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Sample records for staurosporine augments egf-mediated

  1. Notch-mediated lateral inhibition regulates proneural wave propagation when combined with EGF-mediated reaction diffusion.

    PubMed

    Sato, Makoto; Yasugi, Tetsuo; Minami, Yoshiaki; Miura, Takashi; Nagayama, Masaharu

    2016-08-30

    Notch-mediated lateral inhibition regulates binary cell fate choice, resulting in salt and pepper patterns during various developmental processes. However, how Notch signaling behaves in combination with other signaling systems remains elusive. The wave of differentiation in the Drosophila visual center or "proneural wave" accompanies Notch activity that is propagated without the formation of a salt and pepper pattern, implying that Notch does not form a feedback loop of lateral inhibition during this process. However, mathematical modeling and genetic analysis clearly showed that Notch-mediated lateral inhibition is implemented within the proneural wave. Because partial reduction in EGF signaling causes the formation of the salt and pepper pattern, it is most likely that EGF diffusion cancels salt and pepper pattern formation in silico and in vivo. Moreover, the combination of Notch-mediated lateral inhibition and EGF-mediated reaction diffusion enables a function of Notch signaling that regulates propagation of the wave of differentiation. PMID:27535937

  2. Dividing roles of prion protein in staurosporine-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Qin, Kefeng; Wang, Jianwei; Hung, Tao; Zhao, Richard Y

    2006-10-20

    Prion protein (PrPC) is a normal cellular glycoprotein that is expressed in almost all tissues including the central nervous system. Much attention has been focused on this protein because conversion of the normal PrPC to the diseased form (PrPSc) plays an essential role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies such as mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In spite of the extensive effort, the normal physiological function of PrPC remains elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that PrPC plays a protective role against cellular stresses including apoptosis induced by various pro-apoptotic agents such as Bax and staurosporine (STS), however, other reports showed overexpression of PrPC enhances STS-mediated apoptosis. In this study, we took a different approach by depleting endogenous PrPC using specific interfering RNA technique and compared the depleting and overproducing effects of PrPC on STS-induced apoptosis in neuro-2a (N2a) cells. We demonstrate here that down-regulation of PrPC sensitizes N2a cells to STS-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. The enhanced apoptosis induced by STS was shown by increased DNA fragmentation, immunoreactivity of Bax, and caspase-3 cleavage. We also showed that overproduction of PrPC had little or no effect on STS-mediated DNA fragmentation in N2a cells but it augments STS-mediated apoptosis in HEK293 cells, suggesting a cell line-specific effect. In addition, the inhibitory effect of PrPC on STS-mediated cellular stress appears to be modulated in part through induction of cell cycle G2 accumulation. Together, our data suggest that physiological level of endogenous PrPC plays a protective role against STS-mediated cellular stress. Loss of this protection could render cells more prone to cellular insults such as STS. PMID:16950206

  3. Alkylation of Staurosporine to Derive a Kinase Probe for Fluorescence Applications.

    PubMed

    Disney, Alexander J M; Kellam, Barrie; Dekker, Lodewijk V

    2016-05-01

    The natural product staurosporine is a high-affinity inhibitor of nearly all mammalian protein kinases. The labelling of staurosporine has proven effective as a means of generating protein kinase research tools. Most tools have been generated by acylation of the 4'-methylamine of the sugar moiety of staurosporine. Herein we describe the alkylation of this group as a first step to generate a fluorescently labelled staurosporine. Following alkylation, a polyethylene glycol linker was installed, allowing subsequent attachment of fluorescein. We report that this fluorescein-staurosporine conjugate binds to cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the nanomolar range. Furthermore, its binding can be antagonised with unmodified staurosporine as well as ATP, indicating it targets the ATP binding site in a similar fashion to native staurosporine. This reagent has potential application as a screening tool for protein kinases of interest. PMID:27008372

  4. Alkylation of Staurosporine to Derive a Kinase Probe for Fluorescence Applications

    PubMed Central

    Disney, Alexander J. M.; Kellam, Barrie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The natural product staurosporine is a high‐affinity inhibitor of nearly all mammalian protein kinases. The labelling of staurosporine has proven effective as a means of generating protein kinase research tools. Most tools have been generated by acylation of the 4′‐methylamine of the sugar moiety of staurosporine. Herein we describe the alkylation of this group as a first step to generate a fluorescently labelled staurosporine. Following alkylation, a polyethylene glycol linker was installed, allowing subsequent attachment of fluorescein. We report that this fluorescein–staurosporine conjugate binds to cAMP‐dependent protein kinase in the nanomolar range. Furthermore, its binding can be antagonised with unmodified staurosporine as well as ATP, indicating it targets the ATP binding site in a similar fashion to native staurosporine. This reagent has potential application as a screening tool for protein kinases of interest. PMID:27008372

  5. Kinetics of staurosporine-arrest of human diploid fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, A.P.; Bustos, L.D.; Dickson, J.A.; Habbersett, R.C.; Crissman, H.A. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors have previously shown that the general protein kinase inhibitor, staurosporine (Stsp), has a differential effect on the progression of normal and transformed cells. Low levels of Stsp (1.0 ng/ml) reversibly arrested normal diploid cells in early G1 phase, whereas concentrations of Stsp as high as 50-75 ng/ml had no effect on G1 progression in transformed cells. High concentrations of Stsp arrested normal cells in G1 and G2 phases but blocked transformed cells only in G2 phase of the cell cycle. To follow the accumulation of cells in G1 and/or G2 phases, asynchronous cultures of human diploid fibroblasts were treated with 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 or 50 ng/ml staurosporine for 18 hours in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine. The kinetics of labeling with BrdU were determined with a two-laser flow cytometric technique that monitored emission of fluorescence from DNA-species stains that differed in the degree of BrdU-induced quenching of their fluorescence signals. Bivariate plots of Hoechst/mithramycin fluorescence signal ratio vs. Hoechst fluorescence identified the arrested cells as cohorts of cells in different positions across cell cycle at the time of Stsp addition.

  6. MODULATION OF FUNGAL SENSITIVITY TO STAUROSPORINE BY TARGETING PROTEINS IDENTIFIED BY TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROFILING

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Andreia S.; Gonçalves, A. Pedro; Castro, Ana; Lopes, Telma A.; Gardner, Rui; Glass, N. Louise; Videira, Arnaldo

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the time-dependent genetic response to the death-inducer staurosporine was performed in Neurospora crassa by transcriptional profiling. Staurosporine induced two major genes encoding an ABC transporter and a protein with similarity to regulatory subunits of potassium channels. The transcriptional response is dependent on the activity of a novel transcription factor. Deletion mutants in differentially expressed genes displayed altered sensitivity to staurosporine, underscoring significant proteins involved in the response to the drug. A null-mutant of the ABC transporter (abc3) is extremely sensitive to staurosporine, accumulates more staurosporine than the wild type strain and is defective in energy-dependent export of the drug, indicating that the ABC3 protein is the first described staurosporine transporter. It was located in the plasma membrane by immunofluorescence microscopy. The combination of inhibitors of ABC transporters or of potassium channels with staurosporine leads to an enhanced activity against N. crassa and pathogenic fungi paving the way to the development of more potent and specific antifungals. Our results highlight the general use of transcriptional profiling for the identification of novel proteins involved in cell death and their potential use as drug targets. PMID:22001288

  7. Porcine JAB1 significantly enhances apoptosis induced by staurosporine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, P; Wang, J; Kang, Z; Li, D; Zhang, D

    2013-01-01

    c-Jun activation domain-binding protein-1 (JAB1), also known as the subunit 5 of the COP9 signalosome, is a multifunctional protein that regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis and oncogenesis by interacting with and subsequently degrading a large number of proteins. Although human JAB1 (hJAB1) has been studied for a long time, studies on porcine JAB1 (pJAB1) have never been reported. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the pJAB1 gene. The genomic structure of the pJAB1 gene was determined. The open-reading frame of pJAB1 encoded 334 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence was highly similar to homologs in other species. Furthermore, the tertiary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis indicated that JAB1 was highly conservative among species. pJAB1 may interact with several proteins according to protein–protein interactions analysis. In addition, pJAB1 was found to be universally expressed in porcine tissues. Subcellular localization analysis showed that GFP–pJAB1 fusion protein distributed specifically in the cytoplasm. Flow cytometric analysis proved that pJAB1 significantly enhanced apoptosis induced by staurosporine, which at least partially depended on the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. This study is useful for understanding the function of pJAB1 and offers a potential molecular model for the investigation of diseases related to hJAB1. PMID:24091666

  8. Staurosporine analysis and its pharmacokinetics in the blood of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, L.R.; Umbarger, K.O.; Kim, J.M.; Bradbury, E.M.; Lehnert, B.E.

    1994-07-01

    Staurosporine (Stsp), a protein kinase inhibitor, has been found to have a differential effect on the proliferation of normal and transformed cells in vitro. Essentially nothing is known about the distribution and pharmacokinetics of Stsp in the body. To facilitate such investigations, we have developed a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method for measuring the levels of Stsp in blood. Stsp was measured in both plasma and RBC of rat blood. In vivo, Stsp was rapidly sequestered in some other tissue compartment, which rapidly decreased the concentration of Stsp in plasma to nondetectable levels. Using a postchromatography computerized analysis program that amplified the Stsp UV absorption peak from the HPLC. nanogram levels of Stsp were detected in vivo. Using this detection system for pharmacokinetic studies it was found that, in vivo, Stsp had a half-life of 51.6 min in plasma and 75.3 min in RBC. Tissue adsorption studies demonstrated that up to 99% of the Stsp was adsorbed by the heart and lung tissue in one pass through these organs. Extrapolation of the data from these studies suggest that 1{minus}g Stsp injections should produce a 2- to 7-ng/ml plasma Stsp level in vivo which is in the effective range to produce G1 arrest in normal cells. The short half-life of Stsp in plasma indicates that it will be necessary to infuse Stsp at some low level following the initial bolus injection in order to maintain Stsp levels in plasma at the 1- to 10-ng/ml level for the 2- to 3-day period necessary to achieve G1 arrest in vivo.

  9. Induction of neutrophil chemotactic factor production by staurosporine in rat peritoneal neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Edamatsu, Takeo; Xiao, Yi-Qun; Tanabe, Jun-ichi; Mue, Suetsugu; Ohuchi, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    Incubation of rat peritoneal neutrophils in medium containing various concentrations of staurosporine (6.4–64 nM) increased the neutrophil chemotactic activity in the conditioned medium in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Separation of the neutrophil chemotactic activity in the conditioned medium by isoelectric focusing revealed that staurosporine (64 nM) stimulated the production of basic (pH>8) neutrophil chemotactic factors, while TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, 49 nM) stimulated the production of both basic (pH>8) and acidic (pH 5) neutrophil chemotactic factors. Determination by immunoassay of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, -2α, -2β and -3 in the conditioned medium at 4 h revealed that staurosporine (64 nM) and TPA (49 nM) strongly stimulated the production of CINC-3 (staurosporine, 133.0±3.8; TPA, 26.7±1.0; control, 0.32±0.01 ng ml−1, means±s.e.mean from four samples) compared to CINC-1 (staurosporine, 55.0±1.2; TPA, 12.2±0.3; control, 0.56±0.01 ng ml−1), and CINC-2α (staurosporine, 1.09±0.03; TPA, 0.90±0.02; control, <0.10 ng ml−1). CINC-2β was below the detectable amount (<0.078 ng ml−1). The level of CINC-3 mRNA in the peritoneal neutrophils was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Staurosporine (64 nM) and TPA (49 nM) enhanced the level of CINC-3 mRNA time-dependently, but had no effect on GAPDH mRNA levels. Production of staurosporine-induced neutrophil chemotactic factor was inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors, H-7 (IC50, 12.3 μM), calphostin C (IC50, 0.77 μM) and Ro 31-8425 (24.3% inhibition at 10 μM), and by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein (IC50, 68.5 μM). Production of TPA-induced neutrophil chemotactic factor was also inhibited by both inhibitors. Both the staurosporine- and the TPA-induced increase in CINC-3 mRNA levels were suppressed by H-7 and genistein. PMID:9283699

  10. Isolation and antifungal and antioomycete activities of staurosporine from Streptomyces roseoflavus strain LS-A24.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Jung Yeop; Hwang, In Sun; Yun, Bong Sik; Kim, Beom Seok; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2006-04-19

    The actinomycete strain LS-A24 active against some plant fungal and oomycete pathogens was isolated from a soil sample of the Sunghwan Lake in Korea. The cell wall composition and spore shape of strain LS-A24 were LL-diaminopimelic acid and spiral type, respectively. On the basis of the physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, strain LS-A24 was identical to Streptomyces roseoflavus. An antifungal and antioomycete antibiotic was isolated from LS-A24 using various chromatographic procedures. The molecular formular of the antibiotic was determined to be C(28)H(26)N(4)O(3), and on the basis of the NMR data, the antibiotic was confirmed to be staurosporine, 2,3,10,11,12,13-hexahydro-10R-methoxy-9S-methyl-11R-methylamino-9S,13R-epoxy-1H,9H-diindolo[1,2,3-gh:3',2',1'-lm]pyrrolo[3,4-j][1,7]benzodiazonin-1-one. Staurosporine completely inhibited the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum orbiculare, Phytophthora capsici, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Cladosporium cucumerinum with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 1-50 microg/mL for MICs. Staurosporine also was active against Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus subtilis ssp. subtilis, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Staurosporine and the commercial fungicide metalaxyl inhibited the development of Phytophthora blight on pepper plants. However, the control efficacy of staurosporine against the Phytophthora disease was somewhat less than that of metalaxyl. This is the first study to isolate staurosporine from S. roseoflavus and demonstrate its in vitro and in vivo antioomycete activity against P. capsici. PMID:16608228

  11. Induction of Neuronal Morphology in the 661W Cone Photoreceptor Cell Line with Staurosporine

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Alex F.; Crowe, Megan E.; Lieven, Christopher J.; Levin, Leonard A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose RGC-5 cells undergo differentiation into a neuronal phenotype with low concentrations of staurosporine. Although the RGC-5 cell line was initially thought to be of retinal ganglion cell origin, recent evidence suggests that the RGC-5 line could have been the result of contamination with 661W mouse cone photoreceptor cells. This raised the possibility that a cone photoreceptor cell line could be multipotent and could be differentiated to a neuronal phenotype. Methods 661W and RGC-5 cells, non-neuronal retinal astrocytes, retinal endothelial cells, retinal pericytes, M21 melanoma cells, K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, and Daudi Burkitt lymphoma cells, were differentiated with staurosporine. The resulting morphology was quantitated using NeuronJ with respect to neurite counts and topology. Results Treatment with staurosporine induced similar-appearing morphological differentiation in both 661W and RGC-5 cells. The following measures were not significantly different between 661W and RGC-5 cells: number of neurites per cell, total neurite field length, number of neurite branch points, and cell viability. Neuronal-like differentiation was not observed in the other cell lines tested. Conclusions 661W and RGC-5 cells have virtually identical and distinctive morphology when differentiated with low concentrations of staurosporine. This result demonstrates that a retinal neuronal precursor cell with cone photoreceptor lineage can be differentiated to express a neuronal morphology. PMID:26684837

  12. Cytoprotective effect of selective small-molecule caspase inhibitors against staurosporine-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianghong; Wang, Yuren; Liang, Shuguang; Ma, Haiching

    2014-01-01

    Caspases are currently known as the central executioners of the apoptotic pathways. Inhibition of apoptosis and promotion of normal cell survival by caspase inhibitors would be a tremendous benefit for reducing the side effects of cancer therapy and for control of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s diseases. The objective of this study was to discover small-molecule caspase inhibitors with which to achieve cytoprotective effect. We completed the high-throughput screening of Bionet’s 37,500-compound library (Key Organics Limited, Camelford, Cornwall, UK) against caspase-1, -3, and -9 and successfully identified 43 initial hit compounds. The 43 hit compounds were further tested for cytoprotective activity against staurosporine-induced cell death in NIH3T3 cells. Nineteen compounds were found to have significant cytoprotective effects in cell viability assays. One of the compounds, RBC1023, was demonstrated to protect NIH3T3 cells from staurosporine-induced caspase-3 cleavage and activation. RBC1023 was also shown to protect against staurosporine-induced impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential. DNA microarray analysis demonstrated that staurosporine treatment induced broad global gene expression alterations, and RBC1023 co-treatment significantly restored these changes, especially of the genes that are related to cell growth and survival signaling such as Egr1, Cdc25c, cdkn3, Rhob, Nek2, and Taok1. Collectively, RBC1023 protects NIH3T3 cells against staurosporine-induced apoptosis via inhibiting caspase activity, restoring mitochondrial membrane potential, and possibly upregulating some cell survival-related gene expressions and pathways. PMID:24920883

  13. Acetaminophen potentiates staurosporine-induced death in a human neuroblastoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Posadas, I; Vellecco, V; Santos, P; Prieto-Lloret, J; Ceña, V

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumour in infants characterized by a high resistance to apoptosis. Recently, the cyclo-oxygenase pathway has been considered a potential target in the treatment of different kinds of tumours. The aim of the present work was to investigate a possible relationship between cyclo-oxygenase pathway and stauroporine-induced apoptosis in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Experimental approach: Cellular viability was measured by release of LDH. DNA fragmentation was visualized by electrophoresis on agarose gel containing ethidium bromide. Cyclo-oxygenase activity was measured in microsomal fractions obtained from cells by quantification of its final product PGE2 by RIA. Caspase-3 activity was measured fluorimetrically and Western blot analysis was performed to assess cytochrome c expression. Key results: We have found that staurosporine (500 nM) induced cellular death in a time-dependent manner in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Cyclo-oxygenase enzymatic activity was present in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells under basal conditions and pharmacological experiments using COX inhibitors indicate that cyclo-oxygenase-1 and cyclo-oxygenase-3 are the active isoforms in these cells. Co-incubation of SH-SY5Y cells with staurosporine (500 nM) and acetaminophen for 24 h potentiated staurosporine-mediated cellular death in a concentration-dependent manner. This process is mediated by an increase in cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activation and is prevented by N-acetylcysteine or the superoxide dismutase mimetic, MnTBAP. Conclusions and implications: Acetaminophen potentiates staurosporine-mediated neuroblastoma cell death. The mechanism of action of acetaminophen seems to be related to production of reactive oxygen species and decreased intracellular glutathione levels. PMID:17245372

  14. Staurosporine-induced apoptosis in astrocytes is prevented by A1 adenosine receptor activation.

    PubMed

    D'Alimonte, Iolanda; Ballerini, Patrizia; Nargi, Eleonora; Buccella, Silvana; Giuliani, Patricia; Di Iorio, Patrizia; Caciagli, Francesco; Ciccarelli, Renata

    2007-05-11

    Astrocyte apoptosis occurs in acute and chronic pathological processes at the central nervous system and the prevention of astrocyte death may represent an efficacious intervention in protecting neurons against degeneration. Our research shows that rat astrocyte exposure to 100 nM staurosporine for 3h caused apoptotic death accompanied by caspase-3, p38 mitogen-ed protein kinase (MAPK) and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) activation. N(6)-chlorocyclopentyladenosine (CCPA, 2.5-75 nM), a selective agonist of A(1) adenosine receptors, added to the cultures 1h prior to staurosporine, induced a dose-dependent anti-apoptotic effect, which was inhibited by the A(1) receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine. CCPA also caused a dose- and time-dependent phosphorylation/activation of Akt, a downstream effector of cell survival promoting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, which in turn led to inhibition of staurosporine-induced GSK3beta and p38 MAPK activity. Accordingly, the anti-apoptotic effect of CCPA was abolished by culture pre-treatment with LY294002, a selective PI3K inhibitor, pointing out the prevailing role played by PI3K pathway in the protective effect exerted by A(1) receptor activation. Since an abnormal p38 and GSK3beta activity is implicated in acute (stroke) and chronic (Alzheimer's disease) neurodegenerative diseases, the results of the present study provide a hint to better understand adenosine relevance in these disorders. PMID:17400382

  15. Probing Hypoxia-Induced Staurosporine Resistance in Prostate Cancer Cells with a Microfluidic Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Grishma; Hiemstra, Scott

    2014-01-01

    A microfluidic system for cell culture and drug response studies was developed to elucidate the effects of hypoxia on drug susceptibility. Drug response studies were performed in prostate cancer cells and Ramos B cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. A vacuum actuated microfluidic culture device was used for cell culture and PC3 cells were cultured in the chip up to 16 hours. Cells were treated with several concentrations of staurosporine and apoptosis was assayed using the fluorescent probes MitoTracker Red and Annexin-V. For hypoxic samples, the chip was placed in a hypoxia chamber and pre-conditioned at <1% oxygen before inducing the cells with staurosporine. Cells exposed to 2 μM staurosporine were 32% ± 10% apoptotic under normoxic conditions but only 1.5% ± 12% apoptotic under hypoxic conditions. As little as 1 hour of hypoxic preconditioning increased drug resistance. Cell apoptosis correlated with drug dose, although in each case hypoxia reduced the apoptotic fraction significantly. Given the rapid nature of cell adaptation to hypoxia, this chip and analysis approach can be used to identify compounds that can induce cell death in hypoxic tumor cells rapidly. PMID:24479128

  16. Synthesis and biological activity of pyrazole analogues of the staurosporine aglycon K252c.

    PubMed

    Esvan, Yannick J; Giraud, Francis; Pereira, Elisabeth; Suchaud, Virginie; Nauton, Lionel; Théry, Vincent; Dezhenkova, Lyubov G; Kaluzhny, Dmitry N; Mazov, Vsevolod N; Shtil, Alexander A; Anizon, Fabrice; Moreau, Pascale

    2016-07-15

    A derivative of the staurosporine aglycon (K252c), in which the lactam ring was replaced by a pyrazole moiety, was synthesized. The resulting indolopyrazolocarbazole (3) inhibited Pim isoforms 1-3 whereas it did not impair the activity of two known targets of K252c, protein kinase C isoforms α and γ. Compound 3 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity toward human leukemia and colon carcinoma cell lines (K562 and HCT116), strongly suggesting that this new scaffold deserves further investigations for treatment of malignancies associated with Pim activity. PMID:27255178

  17. Effect of phorbol derivatives and staurosporine on gravitropic response of primary root of maize

    SciTech Connect

    Mulkey, T.J.; Kim, S.Y. ); Lee, J.S. )

    1991-05-01

    Time-lapse videography and computer-based, video image digitization were used to examine the effects of phorbol derivatives (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, TPA; phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate 4-O-methyl ether, mTPA) and staurosporine on the kinetics of gravicurvature of primary roots of maize (Zea mays L., Pioneer 3343 and Golden Cross Bantam). Pretreatment of roots with TPA (3 hr, 1 {mu}M) decreases the time lag prior to induction of positive gravicurvature in horizontally-oriented roots by > 60%. The rate of curvature is not significantly different than the rate observed in control roots. Wrongway curvature which is observed in 30-40% of control roots is not observed in TPA-pretreated roots. Oscillatory movements observed in control roots after completion of gravitropic reorientation is completely dampened in TPA-pretreated roots. Pretreatment of roots with mTPA(3hr,1{mu}M), the inactive analog of TPA, does not significantly alter the kinetics of gravicurvature of primary roots of maize. Staurosporine (10{sup {minus}8}M), a microbial alkaloid which has been reported to have antifungal activity and to inhibit phospholipid/Ca{sup ++} dependent protein kinase, completely inhibits TPA-induced alteration of the kinetics of gravitropism. DAG (1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycerol), a synthetic diglyceride activator of protein kinase C, exhibits similar activity to TPA. TPA-induced alterations in tissue response to auxin are presented.

  18. Bcl2-low-expressing MCF7 cells undergo necrosis rather than apoptosis upon staurosporine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Poliseno, Laura; Bianchi, Laura; Citti, Lorenzo; Liberatori, Sabrina; Mariani, Laura; Salvetti, Alessandra; Evangelista, Monica; Bini, Luca; Pallini, Vitaliano; Rainaldi, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    We present a ribozyme-based strategy for studying the effects of Bcl2 down-regulation. The anti-bcl2 hammerhead ribozyme Rz-bcl2 was stably transfected into MCF7 cancer cells and the cleavage of Bcl2 mRNA was demonstrated using a new assay for cleavage product detection, while Western blot analysis showed a concomitant depletion of Bcl2 protein. Rz-bcl2-expressing cells were more sensitive to staurosporine than control cells. Moreover, both molecular and cellular read-outs indicated that staurosporine-induced cell death was necrosis rather than apoptosis in these cells. The study of the effects of Bcl2 down-regulation was extended to the global MCF7 protein expression profile, exploiting a proteomic approach. Two reference electro-pherograms of Rz-bcl2-transfected cells, one with the ribozyme in a catalytically active form and the other with the ribozyme in a catalytically inactive form, were obtained. When comparing the two-dimensional maps, 53 differentially expressed spots were found, four of which were identified by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight) MS as calreticulin, nucleophosmin, phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase. How the up-regulation of these proteins might help to explain the modification of Bcl2 activity is discussed. PMID:14748742

  19. Staurosporine induces chondrogenesis of chick embryo wing bud mesenchyme in monolayer cultures through canonical and non-canonical TGF-β pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoin; Kei, Kyungmin; Sonn, Jong Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Staurosporine has been known to induce chondrogenesis in monolayer cultures of mesenchymal cells by dissolving actin stress fibers. The aim of this study was to further elucidate how the alteration of actin filaments by staurosporine induces chondrogenesis. Specifically, we examined whether the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β pathway is implicated. SB505124 strongly suppressed staurosporine-induced chondrogenesis without affecting the drug's action on the actin cytoskeleton. Staurosporine increased the phosphorylation of TGF-β receptor I (TβRI) but had no significant effect on the expression levels of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, TβRI, TβRII, and TβRIII. Phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 was not increased by staurosporine. However, SB505124 almost completely suppressed the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3. In addition, inhibition of Smad3 blocked staurosporine-induced chondrogenesis. Inhibition of Akt, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) suppressed chondrogenesis induced by staurosporine. Phosphorylation of Akt, p38 MAPK, and JNK was increased by staurosporine. SB505124 reduced the phosphorylation of Akt and p38 MAPK, while it had no effect on the phosphorylation of JNK. The phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was not significantly affected by staurosporine. In addition, inhibition of ERK with PD98059 alone did not induce chondrogenesis. Taken together, these results suggest that staurosporine induces chondrogenesis through TGF-β pathways including canonical Smads and non-canonical Akt and p38 MAPK signaling. PMID:26427712

  20. Staurosporine induces ganglion cell differentiation in part by stimulating urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression and activation in the developing chick retina

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yeoun-Hee; Chang, Yongmin; Jung, Jae-Chang

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Staurosporine mediates stimulation of RGC differentiation in vitro cultured retinal neuroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Staurosporine mediates uPA activation during RGC differentiation in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of uPA blocks the staurosporine mediated RGC differentiation both in vitro and in ovo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thus, uPA may play a role in the staurosporine-mediated stimulation of RGC differentiation. -- Abstract: Here, we investigated whether staurosporine-mediated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activation is involved in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) differentiation. Retinal cells were isolated from developing chick retinas at embryonic day 6 (E6). Relatively few control cells grown in serum-free medium started to form processes by 12 h. In contrast, staurosporine-treated cells had processes within 3 h, and processes were evident at 8 h. Immunofluorescence staining showed that Tuj-1-positive cells with shorter neurites could be detected in control cultures at 18 h, whereas numerous Tuj-1 positive ganglion cells with longer neuritic extensions were seen in staurosporine-treated cultures. BrdU-positive proliferating cells were more numerous in control cultures than in staurosporine-treated cultures, and the BrdU staining was not detected in post-mitotic Tuj-1 positive ganglion cells. Western blotting of cell lysates showed that staurosporine induced high levels of the active form of uPA. The staurosporine-induced uPA signal was localized predominantly in the soma, neurites and axons of Tuj-1-positive ganglion cells. Amiloride, an inhibitor of uPA, markedly reduced staurosporine-induced Tuj-1 staining, neurite length, neurite number, and uPA staining versus controls. In developing retinas in ovo, amiloride administration remarkably reduced the staurosporine-induced uPA staining and RGC differentiation. Taken together, our in vitro and in vivo data collectively indicate that

  1. Phytochrome-mediated germination and early development in spores of Dryopteris filix-mas L.: phase-specific and non phase-specific inhibition by staurosporine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, C. J.; Scheuerlein, R.; Roux, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The alkaloid staurosporine, currently known as the most potent inhibitor of protein kinase C, PKC, was tested for its ability to inhibit phytochrome-mediated spore germination in Dryopteris filix-mas L., evaluated by the induction of chlorophyll synthesis. Approximately half-maximal inhibition was obtained at a concentration of 10(-5) M. This effect of staurosporine was phase-specific and was found during the same period in which the presence of extracellular calcium is necessary for realization of the light signal. Furthermore, the ability of staurosporine to prevent progression of a germinated spore into early gametophyte development, evaluated by the accumulation of chlorophyll, was examined. Again, staurosporine (10(-5) M) significantly diminished chlorophyll accumulation, determined quantitatively in vivo by single-cell measurements, in a non-phase specific way. The fact that the phase-specific inhibitory effect of staurosporine in preventing germination was coincident with the phase-specific requirement of Ca2+ suggests that both Ca2+ and staurosporine affect the same step in the signal-transduction chain. A phosphorylation event catalysed by PKC or any Ca2+ -dependent protein kinase is proposed as the target of staurosporine and Ca2+.

  2. Lip augmentation.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Patrick J; Hilger, Peter A

    2004-02-01

    Lip augmentation has become increasingly popular in recent years as a reflection of cultural trends emphasizing youth and beauty. Techniques to enhance the appearance of the lips have evolved with advances in biotechnology. An understanding of lip anatomy and aesthetics forms the basis for successful results. We outline the pertinent anatomy and aesthetics of the preoperative evaluation. A summary of various filler materials available is provided. Augmentation options include both injectable and open surgical techniques. The procedures and materials currently favored by the authors are described in greater detail. PMID:15034811

  3. Chin augmentation.

    PubMed

    Choe, K S; Stucki-McCormick, S U

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of facial aesthetic surgery is to restore, enhance, and rejuvenate the aging face to a more youthful appearance, achieving balance and harmony. The mental area must be addressed in order to have a complete synthesis of the face. The concept of augmenting the mental area with implants has evolved so significantly that it now stands by itself as an important procedure. Various autogenous implants for chin augmentation have been in use for over 100 years but have complications. The advent of synthetic materials has given rise to various types of alloplastic implants: Gore-Tex, Medpor, Supramid, Silastic, and Mersilene. No one implant is perfect for every face. This article overviews several alloplastic implants--their advantages, disadvantages, and complications, in addition to the different techniques of preparing and delivering the implants. PMID:11802346

  4. Computational Study of the Structure, the Flexibility, and the Electronic Circular Dichroism of Staurosporine - a Powerful Protein Kinase Inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabencheva-Christova, Tatyana G.; Singh, Warispreet; Christov, Christo Z.

    2014-07-01

    Staurosporine (STU) is a microbial alkaloid which is an universal kinase inhibitor. In order to understand its mechanism of action it is important to explore its structure-properties relationships. In this paper we provide the results of a computational study of the structure, the chiroptical properties, the conformational flexibility of STU as well as the correlation between the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra and the structure of its complex with anaplastic lymphoma kinase.

  5. β-adrenoceptor blockers protect against staurosporine-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Maya; Goubaeva, Farida; Song, Joseph H.; Lee, H.T.; Yang, Jay

    2008-01-01

    The β-adrenoceptor blockers exhibit a well-characterized anti-apoptotic property in the heart and kidney while less is known about the effect of this class of drugs on neuronal apoptosis. We studied the effects of three β- adrenoceptor blockers propranolol (1-(isoproplyamino)-3-(naphthalene-1-yloxy)propan-2-ol), atenolol (2-[4-[2-hydroxy-3-(1-methylethylamino)propoxyl]phenyl]ehanamide), and ICI 118551 (1-[2,3-(dihydro-7-methyl-1H-iden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol), against staurosporine-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Staurosporine increased caspase 3-like activity, DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage, and the number of TUNEL positive cells consistent with the induction of apoptosis. Propranolol and ICI 118551, but not atenolol, demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of caspase 3-like activity. Propranolol and ICI 118551 directly inhibited the enzymatic activity of recombinant caspase 9 while atenolol did not; however, none of the β- adrenoceptor blockers that were examined directly blocked caspase 2 or 3 activity. In isolated mitochondria, propranolol and ICI 118551 inhibited staurosporine-induced cytochrome c release while atenolol did not. We conclude that propranolol and ICI 118551 protect SH-SY5Y cells against staurosporine-induced apoptosis through a dual action on the mitochondria and on caspase 9 in a cell type and an apoptotic paradigm where the conventional inhibitors of mitochondrial permeability transition such as cyclosporin A and bongkrekic acid demonstrate no protection. PMID:18534571

  6. Differential Regulation of Specific Sphingolipids in Colon Cancer Cells during Staurosporine-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    del Solar, Virginia; Lizardo, Darleny Y; Li, Nasi; Hurst, Jerod J; Brais, Christopher J; Atilla-Gokcumen, G Ekin

    2015-12-17

    Apoptosis is accompanied by distinct morphological changes at the plasma and organelle membrane level. Involvement of certain lipids in apoptosis has been established; however, we have limited understanding of the specific lipid structures that participate in this process. We used untargeted comparative lipidomics to study the changes in lipid composition during staurosporine-induced apoptosis in HCT-116. Our results revealed that ceramides, dihydroceramides, and sphingomyelins, with defined acyl chains, constitute the majority of changes in the lipidome. Expression levels and activities of enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of lipids that change suggest that de novo synthesis causes these specific changes. Further analysis of the lipidome during apoptosis in other cancer and non-cancer cell lines suggested that accumulation of ceramides and dihydroceramides is specific to cancer cells. Taken together, our data propose that these molecules are regulated at the lipid-specific level during apoptosis and that this regulation differs between cancer and non-cancer cells. PMID:26687483

  7. Augmented RIGS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaminskas, R. A.; Mcguire, D.

    1974-01-01

    The results of the Phase 2 Resonant Infrasonic Gauging System (RIGS) development program are presented. The program consisted of design, fabrication, and testing of an "augmented" RIGS concept. The RIGS is a gauging system capable of measuring propellant quantities in zero-g as well as under accelerated conditions. Except for hydrogen, it can be used to gauge virtually any propellant in liquid form, including cryogenics. The gage consists of a sensor unit which is attached to the propellant tank and an electronic control unit which may be positioned separately from the sensor. The control unit receives signals from the sensor as well as the propellant temperature measurement and the ullage gas pressure, and computes the propellant quantity in the tank.

  8. Staurosporine, but not Ro 31-8220, induces interleukin 2 production and synergizes with interleukin 1alpha in EL4 thymoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, T M; Matthews, J S; O'Neill, L A

    1997-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in interleukin 1 (IL1) signal transduction in a number of cellular systems, either as a key event in IL1 action or as a negative regulator. Here we have examined the effects of two PKC inhibitors, staurosporine and the more selective agent Ro 31-8220, on IL1 responses in the murine thymoma line EL4.NOB-1. A 1 h pulse of staurosporine was found to strongly potentiate the induction of IL2 by IL1alpha in these cells. In contrast, neither a pulse nor prolonged incubation with Ro 31-8220 affected the response to IL1alpha. Both agents blocked the response to PMA, however. A 1 h pulse of staurosporine was also found to induce IL2 production on its own, activate the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) and increase the expression of a NFkappaB-linked reporter gene. It synergized with IL1alpha in all of these responses. Ro 31-8220 was again without effect, although both staurosporine and Ro 31-8220 blocked the activation of NFkappaB by PMA. Finally, staurosporine caused the translocation of PKC-alpha and -epsilon, and to a lesser extent PKC-beta, but not PKC-θ or -zeta, from the cytosol to the membrane, although a similar effect was observed with Ro 31-8220. The results suggest that PKC is not involved in IL1alpha signalling in EL4 cells. Furthermore, the potentiating effect of staurosporine on IL1alpha action does not involve PKC inhibition, and is likely to be at the level of NFkappaB activation. PMID:9224627

  9. [Cell shrinkage during apoptosis is not obligatory. Apoptosis of U937 cells induced by staurosporine and etoposide].

    PubMed

    Vereninov, A A; Goriachaia, T S; Matveev, V V; Moshkov, A V; Rozanov, Iu M; Sakuta, G A; Shirokova, A V; Iurinskaia, V E

    2004-01-01

    A study was made of apoptotic cell shrinkage, which is generally believed to be a hallmark of apoptosis. The two conventional models of apoptosis were used for examination of changes in cell water balance--one is apoptosis caused in human lymphoma cell line U937 by staurosporine, and the other by etoposide. Intracellular water was determined by measuring buoyant density of cells in continuous Percoll gradient. Apoptosis was recognized by microscopy and flow cytometry. Apoptosis caused by staurosporine (1 microM, 4 h) was found to be associated with a decrease in cell water content by almost 24%. In contrast, no decrease in cell water content was observed in U937 cells incubated with etoposide (50 microM, 4 h), in spite of the number of features suggesting the presence of apoptosis, such as the appearance of apoptotic bodies, chromatin condensation and fragmentation and disappearance of S-phase cells in DNA histogram. It is concluded that definition of apoptosis as "shrinkage-necrosis" (Kerr, 1971) needs correcting: the distinction of apoptotic cells involves the absence of swelling, rather than cell shrinkage. PMID:15473371

  10. Hypersensitivity of A8344G MERRF mutated cybrid cells to staurosporine-induced cell death is mediated by calcium-dependent activation of calpains.

    PubMed

    Rommelaere, Guillaume; Michel, Sébastien; Malaisse, Jérémy; Charlier, Sophie; Arnould, Thierry; Renard, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial DNA can lead to the development of mitochondrial diseases such as Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibers (MERRF) or Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes (MELAS). We first show that human 143B-derived cybrid cells harboring either the A8344G (MERRF) or the A3243G (MELAS) mutation, are more prone to undergo apoptosis then their wild-type counterpart, when challenged with various apoptotic inducers such as staurosporine, etoposide and TRAIL. In addition, investigating the mechanisms underlying A8344G cybrid cells hypersensitivity to staurosporine-induced cell death, we found that staurosporine treatment activates caspases independently of cytochrome c release in both wild-type and mutated cells. Caspases are activated, at least partly, through the activation of calcium-dependent calpain proteases, a pathway that is more strongly activated in mutated cybrid cells than in wild-type cells exposed to staurosporine. These results suggest that calcium homeostasis perturbation induced by mitochondrial dysfunction could predispose cells to apoptosis, a process that could take part into the progressive cell degeneration observed in MERRF syndrome, and more generally in mitochondrial diseases. PMID:22037425

  11. Computational POM and DFT Evaluation of Experimental in-vitro Cancer Inhibition of Staurosporine-Ruthenium(II) Complexes: the Power Force of Organometallics in Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Hadda, Taibi Ben; Genc, Zuhal K; Masand, Vijay H; Nebbache, Nadia; Warad, Ismail; Jodeh, Shehdeh; Genc, Murat; Mabkhot, Yahia N; Barakat, Assem; Salgado-Zamora, Hector

    2015-01-01

    A computational Petra/Osiris/Molinspiration/DFT(POM/DFT) based model has been developed for the identification of physico-chemical parameters governing the bioactivity of ruthenium-staurosporine complexes 2-4 containing an antitumoral-kinase (TK) pharmacophore sites. The four compounds 1-4 analyzed here were previously screened for their antitumor activity, compounds 2 and 4 are neutral, whereas analogue compound 3 is a monocation with ruthenium(II) centre. The highest anti- antitumor activity was obtained for compounds 3 and 4, which exhibited low IC(50) values (0.45 and 8 nM, respectively), superior to staurosporine derivative (pyridocarbazole ligand 1, 150 · 10(3) nM). The IC(50) of 3 (0.45 nM), represents 20,000 fold increased activity as compared to staurosporine derivative 1. The increase of bioactivity could be attributed to the existence of pi-charge transfer from metal-staurosporine to its (CO(δ)--NH(δ+)) antitumor pharmacophore site. PMID:26454603

  12. Microbial alkaloid staurosporine induces formation of nanometer-wide membrane tubular extensions (cytonemes, membrane tethers) in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Stadnichuk, Vladimir; Molotkovsky, Julian G; Romanova, Julia M; Sud’ina, Galina F; Klein, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, we demonstrate that microbial alkaloid staurosporine (STS) and Ro 31-8220, structurally related to STS protein kinase C inhibitor, caused development of membrane tubular extensions in human neutrophils upon adhesion to fibronectin-coated substrata. STS-induced tubular extensions interconnected neutrophils in a network and bound serum-opsonized bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The diameter of STS-induced extensions varied in the range 160–200 nm. The extensions were filled with cytoplasm and covered with membrane, as they included fluorescent cytoplasmic and lipid dyes. Neither protein kinase C inhibitors H-7 and bisindolylmaleimide VII, nor tyrosine protein kinase inhibitors tyrphostin AG 82 and genistein caused such extensions formation. Supposedly, STS induces membrane tubular extension formation promoting actin cytoskeleton depolymerization or affecting NO synthesis. PMID:20009568

  13. Breast augmentation surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Breast augmentation; Breast implants; Implants - breast; Mammaplasty ... Breast augmentation is done by placing implants behind breast tissue or under the chest muscle. An implant is a sac filled with either sterile salt water (saline) or a ...

  14. Augmented Reality in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Shingles, Luke J.

    2013-09-01

    Augmented Reality consists of merging live images with virtual layers of information. The rapid growth in the popularity of smartphones and tablets over recent years has provided a large base of potential users of Augmented Reality technology, and virtual layers of information can now be attached to a wide variety of physical objects. In this article, we explore the potential of Augmented Reality for astrophysical research with two distinct experiments: (1) Augmented Posters and (2) Augmented Articles. We demonstrate that the emerging technology of Augmented Reality can already be used and implemented without expert knowledge using currently available apps. Our experiments highlight the potential of Augmented Reality to improve the communication of scientific results in the field of astrophysics. We also present feedback gathered from the Australian astrophysics community that reveals evidence of some interest in this technology by astronomers who experimented with Augmented Posters. In addition, we discuss possible future trends for Augmented Reality applications in astrophysics, and explore the current limitations associated with the technology. This Augmented Article, the first of its kind, is designed to allow the reader to directly experiment with this technology.

  15. Unconventional apoptosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN): staurosporine delays exposure of phosphatidylserine and prevents phagocytosis by MΦ-2 macrophages of PMN

    PubMed Central

    Franz, S; Muñoz, L E; Heyder, P; Herrmann, M; Schiller, M

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and subsequent ‘silent’ removal represents an important check-point for the resolution of inflammation. Failure in PMN clearance resulting in secondary necrosis-driven tissue damage has been implicated in conditions of chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Apoptotic PMN undergo profound biophysical changes that warrant their efficient recognition and uptake by phagocytes before fading to secondary necrosis. In this study, we demonstrate that staurosporine (STS), a non-selective but potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase and protein kinase C, exerts a drastic impact on PMN apoptosis. PMN treated with STS underwent an unconventional form of cell death characterized by a delayed exposure of aminophospholipids, including phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine and an increased exposure of neo-glycans. STS caused an impaired cellular fragmentation and accelerated DNA fragmentation. Phagocytosis of STS-treated PMN lacking PS on their surfaces was decreased significantly, which highlights the importance of PS for the clearance of apoptotic PMN. Specific opsonization with immune complexes completely restored phagocytosis of STS-treated PMN, demonstrating the efficiency of back-up clearance pathways in the absence of PS exposure. PMID:24995908

  16. Unconventional apoptosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN): staurosporine delays exposure of phosphatidylserine and prevents phagocytosis by MΦ-2 macrophages of PMN.

    PubMed

    Franz, S; Muñoz, L E; Heyder, P; Herrmann, M; Schiller, M

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and subsequent 'silent' removal represents an important check-point for the resolution of inflammation. Failure in PMN clearance resulting in secondary necrosis-driven tissue damage has been implicated in conditions of chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Apoptotic PMN undergo profound biophysical changes that warrant their efficient recognition and uptake by phagocytes before fading to secondary necrosis. In this study, we demonstrate that staurosporine (STS), a non-selective but potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase and protein kinase C, exerts a drastic impact on PMN apoptosis. PMN treated with STS underwent an unconventional form of cell death characterized by a delayed exposure of aminophospholipids, including phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine and an increased exposure of neo-glycans. STS caused an impaired cellular fragmentation and accelerated DNA fragmentation. Phagocytosis of STS-treated PMN lacking PS on their surfaces was decreased significantly, which highlights the importance of PS for the clearance of apoptotic PMN. Specific opsonization with immune complexes completely restored phagocytosis of STS-treated PMN, demonstrating the efficiency of back-up clearance pathways in the absence of PS exposure. PMID:24995908

  17. Effect of Staurosporine in the Morphology and Viability of Cerebellar Astrocytes: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species and NADPH Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Olguín-Albuerne, Mauricio; Domínguez, Guadalupe; Morán, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Cell death implies morphological changes that may contribute to the progression of this process. In astrocytes, the mechanisms involving the cytoskeletal changes during cell death are not well explored. Although NADPH oxidase (NOX) has been described as being a critical factor in the production of ROS, not much information is available about the participation of NOX-derived ROS in the cell death of astrocytes and their role in the alterations of the cytoskeleton during the death of astrocytes. In this study, we have evaluated the participation of ROS in the death of cultured cerebellar astrocytes using staurosporine (St) as death inductor. We found that astrocytes express NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4. Also, St induced an early ROS production and NOX activation that participate in the death of astrocytes. These findings suggest that ROS produced by St is generated through NOX1 and NOX4. Finally, we showed that the reorganization of tubulin and actin induced by St is ROS independent and that St did not change the level of expression of these cytoskeletal proteins. We conclude that ROS produced by a NOX is required for cell death in astrocytes, but not for the morphological alterations induced by St. PMID:25215174

  18. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  19. Equating of Augmented Subscores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing level of interest in subscores for their potential diagnostic value. Haberman (2008b) suggested reporting an augmented subscore that is a linear combination of a subscore and the total score. Sinharay and Haberman (2008) and Sinharay (2010) showed that augmented subscores often lead to more accurate…

  20. Subfascial gluteal augmentation.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, J Abel; Rubio, Omar V; Cano, Jacobo P; Cedillo, Mariana C; Garcés, Miriam T

    2006-07-01

    Developing the concept of gluteal augmentation through the past 17 years has been an academic adventure. During these years my coworkers and I have progressively improved surgical technique and devised an anatomical system for gluteal augmentation that includes an ideal implant design and templates to assist in evaluating patients in the preoperative period and to identify the most appropriate implant size. PMID:16818097

  1. Peroxynitrite is Involved in the Apoptotic Death of Cultured Cerebellar Granule Neurons Induced by Staurosporine, but not by Potassium Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Olguín-Albuerne, Mauricio; Ramos-Pittol, José Miguel; Coyoy, Angélica; Martínez-Briseño, Carlos Patricio; Domínguez, Guadalupe; Morán, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) regulates numerous physiological process and is the main source of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). NO promotes cell survival, but it also induces apoptotic death having been involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. NO and superoxide anion react to form peroxynitrite, which accounts for most of the deleterious effects of NO. The mechanisms by which these molecules regulate the apoptotic process are not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the role of NO and peroxynitrite in the apoptotic death of cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGN), which are known to experience apoptosis by staurosporine (St) or potassium deprivation (K5). We found that CGN treated with the peroxynitrite catalyst, FeTTPs were completely rescued from St-induced death, but not from K5-induced death. On the other hand, the inhibition of the inducible nitric oxide synthase partially protected cell viability in CGN treated with K5, but not with St, while the inhibitor L-NAME further reduced the cell viability in St, but it did not affect K5. Finally, an inhibitor of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) diminished the cell viability in K5, but not in St. Altogether, these results shows that NO promotes cell survival in K5 through sGC-cGMP and promotes cell death by other mechanisms, while in St NO promotes cell survival independently of cGMP and peroxynitrite results critical for St-induced death. Our results suggest that RNS are differentially handled by CGN during cell death depending on the death-inducing conditions. PMID:26700430

  2. Augmented reality: a review.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries. PMID:22559183

  3. Breast augmentation surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... the shape of your breasts. Talk with a plastic surgeon if you are considering breast augmentation. Discuss ... mammograms or breast x-rays before surgery. The plastic surgeon will do a routine breast exam. Several ...

  4. RMS active damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Scott, Michael A.; Demeo, Martha E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: RMS active damping augmentation; potential space station assembly benefits to CSI; LaRC/JSC bridge program; control law design process; draper RMS simulator; MIMO acceleration control laws improve damping; potential load reduction benefit; DRS modified to model distributed accelerations; accelerometer location; Space Shuttle aft cockpit simulator; simulated shuttle video displays; SES test goals and objectives; and SES modifications to support RMS active damping augmentation.

  5. Allosteric interactions of staurosporine and other indolocarbazoles with N-[methyl-(3)H]scopolamine and acetylcholine at muscarinic receptor subtypes: identification of a second allosteric site.

    PubMed

    Lazareno, S; Popham, A; Birdsall, N J

    2000-07-01

    We have studied the interactions of five indolocarbazoles with N-[methyl-(3)H]scopolamine (NMS) and unlabeled acetylcholine at M(1)-M(4) muscarinic receptors, using equilibrium and nonequilibrium radioligand binding studies. The results are consistent with an allosteric model in which the primary and allosteric ligands bind simultaneously to the receptor and modify each other's affinities. The compounds were generally most active at M(1) receptors. [(3)H]NMS binding was enhanced by staurosporine, KT5720, and KT5823 at M(1) and M(2) receptors, and by K-252a at M(1) receptors. Gö 7874 reduced [(3)H]NMS affinity by up to threefold for all subtypes. A range of cooperative effects with acetylcholine was seen, and, at the M(1) receptor, KT5720 had a log affinity of 6.4 and enhanced acetylcholine affinity by 40%. The compounds inhibited the dissociation of [(3)H]NMS to different extents across the receptor subtypes, with the largest effects at M(1) receptors. In equilibrium binding studies the inhibitory potency of gallamine at M(1) receptors was not affected by KT5720, indicating that these agents bind to two distinct allosteric sites and have neutral cooperativity with each other. In contrast, gallamine and staurosporine had a negatively cooperative or competitive interaction at M(1) receptors. Similarly, the potency and relative effectiveness of KT5720 for inhibiting [(3)H]NMS dissociation from M(1) receptors were not affected by gallamine or brucine, but were affected in a complex manner by staurosporine. These results demonstrate that there are at least two distinct allosteric sites on the M(1) receptor, both of which can support positive cooperativity with acetylcholine. PMID:10860942

  6. Augmenting computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three methods of augmenting computer networks by adding at most one link per processor are discussed: (1) A tree of N nodes may be augmented such that the resulting graph has diameter no greater than 4log sub 2((N+2)/3)-2. Thi O(N(3)) algorithm can be applied to any spanning tree of a connected graph to reduce the diameter of that graph to O(log N); (2) Given a binary tree T and a chain C of N nodes each, C may be augmented to produce C so that T is a subgraph of C. This algorithm is O(N) and may be used to produce augmented chains or rings that have diameter no greater than 2log sub 2((N+2)/3) and are planar; (3) Any rectangular two-dimensional 4 (8) nearest neighbor array of size N = 2(k) may be augmented so that it can emulate a single step shuffle-exchange network of size N/2 in 3(t) time steps.

  7. Ureteral bladder augmentation.

    PubMed

    Churchill, B M; Aliabadi, H; Landau, E H; McLorie, G A; Steckler, R E; McKenna, P H; Khoury, A E

    1993-08-01

    Virtually all segments of the gastrointestinal tract have been used successfully in augmentation cystoplasty. The complications inherent in enterocystoplasty are well described. Megaureters subtending effete kidneys (poorly or nonfunctioning) provide a novel and excellent source of augmentation material with urothelium and muscular backing, free of the electrolyte and acid base disturbances, and mucus production that plague enterocystoplasty. Augmentation cystoplasty using detubularized, reconfigured, otherwise disposable megaureter, with or without ipsilateral total or partial nephrectomy, was performed in 16 patients (mean age 8.8 years, range 1 to 25) with inadequate and dysfunctional bladders. Postoperative followup varied between 8 and 38 months (mean 22). The overall renal function and radiographic appearance of the remaining upper tracts have remained stable or improved in all patients. Of the 16 patients 15 require intermittent catheterization and 1 voids spontaneously. Ten patients are continent day and night, 5 have improved continence (4 damp at night and 1 stress incontinence) and 1 has failed to gain continence despite good capacity and compliance. Complete postoperative urodynamic evaluations in 12 of 13 patients show good capacity, low pressure bladders with no instability. Complications occurred in 5 patients, including transient urine extravasation in 2, contralateral ureterovesical obstruction in 2 and Mitrofanoff stomal stenosis in 1. Augmentation ureterocystoplasty combines the benefits common to all enterocystoplasties without adding any of the untoward complications or risks associated with nonurothelial augmentations. PMID:8326632

  8. Augmented Thermal Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  9. Augmented thermal bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurity of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pump to maintain isothermality in the source.

  10. Computer Augmented Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitz, W. A.; Matsen, F. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the use of a central computer linked to a CRT console, with display projected onto a large screen, to operate computer augmentation of lectures in large group instruction. Indicates that both introductory tutorial and computer modes are feasible in subject matter presentation. (CC)

  11. Augmentative & Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2007-01-01

    There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

  12. Augmented Reality Binoculars.

    PubMed

    Oskiper, Taragay; Sizintsev, Mikhail; Branzoi, Vlad; Samarasekera, Supun; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present an augmented reality binocular system to allow long range high precision augmentation of live telescopic imagery with aerial and terrain based synthetic objects, vehicles, people and effects. The inserted objects must appear stable in the display and must not jitter and drift as the user pans around and examines the scene with the binoculars. The design of the system is based on using two different cameras with wide field of view and narrow field of view lenses enclosed in a binocular shaped shell. Using the wide field of view gives us context and enables us to recover the 3D location and orientation of the binoculars much more robustly, whereas the narrow field of view is used for the actual augmentation as well as to increase precision in tracking. We present our navigation algorithm that uses the two cameras in combination with an inertial measurement unit and global positioning system in an extended Kalman filter and provides jitter free, robust and real-time pose estimation for precise augmentation. We have demonstrated successful use of our system as part of information sharing example as well as a live simulated training system for observer training, in which fixed and rotary wing aircrafts, ground vehicles, and weapon effects are combined with real world scenes. PMID:26357208

  13. Batten augmented triangular beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Louis R.; Hedgepeth, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The BAT (Batten-Augmented Triangular) BEAM is characterized by battens which are buckled in the deployed state, thus preloading the truss. The preload distribution is determined, and the effects of various external loading conditions are investigated. The conceptual design of a deployer is described and loads are predicted. The influence of joint imperfections on effective member stiffness is investigated. The beam is assessed structurally.

  14. Postreduction Breast Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Doft, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most breast reduction patients are highly satisfied after surgery. However, there is a subset of women who seek breast augmentation years later to restore lost volume chiefly associated with weight loss and postpartum changes. Breast shape and overall aesthetics are often revised at the same time. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 2 surgeons’ experiences with post-reduction breast augmentation. Twenty patients were identified between 2002 and 2014. An in-depth chart review was conducted to determine patient motivation and to examine the operative techniques employed. Implant variables, a reduction specimen weight to implant volume comparison (where available), and complications are reported. Results: The average age was 37.1 years and average body mass index was 21.8 kg/m2. Most patients waited over a decade to have their breasts revised. Weight loss was the motivating factor in 8 patients and pregnancy changes in 11. Nineteen patients wished to stay with the same bra size or 1 cup size larger. Although all patients elected to have an implant placed, 19 patients wished to have an improved breast shape, not specifically a larger volume. The average breast implant was 203.5 cm3 (range, 120–340 cm3). Complications from implant placement included a seroma treated by aspiration and a Baker class III capsular contracture that required surgical correction. Conclusions: A small subset of reduction mammaplasty patients seek breast augmentation many years later primarily to improve breast contour, not to restore their prereduction breast volumes. Conservative augmentation combined with revision of breast shape and areolar aesthetics yields good results with minimal complications. PMID:26579333

  15. Neurally augmented sexual function.

    PubMed

    Meloy, S

    2007-01-01

    Neurally Augmented Sexual Function (NASF) is a technique utilizing epidural electrodes to restore and improve sexual function. Orgasmic dysfunction is common in adult women, affecting roughly one quarter of populations studied. Many male patients suffering from erectile dysfunction are not candidates for phosphdiesterase therapy due to concomitant nitrate therapy. Positioning the electrodes at roughly the level of the cauda equina allows for stimulation of somatic efferents and afferents as well as modifying sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. Our series of women treated by NASF is described. Our experience shows that the evaluation of potential candidates for both correctable causes and psychological screening are important considerations. PMID:17691397

  16. History of gluteal augmentation.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, J Abel; Rubio, Omar V; Cano, Jacobo P; Cedillo, Mariana C; Garcés, Miriam T

    2006-07-01

    The concept of female beauty has changed throughout time, but the form and size of the breasts and gluteal region have remained constant as symbols of maximum femininity. Sculptures and prints show us feminine figures that are voluminous and reflect human history's interest in fertility. The early years of gluteal augmentation saw few published reports that described the procedure technique, follow-up, or possible complications. But developments continued as surgeons began experimenting with different anatomical planes for implant placement. The most important goal in plastic surgery is meeting a patient's expectations. It is important for the surgeon to thoroughly explain to patients what can realistically be achieved with a procedure. PMID:16818090

  17. Mutually Augmented Cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesdorf, Florian; Pangercic, Dejan; Bubb, Heiner; Beetz, Michael

    In mac, an ergonomic dialog-system and algorithms will be developed that enable human experts and companions to be integrated into knowledge gathering and decision making processes of highly complex cognitive systems (e.g. Assistive Household as manifested further in the paper). In this event we propose to join algorithms and methodologies coming from Ergonomics and Artificial Intelligence that: a) make cognitive systems more congenial for non-expert humans, b) facilitate their comprehension by utilizing a high-level expandable control code for human experts and c) augment representation of such cognitive system into “deep representation” obtained through an interaction with human companions.

  18. Protein kinase C activity is not involved in N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced phospholipase D activation in human neutrophils, but is essential for concomitant NADPH oxidase activation: studies with a staurosporine analogue with improved selectivity for protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Kessels, G C; Krause, K H; Verhoeven, A J

    1993-06-15

    Stimulation of human neutrophils by the receptor agonist N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) results in a respiratory burst, catalysed by an NADPH oxidase. Concomitantly, phospholipase D (PLD) is activated. To investigate the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in these neutrophil responses, we have compared the effects of staurosporine and a structural analogue of staurosporine (cgp41251), that reflects a higher selectivity towards PKC [Meyer, Regenass, Fabbro, Alteri, Rösel, Müller, Caravatti and Matter (1989) Int. J. Cancer 43, 851-856]. Both staurosporine and cgp41251 dose-dependently inhibited the production of superoxide induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Both compounds also caused inhibition of the fMLP-induced respiratory burst, but with a lower efficacy during the initiation phase of this response. This latter observation cannot be taken as evidence against PKC involvement in the activation of the respiratory burst, because pretreatment of neutrophils with ionomycin before PMA stimulation also results in a lower efficacy of inhibition. Activation of PLD by fMLP was enhanced in the presence of staurosporine, but not in the presence of cgp41251. Enhancement of PLD activation was also observed in the presence of H-89, an inhibitor of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Both staurosporine and H-89 reversed the dibutyryl-cyclic-AMP-induced inhibition of PLD activation, whereas cgp41251 was without effect. These results indicate that the potentiating effect of staurosporine on PLD activation induced by fMLP does not reflect a feedback inhibition by PKC activation, but instead a feedback inhibition by PKC activation. Taken together, our results indicate that in human neutrophils: (i) PKC activity is not essential for fMLP-induced activation of PLD; (ii) PKC activity does play an essential role in the activation of the respiratory burst by fMLP, other than mediating or modulating PLD activation; (iii) there exists a negative

  19. Pilot-optimal augmentation synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    An augmentation synthesis method usable in the absence of quantitative handling qualities specifications, and yet explicitly including design objectives based on pilot-rating concepts, is presented. The algorithm involves the unique approach of simultaneously solving for the stability augmentation system (SAS) gains, pilot equalization and pilot rating prediction via optimal control techniques. Simultaneous solution is required in this case since the pilot model (gains, etc.) depends upon the augmented plant dynamics, and the augmentation is obviously not a priori known. Another special feature is the use of the pilot's objective function (from which the pilot model evolves) to design the SAS.

  20. Augmented Virtual Reality Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tully-Hanson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.

  1. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  2. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-09-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1.5-MWe multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MWe MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable heat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  4. Augmented reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Su, Yu-Zheng; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR)[1][2][3] is very popular in universities and research organizations. The AR technology has been widely used in Virtual Reality (VR) fields, such as sophisticated weapons, flight vehicle development, data model visualization, virtual training, entertainment and arts. AR has characteristics to enhance the display output as a real environment with specific user interactive functions or specific object recognitions. It can be use in medical treatment, anatomy training, precision instrument casting, warplane guidance, engineering and distance robot control. AR has a lot of vantages than VR. This system developed combines sensors, software and imaging algorithms to make users feel real, actual and existing. Imaging algorithms include gray level method, image binarization method, and white balance method in order to make accurate image recognition and overcome the effects of light.

  5. NAESA Augmentation Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, John J.

    1998-01-01

    This project was one project within the Native American Earth and Space Academy (NAESA). NAESA is a national initiative comprised of several organizations that support programs which focus on 1) enhancing the technological, scientific and pedagogical skills of K-14 teachers who instruct Native Americans, 2) enhancing the understanding and applications of science, technology, and engineering of college-bound Native Americans and teaching them general college "survival skills" (e.g., test taking, time management, study habits), 3) enhancing the scientific and pedagogical skills of the faculty of tribally-controllcd colleges and community colleges with large Native American enrollments, and 4) strengthening the critical relationships between students, their parents, tribal elders, and their communities. This Augmentation Pilot Project focused on the areas of community-school alliances and intemet technology use in teaching and learning and daily living addressing five major objectives.

  6. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…

  7. Increased expression of cyclin B1 mRNA coincides with diminished G{sub 2}-phase arrest in irradiated HeLa cells treated with staurosporine or caffeine

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard, E.J.; Maity, A.; McKenna, W.G.; Muschel, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    The irradiation of cells results in delayed progression through the G{sub 2} phase of the cell cycle. Treatment of irradiated HeLa cells with caffeine greatly reduces the G{sub 2}-phase delay, while caffeine does not alter progression of cells through the cell cycle in unirradiated cells. In this report we demonstrate that treatment of HeLa cells with the kinase inhibitor staurosporine, but not with the inhibitor H7, also results in a reduction of the G{sub 2}-phase arrest after irradiation. Cell cycle progression in unirradiated cells is unaffected by 4.4 nM (2ng/ml) staurosporine, which releases the radiation-induced G{sub 2}-phase arrest. In HeLa cells, the G{sub 2}-phase delay after irradiation in S phase is accompanied by decreased expression of cyclin B1 mRNA. Coincident with the reduction in G{sub 2}-phase delay, we observed an increase in cyclin B1 mRNA accumulation in irradiated, staurosporine-treated cells compared to cells treated with irradiation alone. Caffeine treatment of irradiated HeLa cells also resulted in an elevation in the levels of cyclin B1 message. These results support the hypothesis that diminished cyclin B1 mRNA levels influence G{sub 2}-phase arrest to some degree. The findings that both staurosporine and caffeine treatments reverse the depression in cyclin B1 expression suggest that these two compounds may act on a common pathway of cell cycle control in response to radiation injury. 33 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  9. Infection of human urethral epithelium with Neisseria gonorrhoeae elicits an upregulation of host anti-apoptotic factors and protects cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Binnicker, Matthew J; Williams, Richard D; Apicella, Michael A

    2003-08-01

    In order to better understand the host response to an infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, microarray technology was used to analyse the gene expression profile between uninfected and infected human urethral epithelium. The anti-apoptotic genes bfl-1, cox-2 and c-IAP-2 were identified to be upregulated approximately eight-, four- or twofold, respectively, following infection. Subsequent assays including RT-PCR, real time RT-PCR and RNase protection confirmed the increased expression of these apoptotic regulators, and identified that a fourth anti-apoptotic factor, mcl-1, is also upregulated. RT-PCR and RNase protection also showed that key pro-apoptotic factors including bax, bad and bak do not change in expression. Furthermore, our studies demonstrated that infection with the gonococcus partially protects urethral epithelium from apoptosis induced by the protein kinase inhibitor, staurosporine (STS). This work shows that following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, several host anti-apoptotic factors are upregulated. In addition, a gonococcal infection protects host cells from subsequent STS-induced death. The regulation of host cell death by the gonococcus may represent a mechanism employed by this pathogen to survive and proliferate in host epithelium. PMID:12864814

  10. Hsp105 family proteins suppress staurosporine-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the translocation of Bax to mitochondria in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagishi, Nobuyuki; Ishihara, Keiichi; Saito, Youhei; Hatayama, Takumi . E-mail: hatayama@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp

    2006-10-15

    Hsp105 (Hsp105{alpha} and Hsp105{beta}), major heat shock proteins in mammalian cells, belong to a subgroup of the HSP70 family, HSP105/110. Previously, we have shown that Hsp105{alpha} has completely different effects on stress-induced apoptosis depending on cell type. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Hsp105{alpha} regulates stress-induced apoptosis are not fully understood. Here, we established HeLa cells that overexpress either Hsp105{alpha} or Hsp105{beta} by removing doxycycline and examined how Hsp105 modifies staurosporine (STS)-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Apoptotic features such as the externalization of phosphatidylserine on the plasma membrane and nuclear morphological changes were induced by the treatment with STS, and the STS-induced apoptosis was suppressed by overexpression of Hsp105{alpha} or Hsp105{beta}. In addition, we found that overexpression of Hsp105{alpha} or Hsp105{beta} suppressed the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 by preventing the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Furthermore, the translocation of Bax to mitochondria, which results in the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, was also suppressed by the overexpression of Hsp105{alpha} or Hsp105{beta}. Thus, it is suggested that Hsp105 suppresses the stress-induced apoptosis at its initial step, the translocation of Bax to mitochondria in HeLa cells.

  11. Staurosporine Induced Apoptosis May Activate Cancer Stem-Like Cells (CD44+/CD24-) in MCF-7 by Upregulating Mucin1 and EpCAM

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Na; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Yizhuang; Lei, Zhen; Zhang, Xuehui; Hu, Ruobi; Li, Hui; Mao, Yiqing; Wang, Xi; Irwin, David M.; Niu, Gang; Tan, Huanran

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumors recur after chemotherapy. A small population of cancer stem-like cells within tumors is now generally considered the prime source of the recurrence. To better understand how cancer stem-like cells induce relapse after fractionated chemotherapy, we examined changes in the CD44+/CD24- cancer stem-like cells population and behavior using the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Our results show that apart from an increase in the CD44+/CD24- population, proliferation and clone formation, but not migration, were enhanced after recovery from apoptosis induced by two pulses of staurosporine (STS). The distribution of cells in the cell cycle differed between acutely induced apoptosis and fractionated chemotherapy. Sorted CD44+/CD24- stem-like cells from MCF-7 cells recovered from STS treatment possessed greater proliferation abilities. We also observed that mucin1 (MUC1) and Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) were up-regulated in abundance coincidently with proliferation and clone formation enhancement. Our findings suggest that fractionated chemotherapy induced apoptosis could stimulate cancer stem-like cell to behave with a stronger malignant property than cancer cells themselves and MUC1 and EpCAM are important factors involving in this process. By demonstrating changes in cancer stem cell during chemotherapy and identifying the crucial factors, we potentially can target them, to eradicate tumors and overcome cancer relapse. PMID:26366219

  12. Establishment of a tetraploid Meth-A cell line through polyploidization by demecolcine but not by staurosporine, K-252A and paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa-Yamamoto, K; Wang, S; Yamagishi, H; Ohdoi, C; Murano, H; Ikeda, T

    2001-08-01

    Polyploid cells are made by DNA reduplication without cell division, however, it is not easy to establish polyploid mammalian cell lines. It is worth studying the difference in cell character between hyperploid and parent cell lines. Meth-A cells were polyploidized by demecolcine, K-252a, staurosporine and paclitaxel. The cell-cycle responses of highly polyploid Meth-A cells after the removal of the drugs were examined by flow cytometry (FCM). Meth-A cells were highly polyploidized by these drugs. The polyploid Meth-A cells gradually decreased in ploidy after the drug release. A tetraploid Meth-A cell line was established only from the demecolcine-induced polyploid Meth-A cells. The duration of G1, S and G2/M phases of the tetraploid cell line were mostly the same as those of the parent diploid cells, except that the G2/M phase was 1.5 h longer. The chromosome number of tetraploid Meth-A cell line was about twice of the diploidy. A tetraploid Meth-A cell line was established. PMID:11529879

  13. Increase of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence lifetime precedes mitochondrial dysfunction in staurosporine-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia-Sin; Guo, Han-Wen; Wang, Chih-Hao; Wei, Yau-Huei; Wang, Hsing-Wen

    2011-03-01

    In vivo noninvasive detection of apoptosis represents a new tool that may yield a more definite diagnosis, a more accurate prognosis, and help improve therapies for human diseases. The intrinsic fluorescence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) may be a potential optical biomarker for the apoptosis detection because NADH is involved in the respiration for the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) formation and adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, and the depletion of ΔΨ and ATP level is the hallmark of apoptosis. We have previously observed the NADH fluorescence lifetime change is associated with staurosporine (STS)-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. However, its relationship with mitochondrial functions such as ΔΨ, ATP, and oxygen consumption rate is not clear. In this study, we investigated this relationship. Our results indicate that the NADH fluorescence lifetime increased when ΔΨ and ATP levels were equal to or higher than their values of controls and decreased before the depletion of ΔΨ and ATP, and the oxygen consumption rate did not change. These findings suggest that the increased NADH fluorescence lifetime in STS-induced cell death occurred before the depletion of ΔΨ and ATP and activation of caspase 3, and was not simply caused by cellular metabolic change. Furthermore, the NADH fluorescence lifetime change is associated with the pace of apoptosis.

  14. Vitamin D fails to prevent serum starvation- or staurosporine-induced apoptosis in human and rat osteosarcoma-derived cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Witasp, Erika; Gustafsson, Ann-Catrin; Cotgreave, Ian; Lind, Monica . E-mail: monica.lind@imm.ki.se; Fadeel, Bengt . E-mail: bengt.fadeel@imm.ki.se

    2005-05-13

    Previous studies have suggested that 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}, the active form of vitamin D{sub 3}, may increase the survival of bone-forming osteoblasts through an inhibition of apoptosis. On the other hand, vitamin D{sub 3} has also been shown to trigger apoptosis in human cancer cells, including osteosarcoma-derived cell lines. In the present study, we show that 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} induces a time- and dose-dependent loss of cell viability in the rat osteosarcoma cell line, UMR-106, and the human osteosarcoma cell line, TE-85. We were unable, however, to detect nuclear condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, or other typical signs of apoptosis in this model. Moreover, 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} failed to protect against apoptosis induced by serum starvation or incubation with the protein kinase inhibitor, staurosporine. These in vitro findings are thus at variance with several previous reports in the literature and suggest that induction of or protection against apoptosis of bone-derived cells may not be a primary function of vitamin D{sub 3}.

  15. Augmented Likelihood Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Stille, Maik; Kleine, Matthias; Hägele, Julian; Barkhausen, Jörg; Buzug, Thorsten M

    2016-01-01

    The presence of high-density objects remains an open problem in medical CT imaging. Data of projections passing through objects of high density, such as metal implants, are dominated by noise and are highly affected by beam hardening and scatter. Reconstructed images become less diagnostically conclusive because of pronounced artifacts that manifest as dark and bright streaks. A new reconstruction algorithm is proposed with the aim to reduce these artifacts by incorporating information about shape and known attenuation coefficients of a metal implant. Image reconstruction is considered as a variational optimization problem. The afore-mentioned prior knowledge is introduced in terms of equality constraints. An augmented Lagrangian approach is adapted in order to minimize the associated log-likelihood function for transmission CT. During iterations, temporally appearing artifacts are reduced with a bilateral filter and new projection values are calculated, which are used later on for the reconstruction. A detailed evaluation in cooperation with radiologists is performed on software and hardware phantoms, as well as on clinically relevant patient data of subjects with various metal implants. Results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm is able to outperform contemporary metal artifact reduction methods such as normalized metal artifact reduction. PMID:26208310

  16. Control Augmented Structural Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, Robert V.; Schmit, Lucien A.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for control augmented structural synthesis is proposed for a class of structures which can be modeled as an assemblage of frame and/or truss elements. It is assumed that both the plant (structure) and the active control system dynamics can be adequately represented with a linear model. The structural sizing variables, active control system feedback gains and nonstructural lumped masses are treated simultaneously as independent design variables. Design constraints are imposed on static and dynamic displacements, static stresses, actuator forces and natural frequencies to ensure acceptable system behavior. Multiple static and dynamic loading conditions are considered. Side constraints imposed on the design variables protect against the generation of unrealizable designs. While the proposed approach is fundamentally more general, here the methodology is developed and demonstrated for the case where: (1) the dynamic loading is harmonic and thus the steady state response is of primary interest; (2) direct output feedback is used for the control system model; and (3) the actuators and sensors are collocated.

  17. Perceptually Augmented Simulator Design.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, T; Pai, D K

    2012-01-01

    Training simulators have proven their worth in a variety of fields, from piloting to air-traffic control to nuclear power station monitoring. Designing surgical simulators, however, poses the challenge of creating trainers that effectively instill not only high-level understanding of the steps to be taken in a given situation, but also the low-level "muscle-memory" needed to perform delicate surgical procedures. It is often impossible to build an ideal simulator that perfectly mimics the haptic experience of a surgical procedure, but by focussing on the aspects of the experience that are perceptually salient we can build simulators that effectively instill learning. We propose a general method for the design of surgical simulators that augment the perceptually salient aspects of an interaction. Using this method, we can increase skill-transfer rates without requiring expensive improvements in the capability of the rendering hardware or the computational complexity of the simulation. In this paper, we present our decomposition-based method for surgical simulator design, and describe a user-study comparing the training effectiveness of a haptic-search-task simulator designed using our method versus an unaugmented simulator. The results show that perception-based task decomposition can be used to improve the design of surgical simulators that effectively impart skill by targeting perceptually significant aspects of the interaction. PMID:26963831

  18. Structural consequences of railgun augmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, G.W.; Schuler, K.W. . Applied Mechanics Div. III)

    1989-01-01

    An augmented railgun can provide the same driving force on a projectile at a lower plasma arc current and thus less potential erosion and barrel damage as an unaugmented railgun. However, there are structural consequences to railgun augmentation which must be overcome before the advantages of lower plasma arc currents can be realized. To investigate these consequences, a bolted V-block supporting structure is considered with two cores; unaugmented (a single pair of conducting rails), and augmented (conducting rails augmented by a second tandem set of conductors). The mechanical load on the cores consist of the static bolt preload, the plasma pressure behind the projectile, and the magnetic pressure induced by currents flowing in the rails or augmenting conductors. Assuming no current diffusion into the conductors, the magnetic pressure distribution on the conductors is determined by solving the two dimensional magnetostatic field equations using an analogy with heat transfer. These loads are then used in a dynamic finite element structural model. The maximum rail current is found at which the unaugmented railgun can be repetitively fired without detrimental gaps forming at the bore. For the augmented railgun, at the same projectile acceleration, large permanent deformations can occur. Thus successful implementation of rail gun augmentation will require improvement of the supporting structure.

  19. Structural consequences of railgun augmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, G.W.; Schuler, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    An augmented railgun can provide the same driving force on a projectile at a lower plasma arc current and thus less potential erosion and barrel damage as an unaugmented railgun. However, there are structural consequences to railgun augmentation which must be overcome before the advantages of lower plasma arc currents can be realized. To investigate these consequences, a bolted V-block supporting structure is considered with two cores; unaugmented (a single pair of conducting rails), and augmented (conducting rails augmented by a second tandem set of conductors). The mechanical load on the cores consist of the static bolt preload, the plasma pressure behind the projectile, and the magnetic pressure induced by currents flowing in the rails or augmenting conductors. Assuming no current diffusion into the conductors, the magnetic pressure distribution on the conductors is determined by solving the two-dimensional magnetostatic field equations using an analogy with heat transfer. These loads are then used in a dynamic finite element structural model. The maximum rail current is found at which the unaugmented railgun can be repetitively fired without detrimental gaps forming at the bore. For the augmented railgun, at the same projectile acceleration, large permanent deformations can occur. Thus successful implementation of rail gun augmentation will require improvement of the supporting structure.

  20. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as Tagwhat and Star Chart (a must for astronomy class). The yellow line marking first downs in a televised football game2 and the enhanced puck that makes televised hockey easier to follow3 both use augmented reality to do the job.

  1. Mersiline mesh in premaxillary augmentation.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2005-01-01

    Premaxillary retrusion may distort the aesthetic appearance of the columella, lip, and nasal tip. This defect is characteristically seen in, but not limited to, patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. This study investigated 60 patients presenting with premaxillary deficiencies in which Mersiline mesh was used to augment the premaxilla. All the cases had surgery using the external rhinoplasty technique. Two methods of augmentation with Mersiline mesh were used: the Mersiline roll technique, for the cases with central symmetric deficiencies, and the Mersiline packing technique, for the cases with asymmetric deficiencies. Premaxillary augmentation with Mersiline mesh proved to be simple technically, easy to perform, and not associated with any complications. Periodic follow-up evaluation for a mean period of 32 months (range, 12-98 months) showed that an adequate degree of premaxillary augmentation was maintained with no clinically detectable resorption of the mesh implant. PMID:15959688

  2. Effective Augmentation of Complex Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi

    2016-01-01

    Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our "effective augmentation" algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. "Effective augmentation" is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value. PMID:27165120

  3. MAGI2 enhances the sensitivity of BEL-7404 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells to staurosporine-induced apoptosis by increasing PTEN stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Li, Zengxia; Li, Na; Qi, Jingjing; Fan, Kun; Yin, Peng; Zhao, Chao; Liu, Yonglei; Yao, Wantong; Cai, Xiumei; Wang, Liying; Zha, Xiliang

    2013-08-01

    Adaptor proteins are involved in the assembly of various intracellular complexes and the regulation of cellular functions. Membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted 2 (MAGI2), also known as synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM), plays a critical role in signal transduction by assembling and anchoring its ligands. However, the role of MAGI2 in mediating apoptosis remains largely unknown. In the present study, BEL-7404 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were transfected with a plasmid containing myc-MAGI2 or an empty plasmid and cell viability was then determined using the Cell Counting kit-8. Apoptosis was also detected using an Annexin V apoptosis assay. The cells were then treated with various doses of staurosporine (STS) for different periods of time. The overexpression of myc-MAGI2 was found to sensitize the BEL-7404 cells to apoptosis in response to STS in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Our results demonstrated that MAGI2 enhanced STS-induced apoptosis by increasing the protein expression of cytoplasmic phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and decreasing its protein degradation. The apoptotic sensitivity of the cells caused by the overexpression of myc-MAGI2 was reversed by the silencing of PTEN expression by PTEN siRNA, thus revealing a momentous role of PTEN in the enhancement of the sensitivity of cancer cells to STS-induced apoptosis by MAGI2. Finally, we observed that the MAGI-PTEN complex triggered by MAGI2 overexpression reduced the phosphorylation levels of AKT. These results suggest that MAGI2 overexpression enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells harboring ectopic PTEN to STS-induced apoptosis. PMID:23754155

  4. Kinetics, in silico docking, molecular dynamics, and MM-GBSA binding studies on prototype indirubins, KT5720, and staurosporine as phosphorylase kinase ATP-binding site inhibitors: the role of water molecules examined.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Joseph M; Skamnaki, Vicky T; Archontis, Georgios; Lamprakis, Christos; Sarrou, Josephine; Bischler, Nicolas; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Zographos, Spyros E; Oikonomakos, Nikos G

    2011-03-01

    With an aim toward glycogenolysis control in Type 2 diabetes, we have investigated via kinetic experiments and computation the potential of indirubin (IC₅₀ > 50 μM), indirubin-3'-oxime (IC₅₀ = 144 nM), KT5720 (K(i) = 18.4 nM) and staurosporine (K(i) = 0.37 nM) as phosphorylase kinase (PhKγtrnc) ATP-binding site inhibitors, with the latter two revealed as potent inhibitors in the low nM range. Because of lack of structural information, we have exploited information from homologous kinase complexes to direct in silico calculations (docking, molecular dynamics, and MMGBSA) to predict the binding characteristics of the four ligands. All inhibitors are predicted to bind in the same active site area as the ATP adenine ring, with binding dominated by hinge region hydrogen bonds to Asp104:O and Met106:O (all four ligands) and also Met106:NH (for the indirubins). The PhKγtrnc-staurosporine complex has the greatest number of receptor-ligand hydrogen bonds, while for the indirubin-3'-oxime and KT5720 complexes there is an important network of interchanging water molecules bridging inhibitor-enzyme contacts. The MM-GBSA results revealed the source of staurosporine's low nM potency to be favorable electrostatic interactions, while KT5720 has strong van der Waals contributions. KT5720 interacts with the greatest number of protein residues either by direct or 1-water bridged hydrogen bond interactions, and the potential for more selective PhK inhibition based on a KT5720 analogue has been established. Including receptor flexibility in Schrödinger induced-fit docking calculations in most cases correctly predicted the binding modes as compared with the molecular dynamics structures; the algorithm was less effective when there were key structural waters bridging receptor-ligand contacts. PMID:21287607

  5. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  6. Augmentation cystoplasty in neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Çetinel, Bülent; Kocjancic, Ervin; Demirdağ, Çetin

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this review is to update the indications, contraindications, technique, complications, and the tissue engineering approaches of augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in patients with neurogenic bladder. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the keywords "augmentation cystoplasty," "neurogenic bladder," and "bladder augmentation." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. The update review of of the indications, contraindications, technique, outcome, complications, and tissue engineering approaches of AC in patients with neurogenic bladder is presented. Although some important progress has been made in tissue engineering AC, conventional AC still has an important role in the surgical treatment of refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:27617312

  7. Augmentation mentoplasty using Mersilene mesh.

    PubMed

    McCollough, E G; Hom, D B; Weigel, M T; Anderson, J R

    1990-10-01

    Many different materials are available for augmentation mentoplasty. However, the optimal implant material for chin implantation has yet to be found. During the past several years, a number of experienced surgeons have turned to the use of Mersilene mesh. Mersilene mesh is a non-absorbable Dacron polyester fiber that can be conformed easily into layers to achieve tailored dimensions and shape. At the McCollough Plastic Surgery Clinic PA, Birmingham, Ala, 277 patients over a 10-year period underwent chin augmentation with Mersilene mesh implants. The material provides excellent tensile strength, durability, and surgical adaptability. The overall complication rate was 3.2% (nine patients); infection rate, 2.5% (seven patients); and removal secondary to infection, 1.7% (five patients). Based on this 10-year experience, Mersilene mesh remains our material of choice for chin augmentation. PMID:2206500

  8. Augmentation cystoplasty in neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kocjancic, Ervin; Demirdağ, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to update the indications, contraindications, technique, complications, and the tissue engineering approaches of augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in patients with neurogenic bladder. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the keywords "augmentation cystoplasty," "neurogenic bladder," and "bladder augmentation." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. The update review of of the indications, contraindications, technique, outcome, complications, and tissue engineering approaches of AC in patients with neurogenic bladder is presented. Although some important progress has been made in tissue engineering AC, conventional AC still has an important role in the surgical treatment of refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:27617312

  9. Augmentation-related brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self

  10. Augmentation-related brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self

  11. Gluteal augmentation with cryopreserved fat.

    PubMed

    Moscatiello, Fabrizio; Aznar-Benitah, Salvador; Grella, Roberto; Jover, Javier Herrero

    2010-03-01

    Gluteal augmentation with autologous fat is becoming a standard ancillary procedure for sculpting the buttock area. The high rate of resorption due to aggressive harvesting techniques or inadequate injection procedures often leads to repeated treatments. Currently, several techniques for storing fat by controlled freezing and thawing procedures can guarantee a high rate of cell viability, similar to that obtained with fresh tissue. This allows surgeons to compile fat tissue available for future repeat injections, decreasing additional costs and morbidity for patients. The authors describe a case of gluteal augmentation with cryopreserved fat in a 42-year-old man. PMID:20442098

  12. EGF-mediated regulation of IGFBP-3 determines esophageal epithelial cellular response to IGF-I

    PubMed Central

    Takaoka, Munenori; Smith, Caitlin E.; Mashiba, Michael K.; Okawa, Takaomi; Andl, Claudia D.; El-Deiry, Wafik S.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    IGF and EGF regulate various physiological and pathological processes. IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 regulates cell proliferation in IGF-dependent and -independent fashions. Recently, we identified IGFBP-3 as a novel EGF receptor (EGFR) downstream target molecule in primary and immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells, suggesting an interplay between the EGF and IGF signaling pathways. However, the regulatory mechanisms for IGFBP-3 expression and its functional role in esophageal cell proliferation remain to be elucidated. Herein, we report that IGFBP-3 mRNA and protein were induced upon growth factor deprivation in primary and immortalized human esophageal cells through mechanisms requiring p53-independent de novo mRNA transcription and protein synthesis. This occurred in the face of the activated phosphatidylinositol 3-OH-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Secreted IGFBP-3 neutralized IGFs and prevented IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) activation. In contrast, EGF suppressed IGFBP-3 mRNA and protein expression through activation of MAPK in an EGFR-tyrosine kinase-dependent manner to restore the cellular response to IGF-I. When stably overexpressed, wild-type IGFBP-3 but not I56G/L80G/L81G (GGG) mutant IGFBP-3, which has a reduced affinity to IGFs, prevented IGF-I from activating IGF-IR and Akt as well as stimulating cell proliferation. However, unlike other cell types where IGFBP-3 exerts antiproliferative effects, neither wild-type nor GGG mutant IGFBP-3 alone affected cell proliferation or EGFR activity. These results indicate that IGF signaling is subject to negative regulation through IGFBP-3 and positive regulation by EGF, the latter of which suppresses IGFBP-3. This provides a platform for understanding the novel cross talk between EGF- and IGF-mediated pathways. PMID:16210470

  13. Computer Augmented Learning; A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindred, J.

    The report contains a description and summary of computer augmented learning devices and systems. The devices are of two general types programed instruction systems based on the teaching machines pioneered by Pressey and developed by Skinner, and the so-called "docile" systems that permit greater user-direction with the computer under student…

  14. Augmenting a Classical Electrochemical Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yochum, Susan M.; Luoma, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an augmentation of a classical electrochemical demonstration that addresses the learning styles of the students and teaches electrochemistry in a concrete manner. Enables each student to see each event clearly, repeatedly, or in stop-action mode and enables students to improve their own mental models by providing them with a visually…

  15. Gluteus augmentation with fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Perén, P A; Gómez, J B; Guerrerosantos, J; Salazar, C A

    2000-01-01

    This study presents the authors' experience with gluteus augmentation with autologus fat grafts and liposuction methods, having recorded the evolution of gluteus reshaping with autologus intramuscular fat graft injections for the past 5 years. Preoperative shape is discussed and patient evaluations, operative techniques, postoperative management, and longterm results are emphasized. PMID:11246428

  16. Augmented reality building operations tool

    DOEpatents

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2014-09-09

    A method (700) for providing an augmented reality operations tool to a mobile client (642) positioned in a building (604). The method (700) includes, with a server (660), receiving (720) from the client (642) an augmented reality request for building system equipment (612) managed by an energy management system (EMS) (620). The method (700) includes transmitting (740) a data request for the equipment (612) to the EMS (620) and receiving (750) building management data (634) for the equipment (612). The method (700) includes generating (760) an overlay (656) with an object created based on the building management data (634), which may be sensor data, diagnostic procedures, or the like. The overlay (656) is configured for concurrent display on a display screen (652) of the client (642) with a real-time image of the building equipment (612). The method (700) includes transmitting (770) the overlay (656) to the client (642).

  17. Effective Augmentation of Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi

    2016-05-01

    Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our “effective augmentation” algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. “Effective augmentation” is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value.

  18. Effective Augmentation of Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi

    2016-01-01

    Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our “effective augmentation” algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. “Effective augmentation” is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value. PMID:27165120

  19. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  20. TDRSS Augmentation System for Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Gregory W.; Gramling, Cheryl; Valdez, Jennifer; Baldwin, Philip

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) reinvigorated the development of the TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS). TASS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems(GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). TASS leverages the existing TDRSS to provide an S-band beacon radio navigation and messaging source to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below.

  1. Aesthetic occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong Tai

    2015-01-01

    Cranioplasty for only aesthetic reasons has not been commonly performed to date. However, recently there has been a new focus by the public on a more aesthetically pleasing head shape with frequent patient requests for purely aesthetic contouring of the occiput, an important definer of cosmetic head shape. For example, in Asia, where the normal cranial shape is mesocephalic or brachycephalic and often with a planar occiput, requests for its aesthetic correction are increasingly common. Accordingly, the author developed a minimally invasive occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate. In this study, the indications for aesthetic occiput contouring were planar occiput, left-right asymmetric occiput, and grooved occiput. Under local anesthesia, soft methylmethacrylate is subperiosteally inserted through a small incision (about 5-cm length), manually and precisely contoured in situ through the scalp to the desired occipital shape. All is performed as an outpatient procedure, and a quick recovery is the case. Between March 2007 and October 2013, 959 patients received such aesthetic occiput augmentation. The mean follow-up period was 49 months (range, 3-84 months). Nearly all patients were satisfied with the outcome, and complications were very rare. Only 5 patients (0.5%) needed additional corrective procedures. The author has concluded that aesthetic occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate yields consistent, predictable, and satisfactory results. Additional long-term follow-up is required for a final conclusion, however. PMID:25569386

  2. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  3. A Novel Regulatory Locus of Phosphorylation in the C Terminus of the Potassium Chloride Cotransporter KCC2 That Interferes with N-Ethylmaleimide or Staurosporine-mediated Activation*♦

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Maren; Hartmann, Anna-Maria; Beyer, Timo; Ripperger, Anne; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The neuron-specific cation chloride cotransporter KCC2 plays a crucial role in hyperpolarizing synaptic inhibition. Transporter dysfunction is associated with various neurological disorders, raising interest in regulatory mechanisms. Phosphorylation has been identified as a key regulatory process. Here, we retrieved experimentally observed phosphorylation sites of KCC2 from public databases and report on the systematic analysis of six phosphorylated serines, Ser25, Ser26, Ser937, Ser1022, Ser1025, and Ser1026. Alanine or aspartate substitutions of these residues were analyzed in HEK-293 cells. All mutants were expressed in a pattern similar to wild-type KCC2 (KCC2WT). Tl+ flux measurements demonstrated unchanged transport activity for Ser25, Ser26, Ser1022, Ser1025, and Ser1026 mutants. In contrast, KCC2S937D, mimicking phosphorylation, resulted in a significant up-regulation of transport activity. Aspartate substitution of Thr934, a neighboring putative phosphorylation site, resulted in a comparable increase in KCC2 transport activity. Both KCC2T934D and KCC2S937D mutants were inhibited by the kinase inhibitor staurosporine and by N-ethylmaleimide, whereas KCC2WT, KCC2T934A, and KCC2S937A were activated. The inverse staurosporine effect on aspartate versus alanine substitutions reveals a cross-talk between different phosphorylation sites of KCC2. Immunoblot and cell surface labeling experiments detected no alterations in total abundance or surface expression of KCC2T934D and KCC2S937D compared with KCC2WT. These data reveal kinetic regulation of transport activity by these residues. In summary, our data identify a novel key regulatory phosphorylation site of KCC2 and a functional interaction between different conformation-changing post-translational modifications. The action of pharmacological agents aimed to modulate KCC2 activity for therapeutic benefit might therefore be highly context-specific. PMID:24849604

  4. Augmented reality in medical education?

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality. PMID:24464832

  5. PRP Augmentation for ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Andriolo, Luca; Di Matteo, Berardo; Kon, Elizaveta; Filardo, Giuseppe; Venieri, Giulia; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Current research is investigating new methods to enhance tissue healing to speed up recovery time and decrease the risk of failure in Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Biological augmentation is one of the most exploited strategies, in particular the application of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP). Aim of the present paper is to systematically review all the preclinical and clinical papers dealing with the application of PRP as a biological enhancer during ACL reconstructive surgery. Thirty-two studies were included in the present review. The analysis of the preclinical evidence revealed that PRP was able to improve the healing potential of the tendinous graft both in terms of histological and biomechanical performance. Looking at the available clinical evidence, results were not univocal. PRP administration proved to be a safe procedure and there were some evidences that it could favor the donor site healing in case of ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon graft and positively contribute to graft maturation over time, whereas the majority of the papers did not show beneficial effects in terms of bony tunnels/graft area integration. Furthermore, PRP augmentation did not provide superior functional results at short term evaluation. PMID:26064903

  6. PRP Augmentation for ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Kon, Elizaveta; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Current research is investigating new methods to enhance tissue healing to speed up recovery time and decrease the risk of failure in Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Biological augmentation is one of the most exploited strategies, in particular the application of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP). Aim of the present paper is to systematically review all the preclinical and clinical papers dealing with the application of PRP as a biological enhancer during ACL reconstructive surgery. Thirty-two studies were included in the present review. The analysis of the preclinical evidence revealed that PRP was able to improve the healing potential of the tendinous graft both in terms of histological and biomechanical performance. Looking at the available clinical evidence, results were not univocal. PRP administration proved to be a safe procedure and there were some evidences that it could favor the donor site healing in case of ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon graft and positively contribute to graft maturation over time, whereas the majority of the papers did not show beneficial effects in terms of bony tunnels/graft area integration. Furthermore, PRP augmentation did not provide superior functional results at short term evaluation. PMID:26064903

  7. Striae distensae after subfascial breast augmentation.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Evangelos; Rodopoulou, Stavroula

    2008-03-01

    Striae distensae or stretch marks after breast augmentation are a rare complication. To date, 10 cases have been published. In seven of these cases, the implant was placed in a subglandular position and in the other three cases, placement was submuscular. Two cases of stretch marks in two young nulliparous women who underwent subfacial breast augmentation are presented. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of striae distensae after subfascial breast augmentation. PMID:18043962

  8. LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbeck, D.A.; Krantz, E.A.; Hunt, G.L.; Meyer, O.R.

    1980-01-01

    The outline of the LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program is presented. This program utilizes the LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) reactor facility which is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the LOFT operational transient experiment series as a test bed for methods of enhancing the reactor operator's capability for safer operation. The design of an Operational Diagnotics and Display System is presented which was backfit to the existing data acquisition computers. Basic color-graphic displays of the process schematic and trend type are presented. In addition, displays were developed and are presented which represent safety state vector information. A task analysis method was applied to LOFT reactor operating procedures to test its usefulness in defining the operator's information needs and workload.

  9. Folate augmentation of antidepressant response.

    PubMed

    Owen, R T

    2013-12-01

    The use of two antidepressants from the initiation of treatment in major depressive disorder has been investigated in several recent studies and forms a paradigm shift in the pharmacotherapy of the condition. Several, but not all, trials have claimed improved response and remission rates with the combinations as opposed to monotherapy. The use of folate preparations (folic and folinic acid and l-meth-ylfolate) have shown effective augmentation of antidepressant response in a variety of controlled and open-label settings in patients with normo- and hypofolatemic status. Several recent trials using L-methylfolate, the active and more bioavailable form of folic acid, have shown promising adjunctive use with a well-tolerated adverse event profile. PMID:24524097

  10. Augmented Reality and Mobile Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwilt, Ian

    The combined notions of augmented-reality (AR) and mobile art are based on the amalgamation of a number of enabling technologies including computer imaging, emergent display and tracking systems and the increased computing-power in hand-held devices such as Tablet PCs, smart phones, or personal digital assistants (PDAs) which have been utilized in the making of works of art. There is much published research on the technical aspects of AR and the ongoing work being undertaken in the development of faster more efficient AR systems [1] [2]. In this text I intend to concentrate on how AR and its associated typologies can be applied in the context of new media art practices, with particular reference to its application on hand-held or mobile devices.

  11. Sensory Augmentation for the Blind

    PubMed Central

    Kärcher, Silke M.; Fenzlaff, Sandra; Hartmann, Daniela; Nagel, Saskia K.; König, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Common navigational aids used by blind travelers during large-scale navigation divert attention away from important cues of the immediate environment (i.e., approaching vehicles). Sensory augmentation devices, relying on principles similar to those at work in sensory substitution, can potentially bypass the bottleneck of attention through sub-cognitive implementation of a set of rules coupling motor actions with sensory stimulation. We provide a late blind subject with a vibrotactile belt that continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. The present experimental approach demonstrates the positive potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of handicapped people. PMID:22403535

  12. Status report of RMS active damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Mike; Demeo, Martha E.

    1993-01-01

    A status report of Remote Manipulator System (RMS) active damping augmentation is presented. Topics covered include: active damping augmentation; benefits of RMS ADA; simulated payload definition; sensor and actuator definition; ADA control law design; Shuttle Engineering Simulator (SES) real-time simulation; and astronaut evaluation.

  13. Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Compression Fractures.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Bradford J

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures such as vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty were developed to reduce pain and improve quality of life for patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. However, the use of vertebral augmentation has been debated and questioned since its inception. This article addresses some of these issues. PMID:26490134

  14. Enhancing Education through Mobile Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joan, D. R. Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author has discussed about the Mobile Augmented Reality and enhancing education through it. The aim of the present study was to give some general information about mobile augmented reality which helps to boost education. Purpose of the current study reveals the mobile networks which are used in the institution campus as well…

  15. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-23

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  16. From Augmentation Media to Meme Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Yuzuru

    Computers as meta media are now evolving from augmentation media vehicles to meme media vehicles. While an augmentation media system provides a seamlessly integrated environment of various tools and documents, meme media system provides further functions to edit and distribute tools and documents. Documents and tools on meme media can easily…

  17. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-20

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  18. Performance of a self-augmented railgun

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, R.L.; Witherspoon, F.D.; Goldstein, S.A. )

    1991-10-01

    The accelerating force of a railgun 1/2{ital L}{prime}{ital I}{sup 2}{sub {ital a}} can be increased by augmenting the self-induced magnetic field created by the armature current. Augmentation fields can be produced by external current coils or, as is done here, by shorting the railgun muzzle, and using the gun rails as the augmentation coil. Experimental results are presented for a 3.6-m railgun operated in this self-augmented mode, and effective inductance gradients are achieved which are as much as 9.3 times that of the unaugmented gun. A circuit model is presented which explains features of the measured shunt current and voltage. It is concluded that self-augmentation is an effective way to reduce ohmic heating in the armature of a railgun.

  19. Irradiated homologous costal cartilage for augmentation rhinoplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Lefkovits, G. )

    1990-10-01

    Although the ideal reconstructive material for augmentation rhinoplasty continues to challenge plastic surgeons, there exists no report in the literature that confines the use of irradiated homologous costal cartilage, first reported by Dingman and Grabb in 1961, to dorsal nasal augmentation. The purpose of this paper is to present a retrospective analysis of the author's experience using irradiated homologous costal cartilage in augmentation rhinoplasty. Twenty-seven dorsal nasal augmentations were performed in 24 patients between 16 and 49 years of age with a follow-up ranging from 1 to 27 months. Good-to-excellent results were achieved in 83.3% (20 of 24). Poor results requiring revision were found in 16.7% (4 of 24). Complication rates included 7.4% infection (2 of 27) and 14.8% warping (4 of 27). The resorption rate was zero. These results compare favorably with other forms of nasal augmentation. Advantages and disadvantages of irradiated homologous costal cartilage are discussed.

  20. Augmented reality: past, present, future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inzerillo, Laura

    2013-03-01

    A great opportunity has permitted to carry out a cultural, historical, architectural and social research with great impact factor on the international cultural interest. We are talking about the realization of a museum whose the main theme is the visit and the discovery of a monument of great prestige: the monumental building the "Steri" in Palermo. The museum is divided into sub themes including the one above all, that has aroused the international interest so much that it has been presented the instance to include the museum in the cultural heritage of UNESCO. It is the realization of a museum path that regards the cells of the Inquisition, which are located just inside of some buildings of the monumental building. The project, as a whole, is faced, in a total view, between the various competences implicated: historic, chemic, architectonic, topographic, drawing, representation, virtual communication, informatics. The birth of the museum will be a sum of the results of all these disciplines involved. Methodology, implementation, fruition, virtual museum, goals, 2D graphic restitution, effects on the cultural heritage and landscape environmental, augmented reality, Surveying 2D and 3D, hi-touch screen, Photogrammetric survey, Photographic survey, representation, drawing 3D and more than this has been dealt with this research.

  1. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  2. Augmented reality in surgical procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samset, E.; Schmalstieg, D.; Vander Sloten, J.; Freudenthal, A.; Declerck, J.; Casciaro, S.; Rideng, Ø.; Gersak, B.

    2008-02-01

    Minimally invasive therapy (MIT) is one of the most important trends in modern medicine. It includes a wide range of therapies in videoscopic surgery and interventional radiology and is performed through small incisions. It reduces hospital stay-time by allowing faster recovery and offers substantially improved cost-effectiveness for the hospital and the society. However, the introduction of MIT has also led to new problems. The manipulation of structures within the body through small incisions reduces dexterity and tactile feedback. It requires a different approach than conventional surgical procedures, since eye-hand co-ordination is not based on direct vision, but more predominantly on image guidance via endoscopes or radiological imaging modalities. ARIS*ER is a multidisciplinary consortium developing a new generation of decision support tools for MIT by augmenting visual and sensorial feedback. We will present tools based on novel concepts in visualization, robotics and haptics providing tailored solutions for a range of clinical applications. Examples from radio-frequency ablation of liver-tumors, laparoscopic liver surgery and minimally invasive cardiac surgery will be presented. Demonstrators were developed with the aim to provide a seamless workflow for the clinical user conducting image-guided therapy.

  3. Postauricular fascia in augmentation rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Aldo Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Ten rhinoplasty operations performed using postauricular fascia for the purpose of augmenting the radix and dorsum of the nose were analyzed retrospectively. All the operations were performed over a 1-year period, between 2005 and 2006. The fascia of the postauricular area has been used as a source of pliable soft-tissue grafts in primary and revision rhinoplasty. It may be easily accessed using a single sulcus incision that also enables harvesting of ear cartilage grafts. Deficiency in the radix is an overlooked abnormality seen in many patients undergoing primary as well as revision rhinoplasty after aggressive hump removal. Recent trends in rhinoplasty have been to avoid the overly reduced nasal skeleton and to create a more balanced nasal surgery result. This article presents the use of the postauricular fascia as a radix graft that has been found to be simple to carry out, reliable, and long lasting. In addition, the fascia graft is useful in the camouflage of various nasal deformities in the dorsum and sidewalls. The average patient follow-up for the study was 24 months. PMID:24932819

  4. Augmented reality for wafer prober

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgenkrantz, Pascal

    2011-03-01

    The link between wafer manufacturing and wafer test is often weak: without common information system, Test engineers have to read locations of test structures from reference documents and search them on the wafer prober screen. Mask Data Preparation team is ideally placed to fill this gap, given its relationship with both design and manufacturing sides. With appropriate design extraction scripts and design conventions, mask engineers can provide exact wafer locations of all embedded test structures to avoid a painful camera search. Going a step further, it would be a great help to provide to wafer probers a "map" of what was build on wafers. With this idea in mind, mask design database can simply be provided to Test engineers; but the real added value would come from a true integration of real-wafer camera views and design database used for wafer manufacturing. As proven by several augmented reality applications, like Google Maps' mixed Satellite/Map view, mixing a real-world view with its theoretical model is very useful to understand the reality. The creation of such interface can only be made by a wafer prober manufacturer, given the high integration of these machines with their control panel. But many existing software libraries could be used to plot the design view matching the camera view. Standard formats for mask design are usually GDSII and OASIS (SEMI P39 standard); multiple free software and commercial viewers/editors/libraries for these formats are available.

  5. Augmented railgun using a permanent magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H.; Eguchi, N.; Sueda, T.; Soejima, M.; Maeda, S.; Sato, K.N.

    1995-08-01

    The use of a permanent magnet instead of an electromagnet has been proposed for the augmentation of the magnetic field of a railgun driven by a current of approximately 20 kA. A permanent magnet has the following advantages in comparison with conventional augmentations using additional turns: (1) simple configuration of the system, (2) temporally and spatially constant magnetic fields, and (3) high efficiency. Here, the operation of a conventional railgun and that of an augmented railgun using a permanent magnet are compared experimentally, and the usefulness of the permanent magnet is described. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  6. [Complications of breast augmentation - a case report].

    PubMed

    Zedníková, I; Třešková, I; Schmiedhuber, P; Hes, O

    2012-08-01

    As with any surgery, breast augmentation does have certain risks and complications. The aim of this article is to point out a rare complication of breast augmentation - axillary silicone lymphadenopathy (defined as the presence of silicone in the lymph nodes). The authors present a case report of silicone lymphadenopathy in a young woman after the rupture of a silicone breast implant. As the number of women with breast implants is increasing, it is necessary to bear this rare complication of breast augmentation in mind in differential diagnosis of axillary lymphadenopathy. PMID:23153428

  7. Muzzle shunt augmentation of conventional railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.V. . Physics Div.)

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on augmentation which is a technique for reducing the armature current and hence the armature power dissipation in a plasma armature railgun. In spite of the advantages, no large augmented railguns have been built, primarily due to the mechanical and electrical complexity introduced by the extra conductors required. it is possible to achieve some of the benefits of augmentation in a conventional railgun by diverting a fraction {phi} of the input current through a shunt path at the muzzle of the railgun. In particular, the relation between force and armature current is the same as that obtained in an n-turn, series-connected augmented railgun with n = 1/(1 {minus} {phi}). The price of this simplification is a reduction in electrical efficiency and some additional complexity in the external electrical system.

  8. Augmented Reality Simulations on Handheld Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Kurt; Klopfer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Advancements in handheld computing, particularly its portability, social interactivity, context sensitivity, connectivity, and individuality, open new opportunities for immersive learning environments. This article articulates the pedagogical potential of augmented reality simulations in environmental engineering education by immersing students in…

  9. Improved diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, K.M.; Gilbert, B.L.

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  10. A parametric evaluation of railgun augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotas, J. F.; Guderjahn, C. A.; Littman, F. D.

    1986-11-01

    A general dynamic system model of an augmented electromagnetic launch (EML) system was developed. This model was used to characterize the augmentation effect on EML system performance by a direct comparison to a nonaugmented or simple railgun system. The results of these calculations indicate that increasing rail augmentation increases both Joule heating losses and total EML system inductance. These losses and the larger system inductance were shown to decrease system efficiency despite the lower peak rail current required to induce the same Lorentz force on the projectile in the simple EML system. The Joule heating loss was shown to be reduced by decreasing the initial augmentor rail temperature or by increasing the augmentor rail area. This paper discusses the augmented EML system model and reports the results of the parametric calculations.

  11. The ELF-I augmented electromagnetic launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fikse, D. A.; Wu, J. L.; Thio, Y. C.

    1984-03-01

    Augmenting an electromagnetic launcher barrel with one or more turns can theoretically increase the launcher system performance more than twice that of a simple EML. This is accomplished by increasing the amount of magnetic flux in the bore and thus increasing the electromagnetic accelerating force. The potential for augmented barrels had yet to be evaluated, therefore a one meter long test barrel was designed and constructed. This barrel was tested in the ELF-I electromagnetic test facility and the results compared with the theoretically predicted performance of a simple barrel design. This comparison shows an increase in muzzle velocity of 83 percent for the augmented case over the simple launcher case. It was also found that the augmented barrel could be fabricated in a simple manner within the physical limitations of a conventional barrel size, and that its solid armatures provided an excellent method of achieving longer rail life, averaging 20 shots per rail set.

  12. Diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, Kenneth M.; Gilbert, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  13. Breast augmentation with an unknown substance

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, Lamya; Morrison, David; Kop, Alan; Taylor, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Before the widespread use of silicone implants various foreign substances were injected directly into the breasts. The nature of these materials sometimes remains unknown and can cause various complications requiring surgical intervention. Preoperative diagnostic imaging can help characterise the type and distribution of the injected material, thereby assisting in making decisions regarding treatment. We report a case of breast augmentation with an unknown substance, aiming to highlight some imaging characteristics of different breast augmentation substances. PMID:24957586

  14. Muzzle shunt augmentation of conventional railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    Augmentation is a well-known technique for reducing the armature current and hence the armature power dissipation in a plasma armature railgun. In spite of the advantages, no large augmented railguns have been built, primarily due to the mechanical and electrical complexity introduce by the extra conductors required. It is possible to achieve some of the benefits of augmentation in conventional railgun by diverting a fraction {phi} of the input current through a shunt path at the muzzle of the railgun. In particular, the relation between force and armature current is the same as that obtained in an n-turn, series connected augmented railgun with n = 1/(1-{phi}). The price of this simplification is a reduction in electrical efficiency and some additional complexity in the external electrical system. Additions to the electrical system are required to establish the shunt current and to control its magnitude during projectile acceleration. The relationship between muzzle shunt augmentation and conventional series augmentation is developed and various techniques is developed and various techniques for establishing and controlling the shunt current are illustrated with a practical example. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Crude Saponins of Panax notoginseng Have Neuroprotective Effects To Inhibit Palmitate-Triggered Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Apoptosis and Loss of Postsynaptic Proteins in Staurosporine Differentiated RGC-5 Retinal Ganglion Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-dan; Zhu, Hua-zhang; Li, Shi-wei; Yang, Jia-ming; Xiao, Yang; Kang, Qiang-rong; Li, Chen-yang; Zhao, Yun-shi; Zeng, Yong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Zhen-dan; Ying, Ying

    2016-02-24

    Increased apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) contributes to the gradual loss of retinal neurons at the early phase of diabetic retinopathy (DR). There is an urgent need to search for drugs with neuroprotective effects against apoptosis of RGCs for the early treatment of DR. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of saponins extracted from Panax notoginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine, on apoptosis of RGCs stimulated by palmitate, a metabolic factor for the development of diabetes and its complications, and to explore the potential molecular mechanism. We showed that crude saponins of P. notoginseng (CSPN) inhibited the increased apoptosis and loss of postsynaptic protein PSD-95 by palmitate in staurosporine-differentiated RGC-5 cells. Moreover, CSPN suppressed palmitate-induced reactive oxygen species generation and endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP and caspase 12 pathways. Thus, our findings address the potential therapeutic significance of CSPN for the early stage of DR. PMID:26832452

  16. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  17. ARSC: Augmented Reality Student Card--An Augmented Reality Solution for the Education Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Sayed, Neven A. M.; Zayed, Hala H.; Sharawy, Mohamed I.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is the technology of adding virtual objects to real scenes through enabling the addition of missing information in real life. As the lack of resources is a problem that can be solved through AR, this paper presents and explains the usage of AR technology we introduce Augmented Reality Student Card (ARSC) as an application of…

  18. Augmented Reality for the Improvement of Remote Laboratories: An Augmented Remote Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andujar, J. M.; Mejias, A.; Marquez, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) provides huge opportunities for online teaching in science and engineering, as these disciplines place emphasis on practical training and unsuited to completely nonclassroom training. This paper proposes a new concept in virtual and remote laboratories: the augmented remote laboratory (ARL). ARL is being tested in the first…

  19. Key technologies of outdoor augmented reality GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fu; Du, Qingyun; Wu, Xueling

    2008-12-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a growing research area in virtual reality and generates a composite view for the user. It is combination of the real scene viewed by the user and a virtual scene generated by the computer that augments the scene with additional information. About 80 percent information in the real world is related with spatial location. The combination of Geographical information system (GIS) and AR technologies would promote the development of outdoor AR systems, and also would explore a new research direction for GIS. The key technologies of outdoor augmented reality GIS, including basic tracking methods, display devices, typical applications and registration processes, are discussed. In indoor augmented reality's closed environments the tracking of position and head orientation as well as the presentation of information is much more unproblematic than the same task in an outdoor environment. The main application task of outdoor augmented reality GIS is the presentation of information to a user while moving through an unknown region. The system helps to detect automatically objects in sight of a person who need its information. It compares the conventional solutions of 3D registration with, while it discusses their algorithm procedure to basic parameters to give out their advantages and disadvantages at different condition. While affine transformation approach uses the idea of computer graphics and vision technology for reference. Its accuracy is mainly based on the precision and speed of scene feature point extracted from natural or artificial feature.

  20. The transareolar incision for breast augmentation revisited.

    PubMed

    Kompatscher, Peter; Schuler, Christine; Beer, Gertrude M

    2004-01-01

    Of the various possible incisions for breast augmentation, the transareolar access has gained only limited popularity. The potential side effects of this incision are said to be altered nipple sensation, impaired lactation, an increased rate of infections with capsular fibrosis, well visible scar formation with hypopigmentation, and the need for an additional access in case a breast ptosis correction should prove necessary at a later date. The purpose of this retrospective study was to judge advantages and limitations of transareolar breast augmentation, and to verify whether the reluctant attitude toward this surgical approach is justified. A sample of 18 patients with a transareolar, retropectoral breast augmentation was selected for a retrospective evaluation. The suitability of the technique in general was examined together with early postoperative complications, sensory changes, and late complications on the basis of an evaluation system for cosmetic surgical results. The study showed that only women with an areolar diameter of 3.5 cm or more without pronounced breast ptosis were suitable for the transareolar access. No early infections were noted. The rate of capsular fibrosis was 11%. Two years after breast augmentation, 16 women (89%) judged their breast sensation to be normal, but objective assessment showed that mean pressure and vibration sensation were moderately compromised in all parts of the breast. The scars were of good quality, with very little hypopigmentation. With appropriate patient selection, respecting the advantages and limitations, the transareolar incision has its definite place among the different incisions for breast augmentation. PMID:15164231

  1. AB027. Penile augmentation: informed text briefing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Nam Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The men’s desire to have larger and longer penis have created endless medical demands throughout human history. Until up to date, various medical skills for penile augmentation have developed in aspect of experimental and clinical outcome. Recently with throwing away socially unacceptable ideas, the need for penile augmentation is considered as equivalent level with mammoplasty for breast augmentation in women for cosmetic and psychological reason. Concurrently advanced technologies in medical material and tissue engineering provide a variety of options to features functional plastic surgery as well as defected tissue compensation procedures. This creative description works accordingly presents state of art knowledge on the penile augmentation with more than 100 full-colored helpful illustrations clarifying penile surgical anatomy, operative procedures by experienced surgeon from the traditional fat transfer to the penile disassembly technique, the newest tissue engineering techniques by researchers with valuable data of world top level, auxiliary medical devices, and how to reconstruct for damaged penis by a quack or accident. Obviously this text book will be a great guidebook in clinical practice for all who are involved or interested in the penile augmentation procedure.

  2. Stability-Augmentation Devices for Miniature Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Non-aerodynamic mechanical devices are under consideration as means to augment the stability of miniature autonomous and remotely controlled aircraft. Such aircraft can be used for diverse purposes, including military reconnaissance, radio communications, and safety-related monitoring of wide areas. The need for stability-augmentation devices arises because adverse meteorological conditions generally affect smaller aircraft more strongly than they affect larger aircraft: Miniature aircraft often become uncontrollable under conditions that would not be considered severe enough to warrant grounding of larger aircraft. The need for the stability-augmentation devices to be non-aerodynamic arises because there is no known way to create controlled aerodynamic forces sufficient to counteract the uncontrollable meteorological forces on miniature aircraft. A stability-augmentation device of the type under consideration includes a mass pod (a counterweight) at the outer end of a telescoping shaft, plus associated equipment to support the operation of the aircraft. The telescoping shaft and mass pod are stowed in the rear of the aircraft. When deployed, they extend below the aircraft. Optionally, an antenna for radio communication can be integrated into the shaft. At the time of writing this article, the deployment of the telescoping shaft and mass pod was characterized as passive and automatic, but information about the deployment mechanism(s) was not available. The feasibility of this stability-augmentation concept was demonstrated in flights of hand-launched prototype aircraft.

  3. Orthobiologics in the augmentation of osteoporotic fractures.

    PubMed

    Watson, J Tracy; Nicolaou, Daemeon A

    2015-02-01

    Many orthobiologic adjuvants are available and widely utilized for general skeletal restoration. Their use for the specific task of osteoporotic fracture augmentation is less well recognized. Common conductive materials are reviewed for their value in this patient population including the large group of allograft adjuvants categorically known as the demineralized bone matrices (DBMs). Another large group of alloplastic materials is also examined-the calcium phosphate and sulfate ceramics. Both of these materials, when used for the proper indications, demonstrate efficacy for these patients. The inductive properties of bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and platelet concentrates show no clear advantages for this group of patients. Systemic agents including bisphosphonates, receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) inhibitors, and parathyroid hormone augmentation all demonstrate positive effects with this fracture cohort. Newer modalities, such as trace ion bioceramic augmentation, are also reviewed for their positive effects on osteoporotic fracture healing. PMID:25431160

  4. The augmentation algorithm and molecular phylogenetic trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.

    1978-01-01

    Moore's (1977) augmentation procedure is discussed, and it is concluded that the procedure is valid for obtaining estimates of the total number of fixed nucleotide substitutions both theoretically and in practice, for both simulated and real data, and in agreement, for experimentally dense data sets, with stochastic estimates of the divergence, provided the restrictions on codon mutability resulting from natural selection are explicitly allowed for. Tateno and Nei's (1978) critique that the augmentation procedure has a systematic bias toward overestimation of the total number of nucleotide replacements is disputed, and a data analysis suggests that ancestral sequences inferred by the method of parsimony contain a large number of incorrectly assigned nucleotides.

  5. Minimal inframammary incision for breast augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Fanous, Nabil; Tawilé, Caroline; Brousseau, Valérie J

    2008-01-01

    The inframammary approach in breast augmentation, still the most popular technique among plastic surgeons, has always been hampered by the undesirable appearance of its scar. The present paper describes a modified approach to inframammary augmentation with saline-filled prostheses. This approach uses a very short incision, thus resulting in a much less noticeable scar. The surgical technique is easy to learn, simple to execute, does not necessitate any special equipment and gives consistent results. Decreasing the scar length to an absolute minimum ensures higher patient and surgeon satisfaction. PMID:19554159

  6. Shuffle-exchanges on augmented meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A mesh connected array of size N = two to the Kth power, K an integer, can be augmented by adding at most one edge per node such that it can perform a shuffle-exchange of size N/2 in constant time. A shuffle-exchange of size N is performed on this augmented array in constant time. This is done by combining the available perfect shuffle of size N/2 with the existing nearest neighbor connections of the mesh. By carefully scheduling the different permutations that are composed in order to achieve the shuffle, the time required is reduced to 5 steps, which is optimal for this network.

  7. A Universal Logging Format for Augmentative Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesher, Gregory W.; Moulton, Bryan J.; Rinkus, Gerard; Higginbotham, D. Jeffery

    This report discusses how technical and technological advances in alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) have outstripped the ability to assess their impact on actual communication and argues that this is due in part to the lack of a consistent and reliable method to measure long-term communicative efficacy. The report proposes a…

  8. Location-Based Learning through Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Te-Lien; Chanlin, Lih-Juan

    2014-01-01

    A context-aware and mixed-reality exploring tool cannot only effectively provide an information-rich environment to users, but also allows them to quickly utilize useful resources and enhance environment awareness. This study integrates Augmented Reality (AR) technology into smartphones to create a stimulating learning experience at a university…

  9. CARE: Creating Augmented Reality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, Farzana

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how Augmented Reality using mobile phones can enhance teaching and learning in education. It specifically examines its application in two cases, where it is identified that the agility of mobile devices and the ability to overlay context specific resources offers opportunities to enhance learning that would not otherwise exist.…

  10. Get Real: Augmented Reality for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca; DeBay, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Kids love augmented reality (AR) simulations because they are like real-life video games. AR simulations allow students to learn content while collaborating face to face and interacting with a multimedia-enhanced version of the world around them. Although the technology may seem advanced, AR software makes it easy to develop content-based…

  11. Intelligent Augmented Reality Training for Motherboard Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerfield, Giles; Mitrovic, Antonija; Billinghurst, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the combination of Augmented Reality (AR) with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to assist with training for manual assembly tasks. Our approach combines AR graphics with adaptive guidance from the ITS to provide a more effective learning experience. We have developed a modular software framework for intelligent AR training…

  12. Design Principles for Augmented Reality Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunleavy, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Augmented reality is an emerging technology that utilizes mobile, context-aware devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets) that enable participants to interact with digital information embedded within the physical environment. This overview of design principles focuses on specific strategies that instructional designers can use to develop AR learning…

  13. Introduction to augmented and virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudell, Thomas P.

    1995-12-01

    This paper introduces the field of augmented reality as a prolog to the body of papers in the remainder of this session. I describe the use of head-mounted display technologies to improve the efficiency and quality of human workers in their performance of engineering design, manufacturing, construction, testing, and maintenance activities. This technology is used to `augment' the visual field of the wearer with information necessary in the performance of the current task. The enabling technology is head-up (see-through) display head sets (HUDsets) combined with head position sensing, real world registration systems, and database access software. A primary difference between virtual reality (VR) and `augmented reality' (AR) is in the complexity of the perceived graphical objects. In AR systems, only simple wire frames, template outlines, designators, and text is displayed. An immediate result of this difference is that augmented reality systems can be driven by standard and inexpensive microprocessors. Many research issues must be addressed before this technology can be widely used, including tracking and registration, human 3D perception and reasoning, and human task performance issues.

  14. E-Learning: Between Augmentation and Disruption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilesen, Simon B.; Josephsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Based on a framework for analysis combining diffusion theory, content layer analysis and sense making, this paper discusses the theme of "e-learning as augmentation or disruption" from the point of view of technological innovation. Two cases of on-campus blended learning at Roskilde University, Denmark, are introduced to illustrate the discussion.…

  15. Augmentative Communication: Assessment, System Selection, and Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRuyter, Frank; Becker, Mary R.

    1988-01-01

    Augmentative communication systems for the nonspeaking brain-injured should be carefully selected to serve a variety of functions. These include the utilization of systems for communication purposes, assessment of cognitive-linguistic deficits, integration and participation by the individual in the rehabilitation program, and improvement in an…

  16. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper. PMID:26646315

  17. Augmenting the ADDIE Paradigm for Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…

  18. APITRON ELECTROSTATICALLY AUGMENTED FABRIC FILTER EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of fractional and overall mass efficiency tests of two Apitron electrostatically augmented fabric filter dust collectors. The tests were performed on a mobile pilot-scale system collecting flyash produced by a pulverized-coal-fired industrial boiler and o...

  19. Toward natural fiducials for augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchin, Paul; Martinez, Kirk

    2005-03-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) requires a mapping between the camera(s) and the world, so that virtual objects can be correctly registered. Current AR applications either use pre-prepared fiducial markers or specialist equipment or impose significant constraints on lighting and background. Each of these approaches has significant drawbacks. Fiducial markers are susceptible to loss or damage, can be awkward to work with and may require significant effort to prepare an area for Augmented interaction. Use of such markers may also present an imposition to non-augmented observers, especially in environments such as museums or historical landmarks. Specialist equipment is expensive and not universally available. Lighting and background constraints are often impractical for real-world applications. This paper presents initial results in using the palm of the hand as a pseudo-fiducial marker in a natural real-world environment, through colour, feature and edge analysis. The eventual aim of this research is to enable fiducial marker cards to be dispensed with entirely in some situations in order to allow more natural interaction in Augmented environments. Examples of this would be allowing users to "hold" virtual 3D objects in the palm of their hand or use gestures to interact with virtual objects.

  20. An Asynchronous Augmentation to Traditional Course Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Marvin L.; Wolverton, Mimi

    Asynchronous augmentation facilitates distributed learning, which relies heavily on technology and self-learning. This paper reports the results of delivering a real estate principles course using an asynchronous course delivery format. It highlights one of many ways to enhance learning using technology, and it provides information concerning how…

  1. 3D photography in the objective analysis of volume augmentation including fat augmentation and dermal fillers.

    PubMed

    Meier, Jason D; Glasgold, Robert A; Glasgold, Mark J

    2011-11-01

    The authors present quantitative and objective 3D data from their studies showing long-term results with facial volume augmentation. The first study analyzes fat grafting of the midface and the second study presents augmentation of the tear trough with hyaluronic filler. Surgeons using 3D quantitative analysis can learn the duration of results and the optimal amount to inject, as well as showing patients results that are not demonstrable with standard, 2D photography. PMID:22004863

  2. Detonation wave augmentation of gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study that examined the effects of using detonation waves to augment the performance of gas turbines are reported. The central ideas were to reduce compressor requirements and to maintain high performance in jet engines. Gasdynamic equations were used to model the flows associated with shock waves generated by the detonation of fuel in detonator tubes. Shock wave attenuation to the level of Mach waves was found possible, thus eliminating interference with the compressor and the necessity of valves and seals. A preliminary parametric study of the performance of a compressor working at a 4:1 ratio in a conceptual design of a detonation wave augmented jet engine in subsonic flight indicated a clear superiority over conventional designs in terms of fuel efficiency and thrust.

  3. Vertebral Augmentation: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Sebaaly, Amer; Nabhane, Linda; Issa El Khoury, Fouad; Kreichati, Gaby; El Rachkidi, Rami

    2016-04-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVF) are an increasing public health problem. Cement augmentation (vertebroplasty of kyphoplasty) helps stabilize painful OVF refractory to medical treatment. This stabilization is thought to improve pain and functional outcome. Vertebroplasty consists of injecting cement into a fractured vertebra using a percutaneous transpedicular approach. Balloon kyphoplasty uses an inflatable balloon prior to injecting the cement. Although kyphoplasty is associated with significant improvement of local kyphosis and less cement leakage, this does not result in long-term clinical and functional improvement. Moreover, vertebroplasty is favored by some due to the high cost of kyphoplasty. The injection of cement increases the stiffness of the fracture vertebrae. This can lead, in theory, to adjacent OVF. However, many studies found no increase of subsequent fracture when comparing medical treatment to cement augmentation. Kyphoplasty can have a protective effect due to restoration of sagittal balance. PMID:27114782

  4. An Augmentation of G-Guidance Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M. III; Acikmese, Behcet

    2011-01-01

    The original G-Guidance algorithm provided an autonomous guidance and control policy for small-body proximity operations that took into account uncertainty and dynamics disturbances. However, there was a lack of robustness in regards to object proximity while in autonomous mode. The modified GGuidance algorithm was augmented with a second operational mode that allows switching into a safety hover mode. This will cause a spacecraft to hover in place until a mission-planning algorithm can compute a safe new trajectory. No state or control constraints are violated. When a new, feasible state trajectory is calculated, the spacecraft will return to standard mode and maneuver toward the target. The main goal of this augmentation is to protect the spacecraft in the event that a landing surface or obstacle is closer or further than anticipated. The algorithm can be used for the mitigation of any unexpected trajectory or state changes that occur during standard mode operations

  5. Augmenting Probabilistic Risk Assesment with Malevolent Initiators

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; David Schwieder

    2011-11-01

    As commonly practiced, the use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in nuclear power plants only considers accident initiators such as natural hazards, equipment failures, and human error. Malevolent initiators are ignored in PRA, but are considered the domain of physical security, which uses vulnerability assessment based on an officially specified threat (design basis threat). This paper explores the implications of augmenting and extending existing PRA models by considering new and modified scenarios resulting from malevolent initiators. Teaming the augmented PRA models with conventional vulnerability assessments can cost-effectively enhance security of a nuclear power plant. This methodology is useful for operating plants, as well as in the design of new plants. For the methodology, we have proposed an approach that builds on and extends the practice of PRA for nuclear power plants for security-related issues. Rather than only considering 'random' failures, we demonstrated a framework that is able to represent and model malevolent initiating events and associated plant impacts.

  6. Improved approximations for control augmented structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, H. L.; Schmit, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for control-augmented structural synthesis is presented for structure-control systems which can be modeled as an assemblage of beam, truss, and nonstructural mass elements augmented by a noncollocated direct output feedback control system. Truss areas, beam cross sectional dimensions, nonstructural masses and rotary inertias, and controller position and velocity gains are treated simultaneously as design variables. The structural mass and a control-system performance index can be minimized simultaneously, with design constraints placed on static stresses and displacements, dynamic harmonic displacements and forces, structural frequencies, and closed-loop eigenvalues and damping ratios. Intermediate design-variable and response-quantity concepts are used to generate new approximations for displacements and actuator forces under harmonic dynamic loads and for system complex eigenvalues. This improves the overall efficiency of the procedure by reducing the number of complete analyses required for convergence. Numerical results which illustrate the effectiveness of the method are given.

  7. Vertebral Augmentation: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Nabhane, Linda; Issa El Khoury, Fouad; Kreichati, Gaby; El Rachkidi, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVF) are an increasing public health problem. Cement augmentation (vertebroplasty of kyphoplasty) helps stabilize painful OVF refractory to medical treatment. This stabilization is thought to improve pain and functional outcome. Vertebroplasty consists of injecting cement into a fractured vertebra using a percutaneous transpedicular approach. Balloon kyphoplasty uses an inflatable balloon prior to injecting the cement. Although kyphoplasty is associated with significant improvement of local kyphosis and less cement leakage, this does not result in long-term clinical and functional improvement. Moreover, vertebroplasty is favored by some due to the high cost of kyphoplasty. The injection of cement increases the stiffness of the fracture vertebrae. This can lead, in theory, to adjacent OVF. However, many studies found no increase of subsequent fracture when comparing medical treatment to cement augmentation. Kyphoplasty can have a protective effect due to restoration of sagittal balance. PMID:27114782

  8. Tests on Thrust Augmenters for Jet Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Shoemaker, James M

    1932-01-01

    This series of tests was undertaken to determine how much the reaction thrust of a jet could be increased by the use of thrust augmenters and thus to give some indication as to the feasibility of jet propulsion for airplanes. The tests were made during the first part of 1927 at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. A compressed air jet was used in connection with a series of annular guides surrounding the jet to act as thrust augmenters. The results show that, although it is possible to increase the thrust of a jet, the increase is not large enough to affect greatly the status of the problem of the application of jet propulsion to airplanes.

  9. Augmentation Mammaplasty Using Implants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    One of the techniques for augmentation mammaplasty is the procedure using implants. Even though this technique has been used for many years, there are still several controversial issues to be discussed and overcome for patient safety. In this review article, capsular contracture, leak or rupture of the implants, possible systemic disease, relation with breast cancer, and recent problems with Poly Implant Prothese implants are described and discussed. PMID:23094237

  10. Augmented reality visualization for thoracoscopic spine surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Frank; Vogt, Sebastian; Khamene, Ali; Heining, Sandro; Euler, Ekkehard; Schneberger, Marc; Zuerl, Konrad; Mutschler, Wolf

    2006-03-01

    We are developing an augmented reality (AR) image guidance system in which information derived from medical images is overlaid onto a video view of the patient. The centerpiece of the system is a head-mounted display custom fitted with two miniature color video cameras that capture the stereo view of the scene. Medical graphics is overlaid onto the video view and appears firmly anchored in the scene, without perceivable time lag or jitter. We have been testing the system for different clinical applications. In this paper we discuss minimally invasive thoracoscopic spine surgery as a promising new orthopedic application. In the standard approach, the thoracoscope - a rigid endoscope - provides visual feedback for the minimally invasive procedure of removing a damaged disc and fusing the two neighboring vertebrae. The navigation challenges are twofold. From a global perspective, the correct vertebrae on the spine have to be located with the inserted instruments. From a local perspective, the actual spine procedure has to be performed precisely. Visual feedback from the thoracoscope provides only limited support for both of these tasks. In the augmented reality approach, we give the surgeon additional anatomical context for the navigation. Before the surgery, we derive a model of the patient's anatomy from a CT scan, and during surgery we track the location of the surgical instruments in relation to patient and model. With this information, we can help the surgeon in both the global and local navigation, providing a global map and 3D information beyond the local 2D view of the thoracoscope. Augmented reality visualization is a particularly intuitive method of displaying this information to the surgeon. To adapt our augmented reality system to this application, we had to add an external optical tracking system, which works now in combination with our head-mounted tracking camera. The surgeon's feedback to the initial phantom experiments is very positive.

  11. Ligament reconstruction tendon interposition with mersilene augmentation.

    PubMed

    Stein, Andrew J; Schofield, Jennifer L; Marsh, Mike; Paulo, Jerry

    2011-03-01

    Many surgical procedures have been described for the treatment of thumb basilar joint osteoarthritis. Augmentation of the standard ligament reconstruction tendon interposition procedure with the use of a Mersilene suture tape suspension-plasty, to recreate the stability provided by the anterior oblique ligament and increase pinch strength, will be described. Satisfaction with this procedure was evaluated through surveys completed by patients. In addition, independent physical assessments were performed to demonstrate stability, range of motion, and strength. PMID:21358518

  12. Asian Breast Augmentation: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zelken, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Economic, cultural, and regulatory phenomena may explain recent popularization of implant-based augmentation in Asia; but the collective Eastern experience remains limited. Asian surgeons and their patients rely on evidence-based medicine that originates elsewhere and may not be entirely relevant. Distinct anatomic and cultural features of Asian women warrant a tailored approach to breast augmentation. We explore the Asian experience with a thorough exploration of the recent literature. Methods: A literature search was performed for articles written after 2000, of Asian women who underwent augmentation mammoplasty using MEDLINE, Embase, and Pubmed Databases. Technique and outcomes data were summarized. Results: Twelve articles reported outcomes of 2089 women. Korea contributed most series (English language, 7), followed by China (3), Taiwan (1), and Japan (1). Silicone implants were used in 82.1% of women studied, and almost exclusively after 2009. More round (68.9%) than anatomic implants (31.1%) were placed. Non-inframammary (axillary, areolar, and umbilical) incisions were used in 96.9% of cases. Nearly all implants were positioned below the muscle or fascia; subglandular placement accounted for 1.1% of cases. Implant/nipple malposition (1.3%), capsular contracture (1.9%), hematoma (0.6%), and infection (0.2%) rates were reported in most series. Undesirable scarring was the most frequent complication (7.3%), but was reported only in 4 of 12 series. Conclusions: Studies of Asian women undergoing augmentation mammoplasty are limited, often with ill-defined outcomes and inadequate follow-up. As experience accumulates, an expanding literature relevant to Asian women will provide evidence-based guidelines that improve outcomes and patient satisfaction, and foster innovation. PMID:26893980

  13. Primary Breast Augmentation with Fat Grafting.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Sydney R; Saboeiro, Alesia P

    2015-07-01

    The controversy over fat grafting to the breasts has now been settled. In 2009, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Fat Graft Task Force stated that "Fat grafting may be considered for breast augmentation and correction of defects associated with medical conditions and previous breast surgeries; however, results are dependent on technique and surgeon expertise." This article discusses the history, indications, planning, complications, and present technique of fat grafting to the breast using the Coleman technique. PMID:26116935

  14. Ceramic augmentation of the lower jaw.

    PubMed

    Bunte, M; Strunz, V

    1977-11-01

    Atrophy of the lower jaw is essentially a manifestation of vertical bone resorption and must be treated in a compensatory manner. Animal experiments have shown the value of the bioactive glass ceramic Ceravital as a bone replacement material. After box-shaped or step-shaped osteotomies, we perform interpositional plastic operations with glass ceramic in order to augment the atrophied human lower jaw. Results, advantages and dangers of the method are shown in 12 patients. PMID:271190

  15. Percutaneous Vertebral Body Augmentation: An Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    There are many medical conditions like osteoporosis, tumor, or osteonecrosis that weaken the structural strength of the vertebral body and prone it to fracture. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation that is usually applied by polymethylmethacrylate is a relatively safe, effective, and long lasting procedure commonly performed in these situations. In this paper, we updated a review of biomechanics, indications, contraindications, surgical techniques, complications, and overall prognosis of these minimally invasive spinal procedures. PMID:25379561

  16. Neurotoxic injury pathways in differentiated mouse motor neuron–neuroblastoma hybrid (NSC-34D) cells in vitro—Limited effect of riluzole on thapsigargin, but not staurosporine, hydrogen peroxide and homocysteine neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hemendinger, Richelle A.; Brooks, Benjamin Rix

    2012-01-15

    The neuroblastoma–spinal motor neuron fusion cell line, NSC-34, in its differentiated form, NSC-34D, permits examining the effects of riluzole, a proven treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) on cell death induction by staurosporine (STS), thapsigargin (Thaps), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and homocysteine (HCy). These neurotoxins, applied exogenously, have mechanisms of action related to the various proposed molecular pathogenetic pathways in ALS and are differentiated from endogenous cell death that is associated with cytoplasmic aggregate formation in motor neurons. Nuclear morphology, caspase-3/7 activation and high content imaging were used to assess toxicity of these neurotoxins with and without co-treatment with riluzole, a benzothiazole compound with multiple pharmacological actions. STS was the most potent neurotoxin at killing NSC-34D cells with a toxic concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is achieved (TC{sub 50} = 0.01 μM), followed by Thaps (TC{sub 50} = 0.9 μM) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (TC{sub 50} = 15 μM) with HCy requiring higher concentrations to kill at the same level (TC{sub 50} = 2200 μM). Riluzole provided neurorescue with a 20% absolute reduction (47.6% relative reduction) in apoptotic cell death against Thaps-induced NSC-34D cell (p ≤ 0.05), but had no effect on STS-, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}- and HCy-induced NSC-34D cell death. This effect of riluzole on Thaps induction of cell death was independent of caspase-3/7 activation. Riluzole mitigated a toxin that can cause intracellular calcium dysregulation associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress but not toxins associated with other cell death mechanisms. -- Highlights: ► Calcium-dependent neurotoxins are potent cell death inducers in NSC-34D cells. ► Riluzole provides neurorescue against Thaps-induced NSC-34D cell death. ► Riluzole had no effect on neurotoxicity by STS, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Hcy. ► Riluzole reduces NSC-34D cell death independent of

  17. Dual response of the KATP channels to staurosporine: a novel role of SUR2B, SUR1 and Kir6.2 subunits in the regulation of the atrophy in different skeletal muscle phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Mele, Antonietta; Camerino, Giulia M; Calzolaro, Sara; Cannone, Maria; Conte, Diana; Tricarico, Domenico

    2014-09-15

    We investigated on the role of the genes encoding for the ATP-sensitive K(+)-channel (KATP) subunits (SUR1-2A/B, Kir6.2) in the atrophy induced "in vitro" by staurosporine (STS) in different skeletal muscle phenotypes of mouse. Patch-clamp and gene expression experiments showed that the expression/activity of the sarcolemma KATP channel subunits was higher in the fast-twitch than in the slow-twitch fibers. After 1 to 3h of incubation time, the STS (2.14×10(-6)M) treatment enhanced the expression/activity of the SUR2B, SUR1 and Kir6.2 subunit genes, but not SUR2A, in the slow-twitch muscle fibers, induced the caspase-3-9, Atrogin-1 and Murf-1 gene expression without affecting protein content. After 3 to 6h, the STS-related atrophy markedly down-regulated the SUR2B, SUR1 and Kir6.2 genes reducing the KATP currents and reduced the protein content/muscle weight ratio of the slow-twitch muscle by -36.4±6% (p<0.05). After 6 to 24h, no additional changes of the SUR1-2B and Kir6.2 gene expression and muscle protein were observed. In the fast-twitch muscles, STS mildly affected the atrophic genes and protein content, but potentiated the KATP currents down-regulating the Bnip-3 gene. Diazoxide (250-500×10(-6)M), a SUR1-2B/Kir6.2 channel opener, prevented the protein loss induced by STS in the slow-twitch muscle after 6h showing an EC50 of 1.35×10(-7)M and Emax of 75%, down-regulated the caspase-9 gene and enhanced the KATP currents. The enhanced expression/activity of the SUR2B, SUR1 and Kir6.2 genes are cytoprotective against STS-induced atrophy in the slow-twitch muscle; their reduced expression/activity is associated with proteolysis and atrophy in skeletal muscle. PMID:24998494

  18. Service connectivity architecture for mobile augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, Tuukka; Pyssysalo, Tino; Roening, Juha

    2001-06-01

    Mobile augmented reality can be utilized in a number of different services, and it provides a lot of added value compared to the interfaces used in mobile multimedia today. Intelligent service connectivity architecture is needed for the emerging commercial mobile augmented reality services, to guarantee mobility and interoperability on a global scale. Some of the key responsibilities of this architecture are to find suitable service providers, to manage the connection with and utilization of such providers, and to allow smooth switching between them whenever the user moves out of the service area of the service provider she is currently connected to. We have studied the potential support technologies for such architectures and propose a way to create an intelligent service connectivity architecture based on current and upcoming wireless networks, an Internet backbone, and mechanisms to manage service connectivity in the upper layers of the protocol stack. In this paper, we explain the key issues of service connectivity, describe the properties of our architecture, and analyze the functionality of an example system. Based on these, we consider our proposition a good solution to the quest for global interoperability in mobile augmented reality services.

  19. Silicone-induced Granuloma After Buttock Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mansher; Solomon, Isaac H.; Calderwood, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Liquid silicone is inexpensive, minimally antigenic, and likely noncarcinogenic. Its simplicity of use has made it popular as a soft-tissue filler in some parts of the world for patients seeking rapid soft-tissue augmentation of the face, breast, and buttocks. However, multiple reports describe the complications of silicone injections such as cellulitis, abscess, ulceration, and foreign body migration. We present an unusual complication of granulomatous reaction secondary to silicone injection for buttock augmentation, with a literature review of this entity and treatment options. Our patient was a 54-year-old woman who underwent bilateral buttock augmentation in the Dominican Republic using percutaneous injection of liquid silicone. She presented to our facility 1 year after this procedure with pain and inflammation of both buttocks. She was diagnosed with multiple silicone granulomas. Her symptoms completely resolved with a 3-week course of minocycline. Granulomatous reactions to silicone may occur months to years after the silicone injection. The incidence of such complications may be increased when nonmedical-grade silicone is used, and hence, when these procedures are performed in developing countries. Tetracycline antibiotics, especially minocycline, may be used to achieve sustained remission. PMID:27014553

  20. Augmented classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2004-02-03

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  1. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2005-01-11

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  2. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2005-07-26

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  3. Ridge augmentation in an organ transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Dalla Torre, D; Burtscher, D

    2016-05-01

    With the continuing progress in medicine, the number of successful organ transplantations has continued to increase, a fact that also concerns dentists and implantologists. Implantology after organ transplantation remains controversial due to the patient's immunocompromised situation and the corresponding risk of infection. Only a few studies on this topic have been reported, with all of them showing the dental implant success rates in transplant patients to be similar to those in healthy subjects. However, immunosuppression has been identified as a contraindication to bone augmentation. Consequently, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding pre-implantology bone grafting procedures. The following case report describes the use of ridge augmentation and extended bilateral sinus lift procedures in a liver transplant patient. The patient was treated with an implant-supported fixed prosthesis in the upper jaw and was followed up for a total of 28 months after implant insertion. According to the findings presented, pre-implantology augmentation procedures may be performed successfully in immunosuppressed organ transplant patients. Stable peri-implant conditions were shown over a period of more than 2 years. Nevertheless, further investigations are needed to define a safe treatment protocol for these high-risk patients. PMID:26711250

  4. Silicone-induced Granuloma After Buttock Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mansher; Solomon, Isaac H; Calderwood, Michael S; Talbot, Simon G

    2016-02-01

    Liquid silicone is inexpensive, minimally antigenic, and likely noncarcinogenic. Its simplicity of use has made it popular as a soft-tissue filler in some parts of the world for patients seeking rapid soft-tissue augmentation of the face, breast, and buttocks. However, multiple reports describe the complications of silicone injections such as cellulitis, abscess, ulceration, and foreign body migration. We present an unusual complication of granulomatous reaction secondary to silicone injection for buttock augmentation, with a literature review of this entity and treatment options. Our patient was a 54-year-old woman who underwent bilateral buttock augmentation in the Dominican Republic using percutaneous injection of liquid silicone. She presented to our facility 1 year after this procedure with pain and inflammation of both buttocks. She was diagnosed with multiple silicone granulomas. Her symptoms completely resolved with a 3-week course of minocycline. Granulomatous reactions to silicone may occur months to years after the silicone injection. The incidence of such complications may be increased when nonmedical-grade silicone is used, and hence, when these procedures are performed in developing countries. Tetracycline antibiotics, especially minocycline, may be used to achieve sustained remission. PMID:27014553

  5. B-52 stability augmentation system reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowling, T. C.; Key, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    The B-52 SAS (Stability Augmentation System) was developed and retrofitted to nearly 300 aircraft. It actively controls B-52 structural bending, provides improved yaw and pitch damping through sensors and electronic control channels, and puts complete reliance on hydraulic control power for rudder and elevators. The system has experienced over 300,000 flight hours and has exhibited service reliability comparable to the results of the reliability test program. Development experience points out numerous lessons with potential application in the mechanization and development of advanced technology control systems of high reliability.

  6. Lean stability augmentation for premixing, prevaporizing combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvey, J. B.; Kennedy, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate techniques for improving the lean combustion limits of premixing, prevaporizing combustors applicable to gas turbine engine main burners. Augmented flameholders employing recessed perforated plates, catalyzed tube bundles, and configurations in which pilot fuel was injected into the wakes of V-gutters or perforated plates were designed and tested. Stable operation of the piloted designs was achieved at equivalence ratios as low as 0.25; NOx emissions of less than 1.0 g/kg at simulated turbine engine cruise conditions were obtained. A piloted perforated plate employing four percent pilot fuel flow produced the best performance while meeting severe NOx constraints.

  7. Heat transfer augmentation in nanofluids via nanofins.

    PubMed

    Vadasz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical results derived in this article are combined with experimental data to conclude that, while there is no improvement in the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids beyond the Maxwell's effective medium theory (J.C. Maxwell, Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 1891), there is substantial heat transfer augmentation via nanofins. The latter are formed as attachments on the hot wire surface by yet an unknown mechanism, which could be related to electrophoresis, but there is no conclusive evidence yet to prove this proposed mechanism. PMID:21711695

  8. Flow Augmentation in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Yadollahikhales, Golnaz; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Edgell, Randall; Cruz-Flores, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for additional therapeutic options for acute ischemic stroke considering the major pitfalls of the options available. Herein, we briefly review the role of cerebral blood flow, collaterals, vasoreactivity, and reperfusion injury in acute ischemic stroke. Then, we reviewed pharmacological and interventional measures such as volume expansion and induced hypertension, intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, partial aortic occlusion, extracranial-intracranial carotid bypass surgery, sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation, and transcranial laser therapy with regard to their effects on flow augmentation and neuroprotection. PMID:25475112

  9. Heat transfer augmentation in nanofluids via nanofins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical results derived in this article are combined with experimental data to conclude that, while there is no improvement in the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids beyond the Maxwell's effective medium theory (J.C. Maxwell, Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 1891), there is substantial heat transfer augmentation via nanofins. The latter are formed as attachments on the hot wire surface by yet an unknown mechanism, which could be related to electrophoresis, but there is no conclusive evidence yet to prove this proposed mechanism. PMID:21711695

  10. Simple bone augmentation for alveolar ridge defects.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Christopher J; Vogel, Christopher T; Fisher, G Rawleigh

    2015-05-01

    Dental implant procedures, both surgical placement and preimplant bone augmentation, have become an integral aspect of the oral and maxillofacial surgeon's practice. The number of dental implants placed each year continues to increase as a result of increasing patient exposure and awareness of dental implants, the increased functional and esthetic dental demands of general practitioners and patients, the overall increase in age of the US patient population, and expanded insurance coverage of dental implant-related procedures. This article outlines relevant surgical procedures aimed toward reconstructing alveolar ridge defects to restore intra-arch alveolar discrepancies before restoration-driven dental implant placement. PMID:25951957

  11. Dose audit failures and dose augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, C.

    1999-01-01

    Standards EN 552 and ISO 11137, covering radiation sterilization, are technically equivalent in their requirements for the selection of the sterilization dose. Dose Setting Methods 1 and 2 described in Annex B of ISO 11137 can be used to meet these requirements for the selection of the sterilization dose. Both dose setting methods require a dose audit every 3 months to determine the continued validity of the sterilization dose. This paper addresses the subject of dose audit failures and investigations into their cause. It also presents a method to augment the sterilization dose when the number of audit positives exceeds the limits imposed by ISO 11137.

  12. Wind energy converter utilizing vortex augmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, S. S.

    1985-05-14

    A wind energy conversion apparatus is disclosed herein for converting the linear momentum of wind energy into a pair of concentrated, counter-rotating and side-by-side regions of high angular momentum which includes a wing having variable angle of attack positionable forward of the entrance to an elongated duct having a bell mouth including an upper, inner reflex angular surface leading into a bifurcated duct section terminating in a diffuser augmenter at the aft facing area of the duct and which includes propellors operable to extract energy from the angular momentum in the established regions for driving electric generators or generator therefrom.

  13. Entrainment and mixing in thrust augmenting ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernal, L.; Sarohia, V.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation of two-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector flows has been conducted. Measurements of the shroud surface pressure distribution, mean velocity, turbulent intensities and Reynolds stresses were made in two shroud geometries at various primary nozzle pressure ratios. The effects of shroud geometry and primary nozzle pressure ratio on the shroud surface pressure distribution, mean flow field and turbulent field were determined. From these measurements the evolution of mixing within the shroud of the primary flow and entrained fluid was obtained. The relationship between the mean flow field, the turbulent field and the shroud surface pressure distribution is discussed.

  14. Augmented virtuality for arthroscopic knee surgery.

    PubMed

    Li, John M; Bardana, Davide D; Stewart, A James

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a computer system to visualize the location and alignment of an arthroscope using augmented virtuality. A 3D computer model of the patient's joint (from CT) is shown, along with a model of the tracked arthroscopic probe and the projection of the camera image onto the virtual joint. A user study, using plastic bones instead of live patients, was made to determine the effectiveness of this navigated display; the study showed that the navigated display improves target localization in novice residents. PMID:22003616

  15. Augmenting Your Own Reality: Student Authoring of Science-Based Augmented Reality Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Eric; Sheldon, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) simulations superimpose a virtual overlay of data and interactions onto a real-world context. The simulation engine at the heart of this technology is built to afford elements of game play that support explorations and learning in students' natural context--their own community and surroundings. In one of the more recent…

  16. Vertical Alveolar Ridge Augmentation by Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N. Nanda; Ravindran, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Compromised alveolar ridge in vertical and horizontal dimension is a common finding in patients visiting practitioners for dental prosthesis. Various treatment modalities are available for correction of deficient ridges among which alveolar distraction osteogenesis is one. Aim To study the efficacy of alveolar distraction osteogenesis in augmentation of alveolar ridges deficient in vertical dimension. Materials and Methods Ten patients aged 16 to 46 years with deficient alveolar ridge underwent ridge augmentation in 11 alveolar segments using the distraction osteogenesis method. For each patient a custom made distraction device was fabricated. The device was indigenously manufactured with SS-316 (ISO 3506). Results The vertical bone gain reached more than 10mm without the use of bone transplantation. Certain complications like incorrect vector of distraction, paresthesia, pain and loss of transport segment were encountered during the course of the study. Conclusion Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis is a reliable and predictable technique for both hard and soft tissue genesis. Implant placement is feasible with primary stability in neogenerated bone at the level of the distracted areas. PMID:26816991

  17. Prospects for Optogenetic Augmentation of Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Sarah; Schultz, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to optically control neural activity opens up possibilities for the restoration of normal function following neurological disorders. The temporal precision, spatial resolution, and neuronal specificity that optogenetics offers is unequalled by other available methods, so will it be suitable for not only restoring but also extending brain function? As the first demonstrations of optically “implanted” novel memories emerge, we examine the suitability of optogenetics as a technique for extending neural function. While optogenetics is an effective tool for altering neural activity, the largest impediment for optogenetics in neural augmentation is our systems level understanding of brain function. Furthermore, a number of clinical limitations currently remain as substantial hurdles for the applications proposed. While neurotechnologies for treating brain disorders and interfacing with prosthetics have advanced rapidly in the past few years, partially addressing some of these critical problems, optogenetics is not yet suitable for use in humans. Instead we conclude that for the immediate future, optogenetics is the neurological equivalent of the 3D printer: its flexibility providing an ideal tool for testing and prototyping solutions for treating brain disorders and augmenting brain function. PMID:26635547

  18. Breast Augmentation With Autologous Fat Injection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fa-Cheng; Chen, Bing; Cheng, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Autologous fat transplantation has attracted great interest in breast augmentation for cosmetic purpose. In the present study, we reported our experience in fat grafting in breast in 105 cases, and some detailed procedure concerning efficacy and safety of grafting was evaluated. Methods Fat was harvested using 20-mL syringe attached to a 3-hole blunt cannula in a diameter not beyond 3 mm. After washing with cool normal saline to remove blood, the fat was managed with open method using cotton towel as a platform for concentration fat tissue and separating them from fluids, oil, and debris. A 14-gauge, 1-hole blunt cannula was used to place the fat through 3-mm incision on inframammary fold. The fat was infiltrated into the breast from deep to superficial subcutaneous plane. Results Between July 2002 and August 2010, 105 patients have undergone this procedure. The age distribution of the patients ranged from 18 to 45 years, with a mean of 31.3 years. Grafted fat volume has ranged from 120 to 250 mL (average, 205 mL) per breast per session. All women had a significant improvement in their breast size and shape postoperatively, and the breasts were soft and natural in appearance. Conclusions Liposuction and autologous fat transplantation is a suitable approach for augmentation mammaplasty. PMID:25003461

  19. NASA's Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agan, Martin; Voisinet, Leeann; Devereaux, Ann

    1998-01-01

    The objective of Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) effort is to develop and integrate advanced technologies for real-time personal display of information relevant to the health and safety of space station/shuttle personnel. The WARP effort will develop and demonstrate technologies that will ultimately be incorporated into operational Space Station systems and that have potential earth applications such as aircraft pilot alertness monitoring and in various medical and consumer environments where augmented reality is required. To this end a two phase effort will be undertaken to rapidly develop a prototype (Phase I) and an advanced prototype (Phase II) to demonstrate the following key technology features that could be applied to astronaut internal vehicle activity (IVA) and potentially external vehicle activity (EVA) as well: 1) mobile visualization, and 2) distributed information system access. Specifically, Phase I will integrate a low power, miniature wireless communication link and a commercial biosensor with a head mounted display. The Phase I design will emphasize the development of a relatively small, lightweight, and unobtrusive body worn prototype system. Phase II will put increased effort on miniaturization, power consumption reduction, increased throughput, higher resolution, and ``wire removal'' of the subsystems developed in Phase I.

  20. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinsin, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance results from a test house equipped with a parallel solar augmented heat pump system with off-peak storage and a utility interconnection back-up, are presented. The collector array consisted of 12 air heating flat plates with a 9 l/sec flow. Thermal storage was consigned to a 260 cu ft crushed limestone pebble bed, with an 8.8 kW heat pump used to draw heat from storage during off-peak hours and a 15 kW electrical resistance heater used to charge the pebble bed. Monitoring and data recording were carried out on all energy inputs and outputs of the systems, and a modified TRNSYS program was employed to model the system performance. The data indicate that although the system offered the possibility of reducing the utility capacity, the addition of the solar system did not significantly augment the performance of the heat-pump system, at least in terms of the cost of supplementary electricity.

  1. HDF Augmentation: Interoperability in the Last Mile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plutchak, J.; Folk, M. J.; Habermann, T.; Knox, L.

    2014-12-01

    Science data files are generally written to serve well-defined purposes for a small science teams. In many cases, the organization of the data and the metadata are designed for custom tools developed and maintained by and for the team. Using these data outside of this context many times involves restructuring, re-documenting, or reformatting the data. This expensive and time-consuming process usually prevents data reuse and thus decreases the total life-cycle value of the data considerably. If the data are unique or critically important to solving a particular problem, they can be modified into a more generally usable form or metadata can be added in order to enable reuse. This augmentation process can be done to enhance data for the intended purpose or for a new purpose, to make the data available to new tools and applications, to make the data more conventional or standard, or to simplify preservation of the data. The HDF Group has addressed augmentation needs in many ways: by adding extra information, by renaming objects or moving them around in the file, by reducing complexity of the organization, and sometimes by hiding data objects that are not understood by specific applications. In some cases these approaches require re-writing the data into new files and in some cases it can be done externally, without affecting the original file. We will describe and compare several examples of each approach.

  2. Virtually-augmented interfaces for tactical aircraft.

    PubMed

    Haas, M W

    1995-05-01

    The term Fusion Interface is defined as a class of interface which integrally incorporates both virtual and non-virtual concepts and devices across the visual, auditory and haptic sensory modalities. A fusion interface is a multi-sensory virtually-augmented synthetic environment. A new facility has been developed within the Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory dedicated to exploratory development of fusion-interface concepts. One of the virtual concepts to be investigated in the Fusion Interfaces for Tactical Environments facility (FITE) is the application of EEG and other physiological measures for virtual control of functions within the flight environment. FITE is a specialized flight simulator which allows efficient concept development through the use of rapid prototyping followed by direct experience of new fusion concepts. The FITE facility also supports evaluation of fusion concepts by operational fighter pilots in a high fidelity simulated air combat environment. The facility was utilized by a multi-disciplinary team composed of operational pilots, human-factors engineers, electronics engineers, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists to prototype and evaluate the first multi-sensory, virtually-augmented cockpit. The cockpit employed LCD-based head-down displays, a helmet-mounted display, three-dimensionally localized audio displays, and a haptic display. This paper will endeavor to describe the FITE facility architecture, some of the characteristics of the FITE virtual display and control devices, and the potential application of EEG and other physiological measures within the FITE facility. PMID:7647184

  3. Augmenting system reliability analyses with observation priors

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Earl; Anderson-cook, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Occasionally, a system may fail a test without an obvious component being at fault. Instead, experts may know that at least one of a set of components has failed, but there is uncertainty about which members in the set were the actual failures. When no further information is available, this missing data may be imputed using standard data augmentation (DA). This process is already used in the current implementation of the JMP complex-system reliability modeling codes. In some cases when this situation arises, there may be some supplemental information about the nature of the failure that suggests which subset of components are more likely to have failed. the behavior of the system during the failure may make certain components more likely candidates, and lead the engineering experts to have certain prior beliefs about what occurred. In this case, it is still known that at least one of a set of components failed, but the experts have some idea that certain failure scenarios are more likely than others. This white paper addresses this situation by modifying the imputation process of data augmentation through the use of an observation prior. This prior is specific to particular observations, and a given outcome which is repeated several times could potentially have different observation priors associated with each occurrence.

  4. A preliminary look at control augmented dynamic response of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. S.; Jewell, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The augmentation of structural characteristics, mass, damping, and stiffness through the use of control theory in lieu of structural redesign or augmentation was reported. The standard single-degree-of-freedom system was followed by a treatment of the same system using control augmentation. The system was extended to elastic structures using single and multisensor approaches and concludes with a brief discussion of potential application to large orbiting space structures.

  5. Penile Epidermal Cyst in a Patient With Augmentation Penoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hung; Eom, Minseob; Arkoncel, Francis Raymond P.; Sung, Yun Hsien; Kim, Won; Byun, Hyun Keun; Joo, Jung Min; Kim, Kwang Jin

    2013-01-01

    A 44-year-old male patient who had undergone augmentation penoplasty 20 years previously presented with a slowly growing penoscrotal mass. The penile mass was excised totally and the pathologic diagnosis was an epidermal cyst. Epidermal cysts are benign disorders that can occur in any part of the body. However, an epidermal cyst as a late complication of augmentation penoplasty is extremely rare. We report this case of a penile epidermal cyst that developed after augmentation penoplasty. PMID:23524950

  6. Complications of polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) injection in facial augmentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, H L; Cheung, W Y

    2010-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) has been used as an injectable filler for soft tissue augmentation for more than a decade. In recent years, PAAG has been advocated as a safe soft tissue filler for facial augmentation. However, the complications associated with PAAG injection in facial augmentation have not been widely covered in the literature. We present two cases of severe complications associated with PAAG injection in facial augmentation, including bony erosion and facial ulcer. Further studies are required to support the safety of PAAG in facial injection. PMID:19540824

  7. Prevalence of sinus augmentation associated with maxillary posterior implants.

    PubMed

    Seong, Wook-Jin; Barczak, Michael; Jung, Jae; Basu, Saonli; Olin, Paul S; Conrad, Heather J

    2013-12-01

    Pneumatization of the maxillary sinus limits the quantity of alveolar bone available for implant placement and may result in a lack of primary stability and difficulty in achieving osseointegration. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze a group of patients who had implants placed in the posterior maxilla, calculate the prevalence of sinus augmentation, and identify factors related to sinus augmentation. With institutional review board approval, dental records from a population of patients who had implants placed in the maxillary posterior region between January 2000 and December 2004 were used to create a database. Independent variables were classified as continuous (age of the patient at stage 1 implant surgery [S1], time between extraction and S1, time between extraction and sinus augmentation, and time between sinus augmentation and S1) and categorical (gender, implant failure, American Society of Anesthesiologists system classification, smoking, osteoporosis, residual crestal bone height, implant position, implant proximity, prostheses type, and implant diameter and length). The dependent variable was the incidence of a sinus augmentation procedure. Simple logistic regression was used to assess the influence of each factor on the presence of sinus augmentation (P < .05). The final database included 502 maxillary posterior implants with an overall survival rate of 93.2% over a mean follow-up period of 35.7 months. Of 502 implants, 272 (54.2%) were associated with a sinus augmentation procedure. Among variables, residual crestal bone height (P < .001), implant position (P < .001), implant proximity (P < .001), prosthesis type (P < .001), implant failure (P < .01), and implant diameter (P < .01), were statistically associated with sinus augmentation. Within the limitations of this retrospective study, the results suggest that more than half (54.2%) of the maxillary posterior implants were involved with a sinus augmentation procedure. The

  8. Development of the augmented musculature device.

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Pankretz, Ty

    2004-12-01

    We developed an Augmented Musculature Device (AMD) that assists the movements of its wearer. It has direct application to aiding military and law enforcement personnel, the neurologically impaired, or those requiring any type of cybernetic assistance. The AMD consists of a collection of artificial muscles, each individually actuated, strategically placed along the surface of the human body. The actuators employed by the AMD are known as 'air muscles' and operate pneumatically. They are commercially available from several vendors and are relatively inexpensive. They have a remarkably high force-to-weight ratio--as high as 400:1 (as compared with 16:1 typical of DC motors). They are flexible and elastic, even when powered, making them ideal for interaction with humans.

  9. Image-processing with augmented reality (AR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, Hossein R.; Mohurutshe, Pagiel L.; Habibi Lashkari, Arash

    2013-03-01

    In this project, the aim is to discuss and articulate the intent to create an image-based Android Application. The basis of this study is on real-time image detection and processing. It's a new convenient measure that allows users to gain information on imagery right on the spot. Past studies have revealed attempts to create image based applications but have only gone up to crating image finders that only work with images that are already stored within some form of database. Android platform is rapidly spreading around the world and provides by far the most interactive and technical platform for smart-phones. This is why it was important to base the study and research on it. Augmented Reality is this allows the user to maipulate the data and can add enhanced features (video, GPS tags) to the image taken.

  10. Reconfigurable hardware for an augmented reality application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo Moreo, F. Javier; Martinez Alvarez, J. Javier; Garrigos Guerrero, F. Javier; Ferrandez Vicente, J. Manuel

    2005-06-01

    An FPGA-based approach is proposed to build an augmented reality system in order to aid people affected by a visual disorder known as tunnel vision. The aim is to increase the user's knowledge of his environment by superimposing on his own view useful information obtained with image processing. Two different alternatives have been explored to perform the required image processing: a specific purpose algorithm to extract edge detection information, and a cellular neural network with the suitable template. Their implementations in reconfigurable hardware pursue to take advantage of the performance and flexibility that show modern FPGAs. This paper describes the hardware implementation of both the Canny algorithm and the cellular neural network, and the overall system architecture. Results of the implementations and examples of the system functionality are presented.

  11. Augmentation of cognitive behavioral therapy with pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ganasen, K A; Ipser, J C; Stein, D J

    2010-09-01

    There has long been interest in combining pharmacotherapy with psychotherapy, including cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). More recently, basic research on fear extinction has led to interest in augmentation of CBT with the N-methyl Daspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) for anxiety disorders. In this article, the literature on clinical trials that have combined pharmacotherapy and CBT is briefly reviewed, focusing particularly on the anxiety disorders. The literature on CBT and DCS is then systematically reviewed. A series of randomized placebo-controlled trials on panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia suggest that low dose DCS before therapy sessions may be more effective compared with CBT alone in certain anxiety disorders. The strong translational foundation of this work is compelling, and the positive preliminary data gathered so far encourage further work. Issues for future research include delineating optimal dosing, and demonstrating effectiveness in real-world settings. PMID:20599140

  12. Temporal Coherence Strategies for Augmented Reality Labeling.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jacob Boesen; Tatzqern, Markus; Madsen, Claus B; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Kalkofen, Denis

    2016-04-01

    Temporal coherence of annotations is an important factor in augmented reality user interfaces and for information visualization. In this paper, we empirically evaluate four different techniques for annotation. Based on these findings, we follow up with subjective evaluations in a second experiment. Results show that presenting annotations in object space or image space leads to a significant difference in task performance. Furthermore, there is a significant interaction between rendering space and update frequency of annotations. Participants improve significantly in locating annotations, when annotations are presented in object space, and view management update rate is limited. In a follow-up experiment, participants appear to be more satisfied with limited update rate in comparison to a continuous update rate of the view management system. PMID:26780810

  13. Augmenting Satellite Precipitation Estimation with Lightning Information

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrooghy, Majid; Anantharaj, Valentine G; Younan, Nicolas H.; Petersen, Walter A.; Hsu, Kuo-Lin; Behrangi, Ali; Aanstoos, James

    2013-01-01

    We have used lightning information to augment the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network - Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS). Co-located lightning data are used to segregate cloud patches, segmented from GOES-12 infrared data, into either electrified (EL) or non-electrified (NEL) patches. A set of features is extracted separately for the EL and NEL cloud patches. The features for the EL cloud patches include new features based on the lightning information. The cloud patches are classified and clustered using self-organizing maps (SOM). Then brightness temperature and rain rate (T-R) relationships are derived for the different clusters. Rain rates are estimated for the cloud patches based on their representative T-R relationship. The Equitable Threat Score (ETS) for daily precipitation estimates is improved by almost 12% for the winter season. In the summer, no significant improvements in ETS are noted.

  14. Augmentative rhinoplasty with an "auricular gibbus".

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Camps, S

    1998-01-01

    The philosophy of this work is to revise an interesting way to compensate a lack of nasal volume. Autologous auricular cartilage is used to augment a hollow dorsum. In this way, we treat depressed, asymmetrical, and irregular dorsa. We have 10 years' experience with this technique, in a total of nearly 350 cases. Among these cases are traumatic, secondary, and congenital noses. Prior to using this technique, we employed nasal septum, iliac crest bone or calotte, rib, dermis, fascia, etc. But actually, the "neogibbus" provided by the upper fossette of the concha of the auricle is enough, except for cases of exceptional volume needs. The ear does not suffer any damage when it is treated appropriately, and a uni- or bilateral graft can be taken, if necessary, to create a strong gibbus in the manner of a "sarcophagus" or of "Russian dolls." PMID:9618186

  15. Status of Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Lineberry, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems, The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1,5-MW, multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MW, MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable beat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  16. Bilinear modeling via augmented Lagrange multipliers (BALM).

    PubMed

    Del Bue, Alessio; Xavier, João; Agapito, Lourdes; Paladini, Marco

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a unified approach to solve different bilinear factorization problems in computer vision in the presence of missing data in the measurements. The problem is formulated as a constrained optimization where one of the factors must lie on a specific manifold. To achieve this, we introduce an equivalent reformulation of the bilinear factorization problem that decouples the core bilinear aspect from the manifold specificity. We then tackle the resulting constrained optimization problem via Augmented Lagrange Multipliers. The strength and the novelty of our approach is that this framework can seamlessly handle different computer vision problems. The algorithm is such that only a projector onto the manifold constraint is needed. We present experiments and results for some popular factorization problems in computer vision such as rigid, non-rigid, and articulated Structure from Motion, photometric stereo, and 2D-3D non-rigid registration. PMID:22156102

  17. Visualizing Sea Level Rise with Augmented Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Looking Glass is an application on the iPhone that visualizes in 3-D future scenarios of sea level rise, overlaid on live camera imagery in situ. Using a technology known as augmented reality, the app allows a layperson user to explore various scenarios of sea level rise using a visual interface. Then the user can see, in an immersive, dynamic way, how those scenarios would affect a real place. The first part of the experience activates users' cognitive, quantitative thinking process, teaching them how global sea level rise, tides and storm surge contribute to flooding; the second allows an emotional response to a striking visual depiction of possible future catastrophe. This project represents a partnership between a science journalist, MIT, and the Rhode Island School of Design, and the talk will touch on lessons this projects provides on structuring and executing such multidisciplinary efforts on future design projects.

  18. Augmenting Usability: Cultural Elicitation in HCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camara, Souleymane Boundaouda; Oyugi, Cecilia; Abdelnour-Nocera, José; Smith, Andy

    This paper offers context and culture elicitation in an inter-cultural and multi-disciplinary setting of ICT design. Localised usability evaluation (LUE) is augmented with a socio-technical evaluation tool (STEM) as a methodological approach to expose and address issues in a collaborative ICT design within the Village e-Science for Life (VeSeL) project in rural Kenya. The paper argues that designers need to locally identify context and culture in situ and further explicate their implications through the design process and at the global level. Stakeholders' context, culture, decisions, agendas, expectations, disciplines and requirements need to be locally identified and globally evaluated to ensure a fit for purpose solution.

  19. Extended overview techniques for outdoor augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Veas, Eduardo; Grasset, Raphaël; Kruijff, Ernst; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we explore techniques that aim to improve site understanding for outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) applications. While the first person perspective in AR is a direct way of filtering and zooming on a portion of the data set, it severely narrows overview of the situation, particularly over large areas. We present two interactive techniques to overcome this problem: multi-view AR and variable perspective view. We describe in details the conceptual, visualization and interaction aspects of these techniques and their evaluation through a comparative user study. The results we have obtained strengthen the validity of our approach and the applicability of our methods to a large range of application domains. PMID:22402683

  20. Augmented Shock Wave Severance of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach for severing or weakening a variety of materials. The technique employs embedding explosive cords into parallel grooves that are cut into a surface of a material. The cords are initiated simultaneously to produce shock waves that progress toward the centerline between the cords and the lower surface of the material. Intersecting incident and reflected waves augment at the centerline to fail or weaken the material in tension. No harmful debris is produced on the opposite side of the material from the explosive cords. The primary focus of the effort described in this paper was to fracture the F-16 aircraft trilaminate canopy. Also, complete severance was achieved in 2024-T4 aluminum plate stock. Possible applications are through canopy egress and crew module severance from military aircraft and separation of rocket vehicle stages and payloads. This approach offers important advantages over explosive methods currently in use.

  1. Analytical augmentation of 3D simulation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughran, Julia J.; Stahl, Marchelle M.

    1998-05-01

    This paper describes an approach for augmenting three- dimensional (3D) virtual environments (VEs) with analytic information and multimedia annotations to enhance training and education applications. Analytic or symbolic information in VEs is presented as bar charts, text, graphical overlays, or with the use of color. Analytic results can be computed and displayed in the VE at run-time or, more likely, while replaying a simulation. These annotations would typically include computations of pre-defined Measures of Performance (MOPs) or Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs) associated with the training or educational goals of the simulation. Multimedia annotations are inserted into the VE by the user and may include: a drawing or whiteboarding capability, enabling participants to insert written text and/or graphics into the two-dimensional (2D) or 3D world; audio comments, and/or video recordings. These annotations can clarify a point, capture teacher feedback, or elaborate on the student's perspective or understanding of the experience. The annotations are captured in the VE either synchronously or asynchronously from the users (students and instructors), during simulation execution or afterward during a replay. When replaying or reviewing the simulation, the embedded annotations can be reviewed by a single user or by multiple users through the use of collaboration technologies. By augmenting 3D virtual environments with analytic and multimedia annotations, the education and training experience may be enhanced. The annotations can offer more effective feedback, enhance understanding, and increase participation. They may also support distance learning by promoting student/teacher interaction without co-location.

  2. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinson, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance of a residential size solar augmented heat pump is reported for the 1979-1980 heating season. The facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee, has a measured heat load coefficient of 339.5 watt/C (644 BTU/hr- F). The solar augmented heat pump system consists of 7.4 cu m of one inch diameter crushed limestone. The heat pump is a nominal 8.8 KW (2 1/2 ton) high efficiency unit. The system includes electric resistance heaters to give the option of adding thermal energy to the pebble bed storage during utility off-peak periods, thus offering considerable load management capability. A 15 KW electric resistance duct heater is used to add thermal energy to the pebble bin as required during off-peak periods. Hourly thermal performance and on site weather data was taken for the period November 1, 1979, to April 13, 1980. Thermal performance data consists of heat flow summations for all modes of the system, pebble bed temperatures, and space temperature. Weather data consists of dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, total global insolation (in the plane of the collector), and wind speed and direction. An error analysis was performed and the least accurate of the measurements was determined to be the heat flow at 5%. Solar system thermal performance factor was measured to be 8.77. The heat pump thermal performance factor was 1.64. Total system seasonal performance factor was measured to be 1.66. Using a modified version of TRNSYS, the thermal performance of this system was simulated. When simulation results were compared with data collected onsite, the predicted heat flow and power consumption generally were within experimental accuracy.

  3. Treatment options for augmentation of the posterior maxilla.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, P A

    2000-01-01

    The uses of conventional sinus augmentation procedures, trephines and osteotomes, with and without concomitant buccal-lingual ridge augmentation are discussed. Indications and contraindications for the application of each therapeutic modality, material selection, and the appropriate timing of implant placement are detailed. PMID:11307416

  4. The Local Games Lab ABQ: Homegrown Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Experiments in the use of augmented reality games formerly required extensive material resources and expertise to implement above and beyond what might be possible within the usual educational contexts. Currently, the more common availability of hardware in these contexts and the existence of easy-to-use, general purpose augmented reality design…

  5. Augmented Reality, the Future of Contextual Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungkur, Roopesh Kevin; Panchoo, Akshay; Bhoyroo, Nitisha Kirtee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to show the relevance of augmented reality (AR) in mobile learning for the 21st century. With AR, any real-world environment can be augmented by providing users with accurate digital overlays. AR is a promising technology that has the potential to encourage learners to explore learning materials from a totally new…

  6. Augmenting a Child's Reality: Using Educational Tablet Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Patricia; Karas, Carly; Schofield, Damian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the classroom integration of an innovative technology, augmented reality. Although the process of adding new technologies into a classroom setting can be daunting, the concept of augmented reality has demonstrated the ability to educate students and to assist with their comprehension of a procedural task. One half of the…

  7. On Location Learning: Authentic Applied Science with Networked Augmented Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Eric; Klopfer, Eric; Perry, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The learning of science can be made more like the practice of science through authentic simulated experiences. We have created a networked handheld Augmented Reality environment that combines the authentic role-playing of Augmented Realities and the underlying models of Participatory Simulations. This game, known as Outbreak @ The Institute, is…

  8. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any...

  9. Jet Propulsion with Special Reference to Thrust Augmenters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubauer, G B

    1933-01-01

    An investigation of the possibility of using thrust augmented jets as prime movers was carried out. The augmentation was to be effected by allowing the jet to mix with the surrounding air in the presence of bodies which deflect the air set in motion by the jet.

  10. Augmentation of Cognition and Perception Through Advanced Synthetic Vision Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Williams, Steve P.; McNabb, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic Vision System technology augments reality and creates a virtual visual meteorological condition that extends a pilot's cognitive and perceptual capabilities during flight operations when outside visibility is restricted. The paper describes the NASA Synthetic Vision System for commercial aviation with an emphasis on how the technology achieves Augmented Cognition objectives.

  11. Acceleration-Augmented LQG Control of an Active Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeley, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    A linear-quadratic-gaussian (LQG) regulator controller design for an acceleration-augmented active magnetic bearing (AMB) is outlined. Acceleration augmentation is a key feature in providing improved dynamic performance of the controller. The optimal control formulation provides a convenient method of trading-off fast transient response and force attenuation as control objectives.

  12. 14 CFR 25.945 - Thrust or power augmentation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Thrust or power augmentation system. 25.945 Section 25.945 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.945 Thrust or power augmentation system. (a) General....

  13. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ressa, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    A percussive augmenter is being developed and it is designed to add ultrasonic hammering to a conventional commercial rotary drill through an adapter using a piezoelectric actuator. The combination of ultrasonic hammering and rotation creates a drill that requires low power and low axial load while providing faster penetration than conventional rotary-only drills. These characteristics make percussive augmentation of rotary drills ideal for not only planetary exploration but commercial applications as well. The purpose of this internship was to produce, test, and optimize an augmenter that drives a 2 inch diameter bit. This task was part of the percussive augmenter's phase II of an ongoing contract and it involved increasing the capability of the .25 inch version of the augmenter prototype that was developed in phase I. Due to fabrication delays of the augmenter, an extensive part of the test effort was conducted using previous rotary and hammer drill prototypes. These tests focused on drilling deep over long periods of time to provide for effective stress test of the drill. Modifications were made to the drill, its components, and the testing procedure to achieve desired borehole depths. These results were used to start initial testing on the 2 inch augmenter and provide preliminary data on the augmenter's ability to significantly improve penetration rate over conventional rotary-only drills.

  14. Combined silicone implant and cartilage grafts for augmentation rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Fan, Fei; You, Jianjun; Wang, Sheng

    2013-03-01

    Silicone implants are widely used in Asia for nasal dorsal augmentation. Meanwhile, autologous cartilage grafts are the most preferred materials for tip surgery. In order to minimize the drawbacks of silicone implants, combined silicone implant and cartilage grafts were introduced for augmentation rhinoplasty. In this work, augmentation rhinoplasty technique using combined silicone implant and cartilage grafts are reported. Forty-six patients underwent dorsal and tip augmentation using this technique. The outcomes were satisfactory in 45 patients. Bilateral marginal incisions were used without transcolumellar incision. By suturing the silicone nasal implant with a shield cartilage graft, a new complex was achieved. Assisted with a columellar strut either sutured to the complex or not, the new complex could provide improved dorsal height and tip projection with low complication rate in augmentation rhinoplasty. PMID:23524723

  15. Augmentation of orbital debris shielding for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Crews, Jeanne Lee; Horn, Jennifer R.

    1990-01-01

    Augmentation concepts for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) are described in detail and advantages and disadvantages of various proposals are evaluated. It is pointed out that early augmentation of SSF debris shielding, which would take place 6-9 years after the First Element Launch, could provide the greatest advantages to the program in terms of weight, cost, and safety benefits. Potential augmentation concepts include an attached, rigid aluminum second bumper; the multi-shock shield concept; a mesh double bumper concept; a debris shield augmentation element; a multi-shock airbag protection concept for 2-10 cm debris; and a debris sweeper. Requirements for and operation and deployment of these concepts are described in detail and an example of the augmentation effect on cumulative SSF probability of no-failure from debris and meteoroid impacts is given. An estimate of predicted encounter rates between debris and a 100 m radius sphere around SSF is presented.

  16. Creating Tangible Interfaces by Augmenting Physical Objects with Multimodal Language

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, David R. ); Cohen, Philip R.

    2001-01-01

    Rasa is a tangible augmented reality environment that digitally enhances the existing paper-based command and control capability in a military command post. By observing and understanding the users' speech, pen, and touch-based multimodal language, Rasa computationally augments the physical objects on a command post map, linking these items to digital representations of the same; for example, linking a paper map to the world and Post-it notes to military units. Herein, we give a thorough account of Rasa's underlying multiagent framework, and its recognition, understanding, and multimodal integration components. Moreover, we examine five properties of language: generativity, comprehensibility, compositionality, referentiality, and, at times, persistence--that render it suitable as an augmentation approach, contrasting these properties to those of other augmentation methods. It is these properties of language that allow users of Rasa to augment physical objects, transforming them into tangible interfaces.

  17. Considerations in breast augmentation in the adolescent patient.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Sumanas W; Corcoran, Julia

    2013-02-01

    Nearly 320,000 breast augmentations were performed in 2011, with adolescents under 18 years of age accounting for 4,830 procedures (1.5%). Breast development typically starts at 11 years (range, 8-13 years) and is complete at 15 years (range, 11-18 years). This wide age range for physical maturity matches the equally wide range of emotional maturity in this patient population. Developmental, psychological, and regulatory aspects unique to adolescent breast augmentation are reviewed. Self-image and societal influences must be considered, including both internal and external motivations for seeking breast augmentation. Preoperative assessment and counseling of these patients are discussed. Both parental consent and adolescent assent must be considered. Ideal conditions for adolescent assent are described. Breast augmentation for purely aesthetic purposes should be undertaken with extreme caution as ideal conditions for complete assent are rare. Augmentation as a technique for breast balancing in cases of significant asymmetry can be helpful. PMID:24872743

  18. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions. PMID:26780802

  19. Ionospheric Challenges for GNSS Based Augmentation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, P.; Valladares, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The ionosphere is a highly dynamic physical phenomenon that presents a variable source of error for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and GNSS based operational systems. The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Wide-Area Augmentation System (WAAS) was designed to enhance the GNSS standard positioning service by providing additional accuracy, availability and integrity that is sufficient for use in commercial aviation. It is the first of a number of planned regional Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS). Other systems in development include the European EGNOS system, the MSAS system in Japan and the GAGAN system in India. In addition, the South American countries are investigating the feasibility of operating an SBAS system in this region. Much of the WAAS ionospheric research and development focused on defining and mitigating ionospheric challenges characteristic of the mid-latitude regions, where the ionosphere is well studied and relatively quiescent. The EGNOS and MSAS systems will primarily operate under a similarly quiescent mid-latitude ionosphere. SBAS system development in South America, India and other low-latitude regions, however, will have to contend with much more extreme conditions. These conditions include strong spatial and temporal gradients, plasma depletions and scintillation. All of these conditions have a potential to limit SBAS performance in the low latitude regions. This presentation will review the effects that the ionosphere has on the mid-latitude WAAS system. It will present the techniques that are used to mitigate ionospheric disturbances induced on the system during severe geomagnetic activity and it will quantify the effect that this activity has on system performance. The presentation will then present data from the South American Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) that can be used to infer the ionospheric effects on SBAS performance in the most challenging low-latitude ionospheric environment

  20. Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham

    2012-12-01

    During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved

  1. Enhancing robotic gait training via augmented feedback.

    PubMed

    Patritti, Benjamin; Sicari, Monica; Deming, Lynn; Romaguera, Fernanda; Pelliccio, Marlena; Benedetti, Maria Grazia; Nimec, Donna; Bonato, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Recent work has examined the feasibility of robotic-assisted gait training in pediatric patients, including children with cerebral palsy (CP). Herein we present a case series describing clinical outcomes in four children with CP who underwent gait training using a robotic driven gait orthosis (DGO) (Pediatric Lokomat©). Children had a diagnosis of spastic diplegia due to CP. They were paired based on functional abilities and observed gait characteristics. Two children had a GMFCS of III and showed excessive ankle plantarflexion during stance. The other two children had a GMFCS of II and displayed a crouch gait pattern. Each subject participated in a 6-week intervention of robotic-assisted gait training that involved three 30-minute sessions per week. Pre-and post-training evaluations were performed including clinical tests of standing and walking function, walking speed, and walking endurance. Clinical gait analysis was also performed using a motion capture system to assess changes in gait mechanics. All subjects showed an improvement in locomotor function. For lower functioning children, this may be mediated by improved trunk control. The use of augmented feedback was associated with larger. However, these results have to be considered with caution because of the limited sample size of the study. PMID:21097013

  2. Opportunistic tangible user interfaces for augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Steven; Feiner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic Controls are a class of user interaction techniques that we have developed for augmented reality (AR) applications to support gesturing on, and receiving feedback from, otherwise unused affordances already present in the domain environment. By leveraging characteristics of these affordances to provide passive haptics that ease gesture input, Opportunistic Controls simplify gesture recognition, and provide tangible feedback to the user. In this approach, 3D widgets are tightly coupled with affordances to provide visual feedback and hints about the functionality of the control. For example, a set of buttons can be mapped to existing tactile features on domain objects. We describe examples of Opportunistic Controls that we have designed and implemented using optical marker tracking, combined with appearance-based gesture recognition. We present the results of two user studies. In the first, participants performed a simulated maintenance inspection of an aircraft engine using a set of virtual buttons implemented both as Opportunistic Controls and using simpler passive haptics. Opportunistic Controls allowed participants to complete their tasks significantly faster and were preferred over the baseline technique. In the second, participants proposed and demonstrated user interfaces incorporating Opportunistic Controls for two domains, allowing us to gain additional insights into how user interfaces featuring Opportunistic Controls might be designed. PMID:19910657

  3. Thermal Augmentation of Vancomycin Against Staphylococcal Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Sturtevant, Rachael A; Sharma, Prannda; Pavlovsky, Leonid; Stewart, Elizabeth J; Solomon, Michael J; Younger, John G

    2015-08-01

    Given the increasing evidence of safe application of elevated temperature in other clinical contexts, we consider the potential for supplemental hyperthermia to augment the effects of vancomycin against staphylococci, a major source of postoperative and posttraumatic sepsis. Laboratory reference strains and libraries of clinical blood isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, both as planktonic cells and as established biofilms, were assessed for thermosensitivity and increased susceptibility to vancomycin in the setting of thermal treatment. In addition to viability measures, patterns of stress gene expression were assessed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and structural changes were measured using quantitative transmission electron microscopy. Laboratory strains of both species had reduced growth and biofilm viability at 45°C, a temperature commonly used in other domains such as adjuvant treatments of malignancy. Blood isolates of S. epidermidis were consistent in this regard as well, but significant between-isolate variability in thermosensitivity was seen in blood isolates of S. aureus. Expression profiling and ultrastructural measurements confirmed that elevated temperature was a substantial stressor with or without vancomycin treatment. Our findings suggest that temperature elevations shown to be tolerated in humans in other settings hold the potential to be used as an adjuvant to antibiotic therapy against staphylococcal biofilms. PMID:25784524

  4. LCD masks for spatial augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithwick, Quinn Y. J.; Reetz, Daniel; Smoot, Lanny

    2014-03-01

    One aim of Spatial Augmented Reality is to visually integrate synthetic objects into real-world spaces amongst physical objects, viewable by many observers without 3D glasses, head-mounted displays or mobile screens. In common implementations, using beam-combiners, scrim projection, or transparent self-emissive displays, the synthetic object's and real-world scene's light combine additively. As a result, synthetic objects appear low-contrast and semitransparent against well-lit backgrounds, and do not cast shadows. These limitations prevent synthetic objects from appearing solid and visually integrated into the real-world space. We use a transparent LCD panel as a programmable dynamic mask. The LCD panel displaying the synthetic object's silhouette mask is colocated with the object's color image, both staying aligned for all points-of-view. The mask blocks the background providing occlusion, presents a black level for high-contrast images, blocks scene illumination thus casting true shadows, and prevents blow-by in projection scrim arrangements. We have several implementations of SAR with LCD masks: 1) beam-combiner with an LCD mask, 2) scrim projection with an LCD mask, and 3) transparent OLED display with an LCD mask. Large format (80" diagonal) and dual layer volumetric variations are also implemented.

  5. Directing driver attention with augmented reality cues

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, Michelle L.; Schall, Mark C.; Gavin, Patrick; Lee, John D.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Vecera, Shaun; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This simulator study evaluated the effects of augmented reality (AR) cues designed to direct the attention of experienced drivers to roadside hazards. Twenty-seven healthy middle-aged licensed drivers with a range of attention capacity participated in a 54 mile (1.5 hour) drive in an interactive fixed-base driving simulator. Each participant received AR cues to potential roadside hazards in six simulated straight (9 mile long) rural roadway segments. Drivers were evaluated on response time for detecting a potentially hazardous event, detection accuracy for target (hazard) and non-target objects, and headway with respect to the hazards. Results showed no negative outcomes associated with interference. AR cues did not impair perception of non-target objects, including for drivers with lower attentional capacity. Results showed near significant response time benefits for AR cued hazards. AR cueing increased response rate for detecting pedestrians and warning signs but not vehicles. AR system false alarms and misses did not impair driver responses to potential hazards. PMID:24436635

  6. Human responses to augmented virtual scaffolding models.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Simeonov, Peter; Dotson, Brian; Ammons, Douglas; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Chiou, Sharon

    2005-08-15

    This study investigated the effect of adding real planks, in virtual scaffolding models of elevation, on human performance in a surround-screen virtual reality (SSVR) system. Twenty-four construction workers and 24 inexperienced controls performed walking tasks on real and virtual planks at three virtual heights (0, 6 m, 12 m) and two scaffolding-platform-width conditions (30, 60 cm). Gait patterns, walking instability measurements and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed. The results showed differences in human responses to real vs. virtual planks in walking patterns, instability score and heart-rate inter-beat intervals; it appeared that adding real planks in the SSVR virtual scaffolding model enhanced the quality of SSVR as a human - environment interface research tool. In addition, there were significant differences in performance between construction workers and the control group. The inexperienced participants were more unstable as compared to construction workers. Both groups increased their stride length with repetitions of the task, indicating a possibly confidence- or habit-related learning effect. The practical implications of this study are in the adoption of augmented virtual models of elevated construction environments for injury prevention research, and the development of programme for balance-control training to reduce the risk of falls at elevation before workers enter a construction job. PMID:16253942

  7. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  8. Augmented standard model and the simplest scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tai Tsun; Wu, Sau Lan

    2015-11-01

    The experimental discovery of the Higgs particle in 2012 by the ATLAS Collaboration and the CMS Collaboration at CERN ushers in a new era of particle physics. On the basis of these data, scalar quarks and scalar leptons are added to each generation of quarks and leptons. The resulting augmented standard model has fermion-boson symmetry for each of three generations, but only one Higgs doublet giving masses to all the elementary particles. A specific special case, the simplest scenario, is studied in detail. In this case, there are twenty six quadratic divergences, and all these divergences are cancelled provided that one single relation between the masses is satisfied. This mass relation contains a great deal of information, and in particular determines the masses of all the right-handed scalar quarks and scalar leptons, while gives relations for the masses of the left-handed ones. An alternative procedure is also given with a different starting point and less reliance on the experimental data. The result is of course the same.

  9. Vascular Compromise from Soft Tissue Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Shannon; Carruthers, Jean D.A.; Carruthers, Alastair

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of soft tissue fillers is, in part, due to their favorable side-effect profile. However, serious complications can occur. The authors describe their extensive clinical experience with soft-tissue augmentation and the rare complication of vascular compromise, which can lead to necrosis and scarring. Over a 10-year period between January 2003 and January 2013, the authors observed a total of 12 cases of vascular compromise. Eight patients in their clinical practice showed evidence of vascular compromise out of a total of 14,355 filler injections (0.05%). In addition, four patients treated with an experimental particulate filler had vascular complications. All cases were examined for filler type, location of complication, risk factors, treatment, and outcomes. Although treatment plans differed for each patient in their series, all cases of vascular compromise resolved fully. The authors believe that an office-based protocol for both immediate and ongoing care—including a thorough individualized assessment and treatment plan for each patient—is critical to timely and effective resolution of side effects. They propose key recommendations for the prevention and management of vascular compromise to improve patient outcomes and reduce the risk of permanent complications. PMID:25276276

  10. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1990-05-01

    Since 1986 Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF) has participated in the Columbia Basin Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This interagency project was developed to provide a standardized level of fish health information from all Agencies rearing fish in the Columbia Basin. Agencies involved in the project are: WDF, Washington Department of Wildlife, Oregon Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. WDF has actively participated in this project, and completed its third year of fish health monitoring, data collection and pathogen inspection during 1989. This report will present data collected from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1989 and will compare sampling results from screening at spawning for viral pathogens and bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and evaluation of causes of pre-spawning loss. The juvenile analysis will include pre-release examination results, mid-term rearing exam results and evaluation of the Organosomatic Analysis completed on stocks. 2 refs., 4 figs., 15 tabs.