The statistical multifragmentation model: Origins and recent advances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donangelo, R.; Souza, S. R.
2016-07-01
We review the Statistical Multifragmentation Model (SMM) which considers a generalization of the liquid-drop model for hot nuclei and allows one to calculate thermodynamic quantities characterizing the nuclear ensemble at the disassembly stage. We show how to determine probabilities of definite partitions of finite nuclei and how to determine, through Monte Carlo calculations, observables such as the caloric curve, multiplicity distributions, heat capacity, among others. Some experimental measurements of the caloric curve confirmed the SMM predictions of over 10 years before, leading to a surge in the interest in the model. However, the experimental determination of the fragmentation temperatures relies on the yields of different isotopic species, which were not correctly calculated in the schematic, liquid-drop picture, employed in the SMM. This led to a series of improvements in the SMM, in particular to the more careful choice of nuclear masses and energy densities, specially for the lighter nuclei. With these improvements the SMM is able to make quantitative determinations of isotope production. We show the application of SMM to the production of exotic nuclei through multifragmentation. These preliminary calculations demonstrate the need for a careful choice of the system size and excitation energy to attain maximum yields.
Qian, D B; Ma, X; Chen, Z; Li, B; Zhang, D C; Zhu, X L; Wen, W Q; Liu, H P
2014-08-01
Previous experimental work has shown that a phase transition in C60 multifragmentation induced by nanosecond laser occurs at almost constant temperature covering a wide range of laser fluency. Here the relative yields of ionic fragments (IFs) C(n)(+) (n = 1-20) resulting from the multifragmentation are measured within the phase transition region. By excluding two small IFs and magic IFs due to their abnormal behavior, the data for residual IFs are used to estimate the size distributions of primary intermediate-mass IFs in the multifragmentation regime. The distributions are found to obey power laws n(-τ). Furthermore, the exponent τ values have sensitive dependence on lower laser fluency and converge to a constant of about 2.4 ± 0.2 for larger fluencies. These observations are in good agreement with an explanation based on the Fisher droplet model, offering the tantalizing possibility of a liquid-to-gas phase transition in C60 systems. PMID:25106587
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souza, S. R.; Carlson, B. V.; Donangelo, R.; Lynch, W. G.; Tsang, M. B.
2013-07-01
The generalized Fermi breakup model, recently demonstrated to be formally equivalent to the statistical multifragmentation model, if the contribution of excited states is included in the state densities of the former, is implemented. Because this treatment requires application of the statistical multifragmentation model repeatedly on hot fragments until they have decayed to their ground states, it becomes extremely computationally demanding, making its application to the systems of interest extremely difficult. Based on exact recursion formulas previously developed by Chase and Mekjian to calculate statistical weights very efficiently, we present an implementation which is efficient enough to allow it to be applied to large systems at high excitation energies. Comparison with the gemini++ sequential decay code and the Weisskopf-Ewing evaporation model shows that the predictions obtained with our treatment are fairly similar to those obtained with these more traditional models.
Dynamical and statistical description of multifragmentation in heavy-ion collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Lihua; Wang, Ning; Ou, Li
2015-04-01
To explore the roles of the dynamical model and statistical model in the description of multifragmentation in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, the fragments charge distributions of 197Au+197Au at 35 MeV/u are analyzed by using the hybrid model of improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model plus the statistical model GEMINI. We find that, the ImQMD model can well describe the charge distributions of fragments produced in central and semicentral collisions. But for the peripheral collisions of Au+Au at 35 MeV/u, the statistical model is required at the end of the ImQMD simulations for the better description of the charge distribution of fragments. By using the hybrid model of ImQMD+GEMINI, the fragment charge distribution of Au+Au at 35 MeV/u can be reproduced reasonably well. The time evolution of the excitation energies of primary fragments is simultaneously investigated.
Nuclear multifragmentation: Antiprotons versus photons and heavy ions
Cugnon, J.
1994-09-01
Nuclear multifragmentation is the phenomenon by which a nucleus breaks into many pieces of intermediate size. It occurs in the excitation-energy regime, between the spallation + evaporation regime and the explosive fragmentation regime. The various models of multifragmentation are briefly reviewed and the possibility of critical behavior in the multifragmentation process is underlined. Unanswered problems are stated. It is shown, by model calculations, that antiproton annihilation is, in many respects, better suited than proton-nucleus and heavy-ion collisions for studying multifragmentation and, in other respects, complementary to these other tools. 36 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.
Statistical regimes of random laser fluctuations
Lepri, Stefano; Cavalieri, Stefano; Oppo, Gian-Luca; Wiersma, Diederik S.
2007-06-15
Statistical fluctuations of the light emitted from amplifying random media are studied theoretically and numerically. The characteristic scales of the diffusive motion of light lead to Gaussian or power-law (Levy) distributed fluctuations depending on external control parameters. In the Levy regime, the output pulse is highly irregular leading to huge deviations from a mean-field description. Monte Carlo simulations of a simplified model which includes the population of the medium demonstrate the two statistical regimes and provide a comparison with dynamical rate equations. Different statistics of the fluctuations helps to explain recent experimental observations reported in the literature.
Modification of surface energy in nuclear multifragmentation
Botvina, A. S.; Buyukcizmeci, N.; Erdogan, M.; Lukasik, J.; Mishustin, I. N.; Ogul, R.; Trautmann, W.
2006-10-15
Within the statistical multifragmentation model we study modifications of the surface and symmetry energy of primary fragments in the freeze-out volume. The ALADIN experimental data on multifragmentation obtained in reactions induced by high-energy projectiles with different neutron richness are analyzed. We have extracted the isospin dependence of the surface energy coefficient at different degrees of fragmentation. We conclude that the surface energy of hot fragments produced in multifragmentation reactions differs from the values extracted for isolated nuclei at low excitation. At high fragment multiplicity, it becomes nearly independent of the neutron content of the fragments.
Statistical instability of barrier microdischarges operating in townsend regime
Nagorny, V. P.
2007-01-15
The dynamics of barrier microdischarges operating in a Townsend regime is studied analytically and via kinetic particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that statistical fluctuations of the number of charged particles in the discharge gap strongly influence the dynamics of natural oscillations of the discharge current and may even lead to a disruption of the discharge. Analysis of the statistical effects based on a simple model is suggested. The role of external sources in stabilizing microdischarges is clarified.
Dynamically strained ferroelastics: Statistical behavior in elastic and plastic regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, X.; Lookman, T.; Zhao, Z.; Saxena, A.; Sun, J.; Salje, E. K. H.
2013-03-01
The dynamic evolution in ferroelastic crystals under external shear is explored by computer simulation of a two-dimensional model. The characteristic geometrical patterns obtained during shear deformation include dynamic tweed in the elastic regime as well as interpenetrating needle domains in the plastic regime. As a result, the statistics of jerk energy differ in the elastic and plastic regimes. In the elastic regime the distributions of jerk energy are sensitive to temperature and initial configurations. However, in the plastic regime the jerk distributions are rather robust and do not depend much on the details of the configurations, although the geometrical pattern formed after yield is strongly influenced by the elastic constants of the materials and the configurations we used. Specifically, for all geometrical configurations we studied, the energy distribution of jerks shows a power-law noise pattern P(E)˜E-(γ-1)(γ-1=1.3-2) at low temperatures and a Vogel-Fulcher distribution P(E) ˜ exp-(E/E0) at high temperatures. More complex behavior occurs at the crossover between these two regimes where our simulated jerk distributions are very well described by a generalized Poisson distributions P(E)˜E-(γ-1) exp-(E/E0)n with n = 0.4-0.5 and γ-1 ≈ 0 (Kohlrausch law). The geometrical mechanisms for the evolution of the ferroelastic microstructure under strain deformation remain similar in all thermal regimes, whereas their thermodynamic behavior differs dramatically: on heating, from power-law statistics via the Kohlrausch law to a Vogel-Fulcher law. There is hence no simple way to predict the local evolution of the twin microstructure from just the observed statistical behavior of a ferroelastic crystal. It is shown that the Poisson distribution is a convenient way to describe the crossover behavior contained in all the experimental data without recourse to specific scaling functions or temperature-dependent cutoff lengths.
Detector noise statistics in the non-linear regime
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shopbell, P. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.
1992-01-01
The statistical behavior of an idealized linear detector in the presence of threshold and saturation levels is examined. It is assumed that the noise is governed by the statistical fluctuations in the number of photons emitted by the source during an exposure. Since physical detectors cannot have infinite dynamic range, our model illustrates that all devices have non-linear regimes, particularly at high count rates. The primary effect is a decrease in the statistical variance about the mean signal due to a portion of the expected noise distribution being removed via clipping. Higher order statistical moments are also examined, in particular, skewness and kurtosis. In principle, the expected distortion in the detector noise characteristics can be calibrated using flatfield observations with count rates matched to the observations. For this purpose, some basic statistical methods that utilize Fourier analysis techniques are described.
New Statistical Learning Methods for Estimating Optimal Dynamic Treatment Regimes
Zhao, Ying-Qi; Zeng, Donglin; Laber, Eric B.; Kosorok, Michael R.
2014-01-01
Dynamic treatment regimes (DTRs) are sequential decision rules for individual patients that can adapt over time to an evolving illness. The goal is to accommodate heterogeneity among patients and find the DTR which will produce the best long term outcome if implemented. We introduce two new statistical learning methods for estimating the optimal DTR, termed backward outcome weighted learning (BOWL), and simultaneous outcome weighted learning (SOWL). These approaches convert individualized treatment selection into an either sequential or simultaneous classification problem, and can thus be applied by modifying existing machine learning techniques. The proposed methods are based on directly maximizing over all DTRs a nonparametric estimator of the expected long-term outcome; this is fundamentally different than regression-based methods, for example Q-learning, which indirectly attempt such maximization and rely heavily on the correctness of postulated regression models. We prove that the resulting rules are consistent, and provide finite sample bounds for the errors using the estimated rules. Simulation results suggest the proposed methods produce superior DTRs compared with Q-learning especially in small samples. We illustrate the methods using data from a clinical trial for smoking cessation. PMID:26236062
IDENTIFICATION OF REGIME SHIFTS IN TIME SERIES USING NEIGHBORHOOD STATISTICS
The identification of alternative dynamic regimes in ecological systems requires several lines of evidence. Previous work on time series analysis of dynamic regimes includes mainly model-fitting methods. We introduce two methods that do not use models. These approaches use state-...
Surface instabilities and nuclear multifragmentation
Moretto, L.G.; Tso, K.; Colonna, N.; Wozniak, G.J.
1992-03-01
Central heavy-ion collisions, as described by a Boltzman-Nordheim-Vlasov calculation, form nuclear disks that break up into several fragments due to surface instabilities of the Rayleigh-Taylor kind. We demonstrate that a sheet of liquid, nuclear or otherwise, stable in the limit of infinitely sharp surfaces, becomes unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. The relevance of these instabilities to nuclear multifragmentation is discussed.
A dynamical model for multifragmentation of nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souza, S. R.; de Paula, L.; Leray, S.; Nemeth, J.; Ngô, C.; Ngô, H.
1994-04-01
A schematic model based on molecular dynamics and a restructured aggregation model is presented. We apply it to study the 16O+ 80Br system at several bombarding energies and compare some of the results to available emulsion data. We find that the model reproduces the experimental charge distributions rather well and the onset of multifragmentation for this system. Some general features of nuclear multifragmentation related to charged-particle production and intermediate-mass-fragments production are discussed.
Karnaukhov, V. A.; Oeschler, H.; Budzanowski, A.; Avdeyev, S. P.; Botvina, A. S.; Cherepanov, E. A.; Karcz, W.; Kirakosyan, V. V.; Rukoyatkin, P. A.; Skwirczynska, I.; Norbeck, E.
2008-12-15
Critical temperature T{sub c} for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition is estimated from both the multifragmentation and fission data. In the first case, the critical temperature is obtained by analysis of the intermediate-mass-fragment yields in p(8.1 GeV) + Au collisions within the statistical model of multifragmentation. In the second case, the experimental fission probability for excited {sup 188}Os is compared with the calculated one with T{sub c} as a free parameter. It is concluded for both cases that the critical temperature is higher than 15 MeV.
Mass and Isospin Effects in Multifragmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sfienti, C.; Adrich, P.; Aumann, T.; Bacri, C. O.; Barczyk, T.; Bassini, R.; Boiano, C.; Botvina, A. S.; Boudard, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Chbihi, A.; Cibor, J.; Czech, B.; De Napoli, M.; Ducret, J.-E.; Emling, H.; Frankland, J.; Hellström, M.; Henzlova, D.; Kezzar, K.; Immé, G.; Iori, I.; Johansson, H.; Lafriakh, A.; Le Fèvre, A.; Le Gentil, E.; Leifels, Y.; Lynch, W. G.; Lühning, J.; Łukasik, J.; Lynen, U.; Majka, Z.; Mocko, M.; Müller, W. F. J.; Mykulyak, A.; Orth, H.; Otte, A. N.; Palit, R.; Pullia, A.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Sann, H.; Schwarz, C.; Simon, H.; Sokolov, A.; Sümmerer, K.; Trautmann, W.; Tsang, M. B.; Verde, G.; Volant, C.; Wallace, M.; Weick, H.; Wiechula, J.; Wieloch, A.; Zwieglinski, B.
2005-03-01
A systematic study of isospin effects in the breakup of projectile spectators at relativistic energies has been performed with the ALADiN spectrometer at the GSI laboratory (Darmstadt). Four different projectiles 197Au, 124La, 124Sn and 107Sn, all with an incident energy of 600 AMeV, have been used, thus allowing a study of various combinations of masses and N/Z ratios in the entrance channel. The measurement of the momentum vector and of the charge of all projectile fragments with Z > 1 entering the acceptance of the ALADiN magnet has been performed with the high efficiency and resolution achieved with the TP-MUSIC IV detector. The Rise and Fall behavior of the mean multiplicity of IMFs as a function of Zbound and its dependence on the isotopic composition has been determined for the studied systems. Other observables investigated so far include mean N/Z values of the emitted light fragments and neutron multiplicities. Qualitative agreement has been obtained between the observed gross properties and the predictions of the Statistical Multifragmentation Model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forbes, G. S.; Pielke, R. A.
1985-01-01
Various empirical and statistical weather-forecasting studies which utilize stratification by weather regime are described. Objective classification was used to determine weather regime in some studies. In other cases the weather pattern was determined on the basis of a parameter representing the physical and dynamical processes relevant to the anticipated mesoscale phenomena, such as low level moisture convergence and convective precipitation, or the Froude number and the occurrence of cold-air damming. For mesoscale phenomena already in existence, new forecasting techniques were developed. The use of cloud models in operational forecasting is discussed. Models to calculate the spatial scales of forcings and resultant response for mesoscale systems are presented. The use of these models to represent the climatologically most prevalent systems, and to perform case-by-case simulations is reviewed. Operational implementation of mesoscale data into weather forecasts, using both actual simulation output and method-output statistics is discussed.
A statistical analysis of avalanching heat transport in stationary enhanced core confinement regimes
Tokunaga, S.; Jhang, Hogun; Kim, S. S.; Diamond, P. H.
2012-09-15
We present a statistical analysis of heat transport in stationary enhanced confinement regimes obtained from flux-driven gyrofluid simulations. The probability density functions of heat flux in improved confinement regimes, characterized by the Nusselt number, show significant deviation from Gaussian, with a markedly fat tail, implying the existence of heat avalanches. Two types of avalanching transport are found to be relevant to stationary states, depending on the degree of turbulence suppression. In the weakly suppressed regime, heat avalanches occur in the form of quasi-periodic (QP) heat pulses. Collisional relaxation of zonal flow is likely to be the origin of these QP heat pulses. This phenomenon is similar to transient limit cycle oscillations observed prior to edge pedestal formation in recent experiments. On the other hand, a spectral analysis of heat flux in the strongly suppressed regime shows the emergence of a 1/f (f is the frequency) band, suggesting the presence of self-organized criticality (SOC)-like episodic heat avalanches. This episodic 1/f heat avalanches have a long temporal correlation and constitute the dominant transport process in this regime.
Boundary between the thermal and statistical polarization regimes in a nuclear spin ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herzog, B. E.; Cadeddu, D.; Xue, F.; Peddibhotla, P.; Poggio, M.
2014-07-01
As the number of spins in an ensemble is reduced, the statistical fluctuations in its polarization eventually exceed the mean thermal polarization. This transition has now been surpassed in a number of recent nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, which achieve nanometer-scale detection volumes. Here, we measure nanometer-scale ensembles of nuclear spins in a KPF6 sample using magnetic resonance force microscopy. In particular, we investigate the transition between regimes dominated by thermal and statistical nuclear polarization. The ratio between the two types of polarization provides a measure of the number of spins in the detected ensemble.
Boundary between the thermal and statistical polarization regimes in a nuclear spin ensemble
Herzog, B. E.; Cadeddu, D.; Xue, F.; Peddibhotla, P.; Poggio, M.
2014-07-28
As the number of spins in an ensemble is reduced, the statistical fluctuations in its polarization eventually exceed the mean thermal polarization. This transition has now been surpassed in a number of recent nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, which achieve nanometer-scale detection volumes. Here, we measure nanometer-scale ensembles of nuclear spins in a KPF{sub 6} sample using magnetic resonance force microscopy. In particular, we investigate the transition between regimes dominated by thermal and statistical nuclear polarization. The ratio between the two types of polarization provides a measure of the number of spins in the detected ensemble.
The modification of wind turbine performance by statistically distinct atmospheric regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanderwende, B. J.; Lundquist, J. K.
2012-09-01
Power production from wind turbines can deviate from the manufacturer’s specifications due to variability in atmospheric inflow characteristics, including stability, wind shear and turbulence. The practice of insufficient data at many operational wind farms has made it difficult to characterize this meteorological forcing. In this study, nacelle wind measurements from a wind farm in the high plains of central North America were examined along with meteorological tower data to quantify the effects of atmospheric stability regimes in the boundary layer on turbine power generation. The wind power law coefficient and the bulk Richardson number were used to segregate time periods by stability to generate regime-dependent power curves. Results indicated underperformance during stable regimes and overperformance during convective regimes at moderate wind speeds (8-12 m s-1). Statistical testing using the Monte Carlo approach demonstrated that these results were robust, despite potential deviations of the nacelle wind speeds from free-stream inflow values due to momentum loss from the turbine structure and spinning rotor. A hypothetical stability dependence between free-stream and nacelle wind speeds was generated that can be evaluated in future analyses. The low instrumentation requirement of our power analysis technique should enable similar studies at many wind sites formerly considered inappropriate.
Gritsun, A
2013-05-28
The theory of chaotic dynamical systems gives many tools that can be used in climate studies. The widely used ones are the Lyapunov exponents, the Kolmogorov entropy and the attractor dimension characterizing global quantities of a system. Another potentially useful tool from dynamical system theory arises from the fact that the local analysis of a system probability distribution function (PDF) can be accomplished by using a procedure that involves an expansion in terms of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs). The system measure (or its statistical characteristics) is approximated as a weighted sum over the orbits. The weights are inversely proportional to the orbit instability characteristics so that the least unstable orbits make larger contributions to the PDF. Consequently, one can expect some relationship between the least unstable orbits and the local maxima of the system PDF. As a result, the most probable system trajectories (or 'circulation regimes' in some sense) may be explained in terms of orbits. For the special classes of chaotic dynamical systems, there is a strict theory guaranteeing the accuracy of this approach. However, a typical atmospheric model may not qualify for these theorems. In our study, we will try to apply the idea of UPO expansion to the simple atmospheric system based on the barotropic vorticity equation of the sphere. We will check how well orbits approximate the system attractor, its statistical characteristics and PDF. The connection of the most probable states of the system with the least unstable periodic orbits will also be analysed. PMID:23588051
Weather regime dependence of extreme value statistics for summer temperature and precipitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yiou, P.; Goubanova, K.; Li, Z. X.; Nogaj, M.
2008-05-01
Extreme Value Theory (EVT) is a useful tool to describe the statistical properties of extreme events. Its underlying assumptions include some form of temporal stationarity in the data. Previous studies have been able to treat long-term trends in datasets, to obtain the time dependence of EVT parameters in a parametric form. Since there is also a dependence of surface temperature and precipitation to weather patterns obtained from pressure data, we determine the EVT parameters of those meteorological variables over France conditional to the occurrence of North Atlantic weather patterns in the summer. We use a clustering algorithm on geopotential height data over the North Atlantic to obtain those patterns. This approach refines the straightforward application of EVT on climate data by allowing us to assess the role of atmospheric variability on temperature and precipitation extreme parameters. This study also investigates the statistical robustness of this relation. Our results show how weather regimes can modulate the different behavior of mean climate variables and their extremes. Such a modulation can be very different for the mean and extreme precipitation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.
2016-02-01
We describe statistical and coherence properties of the radiation from X-ray free-electron lasers (XFEL) operating in the post-saturation regime. We consider the practical case of the SASE3 FEL at the European XFEL. We perform comparison of the main characteristics of the X-ray FEL operating in the post-saturation regime with and without undulator tapering: efficiency, coherence time, and degree of transverse coherence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Samuel S. P.; Wied, Olaf; Weithmann, Alexander; Regele, Tobias; Bailey, Barbara A.; Lawrimore, Jay H.
2015-05-01
This paper describes six different temporal climate regimes of the contiguous United States (CONUS) according to interdecadal variations of surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation using the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) monthly data (Tmax, Tmin, Tmean, and precipitation) from 1895 to 2010. Our analysis is based on the probability distribution, mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, and Welch's t test. The relevant statistical parameters are computed from gridded monthly SAT and precipitation data. SAT variations lead to classification of four regimes: 1895-1930 (cool), 1931-1960 (warm), 1961-1985 (cool), and 1986-2010 (warm), while precipitation variations lead to a classification of two regimes: 1895-1975 (dry) and 1976-2010 (wet). The KS test shows that any two regimes of the above six are statistically significantly different from each other due to clear shifts of the probability density functions. Extremes of SAT and precipitation identify the ten hottest, coldest, driest, and wettest years. Welch's t test is used to discern significant differences among these extremes. The spatial patterns of the six climate regimes and some years of extreme climate are analyzed. Although the recent two decades are the warmest among the other decades since 1895 and many hottest years measured by CONUS Tmin and Tmean are in these two decades, the hottest year according to the CONUS Tmax anomalies is 1934 (1.37 °C), which is very close to the second Tmax hottest year 2006 (1.35 °C).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Samuel S. P.; Wied, Olaf; Weithmann, Alexander; Regele, Tobias; Bailey, Barbara A.; Lawrimore, Jay H.
2016-07-01
This paper describes six different temporal climate regimes of the contiguous United States (CONUS) according to interdecadal variations of surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation using the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) monthly data (Tmax, Tmin, Tmean, and precipitation) from 1895 to 2010. Our analysis is based on the probability distribution, mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, and Welch's t test. The relevant statistical parameters are computed from gridded monthly SAT and precipitation data. SAT variations lead to classification of four regimes: 1895-1930 (cool), 1931-1960 (warm), 1961-1985 (cool), and 1986-2010 (warm), while precipitation variations lead to a classification of two regimes: 1895-1975 (dry) and 1976-2010 (wet). The KS test shows that any two regimes of the above six are statistically significantly different from each other due to clear shifts of the probability density functions. Extremes of SAT and precipitation identify the ten hottest, coldest, driest, and wettest years. Welch's t test is used to discern significant differences among these extremes. The spatial patterns of the six climate regimes and some years of extreme climate are analyzed. Although the recent two decades are the warmest among the other decades since 1895 and many hottest years measured by CONUS Tmin and Tmean are in these two decades, the hottest year according to the CONUS Tmax anomalies is 1934 (1.37 °C), which is very close to the second Tmax hottest year 2006 (1.35 °C).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schubert, David; Reyers, Mark; Pinto, Joaquim; Fink, Andreas; Massmeyer, Klaus
2016-04-01
Southeast Asia has been identified as one of the hot-spots of climate change. While the projected changes in annual precipitation are comparatively small, there is a clear tendency towards more rainfall in the dry season and an increase in extreme precipitation events. In this study, a statistical dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach is applied to obtain higher resolution and more robust regional climate change projections for tropical Southeast Asia with focus on Vietnam. First, a recent climate (RC) simulation with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with a spatial resolution of ~50 km driven by ERA-Interim (1979-2008) is performed for the tropical region of Southeast Asia. For the SDD, six weather types (WTs) are selected for Vietnam during the wet season (April - October) using a k-means cluster analysis of daily zonal wind component in 850 hPa and 200 hPa from the RC run. For each calculated weather type, simulated representatives are selected from the RC run and are then further dynamically downscaled to a resolution of 0.0625° (7 km). By using historical WT frequencies, the simulated representatives are recombined to a high resolution rainfall climatology for the recent climate. It is shown that the SDD is generally able to capture the present day climatology and that the employment of the higher resolved simulated representatives enhances the performance of the SDD. However, an overestimation of rainfall at higher altitudes is found. To obtain future climate projections, an ensemble of eight CMIP5 model members are selected to study precipitation changes. For these projections, WT frequencies of future scenarios under two representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) are taken into account for the mid-term scenario (2046-2065) and the long-term scenario (2081-2100). The strongest precipitation changes are found for the RCP8.5 scenario. Most of the models indicate a generally increase in precipitation amount in the wet period over Southeast
Scaling properties of percolation models for multifragmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngô, H.; Ngô, C.; Ighezou, F. Z.; Desbois, J.; Leray, S.; Zheng, Y.-M.
1990-03-01
We have used scaling properties of nuclear multifragmentation, which have been observed with emulsion data, to investigate the properties of some approaches based on percolation. We have studied different percolation models on a cubic lattice and shown that they can rather well reproduce the data except for binary break up. We have described what the mean field approximation would give in this context and showed that it cannot reproduce the experimental results. Most of the paper is focused on the restructured aggregation model introduced earlier which allows to well reproduce the scaling properties observed experimentally. This model has been studied in details and extended to take account of bonds breaking. It is shown that, in some cases, a nucleus can break up in two pieces. This process cannot be obtained in conventional percolation or aggregation but is observed experimentally in the emulsion data. Other features like the dimensionality of the aggregation model, the restructuration of the clusters and a schematic constraint in momentum space have also been investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, M. F.; Thompson, S. E.
2016-02-01
The prediction of flow duration curves (FDCs) in ungauged basins remains an important task for hydrologists given the practical relevance of FDCs for water management and infrastructure design. Predicting FDCs in ungauged basins typically requires spatial interpolation of statistical or model parameters. This task is complicated if climate becomes non-stationary, as the prediction challenge now also requires extrapolation through time. In this context, process-based models for FDCs that mechanistically link the streamflow distribution to climate and landscape factors may have an advantage over purely statistical methods to predict FDCs. This study compares a stochastic (process-based) and statistical method for FDC prediction in both stationary and non-stationary contexts, using Nepal as a case study. Under contemporary conditions, both models perform well in predicting FDCs, with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients above 0.80 in 75 % of the tested catchments. The main drivers of uncertainty differ between the models: parameter interpolation was the main source of error for the statistical model, while violations of the assumptions of the process-based model represented the main source of its error. The process-based approach performed better than the statistical approach in numerical simulations with non-stationary climate drivers. The predictions of the statistical method under non-stationary rainfall conditions were poor if (i) local runoff coefficients were not accurately determined from the gauge network, or (ii) streamflow variability was strongly affected by changes in rainfall. A Monte Carlo analysis shows that the streamflow regimes in catchments characterized by frequent wet-season runoff and a rapid, strongly non-linear hydrologic response are particularly sensitive to changes in rainfall statistics. In these cases, process-based prediction approaches are favored over statistical models.
Lecarpentier, Yves; Claes, Victor; Hébert, Jean-Louis; Krokidis, Xénophon; Blanc, François-Xavier; Michel, Francine; Timbely, Oumar
2015-01-01
All near-equilibrium systems under linear regime evolve to stationary states in which there is constant entropy production rate. In an open chemical system that exchanges matter and energy with the exterior, we can identify both the energy and entropy flows associated with the exchange of matter and energy. This can be achieved by applying statistical mechanics (SM), which links the microscopic properties of a system to its bulk properties. In the case of contractile tissues such as human placenta, Huxley's equations offer a phenomenological formalism for applying SM. SM was investigated in human placental stem villi (PSV) (n = 40). PSV were stimulated by means of KCl exposure (n = 20) and tetanic electrical stimulation (n = 20). This made it possible to determine statistical entropy (S), internal energy (E), affinity (A), thermodynamic force (A / T) (T: temperature), thermodynamic flow (v) and entropy production rate (A / T x v). We found that PSV operated near equilibrium, i.e., A ≺≺ 2500 J/mol and in a stationary linear regime, i.e., (A / T) varied linearly with v. As v was dramatically low, entropy production rate which quantified irreversibility of chemical processes appeared to be the lowest ever observed in any contractile system. PMID:26569482
Lecarpentier, Yves; Claes, Victor; Hébert, Jean-Louis; Krokidis, Xénophon; Blanc, François-Xavier; Michel, Francine; Timbely, Oumar
2015-01-01
All near-equilibrium systems under linear regime evolve to stationary states in which there is constant entropy production rate. In an open chemical system that exchanges matter and energy with the exterior, we can identify both the energy and entropy flows associated with the exchange of matter and energy. This can be achieved by applying statistical mechanics (SM), which links the microscopic properties of a system to its bulk properties. In the case of contractile tissues such as human placenta, Huxley’s equations offer a phenomenological formalism for applying SM. SM was investigated in human placental stem villi (PSV) (n = 40). PSV were stimulated by means of KCl exposure (n = 20) and tetanic electrical stimulation (n = 20). This made it possible to determine statistical entropy (S), internal energy (E), affinity (A), thermodynamic force (A / T) (T: temperature), thermodynamic flow (v) and entropy production rate (A / T x v). We found that PSV operated near equilibrium, i.e., A ≺≺ 2500 J/mol and in a stationary linear regime, i.e., (A / T) varied linearly with v. As v was dramatically low, entropy production rate which quantified irreversibility of chemical processes appeared to be the lowest ever observed in any contractile system. PMID:26569482
Hsi, W.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Wang, G.; Bracken, D.S.; Cornell, E.; Ginger, D.S.; Viola, V.E.; Yoder, N.R.; Korteling, R.G.; Gimeno-Nogues, F.; Ramakrishnan, E.; Rowland, D.; Yennello, S.J.; Huang, R.; Lynch, W.G.; Tsang, M.B.; Xi, H.; Breuer, H.; Morley, K.B.; Gushue, S.; Remsberg, L.P.; Friedman, W.A.; Botvina, A.
1998-07-01
Exclusive studies of sideways-peaked angular distributions for intermediate-mass fragments (IMFs) produced in hadron-induced reactions have been performed with the Indiana silicon sphere (ISiS) detector array. The effect becomes prominent for beam momenta above about 10thinspGeV/c. Both the magnitude of the effect and the peak angle increase as a function of fragment multiplicity and charge. When gated on IMF kinetic energy, the angular distributions evolve from forward peaked to nearly isotropic as the fragment energy decreases. Fragment-fragment correlation studies show no evidence for a preferred angle that might signal a fast dynamic breakup mechanism. Moving-source and intranuclear cascade simulations suggest a possible kinematic origin arising from significant transverse momentum imparted to the recoil nucleus during the fast cascade. A two-step cascade and statistical multifragmentation calculation is consistent with the data. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Using Poisson statistics to analyze supernova remnant emission in the low counts X-ray regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roper, Quentin Jeffrey
We utilize a Poisson likelihood in a maximum likelihood statistical analysis to analyze X-ray spectragraphic data. Specifically, we examine four extragalactic supernova remnants (SNR). IKT 5 (SNR 0047-73.5), IKT 25 (SNR 0104-72.3), and DEM S 128 (SNR 0103-72.4) which are designated as Type Ia in the literature due to their spectra and morphology. This is troublesome because of their asymmetry, a trait not usually associated with young Type Ia remnants. We present Chandra X-ray Observatory data on these three remnants, and perform a maximum likelihood analysis on their spectra. We find that the X-ray emission is dominated by interactions with the interstellar medium. In spite of this, we find a significant Fe overabundance in all three remnants. Through examination of radio, optical, and infrared data, we conclude that these three remnants are likely not "classical" Type Ia SNR, but may be examples of so-called "prompt" Type Ia SNR. We detect potential point sources that may be members of the progenitor systems of both DEM S 128 and IKT 5, which could suggest a new subclass of prompt Type Ia SNR, Fe-rich CC remnants. In addition, we examine IKT 18. This remnant is positionally coincident with the X-ray point source HD 5980. Due to an outburst in 1994, in which its brightness changed by 3 magnitudes (corrsponding to an increase in luminosity by a factor of 16) HD 5980 was classified as a luminous blue variable star. We examine this point source and the remnant IKT 18 in the X-ray, and find that its non-thermal photon index has decreased from 2002 to 2013, corresponding to a larger proportion of more energetic X-rays, which is unexpected.
Isolating the thermal degree of freedom in nuclear multifragmentation.
Back, B.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Gushue, S.; Hsi, W.-C.; Korteling, R. G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Laforest, R.; Lefort, T.; Martin, E.; Pienkowski, L.; Ramakrishnan, E.; Remsberg, L. P.; Rowland, D.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V. E.; Winchester, E.; Yennello, S. J.
1999-05-03
Multifragmentation studies induced by GeV light-ion beams permit investigation of the influence of intrinsic thermal properties of hot nuclear matter, with minimal interference from the compression/decompression cycle and rotational instabilities. We summarize recent results obtained with {sup 3}He, proton and pion beams up to 15 GeV/c and present the initial results from a recent experiment with 8 GeV/c antiproton and pion beams. The results are compared with INC simulations coupled to EES and SMM models and the caloric curve for the {sup 3}He data will also be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perdigão, Rui A. P.; Blöschl, Günter
2015-04-01
Emerging Processes in Flood Regime Dynamics are evaluated on the basis of symmetry breaks in the spatiotemporal sensitivity of flood regimes to changes in annual precipitation and a new dynamical model of flood regime change under nonlinearly interacting landscape-climate dynamics. The spatiotemporal sensitivity analysis is performed at regional scale using data from 804 catchments in Austria from 1976 to 2008. Results show that flood peaks change in a more responsive manner with spatial (regional) than with temporal (decadal) variability. Space-wise a 10% increase in precipitation leads to a 23% increase in flood peaks in Austria, whereas timewise a 10% increase in precipitation leads to an increase of just 6% in flood peaks. Looking at hydroclimatic regions in particular, catchments from stable dry lowlands and high wetlands exhibit similarity between the spatial and temporal flood responses to changes in precipitation (spatiotemporal symmetry) and low landscape-climate codependence. This suggests that these regions are not coevolving significantly. However, intermediate regions show differences between those responses (symmetry breaks) and higher landscape-climate codependence, suggesting undergoing coevolution. The break of symmetry is an emergent behaviour of the coupled system, stemming from the nonlinear interactions in the coevolving hydroclimate system. A dynamic coevolution index is then proposed relating spatiotemporal symmetry with relative characteristic celerities, which need to be taken into account in hydrological space-time trading. Coevolution is expressed here by the scale interaction between slow and fast dynamics, represented respectively by spatial and temporal characteristics. The diagnostic assessment of coevolution is complemented by a stylised nonlinear dynamical model of landscape-climate coevolution, in which landform evolution processes take place at the millennial scale (slow dynamics), and climate adjusts in years to decades (fast
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Arun; Bharti, Arun
2016-03-01
We concurrently study the isospin effects via Coulomb forces and the nuclear equation of state and its momentum dependence on the onset of multifragmentation, i.e., critical energy point, in the light and heavily charged reactions of 40Ar + 45Sc and 84Kr + 197Au , respectively, using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. We find that Coulomb forces influence the onset of multifragmentation and result in the shift of the critical energy point towards lower and higher incident energies with and without their presence, respectively. Also, we observe that the critical energy point is sharper for the heavily charged system of 84Kr + 197Au when compared with the light charged system of 40Ar + 45Sc , where a small dip is observed and thus leads to the dependence of onset of multifragmentation, i.e., the critical energy point, on the reaction asymmetry as well as on the Coulomb forces.
Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.
Experimental determination of fragment excitation energies in multifragmentation events
Marie, N.; Natowitz, J.B.; Cibor, J.; Hagel, K.; Wada, R.; Chbihi, A.; Le Fevre, A.; Salou, S.; Wieleczko, J.P.; Gingras, L.; Auger, G.; Laville, J.L.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Tirel, O.; Assenard, M.; Eudes, P.; Germain, M.; Rahmani, A.; Reposeur, T.; Bacri, C.O.; Borderie, B.; Frankland, J.D.; Plagnol, E.; Rivet, M.F.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genouin-Duhamel, E.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefort, T.; Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Nguyen, A.D.; Peter, J.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Buchet, P.; Charvet, J.L.; Dayras, R.; Dore, D.; Legrain, R.; Nalpas, L.; Volant, C.; Parlog, M.; Tabacaru, G.; Rosato, E.; Gourio, D.; Majka, Z.
1998-07-01
For 50 MeV/nucleon {sup 129}Xe+{sup nat}Sn multifragmentation events, we deduced, by means of correlation techniques, the multiplicities of the hydrogen and helium isotopes which were emitted by the hot primary excited fragments produced at the stage of the disassembly of an equilibrated hot source. We also derived the relative kinetic energy distributions between the primary clusters and the light charged particles that they evaporate. From the comparison between the secondary multiplicities observed experimentally and the multiplicities predicted by the GEMINI model, we concluded that the source breaks into primary fragments which are characterized by the same N/Z ratio as the combined system. Knowing the secondary light charged particle multiplicities and kinetic energies, we reconstructed the average charges of the hot fragments and we estimated their mean excitation energies. The fragment excitation energies are equal to 3.0 MeV/nucleon for the full range of intermediate mass fragment atomic number. This global constancy indicates that, on the average, thermodynamical equilibrium was achieved at the disassembly stage of the source. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Revealing intermittency in nuclear multifragmentation with 4[pi] detectors
Baldo, M.; Causa, A.; Rapisarda, A. )
1993-11-01
The distortion on the intermittency signal, due to detection efficiency and to the presence of preequilibrium emitted particles, is studied in a schematic model of nuclear multifragmentation. A clear and genuine intermittency signal is generated by means of a percolating system, which is assumed to be in a region around the critical one. Mixing of events is considered to simulate the experimental conditions. The efficiency is schematized by a simple function of the fragment size, and the presence of preequilibrium particles is simulated by an additional noncritical fragment source. No selection on the events is considered, and therefore all events are used to calculate the moments. It is found that, despite the absence of event selection, the intermittency signal is not too much sensitive to the distortion due to the apparatus efficiency, while the inclusion of preequilibrium particles in the moment calculation can substantially reduce the strength of the signal. Preequilibrium particles should therefore be carefully separated from the rest of the detected fragments, before the intermittency analysis on experimental charge or mass distributions is carried out.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lombardi, Laura; Toth, Elena; Castellarin, Attilio; Montanari, Alberto; Brath, Armando
Traditional procedures for rainfall-runoff model calibration are generally based on the fit of individual values of simulated and observed hydrographs. We use here an alternative option that is carried out by matching, in the optimisation process, a set of streamflow statistics. Such an approach has the significant advantage to enable also a straightforward regional calibration of model parameters, based on the regionalisation of the selected statistics. The minimisation of the set of objective functions is carried out by using the AMALGAM algorithm, leading to the identification of behavioural parameter sets. The procedure is applied to a set of river basins located in central Italy: the basins are treated alternatively as gauged and ungauged and, as a term of comparison, the results obtained with a traditional time-domain calibration are also presented. With respect to previous applications of analogous procedures, we investigate here the identification of the target statistics depending on the purposes of the application, and in particular when the focus is on the reproduction of the low-flows. The results show that a suitable choice of the statistics to be optimised leads to interesting results in real world case studies as far as the reproduction of the different flow regimes is concerned.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernstein, Victor; Kolodney, Eli
2016-07-01
Postcollision multifragmentation which we have recently observed experimentally in C60 - -surface impact is the phenomenon of a delayed multiparticle breakup of a highly collisionally vibrationally excited large molecule/cluster (the precursor species) into several polyatomic fragments, after leaving the surface. In this paper, we show that the molecular dynamics simulations of near-grazing C60 collisions with a gold surface at 300 eV impact energy (very similar to the experimental conditions) successfully reproduce the experimentally observed characteristics of the postcollision multifragmentation process. The calculated mass resolved kinetic energy distributions and the time dependent yield curves of the Cn fragments revealed a precursor mediated, velocity correlated, delayed fragmentation event along the outgoing trajectory, far away from the surface. Most of the large fragments (n ≥ 5) are formed within a time window of 2-20 ps after leaving the surface, corresponding to the vertical distances of 3-30 nm from the surface. Analysis of delay times and actual time duration for multifragmentation reveal that a large part can be described as simultaneous postcollision (delayed) multifragmentation events. The delayed nature of the event seems to be due to an early sequence of structural transformations of the precursor.
Bernstein, Victor; Kolodney, Eli
2016-07-28
Postcollision multifragmentation which we have recently observed experimentally in C60 (-)-surface impact is the phenomenon of a delayed multiparticle breakup of a highly collisionally vibrationally excited large molecule/cluster (the precursor species) into several polyatomic fragments, after leaving the surface. In this paper, we show that the molecular dynamics simulations of near-grazing C60 collisions with a gold surface at 300 eV impact energy (very similar to the experimental conditions) successfully reproduce the experimentally observed characteristics of the postcollision multifragmentation process. The calculated mass resolved kinetic energy distributions and the time dependent yield curves of the Cn fragments revealed a precursor mediated, velocity correlated, delayed fragmentation event along the outgoing trajectory, far away from the surface. Most of the large fragments (n ≥ 5) are formed within a time window of 2-20 ps after leaving the surface, corresponding to the vertical distances of 3-30 nm from the surface. Analysis of delay times and actual time duration for multifragmentation reveal that a large part can be described as simultaneous postcollision (delayed) multifragmentation events. The delayed nature of the event seems to be due to an early sequence of structural transformations of the precursor. PMID:27475357
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kyoungyoun; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna
2011-11-01
Turbulent statistics and structure in polymer-induced low (20%) and high (66%) drag reduction (DR) regimes are studied via channel flow DNS at Reτ = 395. The initial hairpin eddy extracted from the conditional averages of the Q2 events is self-consistently evolved in the presence of polymer stresses using the FENE-P model. For low DR (Weissenberg number Weτ defined as the ratio of the polymer relaxation time λ to the viscous time scale = 50), large counter polymer torque is observed only near the vortex legs. This suppresses the auto-generation of new vortices primarily only in the inner layer. For high DR (Weτ >= 100), large counter polymer torque appears near the hairpin head and legs. This modifies both the inner and outer layer dynamics. When the Elasticity number E, defined as the ratio of λ to the eddy turnover time, approaches unity, the effect of the polymer encompasses the whole channel and DR approaches an asymptotic value. This distinction between low and high DR dynamics is not robustly captured by low Re simulations in which E remains O (1) . Supported by NSF Grant CBET 1055219 and by NRF Grant 2010-0007901.
Nuclear multifragmentation by 700–1500 MeV photons: New data of GRAAL experiment
Nedorezov, V. G. Lapik, A. M.; Collaboration: GRAAL Collaboration
2015-12-15
The cross sections of carbon nucleus photodisintegration into protons and neutrons with high multiplicity for photon energies from 700 to 1500 MeV were measured. The experiment was performed at the tagged photon beam of the GRAAL setup using the wide-aperture detector LAGRANγE. It was shown that multifragmentation up to complete disintegration into separate nucleons is initiated by elementary reactions of meson photoproduction with a subsequent intranuclear cascade.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cassou, Christophe; Minvielle, Marie; Terray, Laurent; Périgaud, Claire
2011-01-01
The links between the observed variability of the surface ocean variables estimated from reanalysis and the overlying atmosphere decomposed in classes of large-scale atmospheric circulation via clustering are investigated over the Atlantic from 1958 to 2002. Daily 500 hPa geopotential height and 1,000 hPa wind anomaly maps are classified following a weather-typing approach to describe the North Atlantic and tropical Atlantic atmospheric dynamics, respectively. The algorithm yields patterns that correspond in the extratropics to the well-known North Atlantic-Europe weather regimes (NAE-WR) accounting for the barotropic dynamics, and in the tropics to wind classes (T-WC) representing the alteration of the trades. 10-m wind and 2-m temperature (T2) anomaly composites derived from regime/wind class occurrence are indicative of strong relationships between daily large-scale atmospheric circulation and ocean surface over the entire Atlantic basin. High temporal correlation values are obtained basin-wide at low frequency between the observed fields and their reconstruction by multiple linear regressions with the frequencies of occurrence of both NAE-WR and T-WC used as sole predictors. Additional multiple linear regressions also emphasize the importance of accounting for the strength of the daily anomalous atmospheric circulation estimated by the combined distances to all regimes centroids in order to reproduce the daily to interannual variability of the Atlantic ocean. We show that for most of the North Atlantic basin the occurrence of NAE-WR generally sets the sign of the ocean surface anomaly for a given day, and that the inter-regime distances are valuable predictors for the magnitude of that anomaly. Finally, we provide evidence that a large fraction of the low-frequency trends in the Atlantic observed at the surface over the last 50 years can be traced back, except for T2, to changes in occurrence of tropical and extratropical weather classes. All together, our
Multifragmentation in intermediate energy {sup 129}Xe-induced heavy-ion reactions
Tso, Kin
1996-05-01
The {sup 129}Xe-induced reactions on {sup nat}Cu, {sup 89}Y, {sup 165}Ho, and {sup 197}Au at bombarding energies of E/A = 40 & 60 MeV have been studied theoretically and experimentally in order to establish the underlying mechanism of multifragmentation at intermediate energy heavy-Ion collisions. Nuclear disks formed in central heavy-ion collisions, as simulated by means of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations, break up into several fragments due to a new kind of Rayleigh-like surface instability. A sheet of liquid, stable in the limit of non-interacting surfaces, is shown to become unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. A thin bubble behaves like a sheet and is susceptible to the surface instability through the crispation mode. The Coulomb effects associated with the depletion of charges in the central cavity of nuclear bubbles are investigated. The onset of Coulomb instability is demonstrated for perturbations of the radial mode. Experimental intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for the {sup 129}Xe-induced reactions are shown to be binomial at each transverse energy. From these distributions, independent of the specific target, an elementary binary decay probability p can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. Thus it is inferred that multifragmentation is reducible to a combination of nearly independent emission processes. If sequential decay is assumed, the increase of p with transverse energy implies a contraction of the emission time scale. The sensitivity of p to the lower Z threshold in the definition of intermediate-mass-fragments points to a physical Poisson simulations of the particle multiplicities show that the weak auto-correlation between the fragment multiplicity and the transverse energy does not distort a Poisson distribution into a binomial distribution. The effect of device efficiency on the experimental results has also been studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreier, M. M.; Kahn, B. H.; Sušelj, K.; Karlsson, J.; Ou, S. C.; Yue, Q.; Nasiri, S. L.
2014-04-01
Cloud occurrence, microphysical and optical properties, and atmospheric profiles within a subtropical cloud regime transition in the northeastern Pacific Ocean are obtained from a synergistic combination of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The observed cloud parameters and atmospheric thermodynamic profile retrievals are binned by cloud type and analyzed based on their probability density functions (PDFs). Comparison of the PDFs to data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting reanalysis (ERA-Interim) shows a strong difference in the occurrence of the different cloud types compared to clear sky. An increasing non-Gaussian behavior is observed in cloud optical thickness (τc), effective radius (re) and cloud-top temperature (Tc) distributions from stratocumulus to trade cumulus, while decreasing values of lower-tropospheric stability are seen. However, variations in the mean, width and shape of the distributions are found. The AIRS potential temperature (θ) and water vapor (q) profiles in the presence of varying marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud types show overall similarities to the ERA-Interim in the mean profiles, but differences arise in the higher moments at some altitudes. The differences between the PDFs from AIRS+MODIS and ERA-Interim make it possible to pinpoint systematic errors in both systems and help to understand joint PDFs of cloud properties and coincident thermodynamic profiles from satellite observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreier, M. M.; Kahn, B. H.; Sušelj, K.; Karlsson, J.; Ou, S. C.; Yue, Q.; Nasiri, S. L.
2013-09-01
Cloud occurrence, microphysical and optical properties and atmospheric profiles within a subtropical cloud regime transition in the northeastern Pacific Ocean are obtained from a synergistic combination of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The observed cloud parameters and atmospheric thermodynamic profile retrievals are binned by cloud type and analyzed based on their probability density functions (PDFs). Comparison of the PDFs to data from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting Re-analysis (ERA-Interim) shows a strong difference in the occurrence of the different cloud types compared to clear sky. An increasing non-Gaussian behavior is observed in cloud optical thickness (τc), effective radius (re) and cloud top temperature (Tc) distributions from Stratocumulus to Trade Cumulus, while decreasing values of lower tropospheric stability are seen. However, variations in the mean, width and shape of the distributions are found. The AIRS potential temperature (θ) and water vapor (q) profiles in the presence of varying marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud types show overall similarities to the ERA-Interim in the mean profiles, but differences arise in the higher moments at some altitudes. The differences between the PDFs from AIRS+MODIS and ERA-Interim make it possible to pinpoint systematic errors in both systems and helps to understand joint PDFs of cloud properties and coincident thermodynamic profiles from satellite observations.
Pilat, Joseph F.; Budlong-Sylvester, K. W.
2004-01-01
Following the 1998 nuclear tests in South Asia and later reinforced by revelations about North Korean and Iraqi nuclear activities, there has been growing concern about increasing proliferation dangers. At the same time, the prospects of radiological/nuclear terrorism are seen to be rising - since 9/11, concern over a proliferation/terrorism nexus has never been higher. In the face of this growing danger, there are urgent calls for stronger measures to strengthen the current international nuclear nonproliferation regime, including recommendations to place civilian processing of weapon-useable material under multinational control. As well, there are calls for entirely new tools, including military options. As proliferation and terrorism concerns grow, the regime is under pressure and there is a temptation to consider fundamental changes to the regime. In this context, this paper will address the following: Do we need to change the regime centered on the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)? What improvements could ensure it will be the foundation for the proliferation resistance and physical protection needed if nuclear power grows? What will make it a viable centerpiece of future nonproliferation and counterterrorism approaches?
Dynamical and Statistical Aspects in Nucleus--Nucleus Collisions Around the Fermi Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamain, B.; Assenard, M.; Auger, G.; Bacri, C. O.; Benlliure, J.; Bisquer, E.; Bocage, F.; Borderie, B.; Bougault, R.; Buchet, P.; Charvet, J. L.; Chbihi, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Dayras, R.; Demeyer, A.; Dore, D.; Durand, D.; Eudes, P.; Frankland, J.; Galichet, E.; Genouin-Duhamel, E.; Gerlic, E.; Germain, M.; Gourio, D.; Guinet, D.; Gulminelli, F.; Lautesse, P.; Laville, J. L.; Lebrun, C.; Lecolley, J. F.; Lefevre, A.; Lefort, T.; Legrain, R.; Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Lukasik, J.; Marie, N.; Maskay, M.; Metivier, V.; Nalpas, L.; Nguyen, A.; Parlog, M.; Peter, J.; Plagnol, E.; Rahmani, A.; Reposeur, T.; Rivet, M. F.; Rosato, E.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Salou, S.; Squalli, M.; Steckmeyer, J. C.; Stern, M.; Tabacaru, T.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tirel, O.; Vient, E.; Volan, C.; Wieleczko, J. P.
1998-01-01
This contribution is devoted to two important aspects of intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions: the competition of dynamical and statistical features, and the origin of the multifragmentation process. These two questions are discussed in focusing on Indra data. It turns out that most of collisions are binary and reminiscent of deep inelastic collisions observed at low energy. However, intermediate velocity emission is a clear signature of dynamical emission and establishes a link with the participant-spectator picture which applies at high bombarding energies. Multifragmentation is observed when the dissipated energy is large and it turns out that expansion occurs at least for central collisions, as it is expected if this phenomenum has a dynamical origin.
Chakraborty, Bibhas; Murphy, Susan A.
2014-01-01
A dynamic treatment regime consists of a sequence of decision rules, one per stage of intervention, that dictate how to individualize treatments to patients based on evolving treatment and covariate history. These regimes are particularly useful for managing chronic disorders, and fit well into the larger paradigm of personalized medicine. They provide one way to operationalize a clinical decision support system. Statistics plays a key role in the construction of evidence-based dynamic treatment regimes – informing best study design as well as efficient estimation and valid inference. Due to the many novel methodological challenges it offers, this area has been growing in popularity among statisticians in recent years. In this article, we review the key developments in this exciting field of research. In particular, we discuss the sequential multiple assignment randomized trial designs, estimation techniques like Q-learning and marginal structural models, and several inference techniques designed to address the associated non-standard asymptotics. We reference software, whenever available. We also outline some important future directions. PMID:25401119
Identifying natural flow regimes using fish communities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Fi-John; Tsai, Wen-Ping; Wu, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Hung-kwai; Herricks, Edwin E.
2011-10-01
SummaryModern water resources management has adopted natural flow regimes as reasonable targets for river restoration and conservation. The characterization of a natural flow regime begins with the development of hydrologic statistics from flow records. However, little guidance exists for defining the period of record needed for regime determination. In Taiwan, the Taiwan Eco-hydrological Indicator System (TEIS), a group of hydrologic statistics selected for fisheries relevance, is being used to evaluate ecological flows. The TEIS consists of a group of hydrologic statistics selected to characterize the relationships between flow and the life history of indigenous species. Using the TEIS and biosurvey data for Taiwan, this paper identifies the length of hydrologic record sufficient for natural flow regime characterization. To define the ecological hydrology of fish communities, this study connected hydrologic statistics to fish communities by using methods to define antecedent conditions that influence existing community composition. A moving average method was applied to TEIS statistics to reflect the effects of antecedent flow condition and a point-biserial correlation method was used to relate fisheries collections with TEIS statistics. The resulting fish species-TEIS (FISH-TEIS) hydrologic statistics matrix takes full advantage of historical flows and fisheries data. The analysis indicates that, in the watersheds analyzed, averaging TEIS statistics for the present year and 3 years prior to the sampling date, termed MA(4), is sufficient to develop a natural flow regime. This result suggests that flow regimes based on hydrologic statistics for the period of record can be replaced by regimes developed for sampled fish communities.
Cloud regimes as phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stechmann, Samuel N.; Hottovy, Scott
2016-06-01
Clouds are repeatedly identified as a leading source of uncertainty in future climate predictions. Of particular importance are stratocumulus clouds, which can appear as either (i) closed cells that reflect solar radiation back to space or (ii) open cells that allow solar radiation to reach the Earth's surface. Here we show that these clouds regimes -- open versus closed cells -- fit the paradigm of a phase transition. In addition, this paradigm characterizes pockets of open cells as the interface between the open- and closed-cell regimes, and it identifies shallow cumulus clouds as a regime of higher variability. This behavior can be understood using an idealized model for the dynamics of atmospheric water as a stochastic diffusion process. With this new conceptual viewpoint, ideas from statistical mechanics could potentially be used for understanding uncertainties related to clouds in the climate system and climate predictions.
Cosmic statistics of statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szapudi, István; Colombi, Stéphane; Bernardeau, Francis
1999-12-01
The errors on statistics measured in finite galaxy catalogues are exhaustively investigated. The theory of errors on factorial moments by Szapudi & Colombi is applied to cumulants via a series expansion method. All results are subsequently extended to the weakly non-linear regime. Together with previous investigations this yields an analytic theory of the errors for moments and connected moments of counts in cells from highly non-linear to weakly non-linear scales. For non-linear functions of unbiased estimators, such as the cumulants, the phenomenon of cosmic bias is identified and computed. Since it is subdued by the cosmic errors in the range of applicability of the theory, correction for it is inconsequential. In addition, the method of Colombi, Szapudi & Szalay concerning sampling effects is generalized, adapting the theory for inhomogeneous galaxy catalogues. While previous work focused on the variance only, the present article calculates the cross-correlations between moments and connected moments as well for a statistically complete description. The final analytic formulae representing the full theory are explicit but somewhat complicated. Therefore we have made available a fortran program capable of calculating the described quantities numerically (for further details e-mail SC at colombi@iap.fr). An important special case is the evaluation of the errors on the two-point correlation function, for which this should be more accurate than any method put forward previously. This tool will be immensely useful in the future for assessing the precision of measurements from existing catalogues, as well as aiding the design of new galaxy surveys. To illustrate the applicability of the results and to explore the numerical aspects of the theory qualitatively and quantitatively, the errors and cross-correlations are predicted under a wide range of assumptions for the future Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The principal results concerning the cumulants ξ, Q3 and Q4 is that
Statistical interpretation of joint multiplicity distributions of neutrons and charged particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tõke, J.; Agnihotri, D. K.; Skulski, W.; Schröder, W. U.
2001-02-01
Experimental joint multiplicity distributions of neutrons and charged particles provide a striking signal of the characteristic decay processes of nuclear systems following energetic nuclear reactions. They present, therefore, a valuable tool for testing theoretical models for such decay processes. The power of this experimental tool is demonstrated by a comparison of an experimental joint multiplicity distribution to the predictions of different theoretical models of statistical decay of excited nuclear systems. It is shown that, while generally phase-space based models offer a quantitative description of the observed correlation pattern of such an experimental multiplicity distribution, some models of nuclear multifragmentation fail to account for salient features of the observed correlation.
Demystifying optimal dynamic treatment regimes.
Moodie, Erica E M; Richardson, Thomas S; Stephens, David A
2007-06-01
A dynamic regime is a function that takes treatment and covariate history and baseline covariates as inputs and returns a decision to be made. Murphy (2003, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 65, 331-366) and Robins (2004, Proceedings of the Second Seattle Symposium on Biostatistics, 189-326) have proposed models and developed semiparametric methods for making inference about the optimal regime in a multi-interval trial that provide clear advantages over traditional parametric approaches. We show that Murphy's model is a special case of Robins's and that the methods are closely related but not equivalent. Interesting features of the methods are highlighted using the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and through simulation. PMID:17688497
Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L
2015-10-13
Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. PMID:26347536
Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L.
2015-01-01
Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. PMID:26347536
Timmes, F. X.; Niemeyer, J. C.
2000-07-10
The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and Zeldovich von Neumann Doering [ZND] detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts that start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star and to the thin-shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray burst case, turbulent deflagrations propagating in the lateral or radial direction encounter a transition from the distributed regime to the flamelet regime at a density of {approx}108 g cm-3. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}106 g cm-3. Self-sustained laminar deflagrations traveling in the radial direction cannot exist below this density. Similarly, the planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}107 g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. In the thin helium shell case, turbulent deflagrations traveling in the lateral or radial direction encounter the distributed regime at densities below {approx}107 g cm-3 and the flamelet regime at larger densities. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}104 g cm-3, indicating that steady state laminar deflagrations cannot form below this density. The planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}5x10{sup 4} g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.
Breus, Dimitry E.
2005-05-16
In Part 1, geometric clusters of the Ising model are studied as possible model clusters for nuclear multifragmentation. These clusters may not be considered as non-interacting (ideal gas) due to excluded volume effect which predominantly is the artifact of the cluster's finite size. Interaction significantly complicates the use of clusters in the analysis of thermodynamic systems. Stillinger's theory is used as a basis for the analysis, which within the RFL (Reiss, Frisch, Lebowitz) fluid-of-spheres approximation produces a prediction for cluster concentrations well obeyed by geometric clusters of the Ising model. If thermodynamic condition of phase coexistence is met, these concentrations can be incorporated into a differential equation procedure of moderate complexity to elucidate the liquid-vapor phase diagram of the system with cluster interaction included. The drawback of increased complexity is outweighted by the reward of greater accuracy of the phase diagram, as it is demonstrated by the Ising model. A novel nuclear-cluster analysis procedure is developed by modifying Fisher's model to contain cluster interaction and employing the differential equation procedure to obtain thermodynamic variables. With this procedure applied to geometric clusters, the guidelines are developed to look for excluded volume effect in nuclear multifragmentation. In part 2, an explanation is offered for the recently observed oscillations in the energy spectra of {alpha}-particles emitted from hot compound nuclei. Contrary to what was previously expected, the oscillations are assumed to be caused by the multiple-chance nature of {alpha}-evaporation. In a semi-empirical fashion this assumption is successfully confirmed by a technique of two-spectra decomposition which treats experimental {alpha}-spectra has having contributions from at least two independent emitters. Building upon the success of the multiple-chance explanation of the oscillations, Moretto's single-chance evaporation
Prolonged Instability Prior to a Regime Shift
Spanbauer, Trisha L.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Eason, Tarsha; Fritz, Sherilyn C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Nash, Kirsty L.; Stone, Jeffery R.
2014-01-01
Regime shifts are generally defined as the point of ‘abrupt’ change in the state of a system. However, a seemingly abrupt transition can be the product of a system reorganization that has been ongoing much longer than is evident in statistical analysis of a single component of the system. Using both univariate and multivariate statistical methods, we tested a long-term high-resolution paleoecological dataset with a known change in species assemblage for a regime shift. Analysis of this dataset with Fisher Information and multivariate time series modeling showed that there was a∼2000 year period of instability prior to the regime shift. This period of instability and the subsequent regime shift coincide with regional climate change, indicating that the system is undergoing extrinsic forcing. Paleoecological records offer a unique opportunity to test tools for the detection of thresholds and stable-states, and thus to examine the long-term stability of ecosystems over periods of multiple millennia. PMID:25280010
Photon blockade in the ultrastrong coupling regime.
Ridolfo, A; Leib, M; Savasta, S; Hartmann, M J
2012-11-01
We explore photon coincidence counting statistics in the ultrastrong coupling regime, where the atom-cavity coupling rate becomes comparable to the cavity resonance frequency. In this regime, usual normal order correlation functions fail to describe the output photon statistics. By expressing the electric-field operator in the cavity-emitter dressed basis, we are able to propose correlation functions that are valid for arbitrary degrees of light-matter interaction. Our results show that the standard photon blockade scenario is significantly modified for ultrastrong coupling. We observe parametric processes even for two-level emitters and temporal oscillations of intensity correlation functions at a frequency given by the ultrastrong photon emitter coupling. These effects can be traced back to the presence of two-photon cascade decays induced by counterrotating interaction terms. PMID:23215383
Rheological equations in asymptotic regimes of granular flow
Chen, C.-L.; Ling, C.-H.
1998-01-01
This paper assesses the validity of the generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model in light of the established constitutive relations in two asymptotic flow regimes, namely, the macroviscous and grain-inertia regimes. A comprehensive review of the literature on constitutive relations in both regimes reveals that except for some material constants, such as the coefficient of restitution, the normalized shear stress in both regimes varies only with the grain concentration, C. It is found that Krieger-Dougherty's relative viscosity, ??*(C), is sufficiently coherent among the monotonically nondecreasing functions of C used in describing the variation of the shear stress with C in both regimes. It not only accurately represents the C-dependent relative viscosity of a suspension in the macroviscous regime, but also plays a role of the radial distribution function that describes the statistics of particle collisions in the grain-inertia regime. Use of ??*(C) alone, however, cannot link the two regimes. Another parameter, the shear-rate number, N, is needed in modelling the rheology of neutrally buoyant granular flows in transition between the two asymptotic regimes. The GVF model proves compatible with most established relations in both regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebeault, M.-A.; Baguenard, B.; Concina, B.; Calvo, F.; Climen, B.; Lépine, F.; Bordas, C.
2012-08-01
C60 molecules highly excited in the nanosecond regime decay following ionization and dissociation by emitting a series of carbon dimers, as well as other small fragments if excitation is strong enough. The fragmentation mass spectrum and kinetic energy release of all charged fragments obtained in these experiments are interpreted within the framework of the Weisskopf theory, using a realistic Monte Carlo procedure in which the rates of all relevant decay channels are modeled using Arrhenius expressions. Comparison between the measurements and the simulated spectra allows the distribution of deposited energy to be accurately estimated. The dependence of the fragment kinetic energies on the laser fluence, found in the simulation but not observed in the experimental results, indicates that the small fragments are not necessarily emitted from small fullerenes resulting from C60 by sequential decay. Rather, direct multifragmentation of C60 is invoked to interpret the observed patterns. The possible role of post-ionization of neutral emitted fragments is discussed.
Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W
2009-10-01
In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications. PMID:19891281
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric
2008-01-01
As a branch of knowledge, Statistics is ubiquitous and its applications can be found in (almost) every field of human endeavour. In this article, the authors track down the possible source of the link between the "Siren song" and applications of Statistics. Answers to their previous five questions and five new questions on Statistics are presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Callamaras, Peter
1983-01-01
This buyer's guide to seven major types of statistics software packages for microcomputers reviews Edu-Ware Statistics 3.0; Financial Planning; Speed Stat; Statistics with DAISY; Human Systems Dynamics package of Stats Plus, ANOVA II, and REGRESS II; Maxistat; and Moore-Barnes' MBC Test Construction and MBC Correlation. (MBR)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meyer, Donald L.
Bayesian statistical methodology and its possible uses in the behavioral sciences are discussed in relation to the solution of problems in both the use and teaching of fundamental statistical methods, including confidence intervals, significance tests, and sampling. The Bayesian model explains these statistical methods and offers a consistent…
Speckle statistics of entangled photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Avraham; Agam, Oded; Spivak, Boris
2016-07-01
We consider the propagation of several entangled photons through an elastically scattering medium and study statistical properties of their speckle patterns. We find the spatial correlations of multiphoton speckles and their sensitivity to changes of system parameters. Our analysis covers both the directed-wave regime, where rays propagate almost ballistically while experiencing small-angle diffusion, and the real-space diffusive regime. We demonstrate that long-range correlations of the speckle patterns dominate experimental signatures for large-aperture photon detectors. We also show that speckle sensitivity depends strongly on the number of photons N in the incoming beam, increasing as √{N } in the directed-wave regime and as N in the diffusive regime.
Kogalovskii, M.R.
1995-03-01
This paper presents a review of problems related to statistical database systems, which are wide-spread in various fields of activity. Statistical databases (SDB) are referred to as databases that consist of data and are used for statistical analysis. Topics under consideration are: SDB peculiarities, properties of data models adequate for SDB requirements, metadata functions, null-value problems, SDB compromise protection problems, stored data compression techniques, and statistical data representation means. Also examined is whether the present Database Management Systems (DBMS) satisfy the SDB requirements. Some actual research directions in SDB systems are considered.
Smith, Alwyn
1969-01-01
This paper is based on an analysis of questionnaires sent to the health ministries of Member States of WHO asking for information about the extent, nature, and scope of morbidity statistical information. It is clear that most countries collect some statistics of morbidity and many countries collect extensive data. However, few countries relate their collection to the needs of health administrators for information, and many countries collect statistics principally for publication in annual volumes which may appear anything up to 3 years after the year to which they refer. The desiderata of morbidity statistics may be summarized as reliability, representativeness, and relevance to current health problems. PMID:5306722
Water use regimes: Characterizing direct human interaction with hydrologic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiskel, Peter K.; Vogel, Richard M.; Steeves, Peter A.; Zarriello, Philip J.; Desimone, Leslie A.; Ries, Kernell G.
2007-04-01
The sustainability of human water use practices is a rapidly growing concern in the United States and around the world. To better characterize direct human interaction with hydrologic systems (stream basins and aquifers), we introduce the concept of the water use regime. Unlike scalar indicators of anthropogenic hydrologic stress in the literature, the water use regime is a two-dimensional, vector indicator that can be depicted on simple x-y plots of normalized human withdrawals (hout) versus normalized human return flows (hin). Four end-member regimes, natural-flow-dominated (undeveloped), human-flow-dominated (churned), withdrawal-dominated (depleted), and return-flow-dominated (surcharged), are defined in relation to limiting values of hout and hin. For illustration, the water use regimes of 19 diverse hydrologic systems are plotted and interpreted. Several of these systems, including the Yellow River Basin, China, and the California Central Valley Aquifer, are shown to approach particular end-member regimes. Spatial and temporal regime variations, both seasonal and long-term, are depicted. Practical issues of data availability and regime uncertainty are addressed in relation to the statistical properties of the ratio estimators hout and hin. The water use regime is shown to be a useful tool for comparative water resources assessment and for describing both historic and alternative future pathways of water resource development at a range of scales.
Water use regimes: Characterizing direct human interaction with hydrologic systems
Weiskel, P.K.; Vogel, R.M.; Steeves, P.A.; Zarriello, P.J.; DeSimone, L.A.; Ries, Kernell G., III
2007-01-01
[1] The sustainability of human water use practices is a rapidly growing concern in the United States and around the world. To better characterize direct human interaction with hydrologic systems (stream basins and aquifers), we introduce the concept of the water use regime. Unlike scalar indicators of anthropogenic hydrologic stress in the literature, the water use regime is a two-dimensional, vector indicator that can be depicted on simple x-y plots of normalized human withdrawals (hout) versus normalized human return flows (hin). Four end-member regimes, natural-flow-dominated (undeveloped), human-flow-dominated (churned), withdrawal-dominated (depleted), and return-flow-dominated (surcharged), are defined in relation to limiting values of hout and hin. For illustration, the water use regimes of 19 diverse hydrologic systems are plotted and interpreted. Several of these systems, including the Yellow River Basin, China, and the California Central Valley Aquifer, are shown to approach particular end-member regimes. Spatial and temporal regime variations, both seasonal and long-term, are depicted. Practical issues of data availability and regime uncertainty are addressed in relation to the statistical properties of the ratio estimators hout and hin. The water use regime is shown to be a useful tool for comparative water resources assessment and for describing both historic and alternative future pathways of water resource development at a range of scales. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric
2008-01-01
In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…
Examination Regimes and Student Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia
2010-01-01
Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…
Constructing an interdisciplinary flow regime recommendation
Bartholow, J.M.
2010-01-01
It is generally agreed that river rehabilitation most often relies on restoring a more natural flow regime, but credibly defining the desired regime can be problematic. I combined four distinct methods to develop and refine month-by-month and event-based flow recommendations to protect and partially restore the ecological integrity of the Cache la Poudre River through Fort Collins, Colorado. A statistical hydrologic approach was used to summarize the river's natural flow regime and set provisional monthly flow targets at levels that were historically exceeded 75% of the time. These preliminary monthly targets were supplemented using results from three Poudre-specific disciplinary studies. A substrate maintenance flow model was used to better define the high flows needed to flush accumulated sediment from the river's channel and help sustain the riparian zone in this snowmelt-dominated river. A hydraulic/habitat model and a water temperature model were both used to better define the minimum flows necessary to maintain a thriving cool water fishery. The result is a range of recommended monthly flows and daily flow guidance illustrating the advantage of combining a wide range of available disciplinary information, supplemented by judgment based on ecological principles and a general understanding of river ecosystems, in a highly altered, working river. ?? 2010 American Water Resources Association.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James
2014-01-01
Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.
... cancer statistics across the world. U.S. Cancer Mortality Trends The best indicator of progress against cancer is ... the number of cancer survivors has increased. These trends show that progress is being made against the ...
The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute works to provide information on cancer statistics in an effort to reduce the burden of cancer among the U.S. population.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hermann, Claudine
Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies - such as semiconductors or lasers - are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.
Nonlinear Trapped Electron Mode Pinch in Strong Turbulence Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatch, David; Terry, P. W.
2006-10-01
Recent work has shown that there is an inward flux component in collisionless trapped electron mode turbulence produced by a nonlinear cross phase^2. The result was obtained for a weak turbulence regime, consistent with near threshold conditions. We extend this work to the strong turbulence regime, applying asymptotic analysis to the nonlinear frequency expressions generated from self-consistent statistical closure theory. We first check to see if there is a consistent strong turbulence regime for the previously considered threshold ordering^2, and examine the properties and scalings of the inward flux components. We then examine other orderings that are further above the instability threshold. The orderings will be compared with experimental profiles to determine likely regimes and nonlinear pinch properties. ^2P.W. Terry and R. Gatto, Phys. Plasmas 13, 062309 (2006).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodman, J. W.
This book is based on the thesis that some training in the area of statistical optics should be included as a standard part of any advanced optics curriculum. Random variables are discussed, taking into account definitions of probability and random variables, distribution functions and density functions, an extension to two or more random variables, statistical averages, transformations of random variables, sums of real random variables, Gaussian random variables, complex-valued random variables, and random phasor sums. Other subjects examined are related to random processes, some first-order properties of light waves, the coherence of optical waves, some problems involving high-order coherence, effects of partial coherence on imaging systems, imaging in the presence of randomly inhomogeneous media, and fundamental limits in photoelectric detection of light. Attention is given to deterministic versus statistical phenomena and models, the Fourier transform, and the fourth-order moment of the spectrum of a detected speckle image.
Scharenberg, R.; Hirsch, A.; Tincknell, M.
1993-09-15
This report discusses the Fermilab experiment E735 which is dedicated to the search for the quark-gluon plasma from proton-antiproton interactions; multifragmentation using the EOS-TPC; STAR R&D; silicon avalanche diodes as direct time-of-flight detectors; and soft photons at the AGS-E855.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chicot, Katie; Holmes, Hilary
2012-01-01
The use, and misuse, of statistics is commonplace, yet in the printed format data representations can be either over simplified, supposedly for impact, or so complex as to lead to boredom, supposedly for completeness and accuracy. In this article the link to the video clip shows how dynamic visual representations can enliven and enhance the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Catley, Alan
2007-01-01
Following the announcement last year that there will be no more math coursework assessment at General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), teachers will in the future be able to devote more time to preparing learners for formal examinations. One of the key things that the author has learned when teaching statistics is that it makes for far…
Trends in the hydrologic regime of Alpine rivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bard, Antoine; Renard, Benjamin; Lang, Michel; Giuntoli, Ignazio; Korck, Jane; Koboltschnig, Gernot; Janža, Mitja; d'Amico, Michele; Volken, David
2015-10-01
This paper describes a trend analysis performed on 177 streamflow time series collected over the Alps in Central Europe. The analysis covers several facets of the Alpine hydrologic regimes, including winter droughts and spring snowmelt flows, both in terms of severity and timing of occurrence. Statistical trend tests are applied at a local scale (i.e. on a site-by-site basis) and at a regional scale (seeking a common trend for sites within the same hydro-climatic region). The overall results indicate a trend toward less severe winter droughts, and consistent changes in the timing of snowmelt flows. However, a more in-depth analysis at the scale of hydro-climatic regimes reveals more contrasted changes. While most glacial- and snowmelt-dominated regimes show a decreasing trend in the severity of winter droughts, contrasted trends are found for mixed snowmelt-rainfall regimes in the Southeastern Alps. Changes in the timing of snowmelt flows (earlier start and increased duration of the snowmelt season) mostly affect glacial- and snowmelt-dominated regimes. Lastly, glacial regimes show an increase in the volume and the peak of snowmelt flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodman, Joseph W.
2000-07-01
The Wiley Classics Library consists of selected books that have become recognized classics in their respective fields. With these new unabridged and inexpensive editions, Wiley hopes to extend the life of these important works by making them available to future generations of mathematicians and scientists. Currently available in the Series: T. W. Anderson The Statistical Analysis of Time Series T. S. Arthanari & Yadolah Dodge Mathematical Programming in Statistics Emil Artin Geometric Algebra Norman T. J. Bailey The Elements of Stochastic Processes with Applications to the Natural Sciences Robert G. Bartle The Elements of Integration and Lebesgue Measure George E. P. Box & Norman R. Draper Evolutionary Operation: A Statistical Method for Process Improvement George E. P. Box & George C. Tiao Bayesian Inference in Statistical Analysis R. W. Carter Finite Groups of Lie Type: Conjugacy Classes and Complex Characters R. W. Carter Simple Groups of Lie Type William G. Cochran & Gertrude M. Cox Experimental Designs, Second Edition Richard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume I RIchard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume II Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume I Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume II D. R. Cox Planning of Experiments Harold S. M. Coxeter Introduction to Geometry, Second Edition Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Representation Theory of Finite Groups and Associative Algebras Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume II Cuthbert Daniel Fitting Equations to Data: Computer Analysis of Multifactor Data, Second Edition Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume I Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume 2 W. Edwards Deming Sample Design in Business Research
1986-01-01
Official population data for the USSR are presented for 1985 and 1986. Part 1 (pp. 65-72) contains data on capitals of union republics and cities with over one million inhabitants, including population estimates for 1986 and vital statistics for 1985. Part 2 (p. 72) presents population estimates by sex and union republic, 1986. Part 3 (pp. 73-6) presents data on population growth, including birth, death, and natural increase rates, 1984-1985; seasonal distribution of births and deaths; birth order; age-specific birth rates in urban and rural areas and by union republic; marriages; age at marriage; and divorces. PMID:12178831
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stephens, J. B.; Sloan, J. C.
1976-01-01
A method is described for developing a statistical air quality assessment for the launch of an aerospace vehicle from the Kennedy Space Center in terms of existing climatological data sets. The procedure can be refined as developing meteorological conditions are identified for use with the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion (REED) description. Classical climatological regimes for the long range analysis can be narrowed as the synoptic and mesoscale structure is identified. Only broad synoptic regimes are identified at this stage of analysis. As the statistical data matrix is developed, synoptic regimes will be refined in terms of the resulting eigenvectors as applicable to aerospace air quality predictions.
Vegetation management with fire modifies peatland soil thermal regime.
Brown, Lee E; Palmer, Sheila M; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Holden, Joseph
2015-05-01
Vegetation removal with fire can alter the thermal regime of the land surface, leading to significant changes in biogeochemistry (e.g. carbon cycling) and soil hydrology. In the UK, large expanses of carbon-rich upland environments are managed to encourage increased abundance of red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica) by rotational burning of shrub vegetation. To date, though, there has not been any consideration of whether prescribed vegetation burning on peatlands modifies the thermal regime of the soil mass in the years after fire. In this study thermal regime was monitored across 12 burned peatland soil plots over an 18-month period, with the aim of (i) quantifying thermal dynamics between burned plots of different ages (from <2 to 15 + years post burning), and (ii) developing statistical models to determine the magnitude of thermal change caused by vegetation management. Compared to plots burned 15 + years previously, plots recently burned (<2-4 years) showed higher mean, maximum and range of soil temperatures, and lower minima. Statistical models (generalised least square regression) were developed to predict daily mean and maximum soil temperature in plots burned 15 + years prior to the study. These models were then applied to predict temperatures of plots burned 2, 4 and 7 years previously, with significant deviations from predicted temperatures illustrating the magnitude of burn management effects. Temperatures measured in soil plots burned <2 years previously showed significant statistical disturbances from model predictions, reaching +6.2 °C for daily mean temperatures and +19.6 °C for daily maxima. Soil temperatures in plots burnt 7 years previously were most similar to plots burned 15 + years ago indicating the potential for soil temperatures to recover as vegetation regrows. Our findings that prescribed peatland vegetation burning alters soil thermal regime should provide an impetus for further research to understand the consequences of thermal regime
The emerging climate change regime
Bodansky, D.M.
1995-11-01
The emerging climate change regime--with the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) at its core--reflects the substantial uncertainties, high stakes and complicated politics of the greenhouse warming issue. The regime represents a hedging strategy. On the one hand, it treats climate change as a potentially serious problem, and in response, creates a long-term, evolutionary process to encourage further research, promote national planning, increase public awareness, and help create a sense of community among states. But it requires very little by way of substantive--and potentially costly--mitigation or adaptation measures. Although the FCCC parties have agreed to negotiate additional commitments, substantial progress is unlikely without further developments in science, technology, and public opinion. The FCCC encourages such developments, and is capable of evolution and growth, should the political will to take stronger international action emerge. 120 refs., 3 tabs.
Optics in the Relativistic Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajima, Toshiki
2012-06-01
Optics has extended the frontier of low energy physics. Here we present the progress in the opposite direction of relativistic intensity regime of optics. With intense and large energy laser, particles may be accelerated to high energies via laser wakefield acceleration (Tajima and Dawson, 1979) over a compact distance orders of magnitude shorter than the RF approach. We should be able to accelerate electrons (over 30m) and ions (over cm) toward TeV with an existing kJ laser. We can check Lorentz invariance in the ultrarelativistic regime. Further, laser allows us to explore the presence of weakly coupling fields such as Dark Matter and Dark Energy with an unprecedented sensitivity. We call this emerging capability as the Laser Particle Physics Paradigm (LP^3).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avdonin, A.; Skupiński, P.; Grasza, K.
2016-02-01
A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO.
The International Climate Change Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamin, Farhana; Depledge, Joanna
2005-01-01
Aimed at the increasing number of policy-makers, stakeholders, researchers, and other professionals working on climate change, this volume presents a detailed description and analysis of the international regime established in 1992 to combat the threat of global climate change. It provides a comprehensive accessible guide to a high-profile area of international law and politics, covering not only the obligations and rights of countries, but ongoing climate negotiations as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boessenkool, Berry; Bronstert, Axel; Bürger, Gerd
2016-04-01
The Rhine flow regime is changing: (a) in the alpine nival regime, snow melt floods occur earlier in the year and (b) in the pluvial middle-Rhine regime, rainfall induced flood magnitudes rise. The seasonality of each is currently separated in time, but it is conceivable that this may shift due to climate change. If extremes of both flood types coincide, this would create a new type of hydrologic extreme with disastrous consequences. Quantifying the probability for a future overlap of pluvial and nival floods is therefore of high relevance to society and particularly to reinsurance companies. In order to investigate possible changes in magnitude and timing of flood types, we are developing a chain of physical models for spatio-temporal combination of flood probabilities. As input, we aim to use stochastically downscaled temperature and rainfall extremes from climate model weather projections. Preliminary research shows a six-week forward-shift of peak discharge at the nival gauge Maxau in the past century. The aim of presenting our early-stage work as a poster is to induce an exchange of ideas with fellow scientists in close research disciplines.
Quantum scattering in the strip: From ballistic to localized regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gebarowski, R.; Šeba, P.; Życzkowski, K.; Zakrzewski, J.
1998-11-01
Quantum scattering is studied in a system consisting of randomly distributed point scatterers in the strip. The model is continuous yet exactly solvable. Varying the number of scatterers (the sample length) we investigate a transition between the ballistic and the localized regimes. By considering the cylinder geometry and introducing the magnetic flux we are able to study time reversal symmetry breaking in the system. Both macroscopic (conductance) and microscopic (eigenphases distribution, statistics of S-matrix elements) characteristics of the system are examined.
Nonclassical radiation from thermal cavities in the ultrastrong coupling regime.
Ridolfo, A; Savasta, S; Hartmann, M J
2013-04-19
Thermal or chaotic light sources emit radiation characterized by a slightly enhanced probability of emitting photons in bunches, described by a zero-delay second-order correlation function g((2))(0)=2. Here we explore photon-coincidence counting statistics of thermal cavities in the ultrastrong coupling regime, where the atom-cavity coupling rate becomes comparable to the cavity resonance frequency. We find that, depending on the system temperature and coupling rate, thermal photons escaping the cavity can display very different statistical behaviors, characterized by second-order correlation functions approaching zero or greatly exceeding two. PMID:23679600
Deterministic-random separation in nonstationary regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abboud, D.; Antoni, J.; Sieg-Zieba, S.; Eltabach, M.
2016-02-01
In rotating machinery vibration analysis, the synchronous average is perhaps the most widely used technique for extracting periodic components. Periodic components are typically related to gear vibrations, misalignments, unbalances, blade rotations, reciprocating forces, etc. Their separation from other random components is essential in vibration-based diagnosis in order to discriminate useful information from masking noise. However, synchronous averaging theoretically requires the machine to operate under stationary regime (i.e. the related vibration signals are cyclostationary) and is otherwise jeopardized by the presence of amplitude and phase modulations. A first object of this paper is to investigate the nature of the nonstationarity induced by the response of a linear time-invariant system subjected to speed varying excitation. For this purpose, the concept of a cyclo-non-stationary signal is introduced, which extends the class of cyclostationary signals to speed-varying regimes. Next, a "generalized synchronous average'' is designed to extract the deterministic part of a cyclo-non-stationary vibration signal-i.e. the analog of the periodic part of a cyclostationary signal. Two estimators of the GSA have been proposed. The first one returns the synchronous average of the signal at predefined discrete operating speeds. A brief statistical study of it is performed, aiming to provide the user with confidence intervals that reflect the "quality" of the estimator according to the SNR and the estimated speed. The second estimator returns a smoothed version of the former by enforcing continuity over the speed axis. It helps to reconstruct the deterministic component by tracking a specific trajectory dictated by the speed profile (assumed to be known a priori).The proposed method is validated first on synthetic signals and then on actual industrial signals. The usefulness of the approach is demonstrated on envelope-based diagnosis of bearings in variable
Weather Regimes: Recurrence and Quasi Stationarity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michelangeli, Paul-Antoine; Vautard, Robert; Legras, Bernard
1995-04-01
Two different definitions of midlatitude weather regimes are compared. The first seeks recurrent atmospheric patterns. The second seeks quasi-stationary patterns, whose average tendency vanishes. Recurrent patterns are identified by cluster analysis, and quasi-stationary patterns are identified by solving a nonlinear equilibration equation. Both methods are applied on the same dataset: the NMC final analyses of 700-hPa geopotential heights covering 44 winters. The analysis is performed separately over the Atlantic and Pacific sectors.The two methods give the same number of weather regimes-four over the Atlantic sector and three over the Pacific sector. However, the patterns differ significantly. The investigation of the tendency, or drift, of the clusters shows that recurrent flows have a systematic slow evolution, explaining this difference. The patterns are in agreement with the ones obtained from previous studies, but their number differs.The cluster analysis algorithm used here is a partitioning algorithm, which agglomerates data around randomly chosen seeds and iteratively finds the partition that minimizes the variance within clusters, given a prescribed number of clusters. The authors develop a classifiability index, based on the correlation between the cluster centroids obtained from different initial pullings. By comparing the classifiability index of observations with that obtained from a multivariate noise model, an objective definition of the number of clusters present in the data is given. Although the classifiability index is maximal by prescribing two clusters in both sectors, it only differs significantly from that obtained with the noise model using four Atlantic clusters and three Pacific clusters. The partitioning clustering method turns out to give more statistically stable clusters than hierarchical clustering schemes.
Breddin's graph for tectonic regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Célérier, Bernard; Séranne, Michel
2001-05-01
A simple graphical method is proposed to infer the tectonic regime from a fault and slip data set. An abacus is overlaid on a plot of the rake versus strike of the data. This yields the horizontal principal stress directions and a constraint on the stress tensor aspect ratio, in a manner similar to Breddin's graph for two-dimensional strain analysis. The main requirement is that one of the principal stress directions is close to the vertical. This method is illustrated on monophase synthetic and natural data, but is also expected to help sort out multiphase data sets.
Ireland unveils new license regime
Not Available
1992-11-23
Ireland has unveiled new terns designed to integrate the licensing regime for oil and gas exploration and development. They apply to new exploration and development authorizations and replace the exclusive offshore licensing terns introduced in 1975. Holders of existing licenses are still subject to the 1975 terms but can choose the new terns under appropriate circumstances. Frontier exploration licenses are currently available to complement the standard and deepwater exploration licenses in use. Rental fees are now spread evenly over the duration of the license, thereby eliminating large upfront payments. Lease extensions also have been introduced to enable operators to judge commerciality of a discovery beyond the set license period.
Different regimes of dynamic wetting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gustav, Amberg; Wang, Jiayu; Do-Quang, Minh; Shiomi, Junichiro; Physiochemical fluid mechanics Team; Maruyama-Chiashi Laboratory Team
2014-11-01
Dynamic wetting, as observed when a droplet contacts a dry solid surface, is important in various engineering processes, such as printing, coating, and lubrication. Our overall aim is to investigate if and how the detailed properties of the solid surface influence the dynamics of wetting. Here we discuss how surface roughness influences the initial dynamic spreading of a partially wetting droplet by studying the spreading on a solid substrate patterned with microstructures just a few micrometers in size. This is complemented by matching numerical simulations. We present a parameter map, based on the properties of the liquid and the solid surface, which identifies qualitatively different spreading regimes, where the spreading speed is limited by either the liquid viscosity, the surface properties, or the liquid inertia. The peculiarities of the different spreading regimes are studied by detailed numerical simulations, in conjuction with experiments. This work was financially supported in part by, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (J.W. and J.S) and Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (M.D.-Q. and G.A).
Adaptation in Collaborative Governance Regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K.
2014-10-01
Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program.
A surfactant film spreading regime
Nikishov, V.I.
1984-06-01
Interest has recently increased in the study of the mechanisms whereby oil spills spread over sea and ocean surfaces. In the later stages of this process, when the petroleum film thickness becomes sufficiently small, the main forces determining the growth of its horizontal dimensions are surface tension and viscosity. In this case the flow characteristics do not depend on total quantity of spreading substance nor its surface concentration distribution. However, in the final stages of the spreading process the film becomes so thin that it is necessary to consider the effect of surface concentration distribution of the material on the process. Similar problems occur in the study of the spreading of a surfactant in the case where the total quantity of material is small and the surface tension regime sets in quickly. Therefore, the author examines here the spreading of a film in a regime wherein it is necessary to consider the total quantity of surfactant present, initially located on the surface of a viscous incompressible liquid.
Adaptation in collaborative governance regimes.
Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K
2014-10-01
Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program. PMID:25073764
Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics
2014 Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics Cosmetic Procedure Trends 2014 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report Please credit the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLASTIC SURGEONS when citing statistical data or using ...
Stochastic Parametrisations and Regime Behaviour of Atmospheric Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnold, Hannah; Moroz, Irene; Palmer, Tim
2013-04-01
The presence of regimes is a characteristic of non-linear, chaotic systems (Lorenz, 2006). In the atmosphere, regimes emerge as familiar circulation patterns such as the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Scandinavian Blocking events. In recent years there has been much interest in the problem of identifying and studying atmospheric regimes (Solomon et al, 2007). In particular, how do these regimes respond to an external forcing such as anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions? The importance of regimes in observed trends over the past 50-100 years indicates that in order to predict anthropogenic climate change, our climate models must be able to represent accurately natural circulation regimes, their statistics and variability. It is well established that representing model uncertainty as well as initial condition uncertainty is important for reliable weather forecasts (Palmer, 2001). In particular, stochastic parametrisation schemes have been shown to improve the skill of weather forecast models (e.g. Berner et al., 2009; Frenkel et al., 2012; Palmer et al., 2009). It is possible that including stochastic physics as a representation of model uncertainty could also be beneficial in climate modelling, enabling the simulator to explore larger regions of the climate attractor including other flow regimes. An alternative representation of model uncertainty is a perturbed parameter scheme, whereby physical parameters in subgrid parametrisation schemes are perturbed about their optimal value. Perturbing parameters gives a greater control over the ensemble than multi-model or multiparametrisation ensembles, and has been used as a representation of model uncertainty in climate prediction (Stainforth et al., 2005; Rougier et al., 2009). We investigate the effect of including representations of model uncertainty on the regime behaviour of a simulator. A simple chaotic model of the atmosphere, the Lorenz '96 system, is used to study
Transport processes in magnetically confined plasmas in the nonlinear regime
Sonnino, Giorgio
2006-06-15
A field theory approach to transport phenomena in magnetically confined plasmas is presented. The thermodynamic field theory (TFT), previously developed for treating the generic thermodynamic system out of equilibrium, is applied to plasmas physics. Transport phenomena are treated here as the effect of the field linking the thermodynamic forces with their conjugate flows combined with statistical mechanics. In particular, the Classical and the Pfirsch-Schlueter regimes are analyzed by solving the thermodynamic field equations of the TFT in the weak-field approximation. We found that, the TFT does not correct the expressions of the ionic heat fluxes evaluated by the neoclassical theory in these two regimes. On the other hand, the fluxes of matter and electronic energy (heat flow) is further enhanced in the nonlinear Classical and Pfirsch-Schlueter regimes. These results seem to be in line with the experimental observations. The complete set of the electronic and ionic transport equations in the nonlinear Banana regime, is also reported. A paper showing the comparison between our theoretic results and the experimental observations in the JET machine is currently in preparation.
Dynamic Financial Constraints: Distinguishing Mechanism Design from Exogenously Incomplete Regimes*
Karaivanov, Alexander; Townsend, Robert M.
2014-01-01
We formulate and solve a range of dynamic models of constrained credit/insurance that allow for moral hazard and limited commitment. We compare them to full insurance and exogenously incomplete financial regimes (autarky, saving only, borrowing and lending in a single asset). We develop computational methods based on mechanism design, linear programming, and maximum likelihood to estimate, compare, and statistically test these alternative dynamic models with financial/information constraints. Our methods can use both cross-sectional and panel data and allow for measurement error and unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate the models using data on Thai households running small businesses from two separate samples. We find that in the rural sample, the exogenously incomplete saving only and borrowing regimes provide the best fit using data on consumption, business assets, investment, and income. Family and other networks help consumption smoothing there, as in a moral hazard constrained regime. In contrast, in urban areas, we find mechanism design financial/information regimes that are decidedly less constrained, with the moral hazard model fitting best combined business and consumption data. We perform numerous robustness checks in both the Thai data and in Monte Carlo simulations and compare our maximum likelihood criterion with results from other metrics and data not used in the estimation. A prototypical counterfactual policy evaluation exercise using the estimation results is also featured. PMID:25246710
Using Clustering to Establish Climate Regimes from PCM Output
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oglesby, Robert; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor); Hoffman, Forrest; Hargrove, W. W.; Erickson, D.
2002-01-01
A multivariate statistical clustering technique--based on the k-means algorithm of Hartigan has been used to extract patterns of climatological significance from 200 years of general circulation model (GCM) output. Originally developed and implemented on a Beowulf-style parallel computer constructed by Hoffman and Hargrove from surplus commodity desktop PCs, the high performance parallel clustering algorithm was previously applied to the derivation of ecoregions from map stacks of 9 and 25 geophysical conditions or variables for the conterminous U.S. at a resolution of 1 sq km. Now applied both across space and through time, the clustering technique yields temporally-varying climate regimes predicted by transient runs of the Parallel Climate Model (PCM). Using a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and clustering four fields of significance to the global water cycle (surface temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, and snow depth) from 1871 through 2098, the authors' analysis shows an increase in spatial area occupied by the cluster or climate regime which typifies desert regions (i.e., an increase in desertification) and a decrease in the spatial area occupied by the climate regime typifying winter-time high latitude perma-frost regions. The patterns of cluster changes have been analyzed to understand the predicted variability in the water cycle on global and continental scales. In addition, representative climate regimes were determined by taking three 10-year averages of the fields 100 years apart for northern hemisphere winter (December, January, and February) and summer (June, July, and August). The result is global maps of typical seasonal climate regimes for 100 years in the past, for the present, and for 100 years into the future. Using three-dimensional data or phase space representations of these climate regimes (i.e., the cluster centroids), the authors demonstrate the portion of this phase space occupied by the land surface at all points in space and time
Disorder-assisted quantum transport in suboptimal decoherence regimes
Novo, Leonardo; Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser
2016-01-01
We investigate quantum transport in binary tree structures and in hypercubes for the disordered Frenkel-exciton Hamiltonian under pure dephasing noise. We compute the energy transport efficiency as a function of disorder and dephasing rates. We demonstrate that dephasing improves transport efficiency not only in the disordered case, but also in the ordered one. The maximal transport efficiency is obtained when the dephasing timescale matches the hopping timescale, which represent new examples of the Goldilocks principle at the quantum scale. Remarkably, we find that in weak dephasing regimes, away from optimal levels of environmental fluctuations, the average effect of increasing disorder is to improve the transport efficiency until an optimal value for disorder is reached. Our results suggest that rational design of the site energies statistical distributions could lead to better performances in transport systems at nanoscale when their natural environments are far from the optimal dephasing regime. PMID:26726133
Couette flow regimes with heat transfer in rarefied gas
Abramov, A. A. Butkovskii, A. V.
2013-06-15
Based on numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation by direct statistic simulation, the Couette flow with heat transfer is studied in a broad range of ratios of plate temperatures and Mach numbers of a moving plate. Flow regime classification by the form of the dependences of the energy flux and friction stress on the Knudsen number Kn is proposed. These dependences can be simultaneously monotonic and nonmonotonic and have maxima. Situations are possible in which the dependence of the energy flux transferred to a plate on Kn has a minimum, while the dependence of the friction stress is monotonic or even has a maximum. Also, regimes exist in which the dependence of the energy flux on Kn has a maximum, while the dependence of the friction stress is monotonic, and vice versa.
The single-channel regime of transport through random media
Peña, A.; Girschik, A.; Libisch, F.; Rotter, S.; Chabanov, A. A.
2014-01-01
The propagation of light through samples with random inhomogeneities can be described by way of transmission eigenchannels, which connect incoming and outgoing external propagating modes. Although the detailed structure of a disordered sample can generally not be fully specified, these transmission eigenchannels can nonetheless be successfully controlled and used for focusing and imaging light through random media. Here we demonstrate that in deeply localized quasi-1D systems, the single dominant transmission eigenchannel is formed by an individual Anderson-localized mode or by a ‘necklace state’. In this single-channel regime, the disordered sample can be treated as an effective 1D system with a renormalized localization length, coupled through all the external modes to its surroundings. Using statistical criteria of the single-channel regime and pulsed excitations of the disordered samples allows us to identify long-lived localized modes and short-lived necklace states at long and short time delays, respectively. PMID:24663028
Disorder-assisted quantum transport in suboptimal decoherence regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novo, Leonardo; Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser
2016-01-01
We investigate quantum transport in binary tree structures and in hypercubes for the disordered Frenkel-exciton Hamiltonian under pure dephasing noise. We compute the energy transport efficiency as a function of disorder and dephasing rates. We demonstrate that dephasing improves transport efficiency not only in the disordered case, but also in the ordered one. The maximal transport efficiency is obtained when the dephasing timescale matches the hopping timescale, which represent new examples of the Goldilocks principle at the quantum scale. Remarkably, we find that in weak dephasing regimes, away from optimal levels of environmental fluctuations, the average effect of increasing disorder is to improve the transport efficiency until an optimal value for disorder is reached. Our results suggest that rational design of the site energies statistical distributions could lead to better performances in transport systems at nanoscale when their natural environments are far from the optimal dephasing regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, N. F.; Shi, Z. H.
2014-12-01
This paper analyzes runoff and soil loss in relation to the rainfall regimes and land use changes in a small mountainous watershed in the Three Gorges Area (TGA) of China. Based on 10 years of rainfall measurements and K-means clustering, 152 rainfall events were classified into three rainfall regimes. The mean statistical features of different rainfall regimes display a marked difference. Rainfall Regime I is events of medium amounts (31.8 mm) and medium duration (1371 min). Rainfall Regime II is events with high amounts (54.0 mm), long duration (2548 min), and an infrequent occurrence. Rainfall Regime III is events of low amount (22.2 mm), short duration (494 min) and high frequency. Each rainfall regime results in differing levels of runoff and erosion and Rainfall Regime I causes the greatest proportion of accumulated discharge (368.7 mm) and soil loss (4283 t). In the different rainfall regimes, the values of the mean runoff coefficient and the mean sediment load were ordered as follows: Rainfall Regime II > Rainfall Regime I > Rainfall Regime III. These results suggest that greater attention should be paid to Rainfall Regimes I and II because they had the most erosive effect. In the Wangjiaqiao watershed, the changes in land use primarily affected the paddy fields, where the cropland decreased significantly and the forest and orchards increased by 9.9% and 7.7%, respectively, during 1995-2004. The ANOVA shows land use changes caused significant decreasing trends in the runoff coefficients (P<0.01) and sediment loads (P<0.01). In order, the most sensitive response of runoff and erosion to land use was Rainfall Regime II > Rainfall Regime > Rainfall Regime III. Rainfall characteristics are decisive for the relative importance of different storm runoff generation mechanisms. The land use changes in the study watershed have considerably decreased runoff and soil loss.
Propagation Regime of Iron Dust Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, Francois-David; Goroshin, Samuel; Higgins, Andrew J.
2012-01-01
A flame propagating through an iron-dust mixture can propagate in two asymptotic regimes. When the characteristic time of heat transfer between particles is much smaller than the characteristic time of particle combustion, the flame propagates in the continuum regime where the heat released by reacting particles can be modelled as a space-averaged function. In contrast, when the characteristic time of heat transfer is much larger than the particle reaction time, the flame can no longer be treated as a continuum due to dominating effects associated with the discrete nature of the particle reaction. The discrete regime is characterized by weak dependence of the flame speed on the oxygen concentration compared to the continuum regime. The discrete regime is observed in flames propagating through an iron dust cloud within a gas mixture containing xenon, while the continuum regime is obtained when xenon is substituted with helium.
Discriminatory Proofreading Regimes in Nonequilibrium Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murugan, Arvind; Huse, David A.; Leibler, Stanislas
2014-04-01
We use ideas from kinetic proofreading, an error-correcting mechanism in biology, to identify new kinetic regimes in nonequilibrium systems. These regimes are defined by the sensitivity of the occupancy of a state of the system to a change in its energy. In biological contexts, higher sensitivity corresponds to stronger discrimination between molecular substrates with different energetics competing in the same reaction. We study this discriminatory ability in systems with discrete states that are connected by a general network of transitions. We find multiple regimes of different discriminatory ability when the energy of a given state of the network is varied. Interestingly, the occupancy of the state can even increase with its energy, corresponding to an "antiproofreading" regime. The number and properties of such discriminatory regimes are limited by the topology of the network. Finally, we find that discriminatory regimes can be changed without modifying any "hard-wired" structural aspects of the system but rather by simply changing external chemical potentials.
On unstable periodic regime of small HAWT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dosaev, Marat Z.; Klimina, Liubov A.; Selyutskiy, Yury D.; Tsai, Mi-Ching; Yang, Hong-Tzer
2012-11-01
Dynamics of a small HAWT is studied. The closed mathematical model involving phenomenological description of both aerodynamic load upon turbine blades and permanent magnet electric generator is developed, in order to take into account the inductive reactance of the electric circuit. A series of experiments is performed in the subsonic wind tunnel of the LMSU Institute of Mechanics that allowed verifying the model and identifying its parameters. Parameters of dynamic model are identified, such as the coefficient of electromechanical interaction, the active internal resistance of generator, the circuit reactance. Parametric analysis of steady regimes is performed. The model prediction that HAWT operating dynamic system has two stable steady regimes (high speed regime and low speed one) is confirmed by experiments. Transient regimes are registered depending on parameters of the system, which allows estimating the unstable steady regime. The characteristics of the unstable regime are experimentally determined. Obtained results are used for estimation of aerodynamic moment acting on HAWT blades.
Towards a dynamical understanding of flood regime changes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perdigão, Rui A. P.; Hall, Julia; Blöschl, Günter
2014-05-01
Flood regime changes can be analysed and statistically attributed by disentangling a whole network of driving processes and interactions, from ocean-atmospheric processes to land-related changes. However, such approaches do not provide dynamical dependence necessary to tackle changes in the process network itself, namely variations in the causal hierarchy. The present study addresses this issue by introducing a cross-platform mathematical framework aimed at the retrieval, analysis and modelling of dynamical features from hydrological datasets representing continuous and discrete physical processes of different nature. In doing so, a unified approach is devised for a more systematic and consistent analysis of hydrological processes and their interactions irrespective of whether they are governed by continuous, semi-discrete or fully discrete dynamical systems. The novel methodological developments are then used to investigate emerging behaviours in climate and hydrological regimes not resolved by any of the individual classes of dynamical systems. In the present study we are particularly interested in addressing flood regime changes, including seasonality changes and shifts between flood rich and flood poor periods. The new framework reveals that these changes may be associated to physical features emerging from nonlinear interactions in low-order dynamical models involving climate and land-related drivers. The spatiotemporal variability and nonlinear twists of the causal relationships are also investigated, noting that drivers of flood change have different impacts on different spatial and temporal scales. In this regard, multilateral interactions, feedbacks and structural causal changes are found among oceanic, atmospheric and land-related processes, and their combined influence is seen to explain flood change patterns that could not be explained by linear superposition of individual drivers or static causal hierarchies. In conclusion, investigating dynamical
Multistability of synchronous regimes in rotator ensembles.
Kryukov, A K; Petrov, V S; Osipov, G V; Kurths, J
2015-12-01
We study collective dynamics in rotator ensembles and focus on the multistability of synchronous regimes in a chain of coupled rotators. We provide a detailed analysis of the number of coexisting regimes and estimate in particular, the synchronization boundary for different types of individual frequency distribution. The number of wave-based regimes coexisting for the same parameters and its dependence on the chain length are estimated. We give an analytical estimation for the synchronization frequency of the in-phase regime for a uniform individual frequency distribution. PMID:26723160
Statistics Poker: Reinforcing Basic Statistical Concepts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leech, Nancy L.
2008-01-01
Learning basic statistical concepts does not need to be tedious or dry; it can be fun and interesting through cooperative learning in the small-group activity of Statistics Poker. This article describes a teaching approach for reinforcing basic statistical concepts that can help students who have high anxiety and makes learning and reinforcing…
Predict! Teaching Statistics Using Informational Statistical Inference
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Makar, Katie
2013-01-01
Statistics is one of the most widely used topics for everyday life in the school mathematics curriculum. Unfortunately, the statistics taught in schools focuses on calculations and procedures before students have a chance to see it as a useful and powerful tool. Researchers have found that a dominant view of statistics is as an assortment of tools…
Marine ecosystem regime shifts: challenges and opportunities for ecosystem-based management
Levin, Phillip S.; Möllmann, Christian
2015-01-01
Regime shifts have been observed in marine ecosystems around the globe. These phenomena can result in dramatic changes in the provision of ecosystem services to coastal communities. Accounting for regime shifts in management clearly requires integrative, ecosystem-based management (EBM) approaches. EBM has emerged as an accepted paradigm for ocean management worldwide, yet, despite the rapid and intense development of EBM theory, implementation has languished, and many implemented or proposed EBM schemes largely ignore the special characteristics of regime shifts. Here, we first explore key aspects of regime shifts that are of critical importance to EBM, and then suggest how regime shifts can be better incorporated into EBM using the concept of integrated ecosystem assessment (IEA). An IEA uses approaches that determine the likelihood that ecological or socio-economic properties of systems will move beyond or return to acceptable bounds as defined by resource managers and policy makers. We suggest an approach for implementing IEAs for cases of regime shifts where the objectives are either avoiding an undesired state or returning to a desired condition. We discuss the suitability and short-comings of methods summarizing the status of ecosystem components, screening and prioritizing potential risks, and evaluating alternative management strategies. IEAs are evolving as an EBM approach that can address regime shifts; however, advances in statistical, analytical and simulation modelling are needed before IEAs can robustly inform tactical management in systems characterized by regime shifts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertig, E.; Jacobeit, J.
2011-03-01
The determination of specific sea surface temperature (SST) patterns from large-scale gridded SST-fields has widely been done. Often principal component analysis (PCA) is used to condense the SST-data to major patterns of variability. In the present study SST-fields for the period 1950-2003 from the area 20°S to 60°N are analysed with respect to SST-regimes being defined as large-scale oceanic patterns with a regular and at least seasonal occurrence. This has been done in context of investigations on seasonal predictability of Mediterranean regional climate with large-scale SST-regimes as intended predictors in statistical model relationships. The SST-regimes are derived by means of a particular technique including multiple applications of s-mode PCA. Altogether 17 stationary regimes can be identified, eight for the Pacific Ocean, five for the Atlantic Ocean, two for the Indian Ocean, and two regimes which show a distinct co-variability within different ocean basins. Some regimes exist, with varying strength and spatial extent, throughout the whole year, whereas other regimes are only characteristic for a particular season. Several regimes show dominant variability modes, like the regimes associated with El Niño, with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation or with the North Atlantic Tripole, whereas other regimes describe little-known patterns of large-scale SST variability. The determined SST-regimes are subsequently used as predictors for monthly precipitation and temperature in the Mediterranean area. This subject is addressed in Part II of this paper.
Capacitance densitometer for flow regime identification
Shipp, Jr., Roy L.
1978-01-01
This invention relates to a capacitance densitometer for determining the flow regime of a two-phase flow system. A two-element capacitance densitometer is used in conjunction with a conventional single-beam gamma densitometer to unambiguously identify the prevailing flow regime and the average density of a flowing fluid.
Regimes of DNA confined in a nanochannel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Liang; Doyle, Patrick
2014-03-01
Scaling regimes for polymers confined to tubular channels are well established when the channel cross-sectional dimension is either very small (Odjik regime) or large (classic de Gennes regime) relative to the polymer Kuhn length. In the literature, there is no clear consensus regarding the intermediate region and if subregimes even exist to connect these two classic bounding regimes. The confluence of emerging single DNA mapping technologies and a resurged interest in the fundamental properties of confined polymers has led to extensive research in this area using DNA as a model system. Due to the DNA molecule's properties and limitations of nanofabrication, most experiments are performed in this intermediate regime with channel dimensions of a few Kuhn lengths. Here we use simulations and theory to reconcile conflicting theories and show that there are indeed extended de Gennes, partial alignment and hairpin regimes located between the two classic regimes. Simulations results for both chain extension and free energy support the existence of these regimes. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation Singapore through the Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology's research program in BioSystems and Micromechanics, the National Science Foundation (CBET-1335938).
FISHER INFORMATION AND ECOSYSTEM REGIME CHANGES
Following Fisher’s work, we propose two different expressions for the Fisher Information along with Shannon Information as a means of detecting and assessing shifts between alternative ecosystem regimes. Regime shifts are a consequence of bifurcations in the dynamics of an ecosys...
Blowout regimes of plasma wakefield acceleration.
Lotov, K V
2004-04-01
A wide region of beam parameters is numerically scanned and the dependence of wakefield properties on the beam length and current is clarified for the blowout regime of beam-plasma interaction. The main regimes of the plasma response are found, which qualitatively differ in the plasma behavior. To characterize the efficiency of the energy exchange between the beam and the plasma, the energy flux through the comoving window is introduced. Scalings of the energy flux for the linear plasma response and the main blowout regimes are studied. The most efficient energy transfer occurs in the so-called "strong beam" regime of interaction. For this regime, analytical approximations for various aspects of the plasma response are obtained. PMID:15169104
Discrete fluorescent saturation regimes in multilevel systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kastner, S. O.; Bhatia, A. K.
1988-01-01
Using models of multilevel atoms, the fluorescent process was examined for the ratio of the photooxidation rate, Pij, to the collisional oxidation rate, Cij, in the pumped resonance transition i-j. It is shown that, in the full range of the parameter Pij/Cij, there exist three distinct regimes (I, II, and III) which may be usefully exploited. These regimes are defined, respectively, by the following conditions: Pij/Cij smaller than about 1; Pij/Cij much greater than 1 and Pij much lower than Cki; and Pij/Cij much greater than 1 and Pij much higher than Cki, where Cki is the collisional rate populating the source level i. The only regime which is characterized by the sensitivity of fluorescent-fluorescent line intensity ratios to Pij is regime I. If regime III is reached, even fluorescent-nonfluorescent line ratios become independent of Pij. The analysis is applied to the resonant photoexcitation of a carbonlike ion.
Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics
... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor - Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor - Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on how many people survive this type of ...
Snowpack regimes of the Western United States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trujillo, Ernesto; Molotch, Noah P.
2014-07-01
Snow accumulation and melt patterns play a significant role in the water, energy, carbon, and nutrient cycles in the montane environments of the Western United States. Recent studies have illustrated that changes in the snow/rainfall apportionments and snow accumulation and melt patterns may occur as a consequence of changes in climate in the region. In order to understand how these changes may affect the snow regimes of the region, the current characteristics of the snow accumulation and melt patterns must be identified. Here we characterize the snow water equivalent (SWE) curve formed by the daily SWE values at 766 snow pillow stations in the Western United States, focusing on several metrics of the yearly SWE curves and the relationships between the different metrics. The metrics are the initial snow accumulation and snow disappearance dates, the peak snow accumulation and date of peak, the length of the snow accumulation season, the length of the snowmelt season, and the snow accumulation and snowmelt slopes. Three snow regimes emerge from these results: a maritime, an intermountain, and a continental regime. The maritime regime is characterized by higher maximum snow accumulations reaching 300 cm and shorter accumulation periods of less than 220 days. Conversely, the continental regime is characterized by lower maximum accumulations below 200 cm and longer accumulation periods reaching over 260 days. The intermountain regime lies in between. The regions that show the characteristics of the maritime regime include the Cascade Mountains, the Klamath Mountains, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The intermountain regime includes the Eastern Cascades slopes and foothills, the Blue Mountains, Northern and Central basins and ranges, the Columbia Mountains/Northern Rockies, the Idaho Batholith, and the Canadian Rockies. Lastly, the continental regime includes the Middle and Southern Rockies, and the Wasatch and Uinta Mountains. The implications of snow regime
Biomimetic cilia arrays generate simultaneous pumping and mixing regimes
Shields, A. R.; Fiser, B. L.; Evans, B. A.; Falvo, M. R.; Washburn, S.; Superfine, R.
2010-01-01
Living systems employ cilia to control and to sense the flow of fluids for many purposes, such as pumping, locomotion, feeding, and tissue morphogenesis. Beyond their use in biology, functional arrays of artificial cilia have been envisaged as a potential biomimetic strategy for inducing fluid flow and mixing in lab-on-a-chip devices. Here we report on fluid transport produced by magnetically actuated arrays of biomimetic cilia whose size approaches that of their biological counterparts, a scale at which advection and diffusion compete to determine mass transport. Our biomimetic cilia recreate the beat shape of embryonic nodal cilia, simultaneously generating two sharply segregated regimes of fluid flow: Above the cilia tips their motion causes directed, long-range fluid transport, whereas below the tips we show that the cilia beat generates an enhanced diffusivity capable of producing increased mixing rates. These two distinct types of flow occur simultaneously and are separated in space by less than 5 μm, approximately 20% of the biomimetic cilium length. While this suggests that our system may have applications as a versatile microfluidics device, we also focus on the biological implications of our findings. Our statistical analysis of particle transport identifying an enhanced diffusion regime provides novel evidence for the existence of mixing in ciliated systems, and we demonstrate that the directed transport regime is Poiseuille–Couette flow, the first analytical model consistent with biological measurements of fluid flow in the embryonic node. PMID:20798342
Globalization, marine regime shifts and the Soviet Union
Österblom, Henrik; Folke, Carl
2015-01-01
Regime shifts have been observed in marine ecosystems around the world, with climate and fishing suggested as major drivers of such shifts. The global and regional dynamics of the climate system have been studied in this context, and efforts to develop an analogous understanding of fishing activities are developing. Here, we investigate the timing of pelagic marine regime shifts in relation to the emergence of regional and global fishing activities of the Soviet Union. Our investigation of official catch statistics reflects that the Soviet Union was a major fishing actor in all large marine ecosystems where regime shifts have been documented, including in ecosystems where overfishing has been established as a key driver of these changes (in the Baltic and Black Seas and the Scotian Shelf). Globalization of Soviet Union fishing activities pushed exploitation to radically new levels and triggered regional and global governance responses for improved management. Since then, exploitation levels have remained and increased with new actors involved. Based on our exploratory work, we propose that a deeper understanding of the role of global fishing actors is central for improved management of marine ecosystems.
Characterization of diffusion processes: Normal and anomalous regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alves, Samuel B.; de Oliveira, Gilson F.; de Oliveira, Luimar C.; Passerat de Silans, Thierry; Chevrollier, Martine; Oriá, Marcos; de S. Cavalcante, Hugo L. D.
2016-04-01
Many man-made and natural processes involve the diffusion of microscopic particles subject to random or chaotic, random-like movements. Besides the normal diffusion characterized by a Gaussian probability density function, whose variance increases linearly in time, so-called anomalous-diffusion regimes can also take place. They are characterized by a variance growing slower (subdiffusive) or faster (superdiffusive) than normal. In fact, many different underlying processes can lead to anomalous diffusion, with qualitative differences between mechanisms producing subdiffusion and mechanisms resulting in superdiffusion. Thus, a general description, encompassing all three regimes and where the specific mechanisms of each system are not explicit, is desirable. Here, our goal is to present a simple method of data analysis that enables one to characterize a model-less diffusion process from data observation, by observing the temporal evolution of the particle spread. To generate diffusive processes in different regimes, we use a Monte-Carlo routine in which both the step-size and the time-delay of the diffusing particles follow Pareto (inverse-power law) distributions, with either finite or diverging statistical momenta. We discuss on the application of this method to real systems.
Global impacts of the 1980s regime shift.
Reid, Philip C; Hari, Renata E; Beaugrand, Grégory; Livingstone, David M; Marty, Christoph; Straile, Dietmar; Barichivich, Jonathan; Goberville, Eric; Adrian, Rita; Aono, Yasuyuki; Brown, Ross; Foster, James; Groisman, Pavel; Hélaouët, Pierre; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Kirby, Richard; Knight, Jeff; Kraberg, Alexandra; Li, Jianping; Lo, Tzu-Ting; Myneni, Ranga B; North, Ryan P; Pounds, J Alan; Sparks, Tim; Stübi, René; Tian, Yongjun; Wiltshire, Karen H; Xiao, Dong; Zhu, Zaichun
2016-02-01
Despite evidence from a number of Earth systems that abrupt temporal changes known as regime shifts are important, their nature, scale and mechanisms remain poorly documented and understood. Applying principal component analysis, change-point analysis and a sequential t-test analysis of regime shifts to 72 time series, we confirm that the 1980s regime shift represented a major change in the Earth's biophysical systems from the upper atmosphere to the depths of the ocean and from the Arctic to the Antarctic, and occurred at slightly different times around the world. Using historical climate model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and statistical modelling of historical temperatures, we then demonstrate that this event was triggered by rapid global warming from anthropogenic plus natural forcing, the latter associated with the recovery from the El Chichón volcanic eruption. The shift in temperature that occurred at this time is hypothesized as the main forcing for a cascade of abrupt environmental changes. Within the context of the last century or more, the 1980s event was unique in terms of its global scope and scale; our observed consequences imply that if unavoidable natural events such as major volcanic eruptions interact with anthropogenic warming unforeseen multiplier effects may occur. PMID:26598217
Statistical Transmutation in Floquet Driven Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sedrakyan, Tigran A.; Galitski, Victor M.; Kamenev, Alex
2015-11-01
We show that interacting bosons in a periodically driven two dimensional (2D) optical lattice may effectively exhibit fermionic statistics. The phenomenon is similar to the celebrated Tonks-Girardeau regime in 1D. The Floquet band of a driven lattice develops the moat shape, i.e., a minimum along a closed contour in the Brillouin zone. Such degeneracy of the kinetic energy favors fermionic quasiparticles. The statistical transmutation is achieved by the Chern-Simons flux attachment similar to the fractional quantum Hall case. We show that the velocity distribution of the released bosons is a sensitive probe of the fermionic nature of their stationary Floquet state.
Statistical Transmutation in Floquet Driven Optical Lattices.
Sedrakyan, Tigran A; Galitski, Victor M; Kamenev, Alex
2015-11-01
We show that interacting bosons in a periodically driven two dimensional (2D) optical lattice may effectively exhibit fermionic statistics. The phenomenon is similar to the celebrated Tonks-Girardeau regime in 1D. The Floquet band of a driven lattice develops the moat shape, i.e., a minimum along a closed contour in the Brillouin zone. Such degeneracy of the kinetic energy favors fermionic quasiparticles. The statistical transmutation is achieved by the Chern-Simons flux attachment similar to the fractional quantum Hall case. We show that the velocity distribution of the released bosons is a sensitive probe of the fermionic nature of their stationary Floquet state. PMID:26588392
Akhter, Saeed; Khan, Muhammad; Ali, Syed Shahzad; Soomro, Rabial Rani
2014-11-01
To evaluate the role of manual therapy with exercise regime versus exercise regime alone in the management of non-specific chronic neck pain. In this 62 subjects randomized controlled trial 31 subjects in group A received manual therapy (manipulation) with supervised exercise regime whilst 31 subjects in group B performed only supervised exercise regime for the period of 3 weeks. Both groups had a home exercise program consisted of strengthening exercises for neck/scapuluar stability, stretching and general range of motion exercises for neck with advice regarding posture awareness and correction for 3 months. The results suggested significant reduction in pain intensity level in both groups; over 3 weeks and 12 weeks' time period in relation to baseline on visual analog scale (p=0.001). Similarly, statistically significant improvements noticed in Neck Disability Index (NDI) (p=0.0001) in both groups while looking at baseline data with reference to 12 weeks' time period. On closer inspection, the manual therapy (manipulation) with exercise regime appeared as a favorable treatment preference compared with exercise regime alone. PMID:25410083
Abrupt climate-independent fire regime changes
Pausas, Juli G.; Keeley, Jon E.
2014-01-01
Wildfires have played a determining role in distribution, composition and structure of many ecosystems worldwide and climatic changes are widely considered to be a major driver of future fire regime changes. However, forecasting future climatic change induced impacts on fire regimes will require a clearer understanding of other drivers of abrupt fire regime changes. Here, we focus on evidence from different environmental and temporal settings of fire regimes changes that are not directly attributed to climatic changes. We review key cases of these abrupt fire regime changes at different spatial and temporal scales, including those directly driven (i) by fauna, (ii) by invasive plant species, and (iii) by socio-economic and policy changes. All these drivers might generate non-linear effects of landscape changes in fuel structure; that is, they generate fuel changes that can cross thresholds of landscape continuity, and thus drastically change fire activity. Although climatic changes might contribute to some of these changes, there are also many instances that are not primarily linked to climatic shifts. Understanding the mechanism driving fire regime changes should contribute to our ability to better assess future fire regimes.
Statistical theory of nonadiabatic transitions.
Neufeld, A A
2005-04-22
Based on results of the preceding paper, and assuming fast equilibration in phase space to the temperature of the surrounding media compared to the time scale of a reaction, we formulate a statistical theory of intramolecular nonadiabatic transitions. A classical mechanics description of phase space dynamics allows for an ab initio treatment of multidimensional reaction coordinates and easy combination with any standard molecular dynamics (MD) method. The presented approach has several features that distinguishes it from existing methodologies. First, the applicability limits of the approach are well defined. Second, the nonadiabatic transitions are treated dynamically, with full account of detailed balance, including zero-point energy, quantum coherence effects, arbitrarily long memory, and change of the free energy of the bath. Compared to popular trajectory surface hopping schemes, our MD-based algorithm is more efficient computationally, and does not use artificial ad hoc constructions like a "fewest switching" algorithm, and rescaling of velocities to conserve total energy. The enhanced capabilities of the new method are demonstrated considering a model of two coupled harmonic oscillators. We show that in the rate regime and at moderate friction the approach precisely reproduces the free-energy-gap law. It also predicts a general trend of the reaction dynamics in the low friction limit, and is valid beyond the rate regime. PMID:15945676
Predicting regime shifts in flow of the Colorado River
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangopadhyay, S.; McCabe, G. J.; Brekke, L. D.
2010-12-01
The effects of continued global warming on water resources are a concern for water managers and stake holders. In the western United States, where the combined climatic demand and consumptive use of water is equal to or greater than the natural supply of water for some locations, there is growing concern regarding the sustainability of future water supplies. In addition to the adverse effects of warming on water supply, another issue for water managers is accounting for, and managing, the effects of natural climatic variability, particularly persistently dry and wet periods. Analyses of paleo-reconstructions of Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) flow demonstrate that severe sustained droughts, and persistent pluvial periods, are a recurring characteristic of hydroclimate in the Colorado River basin. Shifts between persistently dry and wet regimes (e.g. decadal to multi-decadal variability (D2M)) have important implications for water supply and water management. In this study paleo-reconstructions of UCRB flow are used to compute the risks of shifts between persistently wet and dry regimes given the length of time in a specific regime. Results indicate that low frequency variability of hydro-climatic conditions and the statistics that describe this low frequency variability can be useful to water managers by providing information about the risk of shifting from one hydrologic regime to another. Boxplot of risk outlooks in the Colorado River Basin from the nine flow reconstructions developed in Gangopadhyay et al. (2009). Gangopadhyay, S., B.L. Harding, B. Rajagopalan, J.J. Lukas, and T.J. Fulp, (2009) A non-parametric approach for paleohydrologic reconstruction of annual streamflow ensembles. Water Resour. Res., 45, W06417.
Predicting regime shifts in flow of the Colorado River
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; McCabe, Gregory J.
2010-10-01
The effects of continued global warming on water resources are a concern for water managers and stake holders. In the western United States, where the combined climatic demand and consumptive use of water is equal to or greater than the natural supply of water for some locations, there is growing concern regarding the sustainability of future water supplies. In addition to the adverse effects of warming on water supply, another issue for water managers is accounting for, and managing, the effects of natural climatic variability, particularly persistently dry and wet periods. Analyses of paleo-reconstructions of Upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) flow demonstrate that severe sustained droughts, and persistent pluvial periods, are a recurring characteristic of hydroclimate in the Colorado River basin. Shifts between persistently dry and wet regimes (e.g., decadal to multi-decadal variability (D2M)) have important implications for water supply and water management. In this study paleo-reconstructions of UCRB flow are used to compute the risks of shifts between persistently wet and dry regimes given the length of time in a specific regime. Results indicate that low frequency variability of hydro-climatic conditions and the statistics that describe this low frequency variability can be useful to water managers by providing information about the risk of shifting from one hydrologic regime to another. To manage water resources in the future water managers will have to understand the joint hydrologic effects of natural climate variability and global warming. These joint effects may produce future hydrologic conditions that are unprecedented in both the instrumental and paleoclimatic records.
Aerosol variability and weather regimes over the Mediterranean region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nabat, Pierre; Somot, Samuel; Mallet, Marc; Michou, Martine
2015-04-01
The Mediterranean region is characterized by the accumulation of aerosols from different sources: industrial and urban aerosols from Europe and North African towns, biomass burning, from Eastern Europe, dust aerosols from Africa, and marine particles from the sea. These aerosols show a strong spatio-temporal variability and a resulting large variety in aerosol optical properties over this basin. Maximal aerosol loads are observed in spring and summer, namely in the dry season favouring a longer residence time for atmospheric aerosols. Besides, dust outbreaks characterized by large plumes of Saharan desert dust particles, are more frequent in this season. This study realized in the framework of the ChArMEx initiative aims at explaining this aerosol variability and the relationship between aerosol loads and weather conditions. We consider here an approach based on weather regimes and regional modeling. From a multi-year (1979-2013) regional simulation carried out with the ALADIN-climate model (50 km resolution, ERA-Interim forcing) including an interactive aerosol scheme for the main species present in this region (desert dust, sea-salt, sulfates and carbonaceous particles), we have identified typical synoptic conditions that favour high aerosol loads over the Mediterranean, or on the contrary that are opposed to these high aerosol loads. These weather regimes are based on a statistical method of automated classification realized from surface pressure data. They are also related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). In this work, we characterize the presence of the different aerosol types over the Mediterranean for each weather regime, as well as their effects on climate. Thus, anomalies in the occurrence of the regimes favourable to high aerosol loads could explain the frequent dust outbreaks observed during the ChArMEx campaigns in 2012 and 2013.
Statistical Reference Datasets
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access) The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.
Identifying multiple coral reef regimes and their drivers across the Hawaiian archipelago
Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Nyström, Magnus; Norström, Albert V.; Williams, Ivor D.; Wedding, Lisa M.; Kittinger, John N.; Williams, Gareth J.
2015-01-01
Loss of coral reef resilience can lead to dramatic changes in benthic structure, often called regime shifts, which significantly alter ecosystem processes and functioning. In the face of global change and increasing direct human impacts, there is an urgent need to anticipate and prevent undesirable regime shifts and, conversely, to reverse shifts in already degraded reef systems. Such challenges require a better understanding of the human and natural drivers that support or undermine different reef regimes. The Hawaiian archipelago extends across a wide gradient of natural and anthropogenic conditions and provides us a unique opportunity to investigate the relationships between multiple reef regimes, their dynamics and potential drivers. We applied a combination of exploratory ordination methods and inferential statistics to one of the most comprehensive coral reef datasets available in order to detect, visualize and define potential multiple ecosystem regimes. This study demonstrates the existence of three distinct reef regimes dominated by hard corals, turf algae or macroalgae. Results from boosted regression trees show nonlinear patterns among predictors that help to explain the occurrence of these regimes, and highlight herbivore biomass as the key driver in addition to effluent, latitude and depth.
Earth Regime Network Evolution Study (ERNESt)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menrad, Bob
2016-01-01
Speaker and Presenter at the Lincoln Laboratory Communications Workshop on April 5, 2016 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, MA. A visual presentation titled Earth Regimes Network Evolution Study (ERNESt).
Electron transport fluxes in potato plateau regime
Shaing, K.C.; Hazeltine, R.D.
1997-12-01
Electron transport fluxes in the potato plateau regime are calculated from the solutions of the drift kinetic equation and fluid equations. It is found that the bootstrap current density remains finite in the region close to the magnetic axis, although it decreases with increasing collision frequency. This finite amount of the bootstrap current in the relatively collisional regime is important in modeling tokamak startup with 100{percent} bootstrap current. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Molecular motors in conservative and dissipative regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez-Carrasco, R.; Sancho, J. M.
2011-10-01
We present a theoretical study of a rotatory molecular motor under a conservative torque regime. We show that conservative and dissipative regimes present a different observable phenomenology. Our approach starts with a preliminary deterministic calculation of the motor cycle, which is complemented with stochastic simulations of a Langevin equation under a flashing ratchet potential. Finally, by using parameter values obtained from independent experimental information, our theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data of the F1-ATPase motor of the Bacillus PS3.
Regime Diagrams for K-Theory Dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Ronald B.
2011-06-01
In atmospheric dispersion, the "non-Gaussian" effects of gravitational settling, the vertical gradient in diffusivity and the surface deposition do not enter uniformly but rather break up parameter space into several discrete regimes. Here, we describe regime diagrams that are constructed for K-theory dispersion of effluent from a surface line source in unsheared inhomogeneous turbulence, using a previously derived Fourier-Hankel method. This K-theory formulation differs from the traditional one by keeping a non-zero diffusivity at the ground. This change allows for turbulent exchange between the canopy and the atmosphere and allows new natural length scales to emerge. The axes on the regime diagrams are non-dimensional distance defined as the ratio of downwind distance to the characteristic length scale for each effect. For each value of the ratio of settling speed to the K gradient, two to four regimes are found. Concentration formulae are given for each regime. The regime diagrams allow real dispersion problems to be categorized and the validity of end-state concentration formulae to be judged.
A holistic view of marine regime shifts
Conversi, Alessandra; Dakos, Vasilis; Gårdmark, Anna; Ling, Scott; Folke, Carl; Mumby, Peter J.; Greene, Charles; Edwards, Martin; Blenckner, Thorsten; Casini, Michele; Pershing, Andrew; Möllmann, Christian
2015-01-01
Understanding marine regime shifts is important not only for ecology but also for developing marine management that assures the provision of ecosystem services to humanity. While regime shift theory is well developed, there is still no common understanding on drivers, mechanisms and characteristic of abrupt changes in real marine ecosystems. Based on contributions to the present theme issue, we highlight some general issues that need to be overcome for developing a more comprehensive understanding of marine ecosystem regime shifts. We find a great divide between benthic reef and pelagic ocean systems in how regime shift theory is linked to observed abrupt changes. Furthermore, we suggest that the long-lasting discussion on the prevalence of top-down trophic or bottom-up physical drivers in inducing regime shifts may be overcome by taking into consideration the synergistic interactions of multiple stressors, and the special characteristics of different ecosystem types. We present a framework for the holistic investigation of marine regime shifts that considers multiple exogenous drivers that interact with endogenous mechanisms to cause abrupt, catastrophic change. This framework takes into account the time-delayed synergies of these stressors, which erode the resilience of the ecosystem and eventually enable the crossing of ecological thresholds. Finally, considering that increased pressures in the marine environment are predicted by the current climate change assessments, in order to avoid major losses of ecosystem services, we suggest that marine management approaches should incorporate knowledge on environmental thresholds and develop tools that consider regime shift dynamics and characteristics. This grand challenge can only be achieved through a holistic view of marine ecosystem dynamics as evidenced by this theme issue.
Greenland Meltwater and Arctic Circulation Regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dukhovskoy, D. S.; Proshutinsky, A. Y.; Timmermans, M. L.; Myers, P. G.; Platov, G.
2015-12-01
Between 1948 and 1996, wind-driven components of ice drift and surface ocean currents experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability alternating between anticyclonic and cyclonic circulation regimes. During cyclonic regimes, low sea level atmospheric pressure dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean toward the sub-Arctic seas was intensified. During anticylonic circulation regimes, high sea level pressure dominated over the Arctic driving sea ice and ocean counter-clockwise; the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the sub-Arctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been dominated by an anticyclonic circulation regime with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for these regimes. Of essential importance is to discern the causes and consequences of the apparent break-down in the natural decadal variability of the Arctic climate system, and specifically: Why has the well-pronounced decadal variability observed in the 20th century been replaced by relatively weak interannual changes under anticyclonic circulation regime conditions in the 21st century? We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. In order to test this hypothesis, numerical experiments with several FAMOS (Forum for Arctic Modeling & Observational Synthesis) ice-ocean coupled models have been conducted. In these experiments, Greenland melt freshwater is tracked by passive tracers being constantly released along the Greenland coast. Propagation pathways and time scales of Greenland meltwater within the sub-Arctic seas are discussed.
Hydrological regime modifications induced by climate change in Mediterranean area
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pumo, Dario; Caracciolo, Domenico; Viola, Francesco; Valerio Noto, Leonardo
2015-04-01
The knowledge of river flow regimes has a capital importance for a variety of practical applications, in water resource management, including optimal and sustainable use. Hydrological regime is highly dependent on climatic factors, among which the most important is surely the precipitation, in terms of frequency, seasonal distribution and intensity of rainfall events. The streamflow frequency regime of river basins are often summarized by flow duration curves (FDCs), that offer a simple and comprehensive graphical view of the overall historical variability associated with streamflow, and characterize the ability of the basin to provide flows of various magnitudes. Climate change is likely to lead shifts in the hydrological regime, and, consequently, in the FDCs. Staring from this premise, the primary objective of the present study is to explore the effects of potential climate changes on the hydrological regime of some small Mediterranean basins. To this aim it is here used a recent hydrological model, the ModABa model (MODel for Annual flow duration curves assessment in ephemeral small BAsins), for the probabilistic characterization of the daily streamflows in small catchments. The model has been calibrated and successively validated in a unique small catchment, where it has shown a satisfactory accuracy in reproducing the empirical FDC starting from easily derivable parameters arising from basic ecohydrological knowledge of the basin and commonly available climatic data such as daily precipitation and temperatures. Thus, this work also represents a first attempt to apply the ModABa to basins different from that used for its preliminary design in order to testing its generality. Different case studies are selected within the Sicily region; the model is first calibrated at the sites and then forced by future climatic scenarios, highlighting the principal differences emerging from the current scenario and future FDCs. The future climate scenarios are generated using
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Mathematical and statistical analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houston, A. Glen
1988-01-01
The goal of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS is to research, develop, and evaluate mathematical and statistical techniques for aerospace technology applications. Specific research areas of interest include modeling, simulation, experiment design, reliability assessment, and numerical analysis.
A statistical measure of financial crises magnitude
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negrea, Bogdan
2014-03-01
This paper postulates the concept of financial market energy and provides a statistical measure of the financial market crisis magnitude based on an analogy between earthquakes and market crises. The financial energy released by the market is expressed in terms of trading volume and stock market index returns. A financial “earthquake” occurs if the financial energy released by the market exceeds the estimated threshold of market energy called critical energy. Similar to the Richter scale which is used in seismology in order to measure the magnitude of an earthquake, we propose a financial Gutenberg-Richter relation in order to capture the crisis magnitude and we show that the statistical pattern of the financial market crash is given by two statistical regimes, namely Pareto and Wakeby distributions.
Minnesota Health Statistics 1988.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.
This document comprises the 1988 annual statistical report of the Minnesota Center for Health Statistics. After introductory technical notes on changes in format, sources of data, and geographic allocation of vital events, an overview is provided of vital health statistics in all areas. Thereafter, separate sections of the report provide tables…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strasser, Nora
2007-01-01
Avoiding statistical mistakes is important for educators at all levels. Basic concepts will help you to avoid making mistakes using statistics and to look at data with a critical eye. Statistical data is used at educational institutions for many purposes. It can be used to support budget requests, changes in educational philosophy, changes to…
Statistical quality management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanderlaan, Paul
1992-10-01
Some aspects of statistical quality management are discussed. Quality has to be defined as a concrete, measurable quantity. The concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM), Statistical Process Control (SPC), and inspection are explained. In most cases SPC is better than inspection. It can be concluded that statistics has great possibilities in the field of TQM.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lenard, Christopher; McCarthy, Sally; Mills, Terence
2014-01-01
There are many different aspects of statistics. Statistics involves mathematics, computing, and applications to almost every field of endeavour. Each aspect provides an opportunity to spark someone's interest in the subject. In this paper we discuss some ethical aspects of statistics, and describe how an introduction to ethics has been…
What can we learn from noise? - Mesoscopic nonequilibrium statistical physics.
Kobayashi, Kensuke
2016-01-01
Mesoscopic systems - small electric circuits working in quantum regime - offer us a unique experimental stage to explorer quantum transport in a tunable and precise way. The purpose of this Review is to show how they can contribute to statistical physics. We introduce the significance of fluctuation, or equivalently noise, as noise measurement enables us to address the fundamental aspects of a physical system. The significance of the fluctuation theorem (FT) in statistical physics is noted. We explain what information can be deduced from the current noise measurement in mesoscopic systems. As an important application of the noise measurement to statistical physics, we describe our experimental work on the current and current noise in an electron interferometer, which is the first experimental test of FT in quantum regime. Our attempt will shed new light in the research field of mesoscopic quantum statistical physics. PMID:27477456
Learning Flow Regimes from Snapshot Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemati, Maziar
2015-11-01
Fluid flow regimes are often categorized based on the qualitative patterns observed by visual inspection of the flow field. For example, bluff body wakes are traditionally classified based on the number and groupings of vortices shed per cycle (e.g., 2S, 2P, P+S), as seen in snapshots of the vorticity field. Subsequently, the existence and nature of these identified flow regimes can be explained through dynamical analyses of the fluid mechanics. Unfortunately, due to the need for manual inspection, the approach described above can be impractical for studies that seek to learn flow regimes from large volumes of numerical and/or experimental snapshot data. Here, we appeal to established techniques from machine learning and data-driven dynamical systems analysis to automate the task of learning flow regimes from snapshot data. Moreover, by appealing to the dynamical structure of the fluid flow, this approach also offers the potential to reveal flow regimes that may be overlooked by visual inspection alone. Here, we will introduce the methodology and demonstrate its capabilities and limitations in the context of several model flows.
Dynamic treatment regimes: technical challenges and applications
Lizotte, Daniel J.; Qian, Min; Pelham, William E.; Murphy, Susan A.
2014-01-01
Dynamic treatment regimes are of growing interest across the clinical sciences because these regimes provide one way to operationalize and thus inform sequential personalized clinical decision making. Formally, a dynamic treatment regime is a sequence of decision rules, one per stage of clinical intervention. Each decision rule maps up-to-date patient information to a recommended treatment. We briefly review a variety of approaches for using data to construct the decision rules. We then review a critical inferential challenge that results from nonregularity, which often arises in this area. In particular, nonregularity arises in inference for parameters in the optimal dynamic treatment regime; the asymptotic, limiting, distribution of estimators are sensitive to local perturbations. We propose and evaluate a locally consistent Adaptive Confidence Interval (ACI) for the parameters of the optimal dynamic treatment regime. We use data from the Adaptive Pharmacological and Behavioral Treatments for Children with ADHD Trial as an illustrative example. We conclude by highlighting and discussing emerging theoretical problems in this area. PMID:25356091
Explorations in statistics: statistical facets of reproducibility.
Curran-Everett, Douglas
2016-06-01
Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This eleventh installment of Explorations in Statistics explores statistical facets of reproducibility. If we obtain an experimental result that is scientifically meaningful and statistically unusual, we would like to know that our result reflects a general biological phenomenon that another researcher could reproduce if (s)he repeated our experiment. But more often than not, we may learn this researcher cannot replicate our result. The National Institutes of Health and the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology have created training modules and outlined strategies to help improve the reproducibility of research. These particular approaches are necessary, but they are not sufficient. The principles of hypothesis testing and estimation are inherent to the notion of reproducibility in science. If we want to improve the reproducibility of our research, then we need to rethink how we apply fundamental concepts of statistics to our science. PMID:27231259
Regional temperature models are needed for characterizing and mapping stream thermal regimes, establishing reference conditions, predicting future impacts and identifying critical thermal refugia. Spatial statistical models have been developed to improve regression modeling techn...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pierini, Jorge O.; Restrepo, Juan C.; Lovallo, Michele; Telesca, Luciano
2014-12-01
The Fisher-Shannon (FS) information plane, defined by the Fisher information measure (FIM) and the Shannon entropy power (N X ), was robustly used to investigate the complex dynamics of eight monthly streamflow time series in Colombia. In the FS plane the streamflow series seem to aggregate into two different clusters corresponding to two different climatological regimes in Colombia. Our findings suggest the use of the statistical quantity defined by the FS information plane as a tool to discriminate among different hydrological regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pierini, Jorge O.; Restrepo, Juan C.; Lovallo, Michele; Telesca, Luciano
2015-04-01
The Fisher-Shannon (FS) information plane, defined by the Fisher information measure (FIM) and the Shannon entropy power (NX), was robustly used to investigate the complex dynamics of eight monthly streamflow time series in Colombia. In the FS plane the streamflow series seem to aggregate into two different clusters corresponding to two different climatological regimes in Colombia. Our findings suggest the use of the statistical quantity defined by the FS information plane as a tool to discriminate among different hydrological regimes.
Spin glasses in the nonextensive regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wittmann, Matthew; Young, A. P.
2012-04-01
Spin systems with long-range interactions are “nonextensive” if the strength of the interactions falls off sufficiently slowly with distance. It has been conjectured for ferromagnets and, more recently, for spin glasses that, everywhere in the nonextensive regime, the free energy is exactly equal to that for the infinite range model in which the characteristic strength of the interaction is independent of distance. In this paper we present the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the one-dimensional long-range spin glasses in the nonextensive regime. Using finite-size scaling, our results for the transition temperatures are consistent with this prediction. We also propose and provide numerical evidence for an analogous result for diluted long-range spin glasses in which the coordination number is finite, namely, that the transition temperature throughout the nonextensive regime is equal to that of the infinite-range model known as the Viana-Bray model.
Gradual regime shifts in fairy circles.
Zelnik, Yuval R; Meron, Ehud; Bel, Golan
2015-10-01
Large responses of ecosystems to small changes in the conditions--regime shifts--are of great interest and importance. In spatially extended ecosystems, these shifts may be local or global. Using empirical data and mathematical modeling, we investigated the dynamics of the Namibian fairy circle ecosystem as a case study of regime shifts in a pattern-forming ecosystem. Our results provide new support, based on the dynamics of the ecosystem, for the view of fairy circles as a self-organization phenomenon driven by water-vegetation interactions. The study further suggests that fairy circle birth and death processes correspond to spatially confined transitions between alternative stable states. Cascades of such transitions, possible in various pattern-forming systems, result in gradual rather than abrupt regime shifts. PMID:26362787
Massive superstring scatterings in the Regge regime
He Song; Lee, Jen-Chi; Takahashi, Keijiro; Yang Yi
2011-03-15
We calculate four classes of high-energy massive string scattering amplitudes of fermionic string theory at arbitrary mass levels in the Regge regime (RR). We show that all four leading order amplitudes in the RR can be expressed in terms of the Kummer function of the second kind. Based on the summation algorithm of a set of extended signed Stirling number identities, we show that all four ratios calculated previously by the method of decoupling of zero-norm states among scattering amplitudes in the Gross regime can be extracted from this Kummer function in the RR. Finally, we conjecture and give evidence that the existence of these four Gross regime ratios in the RR persists to subleading orders in the Regge expansion of all high-energy fermionic string scattering amplitudes.
Determination of the Hall Thruster Operating Regimes
L. Dorf; V. Semenov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch
2002-04-09
A quasi one-dimensional (1-D) steady-state model of the Hall thruster is presented. For the same discharge voltage two operating regimes are possible -- with and without the anode sheath. For given mass flow rate, magnetic field profile and discharge voltage a unique solution can be constructed, assuming that the thruster operates in one of the regimes. However, we show that for a given temperature profile the applied discharge voltage uniquely determines the operating regime: for discharge voltages greater than a certain value, the sheath disappears. That result is obtained over a wide range of incoming neutral velocities, channel lengths and widths, and cathode plane locations. It is also shown that a good correlation between the quasi 1-D model and experimental results can be achieved by selecting an appropriate electron mobility and temperature profile.
Gradual regime shifts in fairy circles
Zelnik, Yuval R.; Meron, Ehud; Bel, Golan
2015-01-01
Large responses of ecosystems to small changes in the conditions—regime shifts—are of great interest and importance. In spatially extended ecosystems, these shifts may be local or global. Using empirical data and mathematical modeling, we investigated the dynamics of the Namibian fairy circle ecosystem as a case study of regime shifts in a pattern-forming ecosystem. Our results provide new support, based on the dynamics of the ecosystem, for the view of fairy circles as a self-organization phenomenon driven by water–vegetation interactions. The study further suggests that fairy circle birth and death processes correspond to spatially confined transitions between alternative stable states. Cascades of such transitions, possible in various pattern-forming systems, result in gradual rather than abrupt regime shifts. PMID:26362787
Fermi's golden rule beyond the Zeno regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debierre, Vincent; Goessens, Isabelle; Brainis, Edouard; Durt, Thomas
2015-08-01
We reconsider the problem of the spontaneous emission of light by an excited atomic state. We scrutinize the survival probability of this excited state for very short times, in the so-called Zeno regime, for which we show that the dynamics is dictated by a coherent, in-phase, response of the on-shell and off-shell vacuum modes. We also develop a perturbative approach in order to interpolate between different temporal regimes: the Zeno, golden rule (linear), and Wigner-Weisskopf (exponential) regimes. We compare results obtained with the E ̂.x ̂ and A ̂.p ̂ interaction Hamiltonians, using successively the dipole approximation and the exact coupling.
Massive superstring scatterings in the Regge regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Song; Lee, Jen-Chi; Takahashi, Keijiro; Yang, Yi
2011-03-01
We calculate four classes of high-energy massive string scattering amplitudes of fermionic string theory at arbitrary mass levels in the Regge regime (RR). We show that all four leading order amplitudes in the RR can be expressed in terms of the Kummer function of the second kind. Based on the summation algorithm of a set of extended signed Stirling number identities, we show that all four ratios calculated previously by the method of decoupling of zero-norm states among scattering amplitudes in the Gross regime can be extracted from this Kummer function in the RR. Finally, we conjecture and give evidence that the existence of these four Gross regime ratios in the RR persists to subleading orders in the Regge expansion of all high-energy fermionic string scattering amplitudes.
Topological dephasing in the ν =2 /3 fractional quantum Hall regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jinhong; Gefen, Yuval; Sim, H.-S.
2015-12-01
We study dephasing in electron transport through a large quantum dot (a Fabry-Perot interferometer) in the fractional quantum Hall regime with filling factor 2 /3 . In the regime of sequential tunneling, dephasing occurs due to electron fractionalization into counterpropagating charge and neutral edge modes on the dot. In particular, when the charge mode moves much faster than the neutral mode, and at temperatures higher than the level spacing of the dot, electron fractionalization combined with the fractional statistics of the charge mode leads to the dephasing selectively suppressing h /e Aharonov-Bohm oscillations but not h /(2 e ) oscillations, resulting in oscillation-period halving.
Open strings on D-branes and Hagedorn regime in string gas cosmology
Arslanargin, Ayse; Kaya, Ali
2009-03-15
We consider early time cosmic evolution in string gas cosmology dominated by open strings attached to D-branes. After reviewing statistical properties of open strings in D-brane backgrounds, we use dilaton-gravity equations to determine the string frame fields. Although, there are distinctions in the Hagedorn regime thermodynamics and dilaton coupling as compared to closed strings, it seems difficult to avoid Jeans instability and assume thermal equilibrium simultaneously, which is already a known problem for closed strings. We also examine characteristics of a possible subsequent large radius regime in this setup.
Transient regimes and crossover for epitaxial surfaces.
Haselwandter, Christoph A; Vvedensky, Dimitri D
2010-02-01
We apply a formalism for deriving stochastic continuum equations associated with lattice models to obtain equations governing the transient regimes of epitaxial growth for various experimental scenarios and growth conditions. The first step of our methodology is the systematic transformation of the lattice model into a regularized stochastic equation of motion that provides initial conditions for differential renormalization-group (RG) equations for the coefficients in the regularized equation. The solutions of the RG equations then yield trajectories that describe the original model from the transient regimes, which are of primary experimental interest, to the eventual crossover to the asymptotically stable fixed point. We first consider regimes defined by the relative magnitude of deposition noise and diffusion noise. If the diffusion noise dominates, then the early stages of growth are described by the Mullins-Herring (MH) equation with conservative noise. This is the classic regime of molecular-beam epitaxy. If the diffusion and deposition noise are of comparable magnitude, the transient equation is the MH equation with nonconservative noise. This behavior has been observed in a recent report on the growth of aluminum on silicone oil surfaces [Z.-N. Fang, Thin Solid Films 517, 3408 (2009)]. Finally, the regime where deposition noise dominates over diffusion noise has been observed in computer simulations, but does not appear to have any direct experimental relevance. For initial conditions that consist of a flat surface, the Villain-Lai-Das Sarma (VLDS) equation with nonconservative noise is not appropriate for any transient regime. If, however, the initial surface is corrugated, the relative magnitudes of terms can be altered to the point where the VLDS equation with conservative noise does indeed describe transient growth. This is consistent with the experimental analysis of growth on patterned surfaces [H.-C. Kan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 146101 (2004); T
Investigating Satellite Microwave observations of Precipitation in Different Climate Regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, N.; Ferraro, R. R.
2013-12-01
Microwave satellite remote sensing of precipitation over land is a challenging problem due to the highly variable land surface emissivity, which, if not properly accounted for, can be much greater than the precipitation signal itself, especially in light rain/snow conditions. Additionally, surfaces such as arid land, deserts and snow cover have brightness temperature characteristics similar to precipitation Ongoing work by GPM microwave radiometer team is constructing databases through a variety of means, however, there is much uncertainty as to what is the optimal information needed for the wide array of sensors in the GPM constellation, including examination of regional conditions. The original data sets will focus on stratification by emissivity class, surface temperature and total perceptible water. We'll perform sensitivity studies to determine the potential role of ancillary data (e.g., land surface temperature, snow cover/water equivalent, etc.) to improve precipitation estimation over land in different climate regimes, including rain and snow. In other words, what information outside of the radiances can help describe the background and subsequent departures from it that are active precipitating regions? It is likely that this information will be a function of the various precipitation regimes. Statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) will be utilized in this task. Databases from a variety of sources are being constructed. They include existing satellite microwave measurements of precipitating and non-precipitating conditions, ground radar precipitation rate estimates, surface emissivity climatology from satellites, surface temperature and TPW from NWP reanalysis. Results from the analysis of these databases with respect to the microwave precipitation sensitivity to the variety of environmental conditions in different climate regimes will be discussed.
On the regimes of charge reversal.
Jiménez-Angeles, Felipe; Lozada-Cassou, Marcelo
2008-05-01
Charge reversal of the planar electrical double layer is studied by means of a well known integral equation theory. By a numerical analysis, a diagram is constructed with the onset points of charge reversal in the space of the fundamental variables of the system. Within this diagram, two regimes of charge reversal are identified, which are referred to as oscillatory and nonoscillatory. We found that these two regimes can be distinguished through a simple formula. Furthermore, a symmetry between electrostatic and size correlations in charge reversal is exhibited. Agreement of our results with other theories and molecular simulations data is discussed. PMID:18465930
Regimes of flow past a vortex generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velte, C. M.; Okulov, V. L.; Naumov, I. V.
2012-04-01
A complete parametric investigation of the development of multi-vortex regimes in a wake past simple vortex generator has been carried out. It is established that the vortex structure in the wake is much more complicated than a simple monopole tip vortex. The vortices were studied by stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV). Based on the obtained SPIV data, a map of the regimes of flow past the vortex generator has been constructed. One region with a developed stable multivortex system on this map reaches the vicinity of the optimum angle of attack of the vortex generator.
Anomalous Hall effect in localization regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Lin; Zhu, Kai; Yue, Di; Tian, Yuan; Jin, Xiaofeng
2016-06-01
The anomalous Hall effect in the ultrathin film regime is investigated in Fe(001)(1-3 nm) films epitaxial on MgO(001). The logarithmic localization correction to longitudinal resistivity and anomalous Hall resistivity are observed at low temperature. We identify that the coefficient of skew scattering has a reduction from metallic to localized regime, while the contribution of side jump has inconspicuous change except for a small drop below 10 K. Furthermore, we discover that the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity decreases with the reduction of thickness below 2 nm. Our results provide unambiguous experimental evidence to clarify the problem of localization correction to the anomalous Hall effect.
Supercurrent in the quantum Hall regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amet, F.; Ke, C. T.; Borzenets, I. V.; Wang, J.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Deacon, R. S.; Yamamoto, M.; Bomze, Y.; Tarucha, S.; Finkelstein, G.
2016-05-01
A promising route for creating topological states and excitations is to combine superconductivity and the quantum Hall (QH) effect. Despite this potential, signatures of superconductivity in the QH regime remain scarce, and a superconducting current through a QH weak link has been challenging to observe. We demonstrate the existence of a distinct supercurrent mechanism in encapsulated graphene samples contacted by superconducting electrodes, in magnetic fields as high as 2 tesla. The observation of a supercurrent in the QH regime marks an important step in the quest for exotic topological excitations, such as Majorana fermions and parafermions, which may find applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing.
Supercurrent in the quantum Hall regime.
Amet, F; Ke, C T; Borzenets, I V; Wang, J; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Deacon, R S; Yamamoto, M; Bomze, Y; Tarucha, S; Finkelstein, G
2016-05-20
A promising route for creating topological states and excitations is to combine superconductivity and the quantum Hall (QH) effect. Despite this potential, signatures of superconductivity in the QH regime remain scarce, and a superconducting current through a QH weak link has been challenging to observe. We demonstrate the existence of a distinct supercurrent mechanism in encapsulated graphene samples contacted by superconducting electrodes, in magnetic fields as high as 2 tesla. The observation of a supercurrent in the QH regime marks an important step in the quest for exotic topological excitations, such as Majorana fermions and parafermions, which may find applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing. PMID:27199424
Comparative climatology of four marine stratocumulus regimes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, Howard P.
1990-01-01
The climatology of marine stratocumulus (MSc) cloud regimes off the west coasts of California, Peru, Morocco, and Angola are examined. Long-term, annual averages are presented for several quantities of interest in the four MSc regimes. The climatologies were constructed using the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS). A 40 year time series of observations was extracted for 32 x 32 deg analysis domains. The data were taken from the monthly-averaged, 2 deg product. The resolution of the analysis is therefore limited to scales of greater than 200 km with submonthly variability not resolved. The averages of total cloud cover, sea surface temperature, and surface pressure are presented.
Petrology, geochemistry, and fluid regime of tectonites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Letnikov, Feliks Artem'evich; Savel'Eva, Valentina Borisovna; Balyshev, Sergei Olegovich
The book discusses the petrology, geochemisry, and fluid regime of the tectonite formation in rocks that differ with respect to the composition of their granulitic, amphylitic, and green-shale metamorphic facies. Tectonites in magma and metamorphic rocks of different composition are described in terms of their petrological, geochemical, and fluid-regime characteristics, and the pressure/temperature conditions of their formation. Using chemical and physical parameters, tectonites are classified according to their type models. The ore-generating capacity of tectonites in various rocks is estimated using a large geochemical database.
Convective Regimes in Crystallizing Basaltic Magma Chambers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilbert, A. J.; Neufeld, J. A.; Holness, M. B.
2015-12-01
Cooling through the chamber walls drives crystallisation in crustal magma chambers, resulting in a cumulate pile on the floor and mushy regions at the walls and roof. The liquid in many magma chambers, either the bulk magma or the interstitial liquid in the mushy regions, may convect, driven either thermally, due to cooling, or compositionally, due to fractional crystallization. We have constructed a regime diagram of the possible convective modes in a system containing a basal mushy layer. These modes depend on the large-scale buoyancy forcing characterised by a global Rayleigh number and the proportion of the chamber height constituting the basal mushy region. We have tested this regime diagram using an analogue experimental system composed of a fluid layer overlying a pile of almost neutrally buoyant inert particles. Convection in this system is driven thermally, simulating magma convection above and within a porous cumulate pile. We observe a range of possible convective regimes, enabling us to produce a regime diagram. In addition to modes characterised by convection of the bulk and interstitial fluid, we also observe a series of regimes where the crystal pile is mobilised by fluid motions. These regimes feature saltation and scouring of the crystal pile by convection in the bulk fluid at moderate Rayleigh numbers, and large crystal-rich fountains at high Rayleigh numbers. For even larger Rayleigh numbers the entire crystal pile is mobilised in what we call the snowglobe regime. The observed mobilisation regimes may be applicable to basaltic magma chambers. Plagioclase in basal cumulates crystallised from a dense magma may be a result of crystal mobilisation from a plagioclase-rich roof mush. Compositional convection within such a mush could result in disaggregation, enabling the buoyant plagioclase to be entrained in relatively dense descending liquid plumes and brought to the floor. The phenocryst load in porphyritic lavas is often interpreted as a
Two competing species in super-diffusive dynamical regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
La Cognata, A.; Valenti, D.; Spagnolo, B.; Dubkov, A. A.
2010-09-01
The dynamics of two competing species within the framework of the generalized Lotka-Volterra equations, in the presence of multiplicative α-stable Lévy noise sources and a random time dependent interaction parameter, is studied. The species dynamics is characterized by two different dynamical regimes, exclusion of one species and coexistence of both, depending on the values of the interaction parameter, which obeys a Langevin equation with a periodically fluctuating bistable potential and an additive α-stable Lévy noise. The stochastic resonance phenomenon is analyzed for noise sources asymmetrically distributed. Finally, the effects of statistical dependence between multiplicative noise and additive noise on the dynamics of the two species are studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Le-Tao; Li, Zhan-Bin; Wang, He; Xiao, Jun-Bo
2016-07-01
The pluvial erosion process is significantly affected by tempo-spatial patterns of flood flows. However, despite their importance, only a few studies have investigated the sediment flow behavior that is driven by different flood regimes. The study aims to investigate the effect of intra-event-based flood regimes on the dynamics of sediment exports at Tuanshangou catchment, a typical agricultural catchment (unmanaged) in the hilly loess region on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Measurements of 193 flood events and 158 sediment-producing events were collected from Tuanshangou station between 1961 and 1969. The combined methods of hierarchical clustering approach, discriminant analysis and One-Way ANOVA were used to classify the flood events in terms of their event-based flood characteristics, including flood duration, peak discharge, and event flood runoff depth. The 193 flood events were classified into five regimes, and the mean statistical features of each regime significantly differed. Regime A includes flood events with the shortest duration (76 min), minimum flood crest (0.045 m s-1), least runoff depth (0.2 mm), and highest frequency. Regime B includes flood events with a medium duration (274 min), medium flood crest (0.206 m s-1), and minor runoff depth (0.7 mm). Regime C includes flood events with the longest duration (822 min), medium flood crest (0.236 m s-1), and medium runoff depth (1.7 mm). Regime D includes flood events with a medium duration (239 min), large flood crest (4.21 m s-1), and large runoff depth (10 mm). Regime E includes flood events with a medium duration (304 min), maximum flood crest (8.62 m s-1), and largest runoff depth (25.9 mm). The sediment yield by different flood regimes is ranked as follows: Regime E > Regime D > Regime B > Regime C > Regime A. In terms of event-based average and maximum suspended sediment concentration, these regimes are ordered as follows: Regime E > Regime D > Regime C > Regime B > Regime A. Regimes D and E
Delinating Thermohaline Double-Diffusive Rayleigh Regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graf, T.; Walther, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liedl, R.
2013-12-01
In natural systems, convective flow induced from density differences may occur in near-coastal aquifers, atmospheric boundary layers, oceanic streams or within the earth crust. Whether an initially stable, diffusive regime evolves into a convective (stable or chaotic) regime, or vice versa, depends on the system's framing boundary conditions. A conventional parameter to express the relation between diffusive and convective forces of such a density-driven regime is Rayleigh number (Ra). While most systems are mainly dominated by only a single significant driving force (i.e. only temperature or salinity), some systems need to consider two boundary processes (e.g. deep, thus warm, haline flow in porous media). In that case, a two-dimensional, 'double-diffusive' Rayleigh system can be defined. Nield (1998) postulated a boundary between diffusive and convective regime at RaT + RaC = 4pi^2 in the first quadrant (Q1), with Rayleigh numbers for temperature and concentration respectively. The boundary in the forth quadrant (Q4) could not exactly be determined, yet the approximate position estimated. Simulations with HydroGeoSphere (Therrien, 2010) using a vertical, quadratic, homogeneous, isotropic setup confirmed the existence of the 4pi^2-boundary and revealed additional regimes (diffusive, single-roll, double-roll, chaotic) in Q1. Also, non-chaotic, oscillating patterns could be identified in Q4. More detailed investigations with OpenGeoSys (Kolditz, 2012) confirmed the preceding HGS results, and, using a 1:10-scaled domain (height:length), uncovered even more distinctive regimes (diffusive, minimum ten roles, supposely up to 25 roles, and chaotic?) in Q1, while again, oscillating patterns were found in the transition zone between diffusive and chaotic regimes in Q4. Output of numerical simulations from Q1 and Q4 show the mentioned regimes (diffusive, stable-convective, stable-oscillatory, chaotic) while results are displayed in context of a possible delination between
Statistics of energy dissipation in a quantum dot operating in the cotunneling regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dinaii, Yehuda; Shnirman, Alexander; Gefen, Yuval
2014-11-01
At Coulomb blockade valleys inelastic cotunneling processes generate particle-hole excitations in quantum dots (QDs), and lead to energy dissipation. We have analyzed the probability distribution function (PDF) of energy dissipated in a QD due to such processes during a given time interval. We obtained analytically the cumulant generating function, and extracted the average, variance, and Fano factor. The latter diverges as T3/(eV ) 2 at bias e V smaller than the temperature T , and reaches the value 3 e V /5 in the opposite limit. The PDF is further studied numerically. As expected, the Crooks fluctuation relation is not fulfilled by the PDF. Our results can be verified experimentally utilizing transport measurements of charge.
Drag-force regimes in granular impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiwari, Mukesh; Mohan, T. R. Krishna; Sen, Surajit
2014-12-01
We study the penetration dynamics of a projectile incident normally on a substrate comprising of smaller granular particles in three-dimensions using the discrete element method. Scaling of the penetration depth is consistent with experimental observations for small velocity impacts. Our studies are consistent with the observation that the normal or drag force experienced by the penetrating grain obeys the generalized Poncelet law, which has been extensively invoked in understanding the drag force in the recent experimental data. We find that the normal force experienced by the projectile consists of position and kinetic-energy-dependent pieces. Three different penetration regimes are identified in our studies for low-impact velocities. The first two regimes are observed immediately after the impact and in the early penetration stage, respectively, during which the drag force is seen to depend on the kinetic energy. The depth dependence of the drag force becomes significant in the third regime when the projectile is moving slowly and is partially immersed in the substrate. These regimes relate to the different configurations of the bed: the initial loose surface packed state, fluidized bed below the region of impact, and the state after the crater formation commences.
Radiative effects of global MODIS cloud regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Cho, Nayeong; Lee, Dongmin; Kato, Seiji
2016-03-01
We update previously published Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global cloud regimes (CRs) using the latest MODIS cloud retrievals in the Collection 6 data set. We implement a slightly different derivation method, investigate the composition of the regimes, and then proceed to examine several aspects of CR radiative appearance with the aid of various radiative flux data sets. Our results clearly show that the CRs are radiatively distinct in terms of shortwave, longwave, and their combined (total) cloud radiative effect. We show that we can clearly distinguish regimes based on whether they radiatively cool or warm the atmosphere, and thanks to radiative heating profiles, to discern the vertical distribution of cooling and warming. Terra and Aqua comparisons provide information about the degree to which morning and afternoon occurrences of regimes affect the symmetry of CR radiative contribution. We examine how the radiative discrepancies among multiple irradiance data sets suffering from imperfect spatiotemporal matching depend on CR and whether they are therefore related to the complexity of cloud structure, its interpretation by different observational systems, and its subsequent representation in radiative transfer calculations.
Drag-force regimes in granular impact.
Tiwari, Mukesh; Mohan, T R Krishna; Sen, Surajit
2014-12-01
We study the penetration dynamics of a projectile incident normally on a substrate comprising of smaller granular particles in three-dimensions using the discrete element method. Scaling of the penetration depth is consistent with experimental observations for small velocity impacts. Our studies are consistent with the observation that the normal or drag force experienced by the penetrating grain obeys the generalized Poncelet law, which has been extensively invoked in understanding the drag force in the recent experimental data. We find that the normal force experienced by the projectile consists of position and kinetic-energy-dependent pieces. Three different penetration regimes are identified in our studies for low-impact velocities. The first two regimes are observed immediately after the impact and in the early penetration stage, respectively, during which the drag force is seen to depend on the kinetic energy. The depth dependence of the drag force becomes significant in the third regime when the projectile is moving slowly and is partially immersed in the substrate. These regimes relate to the different configurations of the bed: the initial loose surface packed state, fluidized bed below the region of impact, and the state after the crater formation commences. PMID:25615080
Taxonomy of potential international safeguards regimes
Lemley, J.R.; Allentuck, J.
1994-08-01
Since the International Atomic Energy Agency`s (IAEA) search for the components of Iraq`s nuclear weapons program under the auspices of the United Nations Security Council, a consensus for enhancing, strengthening or expanding the scope of international safeguards has developed. Some of the enhanced safeguards concepts which have been suggested include the following: short-notice, challenge, and random inspections; effluent monitoring in onsite, near site, and fly-by modes; local and wide-area environmental monitoring; and utilization of data from space-platform sensors. Potential safeguards regimes can be classified according to the functional and technical criteria which would be necessary for implementation of various enhanced safeguards concepts. While the nature of the regime which will emerge cannot be predicted, the classification of possible regimes according to major characteristics can be useful for identifying functional criteria and implementation challenges, focusing development efforts on the functional criteria, and planning for efficient use of safeguards resources. Precedents established in previously negotiated treaties -- the Chemical Weapons Convention, the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe, START, and Open Skies -- are examined with regard to enhancement of the international safeguards regime for nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. Bilateral, multilateral and regional integration of enhanced safeguards elements is considered.
Knowledge Regimes and Contradictions in Education Reforms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aasen, Petter; Prøitz, Tine Sophie; Sandberg, Nina
2014-01-01
The article outlines a theoretical framework for understanding education policy and education reforms based on the concept of knowledge regimes. The concept refers to understandings and definitions of governance and procedural aspects, manners of governing and curriculum issues, thus it comprises contents, structures, and processes of education…
Forest damage and snow avalanche flow regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feistl, T.; Bebi, P.; Christen, M.; Margreth, S.; Diefenbach, L.; Bartelt, P.
2015-06-01
Snow avalanches break, uproot and overturn trees causing damage to forests. The extent of forest damage provides useful information on avalanche frequency and intensity. However, impact forces depend on avalanche flow regime. In this paper, we define avalanche loading cases representing four different avalanche flow regimes: powder, intermittent, dry and wet. Using a numerical model that simulates both powder and wet snow avalanches, we study documented events with forest damage. First we show that in the powder regime, although the applied impact pressures can be small, large bending moments in the tree stem can be produced due to the torque action of the blast. The impact area of the blast extends over the entire tree crown. We find that, powder clouds with velocities over 20 m s-1 can break tree stems. Second we demonstrate that intermittent granular loadings are equivalent to low-density uniform dry snow loadings under the assumption of homogeneous particle distributions. The intermittent regime seldom controls tree breakage. Third we calculate quasi-static pressures of wet snow avalanches and show that they can be much higher than pressures calculated using dynamic pressure formulas. Wet snow pressure depends both on avalanche volume and terrain features upstream of the tree.
Forest damage and snow avalanche flow regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feistl, T.; Bebi, P.; Christen, M.; Margreth, S.; Diefenbach, L.; Bartelt, P.
2015-01-01
Snow avalanches break, uproot and overturn trees causing damage to forests. The extent of forest damage provides useful information on avalanche frequency and intensity. However, impact forces depend on avalanche flow regime. In this paper, we define avalanche loading cases representing four different avalanche flow regimes: powder, intermittent, dry and wet. In the powder regime, the blast of the cloud can produce large bending moments in the tree stem because of the impact area extending over the entire tree crown. We demonstrate that intermittent granular loadings are equivalent to low-density uniform dry snow loadings under the assumption of homogeneous particle distributions. In the wet snow case, avalanche pressure is calculated using a quasi-static model accounting for the motion of plug-like wet snow flows. Wet snow pressure depends both on avalanche volume and terrain features upstream of the tree. Using a numerical model that simulates both powder and wet snow avalanches, we study documented events with forest damage. We find (1) powder clouds with velocities over 20 m s-1 can break tree stems, (2) the intermittent regime seldom controls tree breakage and (3) quasi-static pressures of wet snow avalanches can be much higher than pressures calculated using dynamic pressure formulas.
The future of the nuclear nonproliferation regime.
Pilat, Joseph F.
2004-01-01
Following the 1998 nuclear tests in South Asia and later reinforced by revelations about North Korean and Iraqi nuclear activities, there has been growing concern about increasing proliferation dangers. At the same time, the prospects of radiological/nuclear terrorism are seen to be rising - since 9/11, concern over a proliferation/terrorism nexus has never been higher. In the face of this growing danger, there are urgent calls for stronger measures to strengthen the current international nuclear nonproliferation regime, including recommendations to place civilian processing of weapon-useable material under multinational control. As well, there are calls for entirely new tools, including military options. As proliferation and terrorism concerns grow, the regime is under pressure and there is a temptation to consider fundamental changes to the regime. In this context, this paper will address the following: Do we need to change the regime centered on the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)? What improvements could ensure it will be the foundation for the proliferation resistance and physical protection needed if nuclear power grows? What will make it a viable centerpiece of future nonproliferation and counterterrorism approaches?
Impacts of different hydrodynamic regimes on flocculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramirez-Mendoza, Rafael; Souza, Alejandro; Amoudry, Laurent
2014-05-01
A number of activities carried out in coastal zones and estuaries are affected by sediment transport. Therefore, good knowledge of the processes involved is necessary to adequately manage these areas. Flocculation is a key process on fine sediment dynamics, which affects the effective particle size and settling velocity. The process is further complicated under the combined effect of currents and waves. This research seeks to improve our understanding of the flocculation process under the combined effect of currents and waves. The study site is the Dee Estuary located in Liverpool Bay, United Kingdom. Measurements of volume concentration, grain size and current velocities near the sea bed were obtained from a mooring deployed between 12 February 2008 and 9 March 2008. Turbulent properties could also be calculated because of the fast sampling rate used for current velocities. Water samples were taken from a research vessel during the first two days of the study in order to calibrate moored instruments and convert volume to mass concentration. The observations almost covered two fortnightly periods and three different dynamic regimes can be distinguished: currents-only, combined waves and currents, and wave dominated. During the currents-only regime, floc aggregation and breakup coincide with periods of low and high turbulent stress respectively. The combination of waves and spring tide currents makes the second regime and the floc breakup is most dominant when waves are higher than one meter and small flocs are found even with low turbulent stress from both waves and currents. The third regime is identified as wave-dominant during neap tides with current speed less than 0.25 m/s and waves of 1-2 meters height. In this regime the wave effect takes large sediment into suspension at the same time as small particle sizes from floc breakup. In this case the median particle size is strongly related to the wave height which means that a slight particle aggregation is still
Weather Regimes in the Pacific from a GCM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haines, K.; Hannachi, A.
1995-07-01
Weather regimes have been sought by examining the 500-mb streamfunction of the UGAMP GCM run for 10 yr at T42 resolution with perpetual January forcing. Five-day low-pass EOFs provide a low-order phase space in which to study dynamical aspects of the variability. The PNA pattern shows up as the first EOF over the Northern Hemisphere representing 12% of the variance, rising to 18.5% for Pacific-area-only EOFs.Within the phase space of three to five EOFs, two local minima of the area-averaged tendency (based on rotational velocity advection) are found. These two flow patterns both have a smaller implied tendency than the climatology and lie in the ±PNA regions of the phase space. It is suggested that these patterns may be acting as `fixed points' within the atmospheric attractor, encouraging persistent flows and the formation of weather regimes. These dynamical attracting points are compared with a more conventional means of identifying weather regimes using a statistical maximum likelihood analysis of all model states during the 10-yr GCM run. This analysis also indicates two preferred classes, separate from the climatology, in the ±PNA regions of phase space. These classes tend to be nearer the climatology than the dynamical states but have similar appearance otherwise.Finally the role of low-frequency transients are examined to improve the dynamical interpretation of the regime centers. The method is first demonstrated for the extended Lorenz model of Molteni et al. The fixed points of the GCM attractor are assumed to be steady solutions to the 500-mb vorticity equation in the absence of contributions from transient eddies. The eddy contributions to the climatological vorticity budget are first determined, and then the deviations from the climatology that could provide similar contributions to the budget are found. Again two states in the ±PNA regions of phase space are found to satisfy the above conditions. The authors speculate that the attractors themselves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schieve, William C.; Horwitz, Lawrence P.
2009-04-01
1. Foundations of quantum statistical mechanics; 2. Elementary examples; 3. Quantum statistical master equation; 4. Quantum kinetic equations; 5. Quantum irreversibility; 6. Entropy and dissipation: the microscopic theory; 7. Global equilibrium: thermostatics and the microcanonical ensemble; 8. Bose-Einstein ideal gas condensation; 9. Scaling, renormalization and the Ising model; 10. Relativistic covariant statistical mechanics of many particles; 11. Quantum optics and damping; 12. Entanglements; 13. Quantum measurement and irreversibility; 14. Quantum Langevin equation: quantum Brownian motion; 15. Linear response: fluctuation and dissipation theorems; 16. Time dependent quantum Green's functions; 17. Decay scattering; 18. Quantum statistical mechanics, extended; 19. Quantum transport with tunneling and reservoir ballistic transport; 20. Black hole thermodynamics; Appendix; Index.
Statistical distribution sampling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, E. S.
1975-01-01
Determining the distribution of statistics by sampling was investigated. Characteristic functions, the quadratic regression problem, and the differential equations for the characteristic functions are analyzed.
Statistical simulation of the magnetorotational dynamo
Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2014-08-01
We analyze turbulence and dynamo induced by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) using quasi-linear statistical simulation methods. We find that homogenous turbulence is unstable to a large scale dynamo instability, which saturates to an inhomogenous equilibrium with a very strong dependence on the magnetic Prandtl number (Pm). Despite its enormously reduced nonlinearity, the quasi-linear model exhibits the same qualitative scaling of angular momentum transport with Pm as fully nonlinear turbulence. This demonstrates the relationship of recent convergence problems to the large scale dynamo and suggests possible methods for studying astrophysically relevant regimes at very low or high Pm.
Statistical bias in material decomposition in low photon statistics region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajbhandary, Paurakh L.; Pelc, Norbert J.
2015-03-01
We show that in material decomposition, statistical bias exists in the low photon regime due to non-linearity including but not limited to the log operation and polychromatic measurements. As new scan methods divide the total number of photons into an increasing number of measurements (e.g., energy bins, projection paths) and as developers seek to reduce radiation dose, the number of photons per measurement will decrease and estimators should be robust against bias at low photon counts. We study bias as a function of total flux and spectral spread, which provides insight when parameters like material thicknesses, number of energy bins, and number of projection views change. We find that the bias increases with lower photon counts, wide spectrum, with more number of energy bins and more projection views. Our simulation, with ideal photon counting detectors, show biases up to 2.4 % in basis material images. We propose a bias correction method in projection space that uses a multi dimensional look up table. With the correction, the relative bias in CT images is within 0.5 ± 0.17%.
Regime shifts in the anthropocene: drivers, risks, and resilience.
Rocha, Juan Carlos; Peterson, Garry D; Biggs, Reinette
2015-01-01
Many ecosystems can experience regime shifts: surprising, large and persistent changes in the function and structure of ecosystems. Assessing whether continued global change will lead to further regime shifts, or has the potential to trigger cascading regime shifts has been a central question in global change policy. Addressing this issue has, however, been hampered by the focus of regime shift research on specific cases and types of regime shifts. To systematically assess the global risk of regime shifts we conducted a comparative analysis of 25 generic types of regime shifts across marine, terrestrial and polar systems; identifying their drivers, and impacts on ecosystem services. Our results show that the drivers of regime shifts are diverse and co-occur strongly, which suggests that continued global change can be expected to synchronously increase the risk of multiple regime shifts. Furthermore, many regime shift drivers are related to climate change and food production, whose links to the continued expansion of human activities makes them difficult to limit. Because many regime shifts can amplify the drivers of other regime shifts, continued global change can also be expected to increase the risk of cascading regime shifts. Nevertheless, the variety of scales at which regime shift drivers operate provides opportunities for reducing the risk of many types of regime shifts by addressing local or regional drivers, even in the absence of rapid reduction of global drivers. PMID:26267896
Regime Shifts in the Anthropocene: Drivers, Risks, and Resilience
Rocha, Juan Carlos; Peterson, Garry D.; Biggs, Reinette
2015-01-01
Many ecosystems can experience regime shifts: surprising, large and persistent changes in the function and structure of ecosystems. Assessing whether continued global change will lead to further regime shifts, or has the potential to trigger cascading regime shifts has been a central question in global change policy. Addressing this issue has, however, been hampered by the focus of regime shift research on specific cases and types of regime shifts. To systematically assess the global risk of regime shifts we conducted a comparative analysis of 25 generic types of regime shifts across marine, terrestrial and polar systems; identifying their drivers, and impacts on ecosystem services. Our results show that the drivers of regime shifts are diverse and co-occur strongly, which suggests that continued global change can be expected to synchronously increase the risk of multiple regime shifts. Furthermore, many regime shift drivers are related to climate change and food production, whose links to the continued expansion of human activities makes them difficult to limit. Because many regime shifts can amplify the drivers of other regime shifts, continued global change can also be expected to increase the risk of cascading regime shifts. Nevertheless, the variety of scales at which regime shift drivers operate provides opportunities for reducing the risk of many types of regime shifts by addressing local or regional drivers, even in the absence of rapid reduction of global drivers. PMID:26267896
The purpose of the Disability Statistics Center is to produce and disseminate statistical information on disability and the status of people with disabilities in American society and to establish and monitor indicators of how conditions are changing over time to meet their health...
Introduction to Statistical Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casquilho, João Paulo; Ivo Cortez Teixeira, Paulo
2014-12-01
Preface; 1. Random walks; 2. Review of thermodynamics; 3. The postulates of statistical physics. Thermodynamic equilibrium; 4. Statistical thermodynamics – developments and applications; 5. The classical ideal gas; 6. The quantum ideal gas; 7. Magnetism; 8. The Ising model; 9. Liquid crystals; 10. Phase transitions and critical phenomena; 11. Irreversible processes; Appendixes; Index.
Deconstructing Statistical Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snell, Joel
2014-01-01
Using a very complex statistical analysis and research method for the sake of enhancing the prestige of an article or making a new product or service legitimate needs to be monitored and questioned for accuracy. 1) The more complicated the statistical analysis, and research the fewer the number of learned readers can understand it. This adds a…
Explorations in Statistics: Power
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curran-Everett, Douglas
2010-01-01
Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fifth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" revisits power, a concept fundamental to the test of a null hypothesis. Power is the probability that we reject the null hypothesis when it is false. Four things affect…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.
2007-01-01
Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…
Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Vatsavai, Raju; Bright, Eddie A
2008-01-01
Statistical properties of high-resolution overhead images representing different land use categories are analyzed using various local and global statistical image properties based on the shape of the power spectrum, image gradient distributions, edge co-occurrence, and inter-scale wavelet coefficient distributions. The analysis was performed on a database of high-resolution (1 meter) overhead images representing a multitude of different downtown, suburban, commercial, agricultural and wooded exemplars. Various statistical properties relating to these image categories and their relationship are discussed. The categorical variations in power spectrum contour shapes, the unique gradient distribution characteristics of wooded categories, the similarity in edge co-occurrence statistics for overhead and natural images, and the unique edge co-occurrence statistics of downtown categories are presented in this work. Though previous work on natural image statistics has showed some of the unique characteristics for different categories, the relationships for overhead images are not well understood. The statistical properties of natural images were used in previous studies to develop prior image models, to predict and index objects in a scene and to improve computer vision models. The results from our research findings can be used to augment and adapt computer vision algorithms that rely on prior image statistics to process overhead images, calibrate the performance of overhead image analysis algorithms, and derive features for better discrimination of overhead image categories.
Explorations in Statistics: Regression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curran-Everett, Douglas
2011-01-01
Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This seventh installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores regression, a technique that estimates the nature of the relationship between two things for which we may only surmise a mechanistic or predictive connection.…
Multidimensional Visual Statistical Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Isola, Phillip J.; Scholl, Brian J.; Treat, Teresa A.
2008-01-01
Recent studies of visual statistical learning (VSL) have demonstrated that statistical regularities in sequences of visual stimuli can be automatically extracted, even without intent or awareness. Despite much work on this topic, however, several fundamental questions remain about the nature of VSL. In particular, previous experiments have not…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huberty, Carl J.
An approach to statistical testing, which combines Neyman-Pearson hypothesis testing and Fisher significance testing, is recommended. The use of P-values in this approach is discussed in some detail. The author also discusses some problems which are often found in introductory statistics textbooks. The problems involve the definitions of…
Statistical Mapping by Computer.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Utano, Jack J.
The function of a statistical map is to provide readers with a visual impression of the data so that they may be able to identify any geographic characteristics of the displayed phenomena. The increasingly important role played by the computer in the production of statistical maps is manifested by the varied examples of computer maps in recent…
Statistics 101 for Radiologists.
Anvari, Arash; Halpern, Elkan F; Samir, Anthony E
2015-10-01
Diagnostic tests have wide clinical applications, including screening, diagnosis, measuring treatment effect, and determining prognosis. Interpreting diagnostic test results requires an understanding of key statistical concepts used to evaluate test efficacy. This review explains descriptive statistics and discusses probability, including mutually exclusive and independent events and conditional probability. In the inferential statistics section, a statistical perspective on study design is provided, together with an explanation of how to select appropriate statistical tests. Key concepts in recruiting study samples are discussed, including representativeness and random sampling. Variable types are defined, including predictor, outcome, and covariate variables, and the relationship of these variables to one another. In the hypothesis testing section, we explain how to determine if observed differences between groups are likely to be due to chance. We explain type I and II errors, statistical significance, and study power, followed by an explanation of effect sizes and how confidence intervals can be used to generalize observed effect sizes to the larger population. Statistical tests are explained in four categories: t tests and analysis of variance, proportion analysis tests, nonparametric tests, and regression techniques. We discuss sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and likelihood ratios. Measures of reliability and agreement, including κ statistics, intraclass correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman graphs and analysis, are introduced. PMID:26466186
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.
Summary statistics on application and registration patterns of applicants wishing to pursue full-time study in first-year places in Ontario universities (for the fall of 1987) are given. Data on registrations were received indirectly from the universities as part of their annual submission of USIS/UAR enrollment data to Statistics Canada and MCU.…
Reform in Statistical Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huck, Schuyler W.
2007-01-01
Two questions are considered in this article: (a) What should professionals in school psychology do in an effort to stay current with developments in applied statistics? (b) What should they do with their existing knowledge to move from surface understanding of statistics to deep understanding? Written for school psychologists who have completed…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain
2004-01-01
Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…
Understanding Undergraduate Statistical Anxiety
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKim, Courtney
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to understand undergraduate students' views of statistics. Results reveal that students with less anxiety have a higher interest in statistics and also believe in their ability to perform well in the course. Also students who have a more positive attitude about the class tend to have a higher belief in their…
Croarkin, M. Carroll
2001-01-01
For more than 50 years, the Statistical Engineering Division (SED) has been instrumental in the success of a broad spectrum of metrology projects at NBS/NIST. This paper highlights fundamental contributions of NBS/NIST statisticians to statistics and to measurement science and technology. Published methods developed by SED staff, especially during the early years, endure as cornerstones of statistics not only in metrology and standards applications, but as data-analytic resources used across all disciplines. The history of statistics at NBS/NIST began with the formation of what is now the SED. Examples from the first five decades of the SED illustrate the critical role of the division in the successful resolution of a few of the highly visible, and sometimes controversial, statistical studies of national importance. A review of the history of major early publications of the division on statistical methods, design of experiments, and error analysis and uncertainty is followed by a survey of several thematic areas. The accompanying examples illustrate the importance of SED in the history of statistics, measurements and standards: calibration and measurement assurance, interlaboratory tests, development of measurement methods, Standard Reference Materials, statistical computing, and dissemination of measurement technology. A brief look forward sketches the expanding opportunity and demand for SED statisticians created by current trends in research and development at NIST.
Januszyk, Michael; Gurtner, Geoffrey C
2011-01-01
The scope of biomedical research has expanded rapidly during the past several decades, and statistical analysis has become increasingly necessary to understand the meaning of large and diverse quantities of raw data. As such, a familiarity with this lexicon is essential for critical appraisal of medical literature. This article attempts to provide a practical overview of medical statistics, with an emphasis on the selection, application, and interpretation of specific tests. This includes a brief review of statistical theory and its nomenclature, particularly with regard to the classification of variables. A discussion of descriptive methods for data presentation is then provided, followed by an overview of statistical inference and significance analysis, and detailed treatment of specific statistical tests and guidelines for their interpretation. PMID:21200241
Statistical significance test for transition matrices of atmospheric Markov chains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vautard, Robert; Mo, Kingtse C.; Ghil, Michael
1990-01-01
Low-frequency variability of large-scale atmospheric dynamics can be represented schematically by a Markov chain of multiple flow regimes. This Markov chain contains useful information for the long-range forecaster, provided that the statistical significance of the associated transition matrix can be reliably tested. Monte Carlo simulation yields a very reliable significance test for the elements of this matrix. The results of this test agree with previously used empirical formulae when each cluster of maps identified as a distinct flow regime is sufficiently large and when they all contain a comparable number of maps. Monte Carlo simulation provides a more reliable way to test the statistical significance of transitions to and from small clusters. It can determine the most likely transitions, as well as the most unlikely ones, with a prescribed level of statistical significance.
Statistical Transmutation in Periodically Driven Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sedrakyan, Tigran; Galitski, Victor; Kamenev, Alex
We show that interacting bosons in a periodically driven two dimensional (2D) optical lattice may effectively exhibit fermionic statistics. The phenomenon is similar to the celebrated Tonks-Girardeau regime in 1D. The Floquet band of a driven lattice develops the moat shape, i.e., a minimum along a closed contour in the Brillouin zone. Such degeneracy of the kinetic energy favors fermionic quasiparticles. The statistical transmutation is achieved by the Chern-Simons flux attachment similar to the fractional quantum Hall case. We show that the velocity distribution of the released bosons is a sensitive probe of the fermionic nature of their stationary Floquet state. This work was supported by the PFC-JQI (T.S.), USARO and Simons Foundation (V.G.), and DOE Contract DE-FG02-08ER46482 (A.K.).
Fragmentation statistics from Eulerian hydrocode calculations
Trucano, T.G.; Grady, D.E.; McGlaun, J.M.
1989-01-01
In this paper, we discuss a procedure for computing discrete fragmentation information for terminal ballistics events from the continuum data that emerges from two-dimensional Eulerian hydrocode simulations of these events. The present examples deal with the normal impact of lead cylinders on lead plates at velocities below 1600 m/s. In this regime, the resulting debris is almost exclusively solid lead fragments. We have experimental data of sufficient accuracy to evaluate the extraction of such fragmentation information from code simulations. The problem is interesting because the observed distribution of fragment size would require extreme subgrid resolution in the hydrocode if the statistics were computed directly. Our approach is different. We ask whether or not the general continuum description predicted by the code contains enough information to allow coupling of an analytic fragmentation theory that successfully predicts fragmentation statistics. We believe that this approach is valid, and discuss our current success in matching experimental data. 10 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.
Dominant takeover regimes for genetic algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noever, David; Baskaran, Subbiah
1995-01-01
The genetic algorithm (GA) is a machine-based optimization routine which connects evolutionary learning to natural genetic laws. The present work addresses the problem of obtaining the dominant takeover regimes in the GA dynamics. Estimated GA run times are computed for slow and fast convergence in the limits of high and low fitness ratios. Using Euler's device for obtaining partial sums in closed forms, the result relaxes the previously held requirements for long time limits. Analytical solution reveal that appropriately accelerated regimes can mark the ascendancy of the most fit solution. In virtually all cases, the weak (logarithmic) dependence of convergence time on problem size demonstrates the potential for the GA to solve large N-P complete problems.
Steady and transient regimes in hydropower plants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gajic, A.
2013-12-01
Hydropower plant that has been in operation for about 30 years has to be reconstructed. They have already installed 12 Kaplan turbines, the largest in the world at that time. The existing CAM relationship was determined based on hydraulic model tests and checked by efficiency on-site tests. It was also tested based on turbine bearing vibrations. In order to discover vibrations and long cracks on stay vanes detailed on-site measurements were performed. Influence of the modification of the trailing edges on the dynamic stresses of the stay vanes is also shown. In order to improve power output transient regimes were analyzed, both experimentally and numerically. Reversible hydropower plant, a pioneer in Europe since it was the first Pump storage power plant constructed with the highest head pump-turbines in the world. Analyses of transient regimes discover some problems with S-shaped characteristics coupled with non-symmetrical penstock.
Cluster analysis of multiple planetary flow regimes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mo, Kingtse; Ghil, Michael
1988-01-01
A modified cluster analysis method developed for the classification of quasi-stationary events into a few planetary flow regimes and for the examination of transitions between these regimes is described. The method was applied first to a simple deterministic model and then to a 500-mbar data set for Northern Hemisphere (NH), for which cluster analysis was carried out in the subspace of the first seven empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). Stationary clusters were found in the low-frequency band of more than 10 days, while transient clusters were found in the band-pass frequency window between 2.5 and 6 days. In the low-frequency band, three pairs of clusters determined EOFs 1, 2, and 3, respectively; they exhibited well-known regional features, such as blocking, the Pacific/North American pattern, and wave trains. Both model and low-pass data exhibited strong bimodality.
The optomechanical instability in the quantum regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ludwig, Max; Kubala, Björn; Marquardt, Florian
2008-09-01
We consider a generic optomechanical system, consisting of a driven optical cavity and a movable mirror attached to a cantilever. Systems of this kind (and analogues) have been realized in many recent experiments. It is well known that these systems can exhibit an instability towards a regime where the cantilever settles into self-sustained oscillations. In this paper, we briefly review the classical theory of the optomechanical instability, and then discuss the features arising in the quantum regime. We solve numerically a full quantum master equation for the coupled system, and use it to analyze the photon number, the cantilever's mechanical energy, the phonon probability distribution and the mechanical Wigner density, as a function of experimentally accessible control parameters. When a suitable dimensionless 'quantum parameter' is sent to zero, the results of the quantum mechanical model converge towards the classical predictions. We discuss this quantum-to-classical transition in some detail.
Bose polarons in the strongly interacting regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedar, Dhruv; Hu, Ming-Guang; van de Graaff, Michael; Corson, John; Cornell, Eric; Jin, Deborah
2016-05-01
Impurities immersed in and interacting with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) are predicted to form quasiparticle excitations called Bose polarons. I will present experimental evidence of Bose polarons in cold atoms obtained using radio-frequency spectroscopy to measure the excitation spectrum of fermionic K-40 impurities interacting with a BEC of Rb-87 atoms. We use an interspecies Feshbach resonance to tune the interactions between the impurities and the bosons, and we take data in the strongly interacting regime.
Patterns of regional hydroclimatic shifts: An analysis of changing hydrologic regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coopersmith, E. J.; Minsker, B. S.; Sivapalan, M.
2014-03-01
Temporal shifts in precipitation and runoff regime curves appear throughout the continental United States, but differ from region to region. This paper explores these regime shifts by building upon a hydroclimatic classification system that partitions the United States into clusters of similarly behaved catchments using four simple hydroclimatic indicators. Hydroclimate data from over four hundred catchments over a 55 year period (belonging to the MOPEX data set) are analyzed to reveal how the indicators have shifted before and after 1970, before and after 1975, and before and after 1980. Statistically significant hydroclimatic changes in these indicators are explored qualitatively, suggesting which catchments today might resemble other catchments tomorrow. Thus, a preview of current locations in one class under future conditions is provided by observing existing locations of another class. The classification system structure enables organization of these data, allowing patterns of regime change to emerge without highly specified models at each individual site. Regional analyses explore changes in mean seasonal precipitation/runoff regimes, including shifts in the daily variability of precipitation and runoff. Additionally, changes in regime curves of minimum and maximum precipitation/runoff observations are analyzed and discussed. Results indicate that after 1980, classifications typically found in the southeastern quarter of the United States have expanded northward and westward. Regionally, the Midwest and Rocky Mountains seem to demonstrate more frequent, but less intense storms after 1980, while southeastern catchments receive much less water in the form of precipitation and runoff than in previous years.
Brotons, Lluís; Aquilué, Núria; de Cáceres, Miquel; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Fall, Andrew
2013-01-01
Available data show that future changes in global change drivers may lead to an increasing impact of fires on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Yet, fire regime changes in highly humanised fire-prone regions are difficult to predict because fire effects may be heavily mediated by human activities We investigated the role of fire suppression strategies in synergy with climate change on the resulting fire regimes in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain). We used a spatially-explicit fire-succession model at the landscape level to test whether the use of different firefighting opportunities related to observed reductions in fire spread rates and effective fire sizes, and hence changes in the fire regime. We calibrated this model with data from a period with weak firefighting and later assess the potential for suppression strategies to modify fire regimes expected under different levels of climate change. When comparing simulations with observed fire statistics from an eleven-year period with firefighting strategies in place, our results showed that, at least in two of the three sub-regions analysed, the observed fire regime could not be reproduced unless taking into account the effects of fire suppression. Fire regime descriptors were highly dependent on climate change scenarios, with a general trend, under baseline scenarios without fire suppression, to large-scale increases in area burnt. Fire suppression strategies had a strong capacity to compensate for climate change effects. However, strong active fire suppression was necessary to accomplish such compensation, while more opportunistic fire suppression strategies derived from recent fire history only had a variable, but generally weak, potential for compensation of enhanced fire impacts under climate change. The concept of fire regime in the Mediterranean is probably better interpreted as a highly dynamic process in which the main determinants of fire are rapidly modified by changes in landscape, climate and
Three-dimensional null point reconnection regimes
Priest, E. R.; Pontin, D. I.
2009-12-15
Recent advances in theory and computational experiments have shown the need to refine the previous categorization of magnetic reconnection at three-dimensional null points--points at which the magnetic field vanishes. We propose here a division into three different types, depending on the nature of the flow near the spine and fan of the null. The spine is an isolated field line which approaches the null (or recedes from it), while the fan is a surface of field lines which recede from it (or approach it). So-called torsional spine reconnection occurs when field lines in the vicinity of the fan rotate, with current becoming concentrated along the spine so that nearby field lines undergo rotational slippage. In torsional fan reconnection field lines near the spine rotate and create a current that is concentrated in the fan with a rotational flux mismatch and rotational slippage. In both of these regimes, the spine and fan are perpendicular and there is no flux transfer across spine or fan. The third regime, called spine-fan reconnection, is the most common in practice and combines elements of the previous spine and fan models. In this case, in response to a generic shearing motion, the null point collapses to form a current sheet that is focused at the null itself, in a sheet that locally spans both the spine and fan. In this regime the spine and fan are no longer perpendicular and there is flux transfer across both of them.
Predictive Bayesian inference and dynamic treatment regimes.
Saarela, Olli; Arjas, Elja; Stephens, David A; Moodie, Erica E M
2015-11-01
While optimal dynamic treatment regimes (DTRs) can be estimated without specification of a predictive model, a model-based approach, combined with dynamic programming and Monte Carlo integration, enables direct probabilistic comparisons between the outcomes under the optimal DTR and alternative (dynamic or static) treatment regimes. The Bayesian predictive approach also circumvents problems related to frequentist estimators under the nonregular estimation problem. However, the model-based approach is susceptible to misspecification, in particular of the "null-paradox" type, which is due to the model parameters not having a direct causal interpretation in the presence of latent individual-level characteristics. Because it is reasonable to insist on correct inferences under the null of no difference between the alternative treatment regimes, we discuss how to achieve this through a "null-robust" reparametrization of the problem in a longitudinal setting. Since we argue that causal inference can be entirely understood as posterior predictive inference in a hypothetical population without covariate imbalances, we also discuss how controlling for confounding through inverse probability of treatment weighting can be justified and incorporated in the Bayesian setting. PMID:26259996
The kinetic regime of the Vicsek model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chepizhko, A. A.; Kulinskii, V. L.
2009-12-01
We consider the dynamics of the system of self-propelling particles modeled via the Vicsek algorithm in continuum time limit. It is shown that the alignment process for the velocities can be subdivided into two regimes: "fast" kinetic and "slow" hydrodynamic ones. In fast kinetic regime the alignment of the particle velocity to the local neighborhood takes place with characteristic relaxation time. So, that the bigger regions arise with the velocity alignment. These regions align their velocities thus giving rise to hydrodynamic regime of the dynamics. We propose the mean-field-like approach in which we take into account the correlations between density and velocity. The comparison of the theoretical predictions with the numerical simulations is given. The relation between Vicsek model in the zero velocity limit and the Kuramoto model is stated. The mean-field approach accounting for the dynamic change of the neighborhood is proposed. The nature of the discontinuity of the dependence of the order parameter in case of vectorial noise revealed in Gregorie and Chaite, Phys. Rev. Lett., 92, 025702 (2004) is discussed and the explanation of it is proposed.
Particle optics in the Rayleigh regime.
Moosmüller, Hans; Arnott, W Patrick
2009-09-01
Light scattering and absorption by particles suspended in the atmosphere modifies the transfer of solar energy in the atmosphere, thereby influencing global and regional climate change and atmospheric visibility. Of particular interest are the optical properties of particles in the Rayleigh regime, where particles are small compared with the wavelength of the scattered or absorbed light, because these particles experience little gravitational settlement and may have long atmospheric lifetimes. Optical properties of particles in the Rayleigh regime are commonly derived from electromagnetic theory using Maxwell's equations and appropriate boundary conditions. The size dependence of particle scattering and absorption are derived here from the most basic principles for coherent processes such as Rayleigh scattering (i.e., add amplitudes if in phase) and incoherent processes such as absorption (i.e., add cross sections), at the same time yielding understanding of the upper particle size limit for the Rayleigh regime. The wavelength dependence of Rayleigh scattering and absorption are also obtained by adding a basic scale invariance for particle optics. Simple consequences for particle single-scattering albedo ("whiteness") and the optical measurement of particle mass densities are explained. These alternative derivations complement the conventional understanding obtained from electromagnetic theory. PMID:19785268
Understanding the Early Regime of Drop Spreading.
Mitra, Surjyasish; Mitra, Sushanta K
2016-09-01
We present experimental data to characterize the spreading of a liquid drop on a substrate kept submerged in another liquid medium. They reveal that drop spreading always begins in a regime dominated by drop viscosity where the spreading radius scales as r ∼ t with a nonuniversal prefactor. This initial viscous regime either lasts in its entirety or switches to an intermediate inertial regime where the spreading radius grows with time following the well-established inertial scaling of r ∼ t(1/2). This latter case depends on the characteristic viscous length scale of the problem. In either case, the final stage of spreading, close to equilibrium, follows Tanner's law. Further experiments performed on the same substrate kept in ambient air reveal a similar trend, albeit with limited spatiotemporal resolution, showing the universal nature of the spreading behavior. It is also found that, for early times of spreading, the process is similar to coalescence of two freely suspended liquid drops, making the presence of the substrate and consequently the three-phase contact line insignificant. PMID:27513708
Ector, Hugo
2010-12-01
I still remember my first book on statistics: "Elementary statistics with applications in medicine and the biological sciences" by Frederick E. Croxton. For me, it has been the start of pursuing understanding statistics in daily life and in medical practice. It was the first volume in a long row of books. In his introduction, Croxton pretends that"nearly everyone involved in any aspect of medicine needs to have some knowledge of statistics". The reality is that for many clinicians, statistics are limited to a "P < 0.05 = ok". I do not blame my colleagues who omit the paragraph on statistical methods. They have never had the opportunity to learn concise and clear descriptions of the key features. I have experienced how some authors can describe difficult methods in a well understandable language. Others fail completely. As a teacher, I tell my students that life is impossible without a basic knowledge of statistics. This feeling has resulted in an annual seminar of 90 minutes. This tutorial is the summary of this seminar. It is a summary and a transcription of the best pages I have detected. PMID:21302664
Winters, Ryan; Winters, Andrew; Amedee, Ronald G.
2010-01-01
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education sets forth a number of required educational topics that must be addressed in residency and fellowship programs. We sought to provide a primer on some of the important basic statistical concepts to consider when examining the medical literature. It is not essential to understand the exact workings and methodology of every statistical test encountered, but it is necessary to understand selected concepts such as parametric and nonparametric tests, correlation, and numerical versus categorical data. This working knowledge will allow you to spot obvious irregularities in statistical analyses that you encounter. PMID:21603381
Statistics of football dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendes, R. S.; Malacarne, L. C.; Anteneodo, C.
2007-06-01
We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by q-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.
Measurement of entangled states via atomic beam deflection in Bragg's regime
Khosa, Ashfaq H.; Ikram, Manzoor; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2004-11-01
We propose a scheme for the measurement of joint photon statistics and Wigner function of the entangled field states between two separate cavities. The scheme utilizes the momentum state of the two-level atoms in Bragg's regime. The probability of finding the atom in any one of the momentum states is the product of joint photon statistics and an oscillatory function. The argument of the function contains the information of the joint photon numbers in two cavities. We use the method of state reduction to a single set of joint photon numbers, which is a consequence of the measuring sequence. The repeated measurement of the set of photon numbers gives the joint photon statistics of the entangled field state. The complete entangled state can be reconstructed as a Wigner function from the knowledge of photon statistics of the coherently displaced entangled state.
Evolution of aftershock statistics with depth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narteau, C.; Shebalin, P.; Holschneider, M.
2013-12-01
The deviatoric stress varies with depth and may strongly affect earthquake statistics. Nevertheless, if the Anderson faulting theory may be used to define the relative stress magnitudes, it remains extremely difficult to observe significant variations of earthquake properties from the top to the bottom of the seismogenic layer. Here, we concentrate on aftershock sequences in normal, strike-slip and reverse faulting regimes to isolate specific temporal properties of this major relaxation process with respect to depth. More exactly, we use Bayesian statistics of the Modified Omori Law to characterize the exponent p of the power-law aftershock decay rate and the duration c of the early stage of aftershock activity that does not fit with this power-law regime. Preliminary results show that the c-value decreases with depth without any significant variation of the p-value. Then, we infer the duration of a non power-law aftershock decay rate over short times can be related to the level of stress in the seismogenic crust.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richfield, Jon; bookfeller
2016-07-01
In reply to Ralph Kenna and Pádraig Mac Carron's feature article “Maths meets myths” in which they describe how they are using techniques from statistical physics to characterize the societies depicted in ancient Icelandic sagas.
Cooperative Learning in Statistics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keeler, Carolyn M.; And Others
1994-01-01
Formal use of cooperative learning techniques proved effective in improving student performance and retention in a freshman level statistics course. Lectures interspersed with group activities proved effective in increasing conceptual understanding and overall class performance. (11 references) (Author)
Understanding Solar Flare Statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheatland, M. S.
2005-12-01
A review is presented of work aimed at understanding solar flare statistics, with emphasis on the well known flare power-law size distribution. Although avalanche models are perhaps the favoured model to describe flare statistics, their physical basis is unclear, and they are divorced from developing ideas in large-scale reconnection theory. An alternative model, aimed at reconciling large-scale reconnection models with solar flare statistics, is revisited. The solar flare waiting-time distribution has also attracted recent attention. Observed waiting-time distributions are described, together with what they might tell us about the flare phenomenon. Finally, a practical application of flare statistics to flare prediction is described in detail, including the results of a year of automated (web-based) predictions from the method.
Titanic: A Statistical Exploration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Takis, Sandra L.
1999-01-01
Uses the available data about the Titanic's passengers to interest students in exploring categorical data and the chi-square distribution. Describes activities incorporated into a statistics class and gives additional resources for collecting information about the Titanic. (ASK)
... and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Plague in the United States Plague was first introduced ... per year in the United States: 1900-2012. Plague Worldwide Plague epidemics have occurred in Africa, Asia, ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grégoire, G.
2016-05-01
This chapter is devoted to two objectives. The first one is to answer the request expressed by attendees of the first Astrostatistics School (Annecy, October 2013) to be provided with an elementary vademecum of statistics that would facilitate understanding of the given courses. In this spirit we recall very basic notions, that is definitions and properties that we think sufficient to benefit from courses given in the Astrostatistical School. Thus we give briefly definitions and elementary properties on random variables and vectors, distributions, estimation and tests, maximum likelihood methodology. We intend to present basic ideas in a hopefully comprehensible way. We do not try to give a rigorous presentation, and due to the place devoted to this chapter, can cover only a rather limited field of statistics. The second aim is to focus on some statistical tools that are useful in classification: basic introduction to Bayesian statistics, maximum likelihood methodology, Gaussian vectors and Gaussian mixture models.
Playing at Statistical Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clark, Paul M.; And Others
1974-01-01
Discussed are the applications of counting techniques of a sorting game to distributions and concepts in statistical mechanics. Included are the following distributions: Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein, and most probable. (RH)
... facts and statistics here include brain and central nervous system tumors (including spinal cord, pituitary and pineal gland ... U.S. living with a primary brain and central nervous system tumor. This year, nearly 17,000 people will ...