Science.gov

Sample records for statistical forensic methodology

  1. Statistical Tools for Forensic Analysis of Toolmarks

    SciTech Connect

    David Baldwin; Max Morris; Stan Bajic; Zhigang Zhou; James Kreiser

    2004-04-22

    Recovery and comparison of toolmarks, footprint impressions, and fractured surfaces connected to a crime scene are of great importance in forensic science. The purpose of this project is to provide statistical tools for the validation of the proposition that particular manufacturing processes produce marks on the work-product (or tool) that are substantially different from tool to tool. The approach to validation involves the collection of digital images of toolmarks produced by various tool manufacturing methods on produced work-products and the development of statistical methods for data reduction and analysis of the images. The developed statistical methods provide a means to objectively calculate a ''degree of association'' between matches of similarly produced toolmarks. The basis for statistical method development relies on ''discriminating criteria'' that examiners use to identify features and spatial relationships in their analysis of forensic samples. The developed data reduction algorithms utilize the same rules used by examiners for classification and association of toolmarks.

  2. Statistical hypothesis testing and common misinterpretations: Should we abandon p-value in forensic science applications?

    PubMed

    Taroni, F; Biedermann, A; Bozza, S

    2016-02-01

    Many people regard the concept of hypothesis testing as fundamental to inferential statistics. Various schools of thought, in particular frequentist and Bayesian, have promoted radically different solutions for taking a decision about the plausibility of competing hypotheses. Comprehensive philosophical comparisons about their advantages and drawbacks are widely available and continue to span over large debates in the literature. More recently, controversial discussion was initiated by an editorial decision of a scientific journal [1] to refuse any paper submitted for publication containing null hypothesis testing procedures. Since the large majority of papers published in forensic journals propose the evaluation of statistical evidence based on the so called p-values, it is of interest to expose the discussion of this journal's decision within the forensic science community. This paper aims to provide forensic science researchers with a primer on the main concepts and their implications for making informed methodological choices. PMID:26743713

  3. Nuclear Forensic Inferences Using Iterative Multidimensional Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Robel, M; Kristo, M J; Heller, M A

    2009-06-09

    Nuclear forensics involves the analysis of interdicted nuclear material for specific material characteristics (referred to as 'signatures') that imply specific geographical locations, production processes, culprit intentions, etc. Predictive signatures rely on expert knowledge of physics, chemistry, and engineering to develop inferences from these material characteristics. Comparative signatures, on the other hand, rely on comparison of the material characteristics of the interdicted sample (the 'questioned sample' in FBI parlance) with those of a set of known samples. In the ideal case, the set of known samples would be a comprehensive nuclear forensics database, a database which does not currently exist. In fact, our ability to analyze interdicted samples and produce an extensive list of precise materials characteristics far exceeds our ability to interpret the results. Therefore, as we seek to develop the extensive databases necessary for nuclear forensics, we must also develop the methods necessary to produce the necessary inferences from comparison of our analytical results with these large, multidimensional sets of data. In the work reported here, we used a large, multidimensional dataset of results from quality control analyses of uranium ore concentrate (UOC, sometimes called 'yellowcake'). We have found that traditional multidimensional techniques, such as principal components analysis (PCA), are especially useful for understanding such datasets and drawing relevant conclusions. In particular, we have developed an iterative partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) procedure that has proven especially adept at identifying the production location of unknown UOC samples. By removing classes which fell far outside the initial decision boundary, and then rebuilding the PLS-DA model, we have consistently produced better and more definitive attributions than with a single pass classification approach. Performance of the iterative PLS-DA method

  4. Statistical Evaluation of Biometric Evidence in Forensic Automatic Speaker Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drygajlo, Andrzej

    Forensic speaker recognition is the process of determining if a specific individual (suspected speaker) is the source of a questioned voice recording (trace). This paper aims at presenting forensic automatic speaker recognition (FASR) methods that provide a coherent way of quantifying and presenting recorded voice as biometric evidence. In such methods, the biometric evidence consists of the quantified degree of similarity between speaker-dependent features extracted from the trace and speaker-dependent features extracted from recorded speech of a suspect. The interpretation of recorded voice as evidence in the forensic context presents particular challenges, including within-speaker (within-source) variability and between-speakers (between-sources) variability. Consequently, FASR methods must provide a statistical evaluation which gives the court an indication of the strength of the evidence given the estimated within-source and between-sources variabilities. This paper reports on the first ENFSI evaluation campaign through a fake case, organized by the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI), as an example, where an automatic method using the Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) and the Bayesian interpretation (BI) framework were implemented for the forensic speaker recognition task.

  5. Nuclear Forensics: A Methodology Applicable to Nuclear Security and to Non-Proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.; Lützenkirchen, K.; Galy, J.; Varga, Z.; Erdmann, N.; Buda, R.; Kratz, J.-V.; Trautmann, N.; Fifield, K.

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear Security aims at the prevention and detection of and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material. Nuclear Forensics is a key element of nuclear security. Nuclear Forensics is defined as a methodology that aims at re-establishing the history of nuclear material of unknown origin. It is based on indicators that arise from known relationships between material characteristics and process history. Thus, nuclear forensics analysis includes the characterization of the material and correlation with production history. To this end, we can make use of parameters such as the isotopic composition of the nuclear material and accompanying elements, chemical impurities, macroscopic appearance and microstructure of the material. In the present paper, we discuss the opportunities for attribution of nuclear material offered by nuclear forensics as well as its limitations. Particular attention will be given to the role of nuclear reactions. Such reactions include the radioactive decay of the nuclear material, but also reactions with neutrons. When uranium (of natural composition) is exposed to neutrons, plutonium is formed, as well as 236U. We will illustrate the methodology using the example of a piece of uranium metal that dates back to the German nuclear program in the 1940's. A combination of different analytical techniques and model calculations enables a nuclear forensics interpretation, thus correlating the material characteristics with the production history.

  6. Statistical methods for the forensic analysis of striated tool marks

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeksema, Amy Beth

    2013-01-01

    In forensics, fingerprints can be used to uniquely identify suspects in a crime. Similarly, a tool mark left at a crime scene can be used to identify the tool that was used. However, the current practice of identifying matching tool marks involves visual inspection of marks by forensic experts which can be a very subjective process. As a result, declared matches are often successfully challenged in court, so law enforcement agencies are particularly interested in encouraging research in more objective approaches. Our analysis is based on comparisons of profilometry data, essentially depth contours of a tool mark surface taken along a linear path. In current practice, for stronger support of a match or non-match, multiple marks are made in the lab under the same conditions by the suspect tool. We propose the use of a likelihood ratio test to analyze the difference between a sample of comparisons of lab tool marks to a field tool mark, against a sample of comparisons of two lab tool marks. Chumbley et al. (2010) point out that the angle of incidence between the tool and the marked surface can have a substantial impact on the tool mark and on the effectiveness of both manual and algorithmic matching procedures. To better address this problem, we describe how the analysis can be enhanced to model the effect of tool angle and allow for angle estimation for a tool mark left at a crime scene. With sufficient development, such methods may lead to more defensible forensic analyses.

  7. STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR EXPLORING ELEVATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN PRECIPITATION CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A statistical methodology for exploring the relationships between elevation and precipitation chemistry is outlined and illustrated. he methodology utilizes maximum likelihood estimates and likelihood ratio tests with contour ellipses of assumed bivariate lognormal distributions ...

  8. An innovative and shared methodology for event reconstruction using images in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Milliet, Quentin; Jendly, Manon; Delémont, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an innovative methodology for forensic science image analysis for event reconstruction. The methodology is based on experiences from real cases. It provides real added value to technical guidelines such as standard operating procedures (SOPs) and enriches the community of practices at stake in this field. This bottom-up solution outlines the many facets of analysis and the complexity of the decision-making process. Additionally, the methodology provides a backbone for articulating more detailed and technical procedures and SOPs. It emerged from a grounded theory approach; data from individual and collective interviews with eight Swiss and nine European forensic image analysis experts were collected and interpreted in a continuous, circular and reflexive manner. Throughout the process of conducting interviews and panel discussions, similarities and discrepancies were discussed in detail to provide a comprehensive picture of practices and points of view and to ultimately formalise shared know-how. Our contribution sheds light on the complexity of the choices, actions and interactions along the path of data collection and analysis, enhancing both the researchers' and participants' reflexivity. PMID:26241165

  9. Applying Statistical Process Quality Control Methodology to Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Carol Joyce

    A subset of Statistical Process Control (SPC) methodology known as Control Charting is introduced. SPC methodology is a collection of graphical and inferential statistics techniques used to study the progress of phenomena over time. The types of control charts covered are the null X (mean), R (Range), X (individual observations), MR (moving…

  10. New Statistical Methodology for Determining Cancer Clusters

    Cancer.gov

    The development of an innovative statistical technique that shows that women living in a broad stretch of the metropolitan northeastern United States, which includes Long Island, are slightly more likely to die from breast cancer than women in other parts of the Northeast.

  11. Improving the statistical methodology in astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Babu, G. J.

    The fields of astronomy and mathematical statistics were once intimately intertwined, later very distant, and now approaching each other with new needs and perspectives. Innovative approaches to astronomical data analysis problems are illustrated with parameter fitting in X-ray spectroscopy. Chi-squared minimization encounters several problems, and alternatives like nonparametric EDF tests, maximum likelihood estimation, finite mixture models and bootstrap resampling are suggested. Increased collaboration and consultation with statisticians is recommended for astronomical projects encountering difficult data analysis challenges.

  12. Using scan statistics for congenital anomalies surveillance: the EUROCAT methodology.

    PubMed

    Teljeur, Conor; Kelly, Alan; Loane, Maria; Densem, James; Dolk, Helen

    2015-11-01

    Scan statistics have been used extensively to identify temporal clusters of health events. We describe the temporal cluster detection methodology adopted by the EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) monitoring system. Since 2001, EUROCAT has implemented variable window width scan statistic for detecting unusual temporal aggregations of congenital anomaly cases. The scan windows are based on numbers of cases rather than being defined by time. The methodology is imbedded in the EUROCAT Central Database for annual application to centrally held registry data. The methodology was incrementally adapted to improve the utility and to address statistical issues. Simulation exercises were used to determine the power of the methodology to identify periods of raised risk (of 1-18 months). In order to operationalize the scan methodology, a number of adaptations were needed, including: estimating date of conception as unit of time; deciding the maximum length (in time) and recency of clusters of interest; reporting of multiple and overlapping significant clusters; replacing the Monte Carlo simulation with a lookup table to reduce computation time; and placing a threshold on underlying population change and estimating the false positive rate by simulation. Exploration of power found that raised risk periods lasting 1 month are unlikely to be detected except when the relative risk and case counts are high. The variable window width scan statistic is a useful tool for the surveillance of congenital anomalies. Numerous adaptations have improved the utility of the original methodology in the context of temporal cluster detection in congenital anomalies. PMID:26026722

  13. Developing Models of Communicative Competence: Conceptual, Statistical, and Methodological Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cziko, Gary A.

    The development of an empirically based model of communicative competence is discussed in terms of conceptual, statistical, and methodological considerations. A distinction is made between descriptive and working models of communicative competence. Working models attempt to show how components of communicative competence are interrelated…

  14. The uniqueness of the human dentition as forensic evidence: a systematic review on the technological methodology.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ademir; Willems, Guy; Souza, Paulo Henrique Couto; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Thevissen, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    The uniqueness of human dentition is routinely approached as identification evidence in forensic odontology. Specifically in bitemark and human identification cases, positive identifications are obtained under the hypothesis that two individuals do not have the same dental features. The present study compiles methodological information from articles on the uniqueness of human dentition to support investigations into the mentioned hypothesis. In April 2014, three electronic library databases (SciELO®, MEDLINE®/PubMed®, and LILACS®) were systematically searched. In parallel, reference lists of relevant studies were also screened. From the obtained articles (n = 1235), 13 full-text articles were considered eligible. They were examined according to the studied parameters: the sample size, the number of examined teeth, the registration technique for data collection, the methods for data analysis, and the study outcomes. Six combinations of studied data were detected: (1) dental shape, size, angulation, and position (n = 1); (2) dental shape, size, and angulation (n = 4); (3) dental shape and size (n = 5); (4) dental angulation and position (n = 2); (5) dental shape and angulation (n = 1); and (6) dental shape (n = 1). The sample size ranged between 10 and 1099 human dentitions. Ten articles examined the six anterior teeth, while three articles examined more teeth. Four articles exclusively addressed three-dimensional (3D) data registration, while six articles used two-dimensional (2D) imaging. In three articles, both imaging registrations were combined. Most articles (n = 9) explored the data using landmark placement. The other articles (n = 4) comprised digital comparison of superimposed dental contours. Although there were large methodological variations within the investigated articles, the uniqueness of human dentition remains unproved. PMID:25398633

  15. Statistical Methodologies to Integrate Experimental and Computational Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. A.; Johnson, R. T.; Montgomery, D. C.

    2008-01-01

    Development of advanced algorithms for simulating engine flow paths requires the integration of fundamental experiments with the validation of enhanced mathematical models. In this paper, we provide an overview of statistical methods to strategically and efficiently conduct experiments and computational model refinement. Moreover, the integration of experimental and computational research efforts is emphasized. With a statistical engineering perspective, scientific and engineering expertise is combined with statistical sciences to gain deeper insights into experimental phenomenon and code development performance; supporting the overall research objectives. The particular statistical methods discussed are design of experiments, response surface methodology, and uncertainty analysis and planning. Their application is illustrated with a coaxial free jet experiment and a turbulence model refinement investigation. Our goal is to provide an overview, focusing on concepts rather than practice, to demonstrate the benefits of using statistical methods in research and development, thereby encouraging their broader and more systematic application.

  16. Improving the Statistical Methodology of Astronomical Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, Gutti Jogesh

    Contemporary observational astronomers are generally unfamiliar with the extensive advances made in mathematical and applied statistics during the past several decades. Astronomical problems can often be addressed by methods developed in statistical fields such as spatial point processes, density estimation, Bayesian statistics, and sampling theory. The common problem of bivariate linear regression illustrates the need for sophisticated methods. Astronomical problems often require combinations of ordinary least-squares lines, double-weighted and errors-in-variables models, censored and truncated regressions, each with its own error analysis procedure. The recent conference Statistical Challenges in Modern Astronomy highlighted issues of mutual interest to statisticians and astronomers including clustering of point processes and time series analysis. We conclude with advice on how the astronomical community can advance its statistical methodology with improvements in education of astrophysicists, collaboration and consultation with professional statisticians, and acquisition of new software.

  17. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  18. Specifying digital forensics: A forensics policy approach

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Carol Louise; Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we present an approach to digital forensics specification based on forensic policy definition. Our methodology borrows from computer security policy specification, which has accumulated a significant body of research over the past 30 years. We first define the process of specifying forensics properties through a forensics policy and then present an example application of the process. This approach lends itself to formal policy specification and verification, which would allow for more clarity and less ambiguity in the specification process

  19. A Hierarchical Statistic Methodology for Advanced Memory System Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, X.-J.; He, D.; Cameron, K.W.; Luo, Y.

    1999-04-12

    Advances in technology have resulted in a widening of the gap between computing speed and memory access time. Data access time has become increasingly important for computer system design. Various hierarchical memory architectures have been developed. The performance of these advanced memory systems, however, varies with applications and problem sizes. How to reach an optimal cost/performance design eludes researchers still. In this study, the authors introduce an evaluation methodology for advanced memory systems. This methodology is based on statistical factorial analysis and performance scalability analysis. It is two fold: it first determines the impact of memory systems and application programs toward overall performance; it also identifies the bottleneck in a memory hierarchy and provides cost/performance comparisons via scalability analysis. Different memory systems can be compared in terms of mean performance or scalability over a range of codes and problem sizes. Experimental testing has been performed extensively on the Department of Energy's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) machines and benchmarks available at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to validate this newly proposed methodology. Experimental and analytical results show this methodology is simple and effective. It is a practical tool for memory system evaluation and design. Its extension to general architectural evaluation and parallel computer systems are possible and should be further explored.

  20. Statistical process control for hospitals: methodology, user education, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Matthes, Nikolas; Ogunbo, Samuel; Pennington, Gaither; Wood, Nell; Hart, Marilyn K; Hart, Robert F

    2007-01-01

    The health care industry is slowly embracing the use of statistical process control (SPC) to monitor and study causes of variation in health care processes. While the statistics and principles underlying the use of SPC are relatively straightforward, there is a need to be cognizant of the perils that await the user who is not well versed in the key concepts of SPC. This article introduces the theory behind SPC methodology, describes successful tactics for educating users, and discusses the challenges associated with encouraging adoption of SPC among health care professionals. To illustrate these benefits and challenges, this article references the National Hospital Quality Measures, presents critical elements of SPC curricula, and draws examples from hospitals that have successfully embedded SPC into their overall approach to performance assessment and improvement. PMID:17627215

  1. Statistical methodologies to pool across multiple intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Bhargava, Alok; O'Connor, Daniel P; Robinson, Thomas N; Michie, Susan; Murray, David M; Stevens, June; Belle, Steven H; Templin, Thomas N; Pratt, Charlotte A

    2016-06-01

    Combining and analyzing data from heterogeneous randomized controlled trials of complex multiple-component intervention studies, or discussing them in a systematic review, is not straightforward. The present article describes certain issues to be considered when combining data across studies, based on discussions in an NIH-sponsored workshop on pooling issues across studies in consortia (see Belle et al. in Psychol Aging, 18(3):396-405, 2003). Several statistical methodologies are described and their advantages and limitations are explored. Whether weighting the different studies data differently, or via employing random effects, one must recognize that different pooling methodologies may yield different results. Pooling can be used for comprehensive exploratory analyses of data from RCTs and should not be viewed as replacing the standard analysis plan for each study. Pooling may help to identify intervention components that may be more effective especially for subsets of participants with certain behavioral characteristics. Pooling, when supported by statistical tests, can allow exploratory investigation of potential hypotheses and for the design of future interventions. PMID:27356993

  2. Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2013-02-01

    The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversary's task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

  3. Genetic identification of horse mackerel and related species in seafood products by means of forensically informative nucleotide sequencing methodology.

    PubMed

    Lago, Fátima C; Herrero, Beatriz; Vieites, Juan M; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2011-03-23

    In the present study, a methodology based on the amplification of a fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome b and subsequent phylogenetic analysis (FINS: forensically informative nucleotide sequencing) to genetically identify horse mackerels have been developed. This methodology makes possible the identification of more than 20 species belonging to the families Carangidae, Mullidae, and Scombridae. The main novelty of this work lies in the longest number of different horse mackerel species included and in the applicability of the developed methods to all kinds of processed products that can be found by consumers in markets around the world, including those that have undergone intensive processes of transformation, as for instance canned foods. Finally, the methods were applied to 15 commercial samples, all of them canned products. Therefore, these methods are useful for checking the fulfillment of labeling regulations for horse mackerels and horse mackerel products, verifying the correct traceability in commercial trade, and fisheries control. PMID:21332203

  4. Dental Evidence in Forensic Identification – An Overview, Methodology and Present Status

    PubMed Central

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Garg, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Forensic odontology is primarily concerned with the use of teeth and oral structures for identification in a legal context. Various forensic odontology techniques help in the identification of the human remains in incidents such as terrorists’ attacks, airplane, train and road accidents, fires, mass murders, and natural disasters such as tsunamis, earth quakes and floods, etc. (Disaster Victim Identification-DVI). Dental structures are the hardest and well protected structures in the body. These structures resist decomposition and high temperatures and are among the last ones to disintegrate after death. The principal basis of the dental identification lies in the fact that no two oral cavities are alike and the teeth are unique to an individual. The dental evidence of the deceased recovered from the scene of crime/occurrence is compared with the ante-mortem records for identification. Dental features such as tooth morphology, variations in shape and size, restorations, pathologies, missing tooth, wear patterns, crowding of the teeth, colour and position of the tooth, rotations and other peculiar dental anomalies give every individual a unique identity. In absence of ante-mortem dental records for comparison, the teeth can help in the determination of age, sex, race/ethnicity, habits, occupations, etc. which can give further clues regarding the identity of the individuals. This piece of writing gives an overview of dental evidence, its use in forensic identification and its limitations. PMID:26312096

  5. Dental Evidence in Forensic Identification - An Overview, Methodology and Present Status.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Garg, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Forensic odontology is primarily concerned with the use of teeth and oral structures for identification in a legal context. Various forensic odontology techniques help in the identification of the human remains in incidents such as terrorists' attacks, airplane, train and road accidents, fires, mass murders, and natural disasters such as tsunamis, earth quakes and floods, etc. (Disaster Victim Identification-DVI). Dental structures are the hardest and well protected structures in the body. These structures resist decomposition and high temperatures and are among the last ones to disintegrate after death. The principal basis of the dental identification lies in the fact that no two oral cavities are alike and the teeth are unique to an individual. The dental evidence of the deceased recovered from the scene of crime/occurrence is compared with the ante-mortem records for identification. Dental features such as tooth morphology, variations in shape and size, restorations, pathologies, missing tooth, wear patterns, crowding of the teeth, colour and position of the tooth, rotations and other peculiar dental anomalies give every individual a unique identity. In absence of ante-mortem dental records for comparison, the teeth can help in the determination of age, sex, race/ethnicity, habits, occupations, etc. which can give further clues regarding the identity of the individuals. This piece of writing gives an overview of dental evidence, its use in forensic identification and its limitations. PMID:26312096

  6. A validation framework for microbial forensic methods based on statistical pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P

    2007-11-12

    This report discusses a general approach to validating microbial forensic methods that attempt to simultaneously distinguish among many hypotheses concerning the manufacture of a questioned biological agent sample. It focuses on the concrete example of determining growth medium from chemical or molecular properties of a bacterial agent to illustrate the concepts involved.

  7. Methodological and statistical considerations for exercise-related hormone evaluations.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, M S; Chu, S Y; Mureika, R

    1995-08-01

    Improvements in laboratory techniques have allowed research related to exercise endocrinology to flourish. The emerging literature, however, is often inconsistent and contradictory. The discrepancies in research findings are possibly the result of poor control of confounding variables and/or inappropriate methodologies or analyses. Environmental and pretesting behavioural conditions must be standardised to minimise the influence of variables not directly related to the investigation. Environmental temperature and relative humidity, alcohol, caffeine and nicotine intake, prandial state, sleep deprivation and previous exercise can each alter hormonal responses to exercise. Both prescription and over-the-counter medications can also modify normal hormonal secretions thereby confusing exercise-induced findings. Specimen collection and analysis procedures must be controlled carefully. Changes in plasma volume related to postural changes or tourniquet-induced stasis can confound attempts to isolate exercise-related endocrine responses. The established circadian and rhythmical variations characteristic of many hormones need to be controlled. The specimen selection (plasma, serum, urine, etc), collection, storage and analysis procedures should be carefully planned and evaluated. The magnitude of haemolysis, analytical and biological variation must also be monitored. Isolating the hormonal perturbations resulting from a particular exercise variable can be very difficult. Exercise intensity, duration, mode, frequency and volume may each have specific effects on the endocrine changes seen with exercise and training. Furthermore, hormonal responses to exercise are dependent upon initial training status and fitness level. The statistical procedures and data presentation options selected to convey experimental findings can bias experimental results. The descriptive and inferential statistics to be used for data analysis should be preplanned and consistent with the underlying

  8. Assessing the quantified impact of a hybrid POGIL methodology on student averages in a forensic science survey course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeks, Tyna L.

    A causal-comparative/quasi experimental study examined the effect of incorporating a hybrid teaching methodology that blended lecture with Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Lessons (POGILs) on the overall academic achievement of a diverse student body in a large lecture setting. Additional considerations included student gender, ethnicity, declared major (STEM or non-STEM), and SAT scores. An evaluation of the effect that these characteristics had on student achievement due to differentiating import placed on the use of POGILs as a learning tool was included. This study used data obtained from a longitudinal examination of eight years of student data from an introductory forensic science survey course offered in a R1 northeastern university. This study addressed the effectiveness of applying a proscribed active learning methodology, one proposed effective in collegiate education, to a new environment, forensic science. The methodology employed combined fourteen POGILs, created specifically for the chosen course, with didactic lecture during the entire semester of a forensic science survey course. This quasi-experimental design used the manipulation of the independent variable, the use of a hybrid lecture instead of exclusive use of traditional didactic lectures, on the students' academic achievement on exams given during the course. Participants in this study (N=1436) were undergraduate students enrolled in the single semester introductory science course. A longitudinal study that incorporated eight years of data was completed, 4 years pre-intervention (2007-2010) and 4 years post-intervention (2011-2014). The forensic science survey course, taught by only one professor during the eight-year period, was a science discipline that had yet to integrate an active learning educational model. Findings indicate four variables significantly contributed to explaining nearly 28% of the variation seen in the student class averages earned during the eight-year period: the

  9. Establishing forensic search methodologies and geophysical surveying for the detection of clandestine graves in coastal beach environments.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Jamie K; Holland, Claire; Szkornik, Katie; Harrison, Mark

    2012-06-10

    A 2010 UK police search for a clandestine burial highlighted the need for more information and quantitative data to aid coastal beach searches. This study aimed to address this by establishing relevant forensic search methodologies to aid the search for clandestine coastal burial sites, using the North West English coastline as a search area. A set of parameters were established, including criteria such as tidal range, proximity to vehicular access points and distance from inhabited areas, which may inform forensic searches by prioritising likely locations of clandestine burials. Three prioritised coastal locations were subsequently identified: (1) coastal dunes at Formby, (2) coastal dunes and (3) beach foreshore at Southport, all sites part of the Liverpool City Region in the United Kingdom. At all locations, simulated clandestine graves were hand-dug by spades into which a naked adult-sized, metal-jointed fiberglass mannequin was buried at 0.5 m below ground level. Trial geophysical surveys were then undertaken with the aim of identifying the optimal geophysical instrumentation and technique to deploy in such environments. GPR data showed 450 MHz frequency antennae to be optimal, with significantly poor data obtained from the foreshore area due to saline seawater. Electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility surveys were successful in coastal environments in target detection (albeit not in non-vegetated sand dunes), with resistivity fixed-offset configurations deemed optimal. The latter survey successes may be due to the recent disturbed 'grave' rather than the target, which itself is of interest in terms of identifying the most recent clandestine burials. PMID:22285503

  10. A statistical approach based on accumulated degree-days to predict decomposition-related processes in forensic studies.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Jean-Philippe; Moreau, Gaétan

    2011-01-01

    Using pig carcasses exposed over 3 years in rural fields during spring, summer, and fall, we studied the relationship between decomposition stages and degree-day accumulation (i) to verify the predictability of the decomposition stages used in forensic entomology to document carcass decomposition and (ii) to build a degree-day accumulation model applicable to various decomposition-related processes. Results indicate that the decomposition stages can be predicted with accuracy from temperature records and that a reliable degree-day index can be developed to study decomposition-related processes. The development of degree-day indices opens new doors for researchers and allows for the application of inferential tools unaffected by climatic variability, as well as for the inclusion of statistics in a science that is primarily descriptive and in need of validation methods in courtroom proceedings. PMID:21198596

  11. Establishing the robustness of short-tandem-repeat statistics for forensic applications.

    PubMed Central

    Evett, I. W.; Gill, P. D.; Scrange, J. K.; Weir, B. S.

    1996-01-01

    Before the introduction of a four-locus multiplex short-tandem-repeat (STR) system into casework, an extensive series of tests were carried out to determine robust procedures for assessing the evidential value of a match between crime and suspect samples. Twelve databases were analyzed from the three main ethnic groups encountered in casework in the United Kingdom: Caucasians, Afro-Caribbeans, and Asians from the Indian subcontinent. Independence tests resulted in a number of significant results, and the impact that these might have on forensic casework was investigated. It is demonstrated that previously published methods provide a simple procedure for correcting allele frequencies--and that this leads to conservative casework estimates of evidential value. PMID:8571967

  12. Methodological difficulties of conducting agroecological studies from a statistical perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Statistical methods for analysing agroecological data might not be able to help agroecologists to solve all of the current problems concerning crop and animal husbandry, but such methods could well help agroecologists to assess, tackle, and resolve several agroecological issues in a more reliable an...

  13. Methodological and Statistical Problems in Discerning Profile Reliability: Comment on Roffe and Bryant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.

    1979-01-01

    A variety of methodological and statistical problems in the Roffe and Bryant study of the McCarthy Scales' profile reliability are pointed out. Alternative procedures and more efficacious use of the Roffe and Bryant data are suggested. (Author)

  14. Statistical methodologies for the control of dynamic remapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltz, J. H.; Nicol, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Following an initial mapping of a problem onto a multiprocessor machine or computer network, system performance often deteriorates with time. In order to maintain high performance, it may be necessary to remap the problem. The decision to remap must take into account measurements of performance deterioration, the cost of remapping, and the estimated benefits achieved by remapping. We examine the tradeoff between the costs and the benefits of remapping two qualitatively different kinds of problems. One problem assumes that performance deteriorates gradually, the other assumes that performance deteriorates suddenly. We consider a variety of policies for governing when to remap. In order to evaluate these policies, statistical models of problem behaviors are developed. Simulation results are presented which compare simple policies with computationally expensive optimal decision policies; these results demonstrate that for each problem type, the proposed simple policies are effective and robust.

  15. Automatic brain tumor detection in MRI: methodology and statistical validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Islam, Mohammad A.; Shaik, Jahangheer; Parra, Carlos; Ogg, Robert

    2005-04-01

    Automated brain tumor segmentation and detection are immensely important in medical diagnostics because it provides information associated to anatomical structures as well as potential abnormal tissue necessary to delineate appropriate surgical planning. In this work, we propose a novel automated brain tumor segmentation technique based on multiresolution texture information that combines fractal Brownian motion (fBm) and wavelet multiresolution analysis. Our wavelet-fractal technique combines the excellent multiresolution localization property of wavelets to texture extraction of fractal. We prove the efficacy of our technique by successfully segmenting pediatric brain MR images (MRIs) from St. Jude Children"s Research Hospital. We use self-organizing map (SOM) as our clustering tool wherein we exploit both pixel intensity and multiresolution texture features to obtain segmented tumor. Our test results show that our technique successfully segments abnormal brain tissues in a set of T1 images. In the next step, we design a classifier using Feed-Forward (FF) neural network to statistically validate the presence of tumor in MRI using both the multiresolution texture and the pixel intensity features. We estimate the corresponding receiver operating curve (ROC) based on the findings of true positive fractions and false positive fractions estimated from our classifier at different threshold values. An ROC, which can be considered as a gold standard to prove the competence of a classifier, is obtained to ascertain the sensitivity and specificity of our classifier. We observe that at threshold 0.4 we achieve true positive value of 1.0 (100%) sacrificing only 0.16 (16%) false positive value for the set of 50 T1 MRI analyzed in this experiment.

  16. Exclusions and attributions of paternity: practical experiences of forensic genetics and statistics.

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, J

    1980-01-01

    The Swedish State Institute for Blood Group Serology is a central government laboratory handling all blood typing in paternity cases in Sweden, each year testing 1,500-2,000 cases using about 13 polymorphisms. Of the accused men, 35%-40% are nonfathers, but in one-man cases (about 78% of all cases), approximately 75% are the true fathers. Exclusions appear to be distributed as expected from allele frequencies, and the paternity probability of nonexcluded men is assessed with a Bayesian approach. Some cases are retested in extended investigations which raise theoretical exclusion capability from about 87% to about 99%. Both the results of extended investigations and the theoretical consideration of the distribution of paternity probabilities support the use of such positive statistical evidence for the attribution of paternity. PMID:6930157

  17. Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  18. Cocaine profiling for strategic intelligence, a cross-border project between France and Switzerland: part II. Validation of the statistical methodology for the profiling of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Lociciro, S; Esseiva, P; Hayoz, P; Dujourdy, L; Besacier, F; Margot, P

    2008-05-20

    Harmonisation and optimization of analytical and statistical methodologies were carried out between two forensic laboratories (Lausanne, Switzerland and Lyon, France) in order to provide drug intelligence for cross-border cocaine seizures. Part I dealt with the optimization of the analytical method and its robustness. This second part investigates statistical methodologies that will provide reliable comparison of cocaine seizures analysed on two different gas chromatographs interfaced with a flame ionisation detectors (GC-FIDs) in two distinct laboratories. Sixty-six statistical combinations (ten data pre-treatments followed by six different distance measurements and correlation coefficients) were applied. One pre-treatment (N+S: area of each peak is divided by its standard deviation calculated from the whole data set) followed by the Cosine or Pearson correlation coefficients were found to be the best statistical compromise for optimal discrimination of linked and non-linked samples. The centralisation of the analyses in one single laboratory is not a required condition anymore to compare samples seized in different countries. This allows collaboration, but also, jurisdictional control over data. PMID:18272309

  19. Forensics Investigator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Careers Career Profiles Forensics Investigator Overview Description Forensic science technicians investigate crimes by collecting and analyzing physical evidence. Often, they specialize in areas such as ...

  20. The Statistical point of view of Quality: the Lean Six Sigma methodology.

    PubMed

    Bertolaccini, Luca; Viti, Andrea; Terzi, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Six Sigma and Lean are two quality improvement methodologies. The Lean Six Sigma methodology is applicable to repetitive procedures. Therefore, the use of this methodology in the health-care arena has focused mainly on areas of business operations, throughput, and case management and has focused on efficiency outcomes. After the revision of methodology, the paper presents a brief clinical example of the use of Lean Six Sigma as a quality improvement method in the reduction of the complications during and after lobectomies. Using Lean Six Sigma methodology, the multidisciplinary teams could identify multiple modifiable points across the surgical process. These process improvements could be applied to different surgical specialties and could result in a measurement, from statistical point of view, of the surgical quality. PMID:25973253

  1. The Statistical point of view of Quality: the Lean Six Sigma methodology

    PubMed Central

    Viti, Andrea; Terzi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Six Sigma and Lean are two quality improvement methodologies. The Lean Six Sigma methodology is applicable to repetitive procedures. Therefore, the use of this methodology in the health-care arena has focused mainly on areas of business operations, throughput, and case management and has focused on efficiency outcomes. After the revision of methodology, the paper presents a brief clinical example of the use of Lean Six Sigma as a quality improvement method in the reduction of the complications during and after lobectomies. Using Lean Six Sigma methodology, the multidisciplinary teams could identify multiple modifiable points across the surgical process. These process improvements could be applied to different surgical specialties and could result in a measurement, from statistical point of view, of the surgical quality. PMID:25973253

  2. Embedding Forensic Capabilities into Networks: Addressing Inefficiencies in Digital Forensics Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deb A.

    2006-08-01

    A typical incident response pits technicians against networks that aren't prepared forensically. [1, 2] If practitioners do consider collecting network forensic data, they face a choice between expending extraordinary effort (time and money) collecting forensically sound data, or simply restoring the network as quickly as possible. In this context, the concept of organizational network forensic readiness has emerged. This paper proposes a methodology for "operationalizing" organizational network forensic readiness. The methodology, and the theoretical analysis that led to its development, are offered as a conceptual framework for thinking about more efficient, proactive approaches to digital forensics on networks.

  3. Fixed-bin analysis for statistical evaluation of continuous distributions of allelic data from VNTR loci, for use in forensic comparisons.

    PubMed Central

    Budowle, B; Giusti, A M; Waye, J S; Baechtel, F S; Fourney, R M; Adams, D E; Presley, L A; Deadman, H A; Monson, K L

    1991-01-01

    The detection of DNA polymorphisms by RFLP analysis is having a major impact on identity testing in forensic science. At present, this approach is the best effort a forensic scientist can make to exclude an individual who has been falsely associated with an evidentiary sample found at a crime scene. When an analysis fails to exclude a suspect as a potential contributor of an evidentiary sample, a means should be provided to assess suitable weight to the putative match. Most important, the statistical analysis should not place undue weight on a genetic profile derived from an unknown sample that is attributed to an accused individual. The method must allow for limitations in conventional agarose-submarine-gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting procedure, limited sample population data, possible subpopulation differences, and potential sampling error. A conservative statistical method was developed based on arbitrarily defined fixed bins. This approach permits classification of continuous allelic data, provides for a simple and portable data-base system, and is unlikely to underestimate the frequency of occurrence of a set of alleles. This will help ensure that undue weight is not placed on a sample attributed to an accused individual. Images Figure 2 PMID:1673286

  4. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, P. G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

  5. Study design, methodology and statistical analyses in the clinical development of sparfloxacin.

    PubMed

    Genevois, E; Lelouer, V; Vercken, J B; Caillon, R

    1996-05-01

    Many publications in the past 10 years have emphasised the difficulties of evaluating anti-infective drugs and the need for well-designed clinical trials in this therapeutic field. The clinical development of sparfloxacin in Europe, involving more than 4000 patients in ten countries, provided the opportunity to implement a methodology for evaluation and statistical analyses which would take into account actual requirements and past insufficiencies. This methodology focused on a rigorous and accurate patient classification for evaluability, subgroups of particular interest, efficacy assessment based on automation (algorithm) and individual case review by expert panel committees. In addition, the statistical analyses did not use significance testing but rather confidence intervals to determine whether sparfloxacin was therapeutically equivalent to the reference comparator antibacterial agents. PMID:8737126

  6. Forensic Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, William D; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques. PMID:26070716

  7. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  8. Forensic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  9. CPR methodology with new steady-state criterion and more accurate statistical treatment of channel bow

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, S.; Bieli, R.; Bergmann, U. C.

    2012-07-01

    An overview is given of existing CPR design criteria and the methods used in BWR reload analysis to evaluate the impact of channel bow on CPR margins. Potential weaknesses in today's methodologies are discussed. Westinghouse in collaboration with KKL and Axpo - operator and owner of the Leibstadt NPP - has developed an optimized CPR methodology based on a new criterion to protect against dryout during normal operation and with a more rigorous treatment of channel bow. The new steady-state criterion is expressed in terms of an upper limit of 0.01 for the dryout failure probability per year. This is considered a meaningful and appropriate criterion that can be directly related to the probabilistic criteria set-up for the analyses of Anticipated Operation Occurrences (AOOs) and accidents. In the Monte Carlo approach a statistical modeling of channel bow and an accurate evaluation of CPR response functions allow the associated CPR penalties to be included directly in the plant SLMCPR and OLMCPR in a best-estimate manner. In this way, the treatment of channel bow is equivalent to all other uncertainties affecting CPR. Emphasis is put on quantifying the statistical distribution of channel bow throughout the core using measurement data. The optimized CPR methodology has been implemented in the Westinghouse Monte Carlo code, McSLAP. The methodology improves the quality of dryout safety assessments by supplying more valuable information and better control of conservatisms in establishing operational limits for CPR. The methodology is demonstrated with application examples from the introduction at KKL. (authors)

  10. Statistical methodology for exploring elevational differences in precipitation chemistry. [Dependence on site and elevation

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, W.G.; Boehm, M.; Link, D.

    1992-01-01

    A statistical methodology for exploring the relationships between elevation and precipitation chemistry is outlined and illustrated. The methodology utilizes maximum likelihood estimates and likelihood ratio tests with contour ellipses of assumed bivariate lognormal distributions used to assist in interpretation. The approach was illustrated using 12 NADP/NTN sites located in six study areas in the Wyoming and Colorado Rockies. These sites are part of the Rocky Mountain Deposition Monitoring Project (RMDMP), which was initiated in 1986 to investigate the relationships between elevation and the chemistry of precipitation. The results indicate differences in sulfate concentrations between airsheds, between snow and rain, and between higher and lower elevations. In general, sulfate concentrations in snow are greater at lower elevations and this difference is independent of concentration. A similar relationship for rain was not well established. In addition there is evidence that, overall, the sulfate concentrations differed between the six study areas, although pairwise differences were not always significant.

  11. Causes of death among detainees: a statistical study on the casework of the Forensic Medicine Institute in Cluj-Napoca during the period 2000–2014

    PubMed Central

    GHERMAN, CRISTIAN; CHIROBAN, OVIDIU

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims The detainees’ right to healthcare is granted by laws, in accordance with EU directives and recommendations to which our country has consented. Prison population is a particularly vulnerable and marginalized group characterized by mortality rates different from the general population. This study aims at providing a picture of the causes of death, quality of healthcare and measures needed to reduce the number of in-prison deaths, including legal medicine expertise in view of sentence postponement/interruption. Methods The present paper is based on the statistical analysis of in-prison deaths casework recorded at the Forensic Medicine Institute of Cluj-Napoca and provided by territorially subordinated counties forensic services. The data collected cover over 15 years (2000–2014), a period long enough for significant retrospective statistical analysis. Results The total number of deaths among the inmates was 113, the majority of male sex (110). Distribution by age groups shows a greater incidence among inmates aged 50 to 59 years (32 cases, 28.31%), followed by those in their 40s’ (30 cases, 26.54%) and 30s’ (25 cases, 22.12%). The most frequent pathological causes of death were cardiovascular (53 cases) followed by tumors (26 cases) and infectious diseases. A significant number of deaths were due to violent causes (14 cases-12,38%). Conclusions Special problems are raised by the high number of deaths among prisoners, especially at a young age, while the high frequency of violent deaths from self- or non-self-inflicted traumatic causes requires supervision, monitoring and continuous analysis. Despite recent improvements, healthcare in prisons still poses some problems, mainly regarding diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases, neurosurgery and cancer. PMID:26609263

  12. New advances in methodology for statistical tests useful in geostatistical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Borgman, L.E.

    1988-05-01

    Methodology for statistical procedures to perform tests of hypothesis pertaining to various aspects of geostatistical investigations has been slow in developing. The correlated nature of the data precludes most classical tests and makes the design of new tests difficult. Recent studies have led to modifications of the classical t test which allow for the intercorrelation. In addition, results for certain nonparametric tests have been obtained. The conclusions of these studies provide a variety of new tools for the geostatistician in deciding questions on significant differences and magnitudes.

  13. Statistical evaluation of metal fill widths for emulated metal fill in parasitic extraction methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J-Me, Teh; Noh, Norlaili Mohd.; Aziz, Zalina Abdul

    2015-05-01

    In the chip industry today, the key goal of a chip development organization is to develop and market chips within a short time frame to gain foothold on market share. This paper proposes a design flow around the area of parasitic extraction to improve the design cycle time. The proposed design flow utilizes the usage of metal fill emulation as opposed to the current flow which performs metal fill insertion directly. By replacing metal fill structures with an emulation methodology in earlier iterations of the design flow, this is targeted to help reduce runtime in fill insertion stage. Statistical design of experiments methodology utilizing the randomized complete block design was used to select an appropriate emulated metal fill width to improve emulation accuracy. The experiment was conducted on test cases of different sizes, ranging from 1000 gates to 21000 gates. The metal width was varied from 1 x minimum metal width to 6 x minimum metal width. Two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least significant difference test were used to analyze the interconnect net capacitance values of the different test cases. This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis for the 45 nm process technology. The recommended emulated metal fill width was found to be 4 x the minimum metal width.

  14. Breast cancer statistics and prediction methodology: a systematic review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar; Gupta, Umesh; Jain, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a menacing cancer, primarily affecting women. Continuous research is going on for detecting breast cancer in the early stage as the possibility of cure in early stages is bright. There are two main objectives of this current study, first establish statistics for breast cancer and second to find methodologies which can be helpful in the early stage detection of the breast cancer based on previous studies. The breast cancer statistics for incidence and mortality of the UK, US, India and Egypt were considered for this study. The finding of this study proved that the overall mortality rates of the UK and US have been improved because of awareness, improved medical technology and screening, but in case of India and Egypt the condition is less positive because of lack of awareness. The methodological findings of this study suggest a combined framework based on data mining and evolutionary algorithms. It provides a strong bridge in improving the classification and detection accuracy of breast cancer data. PMID:26028079

  15. Weather Typing Statistical Downscaling with dsclim: Diagnostic methodology and configuration sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, C.; Albertus, G.

    2013-12-01

    The 8-km output of the statistical downscaling methodology dsclim has been used since a few years to perform impacts and adaptation studies in France. The dsclim method is resampling the Météo-France SAFRAN observation mesoscale analysis. Since then, the SAFRAN observation period has been extended from 1981-2005 to 1958-2012. At the same time, there are strong needs of cross-national impact studies, hence the required use of an European observation dataset in the methodology. In this context, a diagnostic package has been developed to properly evaluate the downscaling methodology and its performance: it enables to evaluate the sensitivity and the impacts of the changes in its configuration, taking also properly into account stochastic aspects. In this study we evaluated the impacts on the results with respect to the extension of the learning period from 1981-2005 to 1958-2012, as well as the comparison on the use of the EOBS dataset instead of SAFRAN, having the objective of running dsclim over a larger region within the EU FP7 SPECS project and the EU COST Action VALUE downscaling methods intercomparison. This study was funded by the EU project SPECS funded by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Research Programme under the grant agreement 243964.

  16. Computer-assisted systems for forensic pathology and forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Druid, H; Holmgren, P; Löwenhielm, P

    1996-09-01

    A computer software, RättsBASE (RB), was developed for all forensic pathology units in Sweden and introduced in 1992. Simultaneously, a corresponding software, ToxBASE (TB), was developed for the Department of Forensic Toxicology, where all forensic toxicology in Sweden is managed. Both of the databases were created using dBASE IV, and the programming was carried out according to specifications from the staff at the forensic toxicology and forensic pathology units. since the development or RB and TB was coordinated, the systems can run together smoothly. The purpose of both systems was to automate the offices and to enable compilation of detailed statistics. Installation of Novell Netware and ISDN-connections (Integrated Service Digital Network) has enabled rapid communication between the units and easy compilation of nationwide statistics of forensic pathology and forensic toxicology. the systems offer a wide spectrum of reports and include a simple module for evaluation of the importance of the forensic efforts for th whole death investigation. The configuration of the softwares has also enabled processing of a large amount of related toxicological and autopsy data that in turn has yielded a base for compilation of toxicology interpretation lists. This article includes a summary of the features of the software and a discussion of its benefits and limitations. PMID:15637819

  17. Demonstration of a software design and statistical analysis methodology with application to patient outcomes data sets

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Charles; Conners, Steve; Warren, Christopher; Miller, Robert; Court, Laurence; Popple, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With emergence of clinical outcomes databases as tools utilized routinely within institutions, comes need for software tools to support automated statistical analysis of these large data sets and intrainstitutional exchange from independent federated databases to support data pooling. In this paper, the authors present a design approach and analysis methodology that addresses both issues. Methods: A software application was constructed to automate analysis of patient outcomes data using a wide range of statistical metrics, by combining use of C#.Net and R code. The accuracy and speed of the code was evaluated using benchmark data sets. Results: The approach provides data needed to evaluate combinations of statistical measurements for ability to identify patterns of interest in the data. Through application of the tools to a benchmark data set for dose-response threshold and to SBRT lung data sets, an algorithm was developed that uses receiver operator characteristic curves to identify a threshold value and combines use of contingency tables, Fisher exact tests, Welch t-tests, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to filter the large data set to identify values demonstrating dose-response. Kullback-Leibler divergences were used to provide additional confirmation. Conclusions: The work demonstrates the viability of the design approach and the software tool for analysis of large data sets. PMID:24320426

  18. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  19. Methodological and Statistical Quality in Research Evaluating Nutritional Attitudes in Sports.

    PubMed

    Kouvelioti, Rozalia; Vagenas, George

    2015-12-01

    The assessment of dietary attitudes and behaviors provides information of interest to sports nutritionists. Although there has been little analysis of the quality of research undertaken in this field, there is evidence of a number of flaws and methodological concerns in some of the studies in the available literature. This review undertook a systematic assessment of the attributes of research assessing the nutritional knowledge and attitudes of athletes and coaches. Sixty questionnaire-based studies were identified by a search of official databases using specific key terms with subsequent analysis by certain inclusion-exclusion criteria. These studies were then analyzed using 33 research quality criteria related to the methods, questionnaires, and statistics used. We found that many studies did not provide information on critical issues such as research hypotheses (92%), the gaining of ethics approval (50%) or informed consent (35%), or acknowledgment of limitations in the implementation of studies or interpretation of data (72%). Many of the samples were nonprobabilistic (85%) and rather small (42%). Many questionnaires were of unknown origin (30%), validity (72%), and reliability (70%) and resulted in low (≤ 60%) response rates (38%). Pilot testing was not undertaken in 67% of the studies. Few studies dealt with sample size (2%), power (3%), assumptions (7%), confidence intervals (3%), or effect sizes (3%). Improving some of these problems and deficits may enhance future research in this field. PMID:26314085

  20. A statistical comparison of protein and carbohydrate characterisation methodology applied on sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Julie; Vedrenne, Fabien; Denis, Cécile; Mottet, Alexis; Déléris, Stephane; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Cacho Rivero, Jesús Andrés

    2013-04-01

    Biochemical characterization of organic matter is becoming of key importance in wastewater treatment. The main objectives are to predict organic matter properties, such as granulation or flocculation, and hence treatment performance. Although standardized methods do exist for some organic molecules, such as volatile fatty acids or lipids, there are no standard methods to measure proteins and carbohydrates content, both biochemical families being the main components of sewage sludge. Consequently, the aim of the present work is to investigate the efficiency of several colorimetric methods to determine proteins and carbohydrates content as well as their compatibility with the sludge matrices. The different methods have been evaluated based on statistical criteria such as sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, rightness, and specificity using standard molecules such as Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), glucose, cellulose and a certified reference product. The Lowry and the Dubois methods have been shown to be the best compromise for the considered criteria after having been tested on sewage sludge samples obtained from different locations in a wastewater treatment plant. In average, the measured volatile fatty acids, lipids, proteins and carbohydrates contents represented 80 ± 7% (% volatile solids) of the organic matter. Proteins and carbohydrates represented in average 69 ± 3%. This study underlined that the choice of a relevant methodology is of great importance for organic matter measurement. PMID:23357791

  1. Development of a simple and low-cost enzymatic methodology for quantitative analysis of carbamates in meat samples of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Bruno Duarte; Torraca, Tathiana Guilliod; Moura, Claudia Melo; Rozenbaum, Hannah Felicia; de Castro Faria, Mauro Velho

    2010-05-01

    Foods contaminated with a granulated material similar to Temik (a commercial pesticide formulation containing the carbamate insecticide aldicarb) are often involved in accidental ingestion, suicides, and homicides in Brazil. We developed a simple technique to detect aldicarb. This technique is based on the inhibition of a stable preparation of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, and it is specially adapted for forensic purposes. It comprises an initial extraction step with the solvent methylene chloride followed by a colorimetric acetylcholinesterase assay. We propose that results of testing contaminated forensic samples be expressed in aldicarb equivalents because, even though all other carbamates are also potent enzyme inhibitors, aldicarb is the contaminant most frequently found in forensic samples. This method is rapid (several samples can be run in a period of 2 h) and low cost. This method also proved to be precise and accurate, detecting concentrations as low as 40 microg/kg of aldicarb in meat samples. PMID:20345797

  2. Integration initiatives for forensic services

    PubMed Central

    ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

    2003-01-01

    Poorly implemented mental health reform policies are often given as reasons for the growth in demands for forensic psychiatric services and the steady increase of mental patients in prison systems. However, in this paper, additional reasons are advanced to explain the growth of forensic psychiatry, such as an expansion in the types of "psychiatric defences" in courts of law; public concerns about violent behaviour attributed to the mentally ill; the community management of paraphilias, especially pedophilia; the development of risk assessment methodologies and the halo of super-specialization. The net result of these developments is that patients who receive a label of "forensic" enter into a mental health ghetto with little connectivity or integration with the general mental health system. The forensic label increases the stigma and decreases opportunities for reintegration and full social recovery. The paper provides guidelines to reverse these trends. PMID:16946932

  3. Statistical analysis of biomechanical properties of the adult sagittal suture using a bending method in a Japanese forensic sample.

    PubMed

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Takano, Tachio; Koizumi, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Yajima, Daisuke; Inokuchi, Go; Makino, Yohsuke; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the mechanical properties of the adult sagittal suture compared with surrounding parietal bones using bending tests and investigated the association between the mechanical properties of the suture and age. We used the heads of 116 Japanese cadavers (76 male cadavers and 40 female cadavers) of known age and sex. A total of 1160 cranial samples, 10 from each skull, were collected. The samples were imaged using multidetector computed tomography, and the sample thickness at the center of each sample (ST) was measured. The failure stress of each sample (FS) was measured by a bending test, and the ratio of failure stress to the square of sample thickness (FS/ST(2)) was calculated. Statistical analyses revealed that the FS and FS/ST(2) values were significantly lower at all suture sites than at all bone sites regardless of sex. There were not significant but slight positive correlations between age and FS and FS/ST(2) values at any suture site in male samples. In female samples, age had significant positive correlations with FS and FS/ST(2) values at the middle suture sites, whereas there were not significant but slight positive correlations between age and FS and FS/ST(2) values at the edges of the suture. Statistical analyses also demonstrated that FS and FS/ST(2) values were significantly greater in male samples than in female samples at the middle suture sites. These findings suggest that the bending strength of the adult sagittal suture is significantly lower than that of surrounding parietal bones. Therefore, avoiding direct impact on cranial sutures may be important for preventing skull fractures and severe complications that can cause death. The results of this study also revealed that the bending strength of the middle sagittal suture significantly increases with age in only female samples, whereas the bending strength is significantly higher in male samples than in female samples at the middle suture sites, indicating the possibility of sex

  4. Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics.

    PubMed

    Ruffell, Alastair

    2010-10-10

    We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. PMID:20430544

  5. [Forensic entomology].

    PubMed

    Açikgöz, Halide Nihal

    2010-01-01

    Odour of the animal or human corpses immediately after death is very attractive for insects and other invertebrates. Blue and green bottle flies from the Calliphoridae family are the first colonizers of cadaver and immediately later necrophagous Diptera from the Sarcophagidae family settle on the same corpse. It is essential to determine the time past after death for elucidating the event in case of the homicide or suspicious death, and it is directly proportional to the post mortem interval expected time, which is based upon the speed of the larval growth. In this article, we purposed to stress the special interest of forensic entomology for the scientists who will apply this science in their forensic researches and case studies, and also to provide information to our judges, prosecutors and law enforcement agents in order to consider the entomological samples to be reliable and applicable evidences as biological stains and hairs. We are of the opinion that if any forensic entomologist is called to the crime scene or if the evidences are collected and then delivered to an entomologist, the forensic cases will be elucidated faster and more accurately. PMID:20954127

  6. Evaluation of Statistical Methodologies Used in U. S. Army Ordnance and Explosive Work

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrouchov, G

    2000-02-14

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center (Huntsville, AL) to evaluate the mathematical basis of existing software tools used to assist the Army with the characterization of sites potentially contaminated with unexploded ordnance (UXO). These software tools are collectively known as SiteStats/GridStats. The first purpose of the software is to guide sampling of underground anomalies to estimate a site's UXO density. The second purpose is to delineate areas of homogeneous UXO density that can be used in the formulation of response actions. It was found that SiteStats/GridStats does adequately guide the sampling so that the UXO density estimator for a sector is unbiased. However, the software's techniques for delineation of homogeneous areas perform less well than visual inspection, which is frequently used to override the software in the overall sectorization methodology. The main problems with the software lie in the criteria used to detect nonhomogeneity and those used to recommend the number of homogeneous subareas. SiteStats/GridStats is not a decision-making tool in the classical sense. Although it does provide information to decision makers, it does not require a decision based on that information. SiteStats/GridStats provides information that is supplemented by visual inspections, land-use plans, and risk estimates prior to making any decisions. Although the sector UXO density estimator is unbiased regardless of UXO density variation within a sector, its variability increases with increased sector density variation. For this reason, the current practice of visual inspection of individual sampled grid densities (as provided by Site-Stats/GridStats) is necessary to ensure approximate homogeneity, particularly at sites with medium to high UXO density. Together with Site-Stats/GridStats override capabilities, this provides a sufficient mechanism for homogeneous sectorization and thus yields representative UXO density

  7. Forensic detection of noise addition in digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Gang; Zhao, Yao; Ni, Rongrong; Ou, Bo; Wang, Yongbin

    2014-03-01

    We proposed a technique to detect the global addition of noise to a digital image. As an anti-forensics tool, noise addition is typically used to disguise the visual traces of image tampering or to remove the statistical artifacts left behind by other operations. As such, the blind detection of noise addition has become imperative as well as beneficial to authenticate the image content and recover the image processing history, which is the goal of general forensics techniques. Specifically, the special image blocks, including constant and strip ones, are used to construct the features for identifying noise addition manipulation. The influence of noising on blockwise pixel value distribution is formulated and analyzed formally. The methodology of detectability recognition followed by binary decision is proposed to ensure the applicability and reliability of noising detection. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed noising detector.

  8. Statistical Techniques Employed in "AERJ" and "JCP" Articles from 1998 to 1997: A Methodological Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Reese, Robert J.; Thompson, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the patterns of statistical usage and reporting in 756 articles published in the "American Educational Research Journal" (AERJ) and the "Journal of Counseling Psychology" (JCP) over 10 years. Evaluated the analytic practices used. Also discusses changes that may be necessary to improve statistics in behavioral research. (SLD)

  9. Forensic geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

  10. STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE TYPES OF OUTCOMES IN NONLINEAR THRESHOLD MODELS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple outcomes are often measured on each experimental unit in toxicology experiments. These multiple observations typically imply the existence of correlation between endpoints, and a statistical analysis that incorporates it may result in improved inference. When both disc...

  11. Statistics and methodology of multiple cell upset characterization under heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebrev, G. I.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Useinov, R. G.; Emeliyanov, V. V.; Ozerov, A. I.; Anashin, V. S.; Kozyukov, A. E.; Zemtsov, K. S.

    2015-03-01

    Mean and partial cross-section concepts and their connections to multiplicity and statistics of multiple cell upsets (MCUs) in highly-scaled digital memories are introduced and discussed. The important role of the experimental determination of the upset statistics is emphasized. It was found that MCU may lead to quasi-linear dependence of cross-sections on linear energy transfer (LET). A new form of function for interpolation of mean cross-section dependences on LET has been proposed.

  12. Investigating Moderator Hypotheses in Aging Research: Statistical, Methodological, and Conceptual Difficulties with Comparing Separate Regressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsom, Jason T.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Schulz, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F., III

    2003-01-01

    Many topics in aging research address questions about group differences in prediction. Such questions can be viewed in terms of interaction or moderator effects, and use of appropriate methods to test these hypotheses are necessary to arrive at accurate conclusions about age differences. This article discusses the conceptual, methodological, and…

  13. The Epistemology of Mathematical and Statistical Modeling: A Quiet Methodological Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2010-01-01

    A quiet methodological revolution, a modeling revolution, has occurred over the past several decades, almost without discussion. In contrast, the 20th century ended with contentious argument over the utility of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). The NHST controversy may have been at least partially irrelevant, because in certain ways the…

  14. A STATISTICAL MODELING METHODOLOGY FOR THE DETECTION, QUANTIFICATION, AND PREDICTION OF ECOLOGICAL THRESHOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study will provide a general methodology for integrating threshold information from multiple species ecological metrics, allow for prediction of changes of alternative stable states, and provide a risk assessment tool that can be applied to adaptive management. The integr...

  15. Five Methodology Errors in Educational Research: The Pantheon of Statistical Significance and Other Faux Pas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    After presenting a general linear model as a framework for discussion, this paper reviews five methodology errors that occur in educational research: (1) the use of stepwise methods; (2) the failure to consider in result interpretation the context specificity of analytic weights (e.g., regression beta weights, factor pattern coefficients,…

  16. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

  17. Forensic Neuropsychology: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Hom, Jim

    2003-12-01

    Forensic Neuropsychology is a new and rapidly evolving subspecialty of clinical neuropsychology that applies neuropsychological principles and practices to matters that pertain to legal decision-making. Forensic neuropsychologists provide the trier of fact with specialized information regarding brain-behavior relationships. The primary responsibility of the forensic neuropsychologist is to provide information based on scientifically-validated neuropsychological principles and clinical methodology that is pertinent to the Forensic Question at hand-which is not just whether the patient has dysfunction, but whether the dysfunction results from the event under consideration. To best answer the Forensic Question, the neuropsychologist must use a methodology that has been scientifically-validated on brain-impaired individuals, and can distinguish various brain conditions from each other as well as from normal variation. The methodology must be able to determine whether any dysfunction found is, in fact, the result of a neurological condition as opposed to non-neurological, psychological, or even factitious disorders. This paper discusses neuropsychological methodology in the context of forensic application and the requirements of the legal process and illustrates these issues with case examples. PMID:14609579

  18. An Interview with David Rindskopf: A Leading Voice on Teaching Statistics and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with David Rindskopf, a Distinguished Professor of Educational Psychology and Psychology at the City University of New York Graduate Center, where he has taught since 1979. His research and teaching are in the area of applied statistics, measurement, and research design. He is a fellow of the American Statistical…

  19. Bayesian Integrated Microbial Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, Kristin H.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wunschel, David S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2008-06-01

    In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax letters, researchers have been exploring ways to predict the production environment of unknown source microorganisms. Different mass spectral techniques are being developed to characterize components of a microbe’s culture medium including water, carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions added, and the presence of agar. Individually, each technique has the potential to identify one or two ingredients in a culture medium recipe. However, by integrating data from multiple mass spectral techniques, a more complete characterization is possible. We present a Bayesian statistical approach to integrated microbial forensics and illustrate its application on spores grown in different culture media.

  20. An evaluation of applied biomechanics as an adjunct to systematic specific causation in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael D; Kohles, Sean S

    2011-10-01

    Biomechanical tests of post hoc probability have been proposed by prior authors as reliable tests of causation in forensic settings. Biomechanical assessment of injury kinetics and kinematics is a potentially important tool in forensic medicine, but there is also the potential for misapplication. The most reliable application is when biomechanical analysis is used to explain injury mechanisms, such as how an injury may have occurred. When a biomechanical analysis is used as a means of determining whether, rather than how an injury has resulted from a traumatic exposure, then a lack of reliability of the methodology limits its application in forensic medicine. Herein, we describe a systematic assessment of causation by adapting established general causation principles to specific causation scenarios, and how biomechanical analysis of injury mechanics is properly used to augment such an approach in conjunction with the principles of forensic epidemiology. An example calculation of relative risk associated with cervical spine injury is provided as a representative probabilistic metric for assessing causation. The statistical benefits and limitations of biomechanical analysis are discussed as an adjunct to forensic medicine. PMID:21792525

  1. Canine DNA Profiling in Forensic Casework: The Tail Wagging the Dog.

    PubMed

    Berger, C; Berger, B; Parson, W

    2009-01-01

    The popularity of dogs as faithful human companions instigates forensically relevant issues on a regular basis. Domestic dogs take an active role as the causes of accidents and as perpetrators of attacks; even more frequently, dogs act as links between victims and suspects in crime cases due to the fact that dog owners/keepers live in an environment rich with canine material. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses of canine cells have been applied successfully in individual cases. However, a review of published casework amply demonstrates great interlaboratory variability not only in methodological but also in general terms. We screened the literature for application of canine DNA analysis in the forensic context and found 12 publications presented by 10 different laboratories. In almost no case did employed DNA markers widely overlap between these studies. Even worse is the situation with respect to allele nomenclature, where a plethora of variants has been reported by the different groups. Despite great technological achievements in the recent past, it seems that in forensic canine DNA analysis the cart was put before the horse. The canine forensic field faces the urgent need for general standardization and harmonization activities such as those that have taken place in the human forensic field in the past years. In particular, the nature and selection of DNA markers to be tested, the implementation of a generally compatible allele nomenclature, and a settlement on standardized statistical calculation methods adopted for the specific genetic peculiarities of dog populations need thorough consideration. PMID:26242237

  2. Manipulating measurement scales in medical statistical analysis and data mining: A review of methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Marateb, Hamid Reza; Mansourian, Marjan; Adibi, Peyman; Farina, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Background: selecting the correct statistical test and data mining method depends highly on the measurement scale of data, type of variables, and purpose of the analysis. Different measurement scales are studied in details and statistical comparison, modeling, and data mining methods are studied based upon using several medical examples. We have presented two ordinal–variables clustering examples, as more challenging variable in analysis, using Wisconsin Breast Cancer Data (WBCD). Ordinal-to-Interval scale conversion example: a breast cancer database of nine 10-level ordinal variables for 683 patients was analyzed by two ordinal-scale clustering methods. The performance of the clustering methods was assessed by comparison with the gold standard groups of malignant and benign cases that had been identified by clinical tests. Results: the sensitivity and accuracy of the two clustering methods were 98% and 96%, respectively. Their specificity was comparable. Conclusion: by using appropriate clustering algorithm based on the measurement scale of the variables in the study, high performance is granted. Moreover, descriptive and inferential statistics in addition to modeling approach must be selected based on the scale of the variables. PMID:24672565

  3. Statistical investigation of Kluyveromyces lactis cells permeabilization with ethanol by response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Janaína T.; Rocha, Pollyana F.; Converti, Attilio; Passos, Flávia M.L.; Minim, Luis A.; Sampaio, Fábio C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to select the optimal operating conditions to permeabilize Kluyveromyces lactis cells using ethanol as a solvent as an alternative to cell disruption and extraction. Cell permeabilization was carried out by a non-mechanical method consisting of chemical treatment with ethanol, and the results were expressed as β-galactosidase activity. Experiments were conducted under different conditions of ethanol concentration, treatment time and temperature according to a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), and the collected results were then worked out by response surface methodology (RSM). Cell permeabilization was improved by an increase in ethanol concentration and simultaneous decreases in the incubation temperature and treatment time. Such an approach allowed us to identify an optimal range of the independent variables within which the β-galactosidase activity was optimized. A maximum permeabilization of 2,816 mmol L−1 oNP min−1 g−1 was obtained by treating cells with 75.0% v/v of ethanol at 20.0 °C for 15.0 min. The proposed methodology resulted to be effective and suited for K. lactis cells permeabilization at a lab-scale and promises to be of possible interest for future applications mainly in the food industry. PMID:24688494

  4. Forensic entomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

  5. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

  6. Forensic Dental Age Estimation: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Lewis, James M; Senn, David R

    2015-06-01

    Forensic age estimation is a scientific process that estimates an individual's true chronologic age by assessing skeletal and dental development and maturation. Although human growth and maturation is unique to each individual, dental techniques for estimating age are currently considered the best in assessing true chronologic age particularly during the age range when the dentition is undergoing morphologic development. This article reviews the principles, methodology and commonly used techniques in forensic age estimation cases. PMID:26126347

  7. Application of statistical experimental methodology to optimize bioremediation of n-alkanes in aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain

    2010-12-15

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for removal of n-alkanes from crude oil contaminated seawater samples in batch reactors. Erlenmeyer flasks were used as bioreactors; each containing 250 mL dispersed crude oil contaminated seawater, indigenous acclimatized microorganism and different amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus based on central composite design (CCD). Samples were extracted and analyzed according to US-EPA protocols using a gas chromatograph. During 28 days of bioremediation, a maximum of 95% total aliphatic hydrocarbons removal was observed. The obtained Model F-value of 267.73 and probability F<0.0001 implied the model was significant. Numerical condition optimization via a quadratic model, predicted 98% n-alkanes removal for a 20-day laboratory bioremediation trial using nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of 13.62 and 1.39 mg/L, respectively. In actual experiments, 95% removal was observed under these conditions. PMID:20837377

  8. A Forensically Sound Adversary Model for Mobile Devices.

    PubMed

    Do, Quang; Martini, Ben; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an adversary model to facilitate forensic investigations of mobile devices (e.g. Android, iOS and Windows smartphones) that can be readily adapted to the latest mobile device technologies. This is essential given the ongoing and rapidly changing nature of mobile device technologies. An integral principle and significant constraint upon forensic practitioners is that of forensic soundness. Our adversary model specifically considers and integrates the constraints of forensic soundness on the adversary, in our case, a forensic practitioner. One construction of the adversary model is an evidence collection and analysis methodology for Android devices. Using the methodology with six popular cloud apps, we were successful in extracting various information of forensic interest in both the external and internal storage of the mobile device. PMID:26393812

  9. A Forensically Sound Adversary Model for Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an adversary model to facilitate forensic investigations of mobile devices (e.g. Android, iOS and Windows smartphones) that can be readily adapted to the latest mobile device technologies. This is essential given the ongoing and rapidly changing nature of mobile device technologies. An integral principle and significant constraint upon forensic practitioners is that of forensic soundness. Our adversary model specifically considers and integrates the constraints of forensic soundness on the adversary, in our case, a forensic practitioner. One construction of the adversary model is an evidence collection and analysis methodology for Android devices. Using the methodology with six popular cloud apps, we were successful in extracting various information of forensic interest in both the external and internal storage of the mobile device. PMID:26393812

  10. Development and application of a statistical methodology to evaluate the predictive accuracy of building energy baseline models

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Price, Phillip N.

    2014-03-01

    This paper documents the development and application of a general statistical methodology to assess the accuracy of baseline energy models, focusing on its application to Measurement and Verification (M&V) of whole-­building energy savings. The methodology complements the principles addressed in resources such as ASHRAE Guideline 14 and the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol. It requires fitting a baseline model to data from a ``training period’’ and using the model to predict total electricity consumption during a subsequent ``prediction period.’’ We illustrate the methodology by evaluating five baseline models using data from 29 buildings. The training period and prediction period were varied, and model predictions of daily, weekly, and monthly energy consumption were compared to meter data to determine model accuracy. Several metrics were used to characterize the accuracy of the predictions, and in some cases the best-­performing model as judged by one metric was not the best performer when judged by another metric.

  11. ViSEN: methodology and software for visualization of statistical epistasis networks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ting; Chen, Yuanzhu; Kiralis, Jeff W; Moore, Jason H

    2013-04-01

    The nonlinear interaction effect among multiple genetic factors, i.e. epistasis, has been recognized as a key component in understanding the underlying genetic basis of complex human diseases and phenotypic traits. Due to the statistical and computational complexity, most epistasis studies are limited to interactions with an order of two. We developed ViSEN to analyze and visualize epistatic interactions of both two-way and three-way. ViSEN not only identifies strong interactions among pairs or trios of genetic attributes, but also provides a global interaction map that shows neighborhood and clustering structures. This visualized information could be very helpful to infer the underlying genetic architecture of complex diseases and to generate plausible hypotheses for further biological validations. ViSEN is implemented in Java and freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/visen/. PMID:23468157

  12. Statistics

    Cancer.gov

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  13. Forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2010-01-01

    Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations, in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine, in road and workplace safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly targeted include amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine and the opiates, but can be any other illicit substance or almost any over-the-counter or prescribed drug, as well as poisons available to the community. The discipline requires high level skills in analytical techniques with a solid knowledge of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Modern techniques rely heavily on immunoassay screening analyses and mass spectrometry (MS) for confirmatory analyses using either high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography as the separation technique. Tandem MS has become more and more popular compared to single-stage MS. It is essential that analytical systems are fully validated and fit for the purpose and the assay batches are monitored with quality controls. External proficiency programs monitor both the assay and the personnel performing the work. For a laboratory to perform optimally, it is vital that the circumstances and context of the case are known and the laboratory understands the limitations of the analytical systems used, including drug stability. Drugs and poisons can change concentration postmortem due to poor or unequal quality of blood and other specimens, anaerobic metabolism and redistribution. The latter provides the largest handicap in the interpretation of postmortem results. PMID:20358697

  14. Reporting of planned statistical methods in published surgical randomised trial protocols: a protocol for a methodological systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Kim; Arseneau, Erika; Evaniew, Nathan; Smith, Christopher S; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor reporting can lead to inadequate presentation of data, confusion regarding research methodology used, selective reporting of results, and other misinformation regarding health research. One of the most recent attempts to improve quality of reporting comes from the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) Group, which makes recommendations for the reporting of protocols. In this report, we present a protocol for a systematic review of published surgical randomised controlled trial (RCT) protocols, with the purpose of assessing the reporting quality and completeness of the statistical aspects. Methods We will include all published protocols of randomised trials that investigate surgical interventions. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL for relevant studies. Author pairs will independently review all titles, abstracts, and full texts identified by the literature search, and extract data using a structured data extraction form. We will extract the following: year of publication, country, sample size, description of study population, description of intervention and control, primary outcome, important methodological qualities, and quality of reporting of planned statistical methods based on the SPIRIT guidelines. Ethics and dissemination The results of this review will demonstrate the quality of statistical reporting of published surgical RCT protocols. This knowledge will inform recommendations to surgeons, researchers, journal editors and peer reviewers, and other knowledge users that focus on common deficiencies in reporting and how to rectify them. Ethics approval for this study is not required. We will disseminate the results of this review in peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations, and at a doctoral independent study of oral defence. PMID:27259528

  15. Doctoral Training in Statistics, Measurement, and Methodology in Psychology: Replication and Extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) Survey of PhD Programs in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2008-01-01

    In a survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada, the authors documented the quantitative methodology curriculum (statistics, measurement, and research design) to examine the extent to which innovations in quantitative methodology have diffused into the training of PhDs in psychology. In all, 201 psychology PhD…

  16. Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheon, I. D.; Grant, P. M.; Moody, K. J.

    A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special nuclear materials and with a description of several actual case studies conducted at Livermore.

  17. Methodologic and statistical approaches to studying human fertility and environmental exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Tingen, Candace; Stanford, Joseph B; Dunson, David B

    2004-01-01

    Although there has been growing concern about the effects of environmental exposures on human fertility, standard epidemiologic study designs may not collect sufficient data to identify subtle effects while properly adjusting for confounding. In particular, results from conventional time to pregnancy studies can be driven by the many sources of bias inherent in these studies. By prospectively collecting detailed records of menstrual bleeding, occurrences of intercourse, and a marker of ovulation day in each menstrual cycle, precise information on exposure effects can be obtained, adjusting for many of the primary sources of bias. This article provides an overview of the different types of study designs, focusing on the data required, the practical advantages and disadvantages of each design, and the statistical methods required to take full advantage of the available data. We conclude that detailed prospective studies allowing inferences on day-specific probabilities of conception should be considered as the gold standard for studying the effects of environmental exposures on fertility. PMID:14698936

  18. Identification of variables and value optimization for optimum lipase production by Bacillus pumilus RK31 using statistical methodology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Mahajan, Shivani; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Deepak

    2011-01-31

    In an effort to optimize the medium components, the statistical methodology was applied to achieve the optimum lipase production under shake flask conditions. The study was conducted in three steps on newly isolated Bacillus pumilus RK 31. In the first step, 12 different variables viz., Glucose, Olive oil, Yeast extract, Peptone, Tween 80, KH(2)PO(4), MgSO(4), NaNO(3), CaCl(2), Temperature, pH and Inoculum size were used to identify the most significant variables affecting lipase production using Plackett-Burman statistical design. Variance analysis showed that Olive oil, Tween 80 and KH(2)PO(4) played significant role in lipase production. In the second step, the values of the above-identified three variables were optimized by central composite design using three-level-three-factor approach. The optimum values of Olive oil, Tween 80 and KH(2)PO(4) were found to be 10.0ml/l, 5.0ml/l and 8.0g/l, respectively. KH(2)PO(4) was found to be responsible for maximum lipase production of 5.59IU/ml, experimental and 5.03IU/ml, predicted. In the third step, the optimum predicted values of the three factors and lipase production were verified by experimental approach. The amount of lipase produced in the designated medium was in agreement with that of predicted values by statistical method. PMID:20601261

  19. Forecasting methodologies for Ganoderma spore concentration using combined statistical approaches and model evaluations.

    PubMed

    Sadyś, Magdalena; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Kennedy, Roy

    2016-04-01

    High concentration levels of Ganoderma spp. spores were observed in Worcester, UK, during 2006-2010. These basidiospores are known to cause sensitization due to the allergen content and their small dimensions. This enables them to penetrate the lower part of the respiratory tract in humans. Establishment of a link between occurring symptoms of sensitization to Ganoderma spp. and other basidiospores is challenging due to lack of information regarding spore concentration in the air. Hence, aerobiological monitoring should be conducted, and if possible extended with the construction of forecast models. Daily mean concentration of allergenic Ganoderma spp. spores in the atmosphere of Worcester was measured using 7-day volumetric spore sampler through five consecutive years. The relationships between the presence of spores in the air and the weather parameters were examined. Forecast models were constructed for Ganoderma spp. spores using advanced statistical techniques, i.e. multivariate regression trees and artificial neural networks. Dew point temperature along with maximum temperature was the most important factor influencing the presence of spores in the air of Worcester. Based on these two major factors and several others of lesser importance, thresholds for certain levels of fungal spore concentration, i.e. low (0-49 s m(-3)), moderate (50-99 s m(-3)), high (100-149 s m(-3)) and very high (150 < n s m(-3)), could be designated. Despite some deviation in results obtained by artificial neural networks, authors have achieved a forecasting model, which was accurate (correlation between observed and predicted values varied from r s = 0.57 to r s = 0.68). PMID:26266481

  20. Forecasting methodologies for Ganoderma spore concentration using combined statistical approaches and model evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadyś, Magdalena; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Kennedy, Roy

    2016-04-01

    High concentration levels of Ganoderma spp. spores were observed in Worcester, UK, during 2006-2010. These basidiospores are known to cause sensitization due to the allergen content and their small dimensions. This enables them to penetrate the lower part of the respiratory tract in humans. Establishment of a link between occurring symptoms of sensitization to Ganoderma spp. and other basidiospores is challenging due to lack of information regarding spore concentration in the air. Hence, aerobiological monitoring should be conducted, and if possible extended with the construction of forecast models. Daily mean concentration of allergenic Ganoderma spp. spores in the atmosphere of Worcester was measured using 7-day volumetric spore sampler through five consecutive years. The relationships between the presence of spores in the air and the weather parameters were examined. Forecast models were constructed for Ganoderma spp. spores using advanced statistical techniques, i.e. multivariate regression trees and artificial neural networks. Dew point temperature along with maximum temperature was the most important factor influencing the presence of spores in the air of Worcester. Based on these two major factors and several others of lesser importance, thresholds for certain levels of fungal spore concentration, i.e. low (0-49 s m-3), moderate (50-99 s m-3), high (100-149 s m-3) and very high (150 < n s m-3), could be designated. Despite some deviation in results obtained by artificial neural networks, authors have achieved a forecasting model, which was accurate (correlation between observed and predicted values varied from r s = 0.57 to r s = 0.68).

  1. Forensic identification of blood in the presence of contaminations using Raman microspectroscopy coupled with advanced statistics: effect of sand, dust, and soil.

    PubMed

    Sikirzhytskaya, Aliaksandra; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; McLaughlin, Gregory; Lednev, Igor K

    2013-09-01

    Body fluid traces recovered at crime scenes are among the most common and important types of forensic evidence. However, the ability to characterize a biological stain at a crime scene nondestructively has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we expand the Raman spectroscopic approach for the identification of dry traces of pure body fluids to address the problem of heterogeneous contamination, which can impair the performance of conventional methods. The concept of multidimensional Raman signatures was utilized for the identification of blood in dry traces contaminated with sand, dust, and soil. Multiple Raman spectra were acquired from the samples via automatic scanning, and the contribution of blood was evaluated through the fitting quality using spectroscopic signature components. The spatial mapping technique allowed for detection of "hot spots" dominated by blood contribution. The proposed method has great potential for blood identification in highly contaminated samples. PMID:23898809

  2. STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING TRANSPORT PARAMETERS: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS TO ONE-DOMENSIONAL ADVECTIVE-DISPERSIVE SYSTEMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Brian J.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation nonlinear multiple-regression methodology for estimating parameters that characterize the transport of contaminants is developed and demonstrated. Finite difference containment transport simulation is combined with a nonlinear weighted least squares multiple-regression procedure. The technique provides optimal parameter estimates and gives statistics for assessing the reliability of these estimates under certain general assumptions about the distributions of the random measurement errors. Monte Carlo analysis is used to estimate parameter reliability for a hypothetical homogeneous soil column for which concentration data contain large random measurement errors. The value of data collected spatially versus data collected temporally was investigated for estimation of velocity, dispersion coefficient, effective porosity, first-order decay rate, and zero-order production. The use of spatial data gave estimates that were 2-3 times more reliable than estimates based on temporal data for all parameters except velocity. (Estimated author abstract) Refs.

  3. Integrating Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  4. Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Murch, Randall; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2005-11-01

    Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics--microbial forensics--has been created, which is focused on characterization of evidence from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, hoax, or an inadvertent release. Forensic microbiological investigations are essentially the same as any other forensic investigation regarding processing. They involve crime scene(s) investigation, chain of custody practices, evidence collection, handling and preservation, evidence shipping, analysis of evidence, interpretation of results, and court presentation. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidence, the forensic investigation will attempt to determine the etiology and identity of the causal agent, often in a similar fashion as in an epidemiologic investigation. However, for attribution, higher-resolution characterization is needed. The tools for attribution include genetic- and nongenetic-based assays and informatics to attempt to determine the unique source of a sample or at least eliminate some sources. In addition, chemical and physical assays may help determine the process used to prepare, store, or disseminate the bioweapon. An effective microbial forensics program will require development and/or validation of all aspects of the forensic investigative process, from sample collection to interpretation of results. Quality assurance (QA) and QC practices, comparable to those used by the forensic DNA science community, are being implemented. Lastly, partnerships with other laboratories will be requisite, because many of the necessary capabilities for analysis will not reside in the traditional forensic laboratory. PMID:15821943

  5. Bayesian networks for evaluation of evidence from forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Andersson, M Gunnar; Sundström, Anders; Lindström, Anders

    2013-09-01

    In the aftermath of a CBRN incident, there is an urgent need to reconstruct events in order to bring the perpetrators to court and to take preventive actions for the future. The challenge is to discriminate, based on available information, between alternative scenarios. Forensic interpretation is used to evaluate to what extent results from the forensic investigation favor the prosecutors' or the defendants' arguments, using the framework of Bayesian hypothesis testing. Recently, several new scientific disciplines have been used in a forensic context. In the AniBioThreat project, the framework was applied to veterinary forensic pathology, tracing of pathogenic microorganisms, and forensic entomology. Forensic entomology is an important tool for estimating the postmortem interval in, for example, homicide investigations as a complement to more traditional methods. In this article we demonstrate the applicability of the Bayesian framework for evaluating entomological evidence in a forensic investigation through the analysis of a hypothetical scenario involving suspect movement of carcasses from a clandestine laboratory. Probabilities of different findings under the alternative hypotheses were estimated using a combination of statistical analysis of data, expert knowledge, and simulation, and entomological findings are used to update the beliefs about the prosecutors' and defendants' hypotheses and to calculate the value of evidence. The Bayesian framework proved useful for evaluating complex hypotheses using findings from several insect species, accounting for uncertainty about development rate, temperature, and precolonization. The applicability of the forensic statistic approach to evaluating forensic results from a CBRN incident is discussed. PMID:23971824

  6. Statistical optimization of the medium composition by response surface methodology to enhance schizophyllan production by Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbing; Zhou, Pengpeng; Yu, Longjiang

    2011-01-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) involving central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the fermentation medium for the cell growth and schizophllan production by Schizophyllum commune CGMCC 5.113 in submerged culture at pH 6.5 and 26 degrees C. The four variables involved in this study were glucose, yeast extract, ammonium nitrate, and magnesium sulfate. The statistical analysis of the results showed that, in the range studied, glucose and yeast extract had a highly significant effect on schizophyllan production. The optimal medium for schizophyllan production calculated from the regression model of RSM was as follows: glucose, 18 g/l; yeast extract, 0.5 g/l; NH4NO3, 0.48 g/l; and MgSO4, 0.05 g/l, with a predicted maximum schizophyllan production of 11.74 g/l. These predicted values were experimentally validated. The excellent correlation between predicted and measured values justifies the validity of the response model. The results of bioreactor fermentation also show that the optimized medium enhanced schizophyllan production (12.80 g/l) by S. commune in a 5-1 fermenter. PMID:21630592

  7. Optimization of Electrospray Ionization by Statistical Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methodology: Protein-Ligand Equilibrium Dissociation Constant Determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Liliana; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2016-09-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) binding studies between proteins and ligands under native conditions require that instrumental ESI source conditions are optimized if relative solution-phase equilibrium concentrations between the protein-ligand complex and free protein are to be retained. Instrumental ESI source conditions that simultaneously maximize the relative ionization efficiency of the protein-ligand complex over free protein and minimize the protein-ligand complex dissociation during the ESI process and the transfer from atmospheric pressure to vacuum are generally specific for each protein-ligand system and should be established when an accurate equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) is to be determined via titration. In this paper, a straightforward and systematic approach for ESI source optimization is presented. The method uses statistical design of experiments (DOE) in conjunction with response surface methodology (RSM) and is demonstrated for the complexes between Plasmodium vivax guanylate kinase ( PvGK) and two ligands: 5'-guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and 5'-guanosine diphosphate (GDP). It was verified that even though the ligands are structurally similar, the most appropriate ESI conditions for KD determination by titration are different for each.

  8. Statistical optimization of ultraviolet irradiate conditions for vitamin D₂ synthesis in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Jie; Ahn, Byung-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum vitamin D2 synthesis conditions in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). Ultraviolet B (UV-B) was selected as the most efficient irradiation source for the preliminary experiment, in addition to the levels of three independent variables, which included ambient temperature (25-45°C), exposure time (40-120 min), and irradiation intensity (0.6-1.2 W/m2). The statistical analysis indicated that, for the range which was studied, irradiation intensity was the most critical factor that affected vitamin D2 synthesis in oyster mushrooms. Under optimal conditions (ambient temperature of 28.16°C, UV-B intensity of 1.14 W/m2, and exposure time of 94.28 min), the experimental vitamin D2 content of 239.67 µg/g (dry weight) was in very good agreement with the predicted value of 245.49 µg/g, which verified the practicability of this strategy. Compared to fresh mushrooms, the lyophilized mushroom powder can synthesize remarkably higher level of vitamin D2 (498.10 µg/g) within much shorter UV-B exposure time (10 min), and thus should receive attention from the food processing industry. PMID:24736742

  9. Statistical methodology to evaluate food exposure to a contaminant and influence of sanitary limits: application to Ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Tressou, J; Leblanc, J Ch; Feinberg, M; Bertail, P

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents some statistical methodologies to evaluate the food exposure to a contaminant and quantify the outcome of a new maximum limit on a food item. Our application deals with Ochratoxin A (OTA). We focus on the quantitative evaluation of the distribution of exposure based on both consumption data and contamination data. One specific aspect of contamination data is left censorship due to the limits of detection. Three calculation procedures are proposed: [P1] a deterministic method using means of contamination; [P2] a probabilistic method using a parametric adjustment of the distributions of contamination taking into account the left censorship; and [P3] a non-parametric method which consists in randomly selecting the consumption data and the contamination values. Our main result shows that a non-parametric probabilistic approach is well adapted for the purpose of exposure assessment, when large samples are available. In the application to OTA, the probability to exceed a safe level is high, particularly for children. Simulations show that the impact of the existing standards on cereals and the currently proposed standards on wine generally do not significantly reduce the risk to be overexposed to OTA. PMID:15546679

  10. Optimization of Electrospray Ionization by Statistical Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methodology: Protein-Ligand Equilibrium Dissociation Constant Determinations.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Liliana; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Quinn, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) binding studies between proteins and ligands under native conditions require that instrumental ESI source conditions are optimized if relative solution-phase equilibrium concentrations between the protein-ligand complex and free protein are to be retained. Instrumental ESI source conditions that simultaneously maximize the relative ionization efficiency of the protein-ligand complex over free protein and minimize the protein-ligand complex dissociation during the ESI process and the transfer from atmospheric pressure to vacuum are generally specific for each protein-ligand system and should be established when an accurate equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) is to be determined via titration. In this paper, a straightforward and systematic approach for ESI source optimization is presented. The method uses statistical design of experiments (DOE) in conjunction with response surface methodology (RSM) and is demonstrated for the complexes between Plasmodium vivax guanylate kinase (PvGK) and two ligands: 5'-guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and 5'-guanosine diphosphate (GDP). It was verified that even though the ligands are structurally similar, the most appropriate ESI conditions for KD determination by titration are different for each. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27225419

  11. Optimization of Electrospray Ionization by Statistical Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methodology: Protein-Ligand Equilibrium Dissociation Constant Determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Liliana; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2016-05-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) binding studies between proteins and ligands under native conditions require that instrumental ESI source conditions are optimized if relative solution-phase equilibrium concentrations between the protein-ligand complex and free protein are to be retained. Instrumental ESI source conditions that simultaneously maximize the relative ionization efficiency of the protein-ligand complex over free protein and minimize the protein-ligand complex dissociation during the ESI process and the transfer from atmospheric pressure to vacuum are generally specific for each protein-ligand system and should be established when an accurate equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) is to be determined via titration. In this paper, a straightforward and systematic approach for ESI source optimization is presented. The method uses statistical design of experiments (DOE) in conjunction with response surface methodology (RSM) and is demonstrated for the complexes between Plasmodium vivax guanylate kinase (PvGK) and two ligands: 5'-guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and 5'-guanosine diphosphate (GDP). It was verified that even though the ligands are structurally similar, the most appropriate ESI conditions for KD determination by titration are different for each.

  12. Statistical Optimization of Ultraviolet Irradiate Conditions for Vitamin D2 Synthesis in Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Jie; Ahn, Byung-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum vitamin D2 synthesis conditions in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). Ultraviolet B (UV-B) was selected as the most efficient irradiation source for the preliminary experiment, in addition to the levels of three independent variables, which included ambient temperature (25–45°C), exposure time (40–120 min), and irradiation intensity (0.6–1.2 W/m2). The statistical analysis indicated that, for the range which was studied, irradiation intensity was the most critical factor that affected vitamin D2 synthesis in oyster mushrooms. Under optimal conditions (ambient temperature of 28.16°C, UV-B intensity of 1.14 W/m2, and exposure time of 94.28 min), the experimental vitamin D2 content of 239.67 µg/g (dry weight) was in very good agreement with the predicted value of 245.49 µg/g, which verified the practicability of this strategy. Compared to fresh mushrooms, the lyophilized mushroom powder can synthesize remarkably higher level of vitamin D2 (498.10 µg/g) within much shorter UV-B exposure time (10 min), and thus should receive attention from the food processing industry. PMID:24736742

  13. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scientific Meeting — New Orleans, Louisiana 2017 Discover More Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) Read More So You Want to Be a Forensic Scientist! Read More ‹ › The American Academy of Forensic ...

  14. Teaching forensic medicine in the University of Porto.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Santos, Agostinho

    2014-07-01

    The University of Porto (UP) provides education in Forensic Medicine (FM) through the 1st, 2nd and 3rd cycle of studies, post-graduation and continuing education courses. This education is related to forensic pathology, clinical forensic medicine (including forensic psychology and psychiatry), forensic chemistry and toxicology, forensic genetics and biology, and criminalistics. With this work we intent to reflect on how we are currently teaching FM in the UP, at all levels of university graduation. We will present our models, regarding the educational objectives, curricular program and teaching/learning methodologies of each cycle of studies as well as in post-graduate and continuing education courses. Historically, and besides related administratively to the Ministry of Justice, the Portuguese Medico-Legal Institutes (since 1918) and more recently the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF) also have educational and research responsibilities. Thus, it lends space and cooperates with academic institutions and this contribution, namely regarding teaching forensic sciences in Portugal has been judged as an example for other Countries. This contribution is so important that in UP, the Department of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of the Faculty of Medicine (FMUP) shares, until now, the same physical space with North Branch of the INMLCF, which represents a notorious advantage, since it makes possible the "learning by doing". PMID:24931860

  15. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  16. AMOVA ["Accumulative Manifold Validation Analysis"]: An Advanced Statistical Methodology Designed to Measure and Test the Validity, Reliability, and Overall Efficacy of Inquiry-Based Psychometric Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, James Edward, II

    2015-01-01

    This monograph provides an epistemological rational for the Accumulative Manifold Validation Analysis [also referred by the acronym "AMOVA"] statistical methodology designed to test psychometric instruments. This form of inquiry is a form of mathematical optimization in the discipline of linear stochastic modelling. AMOVA is an in-depth…

  17. Assessment of Reliable Change Using 95% Credible Intervals for the Differences in Proportions: A Statistical Analysis for Case-Study Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unicomb, Rachael; Colyvas, Kim; Harrison, Elisabeth; Hewat, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Case-study methodology studying change is often used in the field of speech-language pathology, but it can be criticized for not being statistically robust. Yet with the heterogeneous nature of many communication disorders, case studies allow clinicians and researchers to closely observe and report on change. Such information is valuable…

  18. [Taste disorders in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Canale, M; Canale, F; Pallestrini, E; Castello, E

    1994-01-01

    Taste disorders can a rise from lesions of peripheral receptors, taste control pathways or cortical area involvement. Among peripheral lesions, trauma of the tongue and oropharynx are the most common. Iatrogenic lesions of facial and glossopharingeal nerves are very important in Forensic Medicine, while there are different opinions about taste alterations due to head injuries; hypogeusia associated to smell disorders are found in 0.4-0.5% of patient after head trauma with good prognosis (90% healing) while qualitative disorders are more common (30%). The Authors describe clinical methodologies for taste evaluation and their application in Forensic Medicine. Forensic estimation of taste disorders con be classified by two main groups: study of cause relation between the occurrence and damage and quantitative valuation of the damage in three different juridical ambits: Penal, Civil, Insurance and foresight. In Penal Right taste damages could be classified among personal lesion crimes and can be classified as serious (permanent injury of taste) ore very serious (complete lost of taste function). Italian Legislation equipare the 5 sense organs. In Civil Right evaluation the so-called "biologic damage" and working ability are considered; this means very different evaluations. In the most recent baremes, generic damage is estimated by different Authors from 0 to 10% while with regard to specific working capacity, common evaluation criteria does not exist. In Insurance taste disorders evaluation is based only on working ability and not on biologic damage. In the previdenzial ambit, taste disorders are not even included in the most recent tables of permanent invalidity estimation. The Authors propose new and more efficacious valutation criteria for taste disorders in all ambits, hoping for more interest in the Forensic aspects of taste, a too often forgotten sensory function. PMID:7810326

  19. Awareness of forensic odontology among police personnel: A new ray of hope in forensic odontology

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Siddharth; Desai, Dinkar; Jeergal, Prabhakar; Venkatesh, Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Police personnel play an important role in collecting and producing evidence. Knowledge about the various aspects of forensic as well as dental sciences and related evidence in them provide a golden opportunity to forensic odontologists to actively participate in the identification of the accused or victim. They can also act as an expert witness in court to produce forensic dental evidence. Aim: To evaluate the awareness and knowledge about the utilization of forensic odontology during evidence collection by the crime scene investigation (CSI) officers. Materials and Methods: Four hundred police officers were included in this survey. A questionnaire was designed to assess the awareness and knowledge about forensic odontology and application of the known knowledge in identifying and considering the dental evidences. Data were analyzed using the software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, Chicago, Il, USA) version 17.0 by comparing the overall awareness of forensic odontology among the trained SI officers and trainee police personnel. Results: The collected results showed that there is a requirement for changes in the current practice of evidence collection and highlighted the need for better communication between the police personnel and forensic odontologists. A significantly higher number of police officers in both the trained and trainee groups reported knowledge about the subject (P < 0.001) through newspapers and mass media as the sources of knowledge. Conclusion: Even though the respondents have knowledge about forensic odontology, there is a lack of communication and facilities in their system; hence, steps must be taken to educate the police personnel about the application of forensic odontology. PMID:27051225

  20. Forensic psychiatry: contemporary scope, challenges and controversies

    PubMed Central

    ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

    2006-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law, and with the flow of mentally disordered offenders along a continuum of social systems. Modern forensic psychiatry has benefited from four key developments: the evolution in the understanding and appreciation of the relationship between mental illness and criminality; the evolution of the legal tests to define legal insanity; the new methodologies for the treatment of mental conditions providing alternatives to custodial care; and the changes in attitudes and perceptions of mental illness among the public. This paper reviews the current scope of forensic psychiatry and the ethical dilemmas that this subspecialty is facing worldwide. PMID:16946941

  1. DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It…

  2. A hybrid Land Cover Dataset for Russia: a new methodology for merging statistics, remote sensing and in-situ information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepaschenko, D.; McCallum, I.; Shvidenko, A.; Kraxner, F.; Fritz, S.

    2009-04-01

    There is a critical need for accurate land cover information for resource assessment, biophysical modeling, greenhouse gas studies, and for estimating possible terrestrial responses and feedbacks to climate change. However, practically all existing land cover datasets have quite a high level of uncertainty and suffer from a lack of important details that does not allow for relevant parameterization, e.g., data derived from different forest inventories. The objective of this study is to develop a methodology in order to create a hybrid land cover dataset at the level which would satisfy requirements of the verified terrestrial biota full greenhouse gas account (Shvidenko et al., 2008) for large regions i.e. Russia. Such requirements necessitate a detailed quantification of land classes (e.g., for forests - dominant species, age, growing stock, net primary production, etc.) with additional information on uncertainties of the major biometric and ecological parameters in the range of 10-20% and a confidence interval of around 0.9. The approach taken here allows the integration of different datasets to explore synergies and in particular the merging and harmonization of land and forest inventories, ecological monitoring, remote sensing data and in-situ information. The following datasets have been integrated: Remote sensing: Global Land Cover 2000 (Fritz et al., 2003), Vegetation Continuous Fields (Hansen et al., 2002), Vegetation Fire (Sukhinin, 2007), Regional land cover (Schmullius et al., 2005); GIS: Soil 1:2.5 Mio (Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute, 1996), Administrative Regions 1:2.5 Mio, Vegetation 1:4 Mio, Bioclimatic Zones 1:4 Mio (Stolbovoi & McCallum, 2002), Forest Enterprises 1:2.5 Mio, Rivers/Lakes and Roads/Railways 1:1 Mio (IIASA's data base); Inventories and statistics: State Land Account (FARSC RF, 2006), State Forest Account - SFA (FFS RF, 2003), Disturbances in forests (FFS RF, 2006). The resulting hybrid land cover dataset at 1-km resolution comprises

  3. Forensic Science Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  4. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan. PMID:26024984

  5. [Forensic psychotherapy research - status quo, scope, and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Ross, T; Fontao, M I

    2006-05-01

    In the last two decades, forensic psychotherapy has become a specialised area of scholarship, predominantly in the UK and Germany. However, scientific research with respect to set goals, methods and the application of treatments has been heterogeneous and not very extensive. Focussing on offender treatment, the status quo of research schemes based on clinical experience is discussed, and a strategy is suggested as how to develop a research framework for forensic psychotherapy which makes use of the specific methods and treatment interventions applied in this field. It is concluded that forensic psychotherapy research will greatly benefit from the methodological framework of general psychotherapy research, especially when competing for scarce financial resources. PMID:16758539

  6. The use of geoscience methods for terrestrial forensic searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, J. K.; Ruffell, A.; Jervis, J. R.; Donnelly, L.; McKinley, J.; Hansen, J.; Morgan, R.; Pirrie, D.; Harrison, M.

    2012-08-01

    Geoscience methods are increasingly being utilised in criminal, environmental and humanitarian forensic investigations, and the use of such methods is supported by a growing body of experimental and theoretical research. Geoscience search techniques can complement traditional methodologies in the search for buried objects, including clandestine graves, weapons, explosives, drugs, illegal weapons, hazardous waste and vehicles. This paper details recent advances in search and detection methods, with case studies and reviews. Relevant examples are given, together with a generalised workflow for search and suggested detection technique(s) table. Forensic geoscience techniques are continuing to rapidly evolve to assist search investigators to detect hitherto difficult to locate forensic targets.

  7. First Digit Law and Its Application to Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yun Q.

    Digital data forensics, which gathers evidence of data composition, origin, and history, is crucial in our digital world. Although this new research field is still in its infancy stage, it has started to attract increasing attention from the multimedia-security research community. This lecture addresses the first digit law and its applications to digital forensics. First, the Benford and generalized Benford laws, referred to as first digit law, are introduced. Then, the application of first digit law to detection of JPEG compression history for a given BMP image and detection of double JPEG compressions are presented. Finally, applying first digit law to detection of double MPEG video compressions is discussed. It is expected that the first digit law may play an active role in other task of digital forensics. The lesson learned is that statistical models play an important role in digital forensics and for a specific forensic task different models may provide different performance.

  8. Statistical methodology for the evaluation of vaccine efficacy in a phase III multi-centre trial of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been much debate about the appropriate statistical methodology for the evaluation of malaria field studies and the challenges in interpreting data arising from these trials. Methods The present paper describes, for a pivotal phase III efficacy of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine, the methods of the statistical analysis and the rationale for their selection. The methods used to estimate efficacy of the primary course of vaccination, and of a booster dose, in preventing clinical episodes of uncomplicated and severe malaria, and to determine the duration of protection, are described. The interpretation of various measures of efficacy in terms of the potential public health impact of the vaccine is discussed. Conclusions The methodology selected to analyse the clinical trial must be scientifically sound, acceptable to regulatory authorities and meaningful to those responsible for malaria control and public health policy. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00866619 PMID:21816030

  9. Methodologies in forensic and decomposition microbiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culturable microorganisms represent only 0.1-1% of the total microbial diversity of the biosphere. This has severely restricted the ability of scientists to study the microbial biodiversity associated with the decomposition of ephemeral resources in the past. Innovations in technology are bringing...

  10. The forensic psychiatric report.

    PubMed

    Norko, Michael A; Buchanan, Mar Alec

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a written forensic report is a core component of forensic practice, demonstrating the evaluator's skill in conducting the evaluation and in communicating relevant information to the legal audience in an effective manner. Although communication skills and quality of written documentation are important in clinical psychiatry generally, they form the sine qua non of successful forensic work, which consists in telling complex stories in a coherent and compelling fashion. High quality forensic reports require careful preparation from the earliest stages of work on a case. They generally follow an expected structure, which permits the evaluator to provide all the data necessary to form a carefully reasoned opinion that addresses the legal questions posed. Formats and content of reports vary according to the type of case and the circumstances of the evaluation and so require flexibility within customary frameworks. The style and quality of writing are critical to the crafting of forensic reports. The effects on legal decision-makers of various approaches to the presentation of information in reports has not been studied empirically, but guidance from experienced forensic psychiatrists is available. There is a small body of research on quality improvement in forensic writing, and further empiric study is warranted. PMID:25603453

  11. The imported forensic expert

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C.P.

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  12. Expansion of Microbial Forensics.

    PubMed

    Schmedes, Sarah E; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-08-01

    Microbial forensics has been defined as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of evidence related to bioterrorism, biocrimes, hoaxes, or the accidental release of a biological agent or toxin for attribution purposes. Over the past 15 years, technology, particularly massively parallel sequencing, and bioinformatics advances now allow the characterization of microorganisms for a variety of human forensic applications, such as human identification, body fluid characterization, postmortem interval estimation, and biocrimes involving tracking of infectious agents. Thus, microbial forensics should be more broadly described as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of microbial evidence in criminal and civil cases for investigative purposes. PMID:26912746

  13. A Methodological Review of Statistical Methods for Handling Multilevel Non-Nested Longitudinal Data in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Shuyan; Pan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    As applications of multilevel modelling in educational research increase, researchers realize that multilevel data collected in many educational settings are often not purely nested. The most common multilevel non-nested data structure is one that involves student mobility in longitudinal studies. This article provides a methodological review of…

  14. Statistical Techniques Utilized in Analyzing PISA and TIMSS Data in Science Education from 1996 to 2013: A Methodological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Hung, Yi-Chen

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a methodological review of articles using the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) or Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) data published by the SSCI-indexed science education journals, such as the "International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education," the "International…

  15. Forensic Science: Hair Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Elhannan L.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

  16. Professionalism in Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Alastair D.; Konstadopoulou, Anastasia

    The paper seeks to address the need to consider issues regarding professionalism in computer forensics in order to allow the discipline to develop and to ensure the credibility of the discipline from the differing perspectives of practitioners, the criminal justice system and in the eyes of the public. There is a need to examine and develop professionalism in computer forensics in order to promote the discipline and maintain the credibility of the discipline.

  17. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison. PMID:26126345

  18. Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Cliff, John B.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-01-03

    Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special considerations for the forensic arena - quality control, sample integrity, etc. Mark Wilson (retired FBI): Western Carolina University Chapter 4. Physical signatures: Light and electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gravimetry etc. Joseph Michael, Sandia National Laboratory Chapter 5. Lipids: FAME, PLFA, steroids, LPS, etc. James Robertson, Federal Bureau of Investigation Chapter 6. Carbohydrates: Cell wall components, cytoplasm components, methods Alvin Fox, University of South Carolina School of Medicine David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 7. Peptides: Peptides, proteins, lipoproteins David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 8. Elemental content: CNOHPS (treated in passing), metals, prospective cell types John Cliff, International Atomic Energy Agency Chapter 9. Isotopic signatures: Stable isotopes C,N,H,O,S, 14C dating, potential for heavy elements. Helen Kreuzer-Martin, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Michaele Kashgarian, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Chapter 10. Extracellular signatures: Cellular debris, heme, agar, headspace, spent media, etc Karen Wahl, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 11. Data Reduction and Integrated Microbial Forensics: Statistical concepts, parametric and multivariate statistics, integrating signatures Kristin Jarman, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  19. Nuclear forensic investigations: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Wallenius, M; Mayer, K; Ray, I

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and analytical methods used in nuclear forensic investigations. Two case studies are taken as examples to illustrate this. These examples represent typical cases that have been analysed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) since last 10 years, i.e. the beginning of the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Results of the various analytical techniques are shown, which, together with other type of information, reveal the origin of the material. PMID:16410154

  20. Internet and forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamakura, Reddy P.

    1997-02-01

    The Internet is a very powerful and inexpensive tool that was created for the free distribution of knowledge and information. The Internet is a learning tool, a research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a journal with instant publication, a help desk, and a newspaper/journal with current information. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet also will be a live classroom and everyday conference. Forensic scientists, laboratories and colleges should make use of information already available on the Internet. They also should actively participate and contribute. Very few forensic scientists and laboratories have made their presence felt by setting up their home pages/web pages. But, there is tremendous growth during the past year. Immense benefits from Internet to forensic community are discussed along with the author's personal experience. Creating on-line searchable data bases in all specialties of forensic science is an urgent need. Leading forensic journals should take a lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. On line electronic publishing, collaborative research/paper publishing or editing is easy, fast, economical and convenient through the use of the Internet. Creation of Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Internet also can be used to give training, re-training or advanced training to students/forensic scientists.

  1. Transporting Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Dike, Charles C; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Young, John L

    2015-12-01

    Patients in a forensic psychiatric facility often require escorted transport to medical facilities for investigations or treatments of physical health ailments. Transporting these patients presents significant safety and custody challenges because of the nature of patients housed in forensic psychiatric facilities. A significant proportion of these patients may be transfers from the Department of Corrections (DOC) under legal mandates for psychiatric evaluation and treatment better provided in a hospital setting, and most of them will return to the DOC. Although departments of correction have protocols for escorting these potentially dangerous individuals, it is unclear whether receiving psychiatric hospitals have established procedures for maintaining the safety of others and custody of these individuals during transportation outside the hospital facility. The literature is sparse on precautions to be observed when transporting dangerous forensic psychiatric patients, including those with high escape risk. In this article, we describe one forensic inpatient facility's procedure for determining the appropriate level needed to transport these individuals outside of the forensic facility. We also describe the risk assessment procedure for determining level of transport. These are quality improvement measures resulting from a critical review of an incident of escape from the forensic facility several years ago. PMID:26668224

  2. Forensic Hair Differentiation Using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Manheim, Jeremy; Doty, Kyle C; McLaughlin, Gregory; Lednev, Igor K

    2016-07-01

    Hair and fibers are common forms of trace evidence found at crime scenes. The current methodology of microscopic examination of potential hair evidence is absent of statistical measures of performance, and examiner results for identification can be subjective. Here, attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to analyze synthetic fibers and natural hairs of human, cat, and dog origin. Chemometric analysis was used to differentiate hair spectra from the three different species, and to predict unknown hairs to their proper species class, with a high degree of certainty. A species-specific partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) model was constructed to discriminate human hair from cat and dog hairs. This model was successful in distinguishing between the three classes and, more importantly, all human samples were correctly predicted as human. An external validation resulted in zero false positive and false negative assignments for the human class. From a forensic perspective, this technique would be complementary to microscopic hair examination, and in no way replace it. As such, this methodology is able to provide a statistical measure of confidence to the identification of a sample of human, cat, and dog hair, which was called for in the 2009 National Academy of Sciences report. More importantly, this approach is non-destructive, rapid, can provide reliable results, and requires no sample preparation, making it of ample importance to the field of forensic science. PMID:27412186

  3. Exploiting Statistical Methodologies and Controlled Vocabularies for Prioritized Functional Analysis of Genomic Experiments: the StRAnGER Web Application

    PubMed Central

    Chatziioannou, Aristotelis A.; Moulos, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    StRAnGER is a web application for the automated statistical analysis of annotated gene profiling experiments, exploiting controlled biological vocabularies, like the Gene Ontology or the KEGG pathways terms. Starting from annotated lists of differentially expressed genes and gene enrichment scores, regarding the terms of each vocabulary, StRAnGER repartitions and reorders the initial distribution of terms to define a new distribution of elements. Each element pools terms holding the same enrichment score. The new distribution thus derived, is reordered in a decreasing order to the right, according to the observation score of the elements, while elements with the same score, are sorted again in a decreasing order of their enrichment scores. By applying bootstrapping techniques, a corrected measure of the statistical significance of these elements is derived, which enables the selection of terms mapped to these elements, unambiguously associated with respective significant gene sets. The selected terms are immunized against the bias infiltrating statistical enrichment analyses, producing technically very high statistical scores, due to the finite nature of the data population. Besides their high statistical score, another selection criterion for the terms is the number of their members, something that incurs a biological prioritization in line with a Systems Biology context. The output derived, represents a detailed ranked list of significant terms, which constitute a starting point for further functional analysis. PMID:21293737

  4. Statistical methodologies for tree-ring research to understand the climate-growth relationships over time and space

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Tree-Ring Database is a valuable resource for studying climate change and its effects on terrestrial ecosystems over time and space. We examine the statistical methods in current use in dendroclimatology and dendroecology to process the tree-ring data and make ...

  5. A supervised vibration-based statistical methodology for damage detection under varying environmental conditions & its laboratory assessment with a scale wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez González, A.; Fassois, S. D.

    2016-03-01

    The problem of vibration-based damage detection under varying environmental conditions and uncertainty is considered, and a novel, supervised, PCA-type statistical methodology is postulated. The methodology employs vibration data records from the healthy and damaged states of a structure under various environmental conditions. Unlike standard PCA-type methods in which a feature vector corresponding to the least important eigenvalues is formed in a single step, the postulated methodology uses supervised learning in which damaged-state data records are employed to sequentially form a feature vector by appending a transformed scalar element at a time under the condition that it optimally, among all remaining elements, improves damage detectability. This leads to the formulation of feature vectors with optimized sensitivity to damage, and thus high damage detectability. Within this methodology three particular methods, two non-parametric and one parametric, are formulated. These are validated and comparatively assessed via a laboratory case study focusing on damage detection on a scale wind turbine blade under varying temperature and the potential presence of sprayed water. Damage detection performance is shown to be excellent based on a single vibration response sensor and a limited frequency bandwidth.

  6. Digital Forensics Using Local Signal Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Xunyu

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the Internet and the popularity of digital imaging devices, digital imagery has become our major information source. Meanwhile, the development of digital manipulation techniques employed by most image editing software brings new challenges to the credibility of photographic images as the definite records of events. We…

  7. Optimization of medium composition for keratinase production on feather by Bacillus licheniformis RG1 using statistical methods involving response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ramnani, Priya; Gupta, Rani

    2004-10-01

    A 3.5-fold increase in keratinase production by Bacillus licheniformis RG1 was achieved by using statistical methods involving Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. Eight variables were screened using Plackett-Burman design. Of these, glucose, peptone and glutathione were found to affect the response signal positively, whereas CaCl(2) had a negative effect. Further interaction of these factors, along with phosphate and incubation time, was studied using response surface methodology. An optimum keratinase production of 1295 units/mg dry weight was obtained with the following medium composition: 1% glucose, 1% peptone, 1% phosphate, 0.05% glutathione, 0.5% feather and 2% inoculum under shaking at 250 rev./min with an incubation period of 72 h at 37 degrees C. Keratinase production was found to be a function of biomass and maximum production occurred during the stationary phase. PMID:14871173

  8. Dynamics of Forensic Interviews with Suspected Abuse Victims Who Do Not Disclose Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkowitz, Irit; Orbach, Yael; Lamb, Michael E.; Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Horowitz, Dvora

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was designed to explore structural differences between forensic interviews in which children made allegations and those in which children did not make allegations. Methodology: Fifty forensic interviews of 4- to 13-year-old suspected victims of abuse who did not disclose abuse during the interview were compared with…

  9. Forensic trace DNA: a review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

  10. Curriculum and course materials for a forensic DNA biology course.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Kelly M

    2014-01-01

    The Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) requires accredited programs offer a "coherent curriculum" to ensure each student gains a "thorough grounding of the natural…sciences." Part of this curriculum includes completion of a minimum of 15 semester-hours forensic science coursework, nine of which can involve a class in forensic DNA biology. Departments that have obtained or are pursuing FEPAC accreditation can meet this requirement by offering a stand-alone forensic DNA biology course; however, materials necessary to instruct students are often homegrown and not standardized; in addition, until recently, the community lacked commercially available books, lab manuals, and teaching materials, and many of the best pedagogical resources were scattered across various peer-reviewed journals. The curriculum discussed below is an attempt to synthesize this disparate information, and although certainly not the only acceptable methodology, the below discussion represents "a way" for synthesizing and aggregating this information into a cohesive, comprehensive whole. PMID:24591042

  11. Diagnosis of anaphylactic death in forensics: Review and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Rossana

    2016-09-01

    The diagnosis of anaphylaxis in a pre- or post-mortal phase involves the formulation of problems not yet solved by the international scientific literature, due to the complexity of pathogenic factors and pathophysiological processes that characterizes it. For forensic autopsies, further problems of differential diagnosis arise and often leave the forensic pathologist unable to express an opinion of certainty, as a result of lack of case history, circumstantial and autoptical-histopathological data. Nevertheless, in routine cases the postmortem diagnosis of anaphylactic death continues to be based on exclusion and circumstantial evidence. The author, after an extensive review of the literature relating to deaths from anaphylaxis of forensic pathological interest, and a discussion of the microscopical and biochemical findings, proposes a diagnostic protocol for forensic purposes and evaluates the diagnostic perspectives enabled by the newly available analytic techniques and markers. Maybe, the application of omics methodologies could help in the future for anaphylaxis diagnosis. PMID:27591544

  12. Statistical methodology and assessment of seismic event characterization capability. Final report, 2 June 1993-2 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, M.D.; Gray, H.L.; McCartor, G.D.

    1995-10-31

    This project has focused on developing and applying statistical methods to perform seismic event characterization/identification and on quantifying capabilities with regard to monitoring of a Comprehensive Test Ban. An automated procedure is described to categorize seismic events, based on multivariate analysis of features derived from seismic waveforms. Second, preliminary event identification results are presented for a seismic event which occurred on 5 January 1995 in the Southern Ural Mountains region. Third, various statistics are compiled regarding 1786 seismic events which occurred between 11 January 1995 and 12 February 1995 and were detected by a set of 30 GSETT-3 Alpha stations. Fourth, a fundamental problem is addressed of how to utilize multivariate discriminant data from a multistation network in order to optimize the power of the outlier test for fixed false alarm rate.

  13. Production of glutaminase (E.C.3.2.1.5) from Zygosaccharomyces rouxii: statistical optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Padma; Singhal, Rekha S

    2008-07-01

    A face centered central composite design was employed to investigate the interactive effects of four variables, viz. concentrations of sucrose, yeast extract, sodium chloride, and glutamine, identified earlier by one-factor-at-a-time approach, on glutaminase production by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. A significant influence of yeast extract on glutaminase production was noted. Response surface methodology (RSM) showed that a medium containing (g/l) sucrose, 17.8; yeast extract, 48.0; glutamine, 5.0 and sodium chloride, 55.6 to be optimum for the production of glutaminase. This medium was projected to produce, theoretically, an enzyme activity of 149.98 U/l and a specific activity of 0.488 U/mg protein. The applied methodology was validated using this optimized media and enzyme activity 155.89+/-1.68 U/l and specific activity of 0.468+/-0.088 U/mg protein was obtained. Further, this optimization strategy combined with an increase in inoculum enhanced the enzyme activity and specific activity by 2.94 and 3.58 fold, respectively, as compared to the unoptimized media. PMID:17951056

  14. Distinguishing between forensic science and forensic pseudoscience: testing of validity and reliability, and approaches to forensic voice comparison.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

    2014-05-01

    In this paper it is argued that one should not attempt to directly assess whether a forensic analysis technique is scientifically acceptable. Rather one should first specify what one considers to be appropriate principles governing acceptable practice, then consider any particular approach in light of those principles. This paper focuses on one principle: the validity and reliability of an approach should be empirically tested under conditions reflecting those of the case under investigation using test data drawn from the relevant population. Versions of this principle have been key elements in several reports on forensic science, including forensic voice comparison, published over the last four-and-a-half decades. The aural-spectrographic approach to forensic voice comparison (also known as "voiceprint" or "voicegram" examination) and the currently widely practiced auditory-acoustic-phonetic approach are considered in light of this principle (these two approaches do not appear to be mutually exclusive). Approaches based on data, quantitative measurements, and statistical models are also considered in light of this principle. PMID:24796954

  15. A methodology using in-chair movements as an objective measure of discomfort for the purpose of statistically distinguishing between similar seat surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cascioli, Vincenzo; Liu, Zhuofu; Heusch, Andrew; McCarthy, Peter W

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a method for objectively measuring in-chair movement (ICM) that shows correlation with subjective ratings of comfort and discomfort. Employing a cross-over controlled, single blind design, healthy young subjects (n = 21) sat for 18 min on each of the following surfaces: contoured foam, straight foam and wood. Force sensitive resistors attached to the sitting interface measured the relative movements of the subjects during sitting. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ICM could statistically distinguish between each seat material, including two with subtle design differences. In addition, this study investigated methodological considerations, in particular appropriate threshold selection and sitting duration, when analysing objective movement data. ICM appears to be able to statistically distinguish between similar foam surfaces, as long as appropriate ICM thresholds and sufficient sitting durations are present. A relationship between greater ICM and increased discomfort, and lesser ICM and increased comfort was also found. PMID:26851469

  16. Forensics on a Shoestring Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

  17. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  18. Development of Statistical Process Control Methodology for an Environmentally Compliant Surface Cleaning Process in a Bonding Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Dale E.; Doan, Patrick A.; Boothe, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Bonding labs at both MSFC and the northern Utah production plant prepare bond test specimens which simulate or witness the production of NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The current process for preparing the bonding surfaces employs 1,1,1-trichloroethane vapor degreasing, which simulates the current RSRM process. Government regulations (e.g., the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act) have mandated a production phase-out of a number of ozone depleting compounds (ODC) including 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In order to comply with these regulations, the RSRM Program is qualifying a spray-in-air (SIA) precision cleaning process using Brulin 1990, an aqueous blend of surfactants. Accordingly, surface preparation prior to bonding process simulation test specimens must reflect the new production cleaning process. The Bonding Lab Statistical Process Control (SPC) program monitors the progress of the lab and its capabilities, as well as certifies the bonding technicians, by periodically preparing D6AC steel tensile adhesion panels with EA-91 3NA epoxy adhesive using a standardized process. SPC methods are then used to ensure the process is statistically in control, thus producing reliable data for bonding studies, and identify any problems which might develop. Since the specimen cleaning process is being changed, new SPC limits must be established. This report summarizes side-by-side testing of D6AC steel tensile adhesion witness panels and tapered double cantilevered beams (TDCBs) using both the current baseline vapor degreasing process and a lab-scale spray-in-air process. A Proceco 26 inches Typhoon dishwasher cleaned both tensile adhesion witness panels and TDCBs in a process which simulates the new production process. The tests were performed six times during 1995, subsequent statistical analysis of the data established new upper control limits (UCL) and lower control limits (LCL). The data also demonstrated that the new process was equivalent to the vapor

  19. Forensic geology exhumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Joseph Didier

    Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term “forensic” is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as “pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and debate.” The American Geological Institute's Glossary of Geology defines forensic geology as “the application of the Earth sciences to the law.” The cited reference to Murray and Tedrow [1975], however, deals mostly if not exclusively with the gathering and use of evidence in criminal cases, despite the widespread involvement of geologists in more general legal matters. It seems appropriate to “exhume” geology's wider application to the law, which is encompassed by forensic geology.

  20. A Methodology for Determining Statistical Performance Compliance for Airborne Doppler Radar with Forward-Looking Turbulence Detection Capability. Second Corrected Copy Issued May 23, 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.; Buck, Bill K.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the research developed and presented in this document was to statistically assess turbulence hazard detection performance employing airborne pulse Doppler radar systems. The FAA certification methodology for forward looking airborne turbulence radars will require estimating the probabilities of missed and false hazard indications under operational conditions. Analytical approaches must be used due to the near impossibility of obtaining sufficient statistics experimentally. This report describes an end-to-end analytical technique for estimating these probabilities for Enhanced Turbulence (E-Turb) Radar systems under noise-limited conditions, for a variety of aircraft types, as defined in FAA TSO-C134. This technique provides for one means, but not the only means, by which an applicant can demonstrate compliance to the FAA directed ATDS Working Group performance requirements. Turbulence hazard algorithms were developed that derived predictive estimates of aircraft hazards from basic radar observables. These algorithms were designed to prevent false turbulence indications while accurately predicting areas of elevated turbulence risks to aircraft, passengers, and crew; and were successfully flight tested on a NASA B757-200 and a Delta Air Lines B737-800. Application of this defined methodology for calculating the probability of missed and false hazard indications taking into account the effect of the various algorithms used, is demonstrated for representative transport aircraft and radar performance characteristics.

  1. An innovative methodological approach in the frame of Marine Strategy Framework Directive: a statistical model based on ship detection SAR data for monitoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Pieralice, Francesca; Proietti, Raffaele; La Valle, Paola; Giorgi, Giordano; Mazzolena, Marco; Taramelli, Andrea; Nicoletti, Luisa

    2014-12-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) is focused on protection, preservation and restoration of the marine environment by achieving and maintaining Good Environmental Status (GES) by 2020. Within this context, this paper presents a methodological approach for a fast and repeatable monitoring that allows quantitative assessment of seabed abrasion pressure due to recreational boat anchoring. The methodology consists of two steps: a semi-automatic procedure based on an algorithm for the ship detection in SAR imagery and a statistical model to obtain maps of spatial and temporal distribution density of anchored boats. Ship detection processing has been performed on 36 ASAR VV-pol images of Liguria test site, for the three years 2008, 2009 and 2010. Starting from the pointwise distribution layer produced by ship detection in imagery, boats points have been subdivided into 4 areas where a constant distribution density has been assumed for the entire period 2008-2010. In the future, this methodology will be applied also to higher resolution data of Sentinel-1 mission, specifically designed for the operational needs of the European Programme Copernicus. PMID:25096752

  2. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  3. Forensic Science Center

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.; Grant, P.M.

    1994-03-01

    Since 1991, the Laboratory's Forensic Science Center has focused a comprehensive range of analytical expertise on issues related to non proliferation, counterterrorism, and domestic law enforcement. During this short period, LLNL's singular combination of human and technological resources has made the Center among the best of its kind in the world. The Forensic Science Center houses a variety of state-of-the-art analytical tools ranging from gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers to ultratrace DNA detection techniques. The Center's multidisciplinary staff provides expertise in organic and inorganic analytical chemistry, nuclear science, biochemistry, and genetics useful for supporting law enforcement and for verifying compliance with international treaties and agreements.

  4. Research in forensic odontology.

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    Forensic odontology has established itself as an important and often indispensable science in medicolegal matters and in particular in identification of the dead. Much of its expertise is drawn from clinical experience based on basic research and advances in knowledge in dentistry in general. There has also been, particularly during the past two decades, an increasing body of research in specifically forensic dental matters and these studies form the subject of this review. Progress in this field, as in others, will depend upon development of training pathways and research facilities in our dental schools. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:7044254

  5. Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Srikanth Meka, Venkata; Ee Li, Chew; Sheshala, Ravi

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this research was to formulate effervescent floating drug delivery systems of theophylline using different release retarding polymers such as ethyl cellulose, Eudragit® L100, xanthan gum and polyethylene oxide (PEO) N12K. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a gas generating agent. Direct compression was used to formulate floating tablets and the tablets were evaluated for their physicochemical and dissolution characteristics. PEO based formulations produced better drug release properties than other formulations. Hence, it was further optimized by central composite design. Further subjects of research were the effect of formulation variables on floating lag time and the percentage of drug released at the seventh hour (D7h). The optimum quantities of PEO and sodium bicarbonate, which had the highest desirability close to 1.0, were chosen as the statistically optimized formulation. No interaction was found between theophylline and PEO by Fourier Transformation Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) studies. PMID:26959542

  6. Bayesian Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Donald L.

    Bayesian statistical methodology and its possible uses in the behavioral sciences are discussed in relation to the solution of problems in both the use and teaching of fundamental statistical methods, including confidence intervals, significance tests, and sampling. The Bayesian model explains these statistical methods and offers a consistent…

  7. Blurriness in Live Forensics: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoldi, Antonio; Gubian, Paolo

    The Live Forensics discipline aims at answering basic questions related to a digital crime, which usually involves a computer-based system. The investigation should be carried out with the very goal to establish which processes were running, when they were started and by whom, what specific activities those processes were doing and the state of active network connections. Besides, a set of tools needs to be launched on the running system by altering, as a consequence of the Locard’s exchange principle [2], the system’s memory. All the methodologies for the live forensics field proposed until now have a basic, albeit important, weakness, which is the inability to quantify the perturbation, or blurriness, of the system’s memory of the investigated computer. This is the very last goal of this paper: to provide a set of guidelines which can be effectively used for measuring the uncertainty of the collected volatile memory on a live system being investigated.

  8. Exploring Trends in Forensic Odontology

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Ain, Tasneem S.; Sultan, Saima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Materials and Methods: Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. Results: A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. Results showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Conclusion: Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology. PMID:25654026

  9. Statistical methodology for the detection of small changes in distances by EXAFS: application to the antimalarial ruthenoquine.

    PubMed

    Curis, Emmanuel; Dubar, Faustine; Nicolis, Ioannis; Bénazeth, Simone; Biot, Christophe

    2012-06-14

    Antimalarial compounds ruthenoquine and methylruthenoquine were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy both in solid state and in solution, in normal (aqueous or CH(2)Cl(2) solutions) and oxidative (aqueous solution with H(2)O(2), either equimolar or in large excess) conditions, to detect small changes in the coordination sphere of the ruthenium atom. Since changes in the EXAFS spectra of these compounds are quite subtle, a complete procedure was developed to assess the different sources of uncertainties in fitted structural parameters, including the use of multivariate statistic methods for simultaneous comparison of edge energy correction ΔE(0) and distances, which can take into account the very strong correlation between these two parameters. Factors limiting the precision of distance determination depend on the recording mode. In transmission mode, the main source of uncertainty is the data reduction process, whereas in fluorescence mode, experimental noise is the main source of variability in the fitted parameters. However, it was shown that the effects of data reduction are systematic and almost identical for all compounds; hence, they can be ignored when comparing distances. Consequently, for both fluorescence and transmission recorded spectra, experimental noise is the limiting factor for distance comparisons, which leads to the use of statistical methods for comparing distances. Univariate methods, focusing on the distance only, are shown to be less powerful in detecting changes in distances than bivariate methods making a simultaneous comparison of ΔE(0) and distances. This bivariate comparison can be done either by using the Hotelling's T(2) test or by using a graphical comparison of Monte Carlo simulation results. We have shown that using these methods allows for the detection of very subtle changes in distances. When applied to ruthenoquine compounds, it suggests that the implication of the nonbinding doublet of the aminoquine nitrogen in either

  10. Statistical analysis of spectral data: a methodology for designing an intelligent monitoring system for the diabetic foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van Netten, Jaap J.; Klein, Marvin E.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Bus, Sicco A.; van der Heijden, Ferdi

    2013-12-01

    Early detection of (pre-)signs of ulceration on a diabetic foot is valuable for clinical practice. Hyperspectral imaging is a promising technique for detection and classification of such (pre-)signs. However, the number of the spectral bands should be limited to avoid overfitting, which is critical for pixel classification with hyperspectral image data. The goal was to design a detector/classifier based on spectral imaging (SI) with a small number of optical bandpass filters. The performance and stability of the design were also investigated. The selection of the bandpass filters boils down to a feature selection problem. A dataset was built, containing reflectance spectra of 227 skin spots from 64 patients, measured with a spectrometer. Each skin spot was annotated manually by clinicians as "healthy" or a specific (pre-)sign of ulceration. Statistical analysis on the data set showed the number of required filters is between 3 and 7, depending on additional constraints on the filter set. The stability analysis revealed that shot noise was the most critical factor affecting the classification performance. It indicated that this impact could be avoided in future SI systems with a camera sensor whose saturation level is higher than 106, or by postimage processing.

  11. Forensic medicine in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Muhammad Nurul; Islam, Mohammed Nasimul

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the current medico-legal practice and future plan to improve the medico-legal service of Bangladesh which is rooted in the remnants of British medical jurisprudence. It includes clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. In Bangladesh all unnatural deaths are to be reported at the nearest police station and an appointed police officer should visit the scene of crime for investigation and to arrange postmortem if required. The forensic services of the country are delivered partly by academic staffs of Government Medical Colleges and the rest by the Civil Surgeons. Sometimes, residential medical officers in the district hospitals perform the medico-legal work. Most of them have no forensic qualifications except a long exposure in the medico-legal field. Currently academic and professional postgraduate courses are available. The chemical examiner's laboratory is situated at Dhaka with the facility of quantitative tests only. The Government of Bangladesh is trying to standardize the existing system. A Workshop on medico-legal services has been organized regularly by The Medico-legal Society of Bangladesh. A DNA profiling laboratory at the Dhaka Medical College is in the process of being set up. Such progress will be a milestone in the development of the medico-legal service in Bangladesh. However, with a few exceptions, teaching and training facilities are still lacking. PMID:12935633

  12. Forensic Applications of LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

    Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

  13. Changing Concepts in Forensics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarefsky, David

    This paper discusses five theoretical concepts in general and two theoretical models in particular that are involved in forensics. The five concepts are: (1) causation, an inquiry into the reasons for ongoing processes or problems; (2) inherency, the division of a universe into its necessary features and its accidental features; (3) presumption, a…

  14. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  15. Reduction of Complications of Local Anaesthesia in Dental Healthcare Setups by Application of the Six Sigma Methodology: A Statistical Quality Improvement Technique

    PubMed Central

    Khatoon, Farheen

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care faces challenges due to complications, inefficiencies and other concerns that threaten the safety of patients. Aim The purpose of his study was to identify causes of complications encountered after administration of local anaesthesia for dental and oral surgical procedures and to reduce the incidence of complications by introduction of six sigma methodology. Materials and Methods DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control) process of Six Sigma was taken into consideration to reduce the incidence of complications encountered after administration of local anaesthesia injections for dental and oral surgical procedures using failure mode and effect analysis. Pareto analysis was taken into consideration to analyse the most recurring complications. Paired z-sample test using Minitab Statistical Inference and Fisher’s exact test was used to statistically analyse the obtained data. The p-value <0.05 was considered as significant value. Results Total 54 systemic and 62 local complications occurred during three months of analyse and measure phase. Syncope, failure of anaesthesia, trismus, auto mordeduras and pain at injection site was found to be most recurring complications. Cumulative defective percentage was 7.99 in case of pre-improved data and decreased to 4.58 in the control phase. Estimate for difference was 0.0341228 and 95% lower bound for difference was 0.0193966. p-value was found to be highly significant with p= 0.000. Conclusion The application of six sigma improvement methodology in healthcare tends to deliver consistently better results to the patients as well as hospitals and results in better patient compliance as well as satisfaction. PMID:26816989

  16. Forensic identification in teeth with caries.

    PubMed

    Alia-García, Esther; Parra-Pecharromán, David; Sánchez-Díaz, Ana; Mendez, Susy; Royuela, Ana; Gil-Alberdi, Laura; López-Palafox, Juan; del Campo, Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Human teeth are biological structures that resist extreme conditions thus becoming a useful source of DNA for human forensic identification purposes. When it is possible, forensic prefer only non-damaged teeth whereas those with cavities are usually rejected to avoid both external and internal bacterial contamination. Cavities are one of the most prevalent dental pathology and its incidence increases with ageing. The aim of this study was to validate the use of teeth with cavities for forensic identification. A total of 120 individual teeth from unrelated patients (60 healthy and 60 with cavities, respectively) extracted by a dentist as part of the normal process of treatment, were submitted for further analysis. Dental pulp was obtained after tooth fragmentation, complete DNA was extracted and the corresponding human identification profile was obtained by the AmpFlSTR® NGM SElect™ kit. Cariogenic microbiota was determined by PCR-DGGE with bacterial universal primers and bands were excised, re-amplified and sequenced. From the 120 dental pieces analyzed, a defined genetic profile was obtained in 81 (67.5%) of them, with no statistical differences between the healthy and the cavities-affected teeth. Statistical association between teeth status, DNA content and genetic profiles was not observed. Complex bacterial communities were only detected in the cavities group, being the Streptococcus/Enterococcus, and Lactobacillus genera the most represented. We conclude that teeth with cavities are as valid as healthy dental pieces for forensic human identification. Moreover, the severity of the cariogenic lesion as well as associated bacterial communities seems not to influence the establishment of human dental profiles. PMID:26386340

  17. Analytical and Radiochemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert Ernest; Dry, Donald E.; Kinman, William Scott; Podlesak, David; Tandon, Lav

    2015-05-26

    Information about nonproliferation nuclear forensics, activities in forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory, radio analytical work at LANL, radiochemical characterization capabilities, bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities, and future interests in forensics interactions.

  18. Embracing the Complexity of Valid Assessments of Clinicians' Performance: A Call for In-Depth Examination of Methodological and Statistical Contexts That Affect the Measurement of Change.

    PubMed

    Boerebach, Benjamin C M; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H

    2016-02-01

    Assessments of clinicians' professional performance have become more entrenched in clinical practice globally. Systems and tools have been developed and implemented, and factors that impact performance in response to assessments have been studied. The validity and reliability of data yielded by assessment tools have been studied extensively. However, there are important methodological and statistical issues that can impact the assessment of performance and change that are often omitted or ignored by research and practice. In this article, the authors aim to address five of these issues and show how they can impact the validity of performance and change assessments, using empirical illustrations based on longitudinal data of clinicians' teaching performance. Specifically, the authors address the following: characteristics of a measurement scale that affect the performance data yielded by an assessment tool; different summary statistics of the same data that lead to opposing conclusions about performance and performance change; performance at the item level that does not easily translate to overall performance; how estimating performance change from two time-indexed measurements and assessing change retrospectively yield different results; and the context that affects performance and performance assessments. The authors explain how these issues affect the validity of performance assessments and offer suggestions for how to correct these issues. PMID:26200579

  19. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. PMID:27090769

  20. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Manigandan, T.; Sumathy, C.; Elumalai, M.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.; Kannan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster. PMID:26015728

  1. Parricide: a forensic approach.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Soraia; Santos, Agostinho; Dias, Isabel; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2014-02-01

    Parricide is the act of murdering one's father (patricide), mother (matricide) or other close relative, but usually not children (infanticide). It is a rare event and little information is available on this topic. This study aims to increase knowledge about this phenomenon, promoting the timely detection of problematic cases and avoiding fatalities. A retrospective study based on the autopsy reports of parricide victims performed by the North Services of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal between 2003 and 2011, as well as on the judicial outcome of each case, was performed. Seven cases of parricide were found, corresponding to 1.7% of all the homicides undergoing forensic evaluated. Victims and perpetrators were typically males. The assaults occurred all at home, in the presence of witnesses, and the perpetrator remained at the scene after the crime. The main alleged reasons were untreated psychiatric illness and financial conflicts in the cases of adult parricide, and attempts to protect the mother from intimate partner violence in younger ones. The judicial outcomes ranged from acquittal for nonimputability to conviction for murder, manslaughter or involuntary manslaughter. This study was carried out on a forensic sample and it is useful to implement strategies to prevent parricide. PMID:24485411

  2. Forensic web watch 4.

    PubMed

    Lumb, P; Rutty, G N

    2000-06-01

    Finding dedicated sites on the World Wide Web (WWW) touching upon issues related to the autopsy which could be of use to forensic practitioners is, as with other areas of forensic medicine and science, a time-consuming task. Unfortunately, one has to wade through lists related to 'Alien autopsy' sites and even 'Furby autopsy' sites that are generated by the most commonly used web search engines, which have been featured in earlier web reviews. Numerous sites containing large archives of autopsy photographs are available on the web. However, many of these sites represent the darker side of the WWW as they are often presented purely for titillation. Unfortunately, one can equate these sites to the modern-day version of the Victorian 'freak show'--Typically, these sites ask for your Visa card number to view their contents, and several have links to pornography sites; one even links to a Satanist site. Luckily a few of these sites do now require age confirmation codes. As many of these sites show autopsy photographs from real cases one has to ask how these were obtained and who is placing them on the WWW. This review does not list any of these sites for obvious reasons, but it does draw the reader's attention to sites touching upon issues related to autopsies which forensic practitioners may wish to visit or use. PMID:15274989

  3. Forensic Data Carving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povar, Digambar; Bhadran, V. K.

    File or data carving is a term used in the field of Cyber forensics. Cyber forensics is the process of acquisition, authentication, analysis and documentation of evidence extracted from and/or contained in a computer system, computer network and digital media. Extracting data (file) out of undifferentiated blocks (raw data) is called as carving. Identifying and recovering files based on analysis of file formats is known as file carving. In Cyber Forensics, carving is a helpful technique in finding hidden or deleted files from digital media. A file can be hidden in areas like lost clusters, unallocated clusters and slack space of the disk or digital media. To use this method of extraction, a file should have a standard file signature called a file header (start of the file). A search is performed to locate the file header and continued until the file footer (end of the file) is reached. The data between these two points will be extracted and analyzed to validate the file. The extraction algorithm uses different methods of carving depending on the file formats.

  4. Forensic web watch.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N

    1999-12-01

    Now that one has logged onto the world wide web (WWW) and utilized one or more of the home pages listed previously (or used another equally good home page) to seek out basic information available to forensic practitioners, the question now arises of how to go about making the most of the information available. One feature consistent to most home pages is links to the home pages of Associations and Societies, one or more of which most practitioners will be members of. With access to the WWW not only have you access to your own association/society, but you can also keep up to date with all the others to which you have not paid subscriptions. Although an internet search using a WWW search engine or the 'top 6' home pages may assist in identifying a large number of association and society sites, one of the most useful places to start is the home page of the Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine (IAFM). This, to date, lists a total of 139 such sites. To access all the home pages listed may take in excess of 6 h so the following review looks at the range of sites available and recommends some places the author considers many people may wish to know and visit. Again, this is inevitably a personal choice and it is recognized that those sites not listed may, in fact, be the preferred choice for other users of the forensic WWW. PMID:15335474

  5. Statistical methodology for pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Ogliari, Paulo José; de Andrade, Dalton Francisco; Pacheco, Juliano Anderson; Franchin, Paulo Rogério; Batista, Cleide Rosana Vieira

    2007-08-01

    The main goal of the present study was to discuss the application of the McNemar test to the comparison of proportions in dependent samples. Data were analyzed from studies conducted to verify the suitability of replacing a conventional method with a new one for identifying the presence of Salmonella. It is shown that, in most situations, the McNemar test does not provide all the elements required by the microbiologist to make a final decision and that appropriate functions of the proportions need to be considered. Sample sizes suitable to guarantee a test with a high power in the detection of significant differences regarding the problem studied are obtained by simulation. Examples of functions that are of great value to the microbiologist are presented. PMID:17803152

  6. Encoded evidence: DNA in forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Jobling, Mark A; Gill, Peter

    2004-10-01

    Sherlock Holmes said "it has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important", but never imagined that such a little thing, the DNA molecule, could become perhaps the most powerful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Twenty years after the development of DNA fingerprinting, forensic DNA analysis is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects and the identification of victims of crimes, accidents and disasters, driving the development of innovative methods in molecular genetics, statistics and the use of massive intelligence databases. PMID:15510165

  7. The Use of Response Surface Methodology as a Statistical Tool for Media Optimization in Lipase Production from the Dairy Effluent Isolate Fusarium solani

    PubMed Central

    Kanmani, P.; Karthik, S.; Aravind, J.; Kumaresan, K.

    2013-01-01

    The optimization of extracellular lipase production by Fusarium isolani strain SKWF7 isolated from dairy wastewater was carried out in this study. Initially, the physicochemical factors significantly influencing enzyme production were studied by varying one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT). A mesophilic temperature of 40°C, alkaline pH of 8, and incubation period of 72 hours were found to be the optimal conditions for lipase production. Among the media components, the disaccharide sucrose acted as the best carbon source; palm oil as the best inducing lipid substrate; casein and (NH4)2SO4 as the best organic and inorganic nitrogen sources; Ca2+ ion as the best trace element. In the next phase of work, statistical optimization of medium components was performed by employing the Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum concentrations of three significant factors, namely, palm oil, (NH4)2SO4, and CaCO3 were determined by this method to be 5% (v/v), 5.5 g/L, and 0.1 g/L, respectively. RSM-guided design of experiments resulted in a maximum lipase production of 73.3 U/ml, which is a 1.7-fold increase in comparison with that obtained in the unoptimized medium. These results point towards the success of the model in developing a process for the production of lipase, an enzyme of enormous industrial significance. PMID:25969775

  8. Forensic standardizations in torture and death in custody investigations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Torture and death in custody have incurred rapid development as juridical subject in recent years in Europe, with the implementation of the European Convention of Human Rights. Evaluation of sufferance severity, which is the consequence of pathology with chronic evolution, the predictability of decompensation of a subclinical pathology, and translating these medical information on a scale measuring the severity of detention consequences, are all challenges for the modern detention healthcare system, in which most allegations of torture are due to lack of appropriate medical treatment administered to inmates. Where ethics are concerned, the main data difficulties are addressed in ethical conflicts between officials and experts of the parties and also between experts and judiciary officials who handle cases of torture or death in detention; this is why standardization is very important in such cases both in clinical expertise and in autopsies or exhumations. Discussions: We must improve the forensic expertise methodology, the process of collecting data with statistical purposes, and sound evaluation criteria, all in a strong connection with the need for a balanced legal framework applied in the case of civil compensations granted after death in custody, and the biunique relation between medico-legal expertise and case investigation has to be standardized. PMID:24265878

  9. Oxygen isotopic measurements by secondary ion mass spectrometry in uranium oxide microparticles: a nuclear forensic diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, G; Phinney, D; Blidstein, O; Betti, M

    2002-12-01

    To exploit oxygen isotopic measurement by SIMS as a diagnostic tool in nuclear forensics, the magnitude and reproducibility of 0-isotope instrumental mass discrimination for O-isotope standards in the SIMS laboratory at the Institute for Transuranium Elements has been evaluated. Tests for matrix-dependent discrimination effects on three different O-isotope standards with substantially different matrix compositions have been performed. The results were checked by an interlaboratory comparison of O-isotope discrimination with those obtained in the SIMS laboratory at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on two standards. The results from the two laboratories are in very good agreement, indicating statistically indistinguishable instrumental mass discrimination factors for 180/160 ratios on the Cameca 6f and 3f, when the analyses are performed under the experimental conditions described. The 2sigma(mean) uncertainties of these factors are in the range of 0.3-0.9%. In accordance with the tested methodology, 0-isotope compositions were measured in three particulate uranium oxide samples of nuclear forensics interest. PMID:12498207

  10. Bio-forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Trewhella, J.

    2004-01-01

    Bioforensics presents significant technical challenges. Determining if an outbreak is natural or not, and then providing evidence to trace an outbreak to its origin is very complex. Los Alamos scientists pioneered research and development that has generated leading edge strain identification methods based on sequence data. Molecular characterization of environmental background samples enable development of highly specific pathogen signatures. Economic impacts of not knowing the relationships at the molecular level Many different kinds of data are needed for DNA-based bio-forensics.

  11. Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

  12. Nanoparticles in forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantu, Antonio A.

    2008-10-01

    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  13. Forensic Analysis of Cathinones.

    PubMed

    Gautam, L; Shanmuganathan, A; Cole, M D

    2013-03-01

    In the past decade there has been a significant increase in the popularity of synthetic cathinones in the illegal drug market. They have been easily available from Internet-based vendors as well as at "head shops" and "smart shops". The recent prominence of synthetic cathinones can be attributed to their stimulatory properties similar to those of amphetamines. This paper provides a review on the current popular cathinone derivatives, their history and prevalence in the illegal drug market, legislation of these drugs in various countries, pharmacology, toxicology, and metabolism studies, analysis of toxicology samples (blood, urine, and hair) and criminalistic samples (seized, purchased via the Internet, and synthesized). From the reviewed literature, it is concluded that the products sold as "legal highs" do not only contain cathinone but also cathinone derivatives, and adulterants such as caffeine, lidocaine, and inorganic materials. Full toxicity data is currently unavailable for this drug class and hence more research is required with regard to their analysis and metabolism. Moreover, clandestine chemists are constantly synthesizing new derivatives and hence forensic chemists often need to synthesize and characterize these drugs to confirm the identity of the seized samples. This is expensive as well as time-consuming. Therefore, there is a need for national and international collaboration among forensic chemists to overcome this difficulty. PMID:26226850

  14. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  15. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  16. Forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jessica; Lehman, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    Before the routine use of DNA profiling, blood typing was an important forensic tool. However, blood typing was not very discriminating. For example, roughly 30% of the United States population has type A-positive blood. Therefore, if A-positive blood were found at a crime scene, it could have come from 30% of the population. DNA profiling has a much better ability for discrimination. Forensic laboratories no longer routinely determine blood type. If blood is found at a crime scene, DNA profiling is performed. From Jeffrey's discovery of DNA fingerprinting to the development of PCR of STRs to the formation of DNA databases, our knowledge of DNA and DNA profiling have expanded greatly. Also, the applications for which we use DNA profiling have increased. DNA profiling is not just used for criminal case work, but it has expanded to encompass paternity testing, disaster victim identification, monitoring bone marrow transplants, detecting fetal cells in a mother's blood, tracing human history, and a multitude of other areas. The future of DNA profiling looks expansive with the development of newer instrumentation and techniques. PMID:22693781

  17. Forensic web watch 3.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N

    2000-03-01

    Since the publication of the first 'Forensic Web Watch' article a new search engine has become available, free of charge at the time of writing, to surfers of the Internet (Net). Fast Search claims to seek out sites of interest for the user from 'all the Web, all the time trade mark ' as opposed to parts of the Net as is more common with other search machines. It is easy to use, extremely fast but as it searches so much more of the Net, the end result is considerably larger. This, in turn, may lead to a longer time to seek out useful information as opposed to the obscure. Having said this, it is recommended to add to your search engine bookmarks. A search for sites on issues related to 'Police Surgeons' will yield limited information, as each country will have a different person filling this role, all referred to by different terms. The one common feature, however, to all such groups as well as forensic pathologists and scientists, is that they will work with, or in some cases for, the police services of their respective country. Thus, in this article we will look at sites related to the police which may have useful information related to their work, specific cases of interest and research and development which may effect our practice. PMID:15274993

  18. Scope of practice issues in forensic nursing.

    PubMed

    Evans, A M; Wells, D

    2001-01-01

    1. There is significant role variation, across the Western world, in relation to how forensic nurses practice. 2. The authors conducted a pilot survey of forensic nurses in Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and the United Kingdom to examine forensic nursing practice, role definition, and role boundaries. 3. Issues arising from the data include the visibility of forensic nurses, the client group, forensic-specific education, and role development. PMID:11197994

  19. Genetic analysis and attribution of microbial forensics evidence.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Johnson, Martin D; Fraser, Claire M; Leighton, Terrance J; Murch, Randall S; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2005-01-01

    Because of the availability of pathogenic microorganisms and the relatively low cost of preparing and disseminating bioweapons, there is a continuing threat of biocrime and bioterrorism. Thus, enhanced capabilities are needed that enable the full and robust forensic exploitation and interpretation of microbial evidence from acts of bioterrorism or biocrimes. To respond to the need, greater resources and efforts are being applied to the burgeoning field of microbial forensics. Microbial forensics focuses on the characterization, analysis and interpretation of evidence for attributional purposes from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, hoax or inadvertent agent release. To enhance attribution capabilities, a major component of microbial forensics is the analysis of nucleic acids to associate or eliminate putative samples. The degree that attribution can be addressed depends on the context of the case, the available knowledge of the genetics, phylogeny, and ecology of the target microorganism, and technologies applied. The types of genetic markers and features that can impact statistical inferences of microbial forensic evidence include: single nucleotide polymorphisms, repetitive sequences, insertions and deletions, mobile elements, pathogenicity islands, virulence and resistance genes, house keeping genes, structural genes, whole genome sequences, asexual and sexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer, conjugation, transduction, lysogeny, gene conversion, recombination, gene duplication, rearrangements, and mutational hotspots. Nucleic acid based typing technologies include: PCR, real-time PCR, MLST, MLVA, whole genome sequencing, and microarrays. PMID:16417203

  20. Next generation sequencing and its applications in forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2015-09-01

    It has been almost a decade since the first next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies emerged and quickly changed the way genetic research is conducted. Today, full genomes are mapped and published almost weekly and with ever increasing speed and decreasing costs. NGS methods and platforms have matured during the last 10 years, and the quality of the sequences has reached a level where NGS is used in clinical diagnostics of humans. Forensic genetic laboratories have also explored NGS technologies and especially in the last year, there has been a small explosion in the number of scientific articles and presentations at conferences with forensic aspects of NGS. These contributions have demonstrated that NGS offers new possibilities for forensic genetic case work. More information may be obtained from unique samples in a single experiment by analyzing combinations of markers (STRs, SNPs, insertion/deletions, mRNA) that cannot be analyzed simultaneously with the standard PCR-CE methods used today. The true variation in core forensic STR loci has been uncovered, and previously unknown STR alleles have been discovered. The detailed sequence information may aid mixture interpretation and will increase the statistical weight of the evidence. In this review, we will give an introduction to NGS and single-molecule sequencing, and we will discuss the possible applications of NGS in forensic genetics. PMID:25704953

  1. The state of nuclear forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  2. Compulsory Education: Statistics, Methodology, Reforms and New Tendencies. Conference Papers for the 8th Session of the International Standing Conference for the History of Education (Parma, Italy, September 3-6, 1986). Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genovesi, Giovanni, Ed.

    This collection, the last of four volumes on the history of compulsory education among the nations of Europe and the western hemisphere, analyzes statistics, methodology, reforms, and new tendencies. Twelve of the document's 18 articles are written in English, 3 are written in French and 3 are in Italian. Summaries accompany most articles; three…

  3. NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.

    2011-02-07

    The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

  4. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  5. Forensic analysis of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Michael R; Kaley, Elizabeth A; Finney, Eric E

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of four different biodiesel blends, as well as homemade biodiesel prepared from vegetable oil, has been performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identification of methyl esters within the biodiesel along with any background components is made possible by recognizing their mass spectral fragmentation patterns. These fuels were subjected to typical fire scene environments, specifically weathering and microbial degradation, to investigate how these environments affect the analysis. A matrix study was also performed on wood, carpet, and clothing in order to identify any interferences from these substrates. The data obtained herein will provide the forensic science community with the data needed to help recognize these increasingly common ignitable liquids. PMID:27060442

  6. Forensic historiography: narratives and science.

    PubMed

    Drukteinis, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. PMID:25492068

  7. Neuroimaging, culture, and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    The spread of neuroimaging technologies around the world has led to diverse practices of forensic psychiatry and the emergence of neuroethics and neurolaw. This article surveys the neuroethics and neurolegal literature on the use of forensic neuroimaging within the courtroom. Next, the related literature within medical anthropology and science and technology studies is reviewed to show how debates about forensic neuroimaging reflect cultural tensions about attitudes regarding the self, mental illness, and medical expertise. Finally, recommendations are offered on how forensic psychiatrists can add to this research, given their professional interface between law and medicine. At stake are the fundamental concerns that surround changing conceptions of the self, sickness, and expectations of medicine. PMID:19535562

  8. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  9. Age Estimation in Forensic Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L.

    2010-01-01

    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955–1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 (14C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2 = 0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 1.0 ± 0.6 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 ± 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification. PMID:19965905

  10. Forensics in dermatology: part II.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kalpana; Lowenstein, Eve J

    2011-05-01

    The evaluation of skin findings is critical in identifying many types of injury, whether self- inflicted or accidentally or intentionally inflicted. Specific causes of injury include homicide, abuse, neglect, assault, self-inflicted injury, suicide, torture, poisoning, and bioterrorism. Forensic findings in hair and nails are also discussed. This overview of dermatologic findings in forensic pathology highlights the significance of the cutaneous manifestations of injury. PMID:21496700

  11. Forensic hash for multimedia information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  12. Forensic document analysis using scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Douglas K.

    2009-05-01

    The authentication and identification of the source of a printed document(s) can be important in forensic investigations involving a wide range of fraudulent materials, including counterfeit currency, travel and identity documents, business and personal checks, money orders, prescription labels, travelers checks, medical records, financial documents and threatening correspondence. The physical and chemical characterization of document materials - including paper, writing inks and printed media - is becoming increasingly relevant for law enforcement agencies, with the availability of a wide variety of sophisticated commercial printers and copiers which are capable of producing fraudulent documents of extremely high print quality, rendering these difficult to distinguish from genuine documents. This paper describes various applications and analytical methodologies using scanning electron miscoscopy/energy dispersive (x-ray) spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and related technologies for the characterization of fraudulent documents, and illustrates how their morphological and chemical profiles can be compared to (1) authenticate and (2) link forensic documents with a common source(s) in their production history.

  13. Forensic seismology revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in

  14. Extending a context model for microphone forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraetzer, Christian; Qian, Kun; Dittmann, Jana

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we extend an existing context model for statistical pattern recognition based microphone forensics by: first, generating a generalized model for this process and second, using this general model to construct a complex new application scenario model for microphone forensic investigations on the detection of playback recordings (a.k.a. replays, re-recordings, double-recordings). Thereby, we build the theoretical basis for answering the question whether an audio recording was made to record a playback or natural sound. The results of our investigations on the research question of playback detection imply that it is possible with our approach on our evaluation set of six microphones. If the recorded sound is not modified prior to playback, we achieve in our tests 89.00% positive indications on the correct two microphones involved. If the sound is post-processed (here, by normalization) this figure decreases (in our normalization example to 36.00%, while another 50.67% of the tests still indicate two microphones, of which one has actually not been involved in the recording and playback recording process).

  15. Forensic aspects of starvation.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Ortmann, Jan; Doberentz, Elke

    2016-09-01

    Fatal starvation is a rare cause of death in industrialized countries. However, it may have major medicolegal importance if death results from the deliberate withholding of food, especially from infants. In such cases, the task of the forensic pathologist and the medical examiner, respectively, is to clarify the cause of death and give an expert opinion on the degree and duration of starvation. Several classification systems have been developed to estimate protein-energy malnutrition in developing countries. Simpler classifications, such as the Gomez classification, use the weight expected for the respective age group as the standard. However, smaller infants will be lighter, and therefore the classification may not be accurate in this case. Following the Waterlow classification, the extent of stunted growth (referring to growth retardation in cases of chronic malnutrition) is calculated using the ratio of the measured body height to that expected for the age. Using such classification systems, grading of stunting and wasting can be achieved and may greatly help in the assessment of a given child's nutritional status in legal cases. The application of the Waterlow classification to the authors' case material and previously published cases in the literature is herein demonstrated. The Waterlow classification is not only of importance for grading the final stage of fatal starvation, but also for the chronological development of the nutritional status if anthropometrical data have been repeatedly recorded from the affected individual in vivo. PMID:27145935

  16. Forensic psychiatry in Chile.

    PubMed

    St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu

    2012-01-01

    Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. PMID:23102739

  17. Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

    Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

  18. Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

  19. Steganography forensics method for detecting least significant bit replacement attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Wei, Chengcheng; Han, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We present an image forensics method to detect least significant bit replacement steganography attack. The proposed method provides fine-grained forensics features by using the hierarchical structure that combines pixels correlation and bit-planes correlation. This is achieved via bit-plane decomposition and difference matrices between the least significant bit-plane and each one of the others. Generated forensics features provide the susceptibility (changeability) that will be drastically altered when the cover image is embedded with data to form a stego image. We developed a statistical model based on the forensics features and used least square support vector machine as a classifier to distinguish stego images from cover images. Experimental results show that the proposed method provides the following advantages. (1) The detection rate is noticeably higher than that of some existing methods. (2) It has the expected stability. (3) It is robust for content-preserving manipulations, such as JPEG compression, adding noise, filtering, etc. (4) The proposed method provides satisfactory generalization capability.

  20. Forensic Occupational Therapy in Canada: The Current State of Practice.

    PubMed

    Chui, Adora L Y; Wong, Chantal Isabelle; Maraj, Sara A; Fry, Danielle; Jecker, Justine; Jung, Bonny

    2016-09-01

    Although occupational therapists have been practicing in forensic settings for many years, there is a paucity of literature regarding the nature of this practice in Canada. The purpose of this study was to describe the practices of Canadian occupational therapists in forensic mental health. An online survey was designed based on the Canadian Practice Process Framework. Following purposive and snowball sampling, responses were analysed with descriptive statistics and content analysis. Twenty-seven clinicians responded (56% response rate). Respondents indicated commonalities in workplaces, client caseloads and practice challenges. The outstanding need in Canada to demonstrate client outcomes through the use of evaluation instruments reflects those practice gaps identified internationally. Education, advocacy and research are critical areas for the development of Canadian forensic occupational therapy. Although findings heavily reflect one provincial context and may not be generalizable to nonhospital settings, a number of priority areas were identified. Future efforts should clarify the role of forensic occupational therapy to stakeholders, and validate their contributions through research that evaluates intervention efficacy and meaningful outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26890357

  1. Forensic radiology and personal identification of unidentified bodies: a review.

    PubMed

    Ciaffi, R; Gibelli, D; Cattaneo, C

    2011-09-01

    Personal identification of unidentified bodies is crucial for ethical, juridical and civil reasons and is performed through comparison between biological data obtained from the cadaver and antemortem material from one or more missing persons to whom the body may have belonged in life. The increasing applications of forensic radiology and the wide use of conventional radiography and computed tomography (CT) in routine clinical practice demonstrate the potential of these technologies as tools for verifying the correspondence between an unidentified body and an identity suspect. This paper reviews the literature concerning the application of forensic radiology to the difficult issue of personal identification. Despite the increasing importance of the comparison between radiographic and CT findings, numerous limitations still need to be overcome, including the fact that few forensic centres have access to sophisticated X-ray technologies and that the reliability of those technologies for detecting specific morphological traits and bone lesions is a matter of intense debate. In addition, as with other morphological methods for identification, comparisons between antemortem and postmortem data require standardisation and statistical analysis, especially in Europe where there are very few indications concerning the admission in court of evidence obtained by anthropological and radiological methods. In the future, with developments in radiographic technologies and increasing numbers of studies on their application to the forensic setting, radiology will become one of the most useful tools in the field of personal identification. PMID:21509554

  2. System Support for Forensic Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan

    Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.

  3. Forensic Botany: Evidence and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Coyle, H M

    2009-01-01

    Forensic botany is the use of plant evidence in matters of law. While plant fragments are often collected as trace evidence, they are only occasionally identified using microscopy and are still more rarely assessed using molecular biology techniques for individualization and sourcing of a sample. There are many different methods useful for DNA typing of plants; this review focuses on those techniques (DNA sequencing, STR, AFLP, RAPD) most relevant to the forensic science community and on those methods currently in practice. Plant evidence is commonly associated with homicides, with clandestine graves, as trace pollen on clothing, vehicles, or packaging, or in the transport of illicit drugs. DNA can be especially useful for the identification of minute quantity of samples, for differentiation of plants that lack distinguishing morphological features, and for generating a unique identifier for associative forensic evidence. PMID:26242238

  4. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

    2012-10-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  5. Forensic discrimination of blue ballpoint pens on documents by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Alamilla, Francisco; Calcerrada, Matías; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Torre, Mercedes

    2013-05-10

    The differentiation of blue ballpoint pen inks written on documents through an LA-ICP-MS methodology is proposed. Small common office paper portions containing ink strokes from 21 blue pens of known origin were cut and measured without any sample preparation. In a first step, Mg, Ca and Sr were proposed as internal standards (ISs) and used in order to normalize elemental intensities and subtract background signals from the paper. Then, specific criteria were designed and employed to identify target elements (Li, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Sn, W and Pb) which resulted independent of the IS chosen in a 98% of the cases and allowed a qualitative clustering of the samples. In a second step, an elemental-related ratio (ink ratio) based on the targets previously identified was used to obtain mass independent intensities and perform pairwise comparisons by means of multivariate statistical analyses (MANOVA, Tukey's HSD and T2 Hotelling). This treatment improved the discrimination power (DP) and provided objective results, achieving a complete differentiation among different brands and a partial differentiation within pen inks from the same brands. The designed data treatment, together with the use of multivariate statistical tools, represents an easy and useful tool for differentiating among blue ballpoint pen inks, with hardly sample destruction and without the need for methodological calibrations, being its use potentially advantageous from a forensic-practice standpoint. To test the procedure, it was applied to analyze real handwritten questioned contracts, previously studied by the Department of Forensic Document Exams of the Criminalistics Service of Civil Guard (Spain). The results showed that all questioned ink entries were clustered in the same group, being those different from the remaining ink on the document. PMID:23597731

  6. Neurobiological Correlates in Forensic Assessment: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    van der Gronde, Toon; Kempes, Maaike; van El, Carla; Rinne, Thomas; Pieters, Toine

    2014-01-01

    Background With the increased knowledge of biological risk factors, interest in including this information in forensic assessments is growing. Currently, forensic assessments are predominantly focused on psychosocial factors. A better understanding of the neurobiology of violent criminal behaviour and biological risk factors could improve forensic assessments. Objective To provide an overview of the current evidence about biological risk factors that predispose people to antisocial and violent behaviour, and determine its usefulness in forensic assessment. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using articles from PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed published between 2000 and 2013. Results This review shows that much research on the relationship between genetic predisposition and neurobiological alterations with aggression is performed on psychiatric patients or normal populations. However, the number of studies comparing offenders is limited. There is still a great need to understand how genetic and neurobiological alterations and/or deficits are related to violent behaviour, specifically criminality. Most studies focus on only one of the genetic or neurobiological fields related to antisocial and/or violent behaviour. To reliably correlate the findings of these fields, a standardization of methodology is urgently needed. Conclusion Findings from the current review suggest that violent aggression, like all forms of human behaviour, both develops under specific genetic and environmental conditions, and requires interplay between these conditions. Violence should be considered as the end product of a chain of life events, during which risks accumulate and potentially reinforce each other, displaying or triggering a specific situation. This systematic review did not find evidence of predispositions or neurobiological alterations that solely explain antisocial or violent behaviour. With better designed studies, more correlation between diverse fields, and more

  7. The Clinician and Forensic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Root, Irving; Scott, Wayne

    1973-01-01

    Although it is an intrinsic part of all medical practice forensic medicine often is either unrecognized as such or is consciously or subconsciously evaded. The failure to apply some rather basic and simple forensic principles that only the physician is capable of doing may result in problems to the patient ranging from frustration to near catastrophe. For physicians who are reasonably well equipped to understand the legal system, the successful conclusion of a legal case, including, sometimes, an appearance in court, can be stimulating and interesting. PMID:4733272

  8. Forensic seismology revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in

  9. Forensic methods and the podiatric physician.

    PubMed

    Nirenberg, M S

    1989-05-01

    This is an introductory study of forensic podiatry. To elevate forensic podiatry to the level of forensic odontology and forensic anthropology, the podiatric medical profession must begin educational programs and research. A system for monitoring the activities of podiatrists involved in forensic medicine must be established to ensure that the high degree of integrity to which the profession is committed is maintained. By following these guidelines, the author believes that sometime in the future a podiatrist will be on the staff of every major police department in the country. At that point, the podiatric medical profession will have achieved unsurpassed status, recognition, and prestige. PMID:2664129

  10. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature.

    PubMed

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B

    2015-01-01

    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int. PMID:26227138

  11. Towards a Formalization of Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slay, Jill; Lin, Yi-Chi; Turnbull, Benjamin; Beckett, Jason; Lin, Paul

    While some individuals have referred to digital forensics as an art, the literature of the discipline suggests a trend toward the formalization of digital forensics as a forensic science. Questions about the quality of digital evidence and forensic soundness continue to be raised by researchers and practitioners in order to ensure the trustworthiness of digital evidence and its value to the courts. This paper reviews the development of digital forensic models, procedures and standards to lay a foundation for the discipline. It also points to new work that provides validation models through a complete mapping of the discipline.

  12. A Control Framework for Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Solms, Sebastiaan; Louwrens, Cecil; Reekie, Colette; Grobler, Talania

    This paper introduces a control framework for digital forensics. It proposes a taxonomy for control objectives, categorized within the phases of the digital forensic process: planning and preparation, incident response, investigation and juridical/evidentiary. Using the taxonomy as a basis, a digital forensic reference framework, consisting of control groupings, control objectives and detailed control objectives, is defined. The control framework is intended to provide a sound theoretical basis for digital forensics as well as a reference framework for digital forensics governance within organizations.

  13. Forensic Evidence in Homicide Investigations and Prosecutions.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Tom; Regoeczi, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Even though forensic evidence is collected at virtually every homicide scene, only a few studies have examined its role in investigation and prosecution. This article adds to the literature by providing the results of a study of 294 homicide cases (315 victims) occurring in Cleveland, Ohio, between 2008 and 2011. Through a logistic regression on open versus closed cases, the collection of knives, administration of gunshot residue (GSR) kits, and clothing at the scene were positively and significantly related to case closures, while collection of ballistics evidence and DNA evidence were statistically significant in the opposite direction. With regard to analysis, the clearance rate for cases with probative results (i.e., matches or exclusions) was 63.1% compared to a closure rate of 56.3% for cases without probative results. However, only 23 cases had probative results prior to arrest compared to 128 cases with probative results after arrest. PMID:26174557

  14. Forensic odontology in the disaster victim identification process.

    PubMed

    Pittayapat, P; Jacobs, R; De Valck, E; Vandermeulen, D; Willems, G

    2012-07-01

    Disaster victim identification (DVI) is an intensive and demanding task involving specialists from various disciplines. The forensic dentist is one of the key persons who plays an important role in the DVI human identification process. In recent years, many disaster incidents have occurred that challenged the DVI team with various kinds of difficulties related to disaster management and unique situations in each disaster. New technologies have been developed to make the working process faster and more effective and the different DVI protocols have been evaluated and improved. The aim of this article is to collate all information regarding diagnostic tools and methodologies pertaining to forensic odontological DVI, both current and future. It can be concluded that lessons learned from previous disaster incidents have helped to optimize working protocols and to develop new tools that can be applied in future DVI operation. The working procedures have been greatly improved by newly developed technologies. PMID:23000806

  15. Potential Applications of Scanning Probe Microscopy in Forensic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, G. S.; Watson, J. A.

    2007-04-01

    The forensic community utilises a myriad of techniques to investigate a wide range of materials, from paint flakes to DNA. The various microscopic techniques have provided some of the greatest contributions, e.g., FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared) microspectroscopy utilised in copy toner discrimination, multi-layer automobile paint fragment examination, etc, SEM-EDA (scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis) used to investigate glass fragments, fibers, and explosives, and SEM in microsampling for elemental analysis, just to name a few. This study demonstrates the ability of the Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) to analyse human fingerprints on surfaces utilising a step-and-scan feature, enabling analysis of a larger field-of-view. We also extend a line crossings study by incorporating height analysis and surface roughness measurements. The study demonstrates the potential for SPM techniques to be utilised for forensic analysis which could complement the more traditional methodologies used in such investigations.

  16. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. PMID:27515387

  17. Concepts and possibilities in forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Bell, Chris

    2006-10-16

    Forensic intelligence can be viewed as comprising two parts, one directly concerning intelligence delivery in forensic casework, the other considering performance aspects of forensic work, loosely termed here as business intelligence. Forensic casework can be viewed as processes that produce an intelligence product useful to police investigations. Traditionally, forensic intelligence production has been confined to discipline-specific activity. This paper examines the concepts, processes and intelligence products delivered in forensic casework, the information repositories available from forensic examinations, and ways to produce within- and across-discipline casework correlations by using information technology to capitalise on the information sets available. Such analysis presents opportunities to improve forensic intelligence services as well as challenges for technical solutions to deliver appropriate data-mining capabilities for available information sets, such as digital photographs. Business intelligence refers primarily to examination of efficiency and effectiveness of forensic service delivery. This paper discusses measures of forensic activity and their relationship to crime outcomes as a measure of forensic effectiveness. PMID:16893621

  18. Introducing a semi-automatic method to simulate large numbers of forensic fingermarks for research on fingerprint identification.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Crystal M; de Jongh, Arent; Meuwly, Didier

    2012-03-01

    Statistical research on fingerprint identification and the testing of automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) performances require large numbers of forensic fingermarks. These fingermarks are rarely available. This study presents a semi-automatic method to create simulated fingermarks in large quantities that model minutiae features or images of forensic fingermarks. This method takes into account several aspects contributing to the variability of forensic fingermarks such as the number of minutiae, the finger region, and the elastic deformation of the skin. To investigate the applicability of the simulated fingermarks, fingermarks have been simulated with 5-12 minutiae originating from different finger regions for six fingers. An AFIS matching algorithm was used to obtain similarity scores for comparisons between the minutiae configurations of fingerprints and the minutiae configurations of simulated and forensic fingermarks. The results showed similar scores for both types of fingermarks suggesting that the simulated fingermarks are good substitutes for forensic fingermarks. PMID:22103733

  19. Poetic Interventions with Forensic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Art; Giovan, Marti

    1990-01-01

    Describes the use of poetry, music, and creative writing with forensic patients at a state mental health institute. Demonstrates that expressive interventions were helpful in group treatment by promoting verbalization, decision making, and the recognition of personal responsibility for incarceration. (SR)

  20. Forensics: Enhancing Civic Literacy & Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Shawn F.

    2009-01-01

    Forensics--interpretation, speech, and debate--can and should be a meaningful part of every school's curriculum. To put it simply, the course of study, alongside cocurricular competition, promotes civic education and enhances the standard curriculum by helping students explore myriad topics from multiple angles and find the truth in each,…

  1. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  2. Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be…

  3. Curriculum Guidelines on Forensic Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curriculum design explain the scope of forensic dentistry and interrelationships with other fields, give an overview of the curriculum, and outline suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty and facility…

  4. Genetic structure of forensic populations.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, N E

    1992-01-01

    DNA-based identification depends on the probability that two different individuals have the same phenotype, which is given by kinship theory. Together with the large and consistent body of evidence on human population structure, kinship theory provides a sound basis for forensic use of DNA markers. PMID:1557360

  5. Respect in forensic psychiatric nurse-patient relationships: a practical compromise.

    PubMed

    Rose, Donald N; Peter, Elizabeth; Gallop, Ruth; Angus, Jan E; Liaschenko, Joan

    2011-03-01

    The context of forensic psychiatric nursing is distinct from other psychiatric settings as, it involves placement of patients in secure environments with restrictions determined by the courts. Previous literature has identified that nurses morally struggle with respecting patients who have committed heinous offences, which can lead to the patient being depersonalized and dehumanized. Although respect is fundamental to ethical nursing practice, it has not been adequately explored conceptually or empirically. As a result, little knowledge exists that identifies how nurses develop, maintain, and express respect for patients. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concept of respect systematically, from a forensic psychiatric nurse's perspective using the qualitative methodology of focused ethnography. Forensic psychiatric nurses were recruited from two medium secure forensic rehabilitation units. In the first interview, 13 registered nurses (RNs) and two registered practical nurses (RPNs) participated, and although all informants were invited to the second interview, six RNs were lost to follow-up. Despite this loss, saturation was achieved and the data were interpreted through a feminist philosophical lens. Respect was influenced by factors categorized into four themes: (1) emotive-cognitive reactions, (2) nonjudgmental approach, (3) social identity and power, and (4) context. The data from the themes indicate that forensic psychiatric nurses strike a practical compromise, in their understanding and enactment of respect in therapeutic relationships with forensic psychiatric patients. PMID:21348929

  6. A Research Methodology for Future Summative Evaluation Studies: Incorporating the Component of Multiple Sets of Matched Samples into the Statistical Control Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan H.; Modarresi, Shahpar; Yang, Yu N.

    2006-01-01

    Summative evaluations have often been undertaken to determine the impact of educational programs on student academic achievement employing a quasi-experimental design. The summative finding is expected to be less misleading if a statistical model is performed on a dataset including a sound matched sample as a control group. This is because an…

  7. On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community.

    PubMed

    van Asten, Arian C

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today. PMID:24630329

  8. A Skeleton Tells Its Own Story: Forensic Analyses of Skeletal Elements for the Science Classroom Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naples, Virginia L.; Breed, David; Miller, Jon S.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques of forensic anthropology and pathology can provide new information to increase student interest in studying the structural details of the human skeleton. We present a simplified methodology for assessing skeletal ethnicity, sex, age, and stature. An inexpensive method has been devised for constructing an osteometric board to allow…

  9. Genetics and attribution issues that confront the microbial forensics field.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce

    2004-12-01

    The commission of an act of bioterrorism or biocrime is a real concern for law enforcement and society. Efforts are underway to develop a strong microbial forensic program to assist in identifying perpetrators of acts of bioterrorism and biocrimes, as well as serve as a deterrent for those who might commit such illicit acts. Genetic analyses of microbial organisms will likely be a powerful tool for attribution of criminal acts. There are some similarities to forensic human DNA analysis practices, such as: molecular biology technology, use of population databases, qualitative conclusions of test results, and the application of QA/QC practices. Differences include: database size and composition, statistical interpretation methods, and confidence/uncertainty in the outcome of an interpretation. PMID:15639572

  10. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1992-07-01

    , soil) adhering to a meteorite are samples of the actual physical environment in which the meteorite rested. Adhesion may derive from chemical cementation (incl. rust from the meteorite), biologic activity (incl. desert varnish?), or impact processes [2]. Given the wide diversity of geological materials and processes on the Earth, adhering geological materials may be useful forensic tools. For instance, fall in a volcanic terrane may be inconsistent with adhering sediments of clean quartz sand. Biologic matter on meteorites includes animal and vegetable matter mixed with the adhering geological materials, lichens and other plants growing in place, and purposefully attached animal matter (e.g. insect eggs). The most useful biological data may be provided by pollen, which can often be referred unambiguously to genera and species of plants. For example, sediments adhering to meteorites from the central Nullabor Plain (W. Australia) are different from sediments from the Plain's margin in S. Australia. Sediment on meteorites from the central Nullabor (e.g. Mundrabilla) lacks quartz sand and consists almost entirely of clay-sized particles, consistent with derivation from the local saprolitic soil. Sediment on meteorites from the eastern Nullabor (e.g. Hughes and Cook, S.A.) contains a significant fraction of quartz sand, 1/4- to 1/2-mm grains, probably blown from the Great Victoria Desert to the north and northwest. However, sedimentologic data alone may be misleading. For instance, sediments adhering to Nuevo Mercurio stones (H5; Zacatecas, Mexico) are clay-sized and lack coarser material. But sediment on Nuevo Mercurio (b), a ureilite found in the Nuevo Mercurio strewn field, consists of quartz sand and clay pellets, 1/4 to 1/2 mm diameter. Clearly, local environments may affect the character of sediment adhering to a meteorite, and careful detailed study may be required to determine whether a meteorite has been transported. I am grateful to R. Farrell and D. New for