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Sample records for stearothermophilus 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase

  1. In Silico Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Peroxisomal 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Fernández, Álvaro D.; Corpas, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    NADPH, whose regeneration is critical for reductive biosynthesis and detoxification pathways, is an essential component in cell redox homeostasis. Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles with a complex biochemical machinery involved in signaling and stress processes by molecules such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO). NADPH is required by several peroxisomal enzymes involved in β-oxidation, NO, and glutathione (GSH) generation. Plants have various NADPH-generating dehydrogenases, one of which is 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH). Arabidopsis contains three 6PGDH genes that probably are encoded for cytosolic, chloroplastic/mitochondrial, and peroxisomal isozymes, although their specific functions remain largely unknown. This study focuses on the in silico analysis of the biochemical characteristics and gene expression of peroxisomal 6PGDH (p6PGDH) with the aim of understanding its potential function in the peroxisomal NADPH-recycling system. The data show that a group of plant 6PGDHs contains an archetypal type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS), while in silico gene expression analysis using affymetrix microarray data suggests that Arabidopsis p6PGDH appears to be mainly involved in xenobiotic response, growth, and developmental processes. PMID:27034898

  2. Polyethylene sulfonate: a tight-binding inhibitor of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, W G; White, R H; Richardson, S B; Bourne, A; Ray, W K

    1995-12-20

    Polyethylene sulfonate (PES) or polyvinyl sulfonate was found to be a potent inhibitor of a number of fungal enzymes, including 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from Cryptococcus neoformans. The inhibition was apparently competitive versus either NADP or 6-phosphogluconate, with 50% inhibition at PES concentrations below 10 nM. Replots of slopes of double-reciprocal plots versus inhibitor concentration were sharply concave upward, whereas replots of slope versus [PES]3 were linear. The inhibition was freely reversible upon dilution of the enzyme-PES complex. A model is presented that involves initial binding of the long (M(r) 50,000) polyanionic PES at a remote site on the enzyme, followed by interaction of the end of the tethered polymer with the binding site for NADP or for 6-phosphogluconate. PMID:8554324

  3. Inhibitory effects of ofloxacin and cefepime on enzyme activity of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from chicken liver.

    PubMed

    Erat, Mustafa; Sakiroğlu, Halis

    2007-01-01

    In this study, effects of some antibiotics, namely, ofloxacin, cefepime, cefazolin, and ampicillin on the in vitro enzyme activity of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase have been investigated. For this purpose, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase was purified from chicken liver 535-fold with a yield of 18% by using ammonium sulphate precipitation, 2',5'-ADP Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography, and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography. In order to check the purity of the enzyme, SDS polyacylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed. This analysis revealed a highly pure enzyme band on the gel. Among the antibiotics, ofloxacin and cefepime exhibited inhibitory effects, but cefazolin and ampicillin showed neither important inhibitory nor activatory effects on the enzyme activity. The measured I(50) values by plotting activity percent vs. inhibitor concentration, [I(50)] were 0.1713 mM for ofloxacin and 6.0028 mM for cefepime. Inhibition constants, K(i), for ofloxacin and cefepime were also calculated as 0.2740 +/- 0.1080 mM and 12.869 +/- 16.6540 mM by means of Lineweaver-Burk graphs, and inhibition types of the antibiotics were found out to be non-competitive and competitive, respectively. It has been understood from the calculated inhibitory parameters that the purified chicken enzyme has been quite inhibited by these two antimicrobials. PMID:17305608

  4. Inhibition effects of some metal ions on the rat liver 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adem, Şevki; Kayhan, Naciye

    2016-04-01

    6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase is an enzyme in the pentose phosphate path. The main functions of the pathway are the manufacture of the reduced coenzyme NADPH and the formation of ribose 5-phosphate for nucleic acid synthesis and nucleotide. Both NADPH and ribose 5-phosphate involve a critical biochemical process. Metals have been recognized as important toxic agents for living for a long time. It has been considered that they lead to in the emergence of many diseases. To evaluate whether metals is effect towards rat liver 6PGD, we apply various concentrations of metals and enzyme inhibition was analyzed using enzyme activity assays. The IC50 values of Pb+2, Cr+3, Co+2, Ni+2, Cd+2, and Va+2, metals on rat liver 6PGD were calculated as 138,138, 169, 214, 280, and 350 µM, respectively.

  5. A potent specific inhibitor of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase of Cryptococcus neoformans and of certain other fungal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, W G; Flynn, T

    1993-09-01

    A particular lot of the zwitterionic buffer, 2(N-morpholino) ethane sulfonic acid (MES), contained a contaminant that inhibited a number of fungal NADP-dependent dehydrogenases. Enzymes that were particularly sensitive include 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases from Cryptococcus neoformans and Schizophyllum commune and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Schizophyllum commune. A number of NADP-dependent dehydrogenases of animal origin were tested and all were completely insensitive to inhibition except for rat liver 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, which was 10-fold less sensitive than the Cryptococcal enzyme. The pattern of inhibition in all cases was linear competitive versus NADP. The inhibitor has been purified and identified as an ethylenesulfonic acid oligomer. This inhibitor holds promise as a model compound for the development of a specific antifungal agent. PMID:8302365

  6. Intergeneric transfer and recombination of the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase gene (gnd) in enteric bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, K; Selander, R K

    1994-01-01

    The gnd gene, encoding 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.44), was sequenced in 87 strains of 15 species assigned to five nominal genera of the Enterobacteriaceae, including 36 isolates of Salmonella enterica and 32 strains of Escherichia coli. In S. enterica, the effective (realized) rate of recombination of horizontally transferred gnd sequences is only moderately higher than the rates for other chromosomal housekeeping genes. In contrast, recombination at gnd has occurred with such high frequency in Escherichia coli that the indicated evolutionary relationships among strains are not congruent with those estimated by sequence analysis of other genes and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. E. coli and S. enterica apparently have not exchanged gnd sequences, but those of several strains of E. coli have been imported from species of Citrobacter and Klebsiella. The relatively frequent exchange of gnd within and among taxonomic groups of the Enterobacteriaceae, compared with other housekeeping genes, apparently results from its close linkage with genes that are subject to diversifying selection, including those of the rfb region determining the structure of the O antigen polysaccharide. PMID:7937867

  7. X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and autosomal 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) polymorphisms in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    VandeBerg, J.L.; Aivaliotis, M.J.; Samollow, P.B. )

    1992-12-01

    Electrophoretic polymorphisms of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) were examined in captive colonies of five subspecies of baboons (Papio hamadryas). Phenotype frequencies and family data verified the X-linked inheritance of the G6PD polymorphism. Insufficient family data were available to confirm autosomal inheritance of the 6PGD polymorphism, but the electrophoretic patterns of variant types (putative heterozygotes) suggested the codominant expression of alleles at an autosomal locus. Implications of the G6PD polymorphism are discussed with regard to its utility as a marker system for research on X-chromosome inactivation during baboon development and for studies of clonal cell proliferation and/or cell selection during the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the baboon model. 61 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Purification of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from parsley (Petroselinum hortense) leaves and investigation of some kinetic properties.

    PubMed

    Demir, Hülya; Ciftçi, Mehmet; Küfrevioğlu, O Irfan

    2003-02-01

    In this study, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (E.C.1.1.44; 6PGD) was purified from parsley (Petroselinum hortense) leaves, and analysis of the kinetic behavior and some properties of the enzyme were investigated. The purification consisted of three steps that are preparation of homogenate ammonium sulfate fractionation and on DEAE-Sephadex A50 ion exchange. The enzyme was obtained with a yield of 49% and had a specific activity of 18.3 U (mg proteins)(-1) (Lehninger, A.L.; Nelson, D.L.; Cox, M.M. Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd Ed.; Worth Publishers Inc.: N.Y., 2000, 558-560). The overall purification was about 339-fold. A temperature of +4 degrees C was maintained during the purification process. Enzyme activity was spectrophotometrically measured according to the Beutler method at 340 mn. In order to control the purification of the enzyme, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out in 4% and 10% acrylamide for stacking and running gel, respectively. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a single band for enzyme. The molecular weight was found to be 97.5 kDa by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration chromatography. A protein band corresponding to a subunit molecular weight of 24.1 kDa was obtained on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. For the enzymes, the stable pH, optimum pH, and optimum temperature were found as 8.0, 8.0, and 50 degrees C, respectively. In addition, KM and Vmax values for NADP+ and G6-P at optimum pH and 25 degrees C were determined by means of Lineweaver-Burk plots. PMID:12693814

  9. Defects in Peroxisomal 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase Isoform PGD2 Prevent Gametophytic Interaction in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Christian; Lutterbey, Marie-Christin; Lansing, Hannes; Meyer, Tanja; Fischer, Kerstin; von Schaewen, Antje

    2016-05-01

    We studied the localization of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) isoforms of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Similar polypeptide lengths of PGD1, PGD2, and PGD3 obscured which isoform may represent the cytosolic and/or plastidic enzyme plus whether PGD2 with a peroxisomal targeting motif also might target plastids. Reporter-fusion analyses in protoplasts revealed that, with a free N terminus, PGD1 and PGD3 accumulate in the cytosol and chloroplasts, whereas PGD2 remains in the cytosol. Mutagenesis of a conserved second ATG enhanced the plastidic localization of PGD1 and PGD3 but not PGD2. Amino-terminal deletions of PGD2 fusions with a free C terminus resulted in peroxisomal import after dimerization, and PGD2 could be immunodetected in purified peroxisomes. Repeated selfing of pgd2 transfer (T-)DNA alleles yielded no homozygous mutants, although siliques and seeds of heterozygous plants developed normally. Detailed analyses of the C-terminally truncated PGD2-1 protein showed that peroxisomal import and catalytic activity are abolished. Reciprocal backcrosses of pgd2-1 suggested that missing PGD activity in peroxisomes primarily affects the male gametophyte. Tetrad analyses in the quartet1-2 background revealed that pgd2-1 pollen is vital and in vitro germination normal, but pollen tube growth inside stylar tissues appeared less directed. Mutual gametophytic sterility was overcome by complementation with a genomic construct but not with a version lacking the first ATG. These analyses showed that peroxisomal PGD2 activity is required for guided growth of the male gametophytes and pollen tube-ovule interaction. Our report finally demonstrates an essential role of oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway reactions in peroxisomes, likely needed to sustain critical levels of nitric oxide and/or jasmonic acid, whose biosynthesis both depend on NADPH provision. PMID:26941195

  10. High-Throughput Screening of Coenzyme Preference Change of Thermophilic 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase from NADP+ to NAD+

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rui; Chen, Hui; Zhong, Chao; Kim, Jae Eung; Zhang, Yi-Heng Percival

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme engineering that changes NAD(P) selectivity of redox enzymes is an important tool in metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and biocatalysis. Here we developed a high throughput screening method to identify mutants of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) from a thermophilic bacterium Moorella thermoacetica with reversed coenzyme selectivity from NADP+ to NAD+. Colonies of a 6PGDH mutant library growing on the agar plates were treated by heat to minimize the background noise, that is, the deactivation of intracellular dehydrogenases, degradation of inherent NAD(P)H, and disruption of cell membrane. The melted agarose solution containing a redox dye tetranitroblue tetrazolium (TNBT), phenazine methosulfate (PMS), NAD+, and 6-phosphogluconate was carefully poured on colonies, forming a second semi-solid layer. More active 6PGDH mutants were examined via an enzyme-linked TNBT-PMS colorimetric assay. Positive mutants were recovered by direct extraction of plasmid from dead cell colonies followed by plasmid transformation into E. coli TOP10. By utilizing this double-layer screening method, six positive mutants were obtained from two-round saturation mutagenesis. The best mutant 6PGDH A30D/R31I/T32I exhibited a 4,278-fold reversal of coenzyme selectivity from NADP+ to NAD+. This screening method could be widely used to detect numerous redox enzymes, particularly for thermophilic ones, which can generate NAD(P)H reacted with the redox dye TNBT. PMID:27587230

  11. High-Throughput Screening of Coenzyme Preference Change of Thermophilic 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase from NADP(+) to NAD(.).

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Chen, Hui; Zhong, Chao; Kim, Jae Eung; Zhang, Yi-Heng Percival

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme engineering that changes NAD(P) selectivity of redox enzymes is an important tool in metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and biocatalysis. Here we developed a high throughput screening method to identify mutants of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) from a thermophilic bacterium Moorella thermoacetica with reversed coenzyme selectivity from NADP(+) to NAD(+). Colonies of a 6PGDH mutant library growing on the agar plates were treated by heat to minimize the background noise, that is, the deactivation of intracellular dehydrogenases, degradation of inherent NAD(P)H, and disruption of cell membrane. The melted agarose solution containing a redox dye tetranitroblue tetrazolium (TNBT), phenazine methosulfate (PMS), NAD(+), and 6-phosphogluconate was carefully poured on colonies, forming a second semi-solid layer. More active 6PGDH mutants were examined via an enzyme-linked TNBT-PMS colorimetric assay. Positive mutants were recovered by direct extraction of plasmid from dead cell colonies followed by plasmid transformation into E. coli TOP10. By utilizing this double-layer screening method, six positive mutants were obtained from two-round saturation mutagenesis. The best mutant 6PGDH A30D/R31I/T32I exhibited a 4,278-fold reversal of coenzyme selectivity from NADP(+) to NAD(+). This screening method could be widely used to detect numerous redox enzymes, particularly for thermophilic ones, which can generate NAD(P)H reacted with the redox dye TNBT. PMID:27587230

  12. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Phosphate Prodrugs of 4-Phospho-d -erythronohydroxamic Acid, an Inhibitor of 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Ruda, Gian Filippo; Alibu, Vincent P; Mitsos, Christos; Bidet, Olivier; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Barrett, Michael P; Gilbert, Ian H

    2007-01-01

    We have previously reported the discovery of potent and selective inhibitors of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, the third enzyme of the phosphate pentose pathway, from Trypanosoma brucei, the causative organism of human African trypanosomiasis. These inhibitors were charged phosphate derivatives with restricted capacity to enter cells. Herein, we report the synthesis of five different classes of prodrugs: phosphoramidate; bis-S-acyl thioethyl esters (bis-SATE); bis-pivaloxymethyl (bis-POM); CycloSaligenyl; and phenyl, S-acyl thioethyl mixed phosphate esters (mix-SATE). Prodrugs were studied for stability and activity against the intact parasites. Most prodrugs caused inhibition of the growth of the parasites. The activity of the prodrugs against the parasites appeared to be related to their stability in aqueous buffer. PMID:17615587

  13. Overexpression and simple purification of the Thermotoga maritima 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli and its application for NADPH regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiran; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2009-01-01

    Background Thermostable enzymes from thermophilic microorganisms are playing more and more important roles in molecular biology R&D and industrial applications. However, over-production of recombinant soluble proteins from thermophilic microorganisms in mesophilic hosts (e.g. E. coli) remains challenging sometimes. Results An open reading frame TM0438 from a hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima putatively encoding 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified protein was confirmed to have 6PGDH activity with a molecular mass of 53 kDa. The kcat of this enzyme was 325 s-1 and the Km values for 6-phosphogluconate, NADP+, and NAD+ were 11, 10 and 380 μM, respectively, at 80°C. This enzyme had half-life times of 48 and 140 h at 90 and 80°C, respectively. Through numerous approaches including expression vectors, hosts, cultivation conditions, inducers, and codon-optimization of the 6pgdh gene, the soluble 6PGDH expression levels were enhanced to ~250 mg per liter of culture by more than 500-fold. The recombinant 6PGDH accounted for >30% of total E. coli cellular proteins when lactose was used as a low-cost inducer. In addition, this enzyme coupled with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase for the first time was demonstrated to generate two moles of NADPH per mole of glucose-6-phosphate. Conclusion We have achieved a more than 500-fold improvement in the expression of soluble T. maritima 6PGDH in E. coli, characterized its basic biochemical properties, and demonstrated its applicability for NADPH regeneration by a new enzyme cocktail. The methodology for over-expression and simple purification of this thermostable protein would be useful for the production of other thermostable proteins in E. coli. PMID:19497097

  14. 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase regulates tumor cell migration in vitro by regulating receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Barden; VanderLaan, Paul A.; Sukhatme, Vikas P.

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Expression of 6PGD positively correlates with advancing stage of lung carcinoma. •Knockdown of 6PGD by shRNA potently inhibits c-Met tyrosine phosphorylation. •Exogenous HGF fails to restore c-Met phosphorylation in cells with 6PGD knocked down. •6PGD knockdown results in inhibition of cell migration in vitro. •Constitutively active TPR-cMet significantly restores migration of cells without 6PGD. -- Abstract: 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) is the third enzyme in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Recently, we reported that knockdown of 6PGD inhibited lung tumor growth in vitro and in a xenograft model in mice. In this study, we continued to examine the functional role of 6PGD in cancer. We show that 6PGD expression positively correlates with advancing stage of lung carcinoma. In search of functional signals related to 6PGD, we discovered that knockdown of 6PGD significantly inhibited phosphorylation of c-Met at tyrosine residues known to be critical for activity. This downregulation of c-Met phosphorylation correlated with inhibition of cell migration in vitro. Overexpression of a constitutively active c-Met specifically rescued the migration but not proliferation phenotype of 6PGD knockdown. Therefore, 6PGD appears to be required for efficient c-Met signaling and migration of tumor cells in vitro.

  15. Defects in Peroxisomal 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase Isoform PGD2 Prevent Gametophytic Interaction in Arabidopsis thaliana1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hölscher, Christian; Meyer, Tanja; Fischer, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    We studied the localization of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) isoforms of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Similar polypeptide lengths of PGD1, PGD2, and PGD3 obscured which isoform may represent the cytosolic and/or plastidic enzyme plus whether PGD2 with a peroxisomal targeting motif also might target plastids. Reporter-fusion analyses in protoplasts revealed that, with a free N terminus, PGD1 and PGD3 accumulate in the cytosol and chloroplasts, whereas PGD2 remains in the cytosol. Mutagenesis of a conserved second ATG enhanced the plastidic localization of PGD1 and PGD3 but not PGD2. Amino-terminal deletions of PGD2 fusions with a free C terminus resulted in peroxisomal import after dimerization, and PGD2 could be immunodetected in purified peroxisomes. Repeated selfing of pgd2 transfer (T-)DNA alleles yielded no homozygous mutants, although siliques and seeds of heterozygous plants developed normally. Detailed analyses of the C-terminally truncated PGD2-1 protein showed that peroxisomal import and catalytic activity are abolished. Reciprocal backcrosses of pgd2-1 suggested that missing PGD activity in peroxisomes primarily affects the male gametophyte. Tetrad analyses in the quartet1-2 background revealed that pgd2-1 pollen is vital and in vitro germination normal, but pollen tube growth inside stylar tissues appeared less directed. Mutual gametophytic sterility was overcome by complementation with a genomic construct but not with a version lacking the first ATG. These analyses showed that peroxisomal PGD2 activity is required for guided growth of the male gametophytes and pollen tube-ovule interaction. Our report finally demonstrates an essential role of oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway reactions in peroxisomes, likely needed to sustain critical levels of nitric oxide and/or jasmonic acid, whose biosynthesis both depend on NADPH provision. PMID:26941195

  16. Increased activity of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in purified cell suspensions and single cells from the uterine cervix in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, S. K.; Benedetto, C.; Flatman, A.; Hammond, R. H.; Micheletti, L.; Riley, C.; Riley, P. A.; Spargo, D. J.; Zonca, M.; Slater, T. F.

    1992-01-01

    The activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase have been measured in squamous epithelial cells of the uterine cervix from normal patients and cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). A biochemical cycling method, which uses only simple equipment and is suited to routine use and to automation, was applied to cells separated by gradient centrifugation. In addition, cells were examined cytochemically, and the intensity of staining in the cytoplasm of single whole cells was measured using computerised microcytospectrophotometry. Twenty per cent of cells in samples from normal patients (n=61) showed staining intensities above an extinction of 0.15 at 540 nm, compared to 71% of cases of CIN 1 (n=14), 91% of cases of CIN 2 (n=11) and 67% of cases of CIN 3 (n=15). The cytochemical data do not allow definitive distinctions to be made between different grades of CIN whereas the biochemical assay applied to cell lysates shows convincing differences between normal samples and cases of CIN. There are no false negatives for CIN 3 (n=14) and CIN 2 (n=10) and 11% false negatives for CIN 1 (n=9) and 14% of false positives for normal cases (n=21). The results of this preliminary study with reference to automation are discussed [corrected]. Images Figure 1 PMID:1637668

  17. Purification and characterization of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from the wing-polymorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus, and assessment of causes of morph-differences in enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Zera, Anthony J; Wehrkamp, Cody; Schilder, Rudolf; Black, Christine; Gribben, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Considerable information exists on the physiological correlates of life history adaptation, while molecular data on this topic are rapidly accumulating. However, much less is known about the enzymological basis of life history adaptation in outbred populations. In the present study, we compared developmental profiles of fat body specific activity, kinetic constants of homogeneously purified and unpurified enzyme, and fat body enzyme concentration of the pentose-shunt enzyme, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH, E.C.1.1.1.44) between the dispersing [long-winged, LW(f)] and flightless [short-winged, SW] genotypes of the cricket Gryllus firmus. Neither kcat nor the Michaelis constant for 6-phosphogluconate differed between 6PGDH from LW(f) versus SW morphs for either homogeneously purified or unpurified enzyme. Purified enzyme from the LW(f) morph exhibited reduced KM for NADP(+), but this was not observed for multiple KM(NADP+) estimates for unpurified enzyme. A polyclonal antibody was generated against 6PGDH which was used to develop a chemiluminescence assay to quantify 6PGDH concentration in fat body homogenates. Elevated enzyme concentration accounted for all of the elevated 6PGDH specific activity in the LW(f) morph during the juvenile and adult stages. Finally, activity of another pentose-shunt enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, strongly covaried with 6PGDH activity suggesting that variation in 6PGDH activity gives rise to variation in pentose shunt flux. This is one of the first life-history studies and one of the few studies of intraspecific enzyme adaptation to identify the relative importance of evolutionary change in enzyme concentration vs. kinetic constants to adaptive variation in enzyme activity in an outbred population. PMID:24726622

  18. Purification and Characterization of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase, and Glutathione Reductase from Rat Heart and Inhibition Effects of Furosemide, Digoxin, and Dopamine on the Enzymes Activities.

    PubMed

    Adem, Sevki; Ciftci, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate characterization and purification of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and glutathione reductase from rat heart and the inhibitory effect of three drugs. The purification of the enzymes was performed using 2',5'-ADP sepharose 4B affinity material. The subunit and the natural molecular weights were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. Biochemical characteristics such as the optimum temperature, pH, stable pH, and salt concentration were examined for each enzyme. Types of product inhibition and Ki values with Km and Vmax values of the substrates and coenzymes were determined. According to the obtained Ki and IC50 values, furosemide, digoxin, and dopamine showed inhibitory effect on the enzyme activities at low millimolar concentrations in vitro conditions. Dopamine inhibited the activity of these enzymes as competitive, whereas furosemide and digoxin inhibited the activity of the enzyme as noncompetitive. PMID:26820767

  19. Relationships between the H and A-O blood types, phosphohexose isomerase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase red cell enzyme systems and halothane sensitivity, and economic traits in a superior and an inferior selection line of swiss landrace pigs.

    PubMed

    Vögeli, P; Stranzinger, G; Schneebeli, H; Hagger, C; Künzi, N; Gerwig, C

    1984-12-01

    Associations between production traits and the genes for halothane sensitivity (HAL), S, A and H blood group systems and phosphohexose isomerase (PHI) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) enzyme systems were investigated in two lines of pigs selected for an index. The phenotypic variance-covariance matrix of the index included backfat thickness and daily gain, whereas the genetic variance-covariance matrix included daily gain, feed conversion and percentage of lean meat. The experiment was conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Animal Production and has been underway since 1973. The same index was applied but in two opposite directions to give a superior and inferior line in relation to the production traits. One hundred twenty-nine animals of the superior line in the seventh generation and 88 animals of the inferior line in the sixth generation were studied. Forty-two percent (54/129) of the animals of the superior line were halothane-positive. No animals in the inferior line were halothane reactors. Of the halothane-positive pigs, 70.4% (38/54) in the superior line had the HaHa and 94.4% (51/54) had the SsSs genotype, whereas only 4% (3/75) of the HaHa and 12% (9/75) of the SsSs pigs were halothane-negative. By practicing selection at the H and S loci, it seems possible to efficiently reduce halothane sensitivity in Swiss Landrace pigs. In pigs of the superior line, there were significant differences in percentage of lean meat, carcass length, pH1 (pH value at 45 min to 1 h postmortem, M. longissimus) and reflectance values among genotypes of the HAL, S and H systems and among some genotypes of the 6-PGD system. Poorest meat quality, highest percentage of lean meat and shortest carcass length were observed in pigs homozygous for the alleles HALn, Ss, Ha, PHIB and 6-PGDA. In the inferior line, these associations were absent. As the HAL locus is associated with the above mentioned production traits, linkage disequilibria may explain the

  20. 21 CFR 862.1565 - 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1565 - 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1565 - 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1565 - 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1565 - 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  5. Active-Loop Dynamics within the Michaelis Complex of Lactate Dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Nie, Beining; Lodewyks, Kara; Deng, Hua; Desamero, Ruel Z B; Callender, Robert

    2016-07-12

    Laser-induced temperature-jump relaxation spectroscopy was used to study the active site mobile-loop dynamics found in the binding of the NADH nucleotide cofactor and oxamate substrate mimic to lactate dehydrogenase in Bacillus stearothermophilus thermophilic bacteria (bsLDH). The kinetic data can be best described by a model in which NADH can bind only to the open-loop apoenzyme, oxamate can bind only to the bsLDH·NADH binary complex in the open-loop conformation, and oxamate binding is followed by closing of the active site loop preventing oxamate unbinding. The open and closed states of the loop are in dynamic equilibrium and interconvert on the submillisecond time scale. This interconversion strongly accelerates with an increase in temperature because of significant enthalpy barriers. Binding of NADH to bsLDH results in minor changes of the loop dynamics and does not shift the open-closed equilibrium, but binding of the oxamate substrate mimic shifts this equilibrium to the closed state. At high excess oxamate concentrations where all active sites are nearly saturated with the substrate mimic, all active site mobile loops are mainly closed. The observed active-loop dynamics for bsLDH is very similar to that previously observed for pig heart LDH. PMID:27319381

  6. Detection of an intermediate late in the unfolding pathway of bacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleigh, Roger N.; Halsall, David J.; Clarke, Anthony R.; Behan-Martin, Moira; Holbrook, J. J.

    1994-08-01

    In vivo proteins fold to form one active structure in minutes or seconds, ruling out the possibility that a polypeptide samples all possible conformational space during folding. We have used site directed mutagenesis to produce 15 single tryptophan containing mutants of Bacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenase (BS LDH) thus enabling the equilibria of unfolding to be seen from 15 defined positions. These mutant versions of BS LDH have the same X-ray structure as the wild type protein8. Previously Smith et al.11 had detected and assigned structures to 4 folding states. The first intermediate, a monomer with secondary and super secondary structure largely intact, is formed after the dimer dissociates at 0.55 M guanidinium hydrochloride (GuHCl). The second intermediate on the unfolding pathway is stable at 2.2 M GuHCl. It had been assumed previously that the transition from this molten-globule structure to the fully denatured form occurred as a single process. We have now identified a core folding motif. In this, helix (alpha) -1F forms a helix-sheet interaction with (beta) -K and (beta) -K has interactions with both (alpha) -2G and (alpha) -3G. This super secondary interaction forms the most stable folding motif in BS LDH and is lost at 2.8 M GuHCl leaving helix (alpha) -1F, (alpha) -2G, and (alpha) -3G which are stable until 3 M GuHCl.

  7. A double mutant of highly purified Geobacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenase recognises l-mandelic acid as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Binay, Barış; Sessions, Richard B; Karagüler, Nevin Gül

    2013-05-10

    Lactate dehydrogenase from the thermophilic organism Geobacillus stearothermophilus (formerly Bacillus stearothermophilus) (bsLDH) has a crucial role in producing chirally pure hydroxyl compounds. α-Hydroxy acids are used in many industrial situations, ranging from pharmaceutical to cosmetic dermatology products. One drawback of this enzyme is its limited substrate specificity. For instance, l-lactate dehydrogenase exhibits no detectable activity towards the large side chain of 2-hydroxy acid l-mandelic acid, an α-hydroxy acid with anti-bacterial activity. Despite many attempts to engineer bsLDH to accept α-hydroxy acid substrates, there have been no attempts to introduce the industrially important l-mandelic acid to bsLDH. Herein, we describe attempts to change the reactivity of bsLDH towards l-mandelic acid. Using the Insight II molecular modelling programme (except 'program' in computers) and protein engineering techniques, we have successfully introduced substantial mandelate dehydrogenase activity to the enzyme. Energy minimisation modelling studies suggested that two mutations, T246G and I240A, would allow the enzyme to utilise l-mandelic acid as a substrate. Genes encoding for the wild-type and mutant enzymes were constructed, and the resulting bsLDH proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified using the TAGZyme system. Enzyme assays showed that insertion of this double mutation into highly purified bsLDH switched the substrate specificity from lactate to l-mandelic acid. PMID:23608509

  8. Activation and Inhibition of Ribulose 1,5-Diphosphate Carboxylase by 6-Phosphogluconate 1

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Douglas K.; Bassham, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase, when activated by preincubation with 1 mm bicarbonate and 10 mm MgCl2 in the absence of ribulose 1,5-diphosphate, remains activated for 20 minutes or longer after reaction is initiated by addition of ribulose diphosphate. If as little as 50 μm 6-phosphogluconate is added during this preincubation period, 5 minutes before the start of the reaction, a further 188% activation is observed. However, addition of 6-phosphogluconate at the same time or later than addition of ribulose diphosphate, or at any time with 50 mm bicarbonate, gives inhibition of the enzyme activity. Possible relevance of these effects in vivo regulatory effects is discussed. PMID:16658565

  9. Semi-Rational Design of Geobacillus stearothermophilus L-Lactate Dehydrogenase to Access Various Chiral α-Hydroxy Acids.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Aşkın Sevinç; Birmingham, William R; Karagüler, Nevin Gül; Turner, Nicholas J; Binay, Barış

    2016-06-01

    Chiral α-hydroxy acids (AHAs) are rapidly becoming important synthetic building blocks, in particular for the production of pharmaceuticals and other fine chemicals. Chiral compounds of a variety of functionalities are now often derived using enzymes, and L-lactate dehydrogenase from the thermophilic organism Geobacillus stearothermophilus (bsLDH) has the potential to be employed for the industrial synthesis of chiral α-hydroxy acids. Despite the thorough characterization of this enzyme, generation of variants with high activity on non-natural substrates has remained difficult and therefore limits the use of bsLDH in industry. Here, we present the engineering of bsLDH using semi-rational design as a method of focusing screening in a small and smart library for novel biocatalysts. In this study, six mutant libraries were designed in an effort to expand the substrate range of bsLDH. The eight variants identified as having enhanced activity toward the selected α-keto acids belonged to the same library, which targeted two positions simultaneously. These new variants now may be useful biocatalysts for chiral synthesis of α-hydroxy acids. PMID:26852025

  10. Large scale dynamics of the Michaelis complex in Bacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenase revealed by a single-tryptophan mutant study.

    PubMed

    Nie, Beining; Deng, Hua; Desamero, Ruel; Callender, Robert

    2013-03-19

    Large scale dynamics within the Michaelis complex mimic of Bacillus stearothermophilus thermophilic lactate dehydrogenase, bsLDH·NADH·oxamate, were studied with site specific resolution by laser-induced temperature jump relaxation spectroscopy with a time resolution of 20 ns. NADH emission and Trp emission from the wild type and a series of single-tryptophan bsLDH mutants, with the tryptophan positions different distances from the active site, were used as reporters of evolving structure in response to the rapid change in temperature. Several distinct dynamical events were observed on the millisecond to microsecond time scale involving motion of atoms spread over the protein, some occurring concomitantly or nearly concomitantly with structural changes at the active site. This suggests that a large portion of the protein-substrate complex moves in a rather concerted fashion to bring about catalysis. The catalytically important surface loop undergoes two distinct movements, both needed for a competent enzyme. Our results also suggest that what is called "loop motion" is not just localized to the loop and active site residues. Rather, it involves the motion of atoms spread over the protein, even some quite distal from the active site. How these results bear on the catalytic mechanism of bsLDH is discussed. PMID:23428201

  11. Stability engineering of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus alcohol dehydrogenase and application for the synthesis of a polyamide 12 precursor.

    PubMed

    Kirmair, Ludwig; Seiler, Daniel Leonard; Skerra, Arne

    2015-12-01

    The thermostable NAD(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (BsADH) was exploited with regard to the biocatalytic synthesis of ω-oxo lauric acid methyl ester (OLAMe), a key intermediate for biobased polyamide 12 production, from the corresponding long-chain alcohol. Recombinant BsADH was produced in Escherichia coli as a homogeneous tetrameric enzyme and showed high activity towards the industrially relevant substrate ω-hydroxy lauric acid methyl ester (HLAMe) with K M = 86 μM and 44 U mg(-1). The equilibrium constant for HLAMe oxidation to the aldehyde (OLAMe) with NAD(+) was determined as 2.16 × 10(-3) from the kinetic parameters of the BsADH-catalyzed forward and reverse reactions. Since BsADH displayed limited stability under oxidizing conditions, the predominant oxidation-prone residue Cys257 was mutated to Leu based on sequence homology with related enzymes and computational simulation. This substitution resulted in an improved BsADH variant exhibiting prolonged stability and an elevated inactivation temperature. Semi-preparative biocatalysis at 60 °C using the stabilized enzyme, employing butyraldehyde for in situ cofactor regeneration with only catalytic amounts of NAD(+), yielded up to 23 % conversion of HLAMe to OLAMe after 30 min. In contrast to other oxidoreductases, no overoxidation to the dodecanoic diacid monomethyl ester was detected. Thus, the mutated BsADH offers a promising biocatalyst for the selective oxidation of fatty alcohols to yield intermediates for industrial polymer production. PMID:26329849

  12. Contribution of a buried aspartate residue towards the catalytic efficiency and structural stability of Bacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Nobbs, T J; Cortés, A; Gelpi, J L; Holbrook, J J; Atkinson, T; Scawen, M D; Nicholls, D J

    1994-01-01

    The X-ray structure of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) shows the side-chain carboxylate group of Asp-143 to be buried in the hydrophobic interior of the enzyme, where it makes hydrogen-bonding interactions with both the side-chain hydroxyl group of Ser-273 and the main-chain amide group of His-195. This is an unusual environment for a carboxylate side-chain as hydrogen bonding normally occurs with water molecules at the surface of the protein. A charged hydrogen-bonding interaction in the interior of a protein would be expected to be much stronger than a similar interaction on the solvent-exposed exterior. In this respect the side-chain carboxylate group of Asp-143 appears to be important for maintaining tertiary structure by providing a common linkage point between three discontinuous elements of the secondary structure, alpha 1F, beta K and the beta-turn joining beta G and beta H. The contribution of the Asp-143 side-chain to the structure and function of Bacillus stearothermophilus LDH was assessed by creating a mutant enzyme containing Asn-143. The decreased thermal stability of both unactivated and fructose-1,6-diphosphate (Fru-1,6-P2)-activated forms of the mutant enzyme support a structural role for Asp-143. Furthermore, the difference in stability of the wild-type and mutant enzymes in guanidinium chloride suggested that the carboxylate group of Asp-143 contributes at least 22 kJ/mol to the conformational stability of the wild-type enzyme. However, there was no alteration in the amount of accessible tryptophan fluorescence in the mutant enzyme, indicating that the mutation caused a structural weakness rather than a gross conformational change. Comparison of the wild-type and mutant enzyme steady-state parameters for various 2-keto acid substrates showed the mutation to have a general effect on catalysis, with an average difference in binding energy of 11 kJ/mol for the transition-state complexes. The different effects of pH and Fru-1,6-P2 on the wild-type and

  13. Highly Stable l-Lysine 6-Dehydrogenase from the Thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus Isolated from a Japanese Hot Spring: Characterization, Gene Cloning and Sequencing, and Expression

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Mojgan; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Nunoura-Kominato, Naoki; Sakuraba, Haruhiko

    2004-01-01

    l-Lysine dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the oxidative deamination of l-lysine in the presence of NAD, was found in the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus UTB 1103 and then purified about 3,040-fold from a crude extract of the organism by using four successive column chromatography steps. This is the first report showing the presence of a thermophilic NAD-dependent lysine dehydrogenase. The product of the enzyme catalytic activity was determined to be Δ1-piperideine-6-carboxylate, indicating that the enzyme is l-lysine 6-dehydrogenase (LysDH) (EC 1.4.1.18). The molecular mass of the purified protein was about 260 kDa, and the molecule was determined to be a homohexamer with subunit molecular mass of about 43 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for the catalytic activity of the enzyme were about 10.1 and 70°C, respectively. No activity was lost at temperatures up to 65°C in the presence of 5 mM l-lysine. The enzyme was relatively selective for l-lysine as the electron donor, and either NAD or NADP could serve as the electron acceptor (NADP exhibited about 22% of the activity of NAD). The Km values for l-lysine, NAD, and NADP at 50°C and pH 10.0 were 0.73, 0.088, and 0.48 mM, respectively. When the gene encoding this LysDH was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, a crude extract of the recombinant cells had about 800-fold-higher enzyme activity than the extract of G. stearothermophilus. The nucleotide sequence of the LysDH gene encoded a peptide containing 385 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 42,239 Da. PMID:14766574

  14. Cultivation of an L-lactate dehydrogenase mutant of Bacillus stearothermophilus in continuous culture with cell recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.S.; Bushell, D.; Leak, D.J.; Hartley, B.S. )

    1994-06-05

    Continuous fermentation with cell recycle proved very effective in increasing the ethanol volumetric productivity of the thermophilic facultative anaerobe, Bacillus stearothermophilus strain LLD-15, on sucrose at 70 C. When complete cell recycle was used, cell viability decreased after a few residence times and sucrose consumption was reduced. Operation using a constant bleed rate resulted in greater stability and higher ethanol volumetric productivities. A mathematical model based on maintenance energy requirements provided an adequate description of the system.

  15. Use of differential dye-ligand chromatography with affinity elution for enzyme purification: 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase from Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Scopes, R K; Griffiths-Smith, K

    1984-02-01

    Using differential dye-ligand chromatography and affinity elution with a substrate analog, 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.12) has been isolated from extracts of Zymomonas mobilis in a one-step procedure with 50% recovery. The specific activity of freshly isolated enzyme was 245 units mg-1. The enzyme contains iron, and it is rapidly inactivated in oxidizing conditions. It is inhibited by glycerophosphates, most strongly by the D-alpha-isomer which structurally corresponds to half of the substrate molecule. PMID:6326623

  16. Synthesis of cinnamyl alcohol from cinnamaldehyde with Bacillus stearothermophilus alcohol dehydrogenase as the isolated enzyme and in recombinant E. coli cells.

    PubMed

    Pennacchio, Angela; Rossi, Mosè; Raia, Carlo A

    2013-07-01

    The synthesis of the aroma chemical cinnamyl alcohol (CMO) by means of enzymatic reduction of cinnamaldehyde (CMA) was investigated using NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus both as an isolated enzyme, and in recombinant Escherichia coli whole cells. The influence of parameters such as reaction time and cofactor, substrate, co-substrate 2-propanol and biocatalyst concentrations on the bioreduction reaction was investigated and an efficient and sustainable one-phase system developed. The reduction of CMA (0.5 g/L, 3.8 mmol/L) by the isolated enzyme occurred in 3 h at 50 °C with 97% conversion, and yielded high purity CMO (≥98%) with a yield of 88% and a productivity of 50 g/genzyme. The reduction of 12.5 g/L (94 mmol/L) CMA by whole cells in 6 h, at 37 °C and no requirement of external cofactor occurred with 97% conversion, 82% yield of 98% pure alcohol and a productivity of 34 mg/gwet cell weight. The results demonstrate the microbial system as a practical and efficient method for larger-scale synthesis of CMO. PMID:23686507

  17. Theoretical study of the catalytic mechanism of E1 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xiang; Liu, Yongjun

    2013-11-12

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDHc) is a member of a family of 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase (OADH) multienzyme complexes involved in several central points of oxidative metabolism, and the E1 subunit is the most important component in the entire PDHc catalytic system, which catalyzes the reversible transfer of an acetyl group from a pyruvate to the lipoyl group of E2 subunit lipoly domain. In this article, the catalytic mechanism of the E1 subunit has been systematically studied using density functional theory (DFT). Four possible pathways with different general acid/base catalysts in decarboxylation and reductive acylation processes were explored. Our calculation results indicate that the 4'-amino pyrimidine of ThDP and residue His128 are the most likely proton donors in the decarboxylation and reductive acylation processes, respectively. During the reaction, each C-C and C-S bond formation or cleavage process, except for the liberation of CO2, is always accompanied by a proton transfer between the substrates and proton donors. The liberation of CO2 is calculated to be the rate-limiting step for the overall reaction, with an energy barrier of 13.57 kcal/mol. The decarboxylation process is endothermic by 5.32 kcal/mol, whereas the reductive acylation process is exothermic with a value of 5.74 kcal/mol. The assignment of protonation states of the surrounding residues can greatly influence the reaction. Residues His128 and His271 play roles in positioning the first substrate pyruvate and second substrate lipoyl group, respectively. PMID:24171427

  18. Use of differential dye-ligand chromatography with affinity elution for enzyme purification: 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase from Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Scopes, R K

    1984-02-01

    2-Keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase (EC 4.1.2.14) has been isolated from extracts of Zymomonas mobilis using differential dye-ligand chromatography and affinity elution with product/product analog. The one-step procedure gives an enzyme with specific activity 600 units mg-1. Only 1 out of 47 dyes, Procion Yellow MX-GR, bound the enzyme completely in 20 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.5. A column of Navy HE-R adsorbent was used first to remove most of the potentially adsorbing proteins. PMID:6326622

  19. Differential effects of acute and chronic fructose administration on pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and lipogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, L.

    1988-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to distinguish between the acute and chronic effects of fructose administration. In vivo, liver lipogenesis, as measured by {sup 3}H{sub 2}O incorporation, was greater in rats fed 60% fructose than in their glucose fed controls. Both fructose feeding, and fructose feeding plus intraperitoneal fructose injection increased the activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. Liver PDH activity was increased by fructose feeding, and was increased even more by fructose feeding and injection of fructose, but this was not associated with any changes in hepatic ATP concentrations.

  20. Crystal structure of Pseudomonas fluorescens mannitol 2-dehydrogenase: evidence for a very divergent long-chain dehydrogenase family.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Klimacek, Mario; Nidetzky, Bernd; Wilson, David K

    2003-02-01

    Mannitol 2-dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens (pfMDH) is a secondary alcohol dehydrogenase that catalyzes the reversible NAD(P)-dependent oxidation of D-mannitol to D-fructose, D-arabinitol to D-xylulose, and D-sorbitol to L-sorbose. It is a member of the mostly prokaryotic family of long-chain mannitol dehydrogenases that so far includes 66 members. Unlike other alcohol and polyol dehydrogenases that utilize metal cofactors or a conserved active-site tyrosine for catalysis, an invariant lysine is the general base. The crystal structure of pfMDH in a binary complex with NAD(H) and a ternary complex with NAD(H) and D-mannitol have been determined to 1.7 and 1.8 A resolution respectively. Comparison of secondary structure assignment to sequence alignments suggest the shortest members of this family, mannitol-1-phosphate 5-dehydrogenases, retain core elements but lack secondary structural components found on the surface of pfMDH. The elements predicted to be absent are distributed throughout the primary sequence, implying that a simple truncation or fusion did not occur. The closest structural neighbors are 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, N-(1-D-carboxyethyl)-L-norvaline dehydrogenase, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Although sequence identity is only a barely recognizable 7-10%, conservation of secondary structural elements as well as homologous residues that are contributed to the active site indicates they may be related by divergent evolution. PMID:12604241

  1. Ribonucleic acid and ribosomes of Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Saunders, G F; Campbell, L L

    1966-01-01

    Saunders, Grady F. (University of Illinois, Urbana), and L. Leon Campbell. Ribonucleic acid and ribosomes of Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 91:332-339. 1966.-The ability of some thermophilic bacteria to grow at temperatures as high as 76 C emphasizes the remarkable thermal stability of their crucial macromolecules. An investigation of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) and ribosomes of Bacillus stearothermophilus was conducted. Washed log-phase cells were disrupted either by sonic treatment or by alumina grinding in 10(-2)m MgCl(2)-10(-2)m tris-(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, pH 7.4 (TM buffer). Ultracentrifugal analysis revealed peaks at 72.5S, 101S, and 135S, with the 101S peak being the most prominent. By lowering the Mg(++) concentration to 10(-3)m, the ribosome preparation was dissociated to give 40S, 31S, and 54S peaks. These in turn were reassociated in the presence of 10(-2)m Mg(++) to give the larger 73S and 135S particles. When heated in TM buffer, Escherichia coli ribosomes began a gradual dissociation at 58 C, and at 70 C underwent a large hyperchromic shift with a T(m) at 72.8 C. In contrast, B. stearothermophilus ribosomes did not show a hyperchromic shift below 70 C; they had a T(m) of 77.9 C. The thermal denaturation curves of the 4S, 16S, and 23S RNA from both organisms were virtually identical. The gross amino acid composition of B. stearothermophilus ribosomes showed no marked differences from that reported for E. coli ribosomes. These data suggest that the unusual thermal stability of B. stearothermophilus ribosomes may reflect either an unusual packing arrangement of the protein to the RNA or differences in the primary structure of the ribosomal proteins. PMID:5903099

  2. A dehydrogenase-mediated recycling system of NADPH in plant peroxisomes.

    PubMed Central

    Corpas, F J; Barroso, J B; Sandalio, L M; Distefano, S; Palma, J M; Lupiáñez, J A; Del Río, L A

    1998-01-01

    The presence of the two NADP-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway has been investigated in plant peroxisomes from pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves. Both enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; EC 1.1.1.49) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH; EC 1.1.1.44), were present in the matrix of leaf peroxisomes, and their kinetic properties were studied. G6PDH and 6PGDH showed a typical Michaelis-Menten kinetic saturation curve, and had specific activities of 12.4 and 29.6 mU/mg protein, respectively. The Km values of G6PDH and 6PGDH for glucose 6-phosphate and for 6-phosphogluconate were 107.3 and 10.2 microM, respectively. Dithiothreitol did not inhibit G6PDH activity. By isoelectric focusing of peroxisomal matrices, the G6PDH activity was resolved into three isoforms with isoelectric points of 5.55, 5.30 and 4.85. The isoelectric point of peroxisomal 6PGDH was 5.10. Immunoblot analyses of peroxisomal matrix with an antibody against yeast G6PDH revealed a single cross-reactive band of 56 kDa. Post-embedment, EM immunogold labelling of G6PDH confirmed that this enzyme was localized in the peroxisomal matrices, the thylakoid membrane and matrix of chloroplasts, and the cytosol. The presence of the two oxidative enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway in plant peroxisomes implies that these organelles have the capacity to reduce NADP+ to NADPH for its re-utilization in the peroxisomal metabolism. NADPH is particularly required for the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, which has been recently demonstrated in plant peroxisomes [Jiménez, Hernández, del Río and Sevilla (1997) Plant Physiol. 114, 275-284] and represents an important antioxidant protection system against H2O2 generated in peroxisomes. PMID:9480890

  3. Biochemical and Structural Studies of Uncharacterized Protein PA0743 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Revealed NAD+-dependent l-Serine Dehydrogenase*

    PubMed Central

    Tchigvintsev, Anatoli; Singer, Alexander; Brown, Greg; Flick, Robert; Evdokimova, Elena; Tan, Kemin; Gonzalez, Claudio F.; Savchenko, Alexei; Yakunin, Alexander F.

    2012-01-01

    The β-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases form a large family of ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze oxidation of various β-hydroxy acid substrates to corresponding semialdehydes. Several known enzymes include β-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, 2-(hydroxymethyl)glutarate dehydrogenase, and phenylserine dehydrogenase, but the vast majority of β-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases remain uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate that the predicted β-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase PA0743 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa catalyzes an NAD+-dependent oxidation of l-serine and methyl-l-serine but exhibits low activity against β-hydroxyisobutyrate. Two crystal structures of PA0743 were solved at 2.2–2.3-Å resolution and revealed an N-terminal Rossmann fold domain connected by a long α-helix to the C-terminal all-α domain. The PA0743 apostructure showed the presence of additional density modeled as HEPES bound in the interdomain cleft close to the predicted catalytic Lys-171, revealing the molecular details of the PA0743 substrate-binding site. The structure of the PA0743-NAD+ complex demonstrated that the opposite side of the enzyme active site accommodates the cofactor, which is also bound near Lys-171. Site-directed mutagenesis of PA0743 emphasized the critical role of four amino acid residues in catalysis including the primary catalytic residue Lys-171. Our results provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms of substrate selectivity and activity of β-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases. PMID:22128181

  4. Crystal structure of homoisocitrate dehydrogenase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Hendershot, Jenna M.; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2013-09-18

    Lysine biosynthesis in fungi, euglena, and certain archaebacteria occurs through the {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway. Enzymes in the first steps of this pathway have been proposed as potential targets for the development of antifungal therapies, as they are absent in animals but are conserved in several pathogenic fungi species, including Candida, Cryptococcus, and Aspergillus. One potential antifungal target in the {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway is the third enzyme in the pathway, homoisocitrate dehydrogenase (HICDH), which catalyzes the divalent metal-dependent conversion of homoisocitrate to 2-oxoadipate (2-OA) using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) as a cofactor. HICDH belogns to a family of {beta}-hydroxyacid oxidative decarboxylases that includes malate dehydrogenase, tartrate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and 3-isopropylmalte dehydrogenase (IPMDH). ICDH and IPMDH are well-characterized enzymes that catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to yield 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) in the citric acid cycle and the conversion of 3-isopropylmalate to 2-oxoisovalerate in the leucine biosynthetic pathway, respectively. Recent structural and biochemical studies of HICDH reveal that this enzyme shares sequence, structural, and mechanistic homology with ICDH and IPMDH. To date, the only published structures of HICDH are from the archaebacteria Thermus thermophilus (TtHICDH). Fungal HICDHs diverge from TtHICDH in several aspects, including their thermal stability, oligomerization state, and substrate specificity, thus warranting further characterization. To gain insights into these differences, they determined crystal structures of a fungal Schizosaccharomyces pombe HICDH (SpHICDH) as an apoenzyme and as a binary complex with additive tripeptide glycyl-glycyl-glycine (GGG) to 1.55 {angstrom} and 1.85 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Finally, a comparison of the SpHICDH and TtHICDH structures reveal differences in

  5. Crystal structure of Pseudomonas fluorescens mannitol 2-dehydrogenase binary and ternary complexes. Specificity and catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Klimacek, Mario; Nidetzky, Bernd; Wilson, David K

    2002-11-01

    Long-chain mannitol dehydrogenases are secondary alcohol dehydrogenases that are of wide interest because of their involvement in metabolism and potential applications in agriculture, medicine, and industry. They differ from other alcohol and polyol dehydrogenases because they do not contain a conserved tyrosine and are not dependent on Zn(2+) or other metal cofactors. The structures of the long-chain mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (54 kDa) from Pseudomonas fluorescens in a binary complex with NAD(+) and ternary complex with NAD(+) and d-mannitol have been determined to resolutions of 1.7 and 1.8 A and R-factors of 0.171 and 0.176, respectively. These results show an N-terminal domain that includes a typical Rossmann fold. The C-terminal domain is primarily alpha-helical and mediates mannitol binding. The electron lone pair of Lys-295 is steered by hydrogen-bonding interactions with the amide oxygen of Asn-300 and the main-chain carbonyl oxygen of Val-229 to act as the general base. Asn-191 and Asn-300 are involved in a web of hydrogen bonding, which precisely orients the mannitol O2 proton for abstraction. These residues also aid in stabilizing a negative charge in the intermediate state and in preventing the formation of nonproductive complexes with the substrate. The catalytic lysine may be returned to its unprotonated state using a rectifying proton tunnel driven by Glu-292 oscillating among different environments. Despite low sequence homology, the closest structural neighbors are glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, N-(1-d-carboxylethyl)-l-norvaline dehydrogenase, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, indicating a possible evolutionary relationship among these enzymes. PMID:12196534

  6. Growth kinetics of Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219

    SciTech Connect

    Worden, R.M.; Subramanian, R.; Bly, M.J.; Winter, S.; Aronson, C.L.

    1991-12-31

    Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219, a phenol-resistant thermophile, can convert phenol to the specialty chemical catechol. The growth kinetics of this organism were studied in batch, continuous, and immobilized-cell culture. Batch growth was insensitive to pH between 6.0 and 8.0, but little growth occurred at 5.5. In continuous culture on a dilute medium supplemented with 10 mM phenol, several steady states were achieved between dilution rates of 0.25 and 1.3 h{sup -1}. Phenol degradation was found to be uncoupled from growth. Immobilized cells grew rapidly in a rich medium, but cell viability plummeted following a switch to a dilute medium supplemented with 5 mM phenol.

  7. Stabilized enzymatic reagents for measuring glucose, creatine kinase and gamma-glutamyltransferase with thermostable enzymes from a thermophile, Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Tomita, K; Nomura, K; Kondo, H; Nagata, K; Tsubota, H

    1995-04-01

    Stabilized enzymatic reagents for measuring some components in biological fluids have been successfully developed based on two kinds of thermostable enzymes derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus with separation of the reagent into two complementary solutions. The thermostable glucokinase produced was applied to the measurement of glucose and creatine kinase activity, while the alanine dehydrogenase produced was used for the measurement of gamma-glutamyltransferase activity. The enzymatic reagents were also stabilized by developing two separate reagents with an optimum pH for the main reagent components. The stability of the reagents in liquid form was examined at 10 degrees C. It was clearly shown that the reagents for measuring glucose and creatine kinase activity were stable and retained their full capability for accurate measurement in biological fluids for over one year. The alanine dehydrogenase product was stable for at least 40 days. PMID:9696559

  8. NADPH recycling systems in oxidative stressed pea nodules: a key role for the NADP+ -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Marino, Daniel; González, Esther M; Frendo, Pierre; Puppo, Alain; Arrese-Igor, Cesar

    2007-01-01

    The symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia is characterised by the formation of dinitrogen-fixing root nodules. In natural conditions, nitrogen fixation is strongly impaired by abiotic stresses which generate over-production of reactive oxygen species. Since one of the nodule main antioxidant systems is the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, NADPH recycling that is involved in glutathione reduction is of great relevance under stress conditions. NADPH is mainly produced by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; EC 1.1.1.49) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH; EC 1.1.1.44) from the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and also by NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH; EC 1.1.1.42). In this work, 10 microM paraquat (PQ) was applied to pea roots in order to determine the in vivo relationship between oxidative stress and the activity of the NADPH-generating enzymes in nodules. Whereas G6PDH and 6PGDH activities remained unchanged, a remarkable induction of ICDH gene expression and a dramatic increase of the ICDH activity was observed during the PQ treatment. These results support that ICDH has a key role in NADPH recycling under oxidative stress conditions in pea root nodules. PMID:16896792

  9. Molecular cloning of a thermostable neutral protease gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus in a vector plasmid and its expression in Bacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, M; Takagi, M; Imanaka, T; Aiba, S

    1983-01-01

    The structural gene for a thermostable protease from Bacillus stearothermophilus was cloned in plasmid pTB90. It is expressed in both B. stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis. B. stearothermophilus carrying the recombinant plasmid produced about 15-fold more protease (310 U/mg of cell dry weight) than did the wild-type strain of B. stearothermophilus. Some properties of the proteases that have been purified from the transformants of B. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis were examined. No significant difference was observed among the enzyme properties studied here despite the difference in host cells. We found that the protease, neutral in pH characteristics and with a molecular weight of 36,000, retained about 80% of its activity even after treatment of 65 degrees C for 30 min. Images PMID:6302083

  10. Identification of an arginine residue in the dual coenzyme-specific glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides that plays a key role in binding NADP+ but not NAD+.

    PubMed

    Levy, H R; Vought, V E; Yin, X; Adams, M J

    1996-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides can utilize either NADP or NAD as coenzyme. The enzyme's three-dimensional structure has been solved (Rowland et al., 1994, Structure 2, 1073-1087) and shown to contain a conventional nucleotide binding domain. NADP+ was modeled into the structure by superimposing the beta alpha beta domain and that of coenzyme-bound 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (Adams et al., 1994, Structure 2, 651-658), enabling us to identify Arg-46 as a potentially important residue for NADP+ binding. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we constructed mutant enzymes in which Arg-46 was replaced by glutamine (R46Q) and alanine (R46A) and examined their kinetic properties. The principal effects in these mutant enzymes were that the Km and Ki values for NADP+ increased by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over those of the wild-type enzyme. No other kinetic constant was altered more than 6.5-fold. Changing this single amino acid leads to mutant glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases with coenzyme specificities that favor NAD+, whereas the wild-type enzyme prefers NADP+ as coenzyme. These results confirm that Arg-46 plays a key role in NADP+ binding by contributing a positively charged planar residue that interacts primarily with the 2'-adenosine phosphate. The Arg residue corresponding to Arg-46 in L. mesenteroides glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is conserved in all glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases and, presumably, plays the same role in all these enzymes. PMID:8579362

  11. Genetics of thermophilic bacteria. [Bacillus stearothermophilus:a2

    SciTech Connect

    Welker, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    Organisms adapted to high temperature have evolved a variety of unique solutions to the biochemical problems imposed by this environment. Adaptation is commonly used to describe the biochemical properties of organisms which have become adapted to their environment (genetic adaptation). It can also mean the direct response-at the cellular level-of an organism to changes in temperature (physiological adaptation). Thermophilic bacilli (strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus) can exhibit a variety of biochemical adaptations in response to changes in temperature. These include changes in the composition and stability of the membrane, metabolic potential, the transport of amino acids, regulatory mechanisms, ribose methylation of tRNA, protein thermostability, and nutritional requirements. The objectives of the research were to develop efficient and reliable genetic systems to analyze and manipulate B. Stearothermophilus, and to use these systems initiate a biochemical, molecular, and genetic investigations of genes that are required for growth at high temperature.

  12. Transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid by thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Mohammad; Oommen, Sosamma; Al-Awadi, Samira

    2011-01-01

    We performed a series of experiments with Geobacillus stearothermophilus, a thermophile isolated from oil-contaminated soil in the Kuwaiti desert. The organism has a good potential for the transformation of a broad spectrum of organic molecules such as steroids, amino acids, and aromatic hydrocarbons. In the present study, we tested its potential for the transformation of a bile component, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Five transformed products, namely, cholic acid, methylcholate, methylchenodeoxycholate, 3α-hydroxy-7-oxo-5β-cholanic acid, and 7α-hydroxy-3-oxo-5β-cholanic acid, were the major transformation products catalyzed by G. stearothermophilus. Under aerobic conditions, no evidence of side chain degradation, ring cleavage, or dehydrogenation was found among the metabolites of CDCA. CDCA transformation by a thermophile is reported for the first time. PMID:21838799

  13. Pharmacological targeting of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in human erythrocytes by Bay 11-7082, parthenolide and dimethyl fumarate.

    PubMed

    Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Giustarini, Daniela; Koralkova, Pavla; Köberle, Martin; Alzoubi, Kousi; Bissinger, Rosi; Hosseinzadeh, Zohreh; Dreischer, Peter; Bernhardt, Ingolf; Lang, Florian; Toulany, Mahmoud; Wieder, Thomas; Mojzikova, Renata; Rossi, Ranieri; Mrowietz, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    In mature erythrocytes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) yield NADPH, a crucial cofactor of the enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) converting glutathione disulfide (GSSG) into its reduced state (GSH). GSH is essential for detoxification processes in and survival of erythrocytes. We explored whether the anti-inflammatory compounds Bay 11-7082, parthenolide and dimethyl fumarate (DMF) were able to completely deplete a common target (GSH), and to impair the function of upstream enzymes of GSH recycling and replenishment. Treatment of erythrocytes with Bay 11-7082, parthenolide or DMF led to concentration-dependent eryptosis resulting from complete depletion of GSH. GSH depletion was due to strong inhibition of G6PDH activity. Bay 11-7082 and DMF, but not parthenolide, were able to inhibit the GR activity. This approach "Inhibitors, Detection of their common target that is completely depleted or inactivated when pharmacologically relevant concentrations of each single inhibitor are applied, Subsequent functional analysis of upstream enzymes for this target" (IDS), can be applied to a broad range of inhibitors and cell types according to the selected target. The specific G6PDH inhibitory effect of these compounds may be exploited for the treatment of human diseases with high NADPH and GSH consumption rates, including malaria, trypanosomiasis, cancer or obesity. PMID:27353740

  14. Pharmacological targeting of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in human erythrocytes by Bay 11–7082, parthenolide and dimethyl fumarate

    PubMed Central

    Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Giustarini, Daniela; Koralkova, Pavla; Köberle, Martin; Alzoubi, Kousi; Bissinger, Rosi; Hosseinzadeh, Zohreh; Dreischer, Peter; Bernhardt, Ingolf; Lang, Florian; Toulany, Mahmoud; Wieder, Thomas; Mojzikova, Renata; Rossi, Ranieri; Mrowietz, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    In mature erythrocytes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) yield NADPH, a crucial cofactor of the enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) converting glutathione disulfide (GSSG) into its reduced state (GSH). GSH is essential for detoxification processes in and survival of erythrocytes. We explored whether the anti-inflammatory compounds Bay 11–7082, parthenolide and dimethyl fumarate (DMF) were able to completely deplete a common target (GSH), and to impair the function of upstream enzymes of GSH recycling and replenishment. Treatment of erythrocytes with Bay 11–7082, parthenolide or DMF led to concentration-dependent eryptosis resulting from complete depletion of GSH. GSH depletion was due to strong inhibition of G6PDH activity. Bay 11–7082 and DMF, but not parthenolide, were able to inhibit the GR activity. This approach “Inhibitors, Detection of their common target that is completely depleted or inactivated when pharmacologically relevant concentrations of each single inhibitor are applied, Subsequent functional analysis of upstream enzymes for this target” (IDS), can be applied to a broad range of inhibitors and cell types according to the selected target. The specific G6PDH inhibitory effect of these compounds may be exploited for the treatment of human diseases with high NADPH and GSH consumption rates, including malaria, trypanosomiasis, cancer or obesity. PMID:27353740

  15. Genetic map of the Bacillus stearothermophilus NUB36 chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Vallier, H.; Welker, N.E. )

    1990-02-01

    A circular genetic map of Bacillus stearothermophilus NUB36 was constructed by transduction with bacteriophage TP-42C and protoplast fusion. Sixty-four genes were tentatively assigned a cognate Bacillus subtilis gene based on growth response to intermediates or end products of metabolism, cross-feeding, accumulation of intermediates, or their relative order in a linkage group. Although the relative position of many genes on the Bacillus subtilis genetic map appears to be similar, some differences were detected. The tentative order of the genes in the Bacillus stearothermophilus aro region is aspB-aroBAFEC-tyra-hisH-(trp), whereas it is aspB-aroE-tyrA-hisH-(trp)-aroHBF in Bacillus subtilis. The aroA, aroC, and aroG genes in Bacillus subtilis are located in another region. The tentative order of genes in the trp operon of Bacillus stearothermophilus is trpFCDABE, whereas it is trpABFCDE in Bacillus subtilis.

  16. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of foodborne Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Durand, Loïc; Planchon, Stella; Guinebretiere, Marie-Hélène; Carlin, Frédéric; Remize, Fabienne

    2015-02-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus is the main thermophilic spore former involved in flat sour spoilage of canned foods. Three typing methods were tested and applied to differentiate strains at intra-species level: panC sequence analysis, REP-PCR and M13-PCR. panC gene was highly conserved within the studied strains, suggesting a low intra-specific diversity. This was supported by REP-PCR primary assays and M13-PCR results. M13-PCR profile analysis succeeded in differentiating six closely related groups (at 79% threshold similarity) among 127 strains from a range of spoiled canned food products and from different canneries. Phenotypic traits were investigated among 20 selected strains representing groups and origins. Ranges of growth under different temperatures (from 40 °C to 70 °C), pH (from 5.0 to 6.5), NaCl concentrations (from 1 to 5%) and sporulation conditions poorly differed between strains, but wet heat resistance of spores showed a 20-fold variation between strains. Furthermore, in this study, strains that belonged to the same M13-PCR genetic group did not share phenotypic characteristics or common origin. The work emphasizes a low diversity within the G. stearothermophilus species but data from this study may contribute to a better control of G. stearothermophilus spoilage in canned food. PMID:25481066

  17. Salt-induced changes in the subunit structure of the Bacillus stearothermophilus lipoate acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Shigeoka, Yuichi; Fujisawa, Tetsuro; Teshiba, Satoshi; Fukumori, Hisayoshi; Yamamoto, Kohji; Banno, Yutaka; Aso, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    The Bacillus stearothermophilus lipoate acetyltransferase (E2), composed of sixty identical, subunits is the core component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). E2 polypeptide is composed of LD, PSBD, and CD domains. Most studies had focused on a truncated E2 that is deficient in LD and PSBD, because CD mainly contributes to maintaining the multimeric structure. We examined salt-induced changes in E2 without truncation and constructed reaction models. We speculate that in the presence of KCl, E2 is dissociated into a monomer and then assembled into an aggregative complex (C(A)) and a quasi-stable complex (C(Q)). C(A) was larger than C(Q), but smaller than intact E2. C(A) and C(Q), were dominant complexes at about neutral pH and at basic pH respectively. PDC, in which PSBD is occupied by other components, and a truncated E2 undergo dissociation only. LD-PSBD region besides CD might then contribute to the partial association of dissociated E2. PMID:23924725

  18. DECONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS, AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACTS USING A HYDROGEN PERIOXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: To evaluate the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface materials using hydrogen peroxide gas. Methods and Results: B. anthracis, B. subtilis, and G. Stearothermophilus spores were dried on seven...

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus Isolated from a Milk Powder Manufacturing Plant.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Sara A; Cox, Murray P; Flint, Steve H; Lindsay, Denise; Biggs, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Three strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus (designated A1, P3, and D1) were isolated from a New Zealand milk powder manufacturing plant. Here, we describe their draft genome sequences. This information provided the first genomic insights into the nature of G. stearothermophilus strains present in the milk powder manufacturing environment. PMID:26472822

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus Isolated from a Milk Powder Manufacturing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Sara A.; Cox, Murray P.; Flint, Steve H.; Lindsay, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Three strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus (designated A1, P3, and D1) were isolated from a New Zealand milk powder manufacturing plant. Here, we describe their draft genome sequences. This information provided the first genomic insights into the nature of G. stearothermophilus strains present in the milk powder manufacturing environment. PMID:26472822

  1. Metabolism of phenol and cresols by Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Buswell, J A

    1975-01-01

    An obligate thermophilic strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus, strain PH24, isolated from industrial sediment by elective culture, grew readily at 55 C on phenol or on one of the isomers of cresol as the major carbon source. Intact cells grown in the presence of phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, or p-cresol were induced to oxidize, without lag, these substrates together with catechol, 3-methylcatechol, and 4-methylcatechol. Cell extracts prepared from B. stearothermophilus PH24 after growth in the presence of phenol converted phenol to catechol with a concomitant uptake of 1 mol of oxygen per mol of substrate in reaction mixtures supplemented with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. These preparations also catalyzed the oxidation of o-cresol to 3-methylcatechol and of m-cresol and p-cresol to 4-methylcatechol. Enzyme activity was inhibited by 1 mM p-chloromercuribenzoate and by 0.1 mM 0-phenanthroline. Catechol and the corresponding methylcatechol intermediates were further dissimilated by cell extracts of phenol-grown cells via the meta-cleavage route to yield 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde and the respective methylated derivatives. PMID:1194230

  2. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of thermostable RNase HIII from Bacillus stearothermophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Chon, Hyongi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Koga, Yuichi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2005-03-01

    A thermostable ribonuclease HIII from B. stearothermophilus (Bst RNase HIII) was crystallized and preliminary crystallographic studies were performed. Plate-like overlapping polycrystals were grown by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 283 K.

  4. Development of a Quantitative PCR Assay for Thermophilic Spore-Forming Geobacillus stearothermophilus in Canned Food.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Miyo

    2015-01-01

    The thermophilic spore forming bacteria Geobacillus stearothermophilus is recognized as a major cause of spoilage in canned food. A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed to specifically detect and quantify the species G. stearothermophilus in samples from canned food. The selected primer pairs amplified a 163-bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene in a specific PCR assay with a detection limit of 12.5 fg of pure culture DNA, corresponding to DNA extracted from approximately 0.7 CFU/mL of G. stearothermophilus. Analysis showed that the bacterial species G. stearothermophilus was not detected in any canned food sample. Our approach presented here will be useful for tracking or quantifying species G. stearotethermophilus in canned food and ingredients. PMID:26412704

  5. Transglycosylation of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone by Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase.

    PubMed

    Cho, J S; Yoo, S S; Cheong, T K; Kim, M J; Kim, Y; Park, K H

    2000-02-01

    Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), a sweet compound derived from citrus fruits, was modified to a series of its oligosaccharides by transglycosylation activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase (BSMA). Maltotriose as a donor was reacted with NHDC as an acceptor to glycosylate for the purpose of increasing the solubility of NHDC. Maltosyl-NHDC was a major transglycosylation product among the several transfer products by TLC analysis. The structure of the major transglycosylation product was determined to be maltosyl-alpha-(1,6)-neohesperidin dihydrochalcone by MALDI-TOF/MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR. Maltosyl-NHDC was 700 times more soluble in water and 7 times less sweet than NHDC. PMID:10691608

  6. Structure of the Apo Form of Bacillus stearothermophilus Phosphofructokinase

    SciTech Connect

    Mosser, Rockann; Reddy, Manchi C.M.; Bruning, John B.; Sacchettini, James C.; Reinhart, Gregory D.

    2012-02-08

    The crystal structure of the unliganded form of Bacillus stearothermophilus phosphofructokinase (BsPFK) was determined using molecular replacement to 2.8 {angstrom} resolution (Protein Data Bank entry 3U39). The apo BsPFK structure serves as the basis for the interpretation of any structural changes seen in the binary or ternary complexes. When the apo BsPFK structure is compared with the previously published liganded structures of BsPFK, the structural impact that the binding of the ligands produces is revealed. This comparison shows that the apo form of BsPFK resembles the substrate-bound form of BsPFK, a finding that differs from previous predictions.

  7. Genetic analysis of Bacillus stearothermophilus by protoplast fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Wojcik, S.F.; Welker, N.E.

    1986-03-01

    Efficient and reliable protoplasting, regeneration, and fusion techniques were established for the prototrophic strain Bacillus stearothermophilus NUB36. Auxotrophic mutants were isolated, and protoplast fusion was used to construct isogenic mutant strains and for chromosomal mapping. Markers were mapped using two-, three-, and four-factor crosses. The order of the markers was hom-1-thr-1-his-1-(gly-1 or gly-2)-pur-1-pur-2. These markers may be analogous to hom, thrA, hisA, glyC, and purA markers on the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. No analogous pur-1 marker has been reported in B. subtilis. The relative order of three of the markers (hom-1-thr-1-gly-1) was independently confirmed by transduction.

  8. The effect of air on the moist-heat resistance of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores.

    PubMed

    Scruton, M W

    1989-11-01

    The presence of air in an autoclave chamber and load is generally considered to reduce the lethal effect of the process on bacterial spores. In this study, the heat inactivation of spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus (NCIB 8224) was measured in the presence and absence of air at 100% relative humidity. The results confirm that air significantly enhances the lethality of moist-heat on this strain of B. stearothermophilus. PMID:2575633

  9. Properties of Geobacillus stearothermophilus levansucrase as potential biocatalyst for the synthesis of levan and fructooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Inthanavong, Lotthida; Tian, Feng; Khodadadi, Maryam; Karboune, Salwa

    2013-01-01

    The production of levansucrase (LS) by thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus was investigated. LS production was more effective in the presence of sucrose (1%, w/v) than fructose, glucose, glycerol or raffinose. The results (Top 57°C; stable for 6 h at 47°C) indicate the high stability of the transfructosylation activity of G. stearothermophilus LS as compared with LSs from other microbial sources. Contrary to temperature, the pH had a significant effect on the selectivity of G. stearothermophilus LS-catalyzed reaction, favoring the transfructosylation reaction in the pH range of 6.0-6.5. The kinetic parameter study revealed that the catalytic efficiency of transfructosylation activity was higher as compared with the hydrolytic one. In addition to levan, G. stearothermophilus LS synthesized fructooligosaccharides in the presence of sucrose as the sole substrate. The results also demonstrated the wide acceptor specificity of G. stearothermophilus LS with maltose being the best fructosyl acceptor. This study is the first on the catalytic properties and the acceptor specificity of LS from G. stearothermophilus. PMID:23926090

  10. Inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores by high-pressure carbon dioxide treatment.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Taisuke; Furukawa, Soichi; Hirata, Junichi; Koyama, Tetsuya; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Yamasaki, Makari

    2003-12-01

    High-pressure CO2 treatment has been studied as a promising method for inactivating bacterial spores. In the present study, we compared this method with other sterilization techniques, including heat and pressure treatment. Spores of Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus were subjected to CO2 treatment at 30 MPa and 35 degrees C, to high-hydrostatic-pressure treatment at 200 MPa and 65 degrees C, or to heat treatment at 0.1 MPa and 85 degrees C. All of the bacterial spores except the G. stearothermophilus spores were easily inactivated by the heat treatment. The highly heat- and pressure-resistant spores of G. stearothermophilus were not the most resistant to CO2 treatment. We also investigated the influence of temperature on CO2 inactivation of G. stearothermophilus. Treatment with CO2 and 30 MPa of pressure at 95 degrees C for 120 min resulted in 5-log-order spore inactivation, whereas heat treatment at 95 degrees C for 120 min and high-hydrostatic-pressure treatment at 30 MPa and 95 degrees C for 120 min had little effect. The activation energy required for CO2 treatment of G. stearothermophilus spores was lower than the activation energy for heat or pressure treatment. Although heat was not necessary for inactivationby CO2 treatment of G. stearothermophilus spores, CO2 treatment at 95 degrees C was more effective than treatment at 95 degrees C alone. PMID:14660357

  11. Inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus Spores by High-Pressure Carbon Dioxide Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Taisuke; Furukawa, Soichi; Hirata, Junichi; Koyama, Tetsuya; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Yamasaki, Makari

    2003-01-01

    High-pressure CO2 treatment has been studied as a promising method for inactivating bacterial spores. In the present study, we compared this method with other sterilization techniques, including heat and pressure treatment. Spores of Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus were subjected to CO2 treatment at 30 MPa and 35°C, to high-hydrostatic-pressure treatment at 200 MPa and 65°C, or to heat treatment at 0.1 MPa and 85°C. All of the bacterial spores except the G. stearothermophilus spores were easily inactivated by the heat treatment. The highly heat- and pressure-resistant spores of G. stearothermophilus were not the most resistant to CO2 treatment. We also investigated the influence of temperature on CO2 inactivation of G. stearothermophilus. Treatment with CO2 and 30 MPa of pressure at 95°C for 120 min resulted in 5-log-order spore inactivation, whereas heat treatment at 95°C for 120 min and high-hydrostatic-pressure treatment at 30 MPa and 95°C for 120 min had little effect. The activation energy required for CO2 treatment of G. stearothermophilus spores was lower than the activation energy for heat or pressure treatment. Although heat was not necessary for inactivationby CO2 treatment of G. stearothermophilus spores, CO2 treatment at 95°C was more effective than treatment at 95°C alone. PMID:14660357

  12. Toxicological effects of thiomersal and ethylmercury: Inhibition of the thioredoxin system and NADP(+)-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Juan; Branco, Vasco; Lu, Jun; Holmgren, Arne; Carvalho, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a strong toxicant affecting mainly the central nervous, renal, cardiovascular and immune systems. Thiomersal (TM) is still in use in medical practice as a topical antiseptic and as a preservative in multiple dose vaccines, routinely given to young children in some developing countries, while other forms of mercury such as methylmercury represent an environmental and food hazard. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of thiomersal (TM) and its breakdown product ethylmercury (EtHg) on the thioredoxin system and NADP(+)-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway. Results show that TM and EtHg inhibited the thioredoxin system enzymes in purified suspensions, being EtHg comparable to methylmercury (MeHg). Also, treatment of neuroblastoma and liver cells with TM or EtHg decreased cell viability (GI50: 1.5 to 20μM) and caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the overall activities of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in cell lysates. Compared to control, the activities of Trx and TrxR in neuroblastoma cells after EtHg incubation were reduced up to 60% and 80% respectively, whereas in hepatoma cells the reduction was almost 100%. In addition, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were also significantly inhibited by all mercurials, with inhibition intensity of Hg(2+)>MeHg≈EtHg>TM (p<0.05). Cell incubation with sodium selenite alleviated the inhibitory effects on TrxR and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Thus, the molecular mechanism of toxicity of TM and especially of its metabolite EtHg encompasses the blockage of the electrons from NADPH via the thioredoxin system. PMID:25981166

  13. Biochemical Changes in Lysogenic Bacillus stearothermophilus After Bacteriophage Induction1

    PubMed Central

    Welker, N. E.; Campbell, L. Leon

    1965-01-01

    Welker, N. E. (University of Illinois, Urbana), and L. Leon Campbell. Biochemical changes in lysogenic Bacillus stearothermophilus after bacteriophage induction. J. Bacteriol. 90:1129–1137. 1965.—Cultures of Bacillus stearothermophilus 1503-4R (TP-1) continued to grow at an unaltered rate after induction with mitomycin C (MC). MC-induced cultures exhibited a 2.5-fold increase in cell number before lysis occurred. Prior to lysis, cells were observed to elongate and to contain areas of lesser density. Protein synthesis was slightly inhibited in MC- or ultraviolet light (UV)-induced cultures for a period of 5 to 10 min, and then proceeded at a rate identical to that in the noninduced culture. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis was not affected by MC induction. UV induction caused RNA synthesis to occur in two stages: in the first stage, the rate of RNA synthesis was one-third that observed in the noninduced culture and lasted for a period of 15 min; the second stage of RNA synthesis then proceeded at a rate identical to that in the noninduced culture. The synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in an MC- or UV-induced culture occurred in two stages. In the first stage, DNA synthesis in induced cultures occurred at a rate of one-half (MC) and one-third (UV) of that observed in the noninduced culture. The first stage of DNA synthesis in MC- or UV-induced cultures lasted for 25 to 30 min and 15 to 20 min, respectively. In the second stage, the rate of DNA synthesis in MC- or UV-induced cultures occurred at a rate three times that of the noninduced culture. UV induction appeared to have a greater inhibitory effect than MC induction on protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis as well as phage yield. The differential rate (K) of inducible and constitutive α-amylase synthesis was inhibited by 75 and 100%, respectively, for a period of 20 min after MC induction. After 20 min, the K values for α-amylase synthesis were identical to those obtained in the absence of MC induction. The

  14. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  15. Stringency of substrate specificity of Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase.

    SciTech Connect

    Boernke, W. E.; Millard, C. S.; Stevens, P. W.; Kakar, S. N.; Stevens, F. J.; Donnelly, M. I.; Nebraska Wesleyan Univ.

    1995-09-10

    Malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase are members of the structurally and functionally homologous family of 2-ketoacid dehydrogenases. Both enzymes display high specificity for their respective keto substrates, oxaloacetate and pyruvate. Closer analysis of their specificity, however, reveals that the specificity of malate dehydrogenase is much stricter and less malleable than that of lactate dehydrogenase. Site-specific mutagenesis of the two enzymes in an attempt to reverse their specificity has met with contrary results. Conversion of a specific active-site glutamine to arginine in lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus generated an enzyme that displayed activity toward oxaloacetate equal to that of the native enzyme toward pyruvate (H. M. Wilks et al. (1988) Science 242, 1541-1544). We have constructed a series of mutants in the mobile, active site loop of the Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase that incorporate the complementary change, conversion of arginine 81 to glutamine, to evaluate the role of charge distribution and conformational flexibility within this loop in defining the substrate specificity of these enzymes. Mutants incorporating the change R81Q all had reversed specificity, displaying much higher activity toward pyruvate than to the natural substrate, oxaloacetate. In contrast to the mutated lactate dehydrogenase, these reversed-specificity mutants were much less active than the native enzyme. Secondary mutations within the loop of the E. coli enzyme (A80N, A80P, A80P/M85E/D86T) had either no or only moderately beneficial effects on the activity of the mutant enzyme toward pyruvate. The mutation A80P, which can be expected to reduce the overall flexibility of the loop, modestly improved activity toward pyruvate. The possible physiological relevance of the stringent specificity of malate dehydrogenase was investigated. In normal strains of E. coli, fermentative metabolism was not affected by expression of the mutant

  16. Effectiveness of sealed dental prophylaxis angles inoculated with Bacillus stearothermophilus in preventing leakage.

    PubMed

    Barnes, C M; Anderson, N A; Michalek, S M; Russell, C M

    1994-01-01

    It was the purpose of this in vitro investigation to evaluate the effectiveness of several brands of sealed, reusable prophylaxis angles to keep internal materials within the internal portions of the head of the prophylaxis angle, and not allowing contaminates to leak out. Three brands of sealed, reusable dental prophylaxis angles were autoclaved and then taken apart under a biocontainment flow hood. Testing conditions were designed to prevent a "worst case scenario" by inoculating dental prophylaxis angles with 10(6) of the heat resistant spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus and 20% bovine serum albumin to simulate the presence of human serum. The concentration of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores was verified before testing procedures were initiated. The internal portions of the sterile prophylaxis angles were inoculated with a 1:1 mixture of the Bacillus stearothermophilus spores and bovine serum albumin, at a concentration of 1.15 x 10(6) spores/inoculation. The prophylaxis angles were reassembled under sterile conditions, and a sterile rubber cup was inserted into each of the prophylaxis angles. The prophylaxis angles were attached to a sterile dental handpiece and then submerged in a 50 ml tube containing sterile trypticase soy broth and run at 3000 rpm for 30 seconds. The tube of medium was incubated for 7 days. No growth of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores could be cultured from one of the brands of prophylaxis angles at any time during the incubation period. The other two brands of prophylaxis angles did produce some leakage of the Bacillus stearothermophilus spores. PMID:7999287

  17. Kinetics of Germination of Individual Spores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus as Measured by Raman Spectroscopy and Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tingting; Dong, Zhiyang; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-qing

    2013-01-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus is a gram-positive, thermophilic bacterium, spores of which are very heat resistant. Raman spectroscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy were used to monitor the kinetics of germination of individual spores of G. stearothermophilus at different temperatures, and major conclusions from this work were as follows. 1) The CaDPA level of individual G. stearothermophilus spores was similar to that of Bacillus spores. However, the Raman spectra of protein amide bands suggested there are differences in protein structure in spores of G. stearothermophilus and Bacillus species. 2) During nutrient germination of G. stearothermophilus spores, CaDPA was released beginning after a lag time (Tlag) between addition of nutrient germinants and initiation of CaDPA release. CaDPA release was complete at Trelease, and ΔTrelease (Trelease – Tlag) was 1–2 min. 3) Activation by heat or sodium nitrite was essential for efficient nutrient germination of G. stearothermophilus spores, primarily by decreasing Tlag values. 4) Values of Tlag and Trelease were heterogeneous among individual spores, but ΔTrelease values were relatively constant. 5) Temperature had major effects on nutrient germination of G. stearothermophilus spores, as at temperatures below 65°C, average Tlag values increased significantly. 6) G. stearothermophilus spore germination with exogenous CaDPA or dodecylamine was fastest at 65°C, with longer Tlag values at lower temperatures. 7) Decoating of G. stearothermophilus spores slowed nutrient germination slightly and CaDPA germination significantly, but increased dodecylamine germination markedly. These results indicate that the dynamics and heterogeneity of the germination of individual G. stearothermophilus spores are generally similar to that of Bacillus species. PMID:24058645

  18. Analysis of the tryptophanase expression in Symbiobacterium thermophilum in a coculture with Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Watsuji, Tomo-O; Takano, Hideaki; Yamabe, Tomoya; Tamazawa, Satoshi; Ikemura, Hiroka; Ohishi, Takanori; Matsuda, Tohyo; Shiratori-Takano, Hatsumi; Beppu, Teruhiko; Ueda, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    The tryptophanase-positive Symbiobacterium thermophilum is a free-living syntrophic bacterium that grows effectively in a coculture with Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Our studies have shown that S. thermophilum growth depends on the high CO2 and low O2 condition established by the precedent growth of G. stearothermophilus. The use of an anoxic atmosphere containing high CO2 allows S. thermophilum to grow independently of G. stearothermophilus, but the cellular yield is ten times lower than that achieved in the coculture. In this study, we characterized the coculture-dependent expression and activity of tryptophanase in S. thermophilum. S. thermophilum cells accumulated a marked amount of indole in a coculture with G. stearothermophilus, but not in the bacterium's pure culture irrespective of the addition of tryptophan. S. thermophilum cells accumulated indole in its pure culture consisting of conditioned medium (medium supplied with culture supernatant of G. stearothermophilus). Proteomic analysis identified the protein specifically produced in the S. thermophilum cells grown in conditioned medium, which was a tryptophanase encoded by tna2 (STH439). An attempt to isolate the tryptophanase-inducing component from the culture supernatant of G. stearothermophilus was unsuccessful, but we did discover that the indole accumulation occurs when 10 mM bicarbonate is added to the medium. RT-PCR analysis showed that the addition of bicarbonate stimulated transcription of tna2. The transcriptional start site, identified within the tna2 promoter, was preceded by the -24 and -12 consensus sequences specified by an alternative sigma factor, σ(54). The evidence suggests that the transcription of some genes involved in amino acid metabolism is σ(54)-dependent, and that a bacterial enhancer-binding protein containing a PAS domain controls the transcription under the presence of high levels of bicarbonate. PMID:25200839

  19. Development and application of Geobacillus stearothermophilus growth model for predicting spoilage of evaporated milk.

    PubMed

    Kakagianni, Myrsini; Gougouli, Maria; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2016-08-01

    The presence of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores in evaporated milk constitutes an important quality problem for the milk industry. This study was undertaken to provide an approach in modelling the effect of temperature on G. stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 growth and in predicting spoilage of evaporated milk. The growth of G. stearothermophilus was monitored in tryptone soy broth at isothermal conditions (35-67 °C). The data derived were used to model the effect of temperature on G. stearothermophilus growth with a cardinal type model. The cardinal values of the model for the maximum specific growth rate were Tmin = 33.76 °C, Tmax = 68.14 °C, Topt = 61.82 °C and μopt = 2.068/h. The growth of G. stearothermophilus was assessed in evaporated milk at Topt in order to adjust the model to milk. The efficiency of the model in predicting G. stearothermophilus growth at non-isothermal conditions was evaluated by comparing predictions with observed growth under dynamic conditions and the results showed a good performance of the model. The model was further used to predict the time-to-spoilage (tts) of evaporated milk. The spoilage of this product caused by acid coagulation when the pH approached a level around 5.2, eight generations after G. stearothermophilus reached the maximum population density (Nmax). Based on the above, the tts was predicted from the growth model as the sum of the time required for the microorganism to multiply from the initial to the maximum level ( [Formula: see text] ), plus the time required after the [Formula: see text] to complete eight generations. The observed tts was very close to the predicted one indicating that the model is able to describe satisfactorily the growth of G. stearothermophilus and to provide realistic predictions for evaporated milk spoilage. PMID:27052699

  20. Bacillus stearothermophilus sporulation response to different composition media.

    PubMed

    Penna, T C; Machoshvili, I A; Taqueda, M E; Ferraz, C A

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of 11 commonly used ingredients to improve Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 sporulation, with high spore yields in a short period of incubation, 32 composition media were set up by a fractional factorial 2IV11-6 design at two levels: D-glucose (0.018-0.25%), L-glutamic acid (0.040-0.10%), yeast extract (0.050-0.40%), peptone (0.30-0.50%), sodium chloride (0.001-1.0%), magnesium sulfate (0.001-0.20%), ammonium phosphate (0.010-0.035%), potassium phosphate monobasic (0.050-0.25%), calcium chloride (0.001-0.05%), ferrous sulfate (0.0003-0.002%), manganese sulfate (0.001-0.50%). The largest variation on Log10 CFU response took place due to sodium chloride main effect, by changing it from low to high levels. Magnesium sulfate, calcium chloride, and ferrous sulfate were split and exerted no detectable main effect influence on sporulation. Setting up two 16 runs for sodium chloride effect, in each of which the remainder levels were kept constant, other components contribution was studied. At low sodium chloride, best average 7.25 Log10 CFU yielded by fastening yeast extract and peptone at high level, and remainders at low level. Considering high level of sodium chloride, peptone, yeast extract and ammonium phosphate kept at high level and remainders at low level confirmed the best sporulation yield. Adjusted models evidenced a strong influence of joint yeast/peptone effect, associated to ammonium phosphate contributing positively. The reduced incubation period from 15 days to 3-6 days at 62 degrees C was attained for all 32 experimental runs. PMID:9846067

  1. Thermal inactivation and injury of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores.

    PubMed Central

    Feeherry, F E; Munsey, D T; Rowley, D B

    1987-01-01

    Aqueous spore suspensions of Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 were heated at different temperatures for various time intervals in a resistometer, spread plated on antibiotic assay medium supplemented with 0.1% soluble starch without (AAMS) or with (AAMS-S) 0.9% NaCl, and incubated at 55 degrees C unless otherwise indicated. Uninjured spores formed colonies on AAMS and AAMS-S; injured spores formed colonies only on AAMS. Values of D, the decimal reduction time (time required at a given temperature for destruction of 90% of the cells), when survivors were recovered on AAMS were 62.04, 18.00, 8.00, 3.33, and 1.05 min at 112.8, 115.6, 118.3, 121.1, and 123.9 degrees C, respectively. Recovery on AAMS-S resulted in reduced decimal reduction time. The computed z value (the temperature change which will alter the D value by a factor of 10) for spores recovered on AAMS was 8.3 degrees C; for spores recovered on AAMS-S, it was 7.6 degrees C. The rates of inactivation and injury were similar. Injury (judged by salt sensitivity) was a linear function of the heating temperature. At a heating temperature of less than or equal to 118.3 degrees C, spore injury was indicated by the curvilinear portion of the survival curve (judged by salt sensitivity), showing that injury occurred early in the thermal treatment as well as during logarithmic inactivation (reduced decimal reduction time). Heat-injured spores showed an increased sensitivity not only to 0.9% NaCl but also to other postprocessing environmental factors such as incubation temperatures, a pH of 6.6 for the medium, and anaerobiosis during incubation. PMID:3566270

  2. Effect of Calcium in Assay Medium on D Value of Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 Spores

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Koichi; Shintani, Hideharu; Itoh, Junpei; Kamogawa, Takuji; Kajihara, Yousei

    2000-01-01

    The D value of commercial biological indicator spore strips using Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 was increased by higher calcium concentrations in assay media. The calcium concentration in assay media varied among the manufacturers. The calcium concentration in assay media is an important factor to consider to minimize the variation of D value. PMID:11097939

  3. Effect of calcium in assay medium on D value of Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 spores.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Shintani, H; Itoh, J; Kamogawa, T; Kajihara, Y

    2000-12-01

    The D value of commercial biological indicator spore strips using Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 was increased by higher calcium concentrations in assay media. The calcium concentration in assay media varied among the manufacturers. The calcium concentration in assay media is an important factor to consider to minimize the variation of D value. PMID:11097939

  4. A method of increasing test range and accuracy of bioindicators: Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, Gunnel

    2003-01-01

    Spores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus are very sensitive to changes in temperature. When validating sterilizing processes, the most common bioindicator (BI) is spores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC12980 and ATCC7953 with about 10(6) spores /BI and a D121-value of about 2 minutes in water. Because these spores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus do not survive at a F0-value above 12 minutes, it has not been possible to evaluate the agreement between the biological F-value (F(BIO)) and physical measurements (time and temperature) when the physical F0-value exceeds that limit. However, it has been proven that glycerin substantially increases the heat resistance of the spores, and it is possible to utilize that property when manufacturing BIs suitable to use in processes with longer sterilization time or high temperature (above 121 degrees C). By the method described, it is possible to make use of the sensitivity and durability of Geobacillus stearothermophilus' spores when glycerin has increased both test range and accuracy. Experience from years of development and validation work with the use of the highly sensitive glycerin-water-spore-suspension sensor (GWS-sensor) is reported. Validation of the steam sterilization process at high temperature has been possible with the use of GWS-sensors. It has also been shown that the spores in suspension keep their characteristics for a period of 19 months when stored cold (8 degrees C). PMID:14558699

  5. Gene structure and quinol oxidase activity of a cytochrome bd-type oxidase from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, J; Koga, E; Mizuta, T; Sato, C; Noguchi, S; Sone, N

    1999-04-21

    Gram-positive thermophilic Bacillus species contain cytochrome caa3-type cytochrome c oxidase as their main terminal oxidase in the respiratory chain. We previously identified and purified an alternative oxidase, cytochrome bd-type quinol oxidase, from a mutant of Bacillus stearothermophilus defective in the caa3-type oxidase activity (J. Sakamoto et al., FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 143 (1996) 151-158). Compared with proteobacterial counterparts, B. stearothermophilus cytochrome bd showed lower molecular weights of the two subunits, shorter wavelength of alpha-band absorption maximum due to heme D, and lower quinol oxidase activity. Preincubation with menaquinone-2 enhanced the enzyme activity up to 40 times, suggesting that, besides the catalytic site, there is another quinone-binding site which largely affects the enzyme activity. In order to clarify the molecular basis of the differences of cytochromes bd between B. stearothermophilus and proteobacteria, the genes encoding for the B. stearothermophilus bd was cloned based on its partial peptide sequences. The gene for subunit I (cbdA) encodes 448 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 50195 Da, which is 14 and 17% shorter than those of Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii, respectively, and CbdA lacks the C-terminal half of the long hydrophilic loop between the putative transmembrane segments V and VI (Q loop), which has been suggested to include the substrate quinone-binding site for the E. coli enzyme. The gene for subunit II (cbdB) encodes 342 residues with a molecular weight of 38992 Da. Homology search indicated that the B. stearothermophilus cbdAB has the highest sequence similarity to ythAB in B. subtilis genome rather than to cydAB, the first set of cytochrome bd genes identified in the genome. Sequence comparison of cytochromes bd and their homologs from various organisms demonstrates that the proteins can be classified into two subfamilies, a proteobacterial type including E. coli bd and a

  6. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  7. Thermal adaptation of dihydrofolate reductase from the moderate thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiannan; Luk, Louis Y P; Loveridge, E Joel; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2014-05-01

    The thermal melting temperature of dihydrofolate reductase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (BsDHFR) is ~30 °C higher than that of its homologue from the psychrophile Moritella profunda. Additional proline residues in the loop regions of BsDHFR have been proposed to enhance the thermostability of BsDHFR, but site-directed mutagenesis studies reveal that these proline residues contribute only minimally. Instead, the high thermal stability of BsDHFR is partly due to removal of water-accessible thermolabile residues such as glutamine and methionine, which are prone to hydrolysis or oxidation at high temperatures. The extra thermostability of BsDHFR can be obtained by ligand binding, or in the presence of salts or cosolvents such as glycerol and sucrose. The sum of all these incremental factors allows BsDHFR to function efficiently in the natural habitat of G. stearothermophilus, which is characterized by temperatures that can reach 75 °C. PMID:24730604

  8. Production and characterization of a mesophilic lipase isolated from Bacillus stearothermophilus AB-1.

    PubMed

    Abada, Emad Abd El-Moniem

    2008-04-15

    Using Bacillus stearothermophilus AB-1 isolated from air, the production of lipase was attempted along with its purification and characterization studies. When different carbon and nitrogen sources were supplemented in the culture medium, xylose, tryptophan, alanine, phenylalanine and potassium nitrate were found to be the best. During cultivation, the strain secreted most of its lipase content after 48 h. In particular, the lipase produced in the culture broth showed 300 U mL(-1) when cultivated at optimal temperature and pH of 35 degrees C and 7.5, respectively. The enzyme was purified using 60% ammonium sulfate precipitation and sephadex G200 column chromatography. The enzyme was stable up to 40 degrees C and in the range of pH 7-8. This research reports for the first time the characterization of mesophilic lipase from Bacillus stearothermophilus AB-1 isolated from air. PMID:18819547

  9. Extraction of Copper from Malanjkhand Low-Grade Ore by Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sradhanjali; Sukla, Lala Behari; Mishra, Baroda Kanta

    2011-10-01

    Thermophilic bacteria are actively prevalent in hot water springs. Their potential to grow and sustain at higher temperatures makes them exceptional compare to other microorganism. The present study was initiated to isolate, identify and determine the feasibility of extraction of copper using thermophilic heterotrophic bacterial strain. Bacillus stearothermophilus is a thermophilic heterotrophic bacterium isolated from hot water spring, Atri, Orissa, India. This bacterium was adapted to low-grade chalcopyrite ore and its efficiency to solubilize copper from Malanjkhand low-grade ore was determined. The low-grade copper ore contains 0.27% Cu, in which the major copper-bearing mineral is chalcopyrite associated with other minerals present as minor phase. Variation in parameters such as pulp-density and temperatures were studied. After 30 days of incubation, it was found that Bacillus stearothermophilus solubilize copper up to 81.25% at pH 6.8 at 60°C. PMID:23024410

  10. Thermal Adaptation of Dihydrofolate Reductase from the Moderate Thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The thermal melting temperature of dihydrofolate reductase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (BsDHFR) is ∼30 °C higher than that of its homologue from the psychrophile Moritella profunda. Additional proline residues in the loop regions of BsDHFR have been proposed to enhance the thermostability of BsDHFR, but site-directed mutagenesis studies reveal that these proline residues contribute only minimally. Instead, the high thermal stability of BsDHFR is partly due to removal of water-accessible thermolabile residues such as glutamine and methionine, which are prone to hydrolysis or oxidation at high temperatures. The extra thermostability of BsDHFR can be obtained by ligand binding, or in the presence of salts or cosolvents such as glycerol and sucrose. The sum of all these incremental factors allows BsDHFR to function efficiently in the natural habitat of G. stearothermophilus, which is characterized by temperatures that can reach 75 °C. PMID:24730604

  11. Isolation of Glucocardiolipins from Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a

    PubMed Central

    Schäffer, Christina; Beckedorf, Anke I.; Scheberl, Andrea; Zayni, Sonja; Peter-Katalinić, Jasna; Messner, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Glucose-substituted cardiolipins account for about 4 mol% of total phospholipid extracted from exponentially grown cells of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a. Individual glucocardiolipin species exhibited differences in fatty acid substitution, with iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0 prevailing. The compounds were purified to homogeneity by a novel protocol and precharacterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. PMID:12426359

  12. Nucleotide sequence, heterologous expression and novel purification of DNA ligase from Bacillus stearothermophilus(1).

    PubMed

    Brannigan, J A; Ashford, S R; Doherty, A J; Timson, D J; Wigley, D B

    1999-07-13

    The gene for DNA ligase (EC 6.5.1.2) from thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus NCA1503 has been cloned and the complete nucleotide sequence determined. The ligase gene encodes a protein 670 amino acids in length. The gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the enzyme has been purified to homogeneity. Preliminary characterisation confirms that it is a thermostable, NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase. PMID:10407164

  13. [Effect of microwaves on the vegetative and spore forms of Bacillus stearothermophilus].

    PubMed

    Salvatorelli, G; Rosaspina, S; Sartea, A; Anzanel, D

    1993-02-01

    Microwave irradiation provides a rapid and effective method for sterilization of stainless steel scalpel blades or cover glasses contaminated by B. stearothermophilus. A study by SEM of vegetative forms showed that microwave irradiation induce a progressive series of alterations and finally the complete destruction of the microorganism. On the contrary there were no significant morphological variations of the spores after lethal irradiation by microwaves. PMID:8129884

  14. Effect of carrier materials on the resistance of spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus to gaseous hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Sigwarth, Volker; Stärk, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    The testing of the H2O2 decontamination process using spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus has gained widespread acceptance. Usually, commercially available Biological Indicators (BIs) with a specified resistance to H2O2 are challenged to qualify the process. The question arises whether the resistance of test spores is dependant on the type of carrier material and whether the resistance is representative for the system under test. The objective of the study is to quantify the effect of different carrier materials on the resistance of spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus to H2O2. Materials from which isolators were built, as well as those used in disposables during daily work were investigated. These materials were inoculated with 106 spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus (ATCC 7953). The spore resistance was tested to a well defined H2O2 decontamination cycle by determining the D-value using the "Fractional Negative" method. This paper reports on the effect of different carrier materials to the resistance of the test organism against H2O2. Various materials have significantly increased resistance of the spores and should be avoided in isolator systems. If commercially available BIs are used for process qualification, the resistance of the BI used, the fluctuation in resistance caused by isolator materials, the required log reduction, and at least the bioload of isolator surfaces need to be known. PMID:12643502

  15. Insight into the stereospecificity of short-chain thermus thermophilus alcohol dehydrogenase showing pro-S hydride transfer and prelog enantioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Pennacchio, Angela; Giordano, Assunta; Esposito, Luciana; Langella, Emma; Rossi, Mosè; Raia, Carlo A

    2010-04-01

    The stereochemistry of the hydride transfer in reactions catalyzed by NAD(H)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 was determined by means of (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The enzyme transfers the pro-S hydrogen of [4R-(2)H]NADH and exhibits Prelog specificity. Enzyme-substrate docking calculations provided structural details about the enantioselectivity of this thermophilic enzyme. These results give additional insights into the diverse active site architectures of the largely versatile short-chain dehydrogenase superfamily enzymes. A feasible protocol for the synthesis of [4R-(2)H]NADH with high yield was also set up by enzymatic oxidation of 2-propanol-d(8) catalyzed by Bacillus stearothermophilus alcohol dehydrogenase. PMID:19807673

  16. Toxicological effects of thiomersal and ethylmercury: Inhibition of the thioredoxin system and NADP{sup +}-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Juan; Branco, Vasco; Lu, Jun; Holmgren, Arne; Carvalho, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a strong toxicant affecting mainly the central nervous, renal, cardiovascular and immune systems. Thiomersal (TM) is still in use in medical practice as a topical antiseptic and as a preservative in multiple dose vaccines, routinely given to young children in some developing countries, while other forms of mercury such as methylmercury represent an environmental and food hazard. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of thiomersal (TM) and its breakdown product ethylmercury (EtHg) on the thioredoxin system and NADP{sup +}-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway. Results show that TM and EtHg inhibited the thioredoxin system enzymes in purified suspensions, being EtHg comparable to methylmercury (MeHg). Also, treatment of neuroblastoma and liver cells with TM or EtHg decreased cell viability (GI{sub 50}: 1.5 to 20 μM) and caused a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the overall activities of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in cell lysates. Compared to control, the activities of Trx and TrxR in neuroblastoma cells after EtHg incubation were reduced up to 60% and 80% respectively, whereas in hepatoma cells the reduction was almost 100%. In addition, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were also significantly inhibited by all mercurials, with inhibition intensity of Hg{sup 2+} > MeHg ≈ EtHg > TM (p < 0.05). Cell incubation with sodium selenite alleviated the inhibitory effects on TrxR and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Thus, the molecular mechanism of toxicity of TM and especially of its metabolite EtHg encompasses the blockage of the electrons from NADPH via the thioredoxin system. - Highlights: • TM and EtHg inhibit Trx and TrxR both in purified suspensions and cell lysates. • TM and EtHg also inhibit the activities of G6PDH and 6PGDH in cell lysates, • Co-exposure to selenite alleviates

  17. Effect of divalent metals on fungal and bacterial glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, W.; Niehaus, W.G.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have studied the effect of Zn/sup 2 +/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase purified from the fungi Aspergillus parasiticus, Alternaria alternata, Aphanomyces astaci, Saccharomyces cerevesiae, and Torula utilis, and from the bacteria Escherichia coli, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Bacillus stearothermophilus. Zn/sup 2 +/ reversibly inhibited the enzymes from A. parasiticus, S. cerevesiae, and T. utilis. Inhibition was competitive versus glucose-6-phosphate, with Ki = 25 ..mu..M, 75 ..mu..M, 25 ..mu..M, respectively. Zn/sup 2 +/ at 100 or 500 ..mu..M did not affect Vmax or Vmax/Km for the enzymes from A. alternata, A. astaci, L. mesenteroides, or B. stearothermophilus. Zn/sup 2 +/ caused loss of activity of the E. coli enzyme, which was not reversed by EDTA. Mg/sup 2 +/ stimulated both Vmax and Vmax/Km for all enzymes except that from A. astaci, on which it had no effect. Maximum stimulation occurred between 1 and 15 mM Mg/sup 2 +/ and ranged from 2 to 6-fold. For the enzymes from A. parasiticus, S. cerevesiae, and T. utilis, inclusion of 5 mM Mg/sup 2 +/ reversed the inhibition caused by 100 ..mu..M Zn/sup 2 +/.

  18. Separation of dehydrogenases on polyaminomethylstyrene.

    PubMed

    Schöpp, W; Meinert, S; Thyfronitou, J; Aurich, H

    1975-01-29

    The binding of dehydrogenases, especially alcohol dehydrogenase, and other proteins to several ion exchangers and hydrophobic polymers was investigated. Quantitative parameters for the stability of the polymer-protein complexes (obtained form double reciprocal plots) indicate a high but different affinity of many proteins for polyaminomethylstyrene. The chromatography of a mixture of five dehydrogenases and human serum albumin on polyaminomethylstyrene is described. PMID:237012

  19. Microbiological efficacy of superheated steam. I. Communication: results with spores of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus stearothermophilus and with spore earth.

    PubMed

    Spicher, G; Peters, J; Borchers, U

    1999-02-01

    For the spores of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus stearothermophilus as well as for spore earth (acc. DIN 58,946 Part 4 of August 1982), the dependence of resistance on the superheating of the steam used to kill germs was determined. A material (glass fibre fleece) was used as the germ carrier which does not superheat on contact with steam. The temperature of the saturated steam was 100 degrees C (B. subtilis) and 120 degrees C (B. stearothermophilus and spore earth). The yardstick for the resistance of the spores or bioindicators was the exposure period of the saturated or superheated steam at which 50% of the treated test objects no longer showed any viable test germs. The spores of Bacillus subtilis were far more sensitive to superheating of steam and reacted far more than the spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus and the germs in the spore earth. When superheating by 4 Kelvin the spores of Bacillus subtilis were approximately 2.5 times more resistant than they were to saturated steam. The resistance of Bacillus stearothermophilus and spore earth was only slightly higher up to superheating by 10 Kelvin. The spores of Bacillus subtilis had the highest resistance during superheating by 29 Kelvin; they were 119 times more resistant than they were to saturated steam. The resistance maximum of the spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus was at an superheating by around 22 Kelvin. However, the spores were only 4.1 times more resistant than they were to saturated steam. When using steam to kill germs, we must expect superheated steam. This raises the question whether the spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus, with their weaker reaction to the superheating of steam, are suitable as test germs for sterilisation with steam in all cases. PMID:10084207

  20. Expression and Characterization of Geobacillus stearothermophilus SR74 Recombinant α-Amylase in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Sivasangkary; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Chor Leow, Thean; Oslan, Siti Nurbaya

    2015-01-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus SR74 is a locally isolated thermophilic bacteria producing thermostable and thermoactive α-amylase. Increased production and commercialization of thermostable α-amylase strongly warrant the need of a suitable expression system. In this study, the gene encoding the thermostable α-amylase in G. stearothermophilus SR74 was amplified, sequenced, and subcloned into P. pastoris GS115 strain under the control of a methanol inducible promoter, alcohol oxidase (AOX). Methanol induced recombinant expression and secretion of the protein resulted in high levels of extracellular amylase production. YPTM medium supplemented with methanol (1% v/v) was the best medium and once optimized, the maximum recombinant α-amylase SR74 achieved in shake flask was 28.6 U mL−1 at 120 h after induction. The recombinant 59 kDa α-amylase SR74 was purified 1.9-fold using affinity chromatography with a product yield of 52.6% and a specific activity of 151.8 U mg−1. The optimum pH of α-amylase SR74 was 7.0 and the enzyme was stable between pH 6.0–8.0. The purified enzyme was thermostable and thermoactive, exhibiting maximum activity at 65°C with a half-life (t1/2) of 88 min at 60°C. In conclusion, thermostable α-amylase SR74 from G. stearothermophilus SR74 would be beneficial for industrial applications, especially in liquefying saccrification. PMID:26090417

  1. Expression and Characterization of Geobacillus stearothermophilus SR74 Recombinant α-Amylase in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sivasangkary; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Chor Leow, Thean; Oslan, Siti Nurbaya

    2015-01-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus SR74 is a locally isolated thermophilic bacteria producing thermostable and thermoactive α-amylase. Increased production and commercialization of thermostable α-amylase strongly warrant the need of a suitable expression system. In this study, the gene encoding the thermostable α-amylase in G. stearothermophilus SR74 was amplified, sequenced, and subcloned into P. pastoris GS115 strain under the control of a methanol inducible promoter, alcohol oxidase (AOX). Methanol induced recombinant expression and secretion of the protein resulted in high levels of extracellular amylase production. YPTM medium supplemented with methanol (1% v/v) was the best medium and once optimized, the maximum recombinant α-amylase SR74 achieved in shake flask was 28.6 U mL(-1) at 120 h after induction. The recombinant 59 kDa α-amylase SR74 was purified 1.9-fold using affinity chromatography with a product yield of 52.6% and a specific activity of 151.8 U mg(-1). The optimum pH of α-amylase SR74 was 7.0 and the enzyme was stable between pH 6.0-8.0. The purified enzyme was thermostable and thermoactive, exhibiting maximum activity at 65°C with a half-life (t₁/₂) of 88 min at 60°C. In conclusion, thermostable α-amylase SR74 from G. stearothermophilus SR74 would be beneficial for industrial applications, especially in liquefying saccrification. PMID:26090417

  2. ATPase activity measurement of DNA replicative helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus by malachite green method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Wang, Ganggang

    2016-09-15

    The DnaB helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (DnaBBst) was a model protein for studying the bacterial DNA replication. In this work, a non-radioactive method for measuring ATPase activity of DnaBBst helicase was described. The working parameters and conditions were optimized. Furthermore, this method was applied to investigate effects of DnaG primase, ssDNA and helicase loader protein (DnaI) on ATPase activity of DnaBBst. Our results showed this method was sensitive and efficient. Moreover, it is suitable for the investigation of functional interaction between DnaB and related factors. PMID:27372608

  3. The dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase of Aeromonas caviae ST exhibits NADH-dependent tellurite reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Castro, Miguel E; Molina, Roberto; Díaz, Waldo; Pichuantes, Sergio E; Vásquez, Claudio C

    2008-10-10

    Potassium tellurite (K(2)TeO(3)) is extremely toxic for most forms of life and only a limited number of organisms are naturally resistant to the toxic effects of this compound. Crude extracts prepared from the environmental isolate Aeromonas caviae ST catalize the in vitro reduction of TeO32- in a NADH-dependent reaction. Upon fractionation by ionic exchange column chromatography three major polypeptides identified as the E1, E2, and E3 components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex were identified in fractions exhibiting tellurite-reducing activity. Tellurite reductase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities co-eluted from a Sephadex gel filtration column. To determine which component(s) of the PDH complex has tellurite reductase activity, the A. caviae ST structural genes encoding for E1 (aceE), E2 (aceF), and E3 (lpdA) were independently cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and their gene products purified. Results indicated that tellurite reductase activity lies almost exclusively in the E3 component, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. The E3 component of the PDH complex from E. coli, Zymomonas mobilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus also showed NADH-dependent tellurite reductase in vitro suggesting that this enzymatic activity is widely distributed among microorganisms. PMID:18675788

  4. Cloning and DNA sequence of the gene coding for Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6 xylanase.

    PubMed Central

    Gat, O; Lapidot, A; Alchanati, I; Regueros, C; Shoham, Y

    1994-01-01

    Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6 produces an extracellular thermostable xylanase. Affinity-purified polyclonal serum raised against the enzyme was used to screen a genomic library of B. stearothermophilus T-6 constructed in lambda-EMBL3. Two positive phages were isolated, both containing similar 13-kb inserts, and their lysates exhibited xylanase activity. A 3,696-bp SalI-BamHI fragment containing the xylanase gene was subcloned in Escherichia coli and subsequently sequenced. The open reading frame of xylanase T-6 consists of 1,236 bp. On the basis of sequence similarity, two possible -10 and -35 regions, a ribosome-binding site at the 5' end of the gene and a potential transcriptional termination motif at the 3' end of the gene, were identified. From the previously known N-terminal amino acid sequence of xylanase T-6 and the possible ribosome-binding site, a putative 28-amino-acid signal peptide was deduced. The mature xylanase T-6 consists of 379 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight and pI of 43,808 and 6.88, respectively. Multiple alignment of beta-glycanase amino acid sequences revealed highly conserved regions. Northern (RNA) blot analysis indicated that the xylanase T-6 transcript is about 1.4 kb and that the induction of this enzyme synthesis by xylose is on the transcriptional level. Images PMID:8031084

  5. Partial purification and characterization of lipase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus AH22.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Arife Pınar; Dinçer, Barbaros; Baltaş, Nimet; Adıgüzel, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The lipase was partially purified by ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration column chromatography, and was characterized from Geobacillus stearothermophilus AH22 strain. The lipase was purified 18.3-folds with 19.7% recovery. The lipase activity was determined by using p-nitrophenyl esters (C2-C12) as substrates. The Km values of the enzyme for these substrates were found as 0.16, 0.02, 0.19 and 0.55 mM, respectively, while Vmax values were 0.52, 1.03, 0.72 and 0.15 U mg(-1). The enzyme showed maximum activity at 50 °C and between pH 8.0 and 9.0. The enzyme was found to be quite stable at pH range of 4.0-10.0, and thermal stability between 50 and 60 °C. It was found that the best inhibitory effect of the enzyme activity was of Hg(2+). The inhibitory effect as orlistat, catechin, propyl paraben, p-coumaric acid, 3,4-dihydroxy hydro-cinnamic acid was examined. These results suggest that G. stearothermophilus AH22 lipase presents very suitable properties for industrial applications. PMID:25798692

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of pyruvate kinase from Bacillus stearothermophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kenichiro; Ito, Sohei; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Sakai, Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    This report describes the crystallization and X-ray diffraction data collection of three types (wild-type, W416F/V435W and C9S/C268S) of B. stearothermophilus. Crystals of C9S/C268S belonged to space group P6{sub 2}22 and diffracted to a resolution of 2.4 Å. Pyruvate kinase (PK) from a moderate thermophile, Bacillus stearothermophilus (BstPK), is an allosteric enzyme activated by AMP and ribose 5-phosphate but not by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). However, almost all other PKs are activated by FBP. The wild-type and W416F/V435W mutant BstPKs were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. However, they were unsuitable for structural analysis because their data sets exhibited low completeness. A crystal suitable for structural analysis was obtained using C9S/C268S enzyme. The crystal belonged to space group P6{sub 2}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 145.97, c = 118.03 Å.

  7. In situ investigation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spore germination and inactivation mechanisms under moderate high pressure.

    PubMed

    Georget, Erika; Kapoor, Shobhna; Winter, Roland; Reineke, Kai; Song, Youye; Callanan, Michael; Ananta, Edwin; Heinz, Volker; Mathys, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial spores are a major concern for food safety due to their high resistance to conventional preservation hurdles. Innovative hurdles can trigger bacterial spore germination or inactivate them. In this work, Geobacillus stearothermophilus spore high pressure (HP) germination and inactivation mechanisms were investigated by in situ infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and fluorometry. G. stearothermophilus spores' inner membrane (IM) was stained with Laurdan fluorescent dye. Time-dependent FT-IR and fluorescence spectra were recorded in situ under pressure at different temperatures. The Laurdan spectrum is affected by the lipid packing and level of hydration, and provided information on the IM state through the Laurdan generalized polarization. Changes in the -CH2 and -CH3 asymmetric stretching bands, characteristic of lipids, and in the amide I' band region, characteristic of proteins' secondary structure elements, enabled evaluation of the impact of HP on endospores lipid and protein structures. These studies were complemented by ex situ analyses (plate counts and microscopy). The methods applied showed high potential to identify germination mechanisms, particularly associated to the IM. Germination up to 3 log10 was achieved at 200 MPa and 55 °C. A molecular-level understanding of these mechanisms is important for the development and validation of multi-hurdle approaches to achieve commercial sterility. PMID:24750808

  8. Cadmium Ion Biosorption by the Thermophilic Bacteria Geobacillus stearothermophilus and G. thermocatenulatus

    PubMed Central

    Hetzer, Adrian; Daughney, Christopher J.; Morgan, Hugh W.

    2006-01-01

    This study reports surface complexation models (SCMs) for quantifying metal ion adsorption by thermophilic microorganisms. In initial cadmium ion toxicity tests, members of the genus Geobacillus displayed the highest tolerance to CdCl2 (as high as 400 to 3,200 μM). The thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria Geobacillus stearothermophilus and G. thermocatenulatus were selected for further electrophoretic mobility, potentiometric titration, and Cd2+ adsorption experiments to characterize Cd2+ complexation by functional groups within and on the cell wall. Distinct one-site SCMs described the extent of cadmium ion adsorption by both studied Geobacillus sp. strains over a range of pH values and metal/bacteria concentration ratios. The results indicate that a functional group with a deprotonation constant pK value of approximately 3.8 accounts for 66% and 80% of all titratable sites for G. thermocatenulatus and G. stearothermophilus, respectively, and is dominant in Cd2+ adsorption reactions. The results suggest a different type of functional group may be involved in cadmium biosorption for both thermophilic strains investigated here, compared to previous reports for mesophilic bacteria. PMID:16751511

  9. Immunomagnetic detection of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores in food and environmental samples.

    PubMed Central

    Blake, M R; Weimer, B C

    1997-01-01

    There are currently no methods for the rapid and sensitive detection of bacterial spores that could be used to direct raw materials containing high spore loads away from products that pose a food safety risk. Existing methods require an overnight incubation, cannot detect spores below 10(5) CFU/ml, or are not specific to particular species. This work describes a method to specifically detect < 10(4) CFU of bacterial spores per ml within 2 h. Polyclonal antibodies to Bacillus stearothermophilus spores were attached to 2.8-micron-diameter magnetic polystyrene beads by using a polythreonine cross-linker via the antibody carbohydrate moiety. A biotin-avidin-amplified sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay coupled to a fluorescent substrate was used to quantitate captured spores. The concentration of B. stearothermophilus spores in samples was linearly correlated to fluorescent activity (r2 = 0.99) with a lower detection limit of 8 x 10(3) CFU/ml and an upper detection limit of 8 x 10(5) CFU/ml. The detection limits are not fixed and can be changed by varying the immunomagnetic bead concentration. Several food and environmental samples were tested to demonstrate the versatility of the assay. PMID:9143097

  10. Die another day: Fate of heat-treated Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 spores during storage under growth-preventing conditions.

    PubMed

    Mtimet, Narjes; Trunet, Clément; Mathot, Anne-Gabrielle; Venaille, Laurent; Leguérinel, Ivan; Coroller, Louis; Couvert, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores are recognized as one of the most wet-heat resistant among aerobic spore-forming bacteria and are responsible for 35% of canned food spoilage after incubation at 55 °C. The purpose of this study was to investigate and model the fate of heat-treated survivor spores of G. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 in growth-preventing environment. G. stearothermophilus spores were heat-treated at four different conditions to reach one or two decimal reductions. Heat-treated spores were stored in nutrient broth at different temperatures and pH under growth-preventing conditions. Spore survival during storage was evaluated by count plating over a period of months. Results reveal that G. stearothermophilus spores surviving heat treatment lose their viability during storage under growth-preventing conditions. Two different subpopulations were observed during non-thermal inactivation. They differed according to the level of their resistance to storage stress, and the proportion of each subpopulation can be modulated by heat treatment conditions. Finally, tolerance to storage stress under growth-preventing conditions increases at refrigerated temperature and neutral pH regardless of heat treatment conditions. Such results suggest that spore inactivation due to heat treatment could be completed by storage under growth-preventing conditions. PMID:26919821

  11. Cyanobacterial NADPH dehydrogenase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Teruo; Mi, Hualing

    2007-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess functionally distinct multiple NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes that are essential to CO2 uptake, photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration. The unique nature of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes is the presence of subunits involved in CO2 uptake. Other than CO2 uptake, chloroplastic NDH-1 complex has similar role as cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes in photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration (chlororespiration). In this mini-review we focus on the structure and function of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes and their phylogeny. The function of chloroplastic NDH-1 complex and characteristics of plants defective in NDH-1 are also described forcomparison.

  12. Human aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1): biochemical characterization and immunohistochemical localization in the cornea.

    PubMed Central

    Pappa, Aglaia; Estey, Tia; Manzer, Rizwan; Brown, Donald; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2003-01-01

    ALDH3A1 (aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1) is expressed at high concentrations in the mammalian cornea and it is believed that it protects this vital tissue and the rest of the eye against UV-light-induced damage. The precise biological function(s) and cellular distribution of ALDH3A1 in the corneal tissue remain to be elucidated. Among the hypotheses proposed for ALDH3A1 function in cornea is detoxification of aldehydes formed during UV-induced lipid peroxidation. To investigate in detail the biochemical properties and distribution of this protein in the human cornea, we expressed human ALDH3A1 in Sf9 insect cells using a baculovirus vector and raised monoclonal antibodies against ALDH3A1. Recombinant ALDH3A1 protein was purified to homogeneity with a single-step affinity chromatography method using 5'-AMP-Sepharose 4B. Human ALDH3A1 demonstrated high substrate specificity for medium-chain (6 carbons and more) saturated and unsaturated aldehydes, including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, which are generated by the peroxidation of cellular lipids. Short-chain aliphatic aldehydes, such as acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and malondialdehyde, were found to be very poor substrates for human ALDH3A1. In addition, ALDH3A1 metabolized glyceraldehyde poorly and did not metabolize glucose 6-phosphate, 6-phosphoglucono-delta-lactone and 6-phosphogluconate at all, suggesting that this enzyme is not involved in either glycolysis or the pentose phosphate pathway. Immunohistochemistry in human corneas, using the monoclonal antibodies described herein, revealed ALDH3A1 expression in epithelial cells and stromal keratocytes, but not in endothelial cells. Overall, these cumulative findings support the metabolic function of ALDH3A1 as a part of a corneal cellular defence mechanism against oxidative damage caused by aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation. Both recombinant human ALDH3A1 and the highly specific monoclonal antibodies described in the present paper may prove to be useful in probing

  13. Genetics Home Reference: pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... control the activity of the complex: pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase turns on (activates) the complex, while pyruvate dehydrogenase ... binding protein (the PDHX gene), and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase (the PDP1 gene) have been identified in people ...

  14. Sporicidal Activity of the KMT reagent in its vapor phase against Geobacillus stearothermophilus Spores.

    PubMed

    Kida, Nori; Mochizuki, Yasushi; Taguchi, Fumiaki

    2007-01-01

    In an investigation of the sporicidal activity of the KMT reagent, a vapor phase study was performed using five kinds of carriers contaminated with Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores. When 25 ml of the KMT reagent was vaporized in a chamber (capacity; approximately 95 liters), the 2-step heating method (vaporization by a combination of low temperature and high temperature) showed the most effective sporicidal activity in comparison with the 1-step heating method (rapid vaporization). The 2-step heating method appeared to be related to the sporicidal activity of vaporized KMT reagent, i.e., ethanol and iodine, which vaporized mainly when heated at a low temperature such as 55 C, and acidic water, which vaporized mainly when heated at a high temperature such as 300 C. We proposed that the KMT reagent can be used as a new disinfectant not only in the liquid phase but also in the vapor phase in the same way as peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. PMID:17237604

  15. Substrate specificities of wild and mutated farnesyl diphosphate synthases from Bacillus stearothermophilus with artificial substrates.

    PubMed

    Nagaki, Masahiko; Nakada, Minori; Musashi, Tohru; Kawakami, Jun; Ohya, Norimasa; Kurihara, Masayo; Maki, Yuji; Nishino, Tokuzo; Koyama, Tanetoshi

    2007-07-01

    To determine the substrate specificities of wild and mutated types of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthases from Bacillus stearothermophilus, we examined the reactivities of 8-hydroxygeranyl diphosphate (HOGPP) and 8-methoxygeranyl diphosphate (CH(3)OGPP) as allylic substrate homologs. The wild-type FPP synthase reaction of HOGPP (and CH(3)OGPP) with isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) gave hydroxyfarnesyl- (and methoxyfarnesyl-) diphosphates that stopped at the first stage of condensation. On the other hand, with mutated type FPP synthase (Y81S), the former gave hydroxygeranylgeranyl diphosphate as the main double-condensation product together with hydroxyfarnesyl diphosphate as a single-condensation product and a small amount of hydroxygeranylfarnesyl diphosphate as a triple-condensation product. Moreover, the latter gave a double-condensation product, methoxygeranylgeranyl diphosphate, as the main product and only a trace of methoxyfarnesyl diphosphate was obtained. PMID:17617711

  16. Effects of humidity on sterilization of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores with plasma-excited neutral gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Kei; Ikenaga, Noriaki; Sakudo, Noriyuki

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the effects of relative humidity on the sterilization process using a plasma-excited neutral gas that uniformly sterilizes both the space and inner wall of the reactor chamber at atmospheric pressure. Only reactive neutral species such as plasma-excited gas molecules and radicals were separated from the plasma and sent to the reactor chamber for chemical sterilization. The plasma source gas is nitrogen mixed with 0.1% oxygen, and the relative humidity in the source gas is controlled by changing the mixing ratio of water vapor. The relative humidity near the sample in the reactor chamber is controlled by changing the sample temperature. As a result, the relative humidity near the sample should be kept in the range from 60 to 90% for the sterilization of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores. When the relative humidity in the source gas increases from 30 to 90%, the sterilization effect is enhanced by the same degree.

  17. Investigation of Sterilization Mechanism for Geobacillus stearothermophilus Spores with Plasma-Excited Neutral Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Kei; Ikenaga, Noriaki; Sakudo, Noriyuki

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the mechanism of the sterilization with plasma-excited neutral gas that uniformly sterilizes both the space and inner wall of the reactor chamber at atmospheric pressure. Only reactive neutral species such as plasma-excited gas molecules and radicals are separated from the plasma and sent to the reactor chamber for chemical sterilization. The plasma source gas uses humidified mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores and tyrosine which is amino acid are treated by the plasma-excited neutral gas. Shape change of the treated spore is observed by SEM, and chemical modification of the treated tyrosine is analyzed by HPLC. As a result, the surface of the treated spore shows depression. Hydroxylation and nitration of tyrosine are shown after the treatment. For these reasons, we believe that the sterilization with plasma-excited neutral gas results from the deformation of spore structure due to the chemical modification of amino acid.

  18. Production and characterization of thermostable alpha-amylase by thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Al-Qodah, Zakaria

    2006-01-01

    Studies on the alpha-amylase-producing thermophilic bacterium isolated and identified from a hot spring in Jordan and designated as Geobacillus stearothermophilus JT2 were carried out. The optimum conditions for growth and enzyme production were pH 7 and 55 degrees C. The study of the kinetics of cellular growth indicated a mu(max) of 0.22/h, a K(s) of 1.2 g/L, a tau(d) of 3.15 h and a Y(x/s) of 0.43 g cell/g starch. In addition, the activation energy for growth and death were estimated and found to be 30.5 and 210 J/mol, respectively. The effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources on the cellular growth was tested. PMID:16927263

  19. Effect of Soybean Casein Digest Agar Lot on Number of Bacillus stearothermophilus Spores Recovered †

    PubMed Central

    Pflug, I. J.; Smith, Geraldine M.; Christensen, Ronald

    1981-01-01

    In recent years it has become increasingly apparent that Bacillus stearothermophilus spores are affected by various environmental factors that influence the performance of the spores as biological indicators. One environmental factor is the recovery medium. The effect of different lots of commercial soybean casein digest agar on the number of colony-forming units per plate was examined in two series of experiments: (i) several lots of medium from two manufacturers were compared in single experiments, and (ii) paired media experiments with four lots of medium were carried out and yielded three-point survivor curves. The results demonstrate that commercial soybean casein digest agar is variable on a lot-to-lot basis. The variation was lowest when recovering unheated or minimally heated spores and increased greatly with the severity of heating. PMID:16345822

  20. Graphical procedure for comparing thermal death of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores in saturated and superheated steam.

    PubMed

    SHULL, J J; ERNST, R R

    1962-09-01

    The thermal death curve of dried spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus in saturated steam was characterized by three phases: (i) a sharp initial rise in viable count; (ii) a low rate of death which gradually increased; and (iii) logarithmic death at maximal rate. The first phase was a reflection of inadequate heat activation of the spore population. The second and third phases represented the characteristic thermal death curve of the spores in saturated steam. A jacketed steam sterilizer, equipped with a system for initial evacuation of the chamber, was examined for superheat during normal operation. Measurements of spore inactivation and temperature revealed superheat in surface layers of fabrics being processed in steam at 121 C. The high temperature of the fabric surfaces was attributed to absorption of excess heat energy from superheated steam. The superheated steam was produced at the beginning of the normal sterilizing cycle by transfer of heat from the steam-heated jacket to saturated steam entering the vessel. PMID:13988774

  1. Effect of Soybean Casein Digest Agar Lot on Number of Bacillus stearothermophilus Spores Recovered.

    PubMed

    Pflug, I J; Smith, G M; Christensen, R

    1981-08-01

    In recent years it has become increasingly apparent that Bacillus stearothermophilus spores are affected by various environmental factors that influence the performance of the spores as biological indicators. One environmental factor is the recovery medium. The effect of different lots of commercial soybean casein digest agar on the number of colony-forming units per plate was examined in two series of experiments: (i) several lots of medium from two manufacturers were compared in single experiments, and (ii) paired media experiments with four lots of medium were carried out and yielded three-point survivor curves. The results demonstrate that commercial soybean casein digest agar is variable on a lot-to-lot basis. The variation was lowest when recovering unheated or minimally heated spores and increased greatly with the severity of heating. PMID:16345822

  2. Thermal inactivation kinetics of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores using a linear temperature program.

    PubMed

    Leontidis, S; Fernández, A; Rodrigo, C; Fernández, P S; Magraner, L; Martínez, A

    1999-08-01

    A systematic study of the inactivation kinetics of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores was carried out in nonisothermic heating conditions using a linear temperature increase program and analyzing the experimental data by means of a one-step nonlinear regression. The D and z values estimated are close to those obtained in isothermic conditions and estimated by using a two-step model, first D values are calculated, and then in the second step a z value is deduced (D(121 degrees C) = 3.08 and 4.38 min, respectively, and z = 7 and 7.9 degrees C, respectively). No convergence problems were observed when using the one-step nonlinear regression proposed. The results indicated that the methodology applied in this study can be used to obtain kinetic data for bacterial spores, which could mean a significant reduction in the amount of experimental work employed to generate these data. PMID:10456754

  3. The effect of bioindicator preparation and storage on thermal resistance of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores.

    PubMed

    Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni; Ishii, Marina; Machoshvili, Irene Alexeevna; Marques, Marcelo

    2002-01-01

    Paper strips inoculated with spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 were conventionally dried (lot 1) and lyophilized (lot 2); stored in defined environments of 32 and 86% relative humidity at 10, 25 and 33 degrees C for 210 d; and submitted to moist heat treatments at 121 degrees C. A significant decrease in thermal resistance from initial starting levels was found for lyophilized bioindicators stored at 86% relative humidity. The respective average D121 degrees C values were 1.55+/-0.05 and 1.37+/-0.10 min for lyophilized bioindicators stored at 32 and 86% relative humidity; and 1.65+/-0.15 min and 1.57+/-0.11 min for dried bioindicators stored in the same environments. PMID:12018279

  4. Relief of Casein Inhibition of Bacillus stearothermophilus by Iron, Calcium, and Magnesium1

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, D. H.; Busta, F. F.; Warren, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    Growth of Bacillus stearothermophilus strain NCA 1518 Smooth in Dextrose Tryptone Agar (DTA) was inhibited by sodium caseinate. Binding studies indicated that sodium caseinate, when present in DTA, had the capacity to effect an iron deficiency which could cause inhibition of growth. Additions of essential cations, iron (1 mM), calcium (5 mM), magnesium (10 mM), or hydrogen ion (pH 5.7), relieved inhibition. Responses to and interactions among these relief factors were analyzed statistically. Equations were fitted to the data and were used to estimate responses to all treatment combinations within the ranges tested. Results from these studies indicated that calcium, magnesium, and hydrogen ion acted by decreasing the binding capacity of the protein for iron, rendering this metal available for metabolic needs. Evidence was obtained that ferrous rather than ferric iron was the limiting factor in DTA containing sodium caseinate. PMID:5694503

  5. Keratinous waste decomposition and peptide production by keratinase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus AD-11.

    PubMed

    Gegeckas, Audrius; Gudiukaitė, Renata; Debski, Janusz; Citavicius, Donaldas

    2015-04-01

    A keratinolytic proteinase was cloned from thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus AD-11 and was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Recombinant keratinolytic proteinase (RecGEOker) with an estimated molecular weight of 57 kDa was purified and keratinase activity was measured. RecGEOker showed optimal activity at pH 9 and 60 °C. Recombinant keratinolytic proteinase showed the highest substrate specificity toward keratin from wool > collagen > sodium caseinate > gelatin > and BSA in descending order. RecGEOker is applicable for efficient keratin waste biodegradation and can replace conventional non-biological hydrolysis processes. High-value small peptides obtained from enzymatic biodegradation by RecGEOker are suitable for industrial application in white and/or green biotechnology for use as major additives in various products. PMID:25625783

  6. Improving thermal and detergent stability of Bacillus stearothermophilus neopullulanase by rational enzyme design.

    PubMed

    Ece, Selin; Evran, Serap; Janda, Jan-Oliver; Merkl, Rainer; Sterner, Reinhard

    2015-06-01

    Neopullulanase, a glycosyl hydrolase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (bsNpl), is a potentially valuable enzyme for starch and detergent industries. However, as the protein is not active at elevated temperatures and high surfactant concentrations, we aimed to increase its stability by rational enzyme design. Nine potentially destabilizing cavities were identified in the crystal structure of the enzyme. Based on computational predictions, these cavities were filled by residues with bulkier side chains. The five Asp46Glu, Val239Leu, Val404Leu, Ser407Thr and Ala566Leu exchanges resulted in a drastic stabilization of bsNpl against inactivation by heat and detergents. The catalytic activity of the variants was identical to the wild-type enzyme. PMID:25680359

  7. Crystal structure of thermostable p-nitrophenylphosphatase from Bacillus Stearothermophilus (Bs-TpNPPase).

    PubMed

    Guo, Zheng; Wang, Fengbin; Shen, Tiantian; Huang, Jing; Wang, Yuandong; Ji, Chaoneng

    2014-05-01

    Thermostable p-nitrophenylphosphatase from Bacillus Stearothermophilus (Bs-TpNPPase) is involved in the Mg(2+)-dependent hydrolysis of the phosphoenzyme at an optimum reaction temperature of 55°C. Bs-TpNPPase has been cloned and overexpressed in the E.coli M15 strain. Based on the conserved active sites, the protein was suggested to be a member of the haloalkanoate dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily. Two site-specific point mutants of Bs-TpNPPase were prepared by changing the catalytic Asp10 and Thr43 to Ala10 and Ala43, respectively. The activity of the two mutants further confirms Bs-TpNPPase as a member of the HAD superfamily. HAD superfamily can be divided into the four subfamilies and play several biochemical roles such as DNA repair, signal transduction and secondary metabolism. To understand the relationship between structure and thermostability in HAD superfamily, Bs-TpNPPase from Bacillus Stearothermophilus was selected. The X-ray crystal structure of Bs-TpNPPase was determined at 1.5A resolution using the molecular replacement phasing method. The structure of Bs-TpNPPase has been deposited and the PDB code is 4KN8. Compared with Bsp, a mesophilic prokaryotic putative p-nitrophenyl phosphatase from Bacillus Subtilis, Bs- TpNPPase showed highly homology but variations in the level of leucine content, aromatic clusters, cation-Pi and hydrophobic interaction. These differences may affect the thermal stability of the protein. The crystal structure of Bs-TpNPPase described herein may serve as a guide to better understand the mechanism of thermostability and provide insights for further mutation work. PMID:24256105

  8. Purification and characterization of cloned alkaline protease gene of Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Irfana; Aftab, Muhammad Nauman; Afzal, Mohammed; Ur-Rehman, Asad; Aftab, Saima; Zafar, Asma; Ud-Din, Zia; Khuharo, Ateeque Rahman; Iqbal, Jawad; Ul-Haq, Ikram

    2015-02-01

    Thermostable alkaline serine protease gene of Geobacillus stearothermophilus B-1172 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using pET-22b(+), as an expression vector. The growth conditions were optimized for maximal production of the protease using variable fermentation parameters, i.e., pH, temperature, and addition of an inducer. Protease, thus produced, was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography with 13.7-fold purification, with specific activity of 97.5 U mg(-1) , and a recovery of 23.6%. Molecular weight of the purified protease, 39 kDa, was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme was stable at 90 °C at pH 9. The enzyme activity was steady in the presence of EDTA indicating that the protease was not a metalloprotease. No significant change in the activity of protease after addition of various metal ions further strengthened this fact. However, an addition of 1% Triton X-100 or SDS surfactants constrained the enzyme specific activity to 34 and 19%, respectively. Among organic solvents, an addition of 1-butanol (20%) augmented the enzyme activity by 29% of the original activity. With casein as a substrate, the enzyme activity under optimized conditions was found to be 73.8 U mg(-1) . The effect of protease expression on the host cells growth was also studied and found to negatively affect E. coli cells to certain extent. Catalytic domains of serine proteases from eight important thermostable organisms were analyzed through WebLogo and found to be conserved in all serine protease sequences suggesting that protease of G. stearothermophilus could be beneficially used as a biocontrol agent and in many industries including detergent industry. PMID:25224381

  9. Effect of phosphate buffer concentration on the heat resistance of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores suspended in parenteral solutions.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, C A; Smith, G M; Pflug, I J

    1978-09-01

    The effect of various quantities of Butterfield phosphate buffer added to four parenteral solutions on the survival of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores heated at 121 degrees C was determined. The effect of the addition of phosphate buffer on spore survival varied with the parenteral solution. Spore survival was increased or decreased, depending upon the composition of the parenteral solution and the buffer concentration. The results obtained in these experiments attest to the fact that environmental factors, including the type of ions present and ionic concentration, affect the heat destruction rate of B. stearothermophilus spores. Therefore, the sterilization requirements of a product such as a parenteral solution may be affected by small changes in formulation. PMID:727778

  10. Effect of phosphate buffer concentration on the heat resistance of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores suspended in parenteral solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, C A; Smith, G M; Pflug, I J

    1978-01-01

    The effect of various quantities of Butterfield phosphate buffer added to four parenteral solutions on the survival of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores heated at 121 degrees C was determined. The effect of the addition of phosphate buffer on spore survival varied with the parenteral solution. Spore survival was increased or decreased, depending upon the composition of the parenteral solution and the buffer concentration. The results obtained in these experiments attest to the fact that environmental factors, including the type of ions present and ionic concentration, affect the heat destruction rate of B. stearothermophilus spores. Therefore, the sterilization requirements of a product such as a parenteral solution may be affected by small changes in formulation. PMID:727778

  11. Effect of acidification and oil on the thermal resistance of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores heated in food substrate.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, F; Rodrigo, C; Fernández, P S; Rodrigo, M; Martínez, A

    1999-11-15

    The effect of the addition of vinegar and/or oil to a food homogenate (tomato sauce, tuna and vegetables) on the thermal resistance of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores was studied. The results indicated that the food substrate without the addition of vinegar and oil and a pH value of 5.28 reduced the thermal resistance of B. stearothermophilus spores compared with that obtained in double-distilled water, (D121 = 1.41 and 3.08 min respectively). The addition of vinegar reduced the pH of the substrate (4.81) and consequently the D values were reduced (D121 = 1.28 min). The addition of soya oil and vinegar to substrate until a pH of 4.81, further reduced the thermal resistance of the spores, giving a D121 value of 0.93 min. PMID:10733251

  12. Direct fermentation of potato starch and potato residues to lactic acid by Geobacillus stearothermophilus under non-sterile conditions

    PubMed Central

    Smerilli, Marina; Neureiter, Markus; Wurz, Stefan; Haas, Cornelia; Frühauf, Sabine; Fuchs, Werner

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lactic acid is an important biorefinery platform chemical. The use of thermophilic amylolytic microorganisms to produce lactic acid by fermentation constitutes an efficient strategy to reduce operating costs, including raw materials and sterilization costs. RESULTS A process for the thermophilic production of lactic acid by Geobacillus stearothermophilus directly from potato starch was characterized and optimized. Geobacillus stearothermophilus DSM 494 was selected out of 12 strains screened for amylolytic activity and the ability to form lactic acid as the major product of the anaerobic metabolism. In total more than 30 batches at 3–l scale were run at 60 °C under non-sterile conditions. The process developed produced 37 g L−1 optically pure (98%) L-lactic acid in 20 h from 50 g L−1 raw potato starch. As co-metabolites smaller amounts (<7% w/v) of acetate, formate and ethanol were formed. Yields of lactic acid increased from 66% to 81% when potato residues from food processing were used as a starchy substrate in place of raw potato starch. CONCLUSIONS Potato starch and residues were successfully converted to lactic acid by G. stearothermophilus. The process described in this study provides major benefits in industrial applications and for the valorization of starch-rich waste streams. © 2015 The Authors.Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25937690

  13. Modeling the behavior of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 throughout its life cycle as vegetative cells or spores using growth boundaries.

    PubMed

    Mtimet, Narjes; Trunet, Clément; Mathot, Anne-Gabrielle; Venaille, Laurent; Leguérinel, Ivan; Coroller, Louis; Couvert, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus is recognized as one of the most prevalent micro-organism responsible for flat sour in the canned food industry. To control these highly resistant spore-forming bacteria, the heat treatment intensity could be associated with detrimental conditions for germination and outgrowth. The purpose of this work was to study successively the impact of temperature and pH on the growth rate of G. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980, its sporulation ability, its heat resistance in response to various sporulation conditions, and its recovery ability after a heat treatment. The phenotypic investigation was carried out at different temperatures and pHs on nutrient agar and the heat resistance was estimated at 115 °C. The greatest spore production and the highest heat resistances were obtained at conditions of temperature and pH allowing maximal growth rate. The current observations also revealed that growth, sporulation and recovery boundaries are close. Models using growth boundaries as main parameters were extended to describe and quantify the effect of temperature and pH throughout the life cycle of G. stearothermophilus as vegetative cells or as spore after a heat treatment and during recovery. PMID:25791003

  14. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  15. HIV-1 Gag p17 presented as virus-like particles on the E2 scaffold from Geobacillus stearothermophilus induces sustained humoral and cellular immune responses in the absence of IFNγ production by CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Caivano, Antonella; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Buelow, Benjamin; Sartorius, Rossella; Trovato, Maria; D’Apice, Luciana; Domingo, Gonzalo J.; Sutton, William F.; Haigwood, Nancy L.; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe

    2012-01-01

    We have constructed stable virus-like particles displaying the HIV-1 Gag(p17) protein as an N-terminal fusion with an engineered protein domain from the Geobacillus stearothermophilus pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit E2. Mice immunized with the Gag(p17)-E2 60-mer scaffold particles mounted a strong and sustained antibody response. Antibodies directed to Gag(p17) were boosted significantly with additional immunizations, while anti-E2 responses reached a plateau. The isotype of the induced antibodies was biased towards IgG1, and the E2-primed CD4+ T cells did not secrete IFNγ. Using transgenic mouse model systems, we demonstrated that CD8+ T cells primed with E2 particles were able to exert lytic activity and produce IFNγ. These results show that the E2 scaffold represents a powerful vaccine delivery system for whole antigenic proteins or polyepitope engineered proteins, evoking antibody production and antigen specific CTL activity even in the absence of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells. PMID:20850858

  16. HIV-1 Gag p17 presented as virus-like particles on the E2 scaffold from Geobacillus stearothermophilus induces sustained humoral and cellular immune responses in the absence of IFN{gamma} production by CD4+ T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Caivano, Antonella; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Buelow, Benjamin; Sartorius, Rossella; Trovato, Maria; D'Apice, Luciana; Domingo, Gonzalo J.; Sutton, William F.; Haigwood, Nancy L.; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe

    2010-11-25

    We have constructed stable virus-like particles displaying the HIV-1 Gag(p17) protein as an N-terminal fusion with an engineered protein domain from the Geobacillus stearothermophilus pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit E2. Mice immunized with the Gag(p17)-E2 60-mer scaffold particles mounted a strong and sustained antibody response. Antibodies directed to Gag(p17) were boosted significantly with additional immunizations, while anti-E2 responses reached a plateau. The isotype of the induced antibodies was biased towards IgG1, and the E2-primed CD4+ T cells did not secrete IFN{gamma}. Using transgenic mouse model systems, we demonstrated that CD8+ T cells primed with E2 particles were able to exert lytic activity and produce IFN{gamma}. These results show that the E2 scaffold represents a powerful vaccine delivery system for whole antigenic proteins or polyepitope engineered proteins, evoking antibody production and antigen specific CTL activity even in the absence of IFN{gamma}-producing CD4+ T cells.

  17. Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, H. J.; Hanson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum, a facultative methane-oxidizing bacterium, has been purified to homogeneity as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. It has several properties in common with the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The active enzyme is a dimeric protein, both subunits having molecular weights of about 62,000. The enzyme exhibits broad substrate specificity for primary alcohols and catalyzes the two-step oxidation of methanol to formate. The apparent Michaelis constants of the enzyme are 2.9 × 10−5 M for methanol and 8.2 × 10−5 M for formaldehyde. Activity of the purified enzyme is dependent on phenazine methosulfate. Certain characteristics of this enzyme distinguish it from the other alcohol dehydrogenases of other methylotrophic bacteria. Ammonia is not required for, but stimulates the activity of newly purified enzyme. An absolute dependence on ammonia develops after storage of the purified enzyme. Activity is not inhibited by phosphate. The fluorescence spectrum of the enzyme indicates that it and the cofactor associated with it may be chemically different from the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The alcohol dehydrogenases of Hyphomicrobium WC-65, Pseudomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and several facultative methylotrophs are serologically related to the enzyme purified in this study. The enzymes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and of organisms of the Methylococcus group did not cross-react with the antiserum prepared against the alcohol dehydrogenase of M. organophilum. Images PMID:80974

  18. [Suitability of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus stearothermophilus spores as test organism bioindicators for detecting superheating of steam].

    PubMed

    Spicher, G; Peters, J

    1997-02-01

    Biological indicators used to test sterilisation procedures for their efficacy consist of a so-called germ carrier to which the microorganisms used as test organisms adhere. In previous papers we demonstrated that carriers made of filter paper on contact with saturated steam show superheating while carriers made of glass fibre fleece as well as wetted filter paper do not. Using spores of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus stearothermophilus as test organisms we have now investigated whether and to what extent carrier superheating affects the characteristic values (t50%) of these biological indicators. The indicators were exposed to saturated steam at 100 degrees C (B. subtilis) or 120 degrees C (B. stearothermophilus) under three different exposure conditions: 1. dry (i.e. conditioned to 45% relative humidity before introduction into the sterilising chamber), freely accessible; 2. dry with a substratum and a cover of filter card-board; 3. wet (moistened with twice distilled water before introduction into the sterilising chamber), freely accessible. For previously selected exposure periods, the incidence of indicators with surviving test organisms was determined. The reaction pattern of bioindicators with spores of B. stearothermophilus was different from that of bioindicators with spores of B. subtilis. For B. subtilis, the incidence of bioindicators exhibiting surviving test organisms depended on the nature of the carries as well as on the exposure conditions. On filter paper carriers, t50% increased in the order "wet, freely accessible", "dry, freely accessible", "dry, between filter card-board". On dry and wetted glass fibre fleece, resistance was approximately the same; when the indicators were sandwiched between layers of filter card-board, t50% increased. For B. stearothermophilus, t50% was largely dependent on the carrier material alone. The values obtained for filter paper were invariably much lower than those for glass fibre fleece. As the results show, using

  19. Misfolded forms of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase interact with GroEL and inhibit chaperonin-assisted folding of the wild-type enzyme.

    PubMed

    Polyakova, Oxana V; Roitel, Olivier; Asryants, Regina A; Poliakov, Alexei A; Branlant, Guy; Muronetz, Vladimir I

    2005-04-01

    We studied the interaction of chaperonin GroEL with different misfolded forms of tetrameric phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH): (1) GAPDH from rabbit muscles with all SH-groups modified by 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate); (2) O-R-type dimers of mutant GAPDH from Bacillus stearothermophilus with amino acid substitutions Y283V, D282G, and Y283V/W84F, and (3) O-P-type dimers of mutant GAPDH from B. stearothermophilus with amino acid substitutions Y46G/S48G and Y46G/R52G. It was shown that chemically modified GAPDH and the O-R-type mutant dimers bound to GroEL with 1:1 stoichiometry and dissociation constants K(d) of 0.4 and 0.9 muM, respectively. A striking feature of the resulting complexes with GroEL was their stability in the presence of Mg-ATP. Chemically modified GAPDH and the O-R-type mutant dimers inhibited GroEL-assisted refolding of urea-denatured wild-type GAPDH from B. stearothermophilus but did not affect its spontaneous reactivation. In contrast to the O-R-dimers, the O-P-type mutant dimers neither bound nor affected GroEL-assisted refolding of the wild-type GAPDH. Thus, we suggest that interaction of GroEL with certain types of misfolded proteins can result in the formation of stable complexes and the impairment of chaperonin activity. PMID:15741339

  20. Misfolded forms of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase interact with GroEL and inhibit chaperonin-assisted folding of the wild-type enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Polyakova, Oxana V.; Roitel, Olivier; Asryants, Regina A.; Poliakov, Alexei A.; Branlant, Guy; Muronetz, Vladimir I.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the interaction of chaperonin GroEL with different misfolded forms of tetrameric phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH): (1) GAPDH from rabbit muscles with all SH-groups modified by 5,5′-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate); (2) O-R-type dimers of mutant GAPDH from Bacillus stearothermophilus with amino acid substitutions Y283V, D282G, and Y283V/W84F, and (3) O-P-type dimers of mutant GAPDH from B. stearothermophilus with amino acid substitutions Y46G/S48G and Y46G/R52G. It was shown that chemically modified GAPDH and the O-R-type mutant dimers bound to GroEL with 1:1 stoichiometry and dissociation constants Kd of 0.4 and 0.9 μM, respectively. A striking feature of the resulting complexes with GroEL was their stability in the presence of Mg-ATP. Chemically modified GAPDH and the O-R-type mutant dimers inhibited GroEL-assisted refolding of urea-denatured wild-type GAPDH from B. stearothermophilus but did not affect its spontaneous reactivation. In contrast to the O-R-dimers, the O-P-type mutant dimers neither bound nor affected GroEL-assisted refolding of the wild-type GAPDH. Thus, we suggest that interaction of GroEL with certain types of misfolded proteins can result in the formation of stable complexes and the impairment of chaperonin activity. PMID:15741339

  1. Structural basis of substrate binding in WsaF, a rhamnosyltransferase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Kerstin; Hagelueken, Gregor; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina; Naismith, James H

    2010-03-26

    Carbohydrate polymers are medically and industrially important. The S-layer of many Gram-positive organisms comprises protein and carbohydrate polymers and forms an almost paracrystalline array on the cell surface. Not only is this array important for the bacteria but it has potential application in the manufacture of commercially important polysaccharides and glycoconjugates as well. The S-layer glycoprotein glycan from Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a is mainly composed of repeating units of three rhamnose sugars linked by alpha-1,3-, alpha-1,2-, and beta-1,2-linkages. The formation of the beta-1,2-linkage is catalysed by the enzyme WsaF. The rational use of this system is hampered by the fact that WsaF and other enzymes in the pathway share very little homology to other enzymes. We report the structural and biochemical characterisation of WsaF, the first such rhamnosyltransferase to be characterised. Structural work was aided by the surface entropy reduction method. The enzyme has two domains, the N-terminal domain, which binds the acceptor (the growing rhamnan chain), and the C-terminal domain, which binds the substrate (dTDP-beta-l-rhamnose). The structure of WsaF bound to dTDP and dTDP-beta-l-rhamnose coupled to biochemical analysis identifies the residues that underlie catalysis and substrate recognition. We have constructed and tested by site-directed mutagenesis a model for acceptor recognition. PMID:20097205

  2. Evolved beta-galactosidases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus with improved transgalactosylation yield for galacto-oligosaccharide production.

    PubMed

    Placier, Gaël; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Rabiller, Claude; Mattes, Ralf

    2009-10-01

    A mutagenesis approach was applied to the beta-galactosidase BgaB from Geobacillus stearothermophilus KVE39 in order to improve its enzymatic transglycosylation of lactose into oligosaccharides. A simple screening strategy, which was based on the reduction of the hydrolysis of a potential transglycosylation product (lactosucrose), provided mutant enzymes possessing improved synthetic properties for the autocondensation product from nitrophenyl-galactoside and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose. The effects of the mutations on enzyme activity and kinetics were determined. An change of one arginine to lysine (R109K) increased the oligosaccharide yield compared to that for the wild-type BgaB. Subsequently, saturation mutagenesis at this position demonstrated that valine and tryptophan further increased the transglycosylation performance of BgaB. During the transglycosylation reaction with lactose of the evolved beta-galactosidases, a major trisaccharide was formed. Its structure was characterized as beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D-glucopyranoside (3'-galactosyl-lactose). At the lactose concentration of 18% (wt/vol), this trisaccharide was obtained in yields of 11.5% (wt/wt) with GP21 (BgaB R109K), 21% with GP637.2 (BgaB R109V), and only 2% with the wild-type BgaB enzyme. GP643.3 (BgaB R109W) was shown to be the most efficient mutant, with a 3'-galactosyl-lactose production of 23%. PMID:19666723

  3. Structure-specificity relationships of an intracellular xylanase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Solomon, V; Teplitsky, A; Shulami, S; Zolotnitsky, G; Shoham, Y; Shoham, G

    2007-08-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 is a thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium that produces two selective family 10 xylanases which both take part in the complete degradation and utilization of the xylan polymer. The two xylanases exhibit significantly different substrate specificities. While the extracellular xylanase (XT6; MW 43.8 kDa) hydrolyzes the long and branched native xylan polymer, the intracellular xylanase (IXT6; MW 38.6 kDa) preferentially hydrolyzes only short xylo-oligosaccharides. In this study, the detailed three-dimensional structure of IXT6 is reported, as determined by X-ray crystallography. It was initially solved by molecular replacement and then refined at 1.45 A resolution to a final R factor of 15.0% and an R(free) of 19.0%. As expected, the structure forms the classical (alpha/beta)(8) fold, in which the two catalytic residues (Glu134 and Glu241) are located on the inner surface of the central cavity. The structure of IXT6 was compared with the highly homologous extracellular xylanase XT6, revealing a number of structural differences between the active sites of the two enzymes. In particular, structural differences derived from the unique subdomain in the carboxy-terminal region of XT6, which is completely absent in IXT6. These structural modifications may account for the significant differences in the substrate specificities of these otherwise very similar enzymes. PMID:17642511

  4. Enhanced maltose production through mutagenesis of acceptor binding subsite +2 in Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yecheng; Duan, Xuguo; Wang, Lei; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-10

    Maltogenic amylases are used to decrease the maltotriose content of high maltose syrups. However, due to the interplay between the hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities of maltogenic amylases, the maltotriose contents of these syrups are still greater than that necessary for pure maltose preparation. In this study, the maltogenic amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus was engineered to decrease its transglycosylation activity with the expectation that this would enhance maltose production. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate Trp 177 variants W177F, W177Y, W177L, W177N, and W177S. The transglycosylation activities of the mutant enzymes decreased as the hydrophilicity of the residue at position 177 increased. The mutant enzymes exhibited notable enhancements in maltose production, with a minimum of maltotriose contents of 0.2%, compared with 3.2% for the wild-type enzyme. Detailed characterization of the mutant enzymes suggests that the best of them, W177S, will deliver performance superior to that of the wild-type under industrial conditions. PMID:26597712

  5. Structure of a His170Tyr mutant of thermostable pNPPase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Tiantian; Guo, Zheng; Ji, Chaoneng

    2014-01-01

    Using directed evolution based on random mutagenesis and heat-treated selection, a thermostable His170Tyr mutant of Geobacillus stearothermophilus thermostable p-nitrophenylphosphatase (TpNPPase) was obtained. The temperature at which the His170Tyr mutant lost 50% of its activity (T 1/2) was found to be 4.40 K higher than that of wild-type TpNPPase, and the melting temperature of the His170Tyr mutant increased by 2.39 K. The crystal structure of the His170Tyr mutant was then determined at 2.0 Å resolution in the presence of a sodium ion and a sulfate ion in the active site. The cap domain of chain B shows a half-closed conformation. The hydrophobic side chain of the mutated residue, the hydroxyphenyl group, forms a hydrophobic contact with the methyl group of Ala166. This hydrophobic interaction was found using the Protein Interactions Calculator (PIC) web server with an interaction distance of 4.6 Å, and might be a key factor in the thermostabilization of the His170Tyr mutant. This study potentially offers a molecular basis for both investigation of the catalytic mechanism and thermostable protein engineering. PMID:24915075

  6. Electron transfer kinetics of caa3 oxidase from Bacillus stearothermophilus: a hypothesis for thermophilicity.

    PubMed Central

    Giuffrè, A; Watmough, N J; Giannini, S; Brunori, M; Konings, W N; Greenwood, C

    1999-01-01

    The O2 reaction and the reverse electron transfer of the thermophilic caa3 terminal oxidase of Bacillus stearothermophilus have been studied by laser flash-photolysis. The results show that both reactions, although studied at a temperature of 20 degreesC, far from the optimal temperature of > 60 degreesC for caa3, follow a kinetic behavior essentially identical to that observed with the electrostatic complex between mammalian cyt c and cyt c oxidase. In the O2 reaction cyt a and cyt a3 are very quickly oxidized; cyt a is then re-reduced via CuA, whereas cyt c oxidation is apparently rate-limited by the oxidation of CuA. Upon photodissociation of the mixed valence-CO caa3, reverse electron transfer from the binuclear center to cyt a3+ (tau1 = 3 micros) and CuA2+ (tau2 = 64 micros) is observed, while cyt c is not reduced by any detectable level. These results seem to rule out accounting for enzymatic thermophilicity by altered kinetics of intramolecular electron transfer involving the cyt center in the reduced configuration, which is very fast. On the basis of these results and previous data, we propose that thermophilicity involves an increased activation barrier for the reduction of cyt a3-CuB in the configuration typical of the oxidized site. PMID:9876155

  7. Time-resolved fluorescence of the single tryptophan of Bacillus stearothermophilus phosphofructokinase.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S J; Chowdhury, F N; Stryjewski, W; Younathan, E S; Russo, P S; Barkley, M D

    1993-01-01

    The fluorescence of the single tryptophan in Bacillus stearothermophilus phosphofructokinase was characterized by steady-state and time-resolved techniques. The enzyme is a tetramer of identical subunits, which undergo a concerted allosteric transition. Time-resolved emission spectral data were fitted to discrete and distributed lifetime models. The fluorescence decay is a double exponential with lifetimes of 1.6 and 4.4 ns and relative amplitudes of 40 and 60%. The emission spectra of both components are identical with maxima at 327 nm. The quantum yield is 0.31 +/- 0.01. The shorter lifetime is independent of temperature; the longer lifetime has weak temperature dependence with activation energy of 1 kcal/mol. The fluorescence intensity and decay are the same in H2O and D2O solutions, indicating that the indole ring is not accessible to bulk aqueous solution. The fluorescence is not quenched significantly by iodide, but it is quenched by acrylamide with bimolecular rate constant of 5 x 10(8) M-1 s-1. Static and dynamic light scattering measurements show that the enzyme is a tetramer in solution with hydrodynamic radius of 40 A. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence anisotropies indicate that the tryptophan is immobile. The allosteric transition has little effect on the fluorescence properties. The fluorescence results are related to the x-ray structure. PMID:8369432

  8. Mg2+-Assisted Catalysis by B. stearothermophilus TrpRS is Promoted by Allosteric Effects

    PubMed Central

    Weinreb, Violetta; Li, Li; Campbell, Cassandra L.; Kaguni, Laurie S.; Carter, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Mn2+-assisted catalysis by B. stearothermophilus TrpRS parallels that in polymerases and reduces specificity in amino acid activation. As predicted by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, multi-variant thermodynamic cycles with [ATP]-dependent Michaelis-Menten kinetics and Mn2+ for Mg2+ substitution demonstrate energetic coupling of ATP affinities to the metal; to lysines K111 and K192, which interact via the PPi leaving group; and to K195, which couples differently to the metal via the α–phosphate. However, net coupling to the metal opposes catalysis in both ground (Km) and transition (kcat) states. The 105-fold rate acceleration by Mg2+-protein interactions therefore requires additional favorable protein-metal couplings. Examples include longer-range, i.e., allosteric, interactions previously illustrated by the remote F37I mutation, which both reduces kcat and enhances catalytic assist by Mn2+, relative to that by Mg2+. These data support a model linking metal-assisted phosphoryl transfer catalysis to domain movement, and hence to free-energy transduction in a broad range of enzymes. PMID:19604475

  9. The glycerol teichoic acid from the cell wall of Bacillus stearothermophilus B65

    PubMed Central

    Wicken, A. J.

    1966-01-01

    1. A glycerol teichoic acid has been extracted from cell walls of Bacillus stearothermophilus B65 and its structure examined. 2. Trichloroacetic acid-extractable teichoic acid accounted for 68% of the total cell-wall phosphorus and residual material could be hydrolysed to a mixture of products including those characteristic of glycerol teichoic acids. 3. The extracted polymer is composed of glycerol, phosphoric acid, d-glucose and d-alanine. 4. Hydrolysis of the polymer with alkali gave glycerol, 1-O-α-d-glucopyranosylglycerol and its monophosphates, glycerol mono- and di-phosphate, as well as traces of a glucosyldiglycerol triphosphate and a glucosylglycerol diphosphate. 5. The teichoic acid is a polymer of 18 or 19 glycerol phosphate units having α-d-glucopyranosyl residues attached to position 1 of 14 or 15 of the glycerol residues. 6. The glycerol residues are joined by phosphodiester linkages involving positions 2 and 3 in each glycerol. 7. d-Alanine is in ester linkage to the hydroxyl group at position 6 of approximately half of the glucose residues. 8. One in every 13 or 12 polymer molecules bears a phosphomonoester group on position 3 of a glucose residue, the possible significance of which in linkage of the polymer to other wall constituents is discussed. PMID:4290549

  10. Racemization of alanine by the alanine racemases from Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus stearothermophilus: energetic reaction profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Faraci, W.S.; Walsh, C.T.

    1988-05-03

    Alanine racemases are bacterial pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes providing D-alanine as an essential building block for biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall. Two isozymic alanine racemases, encoded by the dadB gene and the alr gene, from the Gram-negative mesophilic Salmonella typhimurium and one from the Gram-positive thermophilic Bacillus stearothermophilus have been examined for the racemization mechanism. Substrate deuterium isotope effects and solvent deuterium isotope effects have been measured in both L ..-->.. D and D..-->.. L directions for all three enzymes to assess the degree to which abstraction of the ..cap alpha..-proton or protonation of substrate PLP carbanion is limiting in catalysis. Additionally, experiments measuring internal return of ..cap alpha..-/sup 3/H from substrate to product and solvent exchange/substrate conversion experiments in /sup 3/H/sub 2/O have been used with each enzyme to examine the partitioning of substrate PLP carbanion intermediates and to obtain the relative heights of kinetically significant energy barriers in alanine racemase catalysis.

  11. Biophysical characterization of a recombinant aminopeptidase II from the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Fan; Lin, Min-Guan; Lo, Huei-Fen; Chi, Meng-Chun; Lin, Long-Liu

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the biophysical properties of His6-tagged Bacillus stearothermophilus aminopeptidase II (His6-tagged BsAmpII) are characterized in detail by gel-filtration, analytical ultracentrifugation, and various spectroscopic techniques. Using size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation, we demonstrate that His6-tagged BsAmpII exists predominantly as a dimer in solution. The enzyme is active and stable at pHs ranging from 6.5 to 8.5. Far-UV circular dichroism analysis reveals that the secondary structures of His6-tagged BsAmpII are significantly altered in the presence of SDS, whereas the presence of 5-10% acetone and ethanol was harmless to the folding of the enzyme. Thermal unfolding of His6-tagged BsAmpII was found to be irreversible and led to the formation of aggregates. The native enzyme started to unfold beyond 0.6 M guanidine hydrochloride and had a midpoint of denaturation at 1.34 M. This protein remained active at concentrations of urea below 2.7 M but experienced an irreversible unfolding by >5 M denaturant. Taken together, this work lays a foundation for potential biotechnological applications of His6-tagged BsAmpII. PMID:24165863

  12. The HPr Proteins from the Thermophile Bacillus stearothermophilus Can Form Domain-swapped Dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Sudharsan; Razvi, Abbas; Scholtz, J. Martin; Sacchettini, James C.

    2010-07-20

    The study of proteins from extremophilic organisms continues to generate interest in the field of protein folding because paradigms explaining the enhanced stability of these proteins still elude us and such studies have the potential to further our knowledge of the forces stabilizing proteins. We have undertaken such a study with our model protein HPr from a mesophile, Bacillus subtilis, and a thermophile, Bacillus stearothermophilus. We report here the high-resolution structures of the wild-type HPr protein from the thermophile and a variant, F29W. The variant proved to crystallize in two forms: a monomeric form with a structure very similar to the wild-type protein as well as a domain-swapped dimer. Interestingly, the structure of the domain-swapped dimer for HPr is very different from that observed for a homologous protein, Crh, from B. subtilis. The existence of a domain-swapped dimer has implications for amyloid formation and is consistent with recent results showing that the HPr proteins can form amyloid fibrils. We also characterized the conformational stability of the thermophilic HPr proteins using thermal and solvent denaturation methods and have used the high-resolution structures in an attempt to explain the differences in stability between the different HPr proteins. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the solution properties of the HPr proteins using a variety of biochemical and biophysical methods.

  13. Purification and characterization of a thermostable xylanase from Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6.

    PubMed Central

    Khasin, A; Alchanati, I; Shoham, Y

    1993-01-01

    Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6 produces an extracellular xylanase that was shown to optimally bleach pulp at pH 9 and 65 degrees C. The enzyme was purified and concentrated in a single adsorption step onto a cation exchanger and is made of a single polypeptide with an apparent M(r) of 43,000 (determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Xylanase T-6 is an endoxylanase that completely degrades xylan to xylose and xylobiose. The pIs of the purified protein were 9 and 7 under native and denaturing conditions, respectively. The optimum activity was at pH 6.5; however, 60% of the activity was still retained at pH 10. At 65 degrees C and pH 7, the enzyme was stable for more than 10 h; at 65 degrees C and pH 9, the half-life of the enzyme was approximately 6 h. Kinetic experiments at 55 degrees C gave Vmax and Km values of 288 U/mg and 1.63 mg/ml, respectively. The enzyme had no apparent requirement for cofactors, and its activity was strongly inhibited by Zn2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+. Xylan completely protected the protein from inactivation by N-bromosuccinimide. The N-terminal sequence of the first 45 amino acids of the enzyme showed high homology with the N-terminal region of xylanase A from the alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain C-125. Images PMID:8328796

  14. [Thermal resistance of the spores of a Bac. stearothermophilus culture used for the preparation of bioindicators].

    PubMed

    Kalinina, N M; Shilova, S V; Motina, G L; Chaĭkovskaia, S M

    1982-02-01

    Thermostability of the spores of Bac. stearothermophilus in ampoules and capillaries in concentrations of 10(9), 10(8) and 10(6) cells per 1 ml of sodium chloride isotonic solution was determined at 119 to 124 degrees C with an interval of 1 degree C and an exposure time of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 minutes. The results were used for plotting the survival curves. The time of the microbial death in the ampoules and capillaries at all the temperatures was the same and the ampoules were chosen as the bioindicator vehicle because of their availability and convenience in exploitation. The survival curves may be used for determination of the optimal sterilization conditions. The spore concentration of the thermostable culture in the bioindicator should be equal or exceed the level of the object microbial contamination. In the present study the concentration of the test microbe spores in the bioindicator was 10(6)--10(8) cells/ml. PMID:7065645

  15. Structure-Specificity Relationships of an Intracellular Xylanase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon,V.; Teplitsky, A.; Shulami, S.; Zolotnitsky, G.; Shoham, Y.; Shoham, G.

    2007-01-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 is a thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium that produces two selective family 10 xylanases which both take part in the complete degradation and utilization of the xylan polymer. The two xylanases exhibit significantly different substrate specificities. While the extracellular xylanase (XT6; MW 43.8 kDa) hydrolyzes the long and branched native xylan polymer, the intracellular xylanase (IXT6; MW 38.6 kDa) preferentially hydrolyzes only short xylo-oligosaccharides. In this study, the detailed three-dimensional structure of IXT6 is reported, as determined by X-ray crystallography. It was initially solved by molecular replacement and then refined at 1.45 {angstrom} resolution to a final R factor of 15.0% and an R{sub free} of 19.0%. As expected, the structure forms the classical ({alpha}/{beta}){sub 8} fold, in which the two catalytic residues (Glu134 and Glu241) are located on the inner surface of the central cavity. The structure of IXT6 was compared with the highly homologous extracellular xylanase XT6, revealing a number of structural differences between the active sites of the two enzymes. In particular, structural differences derived from the unique subdomain in the carboxy-terminal region of XT6, which is completely absent in IXT6. These structural modifications may account for the significant differences in the substrate specificities of these otherwise very similar enzymes.

  16. Biochemical and Mutational Characterization of N-Succinyl-Amino Acid Racemase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus CECT49.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Maldonado, Pablo; Andújar-Sánchez, Montserrat; Clemente-Jiménez, Josefa María; Rodríguez-Vico, Felipe; Las Heras-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Rodríguez, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    N-Succinyl-amino acid racemase (NSAAR), long referred to as N-acyl- or N-acetyl-amino acid racemase, is an enolase superfamily member whose biotechnological potential was discovered decades ago, due to its use in the industrial dynamic kinetic resolution methodology first known as "Acylase Process". In previous works, an extended and enhanced substrate spectrum of the NSAAR from Geobacillus kaustophilus CECT4264 toward different N-substituted amino acids was reported. In this work, we describe the cloning, purification, and characterization of the NSAAR from Geobacillus stearothermophilus CECT49 (GstNSAAR). The enzyme has been extensively characterized, showing a higher preference toward N-formyl-amino acids than to N-acetyl-amino acids, thus confirming that the use of the former substrates is more appropriate for a biotechnological application of the enzyme. The enzyme showed an apparent thermal denaturation midpoint of 77.0 ± 0.1 °C and an apparent molecular mass of 184 ± 5 kDa, suggesting a tetrameric species. Optimal parameters for the enzyme activity were pH 8.0 and 55-65 °C, with Co(2+) as the most effective cofactor. Mutagenesis and binding experiments confirmed K166, D191, E216, D241, and K265 as key residues in the activity of GstNSAAR, but not indispensable for substrate binding. PMID:25875730

  17. Michael hydratase alcohol dehydrogenase or just alcohol dehydrogenase?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Michael hydratase – alcohol dehydrogenase (MhyADH) from Alicycliphilus denitrificans was previously identified as a bi-functional enzyme performing a hydration of α,β-unsaturated ketones and subsequent oxidation of the formed alcohols. The investigations of the bi-functionality were based on a spectrophotometric assay and an activity staining in a native gel of the dehydrogenase. New insights in the recently discovered organocatalytic Michael addition of water led to the conclusion that the previously performed experiments to identify MhyADH as a bi-functional enzyme and their results need to be reconsidered and the reliability of the methodology used needs to be critically evaluated. PMID:24949265

  18. Selective oxidation of glycerol to 1,3-dihydroxyacetone by covalently immobilized glycerol dehydrogenases with higher stability and lower product inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Martin, Javier; Acosta, Andreína; Berenguer, Jose; Guisan, Jose M; Lopez-Gallego, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH) catalyzes the regioselective oxidation of glycerol to yield 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA); an important building block in chemical industry. Three recombinant GlyDHs from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, from Citrobacter braakii and from Cellulomonas sp. were stabilized by covalent immobilization. The highest activity recoveries (40-50%) of the insoluble preparations were obtained by immobilizing these enzymes in presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Noteworthy, these immobilized preparations were more stable and less inhibited by DHA than their soluble counterparts. In particular, GlyDH from G.stearothermophilus immobilized on agarose activated with both amine and glyoxyl groups and crosslinked with dextran aldehyde was 3.7-fold less inhibited by DHA than its soluble form and retained 100% of its initial activity after 18h of incubation at 65°C and pH 7. This is one of the few examples where the same immobilization protocol has minimized enzyme product inhibition and maximized thermal stability. PMID:25164336

  19. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... dehydrogenase-B pieces (subunits) of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This enzyme is found throughout the body and is important ... cells. There are five different forms of this enzyme, each made up of four protein subunits. Various ...

  20. Development of a Multiplex-PCR assay for the rapid identification of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Anoxybacillus flavithermus.

    PubMed

    Pennacchia, Carmela; Breeuwer, Pieter; Meyer, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    The presence of thermophilic bacilli in dairy products is indicator of poor hygiene. Their rapid detection and identification is fundamental to improve the industrial reactivity in the implementation of corrective and preventive actions. In this study a rapid and reliable identification of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Anoxybacillus flavithermus was achieved by species-specific PCR assays. Two primer sets, targeting the ITS 16S-23S rRNA region and the rpoB gene sequence of the target species respectively, were employed. Species-specificity of both primer sets was evaluated by using 53 reference strains of DSMZ collection; among them, 13 species of the genus Geobacillus and 15 of the genus Anoxybacillus were represented. Moreover, 99 wild strains and 23 bulk cells collected from 24 infant formula powders gathered from several countries worldwide were included in the analyses. Both primer sets were highly specific and the expected PCR fragments were obtained only when DNA from G. stearothermophilus or A. flavithermus was used. After testing their specificity, they were combined in a Multiplex-PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of the two target species. The specificity of the Multiplex-PCR was evaluated by using both wild strains and bulk cells. Every analysis confirmed the reliable identification results provided by the single species-specific PCR methodology. The easiness, the rapidity (about 4 h from DNA isolation to results) and the reliability of the PCR procedures developed in this study highlight the advantage of their application for the specific detection and identification of the thermophilic species G. stearothermophilus and A. flavithermus. PMID:24929881

  1. Structure of the fMet-tRNAfMet-binding domain of B.stearothermophilus initiation factor IF2

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Sylvie; Spurio, Roberto; Czisch, Michael; Wechselberger, Rainer; Guenneugues, Marc; Gualerzi, Claudio O.; Boelens, Rolf

    2000-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the fMet-tRNAfMet -binding domain of translation initiation factor IF2 from Bacillus stearothermophilus has been determined by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Its structure consists of six antiparallel β-strands, connected via loops, and forms a closed β-barrel similar to domain II of elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-G, despite low sequence homology. Two structures of the ternary complexes of the EF-Tu⋅aminoacyl-tRNA⋅ GDP analogue have been reported and were used to propose and discuss the possible fMet-tRNAfMet-binding site of IF2. PMID:10775275

  2. Multiple Regulatory Mechanisms Control the Expression of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus Gene for Extracellular Xylanase*

    PubMed Central

    Shulami, Smadar; Shenker, Ofer; Langut, Yael; Lavid, Noa; Gat, Orit; Zaide, Galia; Zehavi, Arie; Sonenshein, Abraham L.; Shoham, Yuval

    2014-01-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 produces a single extracellular xylanase (Xyn10A) capable of producing short, decorated xylo-oligosaccharides from the naturally branched polysaccharide, xylan. Gel retardation assays indicated that the master negative regulator, XylR, binds specifically to xylR operators in the promoters of xylose and xylan-utilization genes. This binding is efficiently prevented in vitro by xylose, the most likely molecular inducer. Expression of the extracellular xylanase is repressed in medium containing either glucose or casamino acids, suggesting that carbon catabolite repression plays a role in regulating xynA. The global transcriptional regulator CodY was shown to bind specifically to the xynA promoter region in vitro, suggesting that CodY is a repressor of xynA. The xynA gene is located next to an uncharacterized gene, xynX, that has similarity to the NIF3 (Ngg1p interacting factor 3)-like protein family. XynX binds specifically to a 72-bp fragment in the promoter region of xynA, and the expression of xynA in a xynX null mutant appeared to be higher, indicating that XynX regulates xynA. The specific activity of the extracellular xylanase increases over 50-fold during early exponential growth, suggesting cell density regulation (quorum sensing). Addition of conditioned medium to fresh and low cell density cultures resulted in high expression of xynA, indicating that a diffusible extracellular xynA density factor is present in the medium. The xynA density factor is heat-stable, sensitive to proteases, and was partially purified using reverse phase liquid chromatography. Taken together, these results suggest that xynA is regulated by quorum-sensing at low cell densities. PMID:25070894

  3. The caa3 terminal oxidase of Bacillus stearothermophilus. Transient spectroscopy of electron transfer and ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, A; D'Itri, E; Giannini, S; Brunori, M; Ubbink-Kok, T; Konings, W N; Antonini, G

    1996-06-14

    The thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus possesses a caa3-type terminal oxidase, which was previously purified (De Vrij, W., Heyne, R. I. R., and Konings, W. N. (1989) Eur. J. Biochem. 178, 763-770). We have carried out extensive kinetic experiments on the purified enzyme by stopped-flow time-resolved optical spectroscopy combined with singular value decomposition analysis. The results indicate a striking similarity of behavior between this enzyme and the electrostatic complex between mammalian cytochrome c and cytochrome c oxidase. CO binding to fully reduced caa3 occurs with a second order rate constant (k = 7.8 x 10(4)M-1 s-1) and an activation energy (E* = 6.1 kcal mol-1) similar to those reported for beef heart cytochrome c oxidase. Dithionite reduces cytochrome a with bimolecular kinetics, while cytochrome a3 (and CuB) is reduced via intramolecular electron transfer. When the fully reduced enzyme is mixed with O2, cytochrome a3, and cytochrome c are rapidly oxidized, whereas cytochrome a remains largely reduced in the first few milliseconds. When cyanide-bound caa3 is mixed with ascorbate plus TMPD, cytochrome c and cytochrome a are synchronously reduced; the value of the second order rate constant (k = 3 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 at 30 degrees C) suggests that cytochrome c is the electron entry site. Steady-state experiments indicate that cytochrome a has a redox potential higher than cytochrome c. The data from the reaction with O2 reveal a remarkable similarity in the kinetic, equilibrium, and optical properties of caa3 and the electrostatic complex cytochrome c/cytochrome c oxidase. PMID:8662862

  4. Structural insights into methanol-stable variants of lipase T6 from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Dror, Adi; Kanteev, Margarita; Kagan, Irit; Gihaz, Shalev; Shahar, Anat; Fishman, Ayelet

    2015-11-01

    Enzymatic production of biodiesel by transesterification of triglycerides and alcohol, catalyzed by lipases, offers an environmentally friendly and efficient alternative to the chemically catalyzed process while using low-grade feedstocks. Methanol is utilized frequently as the alcohol in the reaction due to its reactivity and low cost. However, one of the major drawbacks of the enzymatic system is the presence of high methanol concentrations which leads to methanol-induced unfolding and inactivation of the biocatalyst. Therefore, a methanol-stable lipase is of great interest for the biodiesel industry. In this study, protein engineering was applied to substitute charged surface residues with hydrophobic ones to enhance the stability in methanol of a lipase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6. We identified a methanol-stable variant, R374W, and combined it with a variant found previously, H86Y/A269T. The triple mutant, H86Y/A269T/R374W, had a half-life value at 70 % methanol of 324 min which reflects an 87-fold enhanced stability compared to the wild type together with elevated thermostability in buffer and in 50 % methanol. This variant also exhibited an improved biodiesel yield from waste chicken oil compared to commercial Lipolase 100L® and Novozyme® CALB. Crystal structures of the wild type and the methanol-stable variants provided insights regarding structure-stability correlations. The most prominent features were the extensive formation of new hydrogen bonds between surface residues directly or mediated by structural water molecules and the stabilization of Zn and Ca binding sites. Mutation sites were also characterized by lower B-factor values calculated from the X-ray structures indicating improved rigidity. PMID:26026940

  5. Thermostable, alkaline and detergent-tolerant lipase from a newly isolated thermophilic Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Ben Bacha, Abir; Moubayed, Nadine M S; Abid, Islam

    2015-04-01

    Lipases are the enzymes of choice for laundry detergent industries, owing to their triglyceride removing ability from the soiled fabric, which eventually reduces the usage of phosphate-based chemical cleansers in the detergent formulation. In this study, a novel thermo-alkaline lipase-producing strain identified as Bacillus stearothermophilus was isolated from the soil samples of olive oil mill. Enhanced lipase production was observed at 55 degrees C, pH 11 and after 48 h of incubation. Among the substrates tested, xylose (a carbon source), peptone (a nitrogen source) and olive oil at a concentration of 1% were suitable substrates for enhancing lipase production. MgSO4 and Tween-80 were suitable substrates for maximizing lipase production. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by a single CM-Sephadex column chromatography and revealed molecular mass of 67 kDa. The enzyme (BL1) was active over a wide range of pH from 9.0 to 13.0, with an optimum at pH 11.0, exhibited maximal activity at 55 degreesC and retained more than 70% of its activity after incubation at 70 degrees C or pH 13 for 0.5 h or 24 h, respectively. The enzyme hydrolyzed both short and long-chain triacylglycerols at comparable rates. BL1 was studied in a preliminary evaluation for use in detergent formulation solutions. This novel lipase showed extreme stability towards non-ionic and anionic surfactants after pre-incubation for 1 h at 40 degrees C, and good stability towards oxidizing agents. Additionally, the enzyme showed excellent stability and compatibility with various commercial detergents, suggesting its potential as an additive in detergent formulations. PMID:26118130

  6. Multiple regulatory mechanisms control the expression of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus gene for extracellular xylanase.

    PubMed

    Shulami, Smadar; Shenker, Ofer; Langut, Yael; Lavid, Noa; Gat, Orit; Zaide, Galia; Zehavi, Arie; Sonenshein, Abraham L; Shoham, Yuval

    2014-09-12

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 produces a single extracellular xylanase (Xyn10A) capable of producing short, decorated xylo-oligosaccharides from the naturally branched polysaccharide, xylan. Gel retardation assays indicated that the master negative regulator, XylR, binds specifically to xylR operators in the promoters of xylose and xylan-utilization genes. This binding is efficiently prevented in vitro by xylose, the most likely molecular inducer. Expression of the extracellular xylanase is repressed in medium containing either glucose or casamino acids, suggesting that carbon catabolite repression plays a role in regulating xynA. The global transcriptional regulator CodY was shown to bind specifically to the xynA promoter region in vitro, suggesting that CodY is a repressor of xynA. The xynA gene is located next to an uncharacterized gene, xynX, that has similarity to the NIF3 (Ngg1p interacting factor 3)-like protein family. XynX binds specifically to a 72-bp fragment in the promoter region of xynA, and the expression of xynA in a xynX null mutant appeared to be higher, indicating that XynX regulates xynA. The specific activity of the extracellular xylanase increases over 50-fold during early exponential growth, suggesting cell density regulation (quorum sensing). Addition of conditioned medium to fresh and low cell density cultures resulted in high expression of xynA, indicating that a diffusible extracellular xynA density factor is present in the medium. The xynA density factor is heat-stable, sensitive to proteases, and was partially purified using reverse phase liquid chromatography. Taken together, these results suggest that xynA is regulated by quorum-sensing at low cell densities. PMID:25070894

  7. Inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores by alkaline hydrolysis applied to medical waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Sílvia C; Nunes, Olga C; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Almeida, Manuel F

    2015-09-15

    Although alkaline hydrolysis treatment emerges as an alternative disinfection/sterilization method for medical waste, information on its effects on the inactivation of biological indicators is scarce. The effects of alkaline treatment on the resistance of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores were investigated and the influence of temperature (80 °C, 100 °C and 110 °C) and NaOH concentration was evaluated. In addition, spore inactivation in the presence of animal tissues and discarded medical components, used as surrogate of medical waste, was also assessed. The effectiveness of the alkaline treatment was carried out by determination of survival curves and D-values. No significant differences were seen in D-values obtained at 80 °C and 100 °C for NaOH concentrations of 0.5 M and 0.75 M. The D-values obtained at 110 °C (2.3-0.5 min) were approximately 3 times lower than those at 100 °C (8.8-1.6 min). Independent of the presence of animal tissues and discarded medical components, 6 log10 reduction times varied between 66 and 5 min at 100 °C-0.1 M NaOH and 110 °C-1 M NaOH, respectively. The alkaline treatment may be used in future as a disinfection or sterilization alternative method for contaminated waste. PMID:26150372

  8. A single amino acid substitution deregulates a bacterial lactate dehydrogenase and stabilizes its tetrameric structure.

    PubMed

    Clarke, A R; Wigley, D B; Barstow, D A; Chia, W N; Atkinson, T; Holbrook, J J

    1987-05-27

    We have engineered a variant of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme from Bacillus stearothermophilus in which arginine-173 at the proposed regulatory site has been replaced by glutamine. Like the wild-type enzyme, this mutant undergoes a reversible, protein-concentration-dependent subunit assembly, from dimer to tetramer. However, the mutant tetramer is much more stable (by a factor of 400) than the wild type and is destabilized rather than stabilized by binding the allosteric regulator, fructose 1,6-biphosphate (Fru-1,6-P2). The mutation has not significantly changed the catalytic properties of the dimer (Kd NADH, Km pyruvate, Ki oxamate and kcat), but has weakened the binding of Fru-1,6-P2 to both the dimeric and tetrameric forms of the enzyme and has almost abolished any stimulatory effect. We conclude that the Arg-173 residue in the wild-type enzyme is directly involved in the binding of Fru-1,6-P2, is important for allosteric communication with the active site, and, in part, regulates the state of quaternary structure through a charge-repulsion mechanism. PMID:3580377

  9. Addressable self-immobilization of lactate dehydrogenase across multiple length scales.

    PubMed

    Cetinel, Sibel; Caliskan, H Burak; Yucesoy, Deniz T; Donatan, A Senem; Yuca, Esra; Urgen, Mustafa; Karaguler, Nevin G; Tamerler, Candan

    2013-02-01

    Successful nanobiotechnology implementation largely depends on control over the interfaces between inorganic materials and biological molecules. Controlling the orientations of biomolecules and their spatial arrangements on the surface may transform many technologies including sensors, to energy. Here, we demonstrate the self-organization of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which exhibits enhanced enzymatic activity and stability on a variety of gold surfaces ranging from nanoparticles to electrodes, by incorporating a gold-binding peptide tag (AuBP2) as the fusion partner for Bacillus stearothermophilus LDH (bsLDH). Binding kinetics and enzymatic assays verified orientation control of the enzyme on the gold surface through the genetically incorporated peptide tag. Finally, redox catalysis efficiency of the immobilized enzyme was detected using cyclic voltammetry analysis in enzyme-based biosensors for lactate detection as well as in biofuel cell energy systems as the anodic counterpart. Our results demonstrate that the LDH enzyme can be self-immobilized onto different gold substrates using the short peptide tag under a biologically friendly environment. Depending on the desired inorganic surface, the proposed peptide-mediated path could be extended to any surface to achieve single-step oriented enzyme immobilization for a wide range of applications. PMID:23386458

  10. Fluorimetric Detection of a Bacillus stearothermophilus Spore-Bound Enzyme, alpha-d-Glucosidase, for Rapid Indication of Flash Sterilization Failure.

    PubMed

    Vesley, D; Langholz, A C; Rohlfing, S R; Foltz, W E

    1992-02-01

    A biological indicator based on fluorimetric detection within 60 min of a Bacillus stearothermophilus spore-bound enzyme, alpha-d-glucosidase, has been developed. Results indicate that the enzyme survived slightly longer than spores observed after 24 h of incubation. The new system shows promise for evaluating flash sterilization cycles within 60 min compared with conventional 24-h systems. PMID:16348654

  11. Quantitative assessment of the risk of microbial spoilage in foods. Prediction of non-stability at 55 °C caused by Geobacillus stearothermophilus in canned green beans.

    PubMed

    Rigaux, Clémence; André, Stéphane; Albert, Isabelle; Carlin, Frédéric

    2014-02-01

    Microbial spoilage of canned foods by thermophilic and highly heat-resistant spore-forming bacteria, such as Geobacillus stearothermophilus, is a persistent problem in the food industry. An incubation test at 55 °C for 7 days, then validation of biological stability, is used as an indicator of compliance with good manufacturing practices. We propose a microbial risk assessment model predicting the percentage of non-stability due to G. stearothermophilus in canned green beans manufactured by a French company. The model accounts for initial microbial contaminations of fresh unprocessed green beans with G. stearothermophilus, cross-contaminations in the processing chain, inactivation processes and probability of survival and growth. The sterilization process is modeled by an equivalent heating time depending on sterilization value F₀ and on G. stearothermophilus resistance parameter z(T). Following the recommendations of international organizations, second order Monte-Carlo simulations are used, separately propagating uncertainty and variability on parameters. As a result of the model, the mean predicted non-stability rate is of 0.5%, with a 95% uncertainty interval of [0.1%; 1.2%], which is highly similar to data communicated by the French industry. A sensitivity analysis based on Sobol indices and some scenario tests underline the importance of cross-contamination at the blanching step, in addition to inactivation due to the sterilization process. PMID:24334097

  12. The glucuronic acid utilization gene cluster from Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6.

    PubMed

    Shulami, S; Gat, O; Sonenshein, A L; Shoham, Y

    1999-06-01

    A lambda-EMBL3 genomic library of Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6 was screened for hemicellulolytic activities, and five independent clones exhibiting beta-xylosidase activity were isolated. The clones overlap each other and together represent a 23.5-kb chromosomal segment. The segment contains a cluster of xylan utilization genes, which are organized in at least three transcriptional units. These include the gene for the extracellular xylanase, xylanase T-6; part of an operon coding for an intracellular xylanase and a beta-xylosidase; and a putative 15.5-kb-long transcriptional unit, consisting of 12 genes involved in the utilization of alpha-D-glucuronic acid (GlcUA). The first four genes in the potential GlcUA operon (orf1, -2, -3, and -4) code for a putative sugar transport system with characteristic components of the binding-protein-dependent transport systems. The most likely natural substrate for this transport system is aldotetraouronic acid [2-O-alpha-(4-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucuronosyl)-xylotriose] (MeGlcUAXyl3). The following two genes code for an intracellular alpha-glucuronidase (aguA) and a beta-xylosidase (xynB). Five more genes (kdgK, kdgA, uxaC, uxuA, and uxuB) encode proteins that are homologous to enzymes involved in galacturonate and glucuronate catabolism. The gene cluster also includes a potential regulatory gene, uxuR, the product of which resembles repressors of the GntR family. The apparent transcriptional start point of the cluster was determined by primer extension analysis and is located 349 bp from the initial ATG codon. The potential operator site is a perfect 12-bp inverted repeat located downstream from the promoter between nucleotides +170 and +181. Gel retardation assays indicated that UxuR binds specifically to this sequence and that this binding is efficiently prevented in vitro by MeGlcUAXyl3, the most likely molecular inducer. PMID:10368143

  13. Redefining the role of the quaternary shift in Bacillus stearothermophilus phosphofructokinase.

    PubMed

    Mosser, Rockann; Reddy, Manchi C M; Bruning, John B; Sacchettini, James C; Reinhart, Gregory D

    2013-08-13

    Bacillus stearothermophilus phosphofructokinase (BsPFK) is a homotetramer that is allosterically inhibited by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), which binds along one dimer-dimer interface. The substrate, fructose 6-phosphate (Fru-6-P), binds along the other dimer-dimer interface. Evans et al. observed that the structure with inhibitor (phosphoglycolate) bound, compared to the structure of wild-type BsPFK with substrate and activator bound, exhibits a 7° rotation about the substrate-binding interface, termed the quaternary shift [Schirmer, T., and Evans, P. R. (1990) Nature 343, 140-145]. We report that the variant D12A BsPFK exhibits a 100-fold increase in its binding affinity for PEP, a 50-fold decrease in its binding affinity for Fru-6-P, but an inhibitory coupling comparable to that of the wild type. Crystal structures of the apo and PEP-bound forms of D12A BsPFK have been determined (Protein Data Bank entries 4I36 and 4I7E , respectively), and both indicate a shifted structure similar to the inhibitor-bound structure of the wild type. D12 does not directly bind to either substrate or inhibitor and is located along the substrate-binding interface. A conserved hydrogen bond between D12 and T156 forms across the substrate-binding subunit-subunit interface in the substrate-bound form of BsPFK. The variant T156A BsPFK, when compared to the wild type, shows a 30-fold increase in PEP binding affinity, a 17-fold decrease in Fru-6-P binding affinity, and an estimated coupling that is also approximately equal to that of the wild type. In addition, the T156A BsPFK crystal structure bound to PEP is reported (Protein Data Bank entry 4I4I ), and it exhibits a shifted structure similar to that of D12A BsPFK and the inhibitor-bound structure of the wild type. The results suggest that the main role of the quaternary shift may be to influence ligand binding and not to cause the heterotropic allosteric inhibition per se. PMID:23859543

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of two thermostable carboxyl esterases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Ewis, Hosam E; Abdelal, Ahmed T; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2004-03-31

    Screening of the genomic libraries of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC12980 and ATCC7954 for esterase/lipase activity led to the isolation of two positive clones. The results of subclonings and sequence analyses identified two genes, est30 and est55, encoding two different carboxylesterases, and genetic rearrangement in the est55 locus was revealed from genomic comparison. The est30 gene encodes a polypeptide of 248 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 28338 Da, and the est55 gene encodes a polypeptide of 499 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 54867 Da. Both enzymes were purified to near homogeneity from recombinant strains of Escherichia coli. The results of enzyme characterization showed that while both enzymes possess optimal activities with short chain acyl derivatives, Est55 has a broader pH tolerance (pH 8-9) and optimal temperature range (30-60 degrees C) than Est30. The activation energy of Est55 (35.7 kJ/mol) was found to be significantly lower than that of Est30 (101.9 kJ/mol). Both enzymes were stable at 60 degrees C for more than 2 h; at 70 degrees C, the half-life for thermal inactivation was 40 and 180 min for Est55 and Est30, respectively. With p-nitrophenyl caproate as the substrate and assayed at 60 degrees C, Est55 had K(m) and k(cat) values of 0.5 microM and 39758 s(-1) while Est30 exhibited values of 2.16 microM and 38 s(-1). Inhibition studies indicated that both Est30 and Est55 were strongly inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, and tosyl-l-phenylalanine, consistent with the proposed presence of Ser-His-Glu catalytic triad of the alpha/beta hydrolase family. The enzymatic properties of Est30 and Est55 reported here warrant the potential applications of these enzymes in biotechnological industries. PMID:15033540

  15. Formaldehyde dehydrogenase preparations from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) comprise methanol dehydrogenase and methylene tetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Adeosun, Ekundayo K; Smith, Thomas J; Hoberg, Anne-Mette; Velarde, Giles; Ford, Robert; Dalton, Howard

    2004-03-01

    In methylotrophic bacteria, formaldehyde is an important but potentially toxic metabolic intermediate that can be assimilated into biomass or oxidized to yield energy. Previously reported was the purification of an NAD(P)(+)-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) from the obligate methane-oxidizing methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), presumably important in formaldehyde oxidation, which required a heat-stable factor (known as the modifin) for FDH activity. Here, the major protein component of this FDH preparation was shown by biophysical techniques to comprise subunits of 64 and 8 kDa in an alpha(2)beta(2) arrangement. N-terminal sequencing of the subunits of FDH, together with enzymological characterization, showed that the alpha(2)beta(2) tetramer was a quinoprotein methanol dehydrogenase of the type found in other methylotrophs. The FDH preparations were shown to contain a highly active NAD(P)(+)-dependent methylene tetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase that was the probable source of the NAD(P)(+)-dependent formaldehyde oxidation activity. These results support previous findings that methylotrophs possess multiple pathways for formaldehyde dissimilation. PMID:14993320

  16. Cellobiose dehydrogenase in cellulose degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, L.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro

    1996-10-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenase is produced by a variety of fungi. Although it was already discovered during the 70`s, it`s role in cellulose and lignin degradation is yet ambiguous. The enzyme contains both heme and FAD as prosthetic groups, and seems to have a domain specifically designed to bind the enzyme to cellulose. It`s affinity to amorphous cellulose is higher than to crystalline cellulose. We will report on the binding behavior of the enzyme, its usefulness in elucidation of cellulose structures and also, possibilities for applications such as its use in measuring individual and synergistic mechanisms for cellulose degradation by endo- and exo-glucanases.

  17. Plasma sterilization of Geobacillus Stearothermophilus by O{mathsf2}:N{mathsf2} RF inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylián, O.; Sasaki, T.; Rossi, F.

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this work is to identify the main process responsible for sterilization of Geobacillus Stearothermophilus spores in O{2}:N{2} RF inductively coupled plasma. In order to meet this objective the sterilization efficiencies of discharges in mixtures differing in the initial O{2}/N{2} ratios are compared with plasma properties and with scanning electron microscopy images of treated spores. According to the obtained results it can be concluded that under our experimental conditions the time needed to reach complete sterilization is more related to O atom density than UV radiation intensity, i.e. complete sterilization is not related only to DNA damage as in UV sterilization but more likely to the etching of the spore.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the recombinant l-N-carbamoylase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus CECT43

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Sergio; García-Pino, Abel; Las Heras-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Clemente-Jiménez, Josefa María; Rodríguez-Vico, Felipe; Loris, Remy; García-Ruiz, Juan Ma.; Gavira, Jose Antonio

    2008-01-01

    N-Carbamoyl-l-amino-acid amidohydrolases (l-N-carbamoylases; EC 3.5.1.87) hydrolyze the carbon–nitrogen bond of the ureido group in N-carbamoyl-l-α-amino acids. These enzymes are commonly used in the production of optically pure natural and non-natural l-amino acids using the ‘hydantoinase process’. Recombinant l-N-carbamoylase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus CECT43 has been expressed, purified and crystallized by hanging-drop vapour diffusion. X-­ray data were collected to a resolution of 2.75 Å. The crystals belonged to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.2, b = 211.7, c = 43.1 Å and two subunits in the asymmetric unit. PMID:19052368

  19. Structure of the fMet-tRNA(fMet)-binding domain of B. stearothermophilus initiation factor IF2.

    PubMed

    Meunier, S; Spurio, R; Czisch, M; Wechselberger, R; Guenneugues, M; Gualerzi, C O; Boelens, R

    2000-04-17

    The three-dimensional structure of the fMet-tRNA(fMet) -binding domain of translation initiation factor IF2 from Bacillus stearothermophilus has been determined by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Its structure consists of six antiparallel beta-strands, connected via loops, and forms a closed beta-barrel similar to domain II of elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-G, despite low sequence homology. Two structures of the ternary complexes of the EF-Tu small middle dotaminoacyl-tRNA small middle dot GDP analogue have been reported and were used to propose and discuss the possible fMet-tRNA(fMet)-binding site of IF2. PMID:10775275

  20. Catalytic properties of maltogenic α-amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus immobilized onto poly(urethane urea) microparticles.

    PubMed

    Straksys, Antanas; Kochane, Tatjana; Budriene, Saulute

    2016-11-15

    The immobilization of maltogenic α-amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (BsMa) onto novel porous poly(urethane urea) (PUU) microparticles synthesized from poly(vinyl alcohol) and isophorone diisocyanate was performed by covalent attachment to free isocyanate groups from PUU microparticles, or by physical adsorption of enzyme onto the surface of the carrier. The influence of structure, surface area and porosity of microparticles on the catalytic properties of immobilized BsMa was evaluated. The highest efficiency of immobilization of BsMa was found to be 72%. Optimal activity of immobilized BsMa was found to have increased by 10°C compared with the native enzyme. Influence of concentration of sodium chloride on activity of immobilized BsMa was evaluated. High storage and thermal stability and reusability for starch hydrolysis of immobilized enzyme were obtained. Immobilized BsMa has a great potential for biotechnology. PMID:27283635

  1. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Abp, a GH27 β-L-arabinopyranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Lansky, Shifra; Salama, Rachel; Solomon, Vered H; Belrhali, Hassan; Shoham, Yuval; Shoham, Gil

    2013-06-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 is a thermophilic soil bacterium that possesses an extensive system for the utilization of hemicellulose. The bacterium produces a small number of endo-acting extracellular enzymes that cleave high-molecular-weight hemicellulolytic polymers into short decorated oligosaccharides, which are further hydrolysed into the respective sugar monomers by a battery of intracellular glycoside hydrolases. One of these intracellular processing enzymes is β-L-arabinopyranosidase (Abp), which is capable of removing β-L-arabinopyranose residues from naturally occurring arabino-polysaccharides. As arabino-polymers constitute a significant part of the hemicellulolytic content of plant biomass, their efficient enzymatic degradation presents an important challenge for many potential biotechnological applications. This aspect has led to an increasing interest in the biochemical characterization and structural analysis of this and related hemicellulases. Abp from G. stearothermophilus T-6 has recently been cloned, overexpressed, purified, biochemically characterized and crystallized in our laboratory, as part of its complete structure-function study. The best crystals obtained for this enzyme belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with average unit-cell parameters a = 107.7, b = 202.2, c = 287.3 Å. Full diffraction data sets to 2.3 Å resolution have been collected for both the wild-type enzyme and its D197A catalytic mutant from flash-cooled crystals at 100 K, using synchrotron radiation. These data are currently being used for a high-resolution three-dimensional structure determination of Abp. PMID:23722857

  2. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a family 43 β-d-xylosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6

    SciTech Connect

    Brüx, Christian; Niefind, Karsten; Ben-David, Alon; Leon, Maya; Shoham, Gil; Shoham, Yuval; Schomburg, Dietmar

    2005-12-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a β-d-xylosidase from G. stearothermophilus T-6, a family 43 glycoside hydrolase, is described. Native and catalytic inactive mutants of the enzymes were crystallized in two different space groups, orthorhombic P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 and tetragonal P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 (or the enantiomorphic space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2), using a sensitive cryoprotocol. The latter crystal form diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 2.2 Å. β-d-Xylosidases (EC 3.2.1.37) are hemicellulases that cleave single xylose units from the nonreducing end of xylooligomers. In this study, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a β-d-xylosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 (XynB3), a family 43 glycoside hydrolase, is described. XynB3 is a 535-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 61 891 Da. Purified recombinant native and catalytic inactive mutant proteins were crystallized and cocrystallized with xylobiose in two different space groups, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 (unit-cell parameters a = 98.32, b = 99.36, c = 258.64 Å) and P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 (or the enantiomorphic space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2; unit-cell parameters a = b = 140.15, c = 233.11 Å), depending on the detergent. Transferring crystals to cryoconditions required a very careful protocol. Orthorhombic crystals diffract to 2.5 Å and tetragonal crystals to 2.2 Å.

  3. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in sorghum.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, A J; Saneoka, H; Rhodes, D; Joly, R J; Goldsbrough, P B

    1996-01-01

    The ability to synthesize and accumulate glycine betaine is wide-spread among angiosperms and is thought to contribute to salt and drought tolerance. In plants glycine betaine is synthesized by the two-step oxidation of choline via the intermediate betaine aldehyde, catalyzed by choline monooxygenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). Two sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cDNA clones, BADH1 and BADH15, putatively encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase were isolated and characterized. BADH1 is a truncated cDNA of 1391 bp. BADH15 is a full-length cDNA clone, 1812 bp in length, predicted to encode a protein of 53.6 kD. The predicted amino acid sequences of BADH1 and BADH15 share significant homology with other plant BADHs. The effects of water deficit on BADH mRNA expression, leaf water relations, and glycine betaine accumulation were investigated in leaves of preflowering sorghum plants. BADH1 and BADH15 mRNA were both induced by water deficit and their expression coincided with the observed glycine betaine accumulation. During the course of 17 d, the leaf water potential in stressed sorghum plants reached -2.3 MPa. In response to water deficit, glycine betaine levels increased 26-fold and proline levels increased 108-fold. In severely stressed plants, proline accounted for > 60% of the total free amino acid pool. Accumulation of these compatible solutes significantly contributed to osmotic potential and allowed a maximal osmotic adjustment of 0.405 MPa. PMID:8934627

  4. Structural bases for the specific interactions between the E2 and E3 components of the Thermus thermophilus 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Tadashi; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Kamiya, Nobuo

    2008-06-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase (BCDH) and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) are multienzyme complexes that play crucial roles in several common metabolic pathways. These enzymes belong to a family of 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes that contain multiple copies of three different components (E1, E2 and E3). For the Thermus thermophilus enzymes, depending on its substrate specificity (pyruvate, branched-chain 2-oxo acid or 2-oxoglutarate), each complex has distinctive E1 (E1p, E1b or E1o) and E2 (E2p, E2b or E2o) components and one of the two possible E3 components (E3b and E3o). (The suffixes, p, b and o identify their respective enzymes, PDH, BCDH and OGDH.) Our biochemical characterization demonstrates that only three specific E3*E2 complexes can form (E3b*E2p, E3b*E2b and E3o*E2o). X-ray analyses of complexes formed between the E3 components and the peripheral subunit-binding domains (PSBDs), derived from the corresponding E2-binding partners, reveal that E3b interacts with E2p and E2b in essentially the same manner as observed for Geobacillus stearothermophilus E3*E2p, whereas E3o interacts with E2o in a novel fashion. The buried intermolecular surfaces of the E3b*PSBDp/b and E3o*PSBDo complexes differ in size, shape and charge distribution and thus, these differences presumably confer the binding specificities for the complexes. PMID:18316329

  5. Single motoneuron succinate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, G R; Edgerton, V R

    1989-07-01

    We have developed a quantitative histochemical assay for measurement of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in single motoneurons. A computer image processing system was used to quantify the histochemical enzyme reaction product and to follow the time course of the reaction. The optimal concentration for each of the ingredients of the incubation medium for the SDH reaction was determined and the importance of using histochemical "blanks" in the determination of enzymatic activity was demonstrated. The enzymatic activity was linear with respect to reaction time and tissue thickness. The procedure described meets the criteria generally considered essential for establishment of a quantitative histochemical assay. The assay was then used to examine the SDH activity of cat and rat motoneurons. It was found that motoneurons with a small soma size had a wide range of SDH activity, whereas those with a large soma size were restricted to low SDH activity. PMID:2732457

  6. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue. PMID:27040960

  7. [Heat resistance of "Bacillus subtilis" and "Bacillus stearothermophilus" spores in ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and butylene glycol solutions. Criticism of the use of thermodynamic parameters (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Cerf, O; L'Haridon, R; Hermier, J

    1975-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of ethylene glycol (EG), 1,2-propylene glycol (PG) or 2,3-butylene glycol (BG) lower the heat resistance of B. subtilis SJ2 and B. stearothermophilus 1518 spores, and there is a linear relationship between logarithm of decimal reduction time (D) and glycol concentration. D120 degreesc values of B. subtilis spores in 0.02M, pH 7.0 phosphate buffer containing 20 per cent (w/w) EG, PG and BG are respectively 1, 0.7 and 1.1 min compared to 1.5 min in buffer alone. Corresponding values for B. stearothermophilus spores are 2, 2.4 and 3 min compared to 3.2 min. The type of glycol has little effect upon temperature coefficient z for destruction of the B. subtilis spores (average 6.9 degrees C). On the contrary, in the case of B. stearothermophilus, z increases when the number of carbons increases in the glycol molecule (from 7 to 15 degrees). The thermodynamic parameters which characterize the activation of the spore destruction reaction cannot lead to a general conclusion about a possible mechanism of destruction in the presence of chemical compounds belonging to an homologous series: the two behave diversely, and there is no "isokinetic temperature". PMID:811145

  8. Structure-function relationships in Gan42B, an intracellular GH42 β-galactosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Hodaya V; Tabachnikov, Orly; Lansky, Shifra; Salama, Rachel; Feinberg, Hadar; Shoham, Yuval; Shoham, Gil

    2015-12-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 is a Gram-positive thermophilic soil bacterium that contains a battery of degrading enzymes for the utilization of plant cell-wall polysaccharides, including xylan, arabinan and galactan. A 9.4 kb gene cluster has recently been characterized in G. stearothermophilus that encodes a number of galactan-utilization elements. A key enzyme of this degradation system is Gan42B, an intracellular GH42 β-galactosidase capable of hydrolyzing short β-1,4-galactosaccharides into galactose units, making it of high potential for various biotechnological applications. The Gan42B monomer is made up of 686 amino acids, and based on sequence homology it was suggested that Glu323 is the catalytic nucleophile and Glu159 is the catalytic acid/base. In the current study, the detailed three-dimensional structure of wild-type Gan42B (at 2.45 Å resolution) and its catalytic mutant E323A (at 2.50 Å resolution), as determined by X-ray crystallography, are reported. These structures demonstrate that the three-dimensional structure of the Gan42B monomer generally correlates with the overall fold observed for GH42 proteins, consisting of three main domains: an N-terminal TIM-barrel domain, a smaller mixed α/β domain, and the smallest all-β domain at the C-terminus. The two catalytic residues are located in the TIM-barrel domain in a pocket-like active site such that their carboxylic functional groups are about 5.3 Å from each other, consistent with a retaining mechanism. The crystal structure demonstrates that Gan42B is a homotrimer, resembling a flowerpot in general shape, in which each monomer interacts with the other two to form a cone-shaped tunnel cavity in the centre. The cavity is ∼35 Å at the wide opening and ∼5 Å at the small opening and ∼40 Å in length. The active sites are situated at the interfaces between the monomers, so that every two neighbouring monomers participate in the formation of each of the three active

  9. Identification of a long-range protein network that modulates active site dynamics in extremophilic alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Zachary D; Cun, Shujian; Klinman, Judith P

    2013-05-17

    A tetrameric thermophilic alcohol dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (ht-ADH) has been mutated at an aromatic side chain in the active site (Trp-87). The ht-W87A mutation results in a loss of the Arrhenius break seen at 30 °C for the wild-type enzyme and an increase in cold lability that is attributed to destabilization of the active tetrameric form. Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) are nearly temperature-independent over the experimental temperature range, and similar in magnitude to those measured above 30 °C for the wild-type enzyme. This suggests that the rigidification in the wild-type enzyme below 30 °C does not occur for ht-W87A. A mutation at the dimer-dimer interface in a thermolabile psychrophilic homologue of ht-ADH, ps-A25Y, leads to a more thermostable enzyme and a change in the rate-determining step at low temperature. The reciprocal mutation in ht-ADH, ht-Y25A, results in kinetic behavior similar to that of W87A. Collectively, the results indicate that flexibility at the active site is intimately connected to a subunit interaction 20 Å away. The convex Arrhenius curves previously reported for ht-ADH (Kohen, A., Cannio, R., Bartolucci, S., and Klinman, J. P. (1999) Nature 399, 496-499) are proposed to arise, at least in part, from a change in subunit interactions that rigidifies the substrate-binding domain below 30 °C, and impedes the ability of the enzyme to sample the catalytically relevant conformational landscape. These results implicate an evolutionarily conserved, long-range network of dynamical communication that controls C-H activation in the prokaryotic alcohol dehydrogenases. PMID:23525111

  10. Genetics Home Reference: succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... a chemical that transmits signals in the brain (neurotransmitter) called gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). The primary ... Diseases National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) Pediatric Neurotransmitter Disease Association GeneReviews (1 link) Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase ...

  11. Phosphorylation site on yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlinger, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified to homogeneity from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Yeast cells were disrupted in a Manton-Gaulin laboratory homogenizer. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified by fractionation with polyethylene glycol, isoelectric precipitation, ultracentrifugation and chromatography on hydroxylapatite. Final purification of the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was achieved by cation-exchange high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). No endogenous pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity was detected during the purification. However, the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was phosphorylated and inactivated with purified pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase from bovine kidney. Tryptic digestion of the /sup 32/P-labeled complex yielded a single phosphopeptide which was purified to homogeniety. The tryptic digest was subjected to chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. Radioactive fractions were pooled, concentrated, and subjected to anion-exchange HPLC. The column was developed with a linear gradient of ammonium acetate. Final purification of the phosphopeptide was achieved by chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column developed with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. The amino acid sequence of the homogeneous peptide was determined by manual modified Edman degradation.

  12. [GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN SURFACTANTS PRODUCER NOCARDIA VACCINII IMV B-7405].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Shevchuk, T A; Beregova, K A

    2015-01-01

    Key enzymes of glucose metabolism were detected in the cells of surfactants producer Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 grown on this substrate. It has been established that glucose catabolism is performed through gluconate (FAD(+)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase activity 698 ± 35 nmol x min(-1) x mg(-1) of protein). Oxidation of gluconate to 6-phosphogluconate is catalised by gluconokinase (178 ± 9 nmol x min(-1) x mg(-1) of protein). 6-Phosphogluconate was involved into pentose phosphate cycle by constitutive NADP(+)-dependent 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (activity 357 ± 17 nmol x min(-1) x mg(-1) of protein). The data obtained serve as the basis for theoretical calculations of optimal molar ratio of concentrations of energetically nonequivalent substrates for intensifying the surfactants synthesis on their mixture. PMID:26638479

  13. Improving the thermostability and enhancing the Ca(2+) binding of the maltohexaose-forming α-amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhu; Duan, Xuguo; Wu, Jing

    2016-03-20

    The thermostability of the maltohexaose-forming α-amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (AmyMH) without added Ca(2+) was improved through structure-based rational design in this study. Through comparison of a homologous model structure of AmyMH with the crystal structure of the thermostable α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis, Ser242, which located at the beginning of fourth α-helix of the central (β/α)8 barrel was selected for mutation to improve thermostability. In addition, an amide-containing side chain (Asn193) and a loop in domain B (ΔIG mutation), which have been proven to be important for thermostability in corresponding position of other α-amylases, were also investigated. Five mutants carrying the mutations ΔIG, N193F, S242A, ΔIG/N193F, and ΔIG/N193F/S242A were generated and their proteins characterized. The most thermostable mutant protein, ΔIG/N193F/S242A, exhibited a 26-fold improvement in half-life at 95°C compared to the wild-type enzyme without added Ca(2+). Mutant ΔIG/N193F/S242A also exhibited substantially better activity and stability in the presence of the chelator EDTA, demonstrating enhanced Ca(2+) binding. These results suggest that mutant ΔIG/N193F/S242A has potential for use in the industrial liquefaction of starch. PMID:26869314

  14. How to Switch Off a Histidine Kinase: Crystal Structure of Geobacillus Stearothermophilus KinB with the Inhibitor Sda

    SciTech Connect

    Bick, M.; Lamour, V; Rajashankar, K; Gordiyenko, Y; Robinson, C; Darst, S

    2009-01-01

    Entry to sporulation in bacilli is governed by a histidine kinase phosphorelay, a variation of the predominant signal transduction mechanism in prokaryotes. Sda directly inhibits sporulation histidine kinases in response to DNA damage and replication defects. We determined a 2.0-Angstroms-resolution X-ray crystal structure of the intact cytoplasmic catalytic core [comprising the dimerization and histidine phosphotransfer domain (DHp domain), connected to the ATP binding catalytic domain] of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus sporulation kinase KinB complexed with Sda. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that Sda binds to the base of the DHp domain and prevents molecular transactions with the DHp domain to which it is bound by acting as a simple molecular barricade. Sda acts to sterically block communication between the catalytic domain and the DHp domain, which is required for autophosphorylation, as well as to sterically block communication between the response regulator Spo0F and the DHp domain, which is required for phosphotransfer and phosphatase activities.

  15. Reduction of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus stearothermophilus and Streptococcus faecalis in meat batters by temperature-high hydrostatic pressure pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Moerman, F; Mertens, B; Demey, L; Huyghebaert, A

    2001-10-01

    People have a growing preference for fresh, healthy, palatable and nutritious meals and drinks. However, as food deterioration is a constant threat along the entire food chain, food preservation remains as necessary now as in the past. High pressure processing is one of the emerging technologies being studied as an alternative to the classical pasteurization and sterilization treatments of food. Samples of fried minced pork meat were inoculated with strains of Streptococcus faecalis and with sporulating microorganisms like Bacillus subtilis and stearothermophilus. The samples were subjected to several combined temperature-high pressure treatments predicted by the mathematical model applied in Response Surface Methodology. Using the "Box-Behnken" concept, the number of tests for a whole area of pressure-temperature-time-combinations (pressure variation: 50-400 MPa, temperature variation 20-80°C, time variation 1-60 min) could be limited to 15. In the center point of the model, the experimental combination was performed in triple to estimate the experimental variance. All the tests were executed in a randomized order to exclude the disturbing effect of environmental factors. Microbial analysis revealed for each microorganism an important reduction in total plate count, demonstrating a superior pressure resistance of the sporulating microorganisms in comparison with the most pressure resistant vegetative species Streptococcus faecalis. The effect of the medium composition could be neglected, showing little protective effect of, e.g. the fat fraction as seen in heat preservation techniques. PMID:22062669

  16. Aptamer biosensor for sensitive detection of toxin A of Clostridium difficile using gold nanoparticles synthesized by Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Peng; Liu, Yi; Xia, Yun; Xu, Huajian; Xie, Guoming

    2014-04-15

    A sensitive electrochemical biosensor was developed to detect toxin A (TOA) of Clostridium difficile based on an aptamer selected by the systematic evolution of ligands using exponential enrichment and gold nanoparticles (GNPS) synthesized by Bacillus stearothermophilus. The thiolated single-stranded DNA used as the capture probe (CP) was first self-assembled on a Nafion-thionine-GNPS-modified screen-printed electrode (SPE) through an Au-thiol interaction. The horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled aptamer probe (AP) was then hybridized to the complementary oligonucleotide of CP to form an aptamer-DNA duplex. In the absence of TOA, the aptamer-DNA duplex modified the electrode surface with HRP, so that an amperometric response was induced based on the electrocatalytic properties of thionine. This was mediated by the electrons that were generated in the enzymatic reaction of hydrogen peroxide under HRP catalysis. After the specific recognition of TOA, an aptamer-TOA complex was produced rather than the aptamer-DNA duplex, forcing the HRP-labeled AP to dissociate from the electrode surface, which reduced the catalytic capacity of HRP and reduced the response current. The reduction in the response current correlated linearly with the concentration of TOA in the range of 0-200 ng/mL. The detection limit was shown to be 1 nM for TOA. This biosensor was applied to the analysis of TOA and showed good selectivity, reproducibility, stability, and accuracy. PMID:24287407

  17. Combined impact of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic alpha-amylase and surfactants on starch pasting and gelation properties.

    PubMed

    Van Steertegem, Bénédicte; Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-08-15

    In baking applications involving starch gelatinisation, surfactants such as sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) and Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic alpha-amylase (BStA) can be used jointly. We here showed that SSL but not MAG delays wheat starch hydrolysis by BStA. The effects were explained in terms of different degrees of adsorption of the surfactants on the starch granule surface, retarded and/or decreased water uptake and delayed availability of gelatinised starch for hydrolysis by BStA. Additional experiments with waxy maize starch led to the conclusion that SSL impacts swelling power and carbohydrate leaching more by covering the starch granule surface than by forming amylose-lipid complexes. SSL postponed starch hydrolysis by BStA, but this did not influence subsequent starch gelation. Finally, when adding SSL or MAG on top of BStA to starch suspensions, the effect of the surfactants on gel strength predominated over that of BStA. PMID:23561216

  18. [The suitability of commercial bioindicators with spores of B. stearothermophilus for the testing of formaldehyde gas sterilizers].

    PubMed

    Mecke, P; Christiansen, B; Pirk, A

    1991-09-01

    Commercially available biological indicators with spores of B. stearothermophilus were investigated by the Hygiene-Institutes of Kiel and Lubeck. The objective was to find out if those indicators to which sheep blood was added subsequently correspond to the formaldehyde resistance required by. DIN 58948, part 14 (DIN 58948, part 13). Both working groups determined unanimously that the indicators of one producer showed a resistance too low compared to the remaining biological indicators showing a much higher resistance than required. Even biological indicators manufactured strictly in accordance to the testing standard were more resistant than demanded. This also corresponded to the commercially available untreated spores. On the other hand, practice showed that the biological indicators investigated within this study can be easily killed by formaldehyde sterilizers if they respond to the technical standard. In order to realize the testing of these sterilizers with indicators of a generally accepted resistance we propose either to demand for an equivalently higher formaldehyde resistance or to set up a killing period for the spore resistance from 150 to 240 min until experimentally important data are available. Concerning the blood containing indicators the results of both working groups differed considerably within the limits of formaldehyde efficiency whereas this was not the case with untested commercially available spores. As the addition of thinned blood did not cause an increase in resistance we recommend, in the interest of standardized investigative conditions, not to use it. PMID:1953931

  19. Purification and properties of thermostable xylanase and beta-xylosidase produced by a newly isolated Bacillus stearothermophilus strain.

    PubMed Central

    Nanmori, T; Watanabe, T; Shinke, R; Kohno, A; Kawamura, Y

    1990-01-01

    We isolated a thermophilic bacterium that produces both xylanase and beta-xylosidase. Based on taxonomical research, this bacterium was identified as Bacillus stearothermophilus. Each extracellular enzyme was separated by hydrophobic chromatography by using a Toyopearl HW-65 column, followed by gel filtration with a Sephacryl S-200 column. Each enzyme in the culture was further purified to homogeneity (62-fold for xylanase and 72-fold for beta-xylosidase) by using a fast protein liquid chromatography system with a Mono Q HR 5/5 column. The optimum temperatures were 60 degrees C for xylanase and 70 degrees C for beta-xylosidase. The isoelectric points and molecular masses were 5.1 and 39.5 kDa for xylanase and 4.2 and 150 kDa for beta-xylosidase, respectively. Heat treatment at 60 degrees C for 1 h did not cause inhibition of the activities of these enzymes. The action of the two enzymes on xylan gave only xylose. Images PMID:2123854

  20. Effect of codon-optimized E. coli signal peptides on recombinant Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase periplasmic localization, yield and activity.

    PubMed

    Samant, Shalaka; Gupta, Gunja; Karthikeyan, Subbulakshmi; Haq, Saiful F; Nair, Ayyappan; Sambasivam, Ganesh; Sukumaran, Sunilkumar

    2014-09-01

    Recombinant proteins can be targeted to the Escherichia coli periplasm by fusing them to signal peptides. The popular pET vectors facilitate fusion of target proteins to the PelB signal. A systematic comparison of the PelB signal with native E. coli signal peptides for recombinant protein expression and periplasmic localization is not reported. We chose the Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase (MA), an industrial enzyme widely used in the baking and brewing industry, as a model protein and analyzed the competence of seven, codon-optimized, E. coli signal sequences to translocate MA to the E. coli periplasm compared to PelB. MA fusions to three of the signals facilitated enhanced periplasmic localization of MA compared to the PelB fusion. Interestingly, these three fusions showed greatly improved MA yields and between 18- and 50-fold improved amylase activities compared to the PelB fusion. Previously, non-optimal codon usage in native E. coli signal peptide sequences has been reported to be important for protein stability and activity. Our results suggest that E. coli signal peptides with optimal codon usage could also be beneficial for heterologous protein secretion to the periplasm. Moreover, such fusions could even enhance activity rather than diminish it. This effect, to our knowledge has not been previously documented. In addition, the seven vector platform reported here could also be used as a screen to identify the best signal peptide partner for other recombinant targets of interest. PMID:25038884

  1. Bacillus stearothermophilus PcrA monomer is a single-stranded DNA translocase but not a processive helicase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Chesnik, Marla A; Tomko, Eric J; Lohman, Timothy M

    2007-09-14

    Structural studies of the Bacillus stearothermophilus PcrA protein along with biochemical studies of the single-stranded (ss) DNA translocation activity of PcrA monomers have led to the suggestion that a PcrA monomer possesses processive helicase activity in vitro. Yet definitive studies testing whether the PcrA monomer possesses processive helicase activity have not been performed. Here we show, using single turnover kinetic methods, that monomers of PcrA are able to translocate along ssDNA, in the 3' to 5' direction, rapidly and processively, whereas these same monomers display no detectable helicase activity under the same solution conditions in vitro. The PcrA monomer ssDNA translocation activity, although necessary, is not sufficient for processive helicase activity, and thus the translocase and helicase activities of PcrA are separable. These results also suggest that the helicase activity of PcrA needs to be activated either by self-assembly or through interactions with accessory proteins. This same behavior is displayed by both the Escherichia coli Rep and UvrD monomers. Hence, all three of these SF1 enzymes are ssDNA translocases as monomers but do not display processive helicase activity in vitro unless activated. The fact that the translocase and helicase activities are separable suggests that each activity may be used for different functions in vivo. PMID:17631491

  2. Transglycosylation of glycosyl residues to cyclic tetrasaccharide by Bacillus stearothermophilus cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase using cyclomaltodextrin as the glycosyl donor.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Takashi; Aga, Hajime; Watanabe, Hikaru; Sonoda, Tomohiko; Kubota, Michio; Fukuda, Shigeharu; Kurimoto, Masashi; Tsujisaka, Yoshio

    2003-05-01

    Cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.19, abbreviated as CGTase) derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus produced a series of transfer products from a mixture of cyclomaltohexaose and cyclic tetrasaccharide (cyclo[-->6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->], CTS). Of the transfer products, only two components, saccharides A and D, remained and accumulated after digestion with glucoamylase. The total combined yield of the saccharides reached 63.4% of total sugars, and enzymatic and instrumental analyses revealed the structures of both saccharides. Saccharide A was identified as 4-mono-O-alpha-glucosyl-CTS, [-->6)-[alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)]-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->], and sachharide D was 4,4'-di-O-alpha-glucosyl-CTS, [-->6)-[alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)]-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->6)-[alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)]-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->]. These structures led us to conclude that the glycosyltransfer catalyzed by CGTase was specific to the C4-OH of the 6-linked glucopyranosyl residues in CTS. PMID:12834287

  3. Proline dehydrogenase (oxidase) in cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Phang, James M

    2012-01-01

    Proline dehydrogenase (oxidase, PRODH/POX), the first enzyme in the proline degradative pathway, plays a special role in tumorigenesis and tumor development. Proline metabolism catalyzed by PRODH/POX is closely linked with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and urea cycle. The proline cycle formed by the interconversion of proline and Δ(1) -pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) between mitochondria and cytosol interlocks with pentose phosphate pathway. Importantly, by catalyzing proline to P5C, PRODH/POX donates electrons into the electron transport chain to generate ROS or ATP. In earlier studies, we found that PRODH/POX functions as a tumor suppressor to initiate apoptosis, inhibit tumor growth, and block the cell cycle, all by ROS signaling. It also suppresses hypoxia inducible factor signaling by increasing α-ketoglutarate. During tumor progression, PRODH/POX is under the control of various tumor-associated factors, such as tumor suppressor p53, inflammatory factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), onco-miRNA miR-23b*, and oncogenic transcription factor c-MYC. Recent studies revealed the two-sided features of PRODH/POX-mediated regulation. Under metabolic stress such as oxygen and glucose deprivation, PRODH/POX can be induced to serve as a tumor survival factor through ATP production or ROS-induced autophagy. The paradoxical roles of PRODH/POX can be understood considering the temporal and spatial context of the tumor. Further studies will provide additional insights into this protein and on its metabolic effects in tumors, which may lead to new therapeutic strategies. PMID:22886911

  4. An autosomal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) polymorphism in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Tan, S G; Ashton, G C

    1976-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) from human saliva has been demonstrated by the zymogram technique. Three phenotypes were found. Family and population studies suggested that these phenotypes are the products of an autosomal locus with two alleles Sgd-1 and Sgd-2. PMID:950237

  5. The two active sites in human branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase operate independently without an obligatory alternating-site mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Machius, Mischa; Chuang, Jacinta L; Wynn, R Max; Chuang, David T

    2007-04-20

    A long standing controversy is whether an alternating activesite mechanism occurs during catalysis in thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzymes. We address this question by investigating the ThDP-dependent decarboxylase/dehydrogenase (E1b) component of the mitochondrial branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC). Our crystal structure reveals that conformations of the two active sites in the human E1b heterotetramer harboring the reaction intermediate are identical. Acidic residues in the core of the E1b heterotetramer, which align with the proton-wire residues proposed to participate in active-site communication in the related pyruvate dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus, are mutated. Enzyme kinetic data show that, except in a few cases because of protein misfolding, these alterations are largely without effect on overall activity of BCKDC, ruling out the requirement of a proton-relay mechanism in E1b. BCKDC overall activity is nullified at 50% phosphorylation of E1b, but it is restored to nearly half of the pre-phosphorylation level after dissociation and reconstitution of BCKDC with the same phosphorylated E1b. The results suggest that the abolition of overall activity likely results from the specific geometry of the half-phosphorylated E1b in the BCKDC assembly and not due to a disruption of the alternating active-site mechanism. Finally, we show that a mutant E1b containing only one functional active site exhibits half of the wild-type BCKDC activity, which directly argues against the obligatory communication between active sites. The above results provide evidence that the two active sites in the E1b heterotetramer operate independently during the ThDP-dependent decarboxylation reaction. PMID:17329260

  6. The S-layer proteins of two Bacillus stearothermophilus wild-type strains are bound via their N-terminal region to a secondary cell wall polymer of identical chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Egelseer, E M; Leitner, K; Jarosch, M; Hotzy, C; Zayni, S; Sleytr, U B; Sára, M

    1998-03-01

    Two Bacillus stearothermophilus wild-type strains were investigated regarding a common recognition and binding mechanism between the S-layer protein and the underlying cell envelope layer. The S-layer protein from B. stearothermophilus PV72/p6 has a molecular weight of 130,000 and assembles into a hexagonally ordered lattice. The S-layer from B. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 shows oblique lattice symmetry and is composed of subunits with a molecular weight of 122,000. Immunoblotting, peptide mapping, N-terminal sequencing of the whole S-layer protein from B. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 and of proteolytic cleavage fragments, and comparison with the S-layer protein from B. stearothermophilus PV72/p6 revealed that the two S-layer proteins have identical N-terminal regions but no other extended structurally homologous domains. In contrast to the heterogeneity observed for the S-layer proteins, the secondary cell wall polymer isolated from peptidoglycan-containing sacculi of the different strains showed identical chemical compositions and comparable molecular weights. The S-layer proteins could bind and recrystallize into the appropriate lattice type on native peptidoglycan-containing sacculi from both organisms but not on those extracted with hydrofluoric acid, leading to peptidoglycan of the A1gamma chemotype. Affinity studies showed that only proteolytic cleavage fragments possessing the complete N terminus of the mature S-layer proteins recognized native peptidoglycan-containing sacculi as binding sites or could associate with the isolated secondary cell wall polymer, while proteolytic cleavage fragments missing the N-terminal region remained unbound. From the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that S-layer proteins from B. stearothermophilus wild-type strains possess an identical N-terminal region which is responsible for anchoring the S-layer subunits to a secondary cell wall polymer of identical chemical composition. PMID:9515918

  7. Benzene toxicity: emphasis on cytosolic dihydrodiol dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Bolcsak, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Blood dyscrasias such as leukopenia and anemia have been clearly identified as consequences of chronic benzene exposure. The metabolites, phenol, catechol, and hydroquinone produced inhibition of /sup 59/Fe uptake in mice which followed the same time course as that produced by benzene. The inhibitor of benzene oxidation, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, mitigated the inhibitory effects of benzene and phenol only. These data support the contention that benzene toxicity is mediated by a metabolite and suggest that the toxicity of phenol is a consequence of its metabolism to hydroquinone and that the route of metabolism to catechol may also contribute to the production of toxic metabolite(s). The properties of mouse liver cytosolic dihydrodiol dehydrogenases were examined. These enzymes catalyze the NADP/sup +/-dependent oxidation of trans-1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxybenzene (BDD) to catechol, a possible toxic metabolite of benzene produced via this metabolic route. Four distinct dihydrodiol dehydrogenases (DD1, DD2, DD3, and DD4) were purified to apparent homogeneity as judged by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. DD1 appeared to be identical to the major ketone reductase and 17..beta..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the liver. DD2 exhibited aldehyde reductase activity. DD3 and DD4 oxidized 17..beta..-hydroxysteroids, but no carbonyl reductase activity was detected. These relationships between BDD dehydrogenases and carbonyl reductase and/or 17..beta..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities were supported by several lines of evidence.

  8. Alteration of substrate specificity of alanine dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Puja; Aldeborgh, Hannah; Carlucci, Lauren; Walsh, Lauren; Wasserman, Jordan; Zhou, Edward; Lefurgy, Scott T.; Mundorff, Emily C.

    2015-01-01

    The l-alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) has a natural history that suggests it would not be a promising candidate for expansion of substrate specificity by protein engineering: it is the only amino acid dehydrogenase in its fold family, it has no sequence or structural similarity to any known amino acid dehydrogenase, and it has a strong preference for l-alanine over all other substrates. By contrast, engineering of the amino acid dehydrogenase superfamily members has produced catalysts with expanded substrate specificity; yet, this enzyme family already contains members that accept a broad range of substrates. To test whether the natural history of an enzyme is a predictor of its innate evolvability, directed evolution was carried out on AlaDH. A single mutation identified through molecular modeling, F94S, introduced into the AlaDH from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtAlaDH) completely alters its substrate specificity pattern, enabling activity toward a range of larger amino acids. Saturation mutagenesis libraries in this mutant background additionally identified a double mutant (F94S/Y117L) showing improved activity toward hydrophobic amino acids. The catalytic efficiencies achieved in AlaDH are comparable with those that resulted from similar efforts in the amino acid dehydrogenase superfamily and demonstrate the evolvability of MtAlaDH specificity toward other amino acid substrates. PMID:25538307

  9. The S-layer from Bacillus stearothermophilus DSM 2358 functions as an adhesion site for a high-molecular-weight amylase.

    PubMed Central

    Egelseer, E; Schocher, I; Sára, M; Sleytr, U B

    1995-01-01

    The S-layer lattice from Bacillus stearothermophilus DSM 2358 completely covers the cell surface and exhibits oblique symmetry. During growth of B. stearothermophilus DSM 2358 on starch medium, three amylases with molecular weights of 58,000, 98,000, and 184,000 were secreted into the culture fluid, but only the high-molecular-weight enzyme was found to be cell associated. Studies of interactions between cell wall components and amylases revealed no affinity of the high-molecular-weight amylase to isolated peptidoglycan. On the other hand, this enzyme was always found to be associated with S-layer self-assembly products or S-layer fragments released during preparation of spheroplasts by treatment of whole cells with lysozyme. The molar ratio of S-layer subunits to the bound amylase was approximately 8:1, which corresponded to one enzyme molecule per four morphological subunits. Immunoblotting experiments with polyclonal antisera against the high-molecular-weight amylase revealed a strong immunological signal in response to the enzyme but no cross-reaction with the S-layer protein or the smaller amylases. Immunogold labeling of whole cells with anti-amylase antiserum showed that the high-molecular-weight amylase is located on the outer face of the S-layer lattice. Because extraction of the amylase was possible without disintegration of the S-layer lattice into its constituent subunits, it can be excluded that the enzyme is incorporated into the crystal lattice and participates in the self-assembly process. Affinity experiments strongly suggest the presence of a specific recognition mechanism between the amylase molecules and S-layer protein domains either exposed on the outermost surface or inside the pores. In summary, results obtained in this study confirmed that the S-layer protein from B. stearothermophilus DSM 2358 functions as an adhesion site for a high-molecular-weight amylase. PMID:7533757

  10. Effect of rubber stopper composition, preservative pretreatment and rinse water temperature on the moist heat resistance of Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980.

    PubMed

    Rubio, S L; Moldenhauer, J E

    1995-01-01

    Bacillus stearothermophilus spores (liquid suspension) were inoculated onto rubber stoppers and exposed to sublethal steam sterilization cycles at 120 degrees C. The D-values were determined using the fraction-negative method. An increase in heat resistance (D-value) of 200%-400% was observed when the spore suspension was inoculated onto rubber stoppers. The D-values ranged from 4.90-6.96 minutes 120 degrees C. No significant effect was seen when different preservatives were added to the stoppers nor when hot or cold rinse water temperatures were used after processing. PMID:7757456

  11. The effect of different water-insoluble anorganic salts on the resistance and storage time of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores used for biological indicators.

    PubMed

    Müller, H E

    1994-12-01

    The survival of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores was investigated over 7 years. The spores were precipitated with 18 insoluble inorganic salts. There were hydroxides, carbonates, oxalates, phosphates, and sulfate of aluminium, barium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, and tin. The stability of the spores to dry and moist heat was strongest in precipitates of barium and calcium salts. Most phosphates and the heavy metals caused a rapid inactivation of spores. Finally, the survival of the spores in the 7 years of observation was the best in barium sulfate and calcium oxalate. PMID:7748440

  12. Thermodynamic analysis reveals a temperature-dependent change in the catalytic mechanism of bacillus stearothermophilus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gyanesh; First, Eric A

    2009-02-13

    Catalysis of tRNA(Tyr) aminoacylation by tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase can be divided into two steps. In the first step, tyrosine is activated by ATP to form the tyrosyl-adenylate intermediate. In the second step, the tyrosyl moiety is transferred to the 3' end of tRNA. To investigate the roles that enthalpic and entropic contributions play in catalysis by Bacillus stearothermophilus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS), the temperature dependence for the activation of tyrosine and subsequent transfer to tRNA(Tyr) has been determined using single turnover kinetic methods. A van't Hoff plot for binding of ATP to the TyrRS.Tyr complex reveals three distinct regions. Particularly striking is the change occurring at 25 degrees C, where the values of DeltaH(0) and DeltaS(0) go from -144 kJ/mol and -438 J/mol K below 25 degrees C to +137.9 kJ/mol and +507 J/mol K above 25 degrees C. Nonlinear Eyring and van't Hoff plots are also observed for formation of the TyrRS.[Tyr-ATP](double dagger) and TyrRS.Tyr-AMP complexes. Comparing the van't Hoff plots for the binding of ATP to tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase in the absence and presence of saturating tyrosine concentrations indicates that the temperature-dependent changes in DeltaH(0) and DeltaS(0) for the binding of ATP only occur when tyrosine is bound to the enzyme. Previous investigations revealed a similar synergistic interaction between the tyrosine and ATP substrates when the "KMSKS" signature sequence is deleted or replaced by a nonfunctional sequence. We propose that the temperature-dependent changes in DeltaH(0) and DeltaS(0) are because of the KMSKS signature sequence being conformationally constrained and unable to disrupt this synergistic interaction below 25 degrees C. PMID:19098308

  13. Magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopic characterization of the NOS-like protein from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (gsNOS).

    PubMed

    Kinloch, Ryan D; Sono, Masanori; Sudhamsu, Jawahar; Crane, Brian R; Dawson, John H

    2010-03-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) catalyzes the NADPH- and O(2)-dependent oxidation of l-arginine (l-Arg) to nitric oxide (NO) and citrulline via an N(G)-hydroxy-l-arginine (NHA) intermediate. Mammalian NOSs have been studied quite extensively; other eukaryotes and some prokaryotes appear to express NOS-like proteins comparable to the oxygenase domain of mammalian NOSs. In this study, a recombinant NOS-like protein from the thermostable bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus (gsNOS) has been characterized using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic techniques. Spectral comparisons of ligand complexes (with O(2), NO and CO) of substrate-bound (l-Arg or NHA) gsNOS, including the key oxyferrous complex studied at -50 degrees C in cryogenic mixed solvents, with analogous mammalian NOS complexes indicate overall spectroscopic similarities between gsNOS and mammalian NOSs. However, more detailed spectral comparisons reflect subtle structural differences between gsNOS and mammalian NOSs. This may be due to an incomplete tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4))-binding site and low BH(4)-binding affinity, which may become even lower in the presence of cryosolvent in gsNOS. Although BH(4)-binding may be altered, gsNOS appears to require the pterin for NO production since formation of the stable ferric-NO product complex was only observed when excess BH(4) (>150muM) over gsNOS was present upon single turnover reaction in which O(2) was bubbled into dithionite-reduced NHA-bound protein solution at -35 degrees C or -50 degrees C. PMID:20110129

  14. Interaction of Human DNA Polymerase α and DNA Polymerase I from Bacillus stearothermophilus with Hypoxanthine and 8-Oxoguanine Nucleotides †

    PubMed Central

    Patro, Jennifer N.; Urban, Milan; Kuchta, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand how DNA polymerases interact with mutagenic bases, we examined how human DNA polymerase α (pol α), a B family enzyme, and DNA polymerase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (BF), an A family enzyme, generate adenine:hypoxanthine and adenine:8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) base pairs. Pol α strongly discriminated against polymerizing dATP opposite 8-oxoG, and removing N1, N6, or N7 further inhibited incorporation, whereas removing N3 from dATP dramatically increased incorporation (32-fold). Eliminating N6 from 3-deaza-dATP now greatly reduced incorporation, suggesting that incorporation of dATP (analogues) opposite 8-oxoguanine proceeds via a Hoogsteen base-pair and that pol α uses N3 of a purine dNTP to block this incorporation. Pol α also polymerized 8-oxo-dGTP across from a templating A, and removing N6 from the template adenine inhibited incorporation of 8-oxoG. The effects of N1, N6, and N7 demonstrated a strong interdependence during formation of adenine:hypoxanthine base-pairs by pol α and N3 of dATP again helps prevent polymerization opposite a templating hypoxanthine. BF very efficiently polymerized 8-oxo-dGTP opposite adenine, and N1 and N7 of adenine appear to play important roles. BF incorporates dATP opposite 8-oxoG less efficiently, and modifying N1, N6, or N7 greatly inhibits incorporation. N6, and to a lesser extent N1, help drive hypoxanthine:adenine base pair formation by BF. The mechanistic implications of these results showing that different polymerases interact very differently with base lesions are discussed. PMID:19642651

  15. A two-component system regulates the expression of an ABC transporter for xylo-oligosaccharides in Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Shulami, Smadar; Zaide, Galia; Zolotnitsky, Gennady; Langut, Yael; Feld, Geoff; Sonenshein, Abraham L; Shoham, Yuval

    2007-02-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 utilizes an extensive and highly regulated hemicellulolytic system. The genes comprising the xylanolytic system are clustered in a 39.7-kb chromosomal segment. This segment contains a 6-kb transcriptional unit (xynDCEFG) coding for a potential two-component system (xynDC) and an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system (xynEFG). The xynD promoter region contains a 16-bp inverted repeat resembling the operator site for the xylose repressor, XylR. XylR was found to bind specifically to this sequence, and binding was efficiently prevented in vitro in the presence of xylose. The ABC transport system was shown to comprise an operon of three genes (xynEFG) that is transcribed from its own promoter. The nonphosphorylated fused response regulator, His6-XynC, bound to a 220-bp fragment corresponding to the xynE operator. DNase I footprinting analysis showed four protected zones that cover the -53 and the +34 regions and revealed direct repeat sequences of a GAAA-like motif. In vitro transcriptional assays and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that xynE transcription is activated 140-fold in the presence of 1.5 microM XynC. The His6-tagged sugar-binding lipoprotein (XynE) of the ABC transporter interacted with different xylosaccharides, as demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry. The change in the heat capacity of binding (DeltaCp) for XynE with xylotriose suggests a stacking interaction in the binding site that can be provided by a single Trp residue and a sugar moiety. Taken together, our data show that XynEFG constitutes an ABC transport system for xylo-oligosaccharides and that its transcription is negatively regulated by XylR and activated by the response regulator XynC, which is part of a two-component sensing system. PMID:17142383

  16. A new family of carbohydrate esterases is represented by a GDSL hydrolase/acetylxylan esterase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Alalouf, Onit; Balazs, Yael; Volkinshtein, Margarita; Grimpel, Yael; Shoham, Gil; Shoham, Yuval

    2011-12-01

    Acetylxylan esterases hydrolyze the ester linkages of acetyl groups at positions 2 and/or 3 of the xylose moieties in xylan and play an important role in enhancing the accessibility of xylanases to the xylan backbone. The hemicellulolytic system of the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 comprises a putative acetylxylan esterase gene, axe2. The gene product belongs to the GDSL hydrolase family and does not share sequence homology with any of the carbohydrate esterases in the CAZy Database. The axe2 gene is induced by xylose, and the purified gene product completely deacetylates xylobiose peracetate (fully acetylated) and hydrolyzes the synthetic substrates 2-naphthyl acetate, 4-nitrophenyl acetate, 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate, and phenyl acetate. The pH profiles for k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m) suggest the existence of two ionizable groups affecting the binding of the substrate to the enzyme. Using NMR spectroscopy, the regioselectivity of Axe2 was directly determined with the aid of one-dimensional selective total correlation spectroscopy. Methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-β-d-xylopyranoside was rapidly deacetylated at position 2 or at positions 3 and 4 to give either diacetyl or monoacetyl intermediates, respectively; methyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside was initially deacetylated at position 6. In both cases, the complete hydrolysis of the intermediates occurred at a much slower rate, suggesting that the preferred substrate is the peracetate sugar form. Site-directed mutagenesis of Ser-15, His-194, and Asp-191 resulted in complete inactivation of the enzyme, consistent with their role as the catalytic triad. Overall, our results show that Axe2 is a serine acetylxylan esterase representing a new carbohydrate esterase family. PMID:21994937

  17. Stability and self-assembly of the S-layer protein of the cell wall of Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Jaenicke, R; Welsch, R; Sára, M; Sleytr, U B

    1985-07-01

    The surface layer of the cell envelope of Bacillus stearothermophilus consists of a regular array of protein subunits. As shown by dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation, the fully solubilized S-layer protein represents a homogeneous entity with a subunit molecular mass of 115 +/- 5 kDa. Solubilization of the protein may be accomplished at acid pH, or using high concentrations of urea or guanidine X HCl. It is accompanied by (partial) denaturation, thus interfering with the characterization of the protein in its unperturbed native state. Removal of the solubilizing agent by dialysis or dilution allows the S-layer to be reassembled into two-dimensional crystalline lattices identical to those observed in intact cells. To determine the kinetics of association, optimum conditions are found to be rapid mixing with 0.1 M sodium phosphate pH 7.0, 20 degrees C, final protein concentration greater than 10 micrograms/ml. If the time course of the self-assembly is monitored by light scattering, as well as by chemical cross-linking with glutardialdehyde, multiphasic kinetics with a rapid initial phase and slow consecutive processes of higher than second-order are observed. The rapid phase may be attributed to the formation of oligomeric precursors (Mr greater than 10(6) ). Concentration-dependent light scattering measurements give evidence for a "critical concentration" of association, suggesting that patches of 12-16 protein subunits fuse and recrystallize into the final (native) S-layer structure. Recrystallization tends to be complete. PMID:4041240

  18. Electron spin-lattice relaxation of the (4Fe-4S) ferredoxin from B. stearothermophilus. Comparison with other iron proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Patrick; Gayda, Jean-Pierre; Rao, K. Krishna

    1982-05-01

    The temperature dependence of the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of the (4Fe-4S) ferredoxin from Bacillus stearothermophilus is studied in the range 1.2 to 40 K. This dependence is similar to that observed for the (2Fe-2S) ferredoxin from Spirulina maxima and can be interpreted with the same relaxation processes [J.P. Gayda, P. Bertrand, A. Deville, C. More, G. Roger, J.F. Gibson, and R. Cammack, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 581, 15 (1979)]. In particular, between 4 and 15 K, the data are well fitted by a second-order Raman process involving three-dimensional phonons, with a Debye temperature of about 60 K (45 cm-1). This would give an estimation of the highest frequency of the vibrations which can propagate through the three-dimensional proteinic medium. In the highest temperature range (T≳30 K) the results are interpreted with an Orbach process involving an excited level of energy 120 cm-1. This process could be induced by the localized vibrations of the active site. Finally, these results are compared to those recently reported for some hemoproteins [H.J. Stapleton, J.P. Allen, C.P. Flynn, D.G. Stinson, and S.R. Kurtz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1456 (1980)]. Below 15 K, the temperature dependence of T1 for these samples is similar to that observed for the iron-sulfur proteins and may be interpreted in the same way. Our interpretation is compared to the fractal model proposed by Stapleton et al.

  19. Protein isotope effects in dihydrofolate reductase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus show entropic-enthalpic compensatory effects on the rate constant.

    PubMed

    Luk, Louis Y P; Ruiz-Pernía, J Javier; Dawson, William M; Loveridge, E Joel; Tuñón, Iñaki; Moliner, Vicent; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2014-12-10

    Catalysis by dihydrofolate reductase from the moderately thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus (BsDHFR) was investigated by isotope substitution of the enzyme. The enzyme kinetic isotope effect for hydride transfer was close to unity at physiological temperatures but increased with decreasing temperatures to a value of 1.65 at 5 °C. This behavior is opposite to that observed for DHFR from Escherichia coli (EcDHFR), where the enzyme kinetic isotope effect increased slightly with increasing temperature. These experimental results were reproduced in the framework of variational transition-state theory that includes a dynamical recrossing coefficient that varies with the mass of the protein. Our simulations indicate that BsDHFR has greater flexibility than EcDHFR on the ps-ns time scale, which affects the coupling of the environmental motions of the protein to the chemical coordinate and consequently to the recrossing trajectories on the reaction barrier. The intensity of the dynamic coupling in DHFRs is influenced by compensatory temperature-dependent factors, namely the enthalpic barrier needed to achieve an ideal transition-state configuration with minimal nonproductive trajectories and the protein disorder that disrupts the electrostatic preorganization required to stabilize the transition state. Together with our previous studies of other DHFRs, the results presented here provide a general explanation why protein dynamic effects vary between enzymes. Our theoretical treatment demonstrates that these effects can be satisfactorily reproduced by including a transmission coefficient in the rate constant calculation, whose dependence on temperature is affected by the protein flexibility. PMID:25396728

  20. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of Xyn52B2, a GH52 β-D-xylosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6.

    PubMed

    Dann, Roie; Lansky, Shifra; Lavid, Noa; Zehavi, Arie; Belakhov, Valery; Baasov, Timor; Dvir, Hay; Manjasetty, Babu; Belrhali, Hassan; Shoham, Yuval; Shoham, Gil

    2014-12-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6 is a thermophilic bacterium that possesses an extensive hemicellulolytic system, including over 40 specific genes that are dedicated to this purpose. For the utilization of xylan, the bacterium uses an extracellular xylanase which degrades xylan to decorated xylo-oligomers that are imported into the cell. These oligomers are hydrolyzed by side-chain-cleaving enzymes such as arabinofuranosidases, acetylesterases and a glucuronidase, and finally by an intracellular xylanase and a number of β-xylosidases. One of these β-xylosidases is Xyn52B2, a GH52 enzyme that has already proved to be useful for various glycosynthesis applications. In addition to its demonstrated glycosynthase properties, interest in the structural aspects of Xyn52B2 stems from its special glycoside hydrolase family, GH52, the structures and mechanisms of which are only starting to be resolved. Here, the cloning, overexpression, purification and crystallization of Xyn52B2 are reported. The most suitable crystal form that has been obtained belonged to the orthorhombic P212121 space group, with average unit-cell parameters a = 97.7, b = 119.1, c = 242.3 Å. Several X-ray diffraction data sets have been collected from flash-cooled crystals of this form, including the wild-type enzyme (3.70 Å resolution), the E335G catalytic mutant (2.95 Å resolution), a potential mercury derivative (2.15 Å resolution) and a selenomethionine derivative (3.90 Å resolution). These data are currently being used for detailed three-dimensional structure determination of the Xyn52B2 protein. PMID:25484225

  1. NAD + -dependent Formate Dehydrogenase from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Alekseeva, A.A.; Savin, S.S.; Tishkov, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 1.2.1.2) widely occurs in nature. FDH consists of two identical subunits and contains neither prosthetic groups nor metal ions. This type of FDH was found in different microorganisms (including pathogenic ones), such as bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and plants. As opposed to microbiological FDHs functioning in cytoplasm, plant FDHs localize in mitochondria. Formate dehydrogenase activity was first discovered as early as in 1921 in plant; however, until the past decade FDHs from plants had been considerably less studied than the enzymes from microorganisms. This review summarizes the recent results on studying the physiological role, properties, structure, and protein engineering of plant formate dehydrogenases. PMID:22649703

  2. Two different dihydroorotate dehydrogenases in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, P S; Jansen, P J; Hammer, K

    1994-01-01

    The pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis pathway has been characterized for a number of organisms. The general pathway consists of six enzymatic steps. In the characterization of the pyrimidine pathway of Lactococcus lactis, two different pyrD genes encoding dihydroorotate dehydrogenase were isolated. The nucleotide sequences of the two genes, pyrDa and pyrDb, have been determined. One of the deduced amino acid sequences has a high degree of homology to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, and the other resembles the dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis. It is possible to distinguish between the two enzymes in crude extracts by using different electron acceptors. We constructed mutants containing a mutated form of either one or the other or both of the pyrD genes. Only the double mutant is pyrimidine auxotrophic. Images PMID:8021180

  3. Fundamental molecular differences between alcohol dehydrogenase classes.

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, O; Atrian, S; Luque, T; Hjelmqvist, L; Gonzàlez-Duarte, R; Jörnvall, H

    1994-01-01

    Two types of alcohol dehydrogenase in separate protein families are the "medium-chain" zinc enzymes (including the classical liver and yeast forms) and the "short-chain" enzymes (including the insect form). Although the medium-chain family has been characterized in prokaryotes and many eukaryotes (fungi, plants, cephalopods, and vertebrates), insects have seemed to possess only the short-chain enzyme. We have now also characterized a medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase in Drosophila. The enzyme is identical to insect octanol dehydrogenase. It is a typical class III alcohol dehydrogenase, similar to the corresponding human form (70% residue identity), with mostly the same residues involved in substrate and coenzyme interactions. Changes that do occur are conservative, but Phe-51 is of functional interest in relation to decreased coenzyme binding and increased overall activity. Extra residues versus the human enzyme near position 250 affect the coenzyme-binding domain. Enzymatic properties are similar--i.e., very low activity toward ethanol (Km beyond measurement) and high selectivity for formaldehyde/glutathione (S-hydroxymethylglutathione; kcat/Km = 160,000 min-1.mM-1). Between the present class III and the ethanol-active class I enzymes, however, patterns of variability differ greatly, highlighting fundamentally separate molecular properties of these two alcohol dehydrogenases, with class III resembling enzymes in general and class I showing high variation. The gene coding for the Drosophila class III enzyme produces an mRNA of about 1.36 kb that is present at all developmental stages of the fly, compatible with the constitutive nature of the vertebrate enzyme. Taken together, the results bridge a previously apparent gap in the distribution of medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenases and establish a strictly conserved class III enzyme, consistent with an important role for this enzyme in cellular metabolism. Images PMID:8197167

  4. Functional characterization of the initiation enzyme of S-layer glycoprotein glycan biosynthesis in Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Kerstin; Novotny, René; Patel, Kinnari; Vinogradov, Evgenij; Whitfield, Chris; Valvano, Miguel A; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2007-04-01

    The glycan chain of the S-layer glycoprotein of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a is composed of repeating units [-->2)-alpha-l-Rhap-(1-->3)-beta-l-Rhap-(1-->2)-alpha-l-Rhap-(1-->], with a 2-O-methyl modification of the terminal trisaccharide at the nonreducing end of the glycan chain, a core saccharide composed of two or three alpha-l-rhamnose residues, and a beta-d-galactose residue as a linker to the S-layer protein. In this study, we report the biochemical characterization of WsaP of the S-layer glycosylation gene cluster as a UDP-Gal:phosphoryl-polyprenol Gal-1-phosphate transferase that primes the S-layer glycoprotein glycan biosynthesis of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a. Our results demonstrate that the enzyme transfers in vitro a galactose-1-phosphate from UDP-galactose to endogenous phosphoryl-polyprenol and that the C-terminal half of WsaP carries the galactosyltransferase function, as already observed for the UDP-Gal:phosphoryl-polyprenol Gal-1-phosphate transferase WbaP from Salmonella enterica. To confirm the function of the enzyme, we show that WsaP is capable of reconstituting polysaccharide biosynthesis in WbaP-deficient strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. PMID:17237178

  5. Functional Characterization of the Initiation Enzyme of S-Layer Glycoprotein Glycan Biosynthesis in Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a▿

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Kerstin; Novotny, René; Patel, Kinnari; Vinogradov, Evgenij; Whitfield, Chris; Valvano, Miguel A.; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2007-01-01

    The glycan chain of the S-layer glycoprotein of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a is composed of repeating units [→2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→3)-β-l-Rhap-(1→2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→], with a 2-O-methyl modification of the terminal trisaccharide at the nonreducing end of the glycan chain, a core saccharide composed of two or three α-l-rhamnose residues, and a β-d-galactose residue as a linker to the S-layer protein. In this study, we report the biochemical characterization of WsaP of the S-layer glycosylation gene cluster as a UDP-Gal:phosphoryl-polyprenol Gal-1-phosphate transferase that primes the S-layer glycoprotein glycan biosynthesis of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a. Our results demonstrate that the enzyme transfers in vitro a galactose-1-phosphate from UDP-galactose to endogenous phosphoryl-polyprenol and that the C-terminal half of WsaP carries the galactosyltransferase function, as already observed for the UDP-Gal:phosphoryl-polyprenol Gal-1-phosphate transferase WbaP from Salmonella enterica. To confirm the function of the enzyme, we show that WsaP is capable of reconstituting polysaccharide biosynthesis in WbaP-deficient strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. PMID:17237178

  6. Study of the influence of sporulation conditions on heat resistance of Geobacillus stearothermophilus used in the development of biological indicators for steam sterilization.

    PubMed

    Guizelini, Belquis P; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Sella, Sandra Regina B R; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    Biological indicators are important tools in infection control via sterilization process monitoring. The use of a standardized spore crop with a well-defined heat resistance will guarantee the quality of a biological indicator. Ambient factors during sporulation can affect spore characteristics and properties, including heat resistance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the main sporulation factors responsible for heat resistance in Geobacillus stearothermophilus, a useful biological indicator for steam sterilization. A sequence of a three-step optimization of variables (initial pH, nutrient concentration, tryptone, peptone, beef extract, yeast extract, manganese sulfate, magnesium sulfate, calcium chloride and potassium phosphate) was carried out to screen those that have a significant influence on heat resistance of produced spores. The variable exerting greatest influence on G. stearothermophilus heat resistance during sporulation was found to be the initial pH. Lower nutrient concentration and alkaline pH around 8.5 tended to enhance decimal reduction time at 121 °C (D(121°C)). A central composite design enabled a fourfold enhancement in heat resistance, and the model obtained accurately describes positive pH and negative manganese sulfate concentration influence on spore heat resistance. PMID:22872104

  7. Biological indicators for low temperature steam and formaldehyde sterilization: the effect of defined media on sporulation, growth index and formaldehyde resistance of spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus strains.

    PubMed

    Wright, A M; Hoxey, E V; Soper, C J; Davies, D J

    1995-10-01

    Preliminary screening was carried out on spores of 29 strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus to determine their potential as biological indicator organisms for low temperature steam and formaldehyde sterilization. Each strain was sporulated on four chemically defined media. Fourteen strains produced satisfactory sporulation on one or more of the media but there was considerable variation in the extent of sporulation. The growth index of the spores, which was dependent on both the strain of organism and the sporulation medium, ranged from 1% to 90%. The spores were appraised on the basis of their resistance to inactivation by 0.5% w/v formaldehyde in aqueous solution at 70 degrees C. The survivor curves obtained could be characterized into five types on the basis of the shape of the curve. Only five strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus produced spores with the characteristics of high resistance, linear semi-logarithmic survivor curve and high growth index that would be required of a potential biological indicator organism. PMID:7592136

  8. Characterization of the Bacillus stearothermophilus manganese superoxide dismutase gene and its ability to complement copper/zinc superoxide dismutase deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Bowler, C.; Inze, D.; Van Camp, W.; Kaer, L.V.; Dhaese, P. )

    1990-03-01

    Recombinant clones containing the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene of Bacillus stearothermophilus were isolated with an oligonucleotide probe designed to match a part of the previously determined amino acid sequence. Complementation analyses, performed by introducing each plasmid into a superoxide dismutase-deficient mutant of Escherichia coli, allowed us to define the region of DNA which encodes the MnSOD structural gene and to identify a promoter region immediately upstream from the gene. These data were subsequently confirmed by DNA sequencing. Since MnSOD is normally restricted to the mitochondria in eucaryotes, we were interested (i) in determining whether B. stearothermophilus MnSOD could function in eucaryotic cytosol and (ii) in determining whether MnSOD could replace the structurally unrelated copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) which is normally found there. To test this, the sequence encoding bacterial MnSOD was cloned into a yeast expression vector and subsequently introduced into a Cu/ZnSOD-deficient mutant of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Functional expression of the protein was demonstrated, and complementation tests revealed that the protein was able to provide tolerance at wild-type levels to conditions which are normally restrictive for this mutant. Thus, in spite of the evolutionary unrelatedness of these two enzymes, Cu/ZnSOD can be functionally replaced by MnSOD in yeast cytosol.

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the BseCI DNA methyltransferase from Bacillus stearothermophilus in complex with its cognate DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Kapetaniou, Evangelia G.; Kotsifaki, Dina; Providaki, Mary; Rina, Maria; Bouriotis, Vassilis; Kokkinidis, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The DNA methyltransferase M.BseCI from B. stearothermophilus was crystallized as a complex with its cognate DNA. Crystals belong to space group P6 and diffract to 2.5 Å resolution at a synchrotron source. The DNA methyltransferase M.BseCI from Bacillus stearothermophilus (EC 2.1.1.72), a 579-amino-acid enzyme, methylates the N6 atom of the 3′ adenine in the sequence 5′-ATCGAT-3′. M.BseCI was crystallized in complex with its cognate DNA. The crystals were found to belong to the hexagonal space group P6, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 87.0, c = 156.1 Å, β = 120.0° and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Two complete data sets were collected at wavelengths of 1.1 and 2.0 Å to 2.5 and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation at 100 K.

  10. Three-dimensional structure of a variant `Termamyl-like' Geobacillus stearothermophilus α-amylase at 1.9 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Offen, Wendy A; Viksoe-Nielsen, Anders; Borchert, Torben V; Wilson, Keith S; Davies, Gideon J

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme-catalysed degradation of starch is central to many industrial processes, including sugar manufacture and first-generation biofuels. Classical biotechnological platforms involve steam explosion of starch followed by the action of endo-acting glycoside hydrolases termed α-amylases and then exo-acting α-glucosidases (glucoamylases) to yield glucose, which is subsequently processed. A key enzymatic player in this pipeline is the `Termamyl' class of bacterial α-amylases and designed/evolved variants thereof. Here, the three-dimensional structure of one such Termamyl α-amylase variant based upon the parent Geobacillus stearothermophilus α-amylase is presented. The structure has been solved at 1.9 Å resolution, revealing the classical three-domain fold stabilized by Ca2+ and a Ca2+-Na+-Ca2+ triad. As expected, the structure is similar to the G. stearothermophilus α-amylase but with main-chain deviations of up to 3 Å in some regions, reflecting both the mutations and differing crystal-packing environments. PMID:25615972

  11. Psoriatic therapeutics and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cotton, D W; van Rossum, E

    1975-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of various agents on the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase have been studied in vitro. Stress is laid on the calculation of kinetic parameters such as true K-I values. The most active inhibitor was methotrexate, closely followed by cGMP. The increase in inhibitory activity after incubation of methotrexate with liver slices is discussed. PMID:167665

  12. Multiple retinoid dehydrogenases in testes cytosol from alcohol dehydrogenase negative or positive deermice.

    PubMed

    Posch, K C; Napoli, J L

    1992-05-28

    Retinoic acid syntheses from retinol by cytosol from testes of alcohol dehydrogenase negative or positive deermice were similar in specific activity and in their insensitivity to 1 M ethanol or 100 mM 4-methylpyrazole. Anion-exchange followed by size-exclusion chromatography revealed multiple and similarly migrating peaks in each cytosol that had both retinol and retinal dehydrogenase activities. Thus, the effects of ethanol on testes cannot be caused by direct inhibition of cytosolic retinoic acid synthesis because retinoid dehydrogenases distinct from mouse class A2 alcohol dehydrogenases, which corresponds to human class I, occurred in testes and they were not inhibited by ethanol. These data also demonstrate the occurrence of multiple cytosolic retinoic acid synthesis activities and indicate that the two reactions of cytosolic retinoic acid synthesis, retinol and retinal dehydrogenation, may be catalyzed by enzymes that occur as complexes. PMID:1599517

  13. Linkage Relationships of Six Enzyme Loci in Interspecific Sunfish Hybrids (Genus Lepomis)

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, T. E.; Whitt, G. S.; Childers, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    Backcross hybrids produced from the bluegill, the red-ear sunfish, and their F1 interspecific hybrid have been analyzed for the inheritance of six enzyme phenotypes. Malate dehydrogenase A and B, tetrazolium oxidase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, skeletal muscle esterase, and liver α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase are all inherited in a mendelian manner as codominant alleles at nuclear loci. 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase are encoded by linked loci, undergoing recombination at a frequency of 15%-22%. No other case of linkage was observed. The absence of linkage between the homologous malate dehydrogenase loci is of particular interest. These interspecific hybrids appear to be very useful for studies of biochemical genetics. PMID:17248621

  14. Characterization of xylitol dehydrogenase from Debaryomyces hansenii

    SciTech Connect

    Girio, F.M.; Amaral-Collaco, M.T.; Pelica, F.

    1996-01-01

    The xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.9) from xylose-grown cells of Debaryomyces hansenii was partially purified in two chromatographic steps, and characterization studies were carried out in order to investigate the role of the xylitol dehydrogenase-catalyzed step in the regulation of D-xylose metabolism. The enzyme was most active at pH 9.0-9.5, and exhibited a broad polyol specificity. The Michaelis constants for xylitol and NAD{sup +} were 16.5 and 0.55 mM, respectively. Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+} did not affect the enzyme activity. Conversely, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} strongly inhibited the enzyme activity. It was concluded that NAD{sup +}-xylitol dehydrogenase from D. hansenii has similarities with other xylose-fermenting yeasts in respect to optimal pH, substrate specificity, and K{sub m} value for xylitol, and therefore should be named L-iditol:NAD{sup +}-5-oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.14). The reason D. hansenii is a good xylitol producer is not because of its value of K for xylitol, which is low enough to assure its fast oxidation by NAD{sup +}-xylitol dehydrogenase. However, a higher K{sub m} value of xylitol dehydrogenase for NAD{sup +} compared to the K{sub m} values of other xylose-fermenting yeasts may be responsible for the higher xylitol yields. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Structure of a bacterial enzyme regulated by phosphorylation, isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Hurley, J H; Thorsness, P E; Ramalingam, V; Helmers, N H; Koshland, D E; Stroud, R M

    1989-11-01

    The structure of isocitrate dehydrogenase [threo-DS-isocitrate: NADP+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating), EC 1.1.1.42] from Escherichia coli has been solved and refined at 2.5 A resolution and is topologically different from that of any other dehydrogenase. This enzyme, a dimer of identical 416-residue subunits, is inactivated by phosphorylation at Ser-113, which lies at the edge of an interdomain pocket that also contains many residues conserved between isocitrate dehydrogenase and isopropylmalate dehydrogenase. Isocitrate dehydrogenase contains an unusual clasp-like domain in which both polypeptide chains in the dimer interlock. Based on the structure of isocitrate dehydrogenase and conservation with isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, we suggest that the active site lies in an interdomain pocket close to the phosphorylation site. PMID:2682654

  16. Cloning and sequencing of a cellobiose phosphotransferase system operon from Bacillus stearothermophilus XL-65-6 and functional expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, X; Ingram, L O

    1993-01-01

    Cellulolytic strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus were isolated from nature and screened for the presence of activities associated with the degradation of plant cell walls. One isolate (strain XL-65-6) which exhibited strong activities with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (MUG) and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-cellobiopyranoside (MUC) was used to construct a gene library in Escherichia coli. Clones degrading these model substrates were found to encode the cellobiose-specific genes of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). Both MUG and MUC activities were present together, and both activities were lost concurrently during subcloning experiments. A functional E. coli ptsI gene was required for MUC and MUG activities (presumably a ptsH gene also). The DNA fragment from B. stearothermophilus contained four open reading frames which appear to form a cel operon. Intergenic stop codons for celA, celB, and celC overlapped the ribosomal binding sites of the respective downstream genes. Frameshift mutations or deletions in celA, celB, and celD were individually shown to result in a loss of MUC and MUG activities. On the basis of amino acid sequence homology and hydropathy plots of translated sequences, celA and celB were identified as encoding PTS enzyme II and celD was identified as encoding PTS enzyme III. These translated sequences were remarkably similar to their respective E. coli homologs for cellobiose transport. No reported sequences exhibited a high level of homology with the celC gene product. The predicted carboxy-terminal region for celC was similar to the corresponding region of E. coli celF, a phospho-beta-glucosidase. An incomplete regulatory gene (celR) and proposed promoter sequence were located 5' to the proposed cel operon. A stem-loop resembling a rho-independent terminator was present immediately downstream from celD. These results indicate that B. stearothermophilus XL-65-6 contains a cellobiose-specific PTS for

  17. Peafowl lactate dehydrogenase: problem of isoenzyme identification.

    PubMed

    Rose, R G; Wilson, A C

    1966-09-16

    Peafowl, like other vertebrates, contain multiple forms of lactate dehydrogenase. The electrophoretic properties of the peafowl isoenzymes are unusual in that the isoenzyme from heart tissue can be either more or less anodic than that of muscle, depending on the pH. This finding focuses attention on the problem of isoenzyme identification. It is suggested that isoenzymes be identified on the basis of properties that are chemically and biologically more significant than electrophoretic mobility. PMID:5917779

  18. Neuropathology in Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Knerr, Ina; Gibson, K. Michael; Murdoch, Geoffrey; Salomons, Gajja S.; Jakobs, Cornelis; Combs, Susan; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2010-01-01

    Reported here is the novel finding of neuropathology in a patient with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, an inherited disorder of γ-aminobutyric acid metabolism characterized by intellectual deficiency, hypotonia, and epilepsy, with 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria and abnormalities of the globus pallidus on neuroimaging. A 19-year-old woman of European origin with a neurodevelopmental disorder and epilepsy died unexpectedly in 1998. A postmortem examination was performed, with a final diagnosis of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients. Eight years later, her sister with a neurodevelopmental disorder presented at 13 years of age with seizures and was diagnosed with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. In the decedent, succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency was established at the molecular level, 10 years after her death, using genomic DNA from brain tissue specimens. The neuropathologic findings revealed striking discoloration of the globi pallidi, leptomeningeal congestion, and a scar in the frontal cortex. After detection of the pathogenic homozygous mutation c.1226G>A, p.Gly409Asp in the living sister, it was confirmed in the decedent. An underlying metabolic disease may be an additional risk factor for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients. PMID:20304328

  19. Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Mei; Gu, Meng-Li; Ji, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are characterized by KIT or platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFRA) activating mutations. However, there are still 10%-15% of GISTs lacking KIT and PDGFRA mutations, called wild-type GISTs (WT GISTs). Among these so-called WT GISTs, a small subset is associated with succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) deficiency, known as SDH-deficient GISTs. In addition, GISTs that occur in Carney triad and Carney-Stratakis syndrome represent specific examples of SDH-deficient GISTs. SDH-deficient GISTs locate exclusively in the stomach, showing predilection for children and young adults with female preponderance. The tumor generally pursues an indolent course and exhibits primary resistance to imatinib therapy in most cases. Loss of succinate dehydrogenase subunit B expression and overexpression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) are common features of SDH-deficient GISTs. In WT GISTs without succinate dehydrogenase activity, upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α may lead to increased growth signaling through IGF1R and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). As a result, IGF1R and VEGFR are promising to be the novel therapeutic targets of GISTs. This review will update the current knowledge on characteristics of SDH-deficient GISTs and further discuss the possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis and clinical management of SDH-deficient GISTs. PMID:25741136

  20. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Smithgall, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microsomal monoxygenases proceeds through trans-dihydrodiol metabolites to diol-epoxide ultimate carcinogens. This thesis directly investigated the role of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, a cytosolic NAD(P)-linked oxidoreductase, in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic trans-dihydrodiols. A wide variety of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols were synthesized and shown to be substrates for the homogeneous rat liver dehydrogenase, including several potent proximate carcinogens derived from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, 5-methylchrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Since microsomal activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is highly stereospecific, the stereochemical course of enzymatic trans-dihydrodiol oxidation was monitored using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. The major product formed from the dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation of the trans-1,2-dihydrodiol of naphthalene was characterized using UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, and appears to be 4-hydroxy-1,2-naphthoquinone. Mass spectral analysis suggests that an analogous hydroxylated o-quinone is formed as the major product of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols was shown to be potently inhibited by all of the major classes of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Enhancement of trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogen oxidation may protect against possible adverse effects of the aspirin-like drugs, and help maintain the balance between activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  1. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutations in cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Benjamin R; Voss, Jesse S; Kerr, Sarah E; Barr Fritcher, Emily G; Graham, Rondell P; Zhang, Lizhi; Highsmith, W Edward; Zhang, Jun; Roberts, Lewis R; Gores, Gregory J; Halling, Kevin C

    2012-10-01

    Somatic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 genes are common in gliomas and help stratify patients with brain cancer into histologic and molecular subtypes. However, these mutations are considered rare in other solid tumors. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutations in cholangiocarcinoma and to assess histopathologic differences between specimens with and without an isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation. We sequenced 94 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cholangiocarcinoma (67 intrahepatic and 27 extrahepatic) assessing for isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (codon 132) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (codons 140 and 172) mutations. Multiple histopathologic characteristics were also evaluated and compared with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 mutation status. Of the 94 evaluated specimens, 21 (22%) had a mutation including 14 isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 7 isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 mutations. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations were more frequently observed in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma than in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (28% versus 7%, respectively; P = .030). The 14 isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations were R132C (n = 9), R132S (n = 2), R132G (n = 2), and R132L (n = 1). The 7 isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 mutations were R172K (n = 5), R172M (n = 1), and R172G (n = 1). Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations were more frequently observed in tumors with clear cell change (P < .001) and poorly differentiated histology (P = .012). The results of this study show for the first time that isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 genes are mutated in cholangiocarcinoma. The results of this study are encouraging because it identifies a new potential target for genotype-directed therapeutic trials and may represent a potential biomarker for earlier detection of cholangiocarcinoma in a subset of cases. PMID:22503487

  2. Structural basis for thermostability revealed through the identification and characterization of a highly thermostable phosphotriesterase-like lactonase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Hawwa, Renda; Aikens, John; Turner, Robert J.; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Mescar, Andrew D.

    2009-08-31

    A new enzyme homologous to phosphotriesterase was identified from the bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus (GsP). This enzyme belongs to the amidohydrolase family and possesses the ability to hydrolyze both lactone and organophosphate (OP) compounds, making it a phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL). GsP possesses higher OP-degrading activity than recently characterized PLLs, and it is extremely thermostable. GsP is active up to 100 C with an energy of activation of 8.0 kcal/mol towards ethyl paraoxon, and it can withstand an incubation temperature of 60 C for two days. In an attempt to understand the thermostability of PLLs, the X-ray structure of GsP was determined and compared to those of existing PLLs. Based upon a comparative analysis, a new thermal advantage score and plot was developed and reveals that a number of different factors contribute to the thermostability of PLLs.

  3. Biological indicators for low temperature steam and formaldehyde sterilization: investigation of the effect of change in temperature and formaldehyde concentration on spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus NCIMB 8224.

    PubMed

    Wright, A M; Hoxey, E V; Soper, C J; Davies, D J

    1996-03-01

    Five strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus have been studied to identify a spore strain to be used as a biological indicator organism for low temperature steam and formaldehyde sterilization. Three strains gave poor reproducibility of batch size and growth index and were discarded. The other two strains gave good reproducibility with a high growth index and gave rise to linear survivor curves when exposed to 5% aqueous formaldehyde. However, only NCIMB 8224 sporulates on a simpler medium and as it was the most resistant to formaldehyde, it was further studied. Tests were carried out in a modified miniclave and factors studied included temperature of the steam and formaldehyde concentration. All studies confirmed the suitability of this strain as a biological indicator organism. PMID:8852673

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of alpha-D-glucuronidase from Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6.

    PubMed

    Teplitsky, A; Shulami, S; Moryles, S; Zaide, G; Shoham, Y; Shoham, G

    1999-04-01

    alpha-D-Glucuronidases cleave the alpha-1,2-glycosidic bond of the 4-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucuronic acid side chain in xylan. Of the xylan-debranching hydrolases, these enzymes are the least studied and characterized. The alpha-glucuronidase gene (aguA) from Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6 has been cloned, sequenced and overproduced in Escherichia coli. The gene encodes for a protein of 679 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 78480 and a pI of 5.42. alpha-Glucuronidase T-6 shows high homology to the alpha-glucuronidases of Thermotoga maritima (60% identity) and of Tri-choderma reesei (44% identity). Based on the amino-acid sequence similarity, it is likely that these enzymes represent a new class of glycosyl hydrolases. Crystallographic studies of alpha-glucuronidase T-6 were initiated to study the mechanism of catalysis, as well as to provide a structural basis for rational introduction of enhanced thermostability by site-specific mutagenesis. In this report, the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of the native alpha-glucuronidase T-6 enzyme is described. Two crystal forms were found suitable for detailed crystal structure analysis. The T1 form was obtained by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000 as a precipitant and 2-propanol as an organic additive. The crystals belong to a primitive tetragonal crystal system (space group P41212 or P43212) with unit-cell dimensions a = b = 76.1 and c = 331.2 A. These crystals are mechanically strong, are stable in the X--ray beam and diffract X-rays to better than 2.4 A resolution. A full 3.0 A resolution diffraction data set (97.3% completeness, Rmerge 9.8%) has recently been collected on one crystal at room temperature using a rotating-anode X-ray source and an R-AXIS IIc imaging-plate detector. The M1 form was obtained and characterized by similar techniques. The best crystallization occurred at a slightly lower pH and a lower concentration of 2-propanol. The crystals belong to

  5. Structure-specificity relationships in Abp, a GH27 β-L-arabinopyranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6.

    PubMed

    Lansky, Shifra; Salama, Rachel; Solomon, Hodaya V; Feinberg, Hadar; Belrhali, Hassan; Shoham, Yuval; Shoham, Gil

    2014-11-01

    L-Arabinose sugar residues are relatively abundant in plants and are found mainly in arabinan polysaccharides and in other arabinose-containing polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans and pectic arabinogalactans. The majority of the arabinose units in plants are present in the furanose form and only a small fraction of them are present in the pyranose form. The L-arabinan-utilization system in Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6, a Gram-positive thermophilic soil bacterium, has recently been characterized, and one of the key enzymes was found to be an intracellular β-L-arabinopyranosidase (Abp). Abp, a GH27 enzyme, was shown to remove β-L-arabinopyranose residues from synthetic substrates and from the native substrates sugar beet arabinan and larch arabinogalactan. The Abp monomer is made up of 448 amino acids, and based on sequence homology it was suggested that Asp197 is the catalytic nucleophile and Asp255 is the catalytic acid/base. In the current study, the detailed three-dimensional structure of wild-type Abp (at 2.28 Å resolution) and its catalytic mutant Abp-D197A with (at 2.20 Å resolution) and without (at 2.30 Å resolution) a bound L-arabinose product are reported as determined by X-ray crystallography. These structures demonstrate that the three-dimensional structure of the Abp monomer correlates with the general fold observed for GH27 proteins, consisting of two main domains: an N-terminal TIM-barrel domain and a C-terminal all-β domain. The two catalytic residues are located in the TIM-barrel domain, such that their carboxylic functional groups are about 5.9 Å from each other, consistent with a retaining mechanism. An isoleucine residue (Ile67) located at a key position in the active site is shown to play a critical role in the substrate specificity of Abp, providing a structural basis for the high preference of the enzyme towards arabinopyranoside over galactopyranoside substrates. The crystal structure demonstrates that Abp is a tetramer

  6. Lactate dehydrogenase X, malate dehydrogenase and total protein in rat spermatozoa during epididymal transit.

    PubMed

    Vermouth, N T; Carriazo, C S; Ponce, R H; Blanco, A

    1986-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme X (LDH X), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and total soluble protein have been determined in lysates of spermatozoa isolated from caput, corpus and cauda of rat epididymis. Transit of spermatozoa through epididymis is accompanied by a reduction of LDH X, MDH and total protein per cell in sexually rested animals. The profiles of reduction along epididymal segments are different for the three variables studied. Mating with receptive females during the 5 days prior to determinations increases significantly the levels of MDH in spermatozoa from all sections of epididymis and produces increase of total soluble protein in the cells contained in cauda. PMID:3956158

  7. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... plasma. Malic dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle and liver diseases, myocardial infarctions, cancer, and blood disorders such as myelogenous (produced in the...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... blood cells), myocardial infarction (heart disease), and some forms of leukemia (cancer of the blood... conditions known to cause increased lactic dehydrogenase levels. (b) Classification. Class I...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... blood cells), myocardial infarction (heart disease), and some forms of leukemia (cancer of the blood... conditions known to cause increased lactic dehydrogenase levels. (b) Classification. Class I...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... blood cells), myocardial infarction (heart disease), and some forms of leukemia (cancer of the blood... conditions known to cause increased lactic dehydrogenase levels. (b) Classification. Class I...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... blood cells), myocardial infarction (heart disease), and some forms of leukemia (cancer of the blood... conditions known to cause increased lactic dehydrogenase levels. (b) Classification. Class I...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1420 - Isocitric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and plasma. Isocitric dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver disease such as viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, or acute inflammation of the biliary tract; pulmonary...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1420 - Isocitric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and plasma. Isocitric dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver disease such as viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, or acute inflammation of the biliary tract; pulmonary...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1420 - Isocitric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and plasma. Isocitric dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver disease such as viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, or acute inflammation of the biliary tract; pulmonary...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1420 - Isocitric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and plasma. Isocitric dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver disease such as viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, or acute inflammation of the biliary tract; pulmonary...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1420 - Isocitric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and plasma. Isocitric dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver disease such as viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, or acute inflammation of the biliary tract; pulmonary...

  17. Lactate dehydrogenase in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Stankovic Stojanovic, Katia; Lionnet, François

    2016-07-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity is elevated in many pathological states. Interest in LDH activity in sickle cell disease (SCD) has developed out of an increased comprehension of the pathophysiological process and the clinical course of the disease. Elevated LDH activity in SCD comes from various mechanisms, especially intravascular hemolysis, as well as ischemia-reperfusion damage and tissular necrosis. Intravascular hemolysis is associated with vasoconstriction, platelet activation, endothelial damage, and vascular complications. LDH has been used as a diagnostic and prognostic factor of acute and chronic complications. In this review we have evaluated the literature where LDH activity was examined during steady-state or acute conditions in SCD. PMID:27138446

  18. Substrate specificity of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Lindstad, R I; Köll, P; McKinley-McKee, J S

    1998-01-01

    The substrate specificity of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase has been studied by steady-state kinetics over the range pH 7-10. Sorbitol dehydrogenase stereo-selectively catalyses the reversible NAD-linked oxidation of various polyols and other secondary alcohols into their corresponding ketones. The kinetic constants are given for various novel polyol substrates, including L-glucitol, L-mannitol, L-altritol, D-altritol, D-iditol and eight heptitols, as well as for many aliphatic and aromatic alcohols. The maximum velocities (kcat) and the substrate specificity-constants (kcat/Km) are positively correlated with increasing pH. The enzyme-catalysed reactions occur by a compulsory ordered kinetic mechanism with the coenzyme as the first, or leading, substrate. With many substrates, the rate-limiting step for the overall reaction is the enzyme-NADH product dissociation. However, with several substrates there is a transition to a mechanism with partial rate-limitation at the ternary complex level, especially at low pH. The kinetic data enable the elucidation of new empirical rules for the substrate specificity of sorbitol dehydrogenase. The specificity-constants for polyol oxidation vary as a function of substrate configuration with D-xylo> D-ribo > L-xylo > D-lyxo approximately L-arabino > D-arabino > L-lyxo. Catalytic activity with a polyol or an aromatic substrate and various 1-deoxy derivatives thereof varies with -CH2OH > -CH2NH2 > -CH2OCH3 approximately -CH3. The presence of a hydroxyl group at each of the remaining chiral centres of a polyol, apart from the reactive C2, is also nonessential for productive ternary complex formation and catalysis. A predominantly nonpolar enzymic epitope appears to constitute an important structural determinant for the substrate specificity of sorbitol dehydrogenase. The existence of two distinct substrate binding regions in the enzyme active site, along with that of the catalytic zinc, is suggested to account for the lack of

  19. Methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase from Clostridium formicoaceticum and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase (combined) from Clostridium thermoaceticum

    SciTech Connect

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; O'Brien, W.E.; Moore, M.R.; Liu, M.T.

    1980-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase is widely distributed and has been found in every cell type investigated. The NAD-specific enzyme has been purified to homogeneity from Clostridium formicoaceticum and the NADP-specific enzyme has been obtained from Clostridium thermoaceticum. Other sources of the NADP-specific enzyme are Streptococcus species, Escherichia coli, Clostridium cylindrosporum, Salmonella typhimurium, yeast, liver from various animals, calf thymus, and plants. The NAD-specific enzyme has been demonstrated in Acetobacterium woodii, some methane bacteria, and in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Of considerable interest are the observations that in porcine and ovine livers, as well as in yeast, methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase purified to homogeneity also contains methylenetetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase and formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase activities. Now it appears that the purified methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase from C. thermoaceticum also has cyclohydrolase but not synthetase activity. Methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase has been discussed previously in this series, as has methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase. In C. formicoaceticum and C. thermoaceticum these tetrahydrofolate-dependent enzymes participate in a sequence of metabolic reactions by which carbon dioxide is reduced to the methyl group of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate which in turn is utilized for the synthesis of acetate. This pathway provides the mechanism for disposing of reducing equivalents generated in glycolysis.

  20. Catecholamine regulation of lactate dehydrogenase in rat brain cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; McGinnis, J.F.; de Vellis, J.

    1980-03-25

    The mechanism of catecholamine induction of the soluble cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) was studied in the rat glial tumor cell line, C6. Lactate dehydrogenase was partially purified from extracts of (/sup 3/H)leucine-labeled cells by affinity gel chromatography and quantitatively immunoprecipitated with anti-lactate dehydrogenase-5 IgG and with antilactate dehydrogenase-1 IgG. The immunoprecipitates were dissociated and electrophoresed on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. Using this methodology, the increased enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase in norepinephrine-treated C6 cells was observed to be concomitant with the increased synthesis of enzyme molecules. Despite the continued presence of norepinephrine, the specific increase in the rate of synthesis of lactate dehydrogenase was transient. It was first detected at 4 h, was maximum at 9 h, and returned to basal levels by 24 h. The half-life of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity was 36 h during the induction and 40 h during deinduction. The half-life for decay of /sup 3/H-labeled lactate dehydrogenase was 41 h. These observations suggest that the increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity in norepinephrine-treated cells does not involve any change in the rate of degradation. Norepinephrine increased the specific rate of synthesis of both lactate dehydrogenase-5 (a tetramer of four M subunits) and lactate dehydrogenase-1 (a tetramer of four H subunits), although to different extents. Since these subunits are coded for by two separate genes on separate chromosomes, it suggests that the regulatory mechanism involves at least two separate sites of action.

  1. Aldehyde dehydrogenase protein superfamily in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mei-Liang; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Ming; Qi, Lei-Peng; Yang, Xiong-Bang; Zhang, Kai-Xuan; Pang, Jun-Feng; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Shao, Ji-Rong; Tang, Yi-Xiong; Wu, Yan-Min

    2012-11-01

    Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.) is an important model organism for fundamental research in the agro-biotechnology field. Aldehydes were generated in response to a suite of environmental stresses that perturb metabolism including salinity, dehydration, desiccation, and cold and heat shock. Many biologically important aldehydes are metabolized by the superfamily of NAD(P)(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases. Here, starting from the database of Z. mays, we identified 28 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes and 48 transcripts by the in silico cloning method using the ALDH-conserved domain amino acid sequence of Arabidopsis and rice as a probe. Phylogenetic analysis shows that all 28 members of the ALDH gene families were classified to ten distinct subfamilies. Microarray data and quantitative real-time PCR analysis reveal that ZmALDH9, ZmALDH13, and ZmALDH17 genes involve the function of drought stress, acid tolerance, and pathogens infection. These results suggested that these three ZmALDH genes might be potentially useful in maize genetic improvement. PMID:22983498

  2. Alcohol dehydrogenases from olive (Olea europaea) fruit.

    PubMed

    Salas, J J; Sánchez, J

    1998-05-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase activity was detected in extracts from the pericarp tissues of developing olive fruits using hexanal as the substrate. Total activity in the crude extract was 20-fold higher with NADPH than with NADH. Three discrete enzymes were resolved by means of a purification protocol involving ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography. One of the enzymes was NAD-dependent and displayed a high K(m) for hexanal (K(m) = 2.1 mM). Two NADP-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases were resolved, one showing a high K(m) for hexanal (K(m) = 1.9 mM) and the second with a lower K(m) for the same substrate (K(m) = 0.04 mM). The three enzymes have been partially purified and their kinetic parameters and specificities for various aldehydes determined. The involvement of these enzymes in the biogenesis of six carbon alcohols constituent of the aroma of olive oil is discussed. PMID:9621451

  3. Phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlinger, D.J.; Reed, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) was purified to homogeneity from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). No pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinase activity was detected at any stage of the purification. However, the purified PDC was phosphorylated and inactivated by purified PDH kinase from bovine kidney mitochondria, Mg/sup 2 +/, and (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP. The protein-bound radioactivity was localized in the PDH ..cap alpha.. subunit. The phosphorylated, inactivated PDC was dephosphorylated and reactivated with purified bovine PDH phosphatase, Mg/sup 2 +/, and Ca/sup 2 +/. From a tryptic digest of phosphorylated yeast PDC a radioactive peptide was isolated by anion and reverse phase HPLC. The sequence of this tetradecapeptide is Tyr-Gly-Gly-His-Ser(P)-Met-Ser-Asp-Pro-Gly-Thr-Thr-Tyr-Arg. This sequence is very similar to the sequence of a tryptic phosphopeptide derived from the ..cap alpha.. subunit of bovine kidney and heart PDH: Tyr-His-Gly-His-Ser(P)-Met-Ser-Asp-Pro-Gly-Val-Ser-Tyr-Arg.

  4. The effect of dietary bagasse on the activities of some key enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Stanley, J C; Newsholme, E A

    1985-09-01

    The effects of a 100 g/kg diet substitution of bagasse on the body-weight gain, food consumption and faecal dry weight of mice given a high-sucrose diet and on the activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC I.I.I.49), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC I.I.I.44), malate dehydrogenase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating) (NADP+) (EC I.I.I.40), ATP-citrate (pro-3S) lyase (EC 4.I.3.8), 6-phosphofructokinase EC 2.7.I.II), pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.I.40) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.I.3.II) were studied. Bagasse had no effect on body-weight gain, food consumption or faecal dry weight. Bagasse decreased the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase expressed on a wet weight basis and on a protein basis. Bagasse decreased the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase expressed on a body-weight basis. These results suggest that bagasse decreases the flux through some pathways of hepatic lipogenesis when mice are given high-sucrose diets. PMID:2998453

  5. Modification of rock/fluid and fluid/fluid interfaces during MEOR processes, using two biosurfactant producing strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus SUCPM#14 and Enterobacter cloacae: a mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Sarafzadeh, Pegah; Zeinolabedini Hezave, Ali; Mohammadi, Sahar; Niazi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2014-05-01

    During any microbial enhanced oil recovery process, both cells and the metabolic products of bacteria govern the tertiary oil recovery efficiency. However, very accurate examination is needed to find the functionality of these tiny creatures at different reservoir conditions. In this regard, the effect of cell structure on ultimate microbial recovery efficiency which is the most dominant mechanism based on the microorganism types (gram-negative or gram-positive) was systematically investigated. At the first stage, possible different active mechanisms using Bacillus stearothermophilus SUCPM#14 strain were tested using specially designed injection protocol, in situ and ex situ core flooding experiments, interfacial tension, viscosity, pH and Amott wettability index measurements. At the second stage, comparing functionality of B. stearothermophilus SUCPM#14 (a gram-positive type) with the previously examined strain namely Enterobacter cloacae as a gram-negative type, proposed this hypothesis that the cell structure significantly affects the interfacial behaviors. New designed protocols were utilized to check the individual effects of cells, bioproducts and interaction of these together on the oil/water and also fluids/rock interfaces. The final results showed that the cells of B. stearothermophilus SUCPM#14 adhere more into the oil/water interface compared to E. cloacae and change its rheological properties; e.g. its elastic properties which affect the ultimate microbial oil recovery efficiency. Eventually, contradicting results revealed that biosurfactant produced by E. cloacae was able to considerably reduce the interfacial tension and alter the wettability of the rock (to neutral conditions) while biosurfactant produced by B. stearothermophilus SUCPM#14 was not very effective. PMID:24373916

  6. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Malic dehydrogenase test system. 862.1500 Section 862.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1500 Malic dehydrogenase test system....

  7. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase test system. 862.1440 Section 862.1440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1440 Lactate dehydrogenase...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system. 866.5560 Section 866.5560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5560 Lactic dehydrogenase immunological...

  9. BACTERIAL EXPRESSION, PURIFICATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a very large multi-component structure that catalyzes decarboxylation of pyruvate, yielding CO2, NADH, and acetyl-CoA as products. The decarboxylation reaction is catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1). The PDC occupies a key position in intermediary met...

  10. Isoenzyme characterization of Leishmania isolated from human cases with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis from the State of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Canto-Lara, S B; Cardenas-Maruffo, M F; Vargas-Gonzalez, A; Andrade-Narvaez, F

    1998-04-01

    Seventy-five isolates from the State of Campeche, Mexico, an area endemic for localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL), were characterized by isoenzyme markers (glucose phosphate isomerase, mannose phospate isomerase, nucleoside hydrolase, phosphoglucomutase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase). Seventy (93.3%) were identified as Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and 5 (6.7%) as L. (Viannia) braziliensis. This is the first report of authochthonus human LCL caused by L. (V.) braziliensis in the State of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. PMID:9574789

  11. GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE-S, A SPERM-SPECIFIC GLYCOLYTIC ENZYME, IS REQUIRED FOR SPERM MOTILITY AND MALE FERTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    While glycolysis is highly conserved, it is remarkable that several novel isozymes in this central metabolic pathway are found in mammalian sperm. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S (GAPDS) is the product of a mouse gene expressed only during spermatogenesis and, like it...

  12. Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Napora-Wijata, Kamila; Strohmeier, Gernot A.; Sonavane, Manoj N.; Avi, Manuela; Robins, Karen; Winkler, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S)-selectivity and together with a highly (R)-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases. PMID:24970175

  13. Antimicrobial Cellobiose Dehydrogenase-Chitosan Particles.

    PubMed

    Tegl, Gregor; Thallinger, Barbara; Beer, Bianca; Sygmund, Christoph; Ludwig, Roland; Rollett, Alexandra; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-01-13

    Increasing prevalence of chronic wounds and microbial infection constitute a severe health challenge. The situation is further complicated by emerging multidrug resistance making the treatment of infections increasingly difficult. Here, a novel antimicrobial system based on in situ release of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) immobilized on chitosan (CTS) particles is described. Covalent immobilization using carbodiimide coupling lead to a higher amount of protein immobilized on CTS (104 μg CDH/mg CTS) when compared to noncovalent immobilization, which, however, showed highest recovery of CDH activity (0.01 U/mg CTS). The CDH-CTS in situ generated H2O2 completely inhibited growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus over a period of 24 h. This resilient antimicrobial system represents a novel strategy for preventing infection with potential application in counteracting microbial colonization of chronic wounds. PMID:26672396

  14. Crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana cytokinin dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Euiyoung; Bingman, Craig A.; Bitto, Eduard; Aceti, David J.; Phillips, Jr., George N.

    2008-08-13

    Since first discovered in Zea mays, cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX) genes have been identified in many plants including rice and Arabidopsis thaliana, which possesses CKX homologues (AtCKX1-AtCKX7). So far, the three-dimensional structure of only Z. mays CKX (ZmCKX1) has been determined. The crystal structures of ZmCKX1 have been solved in the native state and in complex with reaction products and a slowly reacting substrate. The structures revealed four glycosylated asparagine residues and a histidine residue covalently linked to FAD. Combined with the structural information, recent biochemical analyses of ZmCKX1 concluded that the final products of the reaction, adenine and a side chain aldehyde, are formed by nonenzymatic hydrolytic cleavage of cytokinin imine products resulting directly from CKX catalysis. Here, we report the crystal structure of AtCKX7 (gene locus At5g21482.1, UniProt code Q9FUJ1).

  15. Fast internal dynamics in alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Monkenbusch, M.; Stadler, A. Biehl, R.; Richter, D.; Ollivier, J.; Zamponi, M.

    2015-08-21

    Large-scale domain motions in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) have been observed previously by neutron spin-echo spectroscopy (NSE). We have extended the investigation on the dynamics of ADH in solution by using high-resolution neutron time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron backscattering (BS) spectroscopy in the incoherent scattering range. The observed hydrogen dynamics were interpreted in terms of three mobility classes, which allowed a simultaneous description of the measured TOF and BS spectra. In addition to the slow global protein diffusion and domain motions observed by NSE, a fast internal process could be identified. Around one third of the protons in ADH participate in the fast localized diffusive motion. The diffusion coefficient of the fast internal motions is around two third of the value of the surrounding D{sub 2}O solvent. It is tempting to associate the fast internal process with solvent exposed amino acid residues with dangling side chains.

  16. Stability of immobilized yeast alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Ooshima, H.; Genko, Y.; Harano, Y.

    1981-12-01

    The effects of substrate on stabilities of native (NA) and three kinds of immobilized yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (IMA), namely PGA (the carrier; porous glass), SEA (agarose gel) prepared covalently, and AMA (anion-exchange resin) prepared ionically, were studied. The following results were obtained. 1) The deactivations of NA and IMA free from the substrate or in the presence of ethanol obey the first-order kinetics, whereas, in the presence of butyraldehyde, their deactivation behaviors are explained on the basis of coexistence of two components of YADHs, namely the labile E1 and the comparatively stable E2, with different first-order deactivation constants. (2) A few attempts for stabilization of IMA were carried out from the viewpoint of the effects of crosslinkages among the subunits of YADH for PGA and the multibonding between the carrier and enzyme for SEA. The former is effective for the stabilization, whereas the latter is not. (Refs. 19).

  17. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes of spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, A.D.; Weretilnyk, E.A.; Weigel, P.

    1986-04-01

    Betaine is synthesized in spinach chloroplasts via the pathway Choline ..-->.. Betaine Aldehyde ..-->.. Betaine; the second step is catalyzed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). The subcellular distribution of BADH was determined in leaf protoplast lysates; BADH isozymes were separated by 6-9% native PAGE. The chloroplast stromal fraction contains a single BADH isozyme (number1) that accounts for > 80% of the total protoplast activity; the extrachloroplastic fraction has a minor isozyme (number2) which migrates more slowly than number1. Both isozymes appear specific for betaine aldehyde, are more active with NAD than NADP, and show a ca. 3-fold activity increase in salinized leaves. The phenotype of a natural variant of isozyme number1 suggests that the enzyme is a dimer.

  18. Fast internal dynamics in alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Monkenbusch, M; Stadler, A; Biehl, R; Ollivier, J; Zamponi, M; Richter, D

    2015-08-21

    Large-scale domain motions in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) have been observed previously by neutron spin-echo spectroscopy (NSE). We have extended the investigation on the dynamics of ADH in solution by using high-resolution neutron time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron backscattering (BS) spectroscopy in the incoherent scattering range. The observed hydrogen dynamics were interpreted in terms of three mobility classes, which allowed a simultaneous description of the measured TOF and BS spectra. In addition to the slow global protein diffusion and domain motions observed by NSE, a fast internal process could be identified. Around one third of the protons in ADH participate in the fast localized diffusive motion. The diffusion coefficient of the fast internal motions is around two third of the value of the surrounding D2O solvent. It is tempting to associate the fast internal process with solvent exposed amino acid residues with dangling side chains. PMID:26298156

  19. Purification and properties of L-mandelate dehydrogenase and comparison with other membrane-bound dehydrogenases from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    PubMed

    Hoey, M E; Allison, N; Scott, A J; Fewson, C A

    1987-12-15

    L-Mandelate dehydrogenase was purified from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus by Triton X-100 extraction from a 'wall + membrane' fraction, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation and gel filtration followed by further ion-exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme was partially characterized with respect to its subunit Mr (44,000), pH optimum (7.5), pI value (4.2), substrate specificity and susceptibility to various potential inhibitors including thiol-blocking reagents. FMN was identified as the non-covalently bound cofactor. The properties of L-mandelate dehydrogenase are compared with those of D-mandelate dehydrogenase, D-lactate dehydrogenase and L-lactate dehydrogenase from A. calcoaceticus. PMID:3325042

  20. Purification and properties of L-mandelate dehydrogenase and comparison with other membrane-bound dehydrogenases from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    PubMed Central

    Hoey, M E; Allison, N; Scott, A J; Fewson, C A

    1987-01-01

    L-Mandelate dehydrogenase was purified from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus by Triton X-100 extraction from a 'wall + membrane' fraction, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation and gel filtration followed by further ion-exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme was partially characterized with respect to its subunit Mr (44,000), pH optimum (7.5), pI value (4.2), substrate specificity and susceptibility to various potential inhibitors including thiol-blocking reagents. FMN was identified as the non-covalently bound cofactor. The properties of L-mandelate dehydrogenase are compared with those of D-mandelate dehydrogenase, D-lactate dehydrogenase and L-lactate dehydrogenase from A. calcoaceticus. PMID:3325042

  1. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci. PMID:23637459

  2. Biochemical and structural characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum Lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cook, William J; Senkovich, Olga; Hernandez, Agustin; Speed, Haley; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-03-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes waterborne diseases worldwide. There is no effective therapy for C. parvum infection. The parasite depends mainly on glycolysis for energy production. Lactate dehydrogenase is a major regulator of glycolysis. This paper describes the biochemical characterization of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase and high resolution crystal structures of the apo-enzyme and four ternary complexes. The ternary complexes capture the enzyme bound to NAD/NADH or its 3-acetylpyridine analog in the cofactor binding pocket, while the substrate binding site is occupied by one of the following ligands: lactate, pyruvate or oxamate. The results reveal distinctive features of the parasitic enzyme. For example, C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase prefers the acetylpyridine analog of NADH as a cofactor. Moreover, it is slightly less sensitive to gossypol inhibition compared with mammalian lactate dehydrogenases and not inhibited by excess pyruvate. The active site loop and the antigenic loop in C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are considerably different from those in the human counterpart. Structural features and enzymatic properties of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are similar to enzymes from related parasites. Structural comparison with malate dehydrogenase supports a common ancestry for the two genes. PMID:25542170

  3. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex from Chloroplasts of Pisum sativum L 1

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael; Randall, Douglas D.

    1979-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is associated with intact chloroplasts and mitochondria of 9-day-old Pisum sativum L. seedlings. The ratio of the mitochondrial complex to the chloroplast complex activities is about 3 to 1. Maximal rates observed for chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity ranged from 6 to 9 micromoles of NADH produced per milligram of chlorophyll per hour. Osmotic rupture of pea chloroplasts released 88% of the complex activity, indicating that chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is a stromal complex. The pH optimum for chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was between 7.8 and 8.2, whereas the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex had a pH optimum between 7.3 and 7.7. Chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity was specific for pyruvate, dependent upon coenzyme A and NAD and partially dependent upon Mg2+ and thiamine pyrophosphate. Chloroplast-associated pyruvate dehydrogenase complex provides a direct link between pyruvate metabolism and chloroplast fatty acid biosynthesis by providing the substrate, acetyl-CoA, necessary for membrane development in young plants. Images PMID:16661100

  4. Use of 'small but smart' libraries to enhance the enantioselectivity of an esterase from Bacillus stearothermophilus towards tetrahydrofuran-3-yl acetate.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Alberto; Gall, Markus G; Pavlidis, Ioannis V; Thompson, Mark L; Schmidt, Marlen; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2013-07-01

    Two libraries of simultaneous double mutations in the active site region of an esterase from Bacillus stearothermophilus were constructed to improve the enantioselectivity in the hydrolysis of tetrahydrofuran-3-yl acetate. As screening of large mutant libraries is hampered by the necessity for GC/MS analysis, mutant libraries were designed according to a 'small but smart' concept. The design of focused libraries was based on data derived from a structural alignment of 3317 amino acid sequences of α/β-hydrolase fold enzymes with the bioinformatic tool 3DM. In this way, the number of mutants to be screened was substantially reduced as compared with a standard site-saturation mutagenesis approach. Whereas the wild-type esterase showed only poor enantioselectivity (E = 4.3) in the hydrolysis of (S)-tetrahydrofuran-3-yl acetate, the best variants obtained with this approach showed increased E-values of up to 10.4. Furthermore, some variants with inverted enantiopreference were found. PMID:23331978

  5. Identifying assembly-inhibiting and assembly-tolerant sites in the SbsB S-layer protein from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Kinns, Helen; Badelt-Lichtblau, Helga; Egelseer, Eva Maria; Sleytr, Uwe B; Howorka, Stefan

    2010-01-29

    Surface layer (S-layer) proteins self-assemble into two-dimensional crystalline lattices that cover the cell wall of all archaea and many bacteria. We have generated assembly-negative protein variants of high solubility that will facilitate high-resolution structure determination. Assembly-negative versions of the S-layer protein SbsB from Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2 were obtained using an insertion mutagenesis screen. The haemagglutinin epitope tag was inserted at 23 amino acid positions known to be located on the monomer protein surface from a previous cysteine accessibility screen. Limited proteolysis, circular dichroism, and fluorescence were used to probe whether the epitope insertion affected the secondary and tertiary structures of the monomer, while electron microscopy and size-exclusion chromatography were employed to examine proteins' ability to self-assemble. The screen not only identified assembly-compromised mutants with native fold but also yielded correctly folded, self-assembling mutants suitable for displaying epitopes for biomedical and biophysical applications, as well as cryo-electron microscopy imaging. Our study marks an important step in the analysis of the S-layer structure. In addition, the approach of concerted insertion and cysteine mutagenesis can likely be applied for other supramolecular assemblies. PMID:19836402

  6. The importance of an extra loop in the B-domain of an alpha-amylase from B. stearothermophilus US100.

    PubMed

    Khemakhem, Bassem; Ben Ali, Mamdouh; Aghajari, Nushin; Juy, Michel; Haser, Richard; Bejar, Samir

    2009-07-17

    To provide insight into the potential role of a loop in domain B of several bacterial alpha-amylases, molecular and structural investigation of Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase (Amy US100) was used as a model. Combination deletion mutants of G(213), I(214) and G(215), described as a loop-forming on the surface bacterial amylases, were subjected to biochemical and structural investigation. Thermoactivity, thermostability as well calcium requirement were studied for each mutant. Thus, deletion of one residue differently affects only the thermostability. Shortening the loop by deletion of G(213)-I(214) or I(214)-G(215) improved the thermostability and reduces calcium requirement. However, the deletion of three residues has a negative effect on thermostability and reduces the optimal temperature by 17 degrees C. The structural investigation showed that stabilizing deletions contribute to reinforce the architecture of domain B and the active site conformation. The deletion of three residues reduces the flexibility of this region and abolishes a denser hydrogen bond network. PMID:19422796

  7. Mg2+-free B. stearothermophilus Tryptophanyl-tRNA Synthetase Retains a Major Fraction of the Overall Rate Enhancement for Tryptophan Activation

    PubMed Central

    Weinreb, Violetta; Carter, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Few experimental data are available for rates of enzymatic phosphoryl-transfer reactions in the absence of the divalent metal ions associated with such reactions. Such data are of interest for amino acid activation by class Ic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, for which there is substantial evidence that binding energy of ATP may account for a major fraction of the overall rate enhancement, and it is crucial to know if these effects themselves depend on the divalent metal ion. We describe a nested, non-linear model for the sum of metal-free and metal-catalyzed activities and its use in determining metal-free enzyme activity jointly with transition-state metal binding affinity, by fitting observed values obtained from Mg2+-depleted assays with increasing [EDTA] at known [Mg2+]total. Tryptophan activation by B. stearothermophilus tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase falls asymptotically to a plateau value five orders of magnitude below that observed for the Mg2+-supplemented enzyme at EDTA concentrations that reduce the free metal concentration to <1 pmolar. The fitted regression model parameters yield a relative rate acceleration of 9.3 × 104 attributable to the catalytic effect of Mg2+ and an enhanced (KE‡ = 1.15 × 10−7 M) transition-state binding of Mg2+. Factorial analysis indicates that 80% of the reduction in free energy of activation effected by TrpRS arises from protein-ligand interactions. PMID:18173270

  8. Gene cloning, functional expression and secretion of the S-layer protein SgsE from Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Novotny, René; Scheberl, Andrea; Giry-Laterriere, Marc; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2005-01-01

    The ~93-kDa surface layer protein SgsE of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a forms a regular crystalline array providing a nanopatterned matrix for the future display of biologically relevant molecules. Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 was established as a safe expression host for the controlled targeted production of SgsE based on the broad host-range plasmid pNZ124Sph, into which the nisA promoter was introduced. SgsE devoid of its signal peptide-encoding sequence was cloned into the new vector and purified from the cytoplasm at a yield of 220 mg l- of expression culture. Secretion constructs were based on the signal peptide of the Lactobacillus brevis SlpA protein or the L. lactis Usp45 protein, allowing isolation of 95 mg of secreted rSgsE l-1. N-terminal sequencing confirmed correct processing of SgsE in L. lactis NZ9000. The ability of rSgsE to self-assemble in suspension and to recrystallize on solid supports was demonstrated by electron and atomic force microscopy. PMID:15675069

  9. Biological indicators for steam sterilization: characterization of a rapid biological indicator utilizing Bacillus stearothermophilus spore-associated alpha-glucosidase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Albert, H; Davies, D J; Woodson, L P; Soper, C J

    1998-11-01

    The alpha-glucosidase enzyme was isolated from vegetative cells and spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus, ATCC 7953. Spore-associated enzyme had a molecular weight of approximately 92,700, a temperature optimum of 60 degrees C, and a pH optimum of 7.0-7.5. The enzyme in crude aqueous spore extract was stable for 30 min up to a temperature of 65 degrees C, above which the enzyme was rapidly denatured. The optimal pH for stability of the enzyme was approximately 7.2. The alpha-glucosidase in crude vegetative cell extract had similar characteristics to the spore-associated enzyme but its molecular weight was 86,700. The vegetative cell and spore-associated enzymes were cross-reactive. The enzymes are postulated to derive from a single gene product, which undergoes modification to produce the spore-associated form. The location of alpha-glucosidase in the spore coats (outside the spore protoplast) is consistent with the location of most enzymes involved in activation, germination and outgrowth. PMID:9830122

  10. A differentially conserved residue (Ile42) of GH42 β-galactosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus BgaB is involved in both catalysis and thermostability.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yi-Ning; Chen, Hai-Qin; Sun, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2015-04-01

    The glycoside hydrolase family 42 (GH42) of thermophilic microorganisms consists of thermostable β-galactosidases that display significant variations in their temperature optima and stabilities. In this study, we compared the substrate binding modes of 2 GH42 β-galactosidases, BgaB from Geobacillus stearothermophilus and A4-β-Gal from Thermus thermophilus A4. The A4-β-Gal has a catalytic triad (Glu312-Arg32-Glu35) with an extended hydrogen bond network that has not been observed in BgaB. In this study, we performed site-saturation mutagenesis of Ile42 in BgaB (equivalent to Glu312 in A4-β-Gal) to study the effects of different residues on thermostability, catalytic function, and the extended hydrogen bond network. Our experimental results suggest that substitution of Ile42 with polar AA enhanced the thermostability but decreased the catalytic efficiency of BgaB. Polar AA substitution for Ile42 simultaneously affected thermostability, catalytic efficiency, and the hydrogen bond network, suggesting that Ile42 is responsible for functional discrimination between members of the GH42 family. These observations could lead to a novel strategy for investigating the functional evolution of the GH42 β-galactosidases. PMID:25682138

  11. Backbone and side chain NMR assignments of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ZapA allow identification of residues that mediate the interaction of ZapA with FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Maria Luiza C; Sforça, Mauricio Luis; Chin, Yanni K-Y; Mobli, Mehdi; Handler, Aaron; Gorbatyuk, Vitaliy Y; Robson, Scott A; King, Glenn F; Gueiros-Filho, Frederico J; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial division begins with the formation of a contractile protein ring at midcell, which constricts the bacterial envelope to generate two daughter cells. The central component of the division ring is FtsZ, a tubulin-like protein capable of self-assembling into filaments which further associate into a higher order structure known as the Z ring. Proteins that bind to FtsZ play a crucial role in the formation and regulation of the Z ring. One such protein is ZapA, a widely conserved 21 kDa homodimeric protein that associates with FtsZ filaments and promotes their bundling. Although ZapA was discovered more than a decade ago, the structural details of its interaction with FtsZ remain unknown. In this work, backbone and side chain NMR assignments for the Geobacillus stearothermophilus ZapA homodimer are described. We titrated FtsZ into (15)N(2)H-ZapA and mapped ZapA residues whose resonances are perturbed upon FtsZ binding. This information provides a structural understanding of the interaction between FtsZ and ZapA. PMID:25967379

  12. ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASES EXPRESSION DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT: LIVER VS. LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules present in the environment, and can be produced during biotransformation of xenobiotics. Although the lung can be a major target for aldehyde toxicity, development of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), which detoxify aldehydes, in lung has be...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... not by hormone test. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003 Mar;58(3):323-31. Citation on PubMed Pang S, ... dehydrogenase deficiency. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2001 Mar;30(1):81-99, vi-vii. Review. Citation ...

  14. Quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase from ethanol-grown Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Groen, B; Frank, J; Duine, J A

    1984-01-01

    Cell-free extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, grown on ethanol, showed dye-linked alcohol dehydrogenase activities. The enzyme responsible for this activity was purified to homogeneity. It appeared to contain two molecules of pyrroloquinoline quinone per enzyme molecule. In many respects, it resembled other quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases (EC 1.1.99.8), having a substrate specificity intermediate between that of methanol dehydrogenases and ethanol dehydrogenases in this group. On the other hand, it also showed dissimilarities: the enzyme was found to be a monomer (Mr 101 000), to need only one molecule of the suicide substrate cyclopropanol to become fully inactivated, and to have a different aromatic amino acid composition. PMID:6439190

  15. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase (HBD) in plasma or serum. HBD measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, renal damage (such as rejection of transplants), certain hematological diseases (such as...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase (HBD) in plasma or serum. HBD measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, renal damage (such as rejection of transplants), certain hematological diseases (such as...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase (HBD) in plasma or serum. HBD measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, renal damage (such as rejection of transplants), certain hematological diseases (such as...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase (HBD) in plasma or serum. HBD measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, renal damage (such as rejection of transplants), certain hematological diseases (such as...

  19. N-acylethanolamines as novel alcohol dehydrogenase 3 substrates.

    PubMed

    Ivkovic, Milena; Dempsey, Daniel R; Handa, Sumit; Hilton, Joshua H; Lowe, Edward W; Merkler, David J

    2011-02-15

    N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are members of the fatty acid amide family. The NAEs have been proposed to serve as metabolic precursors to N-acylglycines (NAGs). The sequential oxidation of the NAEs by an alcohol dehydrogenase and an aldehyde dehydrogenase would yield the N-acylglycinals and/or the NAGs. Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) is one enzyme that might catalyze this reaction. To define a potential role for ADH3 in NAE catabolism, we synthesized a set of NAEs and evaluated these as ADH3 substrates. NAEs were oxidized by ADH3, yielding the N-acylglycinals as the product. The (V/K)(app) values for the NAEs included here were low relative to cinnamyl alcohol. Our data show that the NAEs can serve as alcohol dehydrogenase substrates. PMID:21144815

  20. Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors from the mushroom Clitocybe clavipes.

    PubMed

    Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Miyazawa, Toshiyuki; Kume, Hiroko; Arimoto, Yasushi; Inakuma, Takahiro

    2002-11-01

    Five fatty acid derivatives including three novel compounds were isolated from the mushroom Clitocybe clavipe. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analyses. These compounds inhibited aldehyde dehydrogenase in vitro. PMID:12444711

  1. Purification and properties of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Methanococcus vannielii.

    PubMed Central

    DeMoll, E; Grahame, D A; Harnly, J M; Tsai, L; Stadtman, T C

    1987-01-01

    Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity from Methanococcus vannielii grown with formate as the sole carbon source. The enzyme is composed of subunits with molecular weights of 89,000 and 21,000 in an alpha 2 beta 2 oligomeric structure. The native molecular weight of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, determined by gel electrophoresis, is 220,000. The enzyme from M. vannielii contains 2 g-atoms of nickel per mol of enzyme. Except for its relatively high pH optimum of 10.5 and its slightly greater net positive charge, the enzyme from M. vannielii closely resembles carbon monoxide dehydrogenase isolated previously from acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from M. vannielii constitutes 0.2% of the soluble protein of the cell. By comparison the enzyme comprises 5% of the soluble protein in acetate-grown cells of M. barkeri and approximately 1% in methanol-grown cells. Images PMID:3624199

  2. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial...

  6. Mammalian class IV alcohol dehydrogenase (stomach alcohol dehydrogenase): structure, origin, and correlation with enzymology.

    PubMed Central

    Parés, X; Cederlund, E; Moreno, A; Hjelmqvist, L; Farrés, J; Jörnvall, H

    1994-01-01

    The structure of a mammalian class IV alcohol dehydrogenase has been determined by peptide analysis of the protein isolated from rat stomach. The structure indicates that the enzyme constitutes a separate alcohol dehydrogenase class, in agreement with the distinct enzymatic properties; the class IV enzyme is somewhat closer to class I (the "classical" liver alcohol dehydrogenase; approximately 68% residue identities) than to the other classes (II, III, and V; approximately 60% residue identities), suggesting that class IV might have originated through duplication of an early vertebrate class I gene. The activity of the class IV protein toward ethanol is even higher than that of the classical liver enzyme. Both Km and kcat values are high, the latter being the highest of any class characterized so far. Structurally, these properties are correlated with replacements at the active site, affecting both substrate and coenzyme binding. In particular, Ala-294 (instead of valine) results in increased space in the middle section of the substrate cleft, Gly-47 (instead of a basic residue) results in decreased charge interactions with the coenzyme pyrophosphate, and Tyr-363 (instead of a basic residue) may also affect coenzyme binding. In combination, these exchanges are compatible with a promotion of the off dissociation and an increased turnover rate. In contrast, residues at the inner part of the substrate cleft are bulky, accounting for low activity toward secondary alcohols and cyclohexanol. Exchanges at positions 259-261 involve minor shifts in glycine residues at a reverse turn in the coenzyme-binding fold. Clearly, class IV is distinct in structure, ethanol turnover, stomach expression, and possible emergence from class I. PMID:8127901

  7. Enzymic and structural studies on Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase and other short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases.

    PubMed

    Smilda, T; Kamminga, A H; Reinders, P; Baron, W; van Hylckama Vlieg, J E; Beintema, J J

    2001-05-01

    Enzymic and structural studies on Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenases and other short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) are presented. Like alcohol dehydrogenases from other Drosophila species, the enzyme from D. simulans is more active on secondary than on primary alcohols, although ethanol is its only known physiological substrate. Several secondary alcohols were used to determine the kinetic parameters kcat and Km. The results of these experiments indicate that the substrate-binding region of the enzyme allows optimal binding of a short ethyl side-chain in a small binding pocket, and of a propyl or butyl side-chain in large binding pocket, with stereospecificity for R(-) alcohols. At a high concentration of R(-) alcohols substrate activation occurs. The kcat and Km values determined under these conditions are about two-fold, and two orders of magnitude, respectively, higher than those at low substrate concentrations. Sequence alignment of several SDRs of known, and unknown three-dimensional structures, indicate the presence of several conserved residues in addition to those involved in the catalyzed reactions. Structural roles of these conserved residues could be derived from observations made on superpositioned structures of several SDRs with known structures. Several residues are conserved in tetrameric SDRs, but not in dimeric ones. Two halohydrin-halide-lyases show significant homology with SDRs in the catalytic domains of these enzymes, but they do not have the structural features required for binding NAD+. Probably these lyases descend from an SDR, which has lost the capability to bind NAD+, but the enzyme reaction mechanisms may still be similar. PMID:11443349

  8. Human liver aldehyde dehydrogenase: coenzyme binding

    SciTech Connect

    Kosley, L.L.; Pietruszko, R.

    1987-05-01

    The binding of (U-/sup 14/C) NAD to mitochondrial (E2) and cytoplasmin(E1) aldehyde dehydrogenase was measured by gel filtration and sedimentation techniques. The binding data for NAD and (E1) yielded linear Scatchard plots giving a dissociation constant of 25 (+/- 8) uM and the stoichiometry of 2 mol of NAD bound per mol of E1. The binding data for NAD and (E2) gave nonlinear Scatchard plots. The binding of NADH to E2 was measured via fluorescence enhancement; this could not be done with E1 because there was no signal. The dissociation constant for E2 by this technique was 0.7 (+/- 0.4) uM and stoichiometry of 1.0 was obtained. The binding of (U-/sup 14/C) NADH to (E1) and (E2) was also measured by the sedimentation technique. The binding data for (E1) and NADH gave linear Scatchard plots giving a dissociation constant of 13 (+/- 6) uM and the stoichiometry of 2.0. The binding data for NADH to (E2) gave nonlinear Scatchard plots. With (E1), the dissociation constants for both NAD and NADH are similar to those determined kinetically, but the stoichiometry is only half of that found by stopped flow technique. With (E2) the dissociation constant by fluorometric procedure was 2 orders of magnitude less than that from catalytic reaction.

  9. Targeting isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takeo; Khawaja, Muhammad Rizwan; DiNardo, Courtney D; Atkins, Johnique T; Janku, Filip

    2016-05-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is an essential enzyme for cellular respiration in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Recurrent mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 are prevalent in several cancers including glioma, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cholangiocarcinoma and chondrosarcoma. The mutated IDH1 and IDH2 proteins have a gain-of-function, neomorphic activity, catalyzing the reduction of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) by NADPH. Cancer-associated IDH mutations block normal cellular differentiation and promote tumorigenesis via the abnormal production of the oncometabolite 2-HG. High levels of 2-HG have been shown to inhibit α-KG dependent dioxygenases, including histone and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) demethylases, which play a key role in regulating the epigenetic state of cells. Current targeted inhibitors of IDH1 (AG120, IDH305), IDH2 (AG221), and pan-IDH1/2 (AG881) selectively inhibit mutant IDH protein and induce cell differentiation in in vitro and in vivo models. Preliminary results from phase I clinical trials with IDH inhibitors in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies have demonstrated an objective response rate ranging from 31% to 40% with durable responses (>1 year) observed. Furthermore, the IDH inhibitors have demonstrated early signals of activity in solid tumors with IDH mutations, including cholangiocarcinomas and low grade gliomas. PMID:27355333

  10. SAXS fingerprints of aldehyde dehydrogenase oligomers.

    PubMed

    Tanner, John J

    2015-12-01

    Enzymes of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily catalyze the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. ALDHs are important in detoxification of aldehydes, amino acid metabolism, embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress, and cancer. Mutations in genes encoding ALDHs cause metabolic disorders, including alcohol flush reaction (ALDH2), Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (ALDH3A2), hyperprolinemia type II (ALDH4A1), γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria (ALDH5A1), methylmalonic aciduria (ALDH6A1), pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (ALDH7A1), and hyperammonemia (ALDH18A1). We previously reported crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses of ALDHs exhibiting dimeric, tetrameric, and hexameric oligomeric states (Luo et al., Biochemistry 54 (2015) 5513-5522; Luo et al., J. Mol. Biol. 425 (2013) 3106-3120). Herein I provide the SAXS curves, radii of gyration, and distance distribution functions for the three types of ALDH oligomer. The SAXS curves and associated analysis provide diagnostic fingerprints that allow rapid identification of the type of ALDH oligomer that is present in solution. The data sets provided here serve as a benchmark for characterizing oligomerization of ALDHs. PMID:26693506

  11. Eucalypt NADP-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase1

    PubMed Central

    Boiffin, Vincent; Hodges, Michael; Gálvez, Susana; Balestrini, Raffaella; Bonfante, Paola; Gadal, Pierre; Martin, Francis

    1998-01-01

    NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) activity is increased in roots of Eucalyptus globulus subsp. bicostata ex Maiden Kirkp. during colonization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius Coker and Couch. To investigate the regulation of the enzyme expression, a cDNA (EgIcdh) encoding the NADP-ICDH was isolated from a cDNA library of E. globulus-P. tinctorius ectomycorrhizae. The putative polypeptide sequence of EgIcdh showed a high amino acid similarity with plant NADP-ICDHs. Because the deduced EgICDH protein lacks an amino-terminal targeting sequence and shows highest similarity to plant cytosolic ICDHs, it probably represents a cytoplasmic isoform. RNA analysis showed that the steady-state level of EgIcdh transcripts was enhanced nearly 2-fold in ectomycorrhizal roots compared with nonmycorrhizal roots. Increased accumulation of NADP-ICDH transcripts occurred as early as 2 d after contact and likely led to the observed increased enzyme activity. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that NADP-ICDH was preferentially accumulated in the epidermis and stele parenchyma of nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal lateral roots. The putative role of cytosolic NADP-ICDH in ectomycorrhizae is discussed. PMID:9662536

  12. Aggregation states of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, S. A.; Hazlett, T. L.; Brunet, J. E.; Jameson, D. M.

    1998-01-01

    The oligomeric state of fluorescein-labeled mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (L-malate NAD+ oxidoreductase; mMDH; EC 1.1.1.37), as a function of protein concentration, has been examined using steady-state and dynamic polarization methodologies. A "global" rotational relaxation time of 103 +/- 7 ns was found for micromolar concentrations of mMDH-fluorescein, which is consistent with the reported size and shape of mMDH. Dilution of the mMDH-fluorescein conjugates, prepared using a phosphate buffer protocol, to nanomolar concentrations had no significant effect on the rotational relaxation time of the adduct, indicating that the dimer-monomer dissociation constant for mMDH is below 10(-9) M. In contrast to reports in the literature suggesting a pH-dependent dissociation of mMDH, the oligomeric state of this mMDH-fluorescein preparation remained unchanged between pH 5.0 and 8.0. Application of hydrostatic pressure up to 2.5 kilobars was ineffective in dissociating the mMDH dimer. However, the mMDH dimer was completely dissociated in 1.5 M guanidinium hydrochloride. Dilution of a mMDH-fluorescein conjugate, prepared using a Tris buffer protocol, did show dissociation, which can be attributed to aggregates present in these preparations. These results are considered in light of the disparities in the literature concerning the properties of the mMDH dimer-monomer equilibrium. PMID:9792106

  13. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2: New Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Che-Hong; Ferreira, Julio Cesar Batista; Gross, Eric R.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2014-01-01

    A family of detoxifying enzymes called aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) has been a subject of recent interest, as its role in detoxifying aldehydes that accumulate through metabolism and to which we are exposed from the environment has been elucidated. Although the human genome has 19 ALDH genes, one ALDH emerges as a particularly important enzyme in a variety of human pathologies. This ALDH, ALDH2, is located in the mitochondrial matrix with much known about its role in ethanol metabolism. Less known is a new body of research to be discussed in this review, suggesting that ALDH2 dysfunction may contribute to a variety of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, and cancer. Recent studies suggest that ALDH2 dysfunction is also associated with Fanconi anemia, pain, osteoporosis, and the process of aging. Furthermore, an ALDH2 inactivating mutation (termed ALDH2*2) is the most common single point mutation in humans, and epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between this inactivating mutation and increased propensity for common human pathologies. These data together with studies in animal models and the use of new pharmacological tools that activate ALDH2 depict a new picture related to ALDH2 as a critical health-promoting enzyme. PMID:24382882

  14. Postischemic hyperoxia reduces hippocampal pyruvate dehydrogenase activity

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Erica M.; Rosenthal, Robert E.; Kristian, Tibor; Fiskum, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and represents the sole bridge between anaerobic and aerobic cerebral energy metabolism. Previous studies demonstrating loss of PDHC enzyme activity and immunoreactivity during reperfusion after cerebral ischemia suggest that oxidative modifications are involved. This study tested the hypothesis that hyperoxic reperfusion exacerbates loss of PDHC enzyme activity, possibly due to tyrosine nitration or S-nitrosation. We used a clinically relevant canine ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest model in which, after resuscitation and ventilation on either 100% O2 (hyperoxic) or 21–30% O2 (normoxic), animals were sacrificed at 2 h reperfusion and the brains removed for enzyme activity and immunoreactivity measurements. Animals resuscitated under hyperoxic conditions exhibited decreased PDHC activity and elevated 3-nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in the hippocampus but not the cortex, compared to nonischemic controls. These measures were unchanged in normoxic animals. In vitro exposure of purified PDHC to peroxynitrite resulted in a dose-dependent loss of activity and increased nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity. These results support the hypothesis that oxidative stress contributes to loss of hippocampal PDHC activity during cerebral ischemia and reperfusion and suggest that PDHC is a target of peroxynitrite. PMID:16716897

  15. Iodination of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jean O.; Harris, J. Ieuan

    1970-01-01

    1. A high degree of homology in the positions of tyrosine residues in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase from lobster and pig muscle, and from yeast, prompted an examination of the reactivity of tyrosine residues in the enzyme. 2. Iodination of the enzyme from lobster muscle with low concentrations of potassium tri-[125I]-iodide led to the identification of tyrosine residues of differing reactivity. Tyrosine-46 appeared to be the most reactive in the native enzyme. 3. When the monocarboxymethylated enzyme was briefly treated with small amounts of iodine, iodination could be confined almost entirely to tyrosine-46 in the lobster enzyme; tyrosine-39 or tyrosine-42, or both, were also beginning to react. 4. These three tyrosine residues were also those that reacted most readily in the carboxymethylated pig and yeast enzymes. 5. The difficulties in attaining specific reaction of the native enzyme are considered. 6. The differences between our results and those of other workers are discussed. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:5530750

  16. [Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency and cerebral malformations].

    PubMed

    Eirís, J; Alvarez-Moreno, A; Briones, P; Alonso-Alonso, C; Castro-Gago, M

    1996-10-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is a major cause of primary lactic acidosis and severe global developmental delay. A deficiency of PDH E1 alpha, a subunit of the PDH complex is a prominent cause of congenital lactic acidosis. The E1 alpha cDNA and corresponding genomic DNA have been located in the short arm of the X-chromosome (Xp22-1). A isolated 'cerebral' lactic acidosis with cerebral dysgenesis is a recognized pattern of presentation of PDH deficiency. Here, we report clinical features, magnetic resonance, and biochemical studies of two females aged 6 months (case 1) and 26 months (case 2). Both had severe development delay, minor dysmorphic features, microcephaly, severe hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cerebral atrophy, ventricular dilatation and increase in serum lactate levels without systemic acidosis. Urinary organic acid profile was compatible with PDH deficiency. Increased CSF lactate and pyruvate levels and reduced total PDH and PDH E1 activities in muscle and fibroblasts were observed in case 1. Otherwise, decreased total PDH activity in muscle but not in fibroblasts was seen in case 2. The PDH E1á gene was sequenced in the case 1 and a deletion in exon 7 was demonstrated. Dysmorphism with severe cerebral malformations in female patients merits a metabolic evaluation, including determination of lactate and pyruvate levels in CSF. PMID:8983728

  17. Inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    PubMed

    Brozic, P; Lanisnik Risner, T; Gobec, S

    2008-01-01

    Carcinogenesis of hormone-related cancers involves hormone-stimulated cell proliferation, which increases the number of cell divisions and the opportunity for random genetic errors. In target tissues, steroid hormones are interconverted between their potent, high affinity forms for their respective receptors and their inactive, low affinity forms. One group of enzymes responsible for these interconversions are the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, which regulate ligand access to steroid receptors and thus act at a pre-receptor level. As part of this group, the 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases catalyze either oxidation of hydroxyl groups or reduction of keto groups at steroid position C17. The thoroughly characterized 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activates the less active estrone to estradiol, a potent ligand for estrogen receptors. This isoform is expressed in gonads, where it affects circulating levels of estradiol, and in peripheral tissue, where it regulates ligand occupancy of estrogen receptors. Inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 are thus highly interesting potential therapeutic agents for the control of estrogen-dependent diseases such as endometriosis, as well as breast and ovarian cancers. Here, we present the review on the recent development of inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 published and patented since the previous review of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitors of Poirier (Curr. Med. Chem., 2003, 10, 453). These inhibitors are divided into two separate groups according to their chemical structures: steroidal and non-steroidal 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors. Their estrogenic/ proliferative activities and selectivities over other 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that are involved in local regulation of estrogen action (types 2, 7 and 12) are also presented. PMID:18220769

  18. Succinate Dehydrogenase Loss in Familial Paraganglioma: Biochemistry, Genetics, and Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Her, Yeng F.; Maher, L. James

    2015-01-01

    It is counterintuitive that metabolic defects reducing ATP production can cause, rather than protect from, cancer. Yet this is precisely the case for familial paraganglioma, a form of neuroendocrine malignancy caused by loss of succinate dehydrogenase in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Here we review biochemical, genetic, and epigenetic considerations in succinate dehydrogenase loss and present leading models and mysteries associated with this fascinating and important tumor. PMID:26294907

  19. Role of threonine dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli threonine degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Potter, R; Kapoor, V; Newman, E B

    1977-01-01

    Threonine was used as nitrogen source by Escherichia coli K-12 through a pathway beginning with the enzyme threonine dehydrogenase. The 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate formed was converted to glycine, and the glycine was converted to serine, which acted as the actual nitrogen donor. The enzyme formed under anaerobic conditions and known as threonine deaminase (biodegradative) is less widespread than threonine dehydrogenase and may be involved in energy metabolism rather than in threonine degradation per se. PMID:334738

  20. Antibodies to inactive conformations of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase inactivate the apo- and holoforms of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Arutiunova, E I; Pleten, A P; Nagradova, N K; Muronetz, V I

    2006-06-01

    Polyclonal antibodies produced after the immunization of a rabbit with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from Bacillus stearothermophilus were used to isolate two types of antibodies interacting with different non-native forms of the antigen. Type I antibodies were purified using Sepharose-bound apo-GAPDH that was treated with glutaraldehyde to stabilize the enzyme in the tetrameric form. Type II antibodies were isolated using immobilized denatured monomers of the enzyme. It was shown that the type I antibodies bound to the native holo- and apoforms of the enzyme with the ratio of one antibody molecule per GAPDH tetramer. While interacting with the native holoenzyme, the type I antibodies induce a time-dependent decrease in its activity by 80-90%. In the case of the apoenzyme, the decrease in the activity constitutes only 25%, this indicating that only one subunit of the tetramer is inactivated. Differential scanning calorimetry experiments showed that the formation of the complex between both forms of the enzyme and the type I antibodies resulted in a shift of the maximum of the thermal capacity curves (T(m) value) to lower temperatures. The extremely stable holoenzyme was affected to the greatest extent, the shift of the T(m) value constituting approximately 20 degrees C. We assume that the formation of the complex between the holo- or apo-GAPDH and the type I antibody results in time-dependent conformational changes in the enzyme molecule. Thus, the antibodies induce the structural rearrangements yielding the conformation that is identical to the structure of the antigen used for the selection of the antibodies (i.e., inactive). The interaction of the antibodies with the apo-GAPDH results in the inactivation of the subunit directly bound to the antibody. Virtually complete inactivation of the holoenzyme by the antibodies is likely due to the transmission of the conformational changes through the intersubunit contacts. The type II antibodies, which

  1. Enzymes of glucose metabolism in Frankia sp.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M F; Torrey, J G

    1985-04-01

    Enzymes of glucose metabolism were assayed in crude cell extracts of Frankia strains HFPArI3 and HFPCcI2 as well as in isolated vesicle clusters from Alnus rubra root nodules. Activities of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway enzymes glucokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase were found in Frankia strain HFPArI3 and glucokinase and pyruvate kinase were found in Frankia strain HFPCcI2 and in the vesicle clusters. An NADP+-linked glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and an NAD-linked 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were found in all of the extracts, although the role of these enzymes is unclear. No NADP+-linked 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase was found. Both dehydrogenases were inhibited by adenosine 5-triphosphate, and the apparent Km's for glucose 6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate were 6.86 X 10(-4) and 7.0 X 10(-5) M, respectively. In addition to the enzymes mentioned above, an NADP+-linked malic enzyme was detected in the pure cultures but not in the vesicle clusters. In contrast, however, the vesicle clusters had activity of an NAD-linked malic enzyme. The possibility that this enzyme resulted from contamination from plant mitochondria trapped in the vesicle clusters could not be discounted. None of the extracts showed activities of the Entner-Doudoroff enzymes or the gluconate metabolism enzymes gluconate dehydrogenase or gluconokinase. Propionate- versus trehalose-grown cultures of strain HFPArI3 showed similar activities of most enzymes except malic enzyme, which was higher in the cultures grown on the organic acid. Nitrogen-fixing cultures of strain HFPArI3 showed higher specific activities of glucose 6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases and phosphofructokinase than ammonia-grown cultures. PMID:3980434

  2. Retinol dehydrogenase 10 but not retinol/sterol dehydrogenase(s) regulates the expression of retinoic acid-responsive genes in human transgenic skin raft culture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Ah; Belyaeva, Olga V; Wu, Lizhi; Kedishvili, Natalia Y

    2011-04-15

    Retinoic acid is essential for skin growth and differentiation, and its concentration in skin is controlled tightly. In humans, four different members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily of proteins were proposed to catalyze the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of retinoic acid (the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde). Epidermis contains at least three of these enzymes, but their relative importance for retinoic acid biosynthesis and regulation of gene expression during growth and differentiation of epidermis is not known. Here, we investigated the effect of the four human SDRs on retinoic acid biosynthesis, and their impact on growth and differentiation of keratinocytes using organotypic skin raft culture model of human epidermis. The results of this study demonstrate that ectopic expression of retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10, SDR16C4) in skin rafts dramatically increases proliferation and inhibits differentiation of keratinocytes, consistent with the increased steady-state levels of retinoic acid and activation of retinoic acid-inducible genes in RDH10 rafts. In contrast, SDRs with dual retinol/sterol substrate specificity, namely retinol dehydrogenase 4 (RoDH4, SDR9C8), RoDH-like 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (RL-HSD, SDR9C6), and RDH-like SDR (RDHL, SDR9C4) do not affect the expression of retinoic acid-inducible genes but alter the expression levels of several components of extracellular matrix. These results reveal essential differences in the metabolic contribution of RDH10 versus retinol/sterol dehydrogenases to retinoic acid biosynthesis and provide the first evidence that non-retinoid metabolic products of retinol/sterol dehydrogenases affect gene expression in human epidermis. PMID:21345790

  3. Retinol Dehydrogenase 10 but Not Retinol/Sterol Dehydrogenase(s) Regulates the Expression of Retinoic Acid-responsive Genes in Human Transgenic Skin Raft Culture*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Ah; Belyaeva, Olga V.; Wu, Lizhi; Kedishvili, Natalia Y.

    2011-01-01

    Retinoic acid is essential for skin growth and differentiation, and its concentration in skin is controlled tightly. In humans, four different members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily of proteins were proposed to catalyze the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of retinoic acid (the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde). Epidermis contains at least three of these enzymes, but their relative importance for retinoic acid biosynthesis and regulation of gene expression during growth and differentiation of epidermis is not known. Here, we investigated the effect of the four human SDRs on retinoic acid biosynthesis, and their impact on growth and differentiation of keratinocytes using organotypic skin raft culture model of human epidermis. The results of this study demonstrate that ectopic expression of retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10, SDR16C4) in skin rafts dramatically increases proliferation and inhibits differentiation of keratinocytes, consistent with the increased steady-state levels of retinoic acid and activation of retinoic acid-inducible genes in RDH10 rafts. In contrast, SDRs with dual retinol/sterol substrate specificity, namely retinol dehydrogenase 4 (RoDH4, SDR9C8), RoDH-like 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (RL-HSD, SDR9C6), and RDH-like SDR (RDHL, SDR9C4) do not affect the expression of retinoic acid-inducible genes but alter the expression levels of several components of extracellular matrix. These results reveal essential differences in the metabolic contribution of RDH10 versus retinol/sterol dehydrogenases to retinoic acid biosynthesis and provide the first evidence that non-retinoid metabolic products of retinol/sterol dehydrogenases affect gene expression in human epidermis. PMID:21345790

  4. Light modulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by photosynthetic electron flow in pea chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Akamba, L.M.; Anderson, L.E.

    1981-02-01

    Light activation of NADP-linked glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13) and light inactivation of glucose-6-P dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) appear to be modulated within pea leaf chloroplasts by mediators which are reduced by photosynthetic electron flow from the photosystem I reaction center. Dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea inhibition of this modulation can be completely reversed by ascorbate plus 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol in broken chloroplasts, but not in intact chloroplasts. Intact chloroplasts are impermeable to 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol at pH 7.5. Studies on the effect of light in reconstituted chloroplasts with photosystem I-enriched particles in the place of whole thylakoids revealed that photosystem I participants in the light modulation of NADP-linked glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase and of glucose-6-P dehydrogenase.

  5. Study of the combined effect of electro-activated solutions and heat treatment on the destruction of spores of Clostridium sporogenes and Geobacillus stearothermophilus in model solution and vegetable puree.

    PubMed

    Liato, Viacheslav; Labrie, Steve; Viel, Catherine; Benali, Marzouk; Aïder, Mohammed

    2015-10-01

    The combined effect of heat treatment and electro-activated solution (EAS) on the heat resistance of spores of Clostridium sporogenes and Geobacillus stearothermophilus was assessed under various heating and exposure time combinations. The acid and neutral EAS showed the highest inhibitory activity, indicating that these solutions may be considered as strong sporicidal disinfectants. These EAS were able to cause a reduction of ≥6 log of spores of C. sporogenes at 60 °C in only 1 min of exposition. For G. stearothermophilus spores, a reduction of 4.5 log was observed at 60 °C in 1 min, while in 5 min, ≥7 log CFU/ml reduction was observed. Inoculated puree of pea and corn were used as a food matrix for the determination of the heat resistance of these spores during the treatments in glass capillaries. The inactivation kinetics of the spores was studied in an oil bath. Combined treatment by EAS and temperature demonstrated a significant decrease in the heat resistance of C. sporogenes. The D100°C in pea puree with NaCl solution was 66.86 min while with acid and neutral EAS it was reduced down to 3.97 and 2.19 min, respectively. The spore of G. stearothermophilus displayed higher heat resistance as confirmed by other similar studies. Its D130°C in pea puree showed a decrease from 1.45 min in NaCl solution down to 1.30 and 0.93 min for acid and neutral EAS, respectively. The differences between the spores of these species are attributable to their different sensitivities with respect to pH, Redox potential and oxygen. PMID:26103452

  6. Identification of Two Binding Domains, One for Peptidoglycan and Another for a Secondary Cell Wall Polymer, on the N-Terminal Part of the S-Layer Protein SbsB from Bacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2

    PubMed Central

    Sára, Margit; Egelseer, Eva M.; Dekitsch, Christine; Sleytr, Uwe B.

    1998-01-01

    First studies on the structure-function relationship of the S-layer protein from B. stearothermophilus PV72/p2 revealed the coexistence of two binding domains on its N-terminal part, one for peptidoglycan and another for a secondary cell wall polymer (SCWP). The peptidoglycan binding domain is located between amino acids 1 to 138 of the mature S-layer protein comprising a typical S-layer homologous domain. The SCWP binding domain lies between amino acids 240 to 331 and possesses a high serine plus glycine content. PMID:9852032

  7. Structural Studies of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Korotchkina, Lioubov G.; Dominiak, Paulina; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Patel, Mulchand S.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Human pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of pyruvate in the presence of Mg(2+) and thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) followed by the rate-limiting reductive acetylation of the lipoyl moiety linked to dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. The three-dimensional structure of human E1 is elucidated using the methods of macromolecular X-ray crystallography. The structure is an alpha, alpha', beta and beta' tetramer with the protein units being in the tetrahedral arrangement. Each 361-residue alpha-subunit and 329-residue beta-subunit is composed of a beta-sheet core surrounded by alpha-helical domains. Each subunit is in extensive contact with all the three subunits involving TPP and magnesium cofactors, and potassium ions. The two binding sites for TPP are at the alpha-beta' and alpha'-beta interfaces, each involving a magnesium ion and Phe6l, His63, Tyr89, and Met200 from the alpha-subunit (or alpha'-subunit), and Met81 Phe85, His128 from the beta-subunit (or beta'-subunit). K+ ions are nestled between two beta-sheets and the end of an alpha-helix in each beta-subunit, where they are coordinated by four carbonyl oxygen groups from Ile12, Ala160, Asp163, and Asnl65, and a water molecule. The catalytic C2 carbon of thiazolium ring in this structure forms a 3.2 A contact with a water molecule involved in a series of H-bonds with other water molecules, and indirectly with amino acids including those involved in the catalysis and regulation of the enzyme.

  8. Succinate dehydrogenase gene mutations in cardiac paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Martucci, Victoria L; Emaminia, Abbas; del Rivero, Jaydira; Lechan, Ronald M; Magoon, Bindiya T; Galia, Analyza; Fojo, Tito; Leung, Steve; Lorusso, Roberto; Jimenez, Camilo; Shulkin, Barry L; Audibert, Jennifer L; Adams, Karen T; Rosing, Douglas R; Vaidya, Anand; Dluhy, Robert G; Horvath, Keith A; Pacak, Karel

    2015-06-15

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are chromaffin cell tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells. At least 1/3 of paragangliomas are related to germline mutations in 1 of 17 genes. Although these tumors can occur throughout the body, cardiac paragangliomas are very rare, accounting for <0.3% of mediastinal tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of patients with cardiac paragangliomas, particularly focusing on their genetic backgrounds. A retrospective chart analysis of 15 patients with cardiac paragangliomas was performed to determine clinical presentation, genetic background, diagnostic workup, and outcomes. The average age at diagnosis was 41.9 years. Typical symptoms of paraganglioma (e.g., hypertension, sweating, palpitations, headache) were reported at initial presentation in 13 patients (86.7%); the remaining 2, as well as 4 symptomatic patients, initially presented with cardiac-specific symptoms (e.g., chest pain, dyspnea). Genetic testing was done in 13 patients (86.7%); 10 (76.9%) were positive for mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) subunits B, C, or D. Thirteen patients (86.7%) underwent surgery to remove the paraganglioma with no intraoperative morbidity or mortality; 1 additional patient underwent surgical resection but experienced intraoperative complications after removal of the tumor due to co-morbidities and did not survive. SDHx mutations are known to be associated with mediastinal locations and malignant behavior of paragangliomas. In this report, the investigators extend the locations of predominantly SDHx-related paragangliomas to cardiac tumors. In conclusion, cardiac paragangliomas are frequently associated with underlying SDHx germline mutations, suggesting a need for genetic testing of all patients with this rare tumor. PMID:25896150

  9. The Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Hadj-Saïd, Jessica; Pandelia, Maria-Eirini; Léger, Christophe; Fourmond, Vincent; Dementin, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Ni-containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases (CODHs) catalyze the reversible conversion between CO and CO₂and are involved in energy conservation and carbon fixation. These homodimeric enzymes house two NiFeS active sites (C-clusters) and three accessory [4Fe-4S] clusters. The Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Dv) genome contains a two-gene CODH operon coding for a CODH (cooS) and a maturation protein (cooC) involved in nickel insertion in the active site. According to the literature, the question of the precise function of CooC as a chaperone folding the C-cluster in a form which accommodates free nickel or as a mere nickel donor is not resolved. Here, we report the biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of two recombinant forms of the CODH, produced in the absence and in the presence of CooC, designated CooS and CooS(C), respectively. CooS contains no nickel and cannot be activated, supporting the idea that the role of CooC is to fold the C-cluster so that it can bind nickel. As expected, CooS(C) is Ni-loaded, reversibly converts CO and CO₂, displays the typical Cred1 and Cred2 EPR signatures of the C-cluster and activates in the presence of methyl viologen and CO in an autocatalytic process. However, Ni-loaded CooS(C) reaches maximum activity only upon reductive treatment in the presence of exogenous nickel, a phenomenon that had not been observed before. Surprisingly, the enzyme displays the Cred1 and Cred2 signatures whether it has been activated or not, showing that this activation process of the Ni-loaded Dv CODH is not associated with structural changes at the active site. PMID:26255854

  10. Activation of D-tyrosine by Bacillus stearothermophilus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase: 2. Cooperative binding of ATP is limited to the initial turnover of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Anita; First, Eric A

    2008-05-01

    The activation of D-tyrosine by tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase has been investigated using single and multiple turnover kinetic methods. In the presence of saturating concentrations of D-tyrosine, the activation reaction displays sigmoidal kinetics with respect to ATP concentration under single turnover conditions. In contrast, when the kinetics for the activation reaction are monitored using a steady-state (multiple turnover) pyrophosphate exchange assay, Michaelis-Menten kinetics are observed. Previous investigations indicated that activation of l-tyrosine by the K233A variant of Bacillus stearothermophilus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase displays sigmoidal kinetics similar to those observed for activation of d-tyrosine by the wild-type enzyme. Kinetic analyses indicate that the sigmoidal behavior of the d-tyrosine activation reaction is not enhanced when Lys-233 is replaced by alanine. This supports the hypothesis that the mechanistic basis for the sigmoidal behavior is the same for both d-tyrosine activation by wild-type tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase and activation of l-tyrosine by the K233A variant. The observed sigmoidal behavior presents a paradox, as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase displays an extreme form of negative cooperativity, known as "half-of-the-sites reactivity," with respect to tyrosine binding and tyrosyl-adenylate formation. We propose that the binding of D-tyrosine weakens the affinity with which ATP binds to the functional subunit in tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. This allows ATP to bind initially to the nonfunctional subunit, inducing a conformational change in the enzyme that enhances the affinity of the functional subunit for ATP. The observation that sigmoidal kinetics are observed only under single turnover conditions suggests that this conformational change is stable over multiple rounds of catalysis. PMID:18319246

  11. A synthetic medium for continuous culture of the S-layer carrying Bacillus stearothermophilus PV 72 and studies on the influence of growth conditions on cell wall properties.

    PubMed

    Schuster, K C; Mayer, H F; Kieweg, R; Hampel, W A; Sára, M

    1995-10-01

    Bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) which show a crystalline structure, defined pores, and a regular arrangement of functional groups can be used for production of isoporous ultrafiltration membranes and as a matrix for immobilization of macromolecules. S-layer-carrying cell wall fragments from thermophilic Bacillaceae possess an extremely thin peptidoglycan-containing layer with pores larger than those in the S-layer lattice. Thus, they can directly be used for biotechnological applications, when an S-layer protein pool is stored in the rigid cell wall layer which is released during cell wall preparation, forming an inner S-layer. In the present study, a synthetic medium for Bacillus stearothermophilus PV 72 was developed by applying the pulse and shift technique with the aim to produce cell wall fragments with before-mentioned properties by varying the growth conditions in continuous culture. The organism was grown at 57 degrees C in a bioreactor with 1 L working volume equipped with exhaust gas analysis and connected to a PC-based process control system. Biomass concentration was 2.2 g/L out of 8 g/L glucose at a dilution rate of 0.3 h(-1), giving a biomass productivity of 0.66 g/L h. Although the organism was grown under different conditions, no change in peptidoglycan composition, extent of peptidoglycan crosslinking, and content of secondary cell wall polymers was observed. The amount of S-layer protein pool stored in the rigid cell wall layer and the autolytic activity depended mainly on the specific growth rate. Cell wall fragments with properties required for ultrafiltration membrane production could be produced by parameter settings in continuous culture. PMID:18623461

  12. Evidence that the N-terminal part of the S-layer protein from Bacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2 recognizes a secondary cell wall polymer.

    PubMed

    Ries, W; Hotzy, C; Schocher, I; Sleytr, U B; Sára, M

    1997-06-01

    The S-layer of Bacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2 shows oblique lattice symmetry and is composed of identical protein subunits with a molecular weight of 97,000. The isolated S-layer subunits could bind and recrystallize into the oblique lattice on native peptidoglycan-containing sacculi which consist of peptidoglycan of the A1gamma chemotype and a secondary cell wall polymer with an estimated molecular weight of 24,000. The secondary cell wall polymer could be completely extracted from peptidoglycan-containing sacculi with 48% HF, indicating the presence of phosphodiester linkages between the polymer chains and the peptidoglycan backbone. The cell wall polymer was composed mainly of GlcNAc and ManNAc in a molar ratio of 4:1, constituted about 20% of the peptidoglycan-containing sacculus dry weight, and was also detected in the fraction of the S-layer self-assembly products. Extraction experiments and recrystallization of the whole S-layer protein and proteolytic cleavage fragments confirmed that the secondary cell wall polymer is responsible for anchoring the S-layer subunits by the N-terminal part to the peptidoglycan-containing sacculi. In addition to this binding function, the cell wall polymer was found to influence the in vitro self-assembly of the guanidinium hydrochloride-extracted S-layer protein. Chemical modification studies further showed that the secondary cell wall polymer does not contribute significant free amino or carboxylate groups to the peptidoglycan-containing sacculi. PMID:9190804

  13. Role of N-terminal extension of Bacillus stearothermophilus RNase H2 and C-terminal extension of Thermotoga maritima RNase H2.

    PubMed

    Permanasari, Etin-Diah; Angkawidjaja, Clement; Koga, Yuichi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2013-10-01

    Bacillus stearothermophilus RNase H2 (BstRNH2) and Thermotoga maritima RNase H2 (TmaRNH2) have N-terminal and C-terminal extensions, respectively, as compared with Aquifex aeolicus RNase H2 (AaeRNH2). To analyze the role of these extensions, BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2 without these extensions were constructed, and their biochemical properties were compared with those of their intact partners and AaeRNH2. The far-UV CD spectra of all proteins were similar, suggesting that the protein structure is not significantly altered by removal of these extensions. However, both the junction ribonuclease and RNase H activities of BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2, as well as their substrate-binding affinities, were considerably decreased by removal of these extensions. The stability of BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2 was also decreased by removal of these extensions. The activity, substrate binding affinity and stability of TmaRNH2 without the C-terminal 46 residues were partly restored by the attachment of the N-terminal extension of BstRNH2. These results suggest that the N-terminal extension of BstRNH2 functions as a substrate-binding domain and stabilizes the RNase H domain. Because the C-terminal extension of TmaRNH2 assumes a helix hairpin structure and does not make direct contact with the substrate, this extension is probably required to make the conformation of the substrate-binding site functional. AaeRNH2 showed comparable junction ribonuclease activity to those of BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2, and was more stable than these proteins, indicating that bacterial RNases H2 do not always require an N-terminal or C-terminal extension to increase activity, substrate-binding affinity, and/or stability. PMID:23937561

  14. Protein engineering by random mutagenesis and structure-guided consensus of Geobacillus stearothermophilus Lipase T6 for enhanced stability in methanol.

    PubMed

    Dror, Adi; Shemesh, Einav; Dayan, Natali; Fishman, Ayelet

    2014-02-01

    The abilities of enzymes to catalyze reactions in nonnatural environments of organic solvents have opened new opportunities for enzyme-based industrial processes. However, the main drawback of such processes is that most enzymes have a limited stability in polar organic solvents. In this study, we employed protein engineering methods to generate a lipase for enhanced stability in methanol, which is important for biodiesel production. Two protein engineering approaches, random mutagenesis (error-prone PCR) and structure-guided consensus, were applied in parallel on an unexplored lipase gene from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6. A high-throughput colorimetric screening assay was used to evaluate lipase activity after an incubation period in high methanol concentrations. Both protein engineering approaches were successful in producing variants with elevated half-life values in 70% methanol. The best variant of the random mutagenesis library, Q185L, exhibited 23-fold-improved stability, yet its methanolysis activity was decreased by one-half compared to the wild type. The best variant from the consensus library, H86Y/A269T, exhibited 66-fold-improved stability in methanol along with elevated thermostability (+4.3°C) and a 2-fold-higher fatty acid methyl ester yield from soybean oil. Based on in silico modeling, we suggest that the Q185L substitution facilitates a closed lid conformation that limits access for both the methanol and substrate excess into the active site. The enhanced stability of H86Y/A269T was a result of formation of new hydrogen bonds. These improved characteristics make this variant a potential biocatalyst for biodiesel production. PMID:24362426

  15. Immobilization of BSA, enzymes and cells of Bacillus stearothermophilus onto cellulose polygalacturonic acid and starch based graft copolymers containing maleic arhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Beddows, C.G.; Gil, M.H.; Guthrie, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Poly(maleic anhydride styrene) graft copolymers of cellulose, pectin polygalacturonic acid salt, calcium polygalacturonate, and starch were prepared and used to immobilize proteins. The cellulose grafts coupled quite appreciable quantities of acid phosphatase, glucose oxidase, and trypsin. However, the general retention of activity was somewhat disappointing. Further investigation with acid phosphatase showed that the amount of enzyme immobilized increased as the amount of anhydride in the graft copolymer increased but no such relationship existed for the enzymic activity. The cellulose graft copolymers were hydrolyzed and it appeared that the carboxyl group aided adsorption of the enzyme. Attempts to couple acid phosphatase using CMC through the free carboxyl groups, created by hydrolysis, gave only a small increase in the extent of protein coupling. However, the unhydrolyzed system gave a useful degree of immobilization of cells of Bacillus stearothermophilus, as did a poly(maleic anhydride/styrene)-cocellulose system. Attempts to improve the activity by using grafts based on other polysaccharide supports met with mixed success. Pectin products were soluble. Polygalacturonic acid products were partially soluble and extremely high levels of enzymic activity were obtained. This was probably due in part to the hydrophilic nature of the system, which also encouraged absorption of the enzyme. Attempts were made to reduce the solubility by using the calcium pectinate salt. Immobilization of acid phosphatase and trypsin resulted in increased protein coupling but relatively poor activities were attained. Calcium polygalacturonate was used to prepare an insoluble graft copolymeric system containing acrylonitrile-comaleic anhydride. The resulting gels gave excellent coupling with acid phosphatase which had a very good retention of activity.

  16. Protein Engineering by Random Mutagenesis and Structure-Guided Consensus of Geobacillus stearothermophilus Lipase T6 for Enhanced Stability in Methanol

    PubMed Central

    Dror, Adi; Shemesh, Einav; Dayan, Natali

    2014-01-01

    The abilities of enzymes to catalyze reactions in nonnatural environments of organic solvents have opened new opportunities for enzyme-based industrial processes. However, the main drawback of such processes is that most enzymes have a limited stability in polar organic solvents. In this study, we employed protein engineering methods to generate a lipase for enhanced stability in methanol, which is important for biodiesel production. Two protein engineering approaches, random mutagenesis (error-prone PCR) and structure-guided consensus, were applied in parallel on an unexplored lipase gene from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6. A high-throughput colorimetric screening assay was used to evaluate lipase activity after an incubation period in high methanol concentrations. Both protein engineering approaches were successful in producing variants with elevated half-life values in 70% methanol. The best variant of the random mutagenesis library, Q185L, exhibited 23-fold-improved stability, yet its methanolysis activity was decreased by one-half compared to the wild type. The best variant from the consensus library, H86Y/A269T, exhibited 66-fold-improved stability in methanol along with elevated thermostability (+4.3°C) and a 2-fold-higher fatty acid methyl ester yield from soybean oil. Based on in silico modeling, we suggest that the Q185L substitution facilitates a closed lid conformation that limits access for both the methanol and substrate excess into the active site. The enhanced stability of H86Y/A269T was a result of formation of new hydrogen bonds. These improved characteristics make this variant a potential biocatalyst for biodiesel production. PMID:24362426

  17. Calcium alginate matrix increases the stability and recycling capability of immobilized endo-β-1,4-xylanase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus KIBGE-IB29.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Zainab; Qader, Shah Ali Ul; Aman, Afsheen

    2015-07-01

    Exploration of microbial pool from extremely diversified ecosystem is significantly important for various industrial applications. Bacterial communities from extreme habitats including volcanic vents, hot springs, and industrial sectors are eagerly explored for the isolation of thermophiles. Geobacillus stearothermophilus KIBGE-IB29, isolated from blast furnace site of a steel processing industry, is capable of producing thermostable endo-β-1,4-xylanase. In the current study, this enzyme was immobilized within calcium alginate beads using entrapment technique. Amalgamation of sodium alginate (40.0 gL(-1)) and calcium chloride (0.4 M) was used for the formation of immobilized beads. It was observed that temperature (50 °C) and pH (7.0) optima of immobilized enzyme remained same, but enzyme-substrate reaction time increased from 5.0 to 30.0 min as compared to free enzyme. Diffusion limit of high molecular weight xylan (corncob) caused a decline in V max of immobilized enzyme from 4773 to 203.7 U min(-1), whereas K m value increased from 0.5074 to 0.5722 mg ml(-1) with reference to free enzyme. Immobilized endo-β-1,4-xylanase showed its stability even at high temperatures as compared to free enzyme and retained 18 and 9 % residual activity at 70 and 80 °C, respectively. Immobilized enzyme also exhibited sufficient recycling efficiency up to five reaction cycles which indicated that this enzyme can be a plausible candidate in paper and pulp industry. PMID:26001519

  18. Assessment of toxicity using dehydrogenases activity and mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Matyja, Konrad; Małachowska-Jutsz, Anna; Mazur, Anna K; Grabas, Kazimierz

    2016-07-01

    Dehydrogenase activity is frequently used to assess the general condition of microorganisms in soil and activated sludge. Many studies have investigated the inhibition of dehydrogenase activity by various compounds, including heavy metal ions. However, the time after which the measurements are carried out is often chosen arbitrarily. Thus, it can be difficult to estimate how the toxic effects of compounds vary during the reaction and when the maximum of the effect would be reached. Hence, the aim of this study was to create simple and useful mathematical model describing changes in dehydrogenase activity during exposure to substances that inactivate enzymes. Our model is based on the Lagergrens pseudo-first-order equation, the rate of chemical reactions, enzyme activity, and inactivation and was created to describe short-term changes in dehydrogenase activity. The main assumption of our model is that toxic substances cause irreversible inactivation of enzyme units. The model is able to predict the maximum direct toxic effect (MDTE) and the time to reach this maximum (TMDTE). In order to validate our model, we present two examples: inactivation of dehydrogenase in microorganisms in soil and activated sludge. The model was applied successfully for cadmium and copper ions. Our results indicate that the predicted MDTE and TMDTE are more appropriate than EC50 and IC50 for toxicity assessments, except for long exposure times. PMID:27021434

  19. Characterization and purification of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Methanosarcina barkeri.

    PubMed Central

    Krzycki, J A; Zeikus, J G

    1984-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-dependent production of H2, CO2, and CH4 was detected in crude cell extracts of acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri. This metabolic transformation was associated with an active methyl viologen-linked CO dehydrogenase activity (5 to 10 U/mg of protein). Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity was inhibited 85% by 10 microM KCN and was rapidly inactivated by O2. The enzyme was nearly homogeneous after 20-fold purification, indicating that a significant proportion of soluble cell protein was CO dehydrogenase (ca. 5%). The native purified enzyme displayed a molecular weight of 232,000 and a two-subunit composition of 92,000 and 18,000 daltons. The enzyme was shown to contain nickel by isolation of radioactive CO dehydrogenase from cells grown in 63Ni. Analysis of enzyme kinetic properties revealed an apparent Km of 5 mM for CO and a Vmax of 1,300 U/mg of protein. The spectral properties of the enzyme were similar to those published for CO dehydrogenase from acetogenic anaerobes. The physiological functions of the enzyme are discussed. Images PMID:6425262

  20. Dehydrogenase activity of forest soils depends on the assay used

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januszek, Kazimierz; Długa, Joanna; Socha, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrogenases are exclusively intracellular enzymes, which play an important role in the initial stages of oxidation of soil organic matter. One of the most frequently used methods to estimate dehydrogenase activity in soil is based on the use of triphenyltetrazolium chloride as an artificial electron acceptor. The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of dehydrogenases of forest soils with varied physicochemical properties using different triphenyltetrazolium chloride assays. The determination was carried out using the original procedure by Casida et al., a modification of the procedure which involves the use of Ca(OH)2 instead of CaCO3, the Thalmann method, and the assay by Casida et al. without addition of buffer or any salt. Soil dehydrogenase activity depended on the assay used. Dehydrogenase determined by the Casida et al. method without addition of buffer or any salt correlated with the pH values of soils. The autoclaved strongly acidic samples of control soils showed high concentrations of triphenylformazan, probably due to chemical reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride. There is, therefore, a need for a sterilization method other than autoclaving, ie a process that results in significant changes in soil properties, thus helping to increase the chemical reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride.

  1. Characterization of interactions of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase with its binding protein in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yun-Hee; Patel, Mulchand S.

    2010-05-07

    Unlike pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes (PDCs) from prokaryotes, PDCs from higher eukaryotes have an additional structural component, E3-binding protein (BP), for binding of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) in the complex. Based on the 3D structure of the subcomplex of human (h) E3 with the di-domain (L3S1) of hBP, the amino acid residues (H348, D413, Y438, and R447) of hE3 for binding to hBP were substituted singly by alanine or other residues. These substitutions did not have large effects on hE3 activity when measured in its free form. However, when these hE3 mutants were reconstituted in the complex, the PDC activity was significantly reduced to 9% for Y438A, 20% for Y438H, and 18% for D413A. The binding of hE3 mutants with L3S1 determined by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the binding affinities of the Y438A, Y438H, and D413A mutants to L3S1 were severely reduced (1019-, 607-, and 402-fold, respectively). Unlike wild-type hE3 the binding of the Y438A mutant to L3S1 was accompanied by an unfavorable enthalpy change and a large positive entropy change. These results indicate that hE3-Y438 and hE3-D413 play important roles in binding of hE3 to hBP.

  2. Evaluation of NAD(P)-Dependent Dehydrogenase Activities in Neutrophilic Granulocytes by the Bioluminescent Method.

    PubMed

    Savchenko, A A

    2015-09-01

    Bioluminescent method for measurements of the neutrophilic NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases (lactate dehydrogenase, NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase, NADP-dependent decarboxylating malate dehydrogenase, NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, and glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) is developed. The sensitivity of the method allows minimization of the volume of biological material for measurements to 104 neutrophils per analysis. The method is tried in patients with diffuse purulent peritonitis. Low levels of NADPH synthesis enzymes and high levels of enzymes determining the substrate flow by the Krebs cycle found in these patients can lead to attenuation of functional activity of cells. PMID:26468025

  3. Metabolism of Red Beet Slices I. Effects of Washing 1

    PubMed Central

    Reed, D. J.; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    1966-01-01

    The changes in relative participation of pathways of glucose catabolism in red beet slices during washing have been examined using specifically 14C labeled glucoses. Washing of these slices brings about an increase in participation of the pentose phosphate pathway. The composition of the washing medium influences slightly the extent of change in pathway participation. The activity level of certain enzymes participating in the initial stages of glucose catabolism has been measured in fresh and washed beet slices. Fresh slices which barely metabolized gluconate were found to have very little 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity. Washing brings about a dramatic increase in 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity and this increase was accompanied by a marked increase in the ability of the slices to metabolize gluconate. In red beet slices the TPNH generated via pentose phosphate pathway appears to be utilized for biosynthetic reductions rather than as respiratory substrate. PMID:16656302

  4. Aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in lactobacilli and streptococci.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Guillermo Hugo; Bergamini, Carina Viviana; Hynes, Erica Rut

    2016-01-01

    Aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase are two main types of enzymes involved in the initial steps of amino acid catabolism, which plays a key role in the cheese flavor development. In the present work, glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferase activities were screened in twenty one strains of lactic acid bacteria of dairy interest, either cheese-isolated or commercial starters, including fifteen mesophilic lactobacilli, four thermophilic lactobacilli, and two streptococci. The strains of Streptococcus thermophilus showed the highest glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which was significantly elevated compared with the lactobacilli. Aspartate aminotransferase prevailed in most strains tested, while the levels and specificity of other aminotransferases were highly strain- and species-dependent. The knowledge of enzymatic profiles of these starter and cheese-isolated cultures is helpful in proposing appropriate combinations of strains for improved or increased cheese flavor. PMID:27266631

  5. Elevated plasma citrulline: look for dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Haviv, Ruby; Zeharia, Avraham; Belaiche, Corinne; Haimi Cohen, Yishai; Saada, Ann

    2014-02-01

    The E3 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase/dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase/DLD/lipoamide dehydrogenase/LAD), is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme and also a part of the branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. DLD deficiency (MIM #246900), is relatively frequent in the Ashkenazi Jewish population but occurs in other populations as well. Early diagnosis is important to prevent episodes of metabolic decompensation, liver failure, and encephalopathy. The clinical presentations are varied and may include Reye-like syndrome, hepatic failure, myopathy, and myoglobinuria. Laboratory markers, such as elevated urinary alpha-ketoglutarate, blood pyruvate, lactate, and ammonia, are mostly nonspecific and not always present, making the diagnosis difficult. Since we observed elevated plasma citrulline levels in a number of confirmed cases, we retrospectively examined the value of citrulline as a biochemical marker for DLD deficiency. Data was gathered from the files of 17 pediatric patients with DLD deficiency, confirmed by enzymatic and genetic analysis. The control group included 19 patients in whom urea cycle defects were ruled out but DLD deficiency was suspected. Seven of the DLD-deficient patients presented with elevated plasma citrulline levels (median value 205 μM, range 59-282 μM) (normal range 1-45 μM) while none in the control patient group. In five patients, elevated citrulline was associated with elevated plasma glutamine and metabolic acidosis. Interestingly, elevated plasma citrulline was associated with the common G229C mutation. In conclusion, we suggest that elevated plasma citrulline in the absence of urea cycle defects warrants an investigation for DLD deficiency. PMID:23995961

  6. Reversible inactivation of CO dehydrogenase with thiol compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kreß, Oliver; Gnida, Manuel; Pelzmann, Astrid M.; Marx, Christian; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Meyer, Ortwin

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Rather large thiols (e.g. coenzyme A) can reach the active site of CO dehydrogenase. • CO- and H{sub 2}-oxidizing activity of CO dehydrogenase is inhibited by thiols. • Inhibition by thiols was reversed by CO or upon lowering the thiol concentration. • Thiols coordinate the Cu ion in the [CuSMo(=O)OH] active site as a third ligand. - Abstract: Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CO dehydrogenase) from Oligotropha carboxidovorans is a structurally characterized member of the molybdenum hydroxylase enzyme family. It catalyzes the oxidation of CO (CO + H{sub 2}O → CO{sub 2} + 2e{sup −} + 2H{sup +}) which proceeds at a unique [CuSMo(=O)OH] metal cluster. Because of changing activities of CO dehydrogenase, particularly in subcellular fractions, we speculated whether the enzyme would be subject to regulation by thiols (RSH). Here we establish inhibition of CO dehydrogenase by thiols and report the corresponding K{sub i}-values (mM): L-cysteine (5.2), D-cysteine (9.7), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (8.2), D,L-homocysteine (25.8), L-cysteine–glycine (2.0), dithiothreitol (4.1), coenzyme A (8.3), and 2-mercaptoethanol (9.3). Inhibition of the enzyme was reversed by CO or upon lowering the thiol concentration. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of thiol-inhibited CO dehydrogenase revealed a bimetallic site in which the RSH coordinates to the Cu-ion as a third ligand ([Mo{sup VI}(=O)OH{sub (2)}SCu{sup I}(SR)S-Cys]) leaving the redox state of the Cu(I) and the Mo(VI) unchanged. Collectively, our findings establish a regulation of CO dehydrogenase activity by thiols in vitro. They also corroborate the hypothesis that CO interacts with the Cu-ion first. The result that thiol compounds much larger than CO can freely travel through the substrate channel leading to the bimetallic cluster challenges previous concepts involving chaperone function and is of importance for an understanding how the sulfuration step in

  7. Isolation of human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme X by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Kolk, A H; van Kuyk, L; Boettcher, B

    1978-01-01

    Human isoenzyme LDH-X (lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme X) was isolated from seminal fluid of frozen semen samples by affinity chromatography by using oxamate-Sepharose and AMP-Sepharose. In the presence of 1.6 mM-NAD+, isoenzyme LDH-X does not bind to AMP-Sepharose, whereas the other lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes do. This is the crucial point in the isolation of isoenzyme LDH-X from the other isoenzymes. The purified human isoenzyme LDH-X had a specific activity of 146 units/mg of protein. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:213050

  8. Prostaglandin dehydrogenase and the initiation of labor.

    PubMed

    Challis, J R; Patel, F A; Pomini, F

    1999-01-01

    In summary, these studies have suggested that prostaglandin dehydrogenase may have a central role to play in the mechanisms which determine biologically active prostaglandin concentrations within human fetal membranes and placenta at the time of labor, at term or preterm. Moreover, our studies indicate that the regulation of PGDH may by multifactorial (figure 3). In certain regions of the membranes, we suggest that PGDH expression may be influenced by levels of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In other regions of the membranes, we suggest that PGDH may be regulated at a transcriptional level by competing activities of progesterone and cortisol. The action of progesterone could be effected through systemically-derived steroid, or by locally synthesized steroid, acting in a paracrine and/or autocrine fashion. The effects of cortisol in placenta must be due to glucocorticoid derived from the maternal or fetal compartment, since the placenta lacks the hydroxylases required for endogenous cortisol production. However, metabolism of cortisol by 11 beta-HSD-2 reduces the potency of this glucocorticoid in placental tissue. In chorion however, cortisol may be formed locally, from cortisone, in addition to its being derived from the maternal circulation and/or from the amniotic fluid. Our current studies do not allow us to delineate whether the effects of progesterone and cortisol on PGDH are exerted through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) or progesterone receptor (PR) or both. It is possible that through pregnancy, PGDH activity is maintained by progesterone acting either through low levels of PR in membranes, or, more likely, acting through GR. At term, elevated levels of cortisol compete with and displace progesterone from GR, resulting in inhibition of PGDH transcription and activity. In this way, local withdrawal of progesterone action would be effected within human intrauterine tissues, without requiring changes in systemic, circulating progesterone

  9. EPR and ENDOR characterization of the reactive intermediates in the generation of NO by cryoreduced oxy-nitric oxide synthase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Davydov, Roman; Sudhamsu, Jawahar; Lees, Nicholas S; Crane, Brian R; Hoffman, Brian M

    2009-10-14

    Cryoreduction EPR/ENDOR/step-annealing measurements with substrate complexes of oxy-gsNOS (3; gsNOS is nitric oxide synthase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus) confirm that Compound I (6) is the reactive heme species that carries out the gsNOS-catalyzed (Stage I) oxidation of L-arginine to N-hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA), whereas the active species in the (Stage II) oxidation of NOHA to citrulline and HNO/NO(-) is the hydroperoxy-ferric form (5). When 3 is reduced by tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), instead of an externally supplied electron, the resulting BH4(+) radical oxidizes HNO/NO(-) to NO. In this report, radiolytic one-electron reduction of 3 and its complexes with Arg, Me-Arg, and NO(2)Arg was shown by EPR and (1)H and (14,15)N ENDOR spectroscopies to generate 5; in contrast, during cryoreduction of 3/NOHA, the peroxo-ferric-gsNOS intermediate (4/NOHA) was trapped. During annealing at 145 K, ENDOR shows that 5/Arg and 5/Me-Arg (but not 5/NO(2)Arg) generate a Stage I primary product species in which the OH group of the hydroxylated substrate is coordinated to Fe(III), characteristic of 6 as the active heme center. Analysis shows that hydroxylation of Arg and Me-Arg is quantitative. Annealing of 4/NOHA at 160 K converts it first to 5/NOHA and then to the Stage II primary enzymatic product. The latter contains Fe(III) coordinated by water, characteristic of 5 as the active heme center. It further contains quantitative amounts of citrulline and HNO/NO(-); the latter reacts with the ferriheme to form the NO-ferroheme upon further annealing. Stage I delivery of the first proton of catalysis to the (unobserved) 4 formed by cryoreduction of 3 involves a bound water that may convey a proton from L-Arg, while the second proton likely derives from the carboxyl side chain of Glu 248 or the heme carboxylates; the process also involves proton delivery by water(s). In the Stage II oxidation of NOHA, the proton that converts 4/NOHA to 5/NOHA likely is derived from NOHA itself, a

  10. Cloning, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Ara127N, a GH127 β-l-arabinofuranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6

    PubMed Central

    Lansky, Shifra; Salama, Rachel; Dann, Roie; Shner, Izhak; Manjasetty, Babu A.; Belrhali, Hassan; Shoham, Yuval; Shoham, Gil

    2014-01-01

    The l-arabinan utilization system of Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6 is composed of five transcriptional units that are clustered within a 38 kb DNA segment. One of the transcriptional units contains 11 genes, the last gene of which (araN) encodes a protein, Ara127N, that belongs to the newly established GH127 family. Ara127N shares 44% sequence identity with the recently characterized HypBA1 protein from Bifidobacterium longum and thus is likely to function similarly as a β-l-arabinofuranosidase. β-l-Arabinofuranosidases are enzymes that hydrolyze β-l-arabinofuranoside linkages, the less common form of such linkages, a unique enzymatic activity that has been identified only recently. The interest in the structure and mode of action of Ara127N therefore stems from its special catalytic activity as well as its membership of the new GH127 family, the structure and mechanism of which are only starting to be resolved. Ara127N has recently been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Two suitable crystal forms have been obtained: one (CTP form) belongs to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 104.0, b = 131.2, c = 107.6 Å, β = 112.0°, and the other (RB form) belongs to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 65.5, b = 118.1, c = 175.0 Å. A complete X-ray diffraction data set has been collected to 2.3 Å resolution from flash-cooled crystals of the wild-type enzyme (RB form) at −173°C using synchrotron radiation. A selenomethionine derivative of Ara127N has also been prepared and crystallized for multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) experiments. Crystals of selenomethionine Ara127N appeared to be isomorphous to those of the wild type (CTP form) and enabled the measurement of a three-wavelength MAD diffraction data set at the selenium absorption edge. These data are currently being used for detailed three-dimensional structure determination of the Ara127N protein. PMID:25084377

  11. New Insights into the Glycosylation of the Surface Layer Protein SgsE from Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a▿

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Kerstin; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Berkenkamp, Stefan; Messner, Paul; Peter-Katalinić, Jasna; Schäffer, Christina

    2006-01-01

    The surface of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a cells is covered by an oblique surface layer (S-layer) composed of glycoprotein subunits. To this S-layer glycoprotein, elongated glycan chains are attached that are composed of [→2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→3)-β-l-Rhap-(1→2)-α-L-Rhap-(1→] repeating units, with a 2-O-methyl modification of the terminal trisaccharide at the nonreducing end of the glycan chain and a core saccharide as linker to the S-layer protein. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, four bands appear, of which three represent glycosylated S-layer proteins. In the present study, nanoelectrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) and infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry were adapted for analysis of this high-molecular-mass and water-insoluble S-layer glycoprotein to refine insights into its glycosylation pattern. This is a prerequisite for artificial fine-tuning of S-layer glycans for nanobiotechnological applications. Optimized MS techniques allowed (i) determination of the average masses of three glycoprotein species to be 101.66 kDa, 108.68 kDa, and 115.73 kDa, (ii) assignment of nanoheterogeneity to the S-layer glycans, with the most prevalent variation between 12 and 18 trisaccharide repeating units, and the possibility of extension of the already-known →3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ core by one additional rhamnose residue, and (iii) identification of a third glycosylation site on the S-layer protein, at position threonine-590, in addition to the known sites threonine-620 and serine-794. The current interpretation of the S-layer glycoprotein banding pattern is that in the 101.66-kDa glycoprotein species only one glycosylation site is occupied, in the 108.68-kDa glycoprotein species two glycosylation sites are occupied, and in the 115.73-kDa glycoprotein species three glycosylation sites are occupied, while the 94.46-kDa band represents

  12. New insights into the glycosylation of the surface layer protein SgsE from Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Kerstin; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Berkenkamp, Stefan; Messner, Paul; Peter-Katalinić, Jasna; Schäffer, Christina

    2006-11-01

    The surface of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a cells is covered by an oblique surface layer (S-layer) composed of glycoprotein subunits. To this S-layer glycoprotein, elongated glycan chains are attached that are composed of [-->2)-alpha-l-Rhap-(1-->3)-beta-l-Rhap-(1-->2)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->] repeating units, with a 2-O-methyl modification of the terminal trisaccharide at the nonreducing end of the glycan chain and a core saccharide as linker to the S-layer protein. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, four bands appear, of which three represent glycosylated S-layer proteins. In the present study, nanoelectrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) and infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry were adapted for analysis of this high-molecular-mass and water-insoluble S-layer glycoprotein to refine insights into its glycosylation pattern. This is a prerequisite for artificial fine-tuning of S-layer glycans for nanobiotechnological applications. Optimized MS techniques allowed (i) determination of the average masses of three glycoprotein species to be 101.66 kDa, 108.68 kDa, and 115.73 kDa, (ii) assignment of nanoheterogeneity to the S-layer glycans, with the most prevalent variation between 12 and 18 trisaccharide repeating units, and the possibility of extension of the already-known -->3)-alpha-l-Rhap-(1-->3)-alpha-l-Rhap-(1--> core by one additional rhamnose residue, and (iii) identification of a third glycosylation site on the S-layer protein, at position threonine-590, in addition to the known sites threonine-620 and serine-794. The current interpretation of the S-layer glycoprotein banding pattern is that in the 101.66-kDa glycoprotein species only one glycosylation site is occupied, in the 108.68-kDa glycoprotein species two glycosylation sites are occupied, and in the 115.73-kDa glycoprotein species three glycosylation sites are occupied, while the 94.46-kDa band

  13. Cloning, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Ara127N, a GH127 β-L-arabinofuranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6.

    PubMed

    Lansky, Shifra; Salama, Rachel; Dann, Roie; Shner, Izhak; Manjasetty, Babu A; Belrhali, Hassan; Shoham, Yuval; Shoham, Gil

    2014-08-01

    The L-arabinan utilization system of Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6 is composed of five transcriptional units that are clustered within a 38 kb DNA segment. One of the transcriptional units contains 11 genes, the last gene of which (araN) encodes a protein, Ara127N, that belongs to the newly established GH127 family. Ara127N shares 44% sequence identity with the recently characterized HypBA1 protein from Bifidobacterium longum and thus is likely to function similarly as a β-L-arabinofuranosidase. β-L-Arabinofuranosidases are enzymes that hydrolyze β-L-arabinofuranoside linkages, the less common form of such linkages, a unique enzymatic activity that has been identified only recently. The interest in the structure and mode of action of Ara127N therefore stems from its special catalytic activity as well as its membership of the new GH127 family, the structure and mechanism of which are only starting to be resolved. Ara127N has recently been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Two suitable crystal forms have been obtained: one (CTP form) belongs to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 104.0, b = 131.2, c = 107.6 Å, β = 112.0°, and the other (RB form) belongs to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 65.5, b = 118.1, c = 175.0 Å. A complete X-ray diffraction data set has been collected to 2.3 Å resolution from flash-cooled crystals of the wild-type enzyme (RB form) at -173°C using synchrotron radiation. A selenomethionine derivative of Ara127N has also been prepared and crystallized for multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) experiments. Crystals of selenomethionine Ara127N appeared to be isomorphous to those of the wild type (CTP form) and enabled the measurement of a three-wavelength MAD diffraction data set at the selenium absorption edge. These data are currently being used for detailed three-dimensional structure determination of the Ara127N protein. PMID:25084377

  14. NADP+-Preferring d-Lactate Dehydrogenase from Sporolactobacillus inulinus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lingfeng; Xu, Xiaoling; Wang, Limin; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxy acid dehydrogenases, including l- and d-lactate dehydrogenases (L-LDH and D-LDH), are responsible for the stereospecific conversion of 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids and extensively used in a wide range of biotechnological applications. A common feature of LDHs is their high specificity for NAD+ as a cofactor. An LDH that could effectively use NADPH as a coenzyme could be an alternative enzymatic system for regeneration of the oxidized, phosphorylated cofactor. In this study, a d-lactate dehydrogenase from a Sporolactobacillus inulinus strain was found to use both NADH and NADPH with high efficiencies and with a preference for NADPH as its coenzyme, which is different from the coenzyme utilization of all previously reported LDHs. The biochemical properties of the D-LDH enzyme were determined by X-ray crystal structural characterization and in vivo and in vitro enzymatic activity analyses. The residue Asn174 was demonstrated to be critical for NADPH utilization. Characterization of the biochemical properties of this enzyme will contribute to understanding of the catalytic mechanism and provide referential information for shifting the coenzyme utilization specificity of 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases. PMID:26150461

  15. KINETIC PROPERTIES OF MALIC DEHYDROGENASE FROM THREE CULTIVARS OF RICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temperature induced changes in the kinetics of the enzyme malic dehydrogenase (MON) were investigated in three cultivars of rice(Oryza sativa L.). Cultivars, included IR74, SWAT2, and N22. Plants were grown in a controlled environment chamber for 29 days, at 31 degrees C day/25 d...

  16. Efficiency of superoxide anions in the inactivation of selected dehydrogenases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodacka, Aleksandra; Serafin, Eligiusz; Puchala, Mieczyslaw

    2010-09-01

    The most ubiquitous of the primary reactive oxygen species, formed in all aerobes, is the superoxide free radical. It is believed that the superoxide anion radical shows low reactivity and in oxidative stress it is regarded mainly as an initiator of more reactive species such as rad OH and ONOO -. In this paper, the effectiveness of inactivation of selected enzymes by radiation-generated superoxide radicals in comparison with the effectiveness of the other products of water radiolysis is examined. We investigate three enzymes: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We show that the direct contribution of the superoxide anion radical to GAPDH and ADH inactivation is significant. The effectiveness of the superoxide anion in the inactivation of GAPDH and ADG was only 2.4 and 2.8 times smaller, respectively, in comparison with hydroxyl radical. LDH was practically not inactivated by the superoxide anion. Despite the fact that the studied dehydrogenases belong to the same class of enzymes (oxidoreductases), all have a similar molecular weight and are tetramers, their susceptibility to free-radical damage varies. The differences in the radiosensitivity of the enzymes are not determined by the basic structural parameters analyzed. A significant role in inactivation susceptibility is played by the type of amino acid residues and their localization within enzyme molecules.

  17. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system. 862.1380 Section 862.1380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  18. Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Mat-Jan, F; Alam, K Y; Clark, D P

    1989-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative NAD-linked lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) have been isolated. These mutants showed no growth defects under anaerobic conditions unless present together with a defect in pyruvate formate lyase (pfl). Double mutants (pfl ldh) were unable to grow anaerobically on glucose or other sugars even when supplemented with acetate, whereas pfl mutants can do so. The ldh mutation was found to map at 30.5 min on the E. coli chromosome. The ldh mutant FMJ39 showed no detectable lactate dehydrogenase activity and produced no lactic acid from glucose under anaerobic conditions as estimated by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. We also found that in wild-type strains the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase was conjointly induced by anaerobic conditions and an acidic pH. Despite previous findings that phosphate concentrations affect the proportion of lactic acid produced during fermentation, we were unable to find any intrinsic effect of phosphate on lactate dehydrogenase activity, apart from the buffering effect of this ion. PMID:2644194

  19. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. 862.1445 Section 862.1445 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. 862.1445 Section 862.1445 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. 862.1445 Section 862.1445 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. 862.1445 Section 862.1445 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... step that metabolizes groups of fats called medium-chain fatty acids and short-chain fatty acids. Mutations in the HADH gene lead ... a shortage of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Medium-chain and short-chain fatty acids cannot be metabolized ...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. 862.1445 Section 862.1445 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate...

  5. Molecular cloning of gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2003 xylitol dehydrogenase gene

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, H. Mir Mohammad; Ahmadi, R.; Aghaabdollahian, S.; Mofid, M.R.; Ghaemi, Y.; Abedi, D.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the widespread applications of xylitol dehydrogenase, an enzyme used for the production of xylitol, the present study was designed for the cloning of xylitol dehydrogenase gene from Glcunobacter oxydans DSM 2003. After extraction of genomic DNA from this bacterium, xylitol dehydrogenase gene was replicated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified product was entered into pTZ57R cloning vector by T/A cloning method and transformation was performed by heat shocking of the E. coli XL1-blue competent cells. Following plasmid preparation, the cloned gene was digested out and ligated into the expression vector pET-22b(+). Electrophoresis of PCR product showed a 789 bp band. Recombinant plasmid (rpTZ57R) was then constructed. This plasmid was double digested with XhoI and EcoRI resulting in 800 bp and 2900 bp bands. The obtained insert was ligated into pET-22b(+) vector and its orientation was confirmed with XhoI and BamHI restriction enzymes. In conclusion, in the present study the recombinant expression vector containing xylitol dehydrogenase gene has been constructed and can be used for the production of this enzyme in high quantities. PMID:22110522

  6. Succinate dehydrogenase is the regulator of respiration in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Travis; Weinrick, Brian; Vilchèze, Catherine; Berney, Michael; Tufariello, Joanne; Cook, Gregory M; Jacobs, William R

    2014-11-01

    In chronic infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli are thought to enter a metabolic program that provides sufficient energy for maintenance of the protonmotive force, but is insufficient to meet the demands of cellular growth. We sought to understand this metabolic downshift genetically by targeting succinate dehydrogenase, the enzyme which couples the growth processes controlled by the TCA cycle with the energy production resulting from the electron transport chain. M. tuberculosis contains two operons which are predicted to encode succinate dehydrogenase enzymes (sdh-1 and sdh-2); we found that deletion of Sdh1 contributes to an inability to survive long term stationary phase. Stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry revealed that Sdh1 functions as a succinate dehydrogenase during aerobic growth, and that Sdh2 is dispensable for this catalysis, but partially overlapping activities ensure that the loss of one enzyme can incompletely compensate for loss of the other. Deletion of Sdh1 disturbs the rate of respiration via the mycobacterial electron transport chain, resulting in an increased proportion of reduced electron carrier (menaquinol) which leads to increased oxygen consumption. The loss of respiratory control leads to an inability to recover from stationary phase. We propose a model in which succinate dehydrogenase is a governor of cellular respiration in the adaptation to low oxygen environments. PMID:25412183

  7. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase... § 864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device used to measure the activity of the enzyme...

  8. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase... § 864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device used to measure the activity of the enzyme...

  9. Spatial variability of the dehydrogenase activity in forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błońska, Ewa; Lasota, Jarosław

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variability of the dehydrogenase activity (DH) in forest soils using geostatistics. We have studied variability soil dehydrogenase and their relationship with variability of some physic-chemical properties. Two study areas (A and B) were set up in southern Poland in the Zlotoryja Forest District. Study areas were covered by different types of vegetation (A- broadleaf forest with beech, ash and sycamore), B- coniferous forest with Norway spruce). The soils were classified as Dystric Cambisols (WRB 2006). The samples for laboratory testing were collected from 49 places on each areas. 15 cm of surface horizon of soil were taken (with previously removed litter). Dehydrogenase activity was marked with Lenhard's method according to the Casida procedure. Soil pH, nitrogen (N) and soil organic carbon (C) content (by LECO CNS 2000 carbon analyzer) was marked. C/N ratio was calculated. Particle size composition was determined using laser diffraction. Statistical analysis were performed using STATISTICA 10 software. Geostatistical analysis and mapping were done by application of GS 9+ (Gamma Design) and Surfer 11 (Golden Software). The activity of DH ranged between 5,02 and 71,20 mg TPP• kg-1 •24 h-1 on the A area and between 0,94 and 16,47 mg TPP• kg-1 •24 h-1. Differences in spatial variability of the analised features were noted. The variability of dehydrogenase activity on the A study area was described by an exponential model, whereas on the B study area the spatial correlation has not been noted. The relationship of dehydrogenase activity with the remaining parameters of soil was noted only in the case of A study area. The variability of organic carbon content on the A and B study areas were described by an exponential model. The variability of nitrogen content on both areas were described by an spherical model.

  10. The alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme alcohol dehydrogenase IV as a candidate marker of Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Laniewska-Dunaj, Magdalena; Strumnik, Anna; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with decreased alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity in the gastric mucosa. The decrease in gastric ADH activity depends on the severity of inflammation and mucosal injury. This damage can be a reason of the release of enzyme from gastric mucosa and leads to the increase of the ADH activity in the sera of patients with H. pylori infection. Material and methods Serum samples were taken from 140 patients with H. pylori infection. Total ADH activity was measured by photometric method with p-nitrosodimethylaniline as a substrate and ALDH activity by the fluorometric method with 6-methoxy-2-naphtaldehyde. For the measurement of the activity of class I and II isoenzymes we employed the fluorometric methods, with class-specific fluorogenic substrates. The activity of class III ADH was measured by the photometric method with n-octanol and class IV with m-nitrobenzaldehyde as a substrate. Results The activity of ADH IV in the serum of patients with H. pylori infection increased about 42% (7.86 mU/l) in the comparison to the control level (4.52 mU/l). Total activity of ADH was 1105 mU/l in patients group and 682 mU/l in control. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH IV was 88%, specificity 90%, positive and negative predictive values were 91% and 84% respectively. Area under ROC curve for ADH IV was 0.84. Conclusions Helicobacter pylori infection of gastric mucosa is reflected in the serum by significant increase of class IV and total ADH activity. The results suggest a potential role for ADH IV as a marker of H. pylori infection. PMID:25395946

  11. Succinate dehydrogenase subunit D and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B mutation analysis in canine phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Holt, D E; Henthorn, P; Howell, V M; Robinson, B G; Benn, D E

    2014-07-01

    Phaeochromocytomas (PCs) are tumours of the adrenal medulla chromaffin cells. Paragangliomas (PGLs) arise in sympathetic ganglia (previously called extra-adrenal PCs) or in non-chromaffin parasympathetic ganglia cells that are usually non-secretory. Parenchymal cells from these tumours have a common embryological origin from neural crest ectoderm. Several case series of canine PCs and PGLs have been published and a link between the increased incidence of chemoreceptor neoplasia in brachycephalic dog breeds and chronic hypoxia has been postulated. A similar link to hypoxia in man led to the identification of germline heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) and subsequently SDHA, SDHB and SDHC in similar tumours. We investigated canine PCs (n = 6) and PGLs (n = 2) for SDHD and SDHB mutations and in one PGL found a somatic SDHD mutation c.365A>G (p.Lys122Arg) in exon 4, which was not present in normal tissue from this brachycephalic dog. Two PCs were heterozygous for both c.365A>G (p.Lys122Arg) mutation and an exon 3 silent variant c.291G>A. We also identified the heterozygous SDHB exon 2 mutation c.113G>A (p.Arg38Gln) in a PC. These results illustrate that genetic mutations may underlie tumourigenesis in canine PCs and PGLs. The spontaneous nature of these canine diseases and possible association of PGLs with hypoxia in brachycephalic breeds may make them an attractive model for studying the corresponding human tumours. PMID:24813157

  12. Regulation of human dihydrodiol dehydrogenase by Michael acceptor xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Ciaccio, P J; Jaiswal, A K; Tew, K D

    1994-06-01

    A human oxidoreductase (H-37) that is overexpressed in ethacrynic acid-resistant HT29 colon cells (Ciaccio, P. J., Stuart, J.E., and Tew, K.D. (1993) Mol. Pharmacol. 43, 845-853) has been identified as a dihydrodiol dehydrogenase. Translated protein from a dihydrodiol dehydrogenase cDNA isolated from a library prepared from ethacrynic acid-resistant HT29 cell poly(A+) RNA was recognized by anti-H-37 IgG and was identical in molecular weight with H-37. The isolated cDNA was identical in both nucleotide and amino acid sequences with the recently cloned liver dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (Stolz, A., Hammond, L., Lou, H., Takikawa, H., Ronk, M., and Shively, J.E. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 10448-10457). Using this cDNA as probe, we have examined its induction by Michael acceptors. The steady state dihydrodiol dehydrogenase mRNA level in the ethacrynic acid-resistant line was increased 30-fold relative to that of wild-type cells. Twenty-four hour treatment of wild-type cells with ethacrynic acid or dimethyl maleate increased mRNA 10-fold and 5-fold, respectively. These changes are accompanied by both increased protein expression and increased NADP-dependent 1-acenaphthenol oxidative activity in cell cytosol. In gel shift assays, compared to wild type controls, increased binding of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase human antioxidant response element (hARE) DNA to redox labile protein complexes present in treated and resistant cell nuclear extract was observed. Ethacrynic acid induced CAT activity 2-fold in Hepa1 cells stably transfected with NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase hARE-tk-CAT chimeric gene construct. Thus, dihydrodiol dehydrogenase protein is inducible by de novo synthesis from mRNA by structurally related monofunctional inducer Michael acceptors. Altered in vitro binding of nuclear protein to the hARE is indirect evidence for the involvement of an element similar to hARE in the regulation of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase by these agents. PMID:7515059

  13. Structural basis for cellobiose dehydrogenase action during oxidative cellulose degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Tien-Chye; Kracher, Daniel; Gandini, Rosaria; Sygmund, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Haltrich, Dietmar; Hällberg, B. Martin; Ludwig, Roland; Divne, Christina

    2015-07-01

    A new paradigm for cellulose depolymerization by fungi focuses on an oxidative mechanism involving cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH) and copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO); however, mechanistic studies have been hampered by the lack of structural information regarding CDH. CDH contains a haem-binding cytochrome (CYT) connected via a flexible linker to a flavin-dependent dehydrogenase (DH). Electrons are generated from cellobiose oxidation catalysed by DH and shuttled via CYT to LPMO. Here we present structural analyses that provide a comprehensive picture of CDH conformers, which govern the electron transfer between redox centres. Using structure-based site-directed mutagenesis, rapid kinetics analysis and molecular docking, we demonstrate that flavin-to-haem interdomain electron transfer (IET) is enabled by a haem propionate group and that rapid IET requires a closed CDH state in which the propionate is tightly enfolded by DH. Following haem reduction, CYT reduces LPMO to initiate oxygen activation at the copper centre and subsequent cellulose depolymerization.

  14. [Cooperative properties of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase].

    PubMed

    Nagradova, N K

    1977-03-01

    The structure of the active center of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and the arrangement of subunits in the tetrameric molecule is delineated. The mechanism of cooperative effects in the oligomer is considered, and the involvement of various regions of the active center and of different-subunit contact area in the realization of the cooperative phenomena is discussed. A special attention is paid to the effect of NAD+ bound to one of the subunits of the tetramer on the structure of an adjacent subunit and to the problem of the participation of the coenzyme in the creation of anion-binding sites of the enzyme. The conditions of reversible dissociation of the tetrameric apoenzyme molecule into dimers are depicted, and the role of NAD+ in the organization of the quaternary structure of the dehydrogenase is discussed. The problem of catalytic activity of the dimeric form of the enzyme is argued. PMID:193581

  15. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) in bacteria: a bioinformatic perspective.

    PubMed

    Kisiela, Michael; Skarka, Adam; Ebert, Bettina; Maser, Edmund

    2012-03-01

    Steroidal compounds including cholesterol, bile acids and steroid hormones play a central role in various physiological processes such as cell signaling, growth, reproduction, and energy homeostasis. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs), which belong to the superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) or aldo-keto reductases (AKR), are important enzymes involved in the steroid hormone metabolism. HSDs function as an enzymatic switch that controls the access of receptor-active steroids to nuclear hormone receptors and thereby mediate a fine-tuning of the steroid response. The aim of this study was the identification of classified functional HSDs and the bioinformatic annotation of these proteins in all complete sequenced bacterial genomes followed by a phylogenetic analysis. For the bioinformatic annotation we constructed specific hidden Markov models in an iterative approach to provide a reliable identification for the specific catalytic groups of HSDs. Here, we show a detailed phylogenetic analysis of 3α-, 7α-, 12α-HSDs and two further functional related enzymes (3-ketosteroid-Δ(1)-dehydrogenase, 3-ketosteroid-Δ(4)(5α)-dehydrogenase) from the superfamily of SDRs. For some bacteria that have been previously reported to posses a specific HSD activity, we could annotate the corresponding HSD protein. The dominating phyla that were identified to express HSDs were that of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Moreover, some evolutionarily more ancient microorganisms (e.g., Cyanobacteria and Euryachaeota) were found as well. A large number of HSD-expressing bacteria constitute the normal human gastro-intestinal flora. Another group of bacteria were originally isolated from natural habitats like seawater, soil, marine and permafrost sediments. These bacteria include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading species such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Rhodococcus. In conclusion, HSDs are found in a wide variety of microorganisms including

  16. Novel Xylose Dehydrogenase in the Halophilic Archaeon Haloarcula marismortui†

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Ulrike; Schönheit, Peter

    2004-01-01

    During growth of the halophilic archaeon Haloarcula marismortui on d-xylose, a specific d-xylose dehydrogenase was induced. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity. It constitutes a homotetramer of about 175 kDa and catalyzed the oxidation of xylose with both NADP+ and NAD+ as cosubstrates with 10-fold higher affinity for NADP+. In addition to d-xylose, d-ribose was oxidized at similar kinetic constants, whereas d-glucose was used with about 70-fold lower catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km). With the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the subunit, an open reading frame (ORF)—coding for a 39.9-kDA protein—was identified in the partially sequenced genome of H. marismortui. The function of the ORF as the gene designated xdh and coding for xylose dehydrogenase was proven by its functional overexpression in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme was reactivated from inclusion bodies following solubilization in urea and refolding in the presence of salts, reduced and oxidized glutathione, and substrates. Xylose dehydrogenase showed the highest sequence similarity to glucose-fructose oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis and other putative bacterial and archaeal oxidoreductases. Activities of xylose isomerase and xylulose kinase, the initial reactions of xylose catabolism of most bacteria, could not be detected in xylose-grown cells of H. marismortui, and the genes that encode them, xylA and xylB, were not found in the genome of H. marismortui. Thus, we propose that this first characterized archaeal xylose dehydrogenase catalyzes the initial step in xylose degradation by H. marismortui. PMID:15342590

  17. Reappraisal of the regulation of lactococcal L-lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    van Niel, Ed W J; Palmfeldt, Johan; Martin, Rani; Paese, Marco; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel

    2004-03-01

    Lactococcal lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) are coregulated at the substrate level by at least two mechanisms: the fructose-1,6-biphosphate/phosphate ratio and the NADH/NAD ratio. Among the Lactococcus lactis species, there are strains that are predominantly regulated by the first mechanism (e.g., strain 65.1) or by the second mechanism (e.g., strain NCDO 2118). A more complete model of the kinetics of the regulation of lactococcal LDH is discussed. PMID:15006814

  18. Characterization of Flavin-Containing Opine Dehydrogenase from Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Seiya; Sueda, Rui; Fukumori, Fumiyasu; Watanabe, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Opines, in particular nopaline and octopine, are specific compounds found in crown gall tumor tissues induced by infections with Agrobacterium species, and are synthesized by well-studied NAD(P)H-dependent dehydrogenases (synthases), which catalyze the reductive condensation of α-ketoglutarate or pyruvate with L-arginine. The corresponding genes are transferred into plant cells via a tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid. In addition to the reverse oxidative reaction(s), the genes noxB-noxA and ooxB-ooxA are considered to be involved in opine catabolism as (membrane-associated) oxidases; however, their properties have not yet been elucidated in detail due to the difficulties associated with purification (and preservation). We herein successfully expressed Nox/Oox-like genes from Pseudomonas putida in P. putida cells. The purified protein consisted of different α-, β-, and γ-subunits encoded by the OdhA, OdhB, and OdhC genes, which were arranged in tandem on the chromosome (OdhB-C-A), and exhibited dehydrogenase (but not oxidase) activity toward nopaline in the presence of artificial electron acceptors such as 2,6-dichloroindophenol. The enzyme contained FAD, FMN, and [2Fe-2S]-iron sulfur as prosthetic groups. On the other hand, the gene cluster from Bradyrhizobium japonicum consisted of OdhB1-C-A-B2, from which two proteins, OdhAB1C and OdhAB2C, appeared through the assembly of each β-subunit together with common α- and γ-subunits. A poor phylogenetic relationship was detected between OdhB1 and OdhB2 in spite of them both functioning as octopine dehydrogenases, which provided clear evidence for the acquisition of novel functions by “subunit-exchange”. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to have examined flavin-containing opine dehydrogenase. PMID:26382958

  19. A guide to 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Adamski, J; Jakob, F J

    2001-01-22

    17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSD) are pivotal in controlling the biological potency of steroid hormones by catalyzing oxidation or reduction at position 17. Several 17beta-HSDs may as well metabolize further substrates including alcohols, bile acids, fatty acids and retinols. This review summarizes recent progress in the field of 17beta-HSD research provides an update of nomenclature. PMID:11165003

  20. Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase: developmental studies on cryptic variant lines.

    PubMed

    Miglani, G S; Ampy, F R

    1981-10-01

    Thirty-five cryptic variant lines were used to examine the mechanisms involved in genetic modulation of alcohol metabolism in Drosophila. Late third-instar larval, preemergence pupal, and adult stages cultured at 18 and 28 C were examined. Spectrophotometric analyses for native alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and residual ADH activity after treatment with guanidine hydrochloride and heat were performed. Differential response of cryptic variants to treatment with the denaturants during development suggested that this variation may have an adaptive significance. PMID:6800354

  1. An unexpected phosphate binding site in Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: Crystal structures of apo, holo and ternary complex of Cryptosporidium parvum enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, William J; Senkovich, Olga; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2009-06-08

    The structure, function and reaction mechanism of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) have been extensively studied. Based on these studies, three anion binding sites have been identified, one 'Ps' site (for binding the C-3 phosphate of the substrate) and two sites, 'Pi' and 'new Pi', for inorganic phosphate. According to the original flip-flop model, the substrate phosphate group switches from the 'Pi' to the 'Ps' site during the multistep reaction. In light of the discovery of the 'new Pi' site, a modified flip-flop mechanism, in which the C-3 phosphate of the substrate binds to the 'new Pi' site and flips to the 'Ps' site before the hydride transfer, was proposed. An alternative model based on a number of structures of B. stearothermophilus GAPDH ternary complexes (non-covalent and thioacyl intermediate) proposes that in the ternary Michaelis complex the C-3 phosphate binds to the 'Ps' site and flips from the 'Ps' to the 'new Pi' site during or after the redox step. We determined the crystal structure of Cryptosporidium parvum GAPDH in the apo and holo (enzyme + NAD) state and the structure of the ternary enzyme-cofactor-substrate complex using an active site mutant enzyme. The C. parvum GAPDH complex was prepared by pre-incubating the enzyme with substrate and cofactor, thereby allowing free movement of the protein structure and substrate molecules during their initial encounter. Sulfate and phosphate ions were excluded from purification and crystallization steps. The quality of the electron density map at 2{angstrom} resolution allowed unambiguous positioning of the substrate. In three subunits of the homotetramer the C-3 phosphate group of the non-covalently bound substrate is in the 'new Pi' site. A concomitant movement of the phosphate binding loop is observed in these three subunits. In the fourth subunit the C-3 phosphate occupies an unexpected site not seen before and the phosphate binding loop remains in the substrate-free conformation

  2. Cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus proline dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tommi A.; Tanner, John J.

    2005-08-01

    Cloning, purification and crystallization of T. thermophilus proline dehydrogenase is reported. The detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside was used to reduce polydispersity, which enabled crystallization. Nature recycles l-proline by converting it to l-glutamate. This four-electron oxidation process is catalyzed by the two enzymes: proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ{sup 1}-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. This note reports the cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus PRODH, which is the prototype of a newly discovered superfamily of bacterial monofunctional PRODHs. The results presented here include production of a monodisperse protein solution through use of the detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside and the growth of native crystals that diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution at Advanced Light Source beamline 4.2.2. The space group is P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.2, b = 89.6, c = 94.3 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain two protein molecules and 46% solvent. Molecular-replacement trials using a fragment of the PRODH domain of the multifunctional Escherichia coli PutA protein as the search model (24% amino-acid sequence identity) did not produce a satisfactory solution. Therefore, the structure of T. thermophilus PRODH will be determined by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative.

  3. Biochemical mechanisms of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, A; Benatti, U; Gaetani, G F; De Flora, A

    1978-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-glucose-6-phosphate: NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.49) was developed that allowed the specific activity of this enzyme protein to be measured in lysates from whole erythrocyte populations, in lysates from erythrocytes of different ages, and in purified samples. The enzyme was highly purified from erythrocytes of single donors by a simple procedure of affinity chromatography with insolubilized adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. These techniques were used in an attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanisms leading to deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in two genetic variants of the enzyme, i.e., the Mediterranean and the Seattle-like variants. The results indicate that the lowered activity of erythrocytes containing the Mediterranean variant of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is related to an enhanced rate of degradation of a catalytically defective protein synthesized at a nearly normal rate. Synthesis of a normally functioning protein and an increased breakdown of it are involved in the Seattle-like variant of the enzyme. Images PMID:273924

  4. Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency: molecular basis for intrafamilial heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Van Coster, R N; Old, S E; Medori, R; Winter, S; Gubits, R M; Matthews, P M; Brown, R M; Brown, G K; Dahl, H H

    1994-07-01

    Two half-brothers and their mother had symptomatic pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency. The infants had severe congenital lactic acidosis, seizures, and apneic spells and died at the ages 3 and 4 months. The mother was less symptomatic with mental retardation, truncal ataxia, and dysarthria. The residual pyruvate dehydrogenase activities in cultured skin fibroblasts from the 2 infants and their mother were 7, 15, and 10% of control values. Immunoblot analysis showed negligible amounts of E1 alpha and E1 beta subunits of the complex. Northern blot analysis for the E1 alpha subunit showed normal results. In the 2 sons, complementary DNA sequence analysis revealed a cytosine to thymine mutation in exon 4, resulting in a change of arginine 127 to tryptophan in the E1 alpha subunit. Restriction enzyme analysis of the polymerase chain reaction product representing exon 4 of the E1 alpha gene revealed that the mother was a heterozygotes. Complementary DNA restriction analysis and methylation analysis of the X chromosome DXS255 loci revealed skewed activation of the mutant allele, consistent with the deficient pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in the mother's fibroblasts. The milder maternal phenotype is consistent with variable X-inactivation patterns in different organs of female heterozygotes. PMID:8024267

  5. A glycolate dehydrogenase in the mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bari, Rafijul; Kebeish, Rashad; Kalamajka, Rainer; Rademacher, Thomas; Peterhänsel, Christoph

    2004-03-01

    The fixation of molecular O2 by the oxygenase activity of Rubisco leads to the formation of phosphoglycolate in the chloroplast that is further metabolized in the process of photorespiration. The initial step of this pathway is the oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate. Whereas in higher plants this reaction takes place in peroxisomes and is dependent on oxygen as a co-factor, most algae oxidize glycolate in the mitochondria using organic co-factors. The identification and characterization of a novel glycolate dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana is reported here. The enzyme is dependent on organic co-factors and resembles algal glycolate dehydrogenases in its enzymatic properties. Mutants of E. coli incapable of glycolate oxidation can be complemented by overexpression of the Arabidopsis open reading frame. The corresponding RNA accumulates preferentially in illuminated leaves, but was also found in other tissues investigated. A fusion of the N-terminal part of the Arabidopsis glycolate dehydrogenase to red fluorescent protein accumulates in mitochondria when overexpressed in the homologous system. Based on these results it is proposed that the basic photorespiratory system of algae is conserved in higher plants. PMID:14966218

  6. Functional Analysis of a Mosquito Short Chain Dehydrogenase Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Mayoral, Jaime G.; Leonard, Kate T.; Defelipe, Lucas A.; Turjansksi, Adrian G.; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriegal, Fernando G.

    2013-01-01

    The short chain dehydrogenases (SDR) constitute one the oldest and largest families of enzymes with over 46,000 members in sequence databases. About 25% of all known dehydrogenases belong to the SDR family. SDR enzymes have critical roles in lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate, hormone and xenobiotic metabolism as well as in redox sensor mechanisms. This family is present in archaea, bacteria, and eukaryota, emphasizing their versatility and fundamental importance for metabolic processes. We identified a cluster of eight SDRs in the mosquito Aedes aegypti (AaSDRs). Members of the cluster differ in tissue specificity and developmental expression. Heterologous expression produced recombinant proteins that had diverse substrate specificities, but distinct from the conventional insect alcohol (ethanol) dehydrogenases. They are all NADP+-dependent and they have S-enantioselectivity and preference for secondary alcohols with 8–15 carbons. Homology modeling was used to build the structure of AaSDR1 and two additional cluster members. The computational study helped explain the selectivity towards the (10S)-isomers as well as the reduced activity of AaSDR4 and AaSDR9 for longer isoprenoid substrates. Similar clusters of SDRs are present in other species of insects, suggesting similar selection mechanisms causing duplication and diversification of this family of enzymes. PMID:23238893

  7. Novel yeast cell dehydrogenase activity assay in situ.

    PubMed

    Berłowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Dorota; Klimek, Leszek; Orzeszyna, Bartosz; Ambroziak, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a suitable method of succinate dehydrogenase activity assay in situ for different industrial yeast strains. For this purpose different compounds: EDTA, Triton X-100, sodium deoxycholate, digitonin, nystatin and beta-mercaptoethanol were used. The permeabilization process was controlled microscopically by primuline staining. Enzyme assay was conducted in whole yeast cells with Na-succinate as substrate, phenazine methosulfate (PMS) as electron carrier and in the presence one of two different tetrazolium salts: tetrazolium blue chloride (BT) or cyanoditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) reduced during the assay. In comparabile studies of yeast vitality the amount of intracellular ATP was determined according to luciferin/luciferase method. During the succinate dehydrogenase assay in intact yeast cells without permeabilization, BT formazans were partially visualized in the cells, but CTC formazans appeared to be totally extracellular or associated with the plasma membrane. Under these conditions there was no linear relationship between formazan color intensity signal and yeast cell density. From all chemical compounds tested, only digitonin was effective in membrane permeabilization without negative influence on cell morphology. Furthermore, with digitonin-treated cells a linear relationship between formazan color intensity signal and yeast cell number was noticed. Significant decreasing of succinate dehydrogenase activity and ATP content were observed during aging of the tested yeast strains. PMID:17419290

  8. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase and Glutamate Synthesis in Acetobacter suboxydans1

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Seymour; Claus, G. W.

    1969-01-01

    Acetobacter suboxydans is an obligate aerobe for which an operative tricarboxylic acid cycle has not been demonstrated. Glutamate synthesis has been reported to occur by mechanisms other than those utilizing isocitrate dehydrogenase, a tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme not previously detected in this organism. We have recovered α-ketoglutarate and glutamate from a system containing citrate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a divalent cation, pyridoxal phosphate, an amino donor, and dialyzed, cell-free extract. Aconitase activity was readily detected in these extracts, but isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, measured by NAD reduction, was masked by a cyanide-resistant, particulate, reduced NAD oxidase. Isocitrate dehydrogenase activity could be demonstrated after centrifuging the extracts at 150,000 × g for 3 hr and treating the supernatant fluid with 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide. It is concluded that A. suboxydans can utilize the conventional tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes to convert citrate to α-ketoglutarate which can then undergo a transamination to glutamate. Images PMID:5361215

  9. Asp295 stabilizes the active-site loop structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase, facilitating phosphorylation of Ser292 by pyruvate dehydrogenase-kinase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed an invitro system for detailed analysis of reversible phosphorylation of the plant mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, comprising recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana a2b2-hetero tetrameric pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) plus A.thaliana E1-kinase (AtPDK). Upon addition of MgATP...

  10. Human dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 11 is a novel type of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi; Miyagi, Namiki; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Hara, Akira; Ikari, Akira

    2016-03-25

    We report characterization of a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily encoded in a human gene, DHRS11. The recombinant protein (DHRS11) efficiently catalyzed the conversion of the 17-keto group of estrone, 4- and 5-androstenes and 5α-androstanes into their 17β-hydroxyl metabolites with NADPH as a coenzyme. In contrast, it exhibited reductive 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity toward 5β-androstanes, 5β-pregnanes, 4-pregnenes and bile acids. Additionally, DHRS11 reduced α-dicarbonyls (such as diacetyl and methylglyoxal) and alicyclic ketones (such as 1-indanone and loxoprofen). The enzyme activity was inhibited in a mixed-type manner by flavonoids, and competitively by carbenoxolone, glycyrrhetinic acid, zearalenone, curcumin and flufenamic acid. The expression of DHRS11 mRNA was observed widely in human tissues, most abundantly in testis, small intestine, colon, kidney and cancer cell lines. Thus, DHRS11 represents a novel type of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with unique catalytic properties and tissue distribution. PMID:26920053

  11. Evidence for distinct dehydrogenase and isomerase sites within a single 3. beta. -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/5-ene-4-ene isomerase protein

    SciTech Connect

    Luu-The, V.; Takahashi, Masakazu; de Launoit, Y.; Dumont, M.; Lachance, Y.; Labrie, F. )

    1991-09-10

    Complementary DNA encoding human 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/5-ene-4-ene isomerase (3-{beta}-HSD) has been expressed in transfected GH{sub 4}C{sub 1} with use of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The activity of the expressed protein clearly shows that both dehydrogenase and isomerase enzymatic activities are present within a single protein. However, such findings do not indicate whether the two activities reside within one or two closely related catalytic sites. With use of ({sup 3}H)-5-androstenedione, the intermediate compound in dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) transformation into 4-androstenedione by 3{beta}-HSD, the present study shows that 4MA (N,N-diethyl-4-methyl-3-oxo-4-aza-5{alpha}-androstane-17{beta}-carboxamide) and its analogues of 5-androstenedione to 4-androstenedione with an approximately 1,000-fold higher K{sub i} value. The present results thus strongly suggest that dehydrogenase and isomerase activities are present at separate sites on the 3-{beta}-HSD protein. Such data suggest that the irreversible step in the transformation of DHEA to 4-androstenedione is due to a separate site possessing isomerase activity that converts the 5-ene-3-keto to a much more stable 4-ene-3-keto configuration.

  12. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase and Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Expression in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer and Tumor-Associated Stroma1

    PubMed Central

    Koukourakis, Michael I; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Sivridis, Efthimios; Gatter, Kevin C; Harris, Adrian L; “Tumor and Angiogenesis Research Group”

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A, which enters into the Krebs cycle, providing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the cell. PDH activity is under the control of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs). Under hypoxic conditions, conversion of pyruvate to lactate occurs, a reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5). In cancer cells, however, pyruvate is transformed to lactate occurs, regardless of the presence of oxygen (aerobic glycolysis/Warburg effect). Although hypoxic intratumoral conditions account for HIF1α stabilization and induction of anaerobic metabolism, recent data suggest that high pyruvate concentrations also result in HIF1α stabilization independently of hypoxia. In the present immunohistochemical study, we provide evidence that the PDH/PDK pathway is repressed in 73% of non small cell lung carcinomas, which may be a key reason for HIF1α stabilization and “aerobic glycolysis.” However, about half of PDH-deficient carcinomas are not able to switch on the HIF pathway, and patients harboring these tumors have an excellent postoperative outcome. A small subgroup of clinically aggressive tumors maintains a coherent PDH and HIF/LDH5 expression. In contrast to cancer cells, fibroblasts in the tumor-supporting stroma exhibit an intense PDH but reduced PDK1 expression favoring maximum PDH activity. This means that stroma may use lactic acid produced by tumor cells, preventing the creation of an intolerable intratumoral acidic environment at the same time. PMID:15736311

  13. A Set of Activators and Repressors Control Peripheral Glucose Pathways in Pseudomonas putida To Yield a Common Central Intermediate▿

    PubMed Central

    del Castillo, Teresa; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan L.

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 channels glucose to the central Entner-Doudoroff intermediate 6-phosphogluconate through three convergent pathways. The genes for these convergent pathways are clustered in three independent regions on the host chromosome. A number of monocistronic units and operons coexist within each of these clusters, favoring coexpression of catabolic enzymes and transport systems. Expression of the three pathways is mediated by three transcriptional repressors, HexR, GnuR, and PtxS, and by a positive transcriptional regulator, GltR-2. In this study, we generated mutants in each of the regulators and carried out transcriptional assays using microarrays and transcriptional fusions. These studies revealed that HexR controls the genes that encode glucokinase/glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase that yield 6-phosphogluconate; the genes for the Entner-Doudoroff enzymes that yield glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and pyruvate; and gap-1, which encodes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. GltR-2 is the transcriptional regulator that controls specific porins for the entry of glucose into the periplasmic space, as well as the gtsABCD operon for glucose transport through the inner membrane. GnuR is the repressor of gluconate transport and gluconokinase responsible for the conversion of gluconate into 6-phosphogluconate. PtxS, however, controls the enzymes for oxidation of gluconate to 2-ketogluconate, its transport and metabolism, and a set of genes unrelated to glucose metabolism. PMID:18245293

  14. Comparative Intermediary Metabolism of Vegetative Cells and Microcysts of Myxococcus xanthus1

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Benjamin F.; Dworkin, Martin

    1968-01-01

    Crude extracts of both vegetative cells and glycerol-induced microcysts of Myxococcus xanthus contained the following enzyme activities: phosphofructokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase, fructose-1,6-diphosphatase, fructosediphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphopyruvate carboxylase, citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase, and uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. With the exception of isocitrate dehydrogenase, which was present at a fivefold higher concentration in microcysts, all activities in extracts from both types of cells were essentially equal. Hexokinase and pyruvate kinase could not be detected in extracts from either type of cell. Microcysts metabolized acetate at a lower rate than did vegetative cells. Most of this decrease was reflected in a substantial decrease in ability of microcysts to oxidize acetate to CO2. In addition, microcysts and vegetative cells showed a different distribution of 14C-label from incorporated acetate. PMID:4302296

  15. Comparative intermediary metabolism of vegetative cells and microcysts of Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Watson, B F; Dworkin, M

    1968-11-01

    Crude extracts of both vegetative cells and glycerol-induced microcysts of Myxococcus xanthus contained the following enzyme activities: phosphofructokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase, fructose-1,6-diphosphatase, fructosediphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphopyruvate carboxylase, citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase, and uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. With the exception of isocitrate dehydrogenase, which was present at a fivefold higher concentration in microcysts, all activities in extracts from both types of cells were essentially equal. Hexokinase and pyruvate kinase could not be detected in extracts from either type of cell. Microcysts metabolized acetate at a lower rate than did vegetative cells. Most of this decrease was reflected in a substantial decrease in ability of microcysts to oxidize acetate to CO(2). In addition, microcysts and vegetative cells showed a different distribution of (14)C-label from incorporated acetate. PMID:4302296

  16. The maximum activities of hexokinase, phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, glycerol phosphate dehydrogenases, lactate dehydrogenase, octopine dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, nucleoside diphosphatekinase, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and arginine kinase in relation to carbohydrate utilization in muscles from marine invertebrates.

    PubMed Central

    Zammit, V A; Newsholme, E A

    1976-01-01

    Comparison of the activities of hexokinase, phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase in muscles from marine invertebrates indicates that they can be divided into three groups. First, the activities of the three enzymes are low in coelenterate muscles, catch muscles of molluscs and muscles of echinoderms; this indicates a low rate of carbohydrate (and energy) utilization by these muscles. Secondly, high activities of phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase relative to those of hexokinase are found in, for example, lobster abdominal and scallop snap muscles; this indicates that these muscles depend largely on anaerobic degradation of glycogen for energy production. Thirdly, high activities of hexokinase are found in the radular muscles of prosobranch molluscs and the fin muscles of squids; this indicates a high capacity for glucose utilization, which is consistent with the high activities of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in these muscles [Alp, Newsholme & Zammit (1976) Biochem. J. 154, 689-700]. 2. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase, octopine dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, cytosolic and mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase were measured in order to provide a qualitative indication of the importance of different processes for oxidation of glycolytically formed NADH. The muscles are divided into four groups: those that have a high activity of lactate dehydrogenase relative to the activities of phosphofructokinase (e.g. crustacean muscles); those that have high activities of octopine dehydrogenase but low activities of lactate dehydrogenase (e.g. scallop snap muscle); those that have moderate activities of both lactate dehydrogenase and octopine dehydrogenase (radular muscles of prosobranchs), and those that have low activities of both lactate dehydrogenase and octopine dehydrogenase, but which possess activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (oyster adductor muscles). It is

  17. Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase from halophilic archaebacteria: purification and properties of the enzyme from halobacterium halobium

    SciTech Connect

    Danson, J.J.; McQuattie, A.; Stevenson, K.J.

    1986-07-01

    Halophilic archaebacteria possess dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase activity but apparently lack the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes of which it is usually an integral component. In this paper, the purification of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase from Halobacterium halobium is reported. The enzyme is a dimer with a polypeptide chain M/sub r/ of 58,000 (+/-3000). The amino acid composition of the enzyme is compared with those of the eubacterial and eukaryotic dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases, and evidence is presented to suggest that the N-terminal amino acid of the H. halobium enzyme is blocked. Chemical modification with the trivalent arsenical reagent (p-aminophenyl)dichloroarsine indicates the involvement of a reversibly reducible disulfide bond in the enzyme's catalytic mechanism. The possible metabolic role of this dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase in the absence of 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes is discussed.

  18. Molecular structure of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Vogel, O; Hoehn, B; Henning, U

    1972-06-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase core complex from E. coli K-12, defined as the multienzyme complex that can be obtained with a unique polypeptide chain composition, has a molecular weight of 3.75 x 10(6). All results obtained agree with the following numerology. The core complex consists of 48 polypeptide chains. There are 16 chains (molecular weight = 100,000) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase component, 16 chains (molecular weight = 80,000) of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component, and 16 chains (molecular weight = 56,000) of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component. Usually, but not always, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is produced in vivo containing at least 2-3 mol more of dimers of the pyruvate dehydrogenase component than the stoichiometric ratio with respect to the core complex. This "excess" component is bound differently than are the eight dimers in the core complex. PMID:4556465

  19. Molecular Structure of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex from Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Otto; Hoehn, Barbara; Henning, Ulf

    1972-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase core complex from E. coli K-12, defined as the multienzyme complex that can be obtained with a unique polypeptide chain composition, has a molecular weight of 3.75 × 106. All results obtained agree with the following numerology. The core complex consists of 48 polypeptide chains. There are 16 chains (molecular weight = 100,000) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase component, 16 chains (molecular weight = 80,000) of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component, and 16 chains (molecular weight = 56,000) of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component. Usually, but not always, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is produced in vivo containing at least 2-3 mol more of dimers of the pyruvate dehydrogenase component than the stoichiometric ratio with respect to the core complex. This “excess” component is bound differently than are the eight dimers in the core complex. Images PMID:4556465

  20. Localization of the major dehydrogenases in two methylotrophs by radiochemical labeling.

    PubMed Central

    Kasprzak, A A; Steenkamp, D J

    1983-01-01

    The localization of prominent proteins in intact cells of two methylotrophic bacteria, Hyphomicrobium sp. strain X and bacterium W3A1, was investigated by radiochemical labeling with [14C]isethionyl acetimidate. In bacterium W3A1, trimethylamine dehydrogenase was not labeled by the reagent and is, therefore, an intracellular protein, whereas the periplasmic location of the methylamine and methanol dehydrogenases was evidenced by being readily labeled in intact cells. Similarly, an intracellular location of the trimethylamine and dimethylamine dehydrogenases in Hyphomicrobium sp. strain X was indicated, whereas methanol dehydrogenase was periplasmic. Images PMID:6311799

  1. γ-Guanidinobutyraldehyde Dehydrogenase of Vicia faba Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Yonezo

    1984-01-01

    γ-Guanidinobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase was purified 27-fold in 40% yield from extracts of Vicia faba leaves. High specificity exist only for γ-guanidinobutyraldehyde and γ-aminobutyraldehyde; the Km value was 3.4 micromolar for γ-guanidinobutyraldehyde, 25 micromolar for γ-aminobutyraldehyde, and 84 micromolar (case of γ-guanidinobutyraldehyde) for NAD, respectively. The enzyme had a molecular weight of approximately 83,000. Optimal pH and temperature for activity were 9.5 and 45°C, respectively. The enzyme was inhibited strongly by p-chloromercuribenzoate, N-ethylmaleimide, and zincon (2-carboxy-2′-hydroxy-5′-sulfoformazylbenzene). PMID:16663901

  2. Direct Observation of Correlated Interdomain Motion in Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Biehl, Ralf; Monkenbusch, Michael; Richter, Dieter; Hoffmann, Bernd; Merkel, Rudolf; Falus, Peter; Preost, Sylvain

    2008-09-26

    Interdomain motions in proteins are essential to enable or promote biochemical function. Neutron spin-echo spectroscopy is used to directly observe the domain dynamics of the protein alcohol dehydrogenase. The collective motion of domains as revealed by their coherent form factor relates to the cleft opening dynamics between the binding and the catalytic domains enabling binding and release of the functional important cofactor. The cleft opening mode hardens as a result of an overall stiffening of the domain complex due to the binding of the cofactor.

  3. Some properties of aldehyde dehydrogenase from sheep liver mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, G J; Dickinson, F M

    1977-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase from sheep liver mitochondria was purified to homogeneity as judged by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels, and by sedimentation-equilibrium experiments in the analytical ultracentrifuge. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 198000 and a subunit size of 48000, indicating that the molecule is a tetramer. Fluorescence and spectrophotometric titrations indicate that each subunit can bind 1 molecule of NADH. Enzymic activity is completely blocked by reaction of 4mol of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate)/mol of enzyme. Excess of disulfiram or iodoacetamide decreases activity to only 50% of the control value, and only two thiol groups per molecule are apparently modified by these reagents. PMID:194582

  4. Malaria, favism and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Huheey, J E; Martin, D L

    1975-10-15

    Although glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient individuals may suffer (sometimes fatally) from favism, a high incidence of this trait occurs in many Mediterranean populations. This apparent paradox is explained on the basis of a synergistic interaction between favism and G-6-PD deficiency that provides increased protection against malaria compared to that of the G-6-PD deficiency alone. This relationship is analogous to that between various hemoglobins and malaria in that there is selection for a more severe trait if it provides more protection against malaria. PMID:1107056

  5. In vitro hydrogen production by glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.

    1996-10-01

    A new in vitro enzymatic pathway for the generation of molecular hydrogen from glucose has been demonstrated. The reaction is based upon the oxidation of glucose by Thermoplasma acidophilum glucose dehydrogenase with the concomitant oxidation of NADPH by Pyrococcus furiosus hydrogenase. Stoichiometric yields of hydrogen were produced from glucose with continuous cofactor recycle. This simple system may provide a method for the biological production of hydrogen from renewable sources. In addition, the other product of this reaction, gluconic acid, is a high-value commodity chemical.

  6. Methylmalonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency: demonstration of defective valine and beta-alanine metabolism and reduced malonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase activity in cultured fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.G.; Pollitt, R.J.; Webley, J.

    1987-08-01

    Intact cultured fibroblasts from a child with a new metabolic disorder, thought to be due to a deficiency of methylmalonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, produced labeled CO/sub 2/ normally from (1-/sup 14/C)valine but not from (2-/sup 14/C)valine. CO/sub 2/ production from labeled beta-alanine was also much reduced, confirming the suspicion that malonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase is also deficient in this condition. An assay for malonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase in cell homogenates showed low activity but it was impossible to assess the degree of reduction.

  7. Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-11-22

    Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40 °C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50 °C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(-)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L(-1) of optically pure D(-)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 μmoles min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50 °C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(-) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates. PMID:22065761

  8. Proline dehydrogenase 2 (PRODH2) is a hydroxyproline dehydrogenase (HYPDH) and molecular target for treating primary hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Summitt, Candice B; Johnson, Lynnette C; Jönsson, Thomas J; Parsonage, Derek; Holmes, Ross P; Lowther, W Todd

    2015-03-01

    The primary hyperoxalurias (PH), types 1-3, are disorders of glyoxylate metabolism that result in increased oxalate production and calcium oxalate stone formation. The breakdown of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (Hyp) from endogenous and dietary sources of collagen makes a significant contribution to the cellular glyoxylate pool. Proline dehydrogenase 2 (PRODH2), historically known as hydroxyproline oxidase, is the first step in the hydroxyproline catabolic pathway and represents a drug target to reduce the glyoxylate and oxalate burden of PH patients. This study is the first report of the expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of human PRODH2. Evaluation of a panel of N-terminal and C-terminal truncation variants indicated that residues 157-515 contain the catalytic core with one FAD molecule. The 12-fold higher k(cat)/K(m) value of 0.93 M⁻¹·s⁻¹ for Hyp over Pro demonstrates the preference for Hyp as substrate. Moreover, an anaerobic titration determined a K(d) value of 125 μM for Hyp, a value ~1600-fold lower than the K(m) value. A survey of ubiquinone analogues revealed that menadione, duroquinone, and CoQ₁ reacted more efficiently than oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor during catalysis. Taken together, these data and the slow reactivity with sodium sulfite support that PRODH2 functions as a dehydrogenase and most likely utilizes CoQ₁₀ as the terminal electron acceptor in vivo. Thus, we propose that the name of PRODH2 be changed to hydroxyproline dehydrogenase (HYPDH). Three Hyp analogues were also identified to inhibit the activity of HYPDH, representing the first steps toward the development of a novel approach to treat all forms of PH. PMID:25697095

  9. Proline dehydrogenase 2 (PRODH2) is a hydroxyproline dehydrogenase (HYPDH) and molecular target for treating primary hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Summitt, Candice B.; Johnson, Lynnette C.; Jönsson, Thomas J.; Parsonage, Derek; Holmes, Ross P.; Lowther, W. Todd

    2015-01-01

    The primary hyperoxalurias (PH), types 1–3, are disorders of glyoxylate metabolism that result in increased oxalate production and calcium oxalate stone formation. The breakdown of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (Hyp) from endogenous and dietary sources of collagen makes a significant contribution to the cellular glyoxylate pool. Proline dehydrogenase 2 (PRODH2), historically known as hydroxyproline oxidase, is the first step in the hydroxyproline catabolic pathway and represents a drug target to reduce the glyoxylate and oxalate burden of PH patients. This study is the first report of the expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of human PRODH2. Evaluation of a panel of N-terminal and C-terminal truncation variants indicated that residues 157–515 contain the catalytic core with one FAD molecule. The 12-fold higher kcat/Km value of 0.93 M−1·s−1 for Hyp over Pro demonstrates the preference for Hyp as substrate. Moreover, an anaerobic titration determined a Kd value of 125 μM for Hyp, a value ~1600-fold lower than the Km value. A survey of ubiquinone analogues revealed that menadione, duroquinone, and CoQ1 reacted more efficiently than oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor during catalysis. Taken together, these data and the slow reactivity with sodium sulfite support that PRODH2 functions as a dehydrogenase and most likely utilizes CoQ10 as the terminal electron acceptor in vivo. Thus, we propose that the name of PRODH2 be changed to hydroxyproline dehydrogenase (HYPDH). Three Hyp analogues were also identified to inhibit the activity of HYPDH, representing the first steps toward the development of a novel approach to treat all forms of PH. PMID:25697095

  10. Structural basis for cellobiose dehydrogenase action during oxidative cellulose degradation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Tien-Chye; Kracher, Daniel; Gandini, Rosaria; Sygmund, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Haltrich, Dietmar; Hällberg, B. Martin; Ludwig, Roland; Divne, Christina

    2015-01-01

    A new paradigm for cellulose depolymerization by fungi focuses on an oxidative mechanism involving cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH) and copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO); however, mechanistic studies have been hampered by the lack of structural information regarding CDH. CDH contains a haem-binding cytochrome (CYT) connected via a flexible linker to a flavin-dependent dehydrogenase (DH). Electrons are generated from cellobiose oxidation catalysed by DH and shuttled via CYT to LPMO. Here we present structural analyses that provide a comprehensive picture of CDH conformers, which govern the electron transfer between redox centres. Using structure-based site-directed mutagenesis, rapid kinetics analysis and molecular docking, we demonstrate that flavin-to-haem interdomain electron transfer (IET) is enabled by a haem propionate group and that rapid IET requires a closed CDH state in which the propionate is tightly enfolded by DH. Following haem reduction, CYT reduces LPMO to initiate oxygen activation at the copper centre and subsequent cellulose depolymerization. PMID:26151670

  11. Characterization of the iron-sulfur centers in succinate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Coles, C J; Holm, R H; Kurtz, D M; Orme-Johnson, W H; Rawlings, J; Singer, T P; Wong, G B

    1979-01-01

    Two techniques have been applied to the determination of the number and type (2-Fe, 4-Fe) of iron-sulfur centers in the iron-sulfur flavoprotein succinate dehydrogenase [succinate:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, EC 1.3.99.1]. One procedure uses p-CF3C6H4SH as an extrusion reagent and Fourier transform 19F nuclear magentic resonance as the method of detection and quantitation of extruded cores of these centers in the form of [Fe2S2(SRF)4]2- and [Fe4S4(SRF)4]2- (RF = p-C6H4CF3). The second procedure, interprotein core transfer, involves thiol displacement of iron-sulfur cores followed by specific core transfer to the apoproteins of Bacillus polymyxa ferredoxin and adrenodoxin. Detection and quantitation are accomplished by electron paramagnetic resonance of reduced proteins at low temperatures. Both procedures clearly show that succinate dehydrogenase contains two dimeric (Fe2S2) and one tetrameric (Fe4S4) centers per mole of histidyl flavin, accounting for all eight nonheme iron and eight labile sulfur atoms found by chemical analysis. These results remove uncertainties created by the less than stoichiometric amounts of binuclear centers detected by electron paramagnetic resonance after dithionite reduction and provide secure characterization of the iron-sulfur centers in this enzyme. PMID:226982

  12. Peroxisomal lactate dehydrogenase is generated by translational readthrough in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Schueren, Fabian; Lingner, Thomas; George, Rosemol; Hofhuis, Julia; Dickel, Corinna; Gärtner, Jutta; Thoms, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Translational readthrough gives rise to low abundance proteins with C-terminal extensions beyond the stop codon. To identify functional translational readthrough, we estimated the readthrough propensity (RTP) of all stop codon contexts of the human genome by a new regression model in silico, identified a nucleotide consensus motif for high RTP by using this model, and analyzed all readthrough extensions in silico with a new predictor for peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1). Lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) showed the highest combined RTP and PTS1 probability. Experimentally we show that at least 1.6% of the total cellular LDHB is targeted to the peroxisome by a conserved hidden PTS1. The readthrough-extended lactate dehydrogenase subunit LDHBx can also co-import LDHA, the other LDH subunit, into peroxisomes. Peroxisomal LDH is conserved in mammals and likely contributes to redox equivalent regeneration in peroxisomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03640.001 PMID:25247702

  13. High-pressure-induced water penetration into 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Nagae, Takayuki; Kawamura, Takashi; Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Niwa, Ken; Hasegawa, Masashi; Kato, Chiaki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa

    2012-03-01

    Structures of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase were determined at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 650 MPa. Comparison of these structures gives a detailed picture of the swelling of a cavity at the dimer interface and the generation of a new cleft on the molecular surface, which are accompanied by water penetration. Hydrostatic pressure induces structural changes in proteins, including denaturation, the mechanism of which has been attributed to water penetration into the protein interior. In this study, structures of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IPMDH) from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were determined at about 2 Å resolution under pressures ranging from 0.1 to 650 MPa using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Although most of the protein cavities are monotonically compressed as the pressure increases, the volume of one particular cavity at the dimer interface increases at pressures over 340 MPa. In parallel with this volume increase, water penetration into the cavity could be observed at pressures over 410 MPa. In addition, the generation of a new cleft on the molecular surface accompanied by water penetration could also be observed at pressures over 580 MPa. These water-penetration phenomena are considered to be initial steps in the pressure-denaturation process of IPMDH.

  14. Structural analysis of fungus-derived FAD glucose dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Sakai, Genki; Mori, Kazushige; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Sode, Koji

    2015-01-01

    We report the first three-dimensional structure of fungus-derived glucose dehydrogenase using flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as the cofactor. This is currently the most advanced and popular enzyme used in glucose sensor strips manufactured for glycemic control by diabetic patients. We prepared recombinant nonglycosylated FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FADGDH) derived from Aspergillus flavus (AfGDH) and obtained the X-ray structures of the binary complex of enzyme and reduced FAD at a resolution of 1.78 Å and the ternary complex with reduced FAD and D-glucono-1,5-lactone (LGC) at a resolution of 1.57 Å. The overall structure is similar to that of fungal glucose oxidases (GOxs) reported till date. The ternary complex with reduced FAD and LGC revealed the residues recognizing the substrate. His505 and His548 were subjected for site-directed mutagenesis studies, and these two residues were revealed to form the catalytic pair, as those conserved in GOxs. The absence of residues that recognize the sixth hydroxyl group of the glucose of AfGDH, and the presence of significant cavity around the active site may account for this enzyme activity toward xylose. The structural information will contribute to the further engineering of FADGDH for use in more reliable and economical biosensing technology for diabetes management. PMID:26311535

  15. Structural basis for cellobiose dehydrogenase action during oxidative cellulose degradation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tien-Chye; Kracher, Daniel; Gandini, Rosaria; Sygmund, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Haltrich, Dietmar; Hällberg, B Martin; Ludwig, Roland; Divne, Christina

    2015-01-01

    A new paradigm for cellulose depolymerization by fungi focuses on an oxidative mechanism involving cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH) and copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO); however, mechanistic studies have been hampered by the lack of structural information regarding CDH. CDH contains a haem-binding cytochrome (CYT) connected via a flexible linker to a flavin-dependent dehydrogenase (DH). Electrons are generated from cellobiose oxidation catalysed by DH and shuttled via CYT to LPMO. Here we present structural analyses that provide a comprehensive picture of CDH conformers, which govern the electron transfer between redox centres. Using structure-based site-directed mutagenesis, rapid kinetics analysis and molecular docking, we demonstrate that flavin-to-haem interdomain electron transfer (IET) is enabled by a haem propionate group and that rapid IET requires a closed CDH state in which the propionate is tightly enfolded by DH. Following haem reduction, CYT reduces LPMO to initiate oxygen activation at the copper centre and subsequent cellulose depolymerization. PMID:26151670

  16. Phenylbutyrate Therapy for Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency and Lactic Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferriero, Rosa; Manco, Giuseppe; Lamantea, Eleonora; Nusco, Edoardo; Ferrante, Mariella I.; Sordino, Paolo; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Lee, Brendan; Zeviani, Massimo; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acidosis is a build-up of lactic acid in the blood and tissues, which can be due to several inborn errors of metabolism as well as nongenetic conditions. Deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is the most common genetic disorder leading to lactic acidosis. Phosphorylation of specific serine residues of the E1α subunit of PDHC by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inactivates the enzyme, whereas dephosphorylation restores PDHC activity. We found that phenylbutyrate enhances PDHC enzymatic activity in vitro and in vivo by increasing the proportion of unphosphorylated enzyme through inhibition of PDK. Phenylbutyrate given to C57B6/L wild-type mice results in a significant increase in PDHC enzyme activity and a reduction of phosphorylated E1α in brain, muscle, and liver compared to saline-treated mice. By means of recombinant enzymes, we showed that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1α through binding and inhibition of PDK, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate on PDHC activity. Phenylbutyrate increases PDHC activity in fibroblasts from PDHC-deficient patients harboring various molecular defects and corrects the morphological, locomotor, and biochemical abnormalities in the noam631 zebrafish model of PDHC deficiency. In mice, phenylbutyrate prevents systemic lactic acidosis induced by partial hepatectomy. Because phenylbutyrate is already approved for human use in other diseases, the findings of this study have the potential to be rapidly translated for treatment of patients with PDHC deficiency and other forms of primary and secondary lactic acidosis. PMID:23467562

  17. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms in Chinese and Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ene-Choo; Lim, Leslie; Leong, Jern-Yi; Lim, Jing-Yan; Lee, Arthur; Yang, Jun; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Winslow, Munidasa

    2010-01-01

    The association between two functional polymorphisms in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2/ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) genes and alcohol dependence was examined in 182 Chinese and Indian patients undergoing treatment for alcohol dependence and 184 screened control subjects from Singapore. All subjects were screened by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Patients were also administered the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ). Polymorphisms were genotyped by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and selected genotypes confirmed by DNA sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Our results showed that frequencies of ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 were higher in controls compared to alcohol-dependent subjects for both Chinese and Indians. Frequencies of these two alleles were also higher in the 104 Chinese controls compared to the 80 Indian controls. None of the eight Chinese who were homozygous for both protective alleles was alcohol dependent. The higher frequencies of the protective alleles could explain the lower rate of alcohol dependence in Chinese. PMID:20025435

  18. Engineering of Pyranose Dehydrogenase for Increased Oxygen Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Krondorfer, Iris; Lipp, Katharina; Brugger, Dagmar; Staudigl, Petra; Sygmund, Christoph; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens K.

    2014-01-01

    Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH), a member of the GMC family of flavoproteins, shows a very broad sugar substrate specificity but is limited to a narrow range of electron acceptors and reacts extremely slowly with dioxygen as acceptor. The use of substituted quinones or (organo)metals as electron acceptors is undesirable for many production processes, especially of food ingredients. To improve the oxygen reactivity, site-saturation mutagenesis libraries of twelve amino acids around the active site of Agaricus meleagris PDH were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We established high-throughput screening assays for oxygen reactivity and standard dehydrogenase activity using an indirect Amplex Red/horseradish peroxidase and a DCIP/D-glucose based approach. The low number of active clones confirmed the catalytic role of H512 and H556. Only one position was found to display increased oxygen reactivity. Histidine 103, carrying the covalently linked FAD cofactor in the wild-type, was substituted by tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and methionine. Variant H103Y was produced in Pichia pastoris and characterized and revealed a five-fold increase of the oxygen reactivity. PMID:24614932

  19. Crystal structure of a chimaeric bacterial glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tânia; Sharkey, Michael A; Engel, Paul C; Khan, Amir R

    2016-06-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenases (EC 1.4.1.2-4) catalyse the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate using NAD(P)(+) as a cofactor. The bacterial enzymes are hexameric, arranged with 32 symmetry, and each polypeptide consists of an N-terminal substrate-binding segment (domain I) followed by a C-terminal cofactor-binding segment (domain II). The catalytic reaction takes place in the cleft formed at the junction of the two domains. Distinct signature sequences in the nucleotide-binding domain have been linked to the binding of NAD(+) versus NADP(+), but they are not unambiguous predictors of cofactor preference. In the absence of substrate, the two domains move apart as rigid bodies, as shown by the apo structure of glutamate dehydrogenase from Clostridium symbiosum. Here, the crystal structure of a chimaeric clostridial/Escherichia coli enzyme has been determined in the apo state. The enzyme is fully functional and reveals possible determinants of interdomain flexibility at a hinge region following the pivot helix. The enzyme retains the preference for NADP(+) cofactor from the parent E. coli domain II, although there are subtle differences in catalytic activity. PMID:27303899

  20. A straightforward radiometric technique for measuring IMP dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cooney, D A; Wilson, Y; McGee, E

    1983-04-15

    [2-3H]Inosinic acid ([2-3H]IMP) has been biosynthesized in good yield from [2-3H]hypoxanthine and PRPP via the action of a partially purified preparation of hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyl transferase from mouse brain. The product was purified in one step by ascending paper chromatography, and used to assess the activity of IMP dehydrogenase. To conduct the assay, tritiated substrate is admixed with enzyme in a final volume of 10 microliters; NAD is present to serve as cofactor for the reaction, and allopurinol to inhibit the oxidation of any hypoxanthine generated as a consequence of side reactions. After an appropriate period of incubation, the 3H2O arising from the oxidation of tritiated IMP via [3H]NAD is isolated by quantitative microdistillation. Performed as described, the assay is facile, sensitive, and accurate, with the capability of detecting the dehydrogenation of as little as 1 pmol of [3H]IMP. Using it, measurements have been made of IMP dehydrogenase in a comprehensive array of mouse organs. Of these, pancreas contained the enzyme at the highest specific activity. PMID:6135372

  1. d-Xylose Metabolism in Hypocrea jecorina: Loss of the Xylitol Dehydrogenase Step Can Be Partially Compensated for by lad1-Encoded l-Arabinitol-4-Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Seiboth, Bernhard; Hartl, Lukas; Pail, Manuela; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2003-01-01

    With the goal of the genetic characterization of the d-xylose pathway in Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph: Trichoderma reesei), we cloned the xdh1 gene, encoding NAD-xylitol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the second step of fungal d-xylose catabolism. This gene encodes a 363-amino-acid protein which has a mass of 38 kDa, belongs to the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase family, exhibits high sequence identity to the published sequences of xylitol dehydrogenases from yeast origins, but contains a second, additional binding site for Zn2+. The enzyme catalyzed the NAD-dependent oxidation of xylitol and d-sorbitol and the NADH-dependent reduction of d-xylulose and d-fructose. No activity was observed with NADP, l-arabinose, or l-arabinitol. A single 1.4-kb transcript was formed during growth on xylan, d-xylose, l-arabinose, l-arabinitol and, at a lower abundance, xylitol, d-galactose, galactitol, and lactose but not on d-glucose and glycerol. xdh1 deletion mutants exhibited 50% reduced growth rates on d-xylose, whereas growth rates on xylitol remained unaltered. These mutants contained 30% of the xylitol dehydrogenase activity of the parent strain, indicating the presence of a second xylitol dehydrogenase. This activity was shown to be due to lad1-encoded l-arabinitol-4-dehydrogenase, because H. jecorina xdh1 lad1 double-deletion strains failed to grow on d-xylose or xylitol. In contrast, lad1 deletion strains of H. jecorina grew normally on these carbon sources. These results show that H. jecorina contains a single xylitol dehydrogenase which is encoded by xdh1 and is involved in the metabolism of d-xylose and that lad1-encoded l-arabinitol-4-dehydrogenase can compensate for it partially in mutants with a loss of xdh1 function. PMID:14555469

  2. Heterogeneous expression of protein and mRNA in pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, I D; Kerr, D S; Ho, L; Lusk, M M; Pepin, R A; Javed, A A; Mole, J E; Jesse, B W; Thekkumkara, T J; Pons, G

    1988-01-01

    Deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase [pyruvate:lipoamide 2-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating and acceptor-acetylating), EC 1.2.4.1], the first component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, is associated with lactic acidosis and central nervous system dysfunction. Using both specific antibodies to pyruvate dehydrogenase and cDNAs coding for its two alpha and beta subunits, we characterized pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency in 11 patients. Three different patterns were found on immunologic and RNA blot analyses. (i) Seven patients had immunologically detectable crossreactive material for the alpha and beta proteins of pyruvate dehydrogenase. (ii) Two patients had no detectable crossreactive protein for either the alpha or beta subunit but had normal amounts of mRNA for both alpha and beta subunits. (iii) The remaining two patients also had no detectable crossreactive protein but had diminished amounts of mRNA for the alpha subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase only. These results indicate that loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity may be associated with either absent or catalytically inactive proteins, and in those cases in which this enzyme is absent, mRNA for one of the subunits may also be missing. When mRNA for one of the subunits is lacking, both protein subunits are absent, suggesting that a mutation affecting the expression of one of the subunit proteins causes the remaining uncomplexed subunit to be unstable. The results show that several different mutations account for the molecular heterogeneity of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. Images PMID:3140238

  3. Cloning and mRNA Expression of NADH Dehydrogenase during Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus Development and Pesticide Response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NADH dehydrogenase, the largest of the respiratory complexes, is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We have cloned and sequenced cDNA of NADH dehydrogenase gene from Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) adult (GeneBank Accession number: FJ458415). The ...

  4. Intracellular coagulation inhibits the extraction of proteins from Prochloron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fall, R.; Lewin, R. A.; Fall, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    Protein extraction from the prokaryotic alga Prochloron LP (isolated from the ascidian host Lissoclinum patella) was complicated by an irreversible loss of cell fragility in the isolated algae. Accompanying this phenomenon, which is termed intracellular coagulation, was a redistribution of thylakoids around the cell periphery, a loss of photosynthetic O2 production, and a drastic decrease in the extractability of cell proteins. Procedures are described for the successful preparation and transport of cell extracts yielding the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase as well as other soluble proteins.

  5. The influence of oxygen on radiation-induced structural and functional changes in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodacka, Aleksandra; Serafin, Eligiusz; Bubinski, Michal; Krokosz, Anita; Puchala, Mieczyslaw

    2012-07-01

    Proteins are major targets for oxidative damage due to their abundance in cells and high reactivity with free radicals. In the present study we examined the influence of oxygen on radiation-induced inactivation and structural changes of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We chose these two enzymes because they occur at high concentrations and participate in the most important processes in organisms; furthermore, they show considerable similarity in their structure. Protein solutions were irradiated with X-rays in doses ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 kGy, in air and N2O. The much higher radiation inactivation of GAPDH as compared to LDH is correlated with substantially greater structural changes in this protein, mainly involving the loss of free thiol groups (-SH). Of lesser importance in the differentiation of the radiosensitivity of the studied enzymes are tryptophan residues. Molecular oxygen, present during irradiation, increased to a significantly greater extent the inactivation and structural changes of GAPDH than that of LDH. The results suggest that the greater effect of oxygen on GAPDH is due to the higher efficiency of the superoxide radical, the higher amount of hydroperoxides generated, and the higher degree of unfolding of this protein.

  6. Electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide to methanol with the assistance of formate dehydrogenase and methanol dehydrogenase as biocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwabata, Susumu; Tsuda, Ryo; Yoneyama, Hiroshi )

    1994-06-15

    Electrolysis at potentials between -0.7 and -0.9 V vs SCE of carbon dioxide-saturated phosphate buffer solutions (pH7) containing formate dehydrogenase (FDH) and either methyl viologen (MV[sup 2+]) or pyrroloquinolinequinone (PQQ) as an electron mediator yielded formate with current efficiencies as high as 90%. The enzyme was durable as long as the electrolysis was carried out in the dark. Electrolysis of phosphate buffer solutions containing sodium formate in the presence of methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) and MV[sup 2+] at -0.7 V vs SCE yielded formaldehyde if the concentration of the enzyme used was low, whereas both formaldehyde and methanol were produced for relatively high concentrations of the enzyme where the methanol production began to occur when the formaldehyde produced accumulated. The use of PQQ in place of MV[sup 2+] as the electron mediator exclusively produced methanol alone after some induction period in the electrolysis. On the basis of these results, successful attempts have been made to reduce carbon dioxide to methanol with cooperative assistance of FDH and MDH in the presence of PQQ as the electron mediator. The role of enzyme and mediator in these reduction processes is discussed in detail. 34 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes as bi-enzymatic anodes in a membraneless ethanol microfluidic fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Arjona, N.; Arriaga, L. G.; Ledesma-García, J.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldH) enzymes were immobilized by covalent binding and used as the anode in a bi-enzymatic membraneless ethanol hybrid microfluidic fuel cell. The purpose of using both enzymes was to optimize the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction (EOR) by using ADH toward its direct oxidation and AldH for the oxidation of aldehydes as by-products of the EOR. For this reason, three enzymatic bioanode configurations were evaluated according with the location of enzymes: combined, vertical and horizontally separated. In the combined configuration, a current density of 16.3 mA cm-2, a voltage of 1.14 V and a power density of 7.02 mW cm-2 were obtained. When enzymes were separately placed in a horizontal and vertical position the ocp drops to 0.94 V and to 0.68 V, respectively. The current density also falls to values of 13.63 and 5.05 mA cm-2. The decrease of cell performance of bioanodes with separated enzymes compared with the combined bioanode was of 31.7% and 86.87% for the horizontal and the vertical array.

  8. Structural and functional properties of a yeast xylitol dehydrogenase, a Zn2+-containing metalloenzyme similar to medium-chain sorbitol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed Central

    Lunzer, R; Mamnun, Y; Haltrich, D; Kulbe, K D; Nidetzky, B

    1998-01-01

    The NAD+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase from the xylose-assimilating yeast Galactocandida mastotermitis has been purified in high yield (80%) and characterized. Xylitol dehydrogenase is a heteronuclear multimetal protein that forms homotetramers and contains 1 mol of Zn2+ ions and 6 mol of Mg2+ ions per mol of 37.4 kDa protomer. Treatment with chelating agents such as EDTA results in the removal of the Zn2+ ions with a concomitant loss of enzyme activity. The Mg2+ ions are not essential for activity and are removed by chelation or extensive dialysis without affecting the stability of the enzyme. Results of initial velocity studies at steady state for d-sorbitol oxidation and d-fructose reduction together with the characteristic patterns of product inhibition point to a compulsorily ordered Theorell-Chance mechanism of xylitol dehydrogenase in which coenzyme binds first and leaves last. At pH 7.5, the binding of NADH (Ki approximately 10 microM) is approx. 80-fold tighter than that of NAD+. Polyhydroxyalcohols require at least five carbon atoms to be good substrates of xylitol dehydrogenase, and the C-2 (S), C-3 (R) and C-4 (R) configuration is preferred. Therefore xylitol dehydrogenase shares structural and functional properties with medium-chain sorbitol dehydrogenases. PMID:9806889

  9. Amphibian alcohol dehydrogenase, the major frog liver enzyme. Relationships to other forms and assessment of an early gene duplication separating vertebrate class I and class III alcohol dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Cederlund, E.; Joernvall, H. ); Peralba, J.M.; Pares, X. )

    1991-03-19

    Submammalian alcohol dehydrogenase structures can be used to evaluate the origins and functions of different types of the mammalian enzyme. Two avian forms were recently reported, and the authors now define the major amphibian alcohol dehydrogenase. The enzyme from the liver of the Green frog Rana perezi was purified, carboxymethylated, and submitted to amino acid sequence determination by peptide analysis of six different digest. The protein has a 375-residue subunit and is a class I alcohol dehydrogenase, bridging the gap toward the original separation of the classes that are observable in the human alcohol dehydrogenase system. In relation to the human class I enzyme, the amphibian protein has residue identities exactly halfway (68%) between those for the corresponding avian enzyme (74%) and the human class III enzyme (62%), suggesting an origin of the alcohol dehnydrogenase classes very early in or close to the evolution of the vertebrate line. This conclusion suggests that these enzyme classes are more universal among animals than previously realized and constitutes the first real assessment of the origin of the duplications leading to the alcohol dehydrogenase classes. In conclusion, the amphibian enzyme allows a rough positioning of the divergence of the alcohol dehydrogenase classes, shows that the class I type is widesprread in vertebrates, and functionally conforms with greater variations at the substrate-binding than the coenzyme-binding site.

  10. Mutation of Arg-115 of human class III alcohol dehydrogenase: a binding site required for formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity and fatty acid activation.

    PubMed Central

    Engeland, K; Höög, J O; Holmquist, B; Estonius, M; Jörnvall, H; Vallee, B L

    1993-01-01

    The origin of the fatty acid activation and formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity that distinguishes human class III alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) from all other alcohol dehydrogenases has been examined by site-directed mutagenesis of its Arg-115 residue. The Ala- and Asp-115 mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The activities of the recombinant native and mutant enzymes toward ethanol are essentially identical, but mutagenesis greatly decreases the kcat/Km values for glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation. The catalytic efficiency for the Asp variant is < 0.1% that of the unmutated enzyme, due to both a higher Km and a lower kcat value. As with the native enzyme, neither mutant can oxidize methanol, be saturated by ethanol, or be inhibited by 4-methylpyrazole; i.e., they retain these class III characteristics. In contrast, however, their activation by fatty acids, another characteristic unique to class III alcohol dehydrogenase, is markedly attenuated. The Ala mutant is activated only slightly, but the Asp mutant is not activated at all. The results strongly indicate that Arg-115 in class III alcohol dehydrogenase is a component of the binding site for activating fatty acids and is critical for the binding of S-hydroxymethylglutathione in glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. PMID:8460164

  11. Changing kinetic properties of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from pea chloroplasts during photosynthetic induction

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, X.; Anderson, L.E.

    1987-04-01

    The first enzyme of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-P dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49), is inactivated when pea chloroplasts are irradiated. They have examined the kinetics of light inactivation of glucose-6-P dehydrogenase in intact chloroplasts during photosynthetic induction and the kinetic parameters of the active (dark) and less active (light) form of the dehydrogenase. Light inactivation of the dehydrogenase is rapid and occurs before photosynthetic O/sub 2/ evolution is measureable in intact chloroplasts. Likewise dark activation is quite rapid. The major change in the kinetic parameters of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is in maximal velocity. This light inactivation probably prevents operation of a futile cycle involving glucose-6-P, NADPH and oxidative and reductive pentose phosphate pathway enzymes.

  12. [Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase gene fragment from mung bean Vigna radiata using the polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Ponomarev, A G; Bubiakina, V V; Tatarinova, T D; Zelenin, S M

    1998-01-01

    Two degenerate oligonucleotide sequence primers and polymerase chain reactions on total DNA have been utilized to clone on 651--bp gene fragment coding the central part of amino acid sequence of an earlier unknown aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) from mung bean. The deduced partial amino acid sequence for this aldehyde dehydrogenase shows about 65% sequence identity to ALDHs of Vibrio cholerae Rhodococcus sp., Alcaligenes eutrophus and about 45% sequence identity to mammalian ALDHs 1 and 2, ALDHs of Aspergillus niger and A, nidulans, the betain aldehyde dehydrogenase from spinach. Alignment of the mung bean aldehyde dehydrogenase partial amino acid sequence with the sequence of 16 NAD(P)(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases has demonstrated that all strictly conserved amino acid residues and all three conservative regions are identical. PMID:9778740

  13. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of isopropylmalate dehydrogenase of a thermoacidophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus sp. strain 7.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, T; Inoki, Y; Yamagishi, A; Iwasaki, T; Wakagi, T; Oshima, T

    1997-01-01

    The archaeal leuB gene encoding isopropylmalate dehydrogenase of Sulfolobus sp. strain 7 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant Sulfolobus sp. enzyme was extremely stable to heat. The substrate and coenzyme specificities of the archaeal enzyme resembled those of the bacterial counterparts. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis supported an earlier proposal that the archaeal enzyme is homotetrameric, although the corresponding enzymes studied so far have been reported to be dimeric. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the archaeal enzyme is homologous to mitochondrial NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases (which are tetrameric or octameric) as well as to isopropylmalate dehydrogenases from other sources. These results suggested that the present enzyme is the most primitive among isopropylmalate dehydrogenases belonging in the decarboxylating dehydrogenase family. PMID:9023199

  14. Increased IMP dehydrogenase gene expression in solid tumor tissues and tumor cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Collart, F.R.; Chubb, C.B.; Mirkin, B.L.; Huberman, E.

    1992-07-10

    IMP dehydrogenase, a regulatory enzyme of guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, may play a role in cell proliferation and malignancy. To assess this possibility, we examined IMP dehydrogenase expression in a series of human solid tumor tissues and tumor cell lines in comparison with their normal counterparts. Increased IMP dehydrogenase gene expression was observed in brain tumors relative to normal brain tissue and in sarcoma cells relative to normal fibroblasts. Similarly, in several B- and T-lymphoid leukemia cell lines, elevated levels of IMP dehydrogenase mRNA and cellular enzyme were observed in comparison with the levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes. These results are consistent with an association between increased IMP dehydrogenase expression and either enhanced cell proliferation or malignant transformation.

  15. Analysis of rat cytosolic 9-cis-retinol dehydrogenase activity and enzymatic characterization of rat ADHII.

    PubMed

    Popescu, G; Napoli, J L

    2000-01-01

    We report the characterization of two enzymes that catalyze NAD(+)-dependent 9-cis-retinol dehydrogenase activity in rat liver cystol. Alcohol dehydrogenase class I (ADHI) contributes > 80% of the NA D+-dependent 9-cis-retinol dehydrogenase activity recovered, whereas alcohol dehydrogenase class II (ADHII), not identified previously at the protein level, nor characterized enzymatically in rat, accounts for approximately 2% of the activity. Rat ADHII exhibits properties different from those described for human ADHII. Moreover, rat ADHII-catalyzed rates of ethanol dehydrogenation are markedly lower than octanol or retinoid dehydrogenation rates. Neither ethanol nor 4-methylpyrazole inhibits the 9-cis-retinol dehydrogenase activity of rat ADHII. We propose that ADHII represents the previously observed additional retinoid oxidation activity of rat liver cytosol which occurred in the presence of either ethanol or 4-methylpyrazole. We also show that human and rat ADHII differ considerably in enzymatic properties. PMID:10606766

  16. Biochemical properties of alcohol dehydrogenase from Drosophila lebanonensis.

    PubMed Central

    Winberg, J O; Hovik, R; McKinley-McKee, J S; Juan, E; Gonzalez-Duarte, R

    1986-01-01

    Purified Drosophila lebanonensis alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) revealed one enzymically active zone in starch gel electrophoresis at pH 8.5. This zone was located on the cathode side of the origin. Incubation of D. lebanonensis Adh with NAD+ and acetone altered the electrophoretic pattern to more anodal migrating zones. D. lebanonensis Adh has an Mr of 56,000, a subunit of Mr of 28 000 and is a dimer with two active sites per enzyme molecule. This agrees with a polypeptide chain of 247 residues. Metal analysis by plasma emission spectroscopy indicated that this insect alcohol dehydrogenase is not a metalloenzyme. In studies of the substrate specificity and stereospecificity, D. lebanonensis Adh was more active with secondary than with primary alcohols. Both alkyl groups in the secondary alcohols interacted hydrophobically with the alcohol binding region of the active site. The catalytic centre activity for propan-2-ol was 7.4 s-1 and the maximum velocity of most secondary alcohols was approximately the same and indicative of rate-limiting enzyme-coenzyme dissociation. For primary alcohols the maximum velocity varied and was much lower than for secondary alcohols. The catalytic centre activity for ethanol was 2.4 s-1. With [2H6]ethanol a primary kinetic 2H isotope effect of 2.8 indicated that the interconversion of the ternary complexes was rate-limiting. Pyrazole was an ethanol-competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. The difference spectra of the enzyme-NAD+-pyrazole complex gave an absorption peak at 305 nm with epsilon 305 14.5 X 10(3) M-1 X cm-1. Concentrations and amounts of active enzyme can thus be determined. A kinetic rate assay to determine the concentration of enzyme active sites is also presented. This has been developed from active site concentrations established by titration at 305 nm of the enzyme and pyrazole with NAD+. In contrast with the amino acid composition, which indicated that D. lebanonensis Adh and the D. melanogaster alleloenzymes were not

  17. Absence of effects of dietary wheat bran on the activities of some key enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in mouse liver and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Stanley, J C; Lambadarios, J A; Newsholme, E A

    1986-03-01

    1. The effects of a 100 g/kg dietary substitution of wheat bran on the body-weight gain, food consumption and faecal dry weight of mice given a high-sucrose diet and on the activities of some key enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue were studied. 2. Wheat bran had no effect on body-weight gain, food consumption or faecal dry weight. 3. Wheat bran had no effect on the activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.44), malate dehydrogenase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating) (NADP+) (EC 1.1.1.40), ATP-citrate (pro-3S)-lyase (EC 4.1.3.8), pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). The activity of hepatic 6-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) increased but only when expressed on a body-weight basis. 4. Wheat bran had no effect on the activities of adipose tissue glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating) (NADP+), ATP-citrate (pro-3S)-lyase, hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1), 6-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase. 5. These results suggest that unlike guar gum and bagasse, wheat bran does not change the flux through some pathways of lipogenesis in liver and adipose tissue when mice are given high-sucrose diets. PMID:2823866

  18. Nomenclature of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in man*

    PubMed Central

    1967-01-01

    The World Health Organization convened in Geneva from 5 to 10 December 1966 a Scientific Group on Standardization of Procedures for the Study of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase1 (EC 1.1.1.49; D-glucose-6-phosphate: NAPD oxidoreductase; G6PD). Variants of this enzyme have attracted international attention both as causes of various haemolytic disorders and as useful genetic markers in man. In the course of the meeting the variants of this enzyme thus far described were extensively reviewed. There was unanimous agreement that a consistent system of nomenclature would be desirable, and that as G6PD variants were only one example of similar polymorphisms in man, a nomenclature should be devised which might conceivably be applied to other enzymes. The Group included the following recommendations on nomenclature in its report, which will be published in full in World Health Organization: Technical Report Series, 1967, 366. PMID:5299754

  19. Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The dehydrogenase technique for measuring the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soil was modified to use a 6-h, 37 C incubation with either glucose or yeast extract as the electron-donating substrate. The rate of formazan production remained constant during this time interval, and cellular multiplication apparently did not occur. The technique was used to follow changes in the overall metabolic activities of microorganisms in soil undergoing incubation with a limiting concentration of added nutrient. The sequence of events was similar to that obtained by using the Warburg respirometer to measure O2 consumption. However, the major peaks of activity occurred earlier with the respirometer. This possibly is due to the lack of atmospheric CO2 during the O2 consumption measurements.

  20. Human Lactate Dehydrogenase A Inhibitors: A Molecular Dynamics Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yun; Pinto, B. Mario

    2014-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is an important enzyme in fermentative glycolysis, generating most energy for cancer cells that rely on anaerobic respiration even under normal oxygen concentrations. This renders LDHA a promising molecular target for the treatment of various cancers. Several efforts have been made recently to develop LDHA inhibitors with nanomolar inhibition and cellular activity, some of which have been studied in complex with the enzyme by X-ray crystallography. In this work, we present a molecular dynamics (MD) study of the binding interactions of selected ligands with human LDHA. Conventional MD simulations demonstrate different binding dynamics of inhibitors with similar binding affinities, whereas steered MD simulations yield discrimination of selected LDHA inhibitors with qualitative correlation between the in silico unbinding difficulty and the experimental binding strength. Further, our results have been used to clarify ambiguities in the binding modes of two well-known LDHA inhibitors. PMID:24466056

  1. IMP Dehydrogenase: Structural Schizophrenia and an Unusual Base

    SciTech Connect

    Hedstrom,L.; Gan, L.

    2006-01-01

    Textbooks describe enzymes as relatively rigid templates for the transition state of a chemical reaction, and indeed an enzyme such as chymotrypsin, which catalyzes a relatively simple hydrolysis reaction, is reasonably well described by this model. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) undergoes a remarkable array of conformational transitions in the course of a complicated catalytic cycle, offering a dramatic counterexample to this view. IMPDH displays several other unusual mechanistic features, including an Arg residue that may act as a general base catalyst and a dynamic monovalent cation site. Further, IMPDH appears to be involved in 'moon-lighting' functions that may require additional conformational states. How the balance between conformational states is maintained and how the various conformational states interconvert is only beginning to be understood.

  2. 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza-Hernandez, G.; Lopez-Solache, I.; Rendon, J.L.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Diaz-Zagoya, J.C.

    1988-04-15

    The mitochondrial fraction of the dog pancreas showed NAD(H)-dependent enzyme activity of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The enzyme catalyzes oxidoreduction between androstenedione and testosterone. The apparent Km value of the enzyme for androstenedione was 9.5 +/- 0.9 microM, the apparent Vmax was determined as 0.4 nmol mg-1 min-1, and the optimal pH was 6.5. In phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, maximal rate of androstenedione reduction was observed at 37 degrees C. The oxidation of testosterone by the enzyme proceeded at the same rate as the reduction of the androstenedione at a pH of 6.8-7.0. The apparent Km value and the optimal pH of the enzyme for testosterone were 3.5 +/- 0.5 microM and 7.5, respectively.

  3. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Grünblatt, Edna; Riederer, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Evidence suggests that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH; E.C. 1.2.1.3) gene, protein expression and activity are substantially decreased in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This holds especially true for cytosolic ALDH1A1, while mitochondrial ALDH2 is increased in the putamen of PD. Similarly, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) several studies in genetic, transcriptomic, protein and animal models suggest ALDH involvement in the neurodegeneration processes. Such data are in line with findings of increased toxic aldehydes, like for example malondialdehyde, nonenal, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde and others. Genetic, transcriptomic and protein alterations may contribute to such data. Also in vitro and in vivo experimental work points to an important role of ALDH in the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders. Aims at investigating dysfunctions of aldehyde detoxification are suitable to define genetic/molecular targets for new therapeutic strategies balancing amine metabolism in devastating disorders like PD and probably also AD. PMID:25298080

  4. Method To Identify Specific Inhibiutors Of Imp Dehydrogenase

    DOEpatents

    Collart, Frank R.; Huberman, Eliezer

    2000-11-28

    This invention relates to methods to identify specific inhibitors of the purine nucleotide synthesis enzyme, IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH). IMPDH is an essential enzyme found in all free-living organisms from humans to bacteria and is an important therapeutic target. The invention allows the identification of specific inhibitors of any IMPDH enzyme which can be expressed in a functional form in a recombinant host cell. A variety of eukaryotic or prokaryotic host systems commonly used for the expression of recombinant proteins are suitable for the practice of the invention. The methods are amenable to high throughput systems for the screening of inhibitors generated by combinatorial chemistry or other methods such as antisense molecule production. Utilization of exogenous guanosine as a control component of the methods allows for the identification of inhibitors specific for IMPDH rather than other causes of decreased cell proliferation.

  5. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hormones, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Markey, Keira A; Uldall, Maria; Botfield, Hannah; Cato, Liam D; Miah, Mohammed A L; Hassan-Smith, Ghaniah; Jensen, Rigmor H; Gonzalez, Ana M; Sinclair, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) results in raised intracranial pressure (ICP) leading to papilledema, visual dysfunction, and headaches. Obese females of reproductive age are predominantly affected, but the underlying pathological mechanisms behind IIH remain unknown. This review provides an overview of pathogenic factors that could result in IIH with particular focus on hormones and the impact of obesity, including its role in neuroendocrine signaling and driving inflammation. Despite occurring almost exclusively in obese women, there have been a few studies evaluating the mechanisms by which hormones and adipokines exert their effects on ICP regulation in IIH. Research involving 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, a modulator of glucocorticoids, suggests a potential role in IIH. Improved understanding of the complex interplay between adipose signaling factors such as adipokines, steroid hormones, and ICP regulation may be key to the understanding and future management of IIH. PMID:27186074

  6. Engineered PQQ-Glucose Dehydrogenase as a Universal Biosensor Platform.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhong; Murphy, Lindy; Stein, Viktor; Johnston, Wayne A; Alcala-Perez, Siro; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2016-08-17

    Biosensors with direct electron output hold promise for nearly seamless integration with portable electronic devices. However, so far, they have been based on naturally occurring enzymes that significantly limit the spectrum of detectable analytes. Here, we present a novel biosensor architecture based on analyte-driven intermolecular recombination and activity reconstitution of a re-engineered component of glucometers: PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase. We demonstrate that this sensor architecture can be rapidly adopted for the detection of immunosuppressant drugs, α-amylase protein, or protease activity of thrombin and Factor Xa. The biosensors could be stored in dried form without appreciable loss of activity. We further show that ligand-induced activity of the developed biosensors could be directly monitored by chronoamperometry, enabling construction of disposable sensory electrodes. We expect that this architecture could be expanded to the detection of other biochemical activities, post-translational modifications, nucleic acids, and inorganic molecules. PMID:27463000

  7. Glucose dehydrogenase from the thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed Central

    Giardina, P; de Biasi, M G; de Rosa, M; Gambacorta, A; Buonocore, V

    1986-01-01

    Glucose dehydrogenase has been purified to homogeneity from cell extracts of the extreme thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus. The enzyme utilizes both NAD+ and NADP+ as coenzyme and catalyses the oxidation of several monosaccharides to the corresponding glyconic acid. Substrate specificity and oxidation rate depend on the coenzyme present; when NAD+ is used, the enzyme binds and oxidizes specifically sugars presenting equatorial orientation of hydroxy groups at C-2, C-3 and C-4. The Mr of the native enzyme is 124,000 and decreases to about 60,000 in the presence of 6 M-guanidinium chloride and to about 30,000 in the presence of 5% (w/v) SDS. The enzyme shows maximal activity at pH 9, 77 degrees C and 20 mM-Mg2+, -Mn2+ or -Ca2+ and is fairly stable in the presence of chaotropic agents and water-miscible organic solvents such as methanol or acetone. PMID:3827812

  8. Separation of turkey lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes using isoelectric focusing technique.

    PubMed

    Heinová, Dagmar; Kostecká, Zuzana; Csank, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 8.8 did not allow to separate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes of turkey origin. Five electrophoretically distinguishable forms of the enzyme were detected in serum and tissues of turkey using IEF technique in a pH range of 3-9. Generally, three different groups were seen: (i) those having an anodic domination (heart, kidney, pancreas, and erythrocytes) with mainly LDH-1 fraction, (ii) those having a cathodic domination (breast muscle and serum) with prevalence of LDH-5, and (iii) those with a more uniform distribution (liver, spleen, lung, and brain). The specific enzyme activity was the highest in the breast muscle, followed by heart muscle, and brain. Low activities were detected in serum, kidney, and liver. PMID:26471476

  9. Mapping of the glucose dehydrogenase gene in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, G R; Halpern, Y S; Saunders, C; Vasantha, N; Schmidt, B J; Freese, E

    1984-01-01

    A 4.0-kilobase DNA fragment containing the developmentally regulated gene for glucose dehydrogenase (gdh) from Bacillus subtilis was incorporated into the plasmid pGX345, which contains a marker conferring chloramphenicol resistance (cat). The resistance marker of the resulting integration vector was used to map the gdh gene on the B. subtilis chromosome. Using PBS1 transduction, the gene order was determined to be aroI cat (gdh) mtlB dal. The cat (gdh) marker was also cotransformable with mtlB. The genetic location of the gdh gene established by this indirect method was confirmed by the fact that the original phage lambda EF2, containing a 10-kilobase B. subtilis DNA fragment from which the 4-kilobase gdh region had been subcloned, also contained the mtlB gene. Images PMID:6438057

  10. Over-Expression, Purification and Crystallization of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Y. S.; Ciszak, Ewa; Patel, Mulchand

    2000-01-01

    Dehydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3; dihydrolipoan-tide:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.8.1.4) is a common catalytic component found in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and branched-chain cc-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. E3 is also a component (referred to as L protein) of the glycine cleavage system in bacterial metabolism (2). Active E3 forms a homodimer with four distinctive subdomain structures (FAD binding, NAD+ binding, central and interface domains) with non-covalently but tightly bound FAD in the holoenzyme. Deduced amino acids from cloned full-length human E3 gene showed a total of 509 amino acids with a leader sequence (N-terminal 35 amino acids) that is excised (mature form) during transportation of expressed E3 into mitochondria membrane. So far, three-dimensional structure of human E3 has not been reported. Our effort to achieve the elucidation of the X-ray crystal structure of human E3 will be presented. Recombinant pPROEX-1 expression vector (from GIBCO BRL Life Technologies) having the human E3 gene without leader sequence was constructed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and subsequent ligation, and cloned in E.coli XL1-Blue by transformation. Since pPROEX-1 vector has an internal His-tag (six histidine peptide) located at the upstream region of a multicloning site, one-step affinity purification of E3 using nickelnitriloacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose resin, which has a strong affinity to His-tag, was feasible. Also a seven-amino-acid spacer peptide and a recombinant tobacco etch virus protease recognition site (seven amino acids peptide) found between His-tag and first amino acid of expressed E3 facilitated the cleavage of His-tag from E3 after the affinity purification. By IPTG induction, ca. 15 mg of human E3 (mature form) was obtained from 1L LB culture with overnight incubation at 25C. Over 98% of purity of E3 from one-step Ni-NTA agarose affinity purification was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. For

  11. Electrocatalytic hydrocarbon hydroxylation by ethylbenzene dehydrogenase from Aromatoleum aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Kalimuthu, Palraj; Heider, Johann; Knack, Daniel; Bernhardt, Paul V

    2015-02-26

    We report the electrocatalytic activity of ethylbenzene dehydrogenase (EBDH) from the β-proteobacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum. EBDH is a complex 155 kDa heterotrimeric molybdenum/iron-sulfur/heme protein which catalyzes the enantioselective hydroxylation of nonactivated ethylbenzene to (S)-1-phenylethanol without molecular oxygen as cosubstrate. Furthermore, it oxidizes a wide range of other alkyl-substituted aromatic and heterocyclic compounds to their secondary alcohols. Hydroxymethylferrocenium (FM) is used as an artificial electron acceptor for EBDH in an electrochemically driven catalytic system. Electrocatalytic activity of EBDH is demonstrated with both its native substrate ethylbenzene and the related substrate p-ethylphenol. The catalytic system has been modeled by electrochemical simulation across a range of sweep rates and concentrations of each substrate, which provides new insights into the kinetics of the EBDH catalytic mechanism. PMID:25635950

  12. Fabricating polystyrene fiber-dehydrogenase assemble as a functional biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    An, Hongjie; Jin, Bo; Dai, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Immobilization of the enzymes on nano-structured materials is a promising approach to enhance enzyme stabilization, activation and reusability. This study aimed to develop polystyrene fiber-enzyme assembles to catalyze model formaldehyde to methanol dehydrogenation reaction, which is an essential step for bioconversion of CO2 to a renewable bioenergy. We fabricated and modified electrospun polystyrene fibers, which showed high capability to immobilize dehydrogenase for the fiber-enzyme assembles. Results from evaluation of biochemical activities of the fiber-enzyme assemble showed that nitriation with the nitric/sulfuric acid ratio (v/v, 10:1) and silanization treatment delivered desirable enzyme activity and long-term storage stability, showing great promising toward future large-scale applications. PMID:25435501

  13. [Effect Of Polyelectrolytes on Catalytic Activity of Alcohol Dehydrogenase].

    PubMed

    Dubrovsky, A V; Musina, E V; Kim, A L; Tikhonenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent and optical spectroscopy were used to study the interaction of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) with negatively charged polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) and dextran sulfate (DS), as well as positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium) (PDADMA). As found, DS and PDADMA did not affect the structural and catalytic enzyme properties. In contrast, PSS slightly decreased the protein self-fluorescence over 1 h of incubation, which is associated with partial destruction of its quaternary (globular) structure. Investigation of the ADH activity with and without PSS showed its dependency on the incubation time and the PSS presence. Sodium chloride (2.0 M and 0.2 M) or ammonium sulfate (0.1 M) added to the reaction mixture did not completely protect the enzyme quaternary structure from the PSS action. However ammonium sulfate or 0.2 M sodium chloride stabilized the enzyme and partially inhibited the negative PSS effect. PMID:27266256

  14. Circadian rhythm of lactate dehydrogenase in rat testis.

    PubMed

    Vermouth, N T; Ponce, R H; Carriazo, C S; Blanco, A

    1984-01-01

    Activity of total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and of the isozyme X (LDH X or C4) have been determined at 2 hr intervals during 24 hr cycles in testis of adult rats maintained since birth in a photoperiod of 14 hr light: 10 hr dark. LDH X activity of epididymal sections (caput, corpus and cauda) from the same animals was also determined. Total LDH and LDH X activities in testis exhibited circadian rhythms with different timing. LDH X in the three portions of epididymis showed diurnal variations similar to those in testis. Rats subjected to constant light or constant dark presented marked modifications of LDH X profiles, indicating that the photoperiod plays a synchronizer role. While total soluble proteins did not show variations in testis of rats exposed to the photoperiod, a circadian rhythm was demonstrated in animals maintained in constant light or dark. PMID:6467917

  15. A Case of Hyperammonemia Associated with High Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Activity.

    PubMed

    Nagaharu, Keiki; Ikemura, Kenji; Yamashita, Yoshiki; Oda, Hiroyasu; Ishihara, Mikiya; Sugawara, Yumiko; Tamaru, Satoshi; Mizuno, Toshiro; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has been widely used to treat several types of carcinoma, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to its common side effects, including diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and anemia, 5-FU treatment has also been reported to cause hyperammonemia. However, the exact mechanism responsible for 5-FU-induced hyperammonemia remains unknown. We encountered an esophageal carcinoma patient who developed hyperammonemia when receiving 5-FU-containing chemotherapy but did not exhibit any of the other common adverse effects of 5-FU treatment. At the onset of hyperammonemia, laboratory tests revealed high dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity and rapid 5-FU clearance. Our findings suggested that 5-FU hypermetabolism may be one of the key mechanisms responsible for hyperammonemia during 5-FU treatment. PMID:27195162

  16. Protein-mediated assembly of succinate dehydrogenase and its cofactors.

    PubMed

    Van Vranken, Jonathan G; Na, Un; Winge, Dennis R; Rutter, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (or complex II; SDH) is a heterotetrameric protein complex that links the tribarboxylic acid cycle with the electron transport chain. SDH is composed of four nuclear-encoded subunits that must translocate independently to the mitochondria and assemble into a mature protein complex embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Recently, it has become clear that failure to assemble functional SDH complexes can result in cancer and neurodegenerative syndromes. The effort to thoroughly elucidate the SDH assembly pathway has resulted in the discovery of four subunit-specific assembly factors that aid in the maturation of individual subunits and support the assembly of the intact complex. This review will focus on these assembly factors and assess the contribution of each factor to the assembly of SDH. Finally, we propose a model of the SDH assembly pathway that incorporates all extant data. PMID:25488574

  17. SDHAF4 promotes mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity and prevents neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Van Vranken, Jonathan G.; Bricker, Daniel K.; Dephoure, Noah; Gygi, Steven P.; Cox, James E.; Thummel, Carl S.; Rutter, Jared

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) occupies a central place in cellular energy production, linking the tricarboxylic cycle with the electron transport chain. As a result, a subset of cancers and neuromuscular disorders result from mutations affecting any of the four SDH structural subunits or either of two known SDH assembly factors. Herein we characterize a novel evolutionarily conserved SDH assembly factor designated Sdh8/SDHAF4, using yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian cells. Sdh8 interacts specifically with the catalytic Sdh1 subunit in the mitochondrial matrix, facilitating its association with Sdh2 and the subsequent assembly of the SDH holocomplex. These roles for Sdh8 are critical for preventing motility defects and neurodegeneration in Drosophila as well as the excess ROS generated by free Sdh1. These studies provide insights into the mechanisms by which SDH is assembled and raise the possibility that some forms of neuromuscular disease may be associated with mutations that affect this SDH assembly factor. PMID:24954416

  18. Protein-mediated assembly of succinate dehydrogenase and its cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Van Vranken, Jonathan G.; Na, Un; Winge, Dennis R.; Rutter, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (or Complex II; SDH) is a heterotetrameric protein complex that links the tribarboxylic acid cycle with the electron transport chain. SDH is composed of four nuclear-encoded subunits that must translocate independently to the mitochondria and assemble into a mature protein complex embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Recently, it has become clear that failure to assemble functional SDH complexes can result in cancer and neurodegenerative syndromes. The effort to thoroughly elucidate the SDH assembly pathway has resulted in the discovery of four subunit-specific assembly factors that aid in the maturation of individual subunits and support the assembly of the intact complex. This review will focus on these assembly factors and assess the contribution of each factor to the assembly of SDH. Finally, we propose a model of the SDH assembly pathway that incorporates all extant data. PMID:25488574

  19. Light and Acetate Regulate a Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase 1

    PubMed Central

    Struck, Friedhelm; Grölz-Krug, Sabine; Boschek, Bruce; Zetsche, Klaus

    1987-01-01

    A malate dehydrogenase was purified from the unicellular green alga Chlorogonium elongatum Dangeard. The enzyme was localized in the mitochondria by immunogold electron microscopy and was found to be present on the cristae. The concentration of the enzyme is regulated by acetate and light. In cells cultured heterotrophically with acetate as carbon source the activity and the concentration of the enzyme is 5- to 6-fold higher than in autotrophic cells. In mixotrophically cultured cells (light and acetate) the enzyme level attains only half of the value of that in heterotrophic cells. Acetate induces an increase of the enzyme concentration while light has an inhibitory effect on this process. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16665643

  20. Alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism in barrel cactus populations of Drosophila mojavensis.

    PubMed

    Cleland, S; Hocutt, G D; Breitmeyer, C M; Markow, T A; Pfeiler, E

    1996-07-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis revealed that the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-2) locus was polymorphic in two populations (from Agua Caliente, California and the Grand Canyon, Arizona) of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that utilize barrel cactus (Ferocactus acanthodes) as a host plant. Electromorphs representing products of a slow (S) and a fast (F) allele were found in adult flies. The frequency of the slow allele was 0.448 in flies from Agua Caliente and 0.659 in flies from the Grand Canyon. These frequencies were intermediate to those of the low (Baja California peninsula, Mexico) and high (Sonora, Mexico and southern Arizona) frequency Adh-2S populations of D. mojavensis that utilize different species of host cacti. PMID:8765684

  1. Encapsulation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Mannitol by Spray Drying

    PubMed Central

    Shiga, Hirokazu; Joreau, Hiromi; Neoh, Tze Loon; Furuta, Takeshi; Yoshii, Hidefumi

    2014-01-01

    The retention of the enzyme activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has been studied in various drying processes such as spray drying. The aim of this study is to encapsulate ADH in mannitol, either with or without additive in order to limit the thermal denaturation of the enzyme during the drying process. The retention of ADH activity was investigated at different drying temperatures. When mannitol was used, the encapsulated ADH was found inactive in all the dried powders. This is presumably due to the quick crystallization of mannitol during spray drying that resulted in the impairment of enzyme protection ability in comparison to its amorphous form. Maltodextin (dextrose equivalent = 11) was used to reduce the crystallization of mannitol. The addition of maltodextrin increased ADH activity and drastically changed the powder X-ray diffractogram of the spray-dried powders. PMID:24662364

  2. A Case of Hyperammonemia Associated with High Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nagaharu, Keiki; Ikemura, Kenji; Yamashita, Yoshiki; Oda, Hiroyasu; Ishihara, Mikiya; Sugawara, Yumiko; Tamaru, Satoshi; Mizuno, Toshiro; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has been widely used to treat several types of carcinoma, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to its common side effects, including diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and anemia, 5-FU treatment has also been reported to cause hyperammonemia. However, the exact mechanism responsible for 5-FU-induced hyperammonemia remains unknown. We encountered an esophageal carcinoma patient who developed hyperammonemia when receiving 5-FU-containing chemotherapy but did not exhibit any of the other common adverse effects of 5-FU treatment. At the onset of hyperammonemia, laboratory tests revealed high dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity and rapid 5-FU clearance. Our findings suggested that 5-FU hypermetabolism may be one of the key mechanisms responsible for hyperammonemia during 5-FU treatment. PMID:27195162

  3. Frostbite: A Novel Presentation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency?

    PubMed

    Bowles, Justin M; Joas, Chris; Head, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Acute hemolytic anemia (AHA) due to glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has rarely been recognized as a contributor to the development of frostbite. We discuss a case of frostbite in a 32-year-old male Marine with G6PD deficiency during military training on Mount McKinley in Alaska, which eventually led to a permanent disability. In this report, the pathophysiology of G6PD deficiency, the effects of hemolytic anemia, and factors that contribute to frostbite will be discussed, as well as the clinical findings, treatment course, and the outcome of this case. The patient was evacuated and admitted to Alaska Regional Hospital. He was treated for fourth-degree frostbite, ultimately resulting in the complete or partial amputation of all toes. Although it cannot be proved that AHA occurred in this patient, this case potentially adds frostbite to the list of rare but possible clinical presentations of G6PD deficiency. PMID:26360347

  4. Kawasaki disease with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency, case report.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Hesham Radi; Al-Dossary, Sahar; Asseri, Abdulsalam

    2015-09-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited vasculitis of unknown etiology that occurs predominantly in infants and children younger than 5 years of age. Coronary artery abnormalities are the most serious complication. Based on the literatures infusion of Intravenous Immunoglobulin of 2 g/kg and a high dose of oral aspirin up to 100 mg/kg/day are the standard treatment for Kawasaki disease in the acute stage, and should be followed by antiplatelet dose of aspirin for thrombocytosis. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited X-linked hereditary disorder, and aspirin can induce hemolysis in patients with G6PD deficiency. We report a case of a 5 year and 8 month old male with KD and G6PD deficiency. PMID:27134550

  5. Cardiac-specific succinate dehydrogenase deficiency in Barth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Jan; Cheng, I-Fen; Chowdhury, Arpita; Wozny, Katharina; Balleininger, Martina; Reinhold, Robert; Grunau, Silke; Callegari, Sylvie; Toischer, Karl; Wanders, Ronald Ja; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Brügger, Britta; Guan, Kaomei; Rehling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a cardiomyopathy caused by the loss of tafazzin, a mitochondrial acyltransferase involved in the maturation of the glycerophospholipid cardiolipin. It has remained enigmatic as to why a systemic loss of cardiolipin leads to cardiomyopathy. Using a genetic ablation of tafazzin function in the BTHS mouse model, we identified severe structural changes in respiratory chain supercomplexes at a pre-onset stage of the disease. This reorganization of supercomplexes was specific to cardiac tissue and could be recapitulated in cardiomyocytes derived from BTHS patients. Moreover, our analyses demonstrate a cardiac-specific loss of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), an enzyme linking the respiratory chain with the tricarboxylic acid cycle. As a similar defect of SDH is apparent in patient cell-derived cardiomyocytes, we conclude that these defects represent a molecular basis for the cardiac pathology in Barth syndrome. PMID:26697888

  6. Transformation linked decrease of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Eboli, M L; Pasquini, A

    1994-10-14

    Epidermis exhibits glycolytic features peculiar to cancer cells. The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, both active (PDHa) and total (PDHt) forms, has been investigated and compared in epidermis and epidermal carcinomas from human source. Low or undetectable PDHa is found in either normal and neoplastic tissue. PDHt is unchanged in human epidermis between the second and seventh decades of life but is dramatically decreased following neoplastic transformation (0.107 and 0.026 units/g fresh tissue for epidermis and epidermal carcinoma, respectively). As PDH plays a key role in mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism, the decrease of total enzymic capacity found in tumors suggest that different mechanisms regulate PDH expression and, in turn, glycolytic mechanisms of epidermis and cancer cells. PMID:7954343

  7. Proteomic and biochemical basis for enhanced growth yield of Enterobacter sp. LCR1 on insoluble phosphate medium.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Rai, Lal Chand

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics and biochemical analyses were used to unravel the basis for higher growth yield of Enterobacter sp. LCR1 on insoluble phosphate medium compared to soluble. Proteomic analysis using 2-DE, MALDI-TOF/MS and LC-MS revealed the involvement of nine proteins. Down-regulation of fructose bisphosphate aldolase with decreased concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate indicated diminished glycolysis. However, up-regulation of phosphoglycerate mutase, increase in the activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase, 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase suggested induction of Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways. These pathways generate sufficient energy from gluconic acid, which is also used for biosynthesis as indicated by up-regulation of elongation factor Tu, elongation factor G and protein disulfide isomerase. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation resulting from organic acid oxidation leads to overexpressed manganese superoxide dismutase and increased activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. Thus the organism uses gluconate instead of glucose for energy, while alleviating extra ROS formation by oxidative defense enzymes. PMID:25053519

  8. Animal models for glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Koeller, D M; Sauer, S; Wajner, M; de Mello, C F; Goodman, S I; Woontner, M; Mühlhausen, C; Okun, J G; Kölker, S

    2004-01-01

    In vitro studies suggest that excitotoxic cell damage is an underlying mechanism for the acute striatal damage in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) deficiency. It is believed to result from an imbalance of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission induced by the accumulating organic acids 3-hydroxyglutaric acid (3-OH-GA) and to a lesser extent glutaric acid (GA). Stereotaxic administration of 3-OH-GA and GA into the rat striatum have confirmed these results, but may not truly represent the effect of chronic exposure to these compounds. In an attempt to better understand the pathophysiology of GCDH deficiency in vivo , two animal models have been utilized. A mouse that lacks GCDH activity in all tissues was generated by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. These animals develop the characteristic biochemical phenotype of the human disease. Pathologically, these mice have a diffuse spongiform myelinopathy similar to that in human patients; however, there is no evidence for acute striatal damage or sensitivity to acute encephalopathy induced by catabolism or inflammatory cytokines. A naturally occurring animal model, the fruit-eating bat Rousettus aegypticus, lacks hepatic and renal GCDH activity, but retains cerebral enzyme activity. Like the mouse, these bats develop the characteristic biochemical phenotype of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, but lack overt neurological symptoms such as dystonia. It is not known whether they also develop the spongiform myelinopathy seen in the Gcdh-deficient mice. Otherwise, these constellations would suggest that cerebral GCDH deficiency is responsible for the development of neuronal damage. The lack of striatal damage in these two rodent models may also be related to species differences. However, they also highlight our lack of a comprehensive understanding of additional factors that might modulate the susceptibiliy of neurons to accumulating 3-OH-GA and GA in GCDH deficiency. Unravelling these mechanisms may be the

  9. Recommended nomenclature for the vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase gene family.

    PubMed

    Duester, G; Farrés, J; Felder, M R; Holmes, R S; Höög, J O; Parés, X; Plapp, B V; Yin, S J; Jörnvall, H

    1999-08-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family encodes enzymes that metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Studies on 19 vertebrate animals have identified ADH orthologs across several species, and this has now led to questions of how best to name ADH proteins and genes. Seven distinct classes of vertebrate ADH encoded by non-orthologous genes have been defined based upon sequence homology as well as unique catalytic properties or gene expression patterns. Each class of vertebrate ADH shares <70% sequence identity with other classes of ADH in the same species. Classes may be further divided into multiple closely related isoenzymes sharing >80% sequence identity such as the case for class I ADH where humans have three class I ADH genes, horses have two, and mice have only one. Presented here is a nomenclature that uses the widely accepted vertebrate ADH class system as its basis. It follows the guidelines of human and mouse gene nomenclature committees, which recommend coordinating names across species boundaries and eliminating Roman numerals and Greek symbols. We recommend that enzyme subunits be referred to by the symbol "ADH" (alcohol dehydrogenase) followed by an Arabic number denoting the class; i.e. ADH1 for class I ADH. For genes we recommend the italicized root symbol "ADH" for human and "Adh" for mouse, followed by the appropriate Arabic number for the class; i.e. ADH1 or Adh1 for class I ADH genes. For organisms where multiple species-specific isoenzymes exist within a class, we recommend adding a capital letter after the Arabic number; i.e. ADH1A, ADH1B, and ADH1C for human alpha, beta, and gamma class I ADHs, respectively. This nomenclature will accommodate newly discovered members of the vertebrate ADH family, and will facilitate functional and evolutionary studies. PMID:10424757

  10. STRUCTURE AND KINETICS OF MONOFUNCTIONAL PROLINE DEHYDROGENASE FROM THERMUS THERMOPHILUS

    PubMed Central

    White, Tommi A.; Krishnan, Navasona; Becker, Donald F.; Tanner, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH) catalyze the two-step oxidation of proline to glutamate. They are distinct monofunctional enzymes in all eukaryotes and some bacteria, but are fused into bifunctional enzymes known as Proline utilization A (PutA) in other bacteria. Here we report the first structure and biochemical data for a monofunctional PRODH. The 2.0 Å resolution structure of Thermus thermophilus PRODH reveals a distorted (βα)8 barrel catalytic core domain and a hydrophobic α-helical domain located above the carboxyl terminal ends of the strands of the barrel. Although the catalytic core is similar to that of the PutA PRODH domain, the FAD conformation of T. thermophilus PRODH is remarkably different and likely reflects unique requirements for membrane association and communication with P5CDH. Also, the FAD of T. thermophilus PRODH is highly solvent exposed compared to PutA due to a 4-Å shift of helix 8. Structure-based sequence analysis of the PutA/PRODH family led us to identify 9 conserved motifs involved in cofactor and substrate recognition. Biochemical studies show that the midpoint potential of the FAD is −75 mV and the kinetic parameters for proline are Km=27 mM and kcat=13 s−1. 3,4-dehydro-L-proline was found to be an efficient substrate and L-tetrahydro-2-furoic acid is a competitive inhibitor (KI=1.0 mM). Finally, we demonstrate that T. thermophilus PRODH reacts with O2 producing superoxide. This is significant because superoxide production underlies the role of human PRODH in p53-mediated apoptosis, implying commonalities between eukaryotic and bacterial monofunctional PRODHs. PMID:17344208

  11. Physicochemical Characterization of a Thermostable Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Pyrobaculum aerophilum

    PubMed Central

    Vitale, Annalisa; Thorne, Natasha; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Hu, Xin; Shen, Min; D'Auria, Sabato; Auld, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we characterize an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum (PyAeADHII). We have previously found that PyAeADHII has no activity when standard ADH substrates are used but is active when α-tetralone is used as substrate. Here, to gain insights into enzyme function, we screened several chemical libraries for enzymatic modulators using an assay employing α-tetralone. The results indicate that PyAeADHII activity in the presence of α-tetralone was inhibited by compounds such as flunarizine. We also examined metal coordination of the enzyme in solution by performing metal substitution of the enzyme-bound zinc (Zn2+) with cobalt. The solution-based absorption spectra for cobalt substituted PyAeADHII supports substitution at the structural Zn2+ site. To gain structural insight, we obtained the crystal structure of both wild-type and cobalt-substituted PyAeADHII at 1.75 Å and 2.20 Å resolution, respectively. The X-ray data confirmed one metal ion per monomer present only at the structural site with otherwise close conservation to other ADH enzymes. We next determined the co-crystal structure of the NADPH-bound form of the enzyme at 2.35 Å resolution to help define the active site region of the enzyme and this data shows close structural conservation with horse ADH, despite the lack of a catalytic Zn2+ ion in PyAeADHII. Modeling of α-tetralone into the NADPH bound structure suggests an arginine as a possible catalytic residue. The data presented here can yield a better understanding of alcohol dehydrogenases lacking the catalytic zinc as well as the structural features inherent to thermostable enzymes. PMID:23755111

  12. Catalytic properties of Sepharose-bound L-alanine dehydrogenase from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Mureşan, L; Vancea, D; Presecan, E; Porumb, H; Lascu, I; Oargă, M; Matinca, D; Abrudan, I; Bârzu, O

    1983-02-15

    (1) L-Alanine dehydrogenase from Bacillus cereus was purified by a two-step chromatographic procedure involving Cibacron-Blue 3G-A Sepharose 4B-CL, and Sepharose 6B-CL, and immobilized on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. (2) Following immobilization via two of the six subunits, L-alanine dehydrogenase retained 66% of the specific activity of the soluble enzyme. The affinity of the immobilized enzyme for NH4+, pyruvate and L-alanine, was not different to that of the soluble form. The Km of the Sepharose-bound L-alanine dehydrogenase for pyridine coenzymes was 6-8-times higher than in the soluble case. (3) The stability of L-alanine dehydrogenase towards urea or thermal denaturation was increased by immobilization. (4) The incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 h of the immobilized L-alanine dehydrogenase with 3 M NH4Cl/NH4OH buffer (pH 9) released 70% of the enzyme. The specific activity and the affinity of the 'solubilized' L-alanine dehydrogenase for the pyridine coenzymes was the same as that obtained with the original, soluble L-alanine dehydrogenase. PMID:6404304

  13. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-catalyzed chain oxidation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide by perhydroxyl radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, P.C.

    1980-02-10

    The chain oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase NADH by perhydroxyl radicals and propagated by molecular oxygen was studied by the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system, /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-ray, and pulse radiolysis. The chain length, amount of NADH oxidized per HO/sub 2/ generated, increases with increasing acidity of the medium and reaches a value of 73 at pH 5.0. The rate constant for the oxidation of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase NADH complex by HO/sub 2/ was estimated to be 2 x 10/sup 7/ m/sup -1/s/sup -1/ at ambient temperatures (23-24/sup 0/C). Rate studies as a function of pH indicate that O/sub 2//sup -/ is unreactive toward the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase NADH complex. Other dehydrogenases (malate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and isocitric dehydrogenase) studied showed no catalytic activity in the oxidation of NADH by HO/sub 2//O/sub 2//sup -/.

  14. Improved Production of Propionic Acid in Propionibacterium jensenii via Combinational Overexpression of Glycerol Dehydrogenase and Malate Dehydrogenase from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Zhuge, Xin; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua

    2015-01-01

    Microbial production of propionic acid (PA), an important chemical building block used as a preservative and chemical intermediate, has gained increasing attention for its environmental friendliness over traditional petrochemical processes. In previous studies, we constructed a shuttle vector as a useful tool for engineering Propionibacterium jensenii, a potential candidate for efficient PA synthesis. In this study, we identified the key metabolites for PA synthesis in P. jensenii by examining the influence of metabolic intermediate addition on PA synthesis with glycerol as a carbon source under anaerobic conditions. We also further improved PA production via the overexpression of the identified corresponding enzymes, namely, glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and fumarate hydratase (FUM). Compared to those in wild-type P. jensenii, the activities of these enzymes in the engineered strains were 2.91- ± 0.17- to 8.12- ± 0.37-fold higher. The transcription levels of the corresponding enzymes in the engineered strains were 2.85- ± 0.19- to 8.07- ± 0.63-fold higher than those in the wild type. The coexpression of GDH and MDH increased the PA titer from 26.95 ± 1.21 g/liter in wild-type P. jensenii to 39.43 ± 1.90 g/liter in the engineered strains. This study identified the key metabolic nodes limiting PA overproduction in P. jensenii and further improved PA titers via the coexpression of GDH and MDH, making the engineered P. jensenii strain a potential industrial producer of PA. PMID:25595755

  15. Stereoselective carveol dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14. A novel nicotinoprotein belonging to the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily.

    PubMed

    van der Werf, M J; van der Ven, C; Barbirato, F; Eppink, M H; de Bont, J A; van Berkel, W J

    1999-09-10

    A novel nicotinoprotein, catalyzing the dichlorophenolindophenol-dependent oxidation of carveol to carvone, was purified to homogeneity from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14. The enzyme is specifically induced after growth on limonene and carveol. Dichlorophenolindophenol-dependent carveol dehydrogenase (CDH) is a homotetramer of 120 kDa with each subunit containing a tightly bound NAD(H) molecule. The enzyme is optimally active at pH 5.5 and 50 degrees C and displays a broad substrate specificity with a preference for substituted cyclohexanols. When incubated with a diastereomeric mixture of (4R)- or (4S)-carveol, CDH stereoselectively catalyzes the conversion of the (6S)-carveol stereoisomers only. Kinetic studies with pure stereoisomers showed that this is due to large differences in V(max)/K(m) values and simultaneous product inhibition by (R)- or (S)-carvone. The R. erythropolis CDH gene (limC) was identified in an operon encoding the enzymes involved in limonene degradation. The CDH nucleotide sequence revealed an open reading frame of 831 base pairs encoding a 277-amino acid protein with a deduced mass of 29,531 Da. The CDH primary structure shares 10-30% sequence identity with members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. Structure homology modeling with trihydroxynaphthalene reductase from Magnaporthe grisea suggests that CDH from R. erythropolis DCL14 is an alpha/beta one-domain protein with an extra loop insertion involved in NAD binding and a flexible C-terminal part involved in monoterpene binding. PMID:10473585

  16. Affinity chromatography of nicotinamide–adenine dinucleotide-linked dehydrogenases on immobilized derivatives of the dinucleotide

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Standish; O'Carra, Pádraig

    1973-01-01

    1. Three established methods for immobilization of ligands through primary amino groups promoted little or no attachment of NAD+ through the 6-amino group of the adenine residue. Two of these methods (coupling to CNBr-activated agarose and to carbodi-imide-activated carboxylated agarose derivatives) resulted instead in attachment predominantly through the ribosyl residues. Other immobilized derivatives were prepared by azolinkage of NAD+ (probably through the 8 position of the adenine residue) to a number of different spacer-arm–agarose derivatives. 2. The effectiveness of these derivatives in the affinity chromatography of a variety of NAD-linked dehydrogenases was investigated, applying rigorous criteria to distinguish general or non-specific adsorption effects from truly NAD-specific affinity (bio-affinity). The ribosyl-attached NAD+ derivatives displayed negligible bio-affinity for any of the NAD-linked dehydrogenases tested. The most effective azo-linked derivative displayed strong bio-affinity for glycer-aldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, weaker bio-affinity for lactate dehydrogenase and none at all for malate dehydrogenase, although these three enzymes have very similar affinities for soluble NAD+. Alcohol dehydrogenase and xanthine dehydrogenase were subject to such strong non-specific interactions with the hydrocarbon spacer-arm assembly that any specific affinity was completely eclipsed. 3. It is concluded that, in practice, the general effectiveness of a general ligand may be considerably distorted and attenuated by the nature of the immobilization linkage. However, this attenuation can result in an increase in specific effectiveness, allowing dehydrogenases to be separated from one another in a manner unlikely to be feasible if the general effectiveness of the ligand remained intact. 4. The bio-affinity of the various derivatives for lactate dehydrogenase is correlated with the known structure of the NAD+-binding site of this enzyme. Problems

  17. Human gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity: effect of age, sex, and alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, H K; Egerer, G; Simanowski, U A; Waldherr, R; Eckey, R; Agarwal, D P; Goedde, H W; von Wartburg, J P

    1993-01-01

    As various isoenzymes of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase exist and as the effect of sex and age on these enzymes is unknown, this study measured the activity of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase at high and low ethanol concentrations in endoscopic biopsy specimens from a total of 290 patients of various ages and from 10 patients with chronic alcoholism. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase was also detected by immunohistological tests in biopsy specimens from 40 patients by the use of a polyclonal rabbit antibody against class I alcohol dehydrogenase. A significant correlation was found between the immunohistological reaction assessed by the intensity of the colour reaction in the biopsy specimen and the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase measured at 580 mM ethanol. While alcohol dehydrogenase activity measured at 16 mM ethanol was not significantly affected by age and sex, both factors influenced alcohol dehydrogenase activity measured at 580 mM ethanol. Young women below 50 years of age had significantly lower alcohol dehydrogenase activities in the gastric corpus and antrum when compared with age matched controls (SEM) (6.4 (0.7) v 8.8 (0.6) nmol/min/mg protein; p < 0.001 and 6.0 (1.3) v 9.5 (1.3) nmol/min/mg protein; p < 0.001). Over 50 years of age this sex difference was no longer detectable, as high Km gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity decreases with age only in men and not in women. In addition, extremely low alcohol dehydrogenase activities have been found in gastric biopsy specimens from young male alcoholics (2.2 (0.5) nmol/min/mg protein), which returned to normal after two to three weeks of abstinence. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in the human stomach measured at 580 mM ethanol is decreased in young women, in elderly men, and in the subject with alcoholism. This decrease in alcohol dehydrogenase activity may contribute to the reduced first pass metabolism of ethanol associated with raised ethanol blood concentrations seen in these people. Images Figure

  18. Proteomic changes in Corbicula fluminea exposed to wastewater from a psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Bebianno, M J; Sroda, S; Gomes, T; Chan, P; Bonnafe, E; Budzinski, H; Geret, F

    2016-03-01

    The increase use of pharmaceutical compounds in veterinary practice and human population results in the ubiquitous presence of these compounds in aquatic ecosystems. Because pharmaceuticals are highly bioactive, there is concern about their toxicological effects in aquatic organisms. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of an effluent from a psychiatric hospital (containing a complex mixture of 25 pharmaceutical compounds from eleven therapeutic classes) on the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea using a proteomic approach. The exposure of C. fluminea to this complex effluent containing anxiolytics, analgesics, lipid regulators, beta blockers, antidepressants, antiepileptics, antihistamines, antihypertensives, antiplatelets and antiarrhythmics induced protein changes after 1 day of exposure in clam gills and digestive gland more evident in the digestive gland. These changes included increase in the abundance of proteins associated with structural (actin and tubulin), cellular functions (calreticulin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), T complex protein 1 (TCP1)) and metabolism (aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), alcohol dehydrogenase, 6 phosphogluconate dehydrogenase). Results from this study indicate that calreticulin, PCNA, ALDH and alcohol dehydrogenase in the digestive gland and T complex protein 1 (TCP1)) and 6 phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in the gills represent useful biomarkers for the ecotoxicological characterization of psychiatric hospital effluents in this species. PMID:26423280

  19. AB104. Glucose-6 phospate dehydrogenase deficiency among mongolian neonates

    PubMed Central

    Batjargal, Khishigjargal; Nansal, Gerelmaa; Zagd, Gerelmaa; Ganbaatar, Erdenetuya

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency in humans, affecting 400 million people worldwide and a high prevalence in persons of African, Middle Asian countries. The most common clinical manifestations are neonatal jaundice and acute hemolytic anemia, which is caused by the impairment of erythrocyte’s ability to remove harmful oxidative stress triggered by exogenous agents such as drugs, infection, or fava bean ingestion. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia caused by G6PD is strongly associated with mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. The study aims to determine a level of G6PD in healthy neonates. Methods We obtained blood spot samples from 268 infants around 24-72 hours in their age who has unsuspected intranatal and neonatal disorders. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase “Perkin Elmer, Finland” level is determined by Victor 2D Fluorometer assay, developing of neonatal jaundice is examined by recall. Results The76.5% of all participants (n=205) was assessed 4.36±1.15 Ug/Hb in normal reference range of G6PD, other 23.5% (n=63) was 0.96±0.51 Ug/Hb with G6PD deficiency. In the both sex, 51.5% of male 0.88±0.46 Ug/Hb (n=33) and 47.6% of female (n=30) 0.97±0.55 Ug/Hb was assessed with G6PD deficiency. Developing Jaundice period in number of 63 neonates with G6PD deficiency, 86% of neonates (n=54) was in 1-4 days, 4% of neonates (n=3) was in 5-7 days and there is no sign of jaundice in 9% (n=6). Therefore neonates with G6PD deficiency, 53.9% (n=34) continued jaundice more than two weeks. Conclusions G6PD deficiency was determined in male neonates (51.5%) more than female (47.6%). The 76.5% of all participants (n=205) was assessed 4.36±1.15 Ug/Hb in normal reference range of G6PDH other 23.5% (n=63) of all participants was 0.96±0.51 Ug/Hb with G6PD deficiency. It shows that G6PD might be one potential risk of neonatal jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia in neonates in Mongolia.

  20. Improvement of the soy formate dehydrogenase properties by rational design.

    PubMed

    Kargov, I S; Kleimenov, S Y; Savin, S S; Tishkov, V I; Alekseeva, A A

    2015-06-01

    Previous experiments on substitution of the residue Phe290 to Asp, Asn and Ser in NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase from soya Glycine max (SoyFDH) showed important role of the residue in enzyme thermal stability and catalytic properties (Alekseeva et al. Prot. Eng. Des. Sel., 2012a; 25: :781-88). In this work, we continued site-directed mutagenesis experiments of the Phe290 and the residue was changed to Ala, Thr, Tyr, Glu and Gln. All amino acid changes resulted in increase of catalytic constant from 2.9 to 3.5-4.7 s(-1). The substitution Phe290Ala led to KM (NAD+) decrease from 13.3 to 8.6 μM, and substitutions Phe290Tyr and Phe290Glu resulted in decrease and increase of KM (HCOO-) from 1.5 to 0.9 and -2.9 mM, respectively. The highest improvement of catalytic properties was observed for SoyFDH Phe290Ala which showed 2-fold higher catalytic efficiency with both substrates. Stability of mutants was examined by study of thermal inactivation kinetics and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). All five amino acids provided increase of thermal stability of mutant SoyFDH in comparison with wild-type enzyme. Mutant SoyFDH Phe290Glu showed the highest improvement-the stabilization effect was 43 at 56°C. The DSC data agree with results of thermal inactivation kinetics. Substitutions Phe290Tyr, Phe290Thr, Phe290Gln and Phe290Glu provided Tm value increase 0.6°-6.6°. SoyFDH Phe290Glu and previously prepared SoyFDH Phe290Asp show similar thermal stability as enzymes from Candida boidinii and Mycobacterium vaccae N10 and have higher catalytic efficiency with NAD(+) compared with all described FDHs. Therefore, these mutants are very perspective enzymes for coenzyme regeneration in processes of chiral synthesis with dehydrogenases. PMID:25744036

  1. A simple method for the rapid determination of the stereospecificity of NAD-dependent dehydrogenases applied to mammalian IMP dehydrogenase and bacterial NADH peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Cooney, D; Hamel, E; Cohen, M; Kang, G J; Dalal, M; Marquez, V

    1987-11-01

    The stereospecificity of IMP dehydrogenase (IMP:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.205) from two different sources was determined. The enzyme preparations were obtained from murine lymphoblasts and from Escherichia coli. Both enzymes transferred the 2-3H of IMP to the pro-S position of carbon atom C-4 of the nicotinamide ring in NAD. Thus, B-sided stereospecificity is common to the enzyme from two very different species. In addition, the studies described here demonstrate that alcohol dehydrogenase and NADH peroxidase, used as auxiliary enzymes, in combination with a microdistillation procedure, should permit rapid determination of the stereospecificity of any NAD-dependent dehydrogenase for which the appropriate tritiated substrate is available. PMID:2889473

  2. Redesigning alcohol dehydrogenases/reductases for more efficient biosynthesis of enantiopure isomers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongzhen; Xu, Yan; Xiao, Rong

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases/reductases predominantly catalyze the asymmetric biosynthesis of optically pure stereoisomers because of their unique chiral constitutions. The enantioselectivities of alcohol dehydrogenases/reductases are substrate- and cofactor-dependent, and therefore they usually catalyze specific reactions with high enantioselectivity under physiological conditions; this may not be suitable for asymmetric biosynthesis with non-natural substrates or non-natural cofactors, and under nonphysiological conditions. It is therefore necessary to modify alcohol dehydrogenases/reductases using various redesigning tools such as directed evolution and rational design, and their combinations, as well as engineering enzyme modules for more efficient production of "non-natural" products. In this article, progress in these aspects of alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase design is reviewed, and future challenges are discussed. PMID:26320091

  3. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presented with convulsion: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Merdin, Alparslan; Avci, Fatma; Guzelay, Nihal

    2014-01-29

    Red blood cells carry oxygen in the body and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase protects these cells from oxidative chemicals. If there is a lack of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, red blood cells can go acute hemolysis. Convulsion is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency. Herein, we report a case report of a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosed patient after presentation with convulsion. A 70 year-old woman patient had been hospitalized because of convulsion and fatigue. She has not had similar symptoms before. She had ingested fava beans in the last two days. Her hypophyseal and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Blood transfusion was performed and the patient recovered. PMID:24711919

  4. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPRESSION OF ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE IN RAT: A COMPARISON OF LIVER AND LUNG DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolism is one of the major determinants for age-related susceptibility changes to chemicals. Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules present in the environment and can be produced during biotransformation of xenobiotics. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are important in aldehyd...

  5. Structural Biology of Proteins of the Multi-enzyme Assembly Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Objectives and research challenges of this effort include: 1. Need to establish Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex protein crystals; 2. Need to test value of microgravity for improving crystal quality of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex protein crystals; 3. Need to improve flight hardware in order to control and understand the effects of microgravity on crystallization of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex proteins; 4. Need to integrate sets of national collaborations with the restricted and specific requirements of flight experiments; 5. Need to establish a highly controlled experiment in microgravity with a rigor not yet obtained; 6. Need to communicate both the rigor of microgravity experiments and the scientific value of results obtained from microgravity experiments to the national community; and 7. Need to advance the understanding of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex structures so that scientific and commercial advance is identified for these proteins.

  6. Cloning and sequencing of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Conway, Tyrrell

    1992-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis has been cloned and sequenced. This gene can be expressed at high levels in other organisms to produce acetaldehyde or to convert acetaldehyde to ethanol.

  7. Triazaspirodimethoxybenzoyls as Selective Inhibitors of Mycobacterial Lipoamide Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Bryk, Ruslana; Arango, Nancy; Venugopal, Aditya; Warren, J. David; Park, Yun-Hee; Patel, Mulchand S.; Lima, Christopher D.; Nathan, Carl

    2010-06-25

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains the leading single cause of death from bacterial infection. Here we explored the possibility of species-selective inhibition of lipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd), an enzyme central to Mtb's intermediary metabolism and antioxidant defense. High-throughput screening of combinatorial chemical libraries identified triazaspirodimethoxybenzoyls as high-nanomolar inhibitors of Mtb's Lpd that were noncompetitive versus NADH, NAD{sup +}, and lipoamide and >100-fold selective compared to human Lpd. Efficacy required the dimethoxy and dichlorophenyl groups. The structure of an Lpd-inhibitor complex was resolved to 2.42 {angstrom} by X-ray crystallography, revealing that the inhibitor occupied a pocket adjacent to the Lpd NADH/NAD{sup +} binding site. The inhibitor did not overlap with the adenosine moiety of NADH/NAD{sup +} but did overlap with positions predicted to bind the nicotinamide rings in NADH and NAD{sup +} complexes. The dimethoxy ring occupied a deep pocket adjacent to the FAD flavin ring where it would block coordination of the NADH nicotinamide ring, while the dichlorophenyl group occupied a more exposed pocket predicted to coordinate the NAD{sup +} nicotinamide. Several residues that are not conserved between the bacterial enzyme and its human homologue were predicted to contribute both to inhibitor binding and to species selectivity, as confirmed for three residues by analysis of the corresponding mutant Mtb Lpd proteins. Thus, nonconservation of residues lining the electron-transfer tunnel in Mtb Lpd can be exploited for development of species-selective Lpd inhibitors.

  8. Yeast cell-based analysis of human lactate dehydrogenase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Lulu Ahmed; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    Human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has attracted attention as a potential target for cancer therapy and contraception. In this study, we reconstituted human lactic acid fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with the goal of constructing a yeast cell-based LDH assay system. pdc null mutant yeast (mutated in the endogenous pyruvate decarboxylase genes) are unable to perform alcoholic fermentation; when grown in the presence of an electron transport chain inhibitor, pdc null strains exhibit a growth defect. We found that introduction of the human gene encoding LDHA complemented the pdc growth defect; this complementation depended on LDHA catalytic activity. Similarly, introduction of the human LDHC complemented the pdc growth defect, even though LDHC did not generate lactate at the levels seen with LDHA. In contrast, the human LDHB did not complement the yeast pdc null mutant, although LDHB did generate lactate in yeast cells. Expression of LDHB as a red fluorescent protein (RFP) fusion yielded blebs in yeast, whereas LDHA-RFP and LDHC-RFP fusion proteins exhibited cytosolic distribution. Thus, LDHB exhibits several unique features when expressed in yeast cells. Because yeast cells are amenable to genetic analysis and cell-based high-throughput screening, our pdc/LDH strains are expected to be of use for versatile analyses of human LDH. PMID:26126931

  9. Serum hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBD) assays in the clinical laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Montazemi, K.; Lines, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    Measurement of serum hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBD) activity for suspected myocardial infarction will nowadays usually be carried out with a commercially available test kit. Four such kits have been compared and evaluated: British Drug Houses HBDH set, Boehringer Corporation LDH-1-Iso-enzyme `α-HBDH' kit, Calbiochem α-HBDH Statpack, and Eskalab α-HBDH reagent tablets. Of the 100 sera examined, 60 were from patients believed to have suffered a recent myocardial infarction, and 40 samples were from patients aged between 45 and 65 years who had no known hepatic, renal, or cardiac pathology, these being used to determine the normal range for each kit. Under standardized conditions the activity found differed from kit to kit; the clinical value of the various assay systems in terms of their ability to discriminate between normal and pathological sera is assessed; and finally the cost and the convenience of use of each kit procedure are discussed. Theoretical and experimental evidence is provided in support of an assay temperature of 30°C, and a plea is made for international agreement on enzyme assay conditions. PMID:5017443

  10. Accelerated Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity Potentiates Osteoclastogenesis via NFATc1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Man; Kwon, So Hyun; Lee, Seoung Hoon; Lee, Soo Young; Jeong, Daewon

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclasts seem to be metabolic active during their differentiation and bone-resorptive activation. However, the functional role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a tetrameric enzyme consisting of an A and/or B subunit that catalyzes interconversion of pyruvate to lactate, in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is not known. In this study, RANKL treatment induced gradual gene expression and activation of the LDH A2B2 isotype during osteoclast differentiation as well as the LDH A1B3 and B4 isotypes during osteoclast maturation after pre-osteoclast formation. Glucose consumption and lactate production in growth media were accelerated during osteoclast differentiation, together with enhanced expression of H+-lactate co-transporter and increased extracellular acidification, demonstrating that glycolytic metabolism was stimulated during differentiation. Further, oxygen consumption via mitochondria was stimulated during osteoclast differentiation. On the contrary, depletion of LDH-A or LDH-B subunit suppressed both glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism, resulting in reduced mature osteoclast formation via decreased osteoclast precursor fusion and down-regulation of the osteoclastogenic critical transcription factor NFATc1 and its target genes. Collectively, our findings suggest that RANKL-induced LDH activation stimulates glycolytic and mitochondrial respiratory metabolism, facilitating mature osteoclast formation via osteoclast precursor fusion and NFATc1 signaling. PMID:27077737

  11. Crystallographic and spectroscopic snapshots reveal a dehydrogenase in action

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, Lu; Davis, Ian; Liu, Fange; Andi, Babak; Esaki, Shingo; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Orville, Allen M.; Liu, Aimin

    2015-01-07

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous intermediates in metabolic pathways and their innate reactivity can often make them quite unstable. There are several aldehydic intermediates in the metabolic pathway for tryptophan degradation that can decay into neuroactive compounds that have been associated with numerous neurological diseases. An enzyme of this pathway, 2-aminomuconate-6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, is responsible for ‘disarming’ the final aldehydic intermediate. Here we show the crystal structures of a bacterial analogue enzyme in five catalytically relevant forms: resting state, one binary and two ternary complexes, and a covalent, thioacyl intermediate. We also report the crystal structures of a tetrahedral, thiohemiacetal intermediate, a thioacyl intermediate and an NAD+-bound complex from an active site mutant. These covalent intermediates are characterized by single-crystal and solution-state electronic absorption spectroscopy. The crystal structures reveal that the substrate undergoes an E/Z isomerization at the enzyme active site before an sp3-to-sp2 transition during enzyme-mediated oxidation.

  12. Crystallographic and spectroscopic snapshots reveal a dehydrogenase in action

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huo, Lu; Davis, Ian; Liu, Fange; Andi, Babak; Esaki, Shingo; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Orville, Allen M.; Liu, Aimin

    2015-01-07

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous intermediates in metabolic pathways and their innate reactivity can often make them quite unstable. There are several aldehydic intermediates in the metabolic pathway for tryptophan degradation that can decay into neuroactive compounds that have been associated with numerous neurological diseases. An enzyme of this pathway, 2-aminomuconate-6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, is responsible for ‘disarming’ the final aldehydic intermediate. Here we show the crystal structures of a bacterial analogue enzyme in five catalytically relevant forms: resting state, one binary and two ternary complexes, and a covalent, thioacyl intermediate. We also report the crystal structures of a tetrahedral, thiohemiacetal intermediate, a thioacylmore » intermediate and an NAD+-bound complex from an active site mutant. These covalent intermediates are characterized by single-crystal and solution-state electronic absorption spectroscopy. The crystal structures reveal that the substrate undergoes an E/Z isomerization at the enzyme active site before an sp3-to-sp2 transition during enzyme-mediated oxidation.« less

  13. Properties of microtubule bundles induced by Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, Marijke; Engelborghs, Yves

    1991-05-01

    The binding of Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH; E.C. 1.2.1.12) to microtubules causes the microtubules to assemble into large bundles. This bundling can be considered as a further step in the assembly of supramolecular structures. The rate of bundle formation, after addition of GAPDH to preformed microtubules, is not dependent on the GAPDH concentration and reflects bundling kinetics. Bundle disassembly can be studied by the addition of 1 mM adenosine 5'-(β, -imidotri-phosphate) (AMPPNP) to bundled microtubules, and is extremely fast. Bundling reduces the rate of association of tubulin dimers to microtubules, as well as the dissocation from the microtubles. Both rates are reduced to the same extent. This is in agreement with the fact that the critical concentration of tubulin is practically not influenced by the binding of the enzyme. Adding microtubule associated proteins (at I=0.1 M) does not appreciably influence the affinity for GAPDH, but reduces bundle formation possibly for sterical reasons.

  14. The reaction of ozone with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, K.L.; Mudd, J.B.

    1984-02-15

    Inactivation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) by ozone can be correlated with oxidation of the active-site -SH residue. Oxidation of peripheral -SH groups, and tryptophan, methionine, and histidine residues occurs concomitantly, but loss of activity depends solely on active-site oxidation. Inactivation is only slightly reversible by dithiothreitol. Kinetic studies show that inhibition of GPDH by ozone mimics noncompetitive inhibition and is characterized as irreversible enzyme inactivation. Analysis of products resulting from ozone oxidation of glutathione suggests that cysteic acid is the product of protein-SH oxidation. Despite oxidation of the active-site -SH, no significant decrease in the Racker band absorbance occurs. This is explained by the appearance of a new chromophore in this region of the absorbance spectrum. Increased absorbance at 322 nm following ozone treatment indicates that tryptophan is converted quantitatively to N-formylkynurenine. When the active-site -SH is reversibly blocked by tetrathionate, enzyme activity is completely recoverable following reaction of the derivatized enzyme with a 1.3X excess of ozone over enzyme monomer. Activity is fully recovered despite the oxidation of peripheral -SH, tryptophan, and histidine residues. Circular dichroism spectra of ozone-treated enzyme show that reaction of GPDH with up to a threefold excess of ozone over enzyme monomer results in no significant disruption of protein secondary structure. Spectra in the near-uv show distinct changes that reflect tryptophan oxidation.

  15. Structural and Kinetic Studies of Formate Dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qi; Gakhar, Lokesh; Wickersham, Kyle; Francis, Kevin; Vardi-Kilshtain, Alexandra; Major, Dan T; Cheatum, Christopher M; Kohen, Amnon

    2016-05-17

    The structure of formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii (CbFDH) is of both academic and practical interests. First, this enzyme represents a unique model system for studies on the role of protein dynamics in catalysis, but so far these studies have been limited by the availability of structural information. Second, CbFDH and its mutants can be used in various industrial applications (e.g., CO2 fixation or nicotinamide recycling systems), and the lack of structural information has been a limiting factor in commercial development. Here, we report the crystallization and structural determination of both holo- and apo-CbFDH. The free-energy barrier for the catalyzed reaction was computed and indicates that this structure indeed represents a catalytically competent form of the enzyme. Complementing kinetic examinations demonstrate that the recombinant CbFDH has a well-organized reactive state. Finally, a fortuitous observation has been made: the apoenzyme crystal was obtained under cocrystallization conditions with a saturating concentration of both the cofactor (NAD(+)) and inhibitor (azide), which has a nanomolar dissociation constant. It was found that the fraction of the apoenzyme present in the solution is less than 1.7 × 10(-7) (i.e., the solution is 99.9999% holoenzyme). This is an extreme case where the crystal structure represents an insignificant fraction of the enzyme in solution, and a mechanism rationalizing this phenomenon is presented. PMID:27100912

  16. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 in stem cells and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kaori; Tanaka, Takuji; Hara, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The human genome contains 19 putatively functional aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes, which encode enzymes critical for detoxification of endogenous and exogenous aldehyde substrates through NAD(P)+-dependent oxidation. ALDH1 has three main isotypes, ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, and ALDH1A3, and is a marker of normal tissue stem cells (SC) and cancer stem cells (CSC), where it is involved in self-renewal, differentiation and self-protection. Experiments with murine and human cells indicate that ALDH1 activity, predominantly attributed to isotype ALDH1A1, is tissue- and cancer-specific. High ALDH1 activity and ALDH1A1 overexpression are associated with poor cancer prognosis, though high ALDH1 and ALDH1A1 levels do not always correlate with highly malignant phenotypes and poor clinical outcome. In cancer therapy, ALDH1A1 provides a useful therapeutic CSC target in tissue types that normally do not express high levels of ALDH1A1, including breast, lung, esophagus, colon and stomach. Here we review the functions and mechanisms of ALDH1A1, the key ALDH isozyme linked to SC populations and an important contributor to CSC function in cancers, and we outline its potential in future anticancer strategies. PMID:26783961

  17. An animal model of human aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.; Mann, J.; Yoshida, A.

    1994-09-01

    The genetic deficiency of ALDH2, a major mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, is intimately related to alcohol sensitivity and the degree of predisposition to alcoholic diseases in humans. The ultimate biological role of ALDH2 can be exposed by knocking out the ALDH2 gene in an animal model. As the first step for this line of studies, we cloned and characterized the ALDH2 gene from mouse C57/6J strain which is associated with a high alcohol preference. The gene spans 26 kbp and is composed of 13 exons. Embryonic stem cells were transfected with a replacement vector which contains a partially deleted exon3, a positive selection cassette (pPgk Neo), exon 4 with an artificial stop codon, exons 5, 6, 7, and a negative selection cassette (pMCI-Tk). Genomic DNAs prepared from drug resistant clones were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and by Southern blot analysis to distinguish random integration from homologous recombination. Out of 132 clones examined, 8 had undergone homologous recombination at one of the ALDH2 alleles. The cloned transformed embryonic stem cells with a disrupted ALDH2 allele were injected into blastocysts. Transplantation of the blastocysts into surrogate mother mice yielded chimeric mice. The role of ALDH2 in alcohol preference, alcohol sensitivity and other biological and behavioral characteristics can be elucidated by examining the heterozygous and homozygous mutant strains produced by breeding of chimeric mice.

  18. Lactate Dehydrogenase in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Something Old, Something New

    PubMed Central

    Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Memeo, Riccardo; Casadei Gardini, Andrea; Giampieri, Riccardo; Bittoni, Alessandro; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Del Prete, Michela; Cascinu, Stefano; Scartozzi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver tumour (80–90%) and represents more than 5.7% of all cancers. Although in recent years the therapeutic options for these patients have increased, clinical results are yet unsatisfactory and the prognosis remains dismal. Clinical or molecular criteria allowing a more accurate selection of patients are in fact largely lacking. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is a glycolytic key enzyme in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate under anaerobic conditions. In preclinical models, upregulation of LDH has been suggested to ensure both an efficient anaerobic/glycolytic metabolism and a reduced dependence on oxygen under hypoxic conditions in tumour cells. Data from several analyses on different tumour types seem to suggest that LDH levels may be a significant prognostic factor. The role of LDH in HCC has been investigated by different authors in heterogeneous populations of patients. It has been tested as a potential biomarker in retrospective, small, and nonfocused studies in patients undergoing surgery, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and systemic therapy. In the major part of these studies, high LDH serum levels seem to predict a poorer outcome. We have reviewed literature in this setting trying to resume basis for future studies validating the role of LDH in this disease. PMID:27314036

  19. RECIPIENT PRETRANSPLANT INOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN NONMYELOABLATIVE HCT

    PubMed Central

    Bemer, Meagan J.; Risler, Linda J.; Phillips, Brian R.; Wang, Joanne; Storer, Barry E.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Duan, Haichuan; Raccor, Brianne S.; Boeckh, Michael J.; McCune, Jeannine S.

    2014-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid, the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity. IMPDH is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides and catalyzes the oxidation of inosine 5’- monophosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5’-monophosphate (XMP). We developed a highly sensitive liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method to quantitate XMP concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNC) isolated from the recipient pretransplant and used this method to determine IMPDH activity in 86 nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) patients. The incubation procedure and analytical method yielded acceptable within-sample and within-individual variability. Considerable between-individual variability was observed (12.2-fold). Low recipient pretransplant IMPDH activity was associated with increased day +28 donor T-cell chimerism, more acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), lower neutrophil nadirs, and more cytomegalovirus reactivation, but not with chronic GVHD, relapse, non-relapse mortality, or overall mortality. We conclude that quantitation of the recipient’s pretransplant IMPDH activity in PMNC lysate could provide a useful biomarker to evaluate a recipient’s sensitivity to MMF, but confirmatory studies are needed. Further trials should be conducted to confirm our findings and to optimize postgrafting immunosuppression in nonmyeloablative HCT recipients. PMID:24923537

  20. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase regulates hepatitis C virus replication.

    PubMed

    Jung, Gwon-Soo; Jeon, Jae-Han; Choi, Yeon-Kyung; Jang, Se Young; Park, Soo Young; Kim, Sung-Woo; Byun, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Sungwoo; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, In-Kyu; Kang, Yu Na; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    During replication, hepatitis C virus (HCV) utilizes macromolecules produced by its host cell. This process requires host cellular metabolic reprogramming to favor elevated levels of aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, we evaluated whether pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), a mitochondrial enzyme that promotes aerobic glycolysis, can regulate HCV replication. Levels of c-Myc, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), PDK1, PDK3, glucokinase, and serine biosynthetic enzymes were compared between HCV-infected and uninfected human liver and Huh-7.5 cells infected with or without HCV. Protein and mRNA expression of c-Myc, HIF-1α, and glycolytic enzymes were significantly higher in HCV-infected human liver and hepatocytes than in uninfected controls. This increase was accompanied by upregulation of serine biosynthetic enzymes, suggesting cellular metabolism was altered toward facilitated nucleotide synthesis essential for HCV replication. JQ1, a c-Myc inhibitor, and dichloroacetate (DCA), a PDK inhibitor, decreased the expression of glycolytic and serine synthetic enzymes in HCV-infected hepatocytes, resulting in suppressed viral replication. Furthermore, when co-administered with IFN-α or ribavirin, DCA further inhibited viral replication. In summary, HCV reprograms host cell metabolism to favor glycolysis and serine biosynthesis; this is mediated, at least in part, by increased PDK activity, which provides a surplus of nucleotide precursors. Therefore, blocking PDK activity might have therapeutic benefits against HCV replication. PMID:27471054