were pulverized in a Freezer Mill, extracted by chloroform\\/phenol\\/isoamyl alcohol method, and then purified with Centricon

O. Santapa; S. Filippini; S. Valente; M. B. Rodriguez Cardozo

2009-01-01

472

Forensic applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry—A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key role of a forensic scientist is to assist in determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so, assist in the identification of the offender. Many people hold the belief that a particular item can be conclusively linked to a specific person, place or object. Unfortunately, this is often not achievable in forensic science. In performing their

Sarah Benson; Chris Lennard; Philip Maynard; Claude Roux

2006-01-01

473

CHEM1006 Introduction to forensic science (3 credits)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This course is designed as an elective course to provide a basic foundation in the field of forensic science for students with general science or equivalent background. Without having to be major in chemistry, the students are allowed to learn and experience the various methods used in investigating crimes. Contents This is a special topics course in applied forensic science.

K. H. Sze

2004-01-01

474

International Trends in Demand for Forensic Mental Health Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deinstitutionalization, changes in both criminal and civil law, and the use of the criminal justice system to manage problematic behavior by individuals with serious mental illnesses have affected the number of people entering forensic mental health systems. This review examines data revealing trends in demand for forensic services in Canada, the United States, and internationally. The number of beds and

Erika M. Jansman-Hart; Michael C. Seto; Anne G. Crocker; Tonia L. Nicholls; Gilles Côté

2011-01-01

475

The Ex-Director as a Forensics Administrator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When directors of forensics stop coaching and travelling with their teams, they often seek other roles to enable them to continue their affiliation with forensic activities. A closer look at five commonly held assumptions about the motivation of ex-directors shows that: (1) after active coaching ends, ex-directors do take on different roles in…

Littlefield, Robert S.

476

Facial approximation of 'Angel': Case specific methodological review.  

PubMed

A forensic facial approximation is typically undertaken to generate further leads to identity of the deceased, and over the past ten years there has been a considerable increase in the number of verified relationships concerning the skull and likely facial appearance. This paper describes the evidence and methods used to approximate the face and facial features of a young woman whose remains were found in the Belanglo State Forest (New South Wales, Australia) in August 2010. A review of methodologically analogous forensic facial approximations (i.e. involving some degree of manual manipulation to achieve the results), and published in international academic journals since 2000, indicates that it is common for methodological description to be minimal. Furthermore, what information is provided clearly shows a surprisingly enduring preference for applying 'legacy' skull-soft tissue relationships, despite most of these recommendations having been proven invalid. PMID:24582078

Hayes, Susan

2014-04-01

477

Violence and Personality in Forensic Patients: Is There a Forensic Patient-Specific Personality Profile?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerning the discussion about the connection of personality traits, personality disorders, and mental illness, this study focused on the personality profiles of male forensic patients, prison inmates, and young men without criminal reports. The main topic centered on group-specific personality profiles and identifying personality facets…

Stupperich, Alexandra; Ihm, Helga; Strack, Micha

2009-01-01

478

Instant Access in Forensics: Issues Created by the Internet and Electronic Information Systems in Forensic Competition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although technology has created endless benefits for society, these benefits are accompanied by increased responsibilities and dangers. On-line research and the internet have completely altered the surface of forensics. Advantages of using the internet are the access to a wealth of information, which could constitute an equalizer for smaller…

Scott, Shannon

479

FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY AND FORENSIC SCIENCE: A Proposed Agenda for the Next Decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of forensic psychology has matured as a discipline, having made considerable progress toward the goal of a close integration of foundational science with practice. Substantial challenges remain, however. This article first reviews the progress of the discipline over the past 3 decades by considering the recommendations made by previous commentators (Grisso, 1987; Otto & Heilbrun, 2002; Poythress, 1979)

Kirk Heilbrun; Stephanie Brooks

2010-01-01

480

The nucleic acid revolution continues - will forensic biology become forensic molecular biology?  

PubMed

Molecular biology has evolved far beyond that which could have been predicted at the time DNA identity testing was established. Indeed we should now perhaps be referring to "forensic molecular biology." Aside from DNA's established role in identifying the "who" in crime investigations, other developments in medical and developmental molecular biology are now ripe for application to forensic challenges. The impact of DNA methylation and other post-fertilization DNA modifications, plus the emerging role of small RNAs in the control of gene expression, is re-writing our understanding of human biology. It is apparent that these emerging technologies will expand forensic molecular biology to allow for inferences about "when" a crime took place and "what" took place. However, just as the introduction of DNA identity testing engendered many challenges, so the expansion of molecular biology into these domains will raise again the issues of scientific validity, interpretation, probative value, and infringement of personal liberties. This Commentary ponders some of these emerging issues, and presents some ideas on how they will affect the conduct of forensic molecular biology in the foreseeable future. PMID:24634675

Gunn, Peter; Walsh, Simon; Roux, Claude

2014-01-01

481

Time Use in Forensic Psychiatry: A Naturalistic Inquiry into Two Forensic Patients in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the time use for two Australian forensic patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and in custody for violent offenses across two institutional environments. During the course of the study, both participants were moved from a prison environment to a newly built secure mental health unit, and data was collected for both sites. The study was conducted as a

Marita O’Connell; Louise Farnworth; Emily C. Hanson

2010-01-01

482

Education and Training in Forensic Science: A Guide for Forensic Science Laboratories, Educational Institutions, and Students. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensic science provides scientific and foundational information for investigators and courts, and thus plays a crucial role in the criminal justice system. This guide was developed through the work of the Technical Working Group on Education and Training in Forensic Science (TWGED) to serve as a reference on best education and training practices…

US Department of Justice, 2004

2004-01-01

483

Peer-Reviewed Forensic Consultation: Safeguarding Expert Testimony and Protecting the Uninformed Court  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criticisms of the ethical and professional shortcomings of forensic consultation and expert testimony have long been the burden of forensic science. The very necessity of forensic science expertise—providing specialized knowledge to the courts where judges and juries lack such training—has enabled unscientific or Machiavellian expert testimony to contaminate or derail justice. Accountability is lacking within forensic science consultation and especially

Michael Welner; Theresa Mastellon; Jada J. Stewart; Briana Weinert; John M. B. Stratton

2012-01-01

484

A Comparison Study of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder with and without Forensic Involvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study describes and compares profiles of patients in the same specialized hospital program for patients with intellectual disability with and without forensic involvement. A retrospective chart review of 78 individuals (39 forensic and 39 non-forensic) served between 2006 and 2008 was completed. The forensic sample was more likely to…

Raina, P.; Lunsky, Y.

2010-01-01

485

Independent forensic autopsies in an armed conflict: investigation of the victims from Racak, Kosovo  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 1999, a team of Finnish forensic experts under the mandate of the European Union (EU forensic expert team, EU-FET) performed forensic investigations in a sovereign state, in Kosovo, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). The team served as a neutral participant in the forensic investigation of victims of an incident at Racak, which was receiving considerable international attention.

J. Rainio; K. Lalu; A. Penttilä

2001-01-01

486

Students' conceptions of evidence during a university introductory forensic science course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students' Conceptions of Science, Scientific Evidence, and Forensic Evidence during a University Introductory Forensic Science Course This study was designed to examine and understand what conceptions undergraduate students taking an introductory forensic science course had about scientific evidence. Because the relationships between the nature of science, the nature of evidence, and the nature of forensic evidence are not well understood

Theodore Elliot Yeshion

2006-01-01

487

Forensic Disaster Analysis in Near-real Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of extreme hydro-meteorological and geophysical events are controlled by various factors including severity of the event (intensity, duration, spatial extent), amplification with other phenomena (multihazard or cascading effects), interdependencies of technical systems and infrastructure, preparedness and resilience of the society. The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) has adopted the comprehensive understanding of disasters and develops methodologies of near real-time FDA as a complementing component of the FORIN program of IRDR. The new research strategy 'Near Real-Time Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA)' aims at scrutinizing disasters closely with a multi-disciplinary approach in order to assess the various aspects of disasters and to identify mechanisms most relevant for an extreme event to become a disaster (e.g., causal loss analysis). Recent technology developments - which have opened unprecedented opportunities for real-time hazard, vulnerability and loss assessment - are used for analyzing disasters and their impacts in combination with databases of historical events. The former covers modern empirical and analytical methods available in engineering and remote sensing for rapid impact assessments, rapid information extraction from crowd sourcing as well as rapid assessments of socio-economic impacts and economic losses. The event-driven science-based assessments of CEDIM are compiled based on interdisciplinary expertise and include the critical evaluation, assessment, validation, and quantification of an event. An important component of CEDIM's FDA is the near real-time approach which is expected to significantly speed up our understanding of natural disasters and be used to provide timely, relevant and valuable information to various user groups within their respective contexts. Currently, CEDIM has developed models and methodologies to assess different types of hazard. These approaches were applied to several disasters including, for example, Super Typhoon Haiyan/Yolanda (Nov. 2013), Central European Floods (June 2013), Hurricane Sandy (Oct. 2012), US Droughts (Summer 2012), or Typhoon Saola in Taiwan and Philippines (July 2012).

Kunz, Michael; Zschau, Jochen; Wenzel, Friedemann; Khazai, Bijan; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner

2014-05-01

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Mining Email Content for Author Identification Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an investigation into e-mail content mining\\u000a for author identification, or authorship attribution, for\\u000a the purpose of forensic investigation. We focus our\\u000a discussion on the ability to discriminate between authors\\u000a for the case of both aggregated e-mail topics as well as\\u000a across different email topics. An extended set of e-mail\\u000a document features including structural characteristics and\\u000a linguistic patterns were

Olivier Y. De Vel; Alison Anderson; Malcolm Corney; George M. Mohay

2001-01-01