Note: This page contains sample records for the topic steel by properties from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

46 CFR 54.25-20 - Low temperature operation-ferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Low temperature operation-ferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies...Steels § 54.25-20 Low temperature operationferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment...

2010-10-01

2

46 CFR 54.25-20 - Low temperature operation-ferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Low temperature operation-ferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies...Steels § 54.25-20 Low temperature operationferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment...

2009-10-01

3

Tribological Properties of Stainless Steels Treated by Colossal Carbon Supersaturation  

SciTech Connect

A promising, alternative surface treatment to traditional case carburizing was recently developed. It enables extremely high ('colossal') super-saturation of carbon (up to 12 at%) in austenitic stainless steel surfaces. This new treatment offers the advantage of hardening the surface while still retaining the corrosion resistance of stainless steels. In this study, the tribological properties of the colossal supersaturation carburized Type 316 stainless steel were investigated and benchmarked against non-treated steel. The carburized surfaces exhibited higher hardness, higher elastic modulus, and higher corrosion resistance to acid etching than non-treated surfaces. Hot hardness measurements were conducted and linear relations between the hardness and temperature had been observed for both treated and non-treated specimens. The friction and wear characteristics were evaluated at both room and elevated temperatures (200 and 400 oC) under non-lubricated sliding conditions (pin-on-disk). Additional room-temperature tests were performed in salt water. Improved wear-resistance was observed on the treated surfaces at all test conditions, though less benefit was observed at elevated temperatures or in salt water.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

2007-01-01

4

Tensile Properties of Boronized N80 Steel Tube Cooled by Different Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructures and tensile properties of boronized N80 steel pipes by pack boriding under four different cooling conditions were investigated. The boride layer was composed of FeB and Fe2B phases with a hardness range of 1200-1600 HV. Fan cooling and fan cooling with a graphite bar in the center of the boriding agent were employed to improve the tensile properties. As cooling velocity was increased, the thickness of boride layer and grain size of the steel substrate were consequently reduced, whereas the pearlite volume in steel substrate was increased, resulting in improvement of tensile properties. Boronized N80 steel pipe which was fan cooled with a graphite bar inside possessed the highest ultimate tensile strength and yield strength, in accordance with the mechanical properties required by API SPEC 5L. Fracture surface analysis revealed that the boronized N80 steel showed ductile fracture at room temperature.

Tian, X.; Yang, Y. L.; Sun, S. J.; An, J.; Lu, Y.; Wang, Z. G.

2009-03-01

5

Influence of porosity on quasi-static compressive properties of porous metal media fabricated by stainless steel fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous metal media fabricated by stainless steel fibers were successfully prepared via vacuum sintering technology. Morphology of the porous metal media fabricated by stainless steel fibers was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy and compressive properties of porous metal media fabricated by stainless steel fibers were studied under quasi-static condition. Compressive mechanism of porous metal media fabricated by stainless

Jichao Qiao; Zhengping Xi; Huiping Tang; Jianyong Wang; Jilei Zhu

2009-01-01

6

Ultrafine Grained Steels Fabricated by Novel Processes Microstructure Evolution & Mechanical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafine grained (UFG) steels whose mean grain sizes are smaller than 1 ?m have been energetically studied in this 5 years. It is expected that ultra-grain refinement would enable us to have the advanced steels with superior properties in simple chemical compositions. Severe plastic deformation (SPD) and ultimate thermomechanical processing have realized the UFG steels at least in laboratory levels.

Nobuhiro Tsuji

2002-01-01

7

Highly enhanced interfacial adhesion properties of steel-polymer composites by dot-shaped surface patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interfacial adhesion properties between steel and epoxy layers were improved considerably by fabricating periodic square-shaped dot patterns instead of random roughness via a combination of photolithography and wet chemical etching method. Because adhesion properties are determined generally by a roughness and topography of their surfaces, several approaches have been made to control the surface roughness, topography, and energy, for example, the surface grinding via sand papers, the surface etching by acid treatments, and the surface treatments by plasma gases. Here we confirm the enhanced adhesion performance by 40% via the periodic square-shaped dot patterns compared to conventional methods. Such remarkable enhancement in the adhesion of the dot patterned steel is due to the increased cohesive fracture area and topological interlocking. We believe that this approach is very simple and truly cost-effective and can be applicable to other microelectronics and mechanical systems and will provide potential opportunities for film/coating applications.

Yun, Il Han; Kim, Won-Seock; Kim, Kyounghwan; Jung, Jin-Mi; Lee, Jung-Ju; Jung, Hee-Tae

2011-04-01

8

Structure and properties of a steel\\/white-cast-iron bimetal produced by method of carbonizing the steel melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Centrifugal bimetallization by the method of carbonizing the steel melt makes it possible to obtain a steel\\/white-cast-iron composition with a cladding layer close to the eutectic in terms of composition.2.In using post-bimetallization thermal cycling in accordance with the regime recommended for steels, the homogeneity of the cladding layer in terms of chemical composition and structure is noticeably increased, the grain

S. Z. Sapozhnikov

1985-01-01

9

Frication Property of Mo-Cr-Infiltrated Steel Layer by Plasma Surface Metallurgy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduced in this article is the technique to acquire a high performance strengthened layer on carbon steel samples, namely, plasma alloying on the surface of Q235 steel and heat treatment technology. With this technique the alloying elements of Mo, Cr, and C can be obtained on the surface of Q235 steel samples. The content of the constituent elements is approximately up to high speed steels (HSS). The surface property required for the HSS after hardening and low tempering is attained. In the test, the alloying elements Mo and Cr were penetrated into the Q235 steel samples by glow discharge sputtering so that the content of the alloyed layer on the surface of the Q235 steel samples was about 20% Mo and 10% Cr. Two kinds of experiments were conducted. One was to carry out ultra-saturated carburization. The alloyed layer's composition was similar to molybdenum HSS with surface carburizing of more than 2.0%. The carbides of the alloyed layer were compact, uniform and disperse without a coarse eutectic ledeburite structure. The another was ion nitriding after the alloying elements of Mo and Cr were penetrated. The first process included hardening with low tempering and hardening with cryogenic treatment for 2 hr and low tempering. The second one was ion nitriding only. It was found that the surface hardness after cryogenic treatment is up to 1600 HV, much higher than that without cryogenic treatment. The abrasion test results indicate that, without the penetrated alloy elements Mo and Cr and without cryogenic treatment and ion nitriding, the friction coefficient is lower by one order of magnitude. The change in relative resistance is similar to the change in the friction coefficient, but without a proportional relationship.

Xu, Jinyong; Kang, Zhicheng; Liu, Yanping; Wang, Jianzhong; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Zhong

2006-07-01

10

Effect of the Surface State of Steel on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Metal Lap Joints of Aluminum and Steel by Friction Stir Welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Friction stir lap joints of AC4C Al alloy (top sheet) and steel (zinc-coated steel, brushed finish steel, and mirror finish steel) were produced when the friction stir welding tool did not touch the lower steel surface. For zinc coat steel, the strength of joints could reach 97.7 pct of that of steel; for brushed finish steel, the strength was 63.2 pct of that of steel; for mirror finish steel, Al alloy and steel could not be welded. The effect of the surface state of steel on the microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar metal friction stir lap joints of AC4C Al alloy and steel was discussed.

Chen, Y. C.; Nakata, K.

2008-08-01

11

Effect of Posttreatment on Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Si Steel Strips Prepared by Twin-Roll Continuous Casting Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of early works, Si-steel strips with 3.0 wt pct Si content were prepared by twin-roll continuous casting (TRCC); posttreatment of double cold-rolling with different annealing temperature was completed, and accordingly, optimum parameters were ascertained. The microstructure and magnetic properties of the strips before and after posttreatment were investigated. The results indicated that Si steel strips could be successfully prepared by TRCC, and the best annealing conditions for posttreatment were 1223 K (950 C) 3 minutes in the Ar. Si steel strips exhibited the best magnetic properties after optimum posttreatment: core loss of 4.31 W/Kg and magnetic induction intensity of 1.69T. Moreover, proper posttreatment resulted in ordering of Fe3Si of the Si steel strips, and this ordering was a key factor on improvement of magnetic properties.

Yi, Yu; Zhou, Zehua; Wang, Zehua; Jiang, Shaoqun; Huang, Weidong

2012-10-01

12

Structure and mechanical properties of ceramic coatings fabricated by plasma electrolytic oxidation on aluminized steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramic coatings were formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on aluminized steel. Characteristics of the average anodic voltages versus treatment time were observed during the PEO process. The micrographs, compositions and mechanical properties of ceramic coatings were investigated. The results show that the anodic voltage profile for processing of aluminized steel is similar to that for processing bulk Al alloy during early PEO stages and that the thickness of ceramic coating increases approximately linearly with the Al layer consumption. Once the Al layer is completely transformed, the FeAl intermetallic layer begins to participate in the PEO process. At this point, the anodic voltage of aluminized steel descends, and the thickness of ceramic coating grows more slowly. At the same time, some micro-cracks are observed at the Al 2O 3/FeAl interface. The final ceramic coating mainly consists of ?-Al 2O 3, mullite, and ?-Al 2O 3 phases. PEO ceramic coatings have excellent elastic recovery and high load supporting performance. Nanohardness of ceramic coating reaches about 19.6 GPa.

Wu, Zhenqiang; Xia, Yuan; Li, Guang; Xu, Fangtao

2007-08-01

13

Tribological properties changes of H13 steel induced by MEVVA Ta ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tribological properties of Ta-implanted H13 steel was studied using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. The doses of Ta and C ions implanted on H13 steel were 51017 and 21017cm?2, respectively. The extraction voltages were 48kV for Ta implantation and 30kV for C implantation. Rutherford backscattering spectrum (RBS) was used to measure the surface composition of the

Yang Jianhua; Zhang Tonghe

2004-01-01

14

The superconducting properties of MgB2\\/(stainless steel) tapes fabricated by the PIT process  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the superconducting properties of monofilament MgB2 tapes and wires with a stainless steel (SUS316) sheath. MgB2 powder was put into a SUS316 tube with a 6.5 mm diameter; the tube was cold-rolled into a wire with a 1.4 mm-1.0 mm diameter using groove-rolling and cassette roller dies and then cold-rolled into tapes. The stainless steel sheath is

A. Matsumoto; H. Hatakeyama; H. Kitaguchi; K. Togano; H. Kumakura

2003-01-01

15

Formation and properties of diffusion coatings applied to steels by boronizing in melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the optimum modes for the formation of diffusion boride coatings on steels of various classes from liquid-metal\\u000a melts. The microstructure and physical properties of boronized steels 20, 30, 45, R18, DI22, and U10 are analyzed. The advantages\\u000a of boronizing from lithium-based melts, which enables one to combine the process of deposition with heat treatment, over the\\u000a familiar methods

V. V. Shirokov; M. I. Kitsak; E. T. Rudkovs'kyi; L. A. Arendar

1999-01-01

16

The effect of ultrasonics on the strength properties of carbon steel processed by cold plastic deformation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of the influence of ultrasounds on the mechanical properties of OLT 35 carbon steel tubes cold-drawn on a plug ultrasonically activated by longitudinal waves. Experimental results indicate that: 1. The reduction in the values of the flow limit and tensile strength is proportional to the increase in acoustic energy introduced into the material subjected to deformation. 2. The diminution in influence of ultrasounds on tensile strength and flow rate that is due to an increased degree of deformation is explained by a reduction in specific density of the acoustic energy at the focus of deformation. 3. The relations calculated on the basis of the variation in the flow limit and tensile strength as a function of acoustic energy intensity was verified experimentally.

Atanasiu, N.; Dragan, O.; Atanasiu, Z.

1974-01-01

17

Functional properties of bimetal composite of stainless steel-TiNi alloy produced by explosion welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The functional properties of TiNi-stainless steel bimetal composite produced by explosion welding were studied. The influence of the ratio of the TiNi layer thickness to the total thickness of the sample as well as the influence of preliminary deformation on the recoverable strain and a temperature of shape memory effect were studied. It was found that the best combination of strain variation observed in repeated thermal cycles was demonstrated by the bimetal sample in which the thickness of the TiNi layer was 64% of the thickness of the sample. The preliminary deformation resulted in an increase in stress stored in the sample and led to an increase in recoverable strain.

Belyaev, S.; Rubanik, V.; Resnina, N.; Rubanik (jr), V.; Rubanik, O.; Borisov, V.; Lomakin, I.

18

Properties and potential for application of steel reinforced polymer and steel reinforced grout composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces steel reinforced polymer (SRP) and steel reinforced grout (SRG) composites that are considered for application in civil engineering for bridge and concrete buildings upgrade. These composites consist of steel cords formed by interwoven steel wires embedded within a polymer resin or cementitious grout matrix. The properties of SRP are evaluated experimentally and compared to micromechanical equations to

X. Huang; V. Birman; A. Nanni; G. Tunis

2005-01-01

19

Characterization of surface mechanical properties of H13 steel implanted by plasma immersion ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AISI H13 steel samples were implanted with nitrogen using plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) at 320 or 380C. In addition, PIII was used for simultaneous implantation of carbon and nitrogen into H13 steel at 380C. Treated and untreated samples were studied by wear-friction testing, microhardness measurement, atomic force microscopy and glancing angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) diagnosis. Experimental results indicated that

Nur?en Saklako?lu

2007-01-01

20

Friction and wear properties of carbon coated tool steel with pre-implantation by PIII  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon films were deposited on high-speed tool steel substrates under 20keV of bias voltage, 1Pa of gas pressure and for 2h of process time by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). Pre-implantation with nitrogen, methane or acethylene was also carried out. In order to investigate the substrate temperature effect, carbon tool steel substrates were simultaneously treated. The final substrate temperature was

A. Mitsuo; K. Morikawa; M. Kawaguchi; S. Aoki; H. Suzuki

2009-01-01

21

Study on microstructure and mechanical properties of 304 stainless steel joints by TIG, laser and laser TIG hybrid welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigated the microstructure and mechanical properties of 304 stainless steel joints by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, laser welding and laser-TIG hybrid welding. The X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the phase composition, while the microscopy was conducted to study the microstructure characters of joints. Finally, tensile tests were performed and the fracture surfaces were analyzed. The results

Jun Yan; Ming Gao; Xiaoyan Zeng

2010-01-01

22

Characterization and mechanical properties of ultrahigh boron steels produced by powder metallurgy  

SciTech Connect

The present work is part of an investigation into the use of rapid solidification and powder metallurgy techniques to obtain iron-boron alloys with good mechanical properties. Two Fe-B binary alloys and two ultrahigh boron tool steels were gas atomized and consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at temperatures ranging from 700 C to 1,100 C to have a fine microstructure. Optimum properties were achieved for the binary alloys at low consolidation temperatures, since the solidification microstructure from the original powders is eliminated and, at the same time, fine microstructures and low porosity are obtained in the alloys. At high temperatures and low strain rates, three of the four alloys exhibited low stress exponents, but only the Fe-2.2 pct B alloy showed tensile elongations higher than 100 pct. At low temperatures, only the Fe-2.2 pct B alloy deformed plastically. This alloy showed values of tensile elongation and ultimate tensile strength that were strongly dependent on testing and consolidation temperatures.

Jimenez, J.A.; Gonzalez-Doncel, G.; Ruano, O.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, Madrid (Spain)

1996-07-01

23

Assessment of mechanical properties of the martensitic steel EUROFER97 by means of punch tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ball punch test technique was used to evaluate the conventional tensile and impact properties of the tempered martensitic steel EUROFER97 from room temperature down to liquid nitrogen temperature. The testing was carried out on unirradiated material only with small disks, 3 mm in diameter and 0.25 mm in thickness. For comparison, tensile tests were also performed over the same temperature range. Correlations between the load at the plastic bending initiation and the maximum load of the punch tests with the yield stress and the ultimate tensile stress of the tension tests could be established. The temperature dependence of the specific fracture energy of the punch test was used to define a ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and to correlate this with the DBTT measured from impact Charpy on KLST specimens. The results are compared with other available correlations done in the past on other ferritic steels.

Ruan, Y.; Sptig, P.; Victoria, M.

2002-12-01

24

Mechanical property and microstructural change by thermal aging of SCS14A cast duplex stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aging behavior, especially saturation, of JIS SCS14A cast duplex stainless steels was investigated on the basis of the mechanical properties and microstructural changes during accelerated aging at 350 C and 400 C. The aging behavior of the materials mainly proceeds via two stages. During the first stage, the generation and concentration of the iron-rich and chromium-enriched phase in ferrite occurs by phase decomposition. The first stage corresponds to aging times of up to 3000 h at 400 C. During the first stage, the ferrite hardness achieved is approximately 600 VHN, and the Charpy impact energy is almost saturated. During the second stage, the precipitated chromium-enriched phase aggregates and coarsens, and the G phase precipitation also occurs. The second stage corresponds to the aging times range of 3000-30 000 h at 400 C. During the second stage, the ferrite hardness achieved is about 800 VHN; however, further hardening exceeding 600 VHN does not influence the Charpy impact energy.

Yamada, Takuyo; Okano, Satoshi; Kuwano, Hisashi

2006-03-01

25

Microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe0.2C5Mn steel processed by ART-annealing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructure and mechanical properties of medium manganese steel (Fe0.2C5Mn) processed by annealing at 650C with annealing time up to 12h after accelerated cooling were studied. It was found that the martensite structure was gradually transformed into a superfine ferrite and austenite duplex structure by austenite reverted transformation during annealing process. The annealing heat treatment results in a large volume fraction

W. Q. Cao; C. Wang; J. Shi; M. Q. Wang; W. J. Hui; H. Dong

2011-01-01

26

Stainless Steel Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A nitrogen strengthened 21-6-9 stainless steel plate was spinformed into hemispherical test shapes. A battery of laboratory tests was used to characterize the hemispheres. The laboratory tests show that near the pole (axis) of a spinformed hemisphere the yield strength is the lowest because this area endures the least cold-work strengthening, i.e., the least deformation. The characterization indicated that stress-relief annealing spinformed stainless steel hemispheres does not degrade mechanical properties. Stress-relief annealing reduces residual stresses while maintaining relatively high mechanical properties. Full annealing completely eliminates residual stresses, but reduces yield strength by about 30%.

Switzner, Nathan T

2010-06-01

27

Microstructure and mechanical properties of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel prepared by a novel route  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel powders with nominal composition of Fe-14Cr-3W-0.2Ti-0.3Y was synthesized using a sol-gel method combining with hydrogen reduction. X-ray diffraction patterns show that pure Fe-14Cr-3W-0.2Ti-0.3Y body-centered-cubic phase was obtained at a reduction temperature of 1200 C for 3 h. Using such powders the ODS steel was produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The energy dispersive spectrometry mapping and transmission electron microscopy results indicate that the oxide particles of Y2Ti2O7 with an average size of 55 nm and particle number density of 3.2 1019 m-3 are homogeneously dispersed in the steel matrix. The tensile strength and uniform elongation of the steel that was SPS sintered and mechanically-thermally treated at 1100 C under a uniaxial pressure reach 1070 MPa and 15%, respectively.

Sun, Q. X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, X. P.; Fang, Q. F.; Hao, T.; Liu, C. S.

2012-05-01

28

Reconstruction of local magnetic properties of steel sheets by needle probe methods using space mapping techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cutting stresses introduced by punching influence the magnetic characteristics of electrical steels. A nondestructive experimental method used for measuring flux distributions in laminations is the needle probe method. The probe signals can be simulated by solving the two-dimensional nonlinear diffusion equation for the magnetic field in combination with a proper Preisach model. The Preisach parameters in several subregions of the steel sheet which best fit the input probe signals are obtained by solving the inverse problem. The method used for minimizing the cost function is the space mapping technique. This technique combines the fine model, which uses the finite element method, with a semianalytical coarse model, which reduces the nonlinear problem to a linear problem.

Crevecoeur, G.; Dupre, L.; Vandenbossche, L.; van de Walle, R.

2006-04-01

29

Fatigue properties of a SAE 4340 steel coated with TiCN by PAPVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation has been carried out in order to study the fatigue performance, both in air and in a 3wt.% NaCl solution, of a quenched and tempered (Q&T) SAE 4340 steel substrate coated with a TiCN film of ?4?m in thickness deposited by plasma assisted physical vapor deposition (PAPVD). The results obtained show that the presence of the coating provides

E. S. Puchi-Cabrera; M. H. Staia; D. T. Quinto; C. Villalobos-Gutirrez; E. Ochoa-Prez

2007-01-01

30

Corrosion properties of N-doped austenitic stainless steel films prepared by IBAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen incorporation into 316-L stainless steel was performed by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) equipped with one Kaufman ion beam source in Ar\\/N2 gas mixture and one electron beam source to investigate the effects of Ar\\/N2 gas ratio on the crystal structure and corrosion resistance of the coatings. An austenitic fcc structure with strong (111) preferred orientation was found for

Yo-Seung Song; Joon-Hee Lee; Ku-Hyun Lee; Deuk Yong Lee

2005-01-01

31

Formation of structure and properties of composite bronzes reinforced by steel dendrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation of experimental alloys of the BrZhNKA 9-4-1-1 type has shown the possibility of production of bronzes as antifriction alloys, in which, instead of brittle intermetallic compounds, steel dendrite-like inclusions of, e.g., steel N12K7Yu, are used. In these alloys, the phenomenon of the redistribution of alloying elements (Ni, Co, Al) between the matrix and dendrites in the process of heat treatments has been considered. The growth of these dendrites was found to occur in the solid state via the directional diffusion of Fe, Ni, and Co from the copper matrix to dendrites. This leads to the formation of a shell around them, which represents a substitutional solid solution of Cu, Ni, and Co in iron, e.g., with a composition of Fe6Cu3Ni2Co. On the whole, the mechanical, tribological, and engineering properties of such bronzes, e.g., BrZhNKA 9-4-1-1, are higher than those of the well-known antifriction bronzes BrO10 or BrAZhN 10-4-4.

Potekhin, B. A.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Khristolyubov, A. S.; Zhilyakov, A. Yu.

2014-04-01

32

Frication Property of Mo-Cr-Infiltrated Steel Layer by Plasma Surface Metallurgy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced in this article is the technique to acquire a high performance strengthened layer on carbon steel samples, namely, plasma alloying on the surface of Q235 steel and heat treatment technology. With this technique the alloying elements of Mo, Cr, and C can be obtained on the surface of Q235 steel samples. The content of the constituent elements is approximately

Jinyong Xu; Zhicheng Kang; Yanping Liu; Jianzhong Wang; Yuan Gao; Zhong Xu

2006-01-01

33

Structural and tribological properties of carbon steels modified by plasma pulses containing inert and active ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that phase transformations into austenite can take place in the surface layer of steels irradiated with intense pulses of laser, ion or plasma beams. Due to the presence of nitrogen and carbon expanded austenite in stainless steel, good corrosion resistance is maintained while the wear resistance is increased. A series of carbon steels with various carbon contents

B. Sartowska; J. Piekoszewski; L. Wali?; J. Senatorski; J. Stanis?awski; R. Ratajczak; L. Nowicki; M. Kopcewicz; F. Prokert; M. Barlak

2007-01-01

34

Properties of Fe-Al-Si high-damping steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several high-damping materials have been developed in recent years to decrease vibration and noise levels of machines and structures. The most important damping steels have been Fe- 12Cr-based alloys. These steels exhibit high damping capacity combined with rather good mechanical and corrosion properties. A new vibration damping Fe-2.5Al-0.5Si steel has been developed by NKK-Corporation in Japan, and it is produced under a trade name of NKK- SERENA. This steel is a potential multi-purpose damping steel, because it is more economical than the previous steels. Damping capacity of NKK-SERENA is very high in wide temperature and frequency ranges, and its mechanical properties are similar to those of common structural steels. In this study, mechanical, welding and corrosion properties, and the results of the microstructural characterization are presented.

Aaltio, Ilkka; Ullakko, Kari; Hanninen, Hannu

1996-05-01

35

Structure and properties of a steel-based multilayer material produced by hot pack rolling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of a multilayer metal material (MMM) produced from the U8 and 08Kh18N10 steels by the pack-rolling method has been studied using metallography and transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that two process cycles end in the formation of a laminated structure, which is characterized by structural and chemical inhomogeneity due to diffusion and relaxation processes. It is shown that, during pack rolling, an ultradispersed structure is formed in the layers; this structure is a mixture of ferrite, martensite, and austenite that consist of elements of submicrocrystalline, nanocrystalline, and microtwinned structures.

Tabatchikova, T. I.; Plokhikh, A. I.; Yakovlev, I. L.; Klyueva, S. Yu.

2013-07-01

36

Effect of Mo substitution by W on impact property of heat affected zone in duplex stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The duplex stainless steels are characterized by two phase structures composed of a mixture of austenite and ferrite phases. They offer high toughness, good weldability, satisfactory corrosion protection, excellent stress corrosion cracking resistance and high strength. Because of these characteristics, these steels have been widely used in various applications such as oil, gas, and chemical industries. Duplex stainless steels generally

Mann Joo Huh; Sang Beom Kim; Kyung Wook Paik; Young Gil Kim

1997-01-01

37

Thermophysical properties of stainless steel foils  

SciTech Connect

Evacuated panel superinsulations with very high center-of-panel thermal resistances are being developed for use in refrigerators/freezers. Attainment of high resistances relies upon the maintenance of low vacuum levels by the use of stainless steel vacuum jackets. However, the metal jackets also present a path for heat conduction around the high resistance fillers. This paper presents results of a study of the impact of metal vacuum jackets on the overall thermal performance of vacuum superinsulations when incorporated into the walls and doors of refrigerators/freezers. Results are presented on measurements of the thermophysical properties of several types and thicknesses of stainless steel foils that were being considered for application in superinsulations. A direct electrical heating method was used for simultaneous measurements of the electrical resistivity, total hemispherical emittance, and thermal conductivity of the foils. Results are also presented on simulations of the energy usage of refrigerators/freezers containing stainless-steel-clad vacuum superinsulations.

Wilkes, K.E.; Strizak, J.P.; Weaver, F.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Besser, J.E.; Smith, D.L. [Aladdin Industries, Inc. (United States)

1997-10-01

38

The magnetic properties of seamless steel pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic and metallurgical properties of seamless pipe steel have been investigated as a function of position around the pipe circumference. No changes in magnetic properties were found to be associated with the four cycle spiral variations in pipe wall thickness introduced during forging. A weaker single cycle thickness variation was accompanied by a change both in magnetic properties and pearlite fraction. The coercive field predicted from an empirical relationship between grain size and ferrite and pearlite fractions was found to be in excellent agreement with that measured experimentally.

Willcock, S. N. M.; Tanner, B. K.; Mundell, P. A.

1987-03-01

39

A comparative study of the mechanical properties and the behavior of carbon and boron in stainless steel cladding tubes fabricated by PM HIP and traditional technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ring tensile test method was optimized and successfully used to obtain precise data for specimens of the cladding tubes of AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steels and ferritic-martensitic stainless steel. The positive modifications in the tensile properties of the stainless steel cladding tubes fabricated by powder metallurgy and hot isostatic pressing of melt atomized powders (PM HIP) when compared with the cladding tubes produced by traditional technology were found. Presently, PM HIP is also used in the fabrication of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels. The high degree of homogeneity of the distribution of carbon and boron as well the high dispersivity of the phase-structure elements in the specimens manufactured via PM HIP were determined by direct autoradiography methods. These results correlate well with the increase of the tensile properties of the specimens produced by PM HIP technology.

Shulga, A. V.

2013-03-01

40

Study on microstructure and mechanical properties of 304 stainless steel joints by TIG, laser and laser -TIG hybrid welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigated the microstructure and mechanical properties of 304 stainless steel joints by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, laser welding and laser-TIG hybrid welding. The X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the phase composition, while the microscopy was conducted to study the microstructure characters of joints. Finally, tensile tests were performed and the fracture surfaces were analyzed. The results showed that the joint by laser welding had highest tensile strength and smallest dendrite size in all joints, while the joint by TIG welding had lowest tensile strength, biggest dendrite size. Furthermore, transition zone and heat affected zone can be observed in the joint of TIG welding. The fractograph observation showed that the TIG welding joint existed as cup-cone shaped fracture, while the laser welding and hybrid welding joints existed as pure-shear fracture. The laser welding and hybrid welding are suitable for welding 304 stainless steel owing to their high welding speed and excellent mechanical properties.

Yan, Jun; Gao, Ming; Zeng, Xiaoyan

2010-04-01

41

Influence of modification by vanadium nitrides on the mechanical and physical properties of 25L constructional steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclustions 1.The effect of use of vanadium nitrides for increasing the mechanical properties of 25L steel occurs in redistribution of the nitrides in the liquid and solid states, and a necessary condition for use of vanadium nitrides is correct choice of the heat-treatment cycle.2.The quantity of vanadium nitride additions and the heat-treatment cycle of 25L steel providing the optimum combination

I. I. Ishchenko; B. N. Sinaiskii; G. G. Lutsenko; A. A. Kritsuk; V. V. Kasperskaya

1985-01-01

42

Evaluation of the Joint-Interface Properties of SCM440-S45C Steels Joined by Friction Welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate experimentally the hardness distributions and micro-structural properties of the dissimilar joints using chrome molybdenum steel (SCM440) to carbon steel (S45C) parts. The experiments were carried out using a beforehand designed and constructed experimental friction welding set-up, constructed as a continuous-drive brake type. The pilot dissimilar welding experiments under different friction pressure and

Seon-Jin Kim; Yu-Sik Kong; Han-Ki Yoon; Won-Taek Jung; Sung-Woong Choi

2010-01-01

43

Microstructures and mechanical properties of boride-dispersed precipitation-hardening stainless steels produced by RST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two commercial precipitation-hardening (PH) stainless steels were modified with 2.64 to 2.86 wt% Ti and 1.2 to 1.3 wt% B via rapid solidification technology (RST) and powder metallurgy (PM). The resulting alloys exhibited improved tensile and yield strengths over their commercial PH stainless steel counterparts at room and elevated temperatures. Ductility improvements at elevated temperatures were also observed. The improved

Steve Hahn; Saul Isserow; Ranjan Ray

1987-01-01

44

Interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminiumzinc-coated steel joints made by a modified metal inert gas weldingbrazing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure and properties of aluminiumzinc coated steel lap joints made by a modified metal inert gas CMT weldingbrazing process was investigated. It was found that the nature and the thickness of the high-hardness intermetallic compound layer which formed at the interface between the steel and the weld metal during the welding process varied with the heat inputs. From the

H. T. Zhang; J. C. Feng; P. He; H. Hackl

2007-01-01

45

Magnetic properties of the UNS S39205 duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplex stainless steels (DSS) present a fine microstructure of paramagnetic austenite and ferromagnetic ferrite. In this work the microstructures of UNS S39205 (old S31803) duplex stainless steel (DSS) samples were modified by high temperature treatment at 1300C in vacuum followed by four different cooling rates and thermal aging at 475C for three different times. Magnetic properties (saturation magnetization, remanence, coercive

S. S. M Tavares; P. D. S Pedrosa; J. R Teodsio; M. R da Silva; J. M Neto; S Pairis

2003-01-01

46

Effect of heat treatments on tensile properties of F82H steel irradiated by neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dependence of irradiation hardening of F82H steel on tempering conditions was examined by JMTR and HFIR irradiation experiments. The JMTR and HFIR irradiations were performed to 2 dpa at 250 C and 5 dpa at 300 C, respectively. Irradiation hardening measured at 25-400 C depended strongly on tempering conditions, and it basically increased with temperature and time of tempering. The increment of yield stress due to irradiation was negligible at 500 C in the specimens tempered at 750 C for 0.5-10 h, but was measured to be 130-200 MPa in the specimens tempered at 780 and 800 C for 0.5 h. Irradiation hardening of F82H that was heat treated to produce a weld-like material was also examine. The weld-like material was annealed at 800, 860 and 920 C for 0.5 h, and then continuously annealed at 700 C. The level of irradiation hardening depended on the heat treatment conditions. From these results, it is suggested that the control of heat treatments such as tempering is useful to resist irradiation hardening and embrittlement.

Wakai, E.; Ando, M.; Sawai, T.; Tanigawa, H.; Taguchi, T.; Stoller, R. E.; Yamamoto, T.; Kato, Y.; Takada, F.

2007-08-01

47

Effect of the Surface State of Steel on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Metal Lap Joints of Aluminum and Steel by Friction Stir Welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction stir lap joints of AC4C Al alloy (top sheet) and steel (zinc-coated steel, brushed finish steel, and mirror finish\\u000a steel) were produced when the friction stir welding tool did not touch the lower steel surface. For zinc coat steel, the strength\\u000a of joints could reach 97.7pct of that of steel; for brushed finish steel, the strength was 63.2pct of

Y. C. Chen; K. Nakata

2008-01-01

48

Hydrophilic property of 316L stainless steel after treatment by atmospheric pressure corona streamer plasma using surface-sensitive analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surgical-grade 316L stainless steel (SS 316L) had its surface hydrophilic property enhanced by processing in a corona streamer plasma reactor using O2 gas mixed with Ar at atmospheric pressure. Reactor excitation was 60 Hz ac high-voltage (0-10 kVRMS) applied to a multi-needle-to-grounded screen electrode configuration. The treated surface was characterized with a contact angle tester. Surface free energy (SFE) for the treated stainless steel increased measurably compared to the untreated surface. The Ar-O2 plasma was more effective in enhancing the SFE than Ar-only plasma. Optimum conditions for the plasma treatment system used in this study were obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization of the chemical composition of the treated surfaces confirms the existence of new oxygen-containing functional groups contributing to the change in the hydrophilic nature of the surface. These new functional groups were generated by surface reactions caused by reactive oxidation of substrate species. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images were generated to investigate morphological and roughness changes on the plasma treated surfaces. The aging effect in air after treatment was also studied.

Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim; Pedrow, Patrick; Eskhan, Asma; Abu-Lail, Nehal

2012-10-01

49

Iron and Steel- Properties and Applications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides a learning module on iron and steel for use in materials education. The lesson examines the basic properties of iron and steel and includes discussions, demonstrations and suggested optional classroom activities. The materials can be covered in one to two class periods.

Stoebe, Thomas G.

2011-09-20

50

Comparison of fracture toughness and Charpy impact properties recovery by thermal annealing of irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation was to study the effects of thermal annealing on the recovery of the transition region toughness of reactor pressure vessel steels. The toughness was measured by Charpy V-notch impact energy and fracture initiation toughness, K{sub Jc}. The materials were A 533 grade B class 1 plate and a commercial reactor vessel submerged-arc weld irradiated at 288{degrees}C to neutron fluences of 1.0 to 2.5 {times} 101{degrees} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). The irradiated materials were annealed at 343 and 454{degrees}C for 1 week. The recently developed Weibull statistic/master curve approach was applied to analyze fracture toughness properties of unirradiated, irradiated, and irradiated/annealed pressure vessel steels. The effects of irradiation or annealing were determined by the shift in temperature of the Charpy V-notch curve at 41 J and the fracture toughness curve at 100 MPa{radical}m. After annealing at 454{degrees}C, the residual shifts in fracture toughness are approximately the same as the residual Charpy shifts. The differences observed in these residual shifts after annealing are approximately the same as differences in the radiation-induced shifts.

Sokolov, M.A.; McCabe, D.E.; Iskander, S.K.; Nanstad, R.K.

1995-12-01

51

Mechanical properties of duplex layer formed on AISI 403 stainless steel by chromizing and boronizing treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the high temperature performance of AISI 403 martensitic stainless steel, duplex surface treatment which combines the methods of pack cementation chromizing and boronizing was carried out. Specimens were chromized at 1100 C for 2 h and were subsequently boronized in a solid medium consisting of EKabor-III powders at 950 C for 9 h. The characteristics of

Sang Yul Lee; Gwang Seok Kim; Bum-Suk Kim

2004-01-01

52

Evolution of surfaces properties for 100Cr6 steel by implantation and ionic mixing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Physico-chemical characterizations performed on samples of 100Cr6 steel implanted both with boron and nitrogen revealed the formation of boron nitride along with the following new phases: Fe(sub 1-x)(B, N), Fe(sub 2-x)(B, N) and Fe(sub 3-x)(B, N). A thoro...

A. Faussemagne

1996-01-01

53

Determining the shear fracture properties of HIP joints of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel by a torsion test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is a key technology used to fabricate a first wall with cooling channels for the fusion blanket system utilizing a reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel. To qualify the HIPped components, small specimen test techniques are beneficial not only to evaluate the thin-wall cooling channels containing the HIP joint but also to use in neutron irradiation studies. This study aims to develop the torsion test method with special emphasis on providing a reasonable and comprehensive method to determine interfacial shear properties of HIP joints during the torsional fracture process. Torsion test results identified that the torsion process shows yield of the base metal followed by non-elastic deformation due to work hardening of the base metal. By considering this work hardening issue, we propose a reasonable and realistic solution to determine the torsional yield shear stress and the ultimate torsional shear strength of the HIPped interface. Finally, a representative torsion fracture process was identified.

Nozawa, Takashi; Noh, Sanghoon; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

2012-08-01

54

Influence of Deposition Conditions on Fatigue Properties of Martensitic Stainless Steel with Tin Film Coated by Arc Ion Plating Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface properties like roughness etc. strongly influence the fatigue strength of high-tensile steel. To investigate the effect of surface condition and TiN coating on the fatigue strength of high-strength steel, four-point bending fatigue tests were carried out for martensitic stainless steel with TiN film coated using arc ion plating (AIP) method. This study, using samples that had been polished under several size of grind particle, examines the influence of pre-coating treatment on fatigue properties. A 2-m-thick TiN film was deposited onto the substrate under three kinds of polishing condition. The difference of the hardness originated in the residual stress or thin deformation layer where the difference of the size of grinding particle of the surface polishing. And it leads the transformation of the interface of the substrate and the TiN film and improves fatigue limit.

Fukui, Satoshi; Yonekura, Daisuke; Murakami, Ri-Ichi

55

Microstructures and mechanical properties of a Cu-bearing ODS steel fabricated by mechanical alloying and hot extrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attractive way to improve the strength of ODS ferritic steels is to develop a Cu-bearing nanostructure. Pre-alloyed powders were prepared through mechanical alloying and consolidated by hot extrusion. After solution treatment, a nanocrystalline structure with a grain size of 200-400 nm is obtained. After aging for 3 h, the microhardness reaches a peak value of HV385, which is attributed to the precipitation of copper-rich phase. The microhardness tends to retain a stable value of HV322 after aging for 60 h. Mechanical properties tests show a much higher strength than Cu-free alloy and bimodal-grained alloy due to the strengthening effect of copper-rich phases and nanograins.

Dou, Yuhai; Liu, Yong; Liu, Feng; Fang, Jinghua; Wen, Yuren; Zhao, Dapeng; Song, Ni

2013-03-01

56

Tailoring the Mechanical Properties of a Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steel by Retention of Deformation Twins During Heat Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relation between microstructure and mechanical properties of a 30 pct cold-rolled, recovery-annealed, and recrystallization-annealed Fe-23Mn-1.5Al-0.3C twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel was studied. The thermal stability of deformation-induced twin boundaries along with a reduced dislocation density due to annihilation during recovery annealing at 903 K (630 C) was found to be a simple, promising processing route to overcome the shortcoming of low yield strength usually associated with TWIP steels.

Haase, Christian; Barrales-Mora, Luis Antonio; Molodov, Dmitri A.; Gottstein, Gnter

2013-10-01

57

Evaluation of 410 Stainless Steel Produced by the Watts Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary investigation was undertaken to compare the properties obtainable in a 410 stainless steel produced by the Watts Process with those of a conventionally cast 410 stainless steel alloy. Material produced by the Watts Process was subjected to t...

V. J. Colangelo G. P. Lessen

1975-01-01

58

Anti-scuffing properties of ion sulfide layers on three hard steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the anti-scuffing properties of steels, a new low temperature ion sulfuration technology was utilized to modify the surfaces of high speed steel, die steel and plain carbon steel. Sulfide layers, dominated by FeS phase, were produced on the surfaces of the three steels. The anti-scuffing and tribological properties of the sulfide layers were investigated on a

Hai-Dou Wang; Da-Ming Zhuang; Kun-Lin Wang; Jia-Jun Liu

2002-01-01

59

Effect of cathodic hydrogenation on the mechanical properties of AISI 304 stainless steel nitrided by ion implantation, glow discharge and plasma immersion ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen embrittlement in austenitic stainless steels is restricted to the surface due to the low hydrogen diffusion in austenitic structures. The effect of three different nitriding processes: ion implantation (II), plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3) and glow discharge (GD), on the mechanical and structural properties of cathodically hydrogenated AISI 304 stainless steel were studied in the present work. Cathodic hydrogenation was made on untreated and nitrided samples. Surface microstructure after nitriding and hydrogenation was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Mechanical properties were measured by instrumented indentation. Surface crack formation and hardness decrease was observed in non-nitrided samples after cathodic hydrogenation. Hardness of nitrided samples decreases after hydrogen degassing but still has values higher than untreated samples. Comparative analysis of nitriding processes and working conditions indicated that glow discharge plasma nitriding process at 400 C or 450 C is the most adequate to avoid crack formation in steel surface after cathodic hydrogenation.

Foerster, C. E.; Souza, J. F. P.; Silva, C. A.; Ueda, M.; Kuromoto, N. K.; Serbena, F. C.; Silva, S. L. R.; Lepienski, C. M.

2007-04-01

60

Damping capacity and mechanical property of hexagonal boron nitride-dispersed composite steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite steels with an iron-hexagonal boron nitride sintered core and steel were prepared by powder metallurgy. Their damping capacities and mechanical properties were then examined. The internal friction of hexagonal boron nitride-dispersed composite steel reaches a maximum at a hexagonal boron nitride content of 4 mass%. This is because the internal friction of the composite steel depends upon both the

Hidekazu Sueyoshi; Nurul Taufiqu Rochman; Sigeto Kawano

2003-01-01

61

Microstructures and mechanical properties after heating of reinforcing 500 MPa class weldable steels produced by various processes (Tempcore, microalloyed with vanadium and work-hardened)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures after fire can be assessed if the modified mechanical properties of the building materials, designated here as residual, are known. In this respect, the residual properties of reinforcing steels produced (a) by the Tempcore process; (b) microalloying with vanadium; and (c) work-hardening, all falling into grade FeB500S, were selected for investigation, aiming

J Nikolaou; G. D Papadimitriou

2004-01-01

62

Fracture Resistant Properties of Aermet Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to report well-controlled experiments conducted to determine the fracture resistant properties of AerMet(Trademark) 100 steels. One of the objectives of this study is to determine the influence of fracture toughness properties...

L. C. Chhabildas W. D. Reinhart M. E. Kipp T. F. Thornhill D. R. Reedal L. T. Wilson D. E. Grady

2000-01-01

63

Evaluation of the joint-interface properties of austenitic-stainless steels (AISI 304) joined by friction welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate experimentally the micro-structural properties and welding strengths of the joints using austenitic-stainless steel (AISI 304) parts. The experiments were carried out using a beforehand designed and constructed experimental friction welding set-up, constructed as continuous-drive. Firstly, pilot welding experiments under different friction time and friction pressure were carried out to obtain optimum parameters

Mumin Sahin

2007-01-01

64

Thermophysical property sensitivity effects in steel solidification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The simulation of advanced solidification processes via digital computer techniques has gained widespread acceptance during the last decade or so. Models today can predict transient temperature fields, fluid flow fields, important microstructural parameters, and potential defects in castings. However, the lack of accurate thermophysical property data on important industrial alloys threatens to limit the ability of manufacturers to fully capitalize on the technology's benefits. A study of the sensitivity of one such numerical model of a steel plate casting to imposed variations in the data utilized for the thermal conductivity, specific heat, density, and heat of fusion is described. The sensitivity of the data's variability is characterized by its effects on the net solidification time of various points along the centerline of the plate casting. Recommendations for property measurements are given and the implications of data uncertainty for modelers are discussed.

Overfelt, Tony

1993-01-01

65

Improvement of mechanical and tribological properties in steel surfaces by using titanium-aluminum/titanium-aluminum nitride multilayered system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvement of mechanical and tribological properties on AISI D3 steel surfaces coated with [Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N]n multilayer systems deposited in various bilayer periods (?) via magnetron co-sputtering pulsed d.c. method, from a metallic binary target; has been studied in this work exhaustively. The multilayer coatings were characterized in terms of structural, chemical, morphological, mechanical and tribological properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation, pin-on-disc and scratch tests, respectively. The failure mode mechanisms were studied by optical microscopy. Results from X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the crystal structure of TiAl/TiAlN multilayer coatings has a tetragonal and FCC NaCl-type lattice structures for Ti-Al and Ti-Al-N, respectively, i.e., it was found to be non-isostructural multilayers. An enhancement of both hardness and elastic modulus up to 29 GPa and 260 GPa, respectively, was observed as the bilayer periods (?) in the coatings were decreased. The sample with a bilayer period (?) of 25 nm and bilayer number n = 100 showed the lowest friction coefficient (0.28) and the highest critical load (45 N), corresponding to 2.7 and 1.5 times better than those values for the coating deposited with n = 1, respectively. These results indicate an enhancement of mechanical, tribological and adhesion properties, comparing to the [Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N]n multilayer systems with 1 bilayer at 26%, 63% and 33%, respectively. This enhancement in hardness and toughness for multilayer coatings could be attributed to the different mechanisms for layer formation with nanometric thickness such as the novel Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N effect and the number of interfaces that act as obstacles for the crack deflection and dissipation of crack energy.

Ipaz, L.; Caicedo, J. C.; Esteve, J.; Espinoza-Beltran, F. J.; Zambrano, G.

2012-02-01

66

Mechanical properties of rapidly solidified Type 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly solidified Type 304 stainless steel (SS) powder produced by the centrifugal atomization process was consolidated by hot extrusion techniques. Tensile, creep-rupture, and fatigue tests were performed on the extruded material and the mechanical properties data are compared with those of conventionally prepared wrought material. The properties of the rapidly solidified material are superior or equivalent to conventional Type 304

G. E. Korth; J. E. Flinn

1985-01-01

67

Evaluation of the Joint-Interface Properties of SCM440-S45C Steels Joined by Friction Welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to investigate experimentally the hardness distributions and micro-structural properties of the dissimilar joints using chrome molybdenum steel (SCM440) to carbon steel (S45C) parts. The experiments were carried out using a beforehand designed and constructed experimental friction welding set-up, constructed as a continuous-drive brake type. The pilot dissimilar welding experiments under different friction pressure and friction time were carried out to obtain optimum welding parameters using visual examination and tensile tests. Vicker's hardness distributions and microstructures in the interfaces of the dissimilar joints for PWHT were also obtained and examined. The obtained results were compared with those of the previous study.

Kim, Seon-Jin; Kong, Yu-Sik; Yoon, Han-Ki; Jung, Won-Taek; Choi, Sung-Woong

68

PROPERTIES OF URANIUM DIOXIDE-STAINLESS STEEL DISPERSION FUEL PLATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and mechanical properties of GCRE-type fuel elements were ;\\u000a determined from room temperature to 1650 deg F. The fuel elements were prepared ;\\u000a by cladding Type 318 stainless steel sheet to a core containing 15 to 35 wt.% UO\\/;\\u000a sub 2\\/ in either prealloyed Type 318 stainless steel or elemental iron-18 wt.% ;\\u000a chromium-14 wt. % nickel-2.5 wt.

S. J. Paprocki; D. L. Keller; J. M. Fackelmann

1959-01-01

69

Interface properties of aluminum\\/steel friction-welded components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the metallurgy of the interface of metal\\/metal friction-welded components is essential for understanding the quality of bonding. We have studied, through optical and electron microscopy, and tensile strength measurements, the bonding properties of Al and interstitial free steel and Al and stainless steel friction-welded components. The samples were produced by varying the friction time and rotational speed,

M. Y?lmaz; M. l; M. Acet

2002-01-01

70

Mechanical properties of steels after vacuum and gas carburizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.After heating to 1100C and subsequent phase recrystallization to cycles making it possible to obtain an approximately 2 mm case depth in vacuum carburizing the mechanical properties (st, sy, ?, d) of the investigated steel and also the impact strengtha1 do not drop with the exception ofa1, of 20Kh steel, which decreases by 6.7% after heating at 1100C for 2h.2.The

A. G. Goncharov; R. P. Uvarova

1990-01-01

71

Thermal models of ASRM case steel properties  

SciTech Connect

High performance alloy steels require many heat treatment steps in order to realize their potential. These heat treatments create residual stresses and deformations which must be taken into account when designing forgings to insure final machined part tolerances can be met. These residuals can be computed with reasonable precision through thermal stress modeling, provided detailed material property data are known. This paper discusses thermophysical properties determined for HP 9-4-30 steel. A particularly interesting feature of this material is specific heat hysteresis, in which rapid quenches from the austenitic region follow a different c-T curve than do slow equilibrium temperature changes. This hysteresis was determined through a novel combination of thermal modeling with experimental data. The specific heat behavior of HP 9-4-30 should be characteristic of similar alloy steels which undergo phase changes, and this hysteresis needs to be included in thermal models of high temperature quenches. 8 refs.

Rea, S.N.; Cheng, N.; Mohn, W.R. (Aerojet, Iuka, MS (United States) Babcock Wilcox Research Center, Alliance, OH (United States))

1993-01-01

72

Changes of microstructure and mechanical properties of cold-rolled low carbon steel due to its surface treatment by Nd:glass pulsed laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold-rolled low-carbon rimming steel (i.e. not killed with Al or Si and not continuous but cast in a form) was surface-treated using a Nd:glass pulsed laser. The changes of the microstructure parameters were analysed by X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. The modification of mechanical properties was evaluated by the changes of the residual macrostresses and Vickers microhardness values. It has

I Iordanova; V Antonov; S Gurkovsky

2002-01-01

73

X-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel (u)  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel vessels are used to enclose solid materials for studying x-ray radiolysis that involves gas release from the materials. Commercially available stainless steel components are easily adapted to form a static or a dynamic condition to monitor the gas evolved from the solid materials during and after the x-ray irradiation. Experimental data published on the x-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel, however, are very scarce, especially over a wide range of x-ray energies. The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data that will be used to determine how a poly-energetic x-ray beam is attenuated by the stainless steel container wall. The data will also be used in conjunction with MCNP (Monte Carlos Nuclear Particle) modeling to develop an accurate method for determining energy absorbed in known solid samples contained in stainless steel vessels. In this study, experiments to measure the attenuation properties of stainless steel were performed for a range of bremsstrahlung x-ray beams with a maximum energy ranging from 150 keV to 10 MeV. Bremsstrahlung x-ray beams of these energies are commonly used in radiography of engineering and weapon components. The weapon surveillance community has a great interest in understanding how the x-rays in radiography affect short-term and long-term properties of weapon materials.

Wang, Lily L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berry, Phillip C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

74

Processing and Properties of 18Ni Maraging Steel by Powder Metallurgy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using 18Ni Mar 300 powder processed by the rotating electrode process, rods were extruded under varying temperatures and ram speeds. It is observed that control of both variables allows structure control and increases the Charpy V-notch toughness from 7 t...

E. P. Abrahamson

1973-01-01

75

Tensile elastic properties of 18:8 chromium-nickel steel as affected by plastic deformation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between stress and strain, and between stress and permanent set, for 18:8 alloy as affected by prior plastic deformation is discussed. Hysteresis and creep and their effects on the stress-strain and stress-set curves are also considered, as well as the influence of duration of the rest interval after cold work and the influence of plastic deformation on proof stresses, on the modulus of elasticity at zero stress, and on the curvature of the stress-strain line. A constant (c sub 1) is suggested to represent the variation of the modulus of elasticity with stress.

Mcadam, D J; Mebs, R W

1939-01-01

76

The microstructure and properties of 17-4PH martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel modified by plasma nitrocarburizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

17-4PH martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel was plasma nitrocarburized at 430C and 460C for 8h. The nitrocarburized layers were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, microhardness tests, pin-on-disc tribometer and the anodic polarization method in a 3.5% NaCl solution. The results show that the microstructure of plasma nitrocarburized layer is characterized by a compound layer with no

R. L. Liu; M. F. Yan

2010-01-01

77

Local properties of undermatched steel weld metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples from two undermatched, multipass welds on 50.8-mm-thick HY-100 steel were tested using a novel microtensile test machine and the local material properties were investigated using a chemical analysis, metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microtensile test technique allowed samples from individual weld beads and weldmetal heat-affected zones to be tested in three orthogonal directions. Relationships between local microhardness and tensile properties were established. The filler metals for the two welds were MIL-70S and MIL-100S. The MIL-70S weld formed ferritic microstructures; the weld-metal heat-affected sites were predominantly polygonal ferrite, while the as-deposited regions were a mixture of lath and polygonal ferrite. This weld showed a large variation in properties from the central weld bead to the outer ones. The outermost site exhibited significant anisotropy in strength that was not revealed by microhardness measurements. The yield strength specification was 483 MPa, while the average at the center of the weld was 675 MPa and the outer sites had an average of 445 MPa. Elongation for the samples from the center was significantly lower as well, 5 pct as compared to 18 pct for the outer sites. The yield strength showed a strong correlation with the size of inclusions measured by TEM. Microprobe analysis found no dilution of the base metal alloying additions into the weld metal. The MIL-100S filler formed predominantly fine acicular ferrite throughout the weld. The strength was much more uniform; the yield strength specification was 690 MPa, while the center of the weld was 756 MPa and the outer sites had an average of 616 MPa. The inclusion size did not play an important role in the variation in mechanical properties.

Lavan, David A.; Sharpe, W. N.

2001-04-01

78

Fabrication of lotus-type porous carbon steel by the continuous zone melting method and its mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lotus-type porous carbon steel with cylindrical pores was fabricated by the continuous zone melting method in a pressurized\\u000a mixture of hydrogen and helium gases. The porosity increases with increasing partial pressure of the hydrogen gas, while the\\u000a pore diameter remains almost constant, independent of the pressure. The ultimate tensile strength of the specimen with cylindrical\\u000a pores parallel to the

Toshihiko Kujime; Soong-Keun Hyun; Hideo Nakajima

2006-01-01

79

Mechanical properties of ferrite-perlite and martensitic Fe-Mn-V-Ti-C steel processed by equal-channel angular pressing and high-temeperature annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the method of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP), submicrocrystalline structure is formed in lowcarbon Fe-Mn-V-Ti-C steel with the average grain size 260 nm in the ferrite-perlite state and 310 nm in the martensitic state. It is established that the ECAP treatment gives rise to improved mechanical properties (H? = 2.9 GPa, ?0 = 990 MPa in the ferrite-perlite and H? = 3.7 GPa, ?0 = 1125 MPa in martensitic states), decreased plasticity, and results in plastic flow localization under tensile loading. The high strength properties formed by the ECAP are shown to sustain up to the annealing temperature 500C.

Zakharova, G. G.; Astafurova, E. G.; Tukeeva, M. S.; Naidenkin, E. V.; Raab, G. I.; Dobatkin, S. V.

2011-09-01

80

The structure and properties of forged composite high-speed steel: Titanium carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of a powder composite (carbide steel) based on high-speed steel with dispersed inclusions of titanium carbide\\u000a and obtained by forging powdered billets is investigated. The elemental and chemical composition of the material is determined.\\u000a The physicomechanical properties of the forged carbide steels obtained are compared with those obtained by other methods.

L. I. Svistun; D. V. Dmitrenko; R. L. Plomodyalo; G. G. Serdyuk

2009-01-01

81

Combined effect of silica fume and steel fiber on the mechanical properties of high strength concretes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experimental study, the changes on some mechanical properties of concrete specimens produced by using silica fume and steel fiber were investigated. The main objective of this work is to obtain a more ductile high strength concrete produced by using both silica fume and steel fiber. Two types of steel fibers with aspect ratios (fiber length\\/fiber diameter) of 65

Fuat Kksal; Fatih Altun; ?lhami Yi?it; Yu?a ?ahin

2008-01-01

82

Correlation of Microstructure, Chip-Forming Properties, and Dynamic Torsional Properties in Free-Machining Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four free-machining steels were fabricated by varying volume fractions of MnS and soft metal additives of Pb and Bi, and their microstructures, tensile properties, chip-forming properties, and dynamic torsional properties were analyzed. Machining and dynamic torsional tests were conducted on the four steels to investigate chip-forming and dynamic torsional properties, respectively. In the Pb-S- and Bi-S-based steels, the chip thickness and ridge area of the 1st chip obtained from the machining test were smaller than in the S-based steels and were not changed much after repeated machining processes. These chip-forming properties were closely related with dynamic torsional properties. Dynamic maximum shear strains of the Pb-S- and Bi-S-based steels were higher than those of the S-based steels, while dynamic maximum shear stresses were lower, thereby leading to the relatively homogeneous dynamic shear deformation and to the better chip-forming properties and machinability.

Kim, Yongjin; Kim, Hyunmin; Kang, Minju; Rhee, Kiho; Shin, Sang Yong; Lee, Sunghak

2013-10-01

83

Analysis of the Mechanical Properties of N-Added CMn Structural Steel by the Impulse Internal Friction Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of substitutional solutes has a strong influence on the Snoek effect of interstitial atoms in body-centered cubic (bcc) Fe alloys, such as the structural CMn steel grades produced in hot strip mills. In the current study, bcc Fe-Mn-N alloys were analyzed using the impulse technique and the results were correlated to their mechanical properties and the AlN precipitation characteristics. The broadened Snoek peak related to the octahedral interstitial N could be resolved into three distinct Debye peaks related to the arrangement of Mn atoms surrounding the N atoms. The simulation results suggest that precipitation of AlN occurred mainly during coiling and that the precipitation kinetics was enhanced at higher coiling temperatures. Alloys isothermally held at high temperatures had a yield strength and tensile strength linearly proportional to the difference between the nominal N content and the interstitial N content. The observations point to the pronounced precipitation strengthening effect of AlN after high-temperature coiling simulations. The result also reveals that interstitial N increases both the yield strength and the tensile strength in steels coiled at low temperatures.

Jung, Jaehyuk; Kozeschnik, E.; Han, Seong Ho; De Cooman, Bruno C.

2012-12-01

84

Influence of the spraying processes on the properties of 316L stainless steel coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 316L stainless steel coatings produced by different thermal spraying processes are usually used to improve the corrosion behaviour of steel surfaces. In this study the coatings of 316L stainless steel were produced using atmospheric plasma spraying, shrouded plasma spraying and high velocity oxy-fuel spraying (HVOF). The influence of the thermal spraying processes and spray parameters on the properties of

Lidong Zhao; Erich Lugscheider

2003-01-01

85

46 CFR 54.25-20 - Low temperature operation-ferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Low temperature operation-ferritic steels...Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-20 Low temperature operationferritic steels...Vessel Code. (d) The values of absorbed energy in foot-pounds and of fracture...

2013-10-01

86

Effects of hydrogen on the properties of iron and steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of hydrogen on the physical and mechanical properties of iron and steel are reviewed. A new mechanism for the\\u000a cold work peak for hydrogen in iron is considered. Together, internal friction and mechanical properties indicate that hydrogen\\u000a softens iron by enhancing screw dislocation mobility at room temperature but hardens iron by core interactions at low temperatures.\\u000a No single

John P. Hirth; R. F. Mehl Medalist

1980-01-01

87

About Abrasive Properties of Steel Erosion Products During Electrospark Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was made of abrasive properties of metal powders, obtained by the electro-spark method. Investigated were steels 40KH, 2KH13, R18, and alloy T15K6, as well as boron and silicon carbides. Dispersion of these materials took place in kerosen...

N. V. Afanasev A. G. Goloveiko

1965-01-01

88

Effect of matrix composition on steel fiber reinforced concrete properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1960's, researchers have conducted experiments to improve the strength and deformation capacity of the concrete matrix by reinforcing it with various types of short cut steel fibers. While such investigations contributed to the understanding of the influence of fibers in improving wide spectrum of concrete mechanical properties, there is insufficient information about the effect of concrete matrix

Al-Ghamdy

1984-01-01

89

Structure and properties of cold-worked stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Cold plastic deformation by 1530% increases the strength of Cr-Mn and Cr-Ni steels by 2530%. The strength of the Cr-Mn steels after deformation is 50% higher than that of Cr-Ni steel.2.Cold plastic deformation (up to 20% for Cr-Mn steel and up to 17% for steel Kh18N10T) increases the time to cracking, while larger deformation reduces the resistance of the steels

A. L. Sotnichenko; V. S. Yarkovoi; V. I. Panarin; M. S. Kornev

1974-01-01

90

Mechanical Property Characterization of ESR (Electroslag Remelted) 4353 Steel with a Comparison to ESR 4340 Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential enhancement of ballistic and mechanical properties from electroslag remelting has fostered an interest in mechanical property characterizations of electroslag remelted (ESR) steels for Army applications. Mechanical property data are presente...

C. F. Hickey T. S. Thomas

1987-01-01

91

Aging degradation of cast stainless steels: Effects on mechanical properties  

SciTech Connect

A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water operating conditions. Mechanical property data are presented from Charpy-impact, tensile, and J-R curve tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 450, 400, 350, 320, and 290/sup 0/C. The results indicate that thermal aging increases the tensile strength and decreases the impact energy, J/sub IC/, and tearing modulus of the steels. Also, the ductile-to-brittle transition curve shifts to higher temperatures. The fracture toughness results are consistent with the Charpy-impact data, i.e., the relative reduction in J/sub IC/ is similar to the relative decrease in impact energy. The ferrite content and concentration of C in the steel have a strong effect on the overall process of low-temperature embrittlement. The low-carbon CF-3 steels are the most resistant and Mo-containing CF-8M steels are most susceptible to embrittlement. Weakening of the ferrite/austenite phase boundaries by carbide precipitates has a significant effect on the kinetics and extent of embrittlement of the high-carbon CF-8 and CF-8M steels, particularly after aging at temperatures greater than or equal to400/sup 0/C. The influence of N content and distribution of ferrite on loss of toughness are discussed. The data also indicate that existing correlations do not accurately represent the embrittlement behavior over the temperature range 280 to 450/sup 0/C, i.e., extrapolation of high-temperature data to reactor temperatures may not be valid for some compositions of cast stainless steel.

Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

1987-06-01

92

Improvement of gigacycle fatigue properties by modified ausforming in 1600 and 2000 MPA-class low-alloy steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue tests were conducted for a modified ausformed and tempered JIS-SCM440 low-alloy (denoted as AF) steel with tensile\\u000a strengths of 1600 and 2000 MPa, respectively, and were compared with normally quenched and tempered (QT) steel. The 1600 MPa-class\\u000a modified ausformed steel (AF1600) developed no fish-eye fractures and a fatigue limit of 920 MPa, whereas normally quenched\\u000a steel (QT1600) developed fish-eye

Y. Furuya; S. Matsuoka

2002-01-01

93

Wear of steel by rubber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wear of a steel blade used as a scraper to abrade rubber surfaces has been found to take place much more rapidly on a cis-polyisoprene (natural rubber) surface than on a cis-polybutadiene surface, and much more rapidly in an inert atmosphere than in air. These observations are attributed to the direct attack upon steel of free-radical species generated by mechanical rupture of elastomer molecules during abrasion.

Gent, A. N.; Pulford, C. T. R.

1978-01-01

94

Mechanical properties of drawn dual phase steel wire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dual-phase steels are a class of composite high strength, low alloy steels. The outstanding properties of ferrite/martensite dual-phase steels include its very high work-hardening rates and resistance to fatigue failure. The high work-hardening rates make...

S. M. Miyasato

1987-01-01

95

Fracture and Fatigue Properties of 1Cr--Mo--V Bainitic Turbine Rotor Steels. Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The deformation, fracture and fatigue properties of 1Cr--Mo--V turbine rotor steel have been evaluated for a wide range of loading conditions and metallurgical structures controlled by melting and heat treatment practice. The mechanical property differenc...

I. Roman C. A. Rau A. S. Tetelman K. Ono

1979-01-01

96

Mechanical properties of high-strength steel fiber-reinforced concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marked brittleness with low tensile strength and strain capacities of high-strength concrete (HSC) can be overcome by the addition of steel fibers. This paper investigated the mechanical properties of high-strength steel fiber-reinforced concrete. The properties included compressive and splitting tensile strengths, modulus of rupture, and toughness index. The steel fibers were added at the volume fractions of 0.5%, 1.0%,

P. S Song; S Hwang

2004-01-01

97

Effect of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of natural lightweight aggregate concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of pumice aggregate concrete was investigated. In order to determine the effect of steel fiber ratio on the mechanical properties of concrete, (1) 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% pumice ratios were used instead of natural aggregate by volume, (2) 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% steel fiber ratios were used

O?uz Ak?n Dzgn; Rstem Gl; Abdulkadir Cneyt Aydin

2005-01-01

98

Some properties of boronized layers on steels with direct diode laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boronized layer on steel is known to be formed by thermal diffusion of boron into the surface of steel improving corrosionerosion resistant properties. Boronizing is carried out at temperatures ranging from 800C to 1050C and takes from one to several hours. There is one problem in this process, however, that the structure and properties of the base material are influenced

Junji Morimoto; Taisuke Ozaki; Toshifumi Kubohori; Shintaro Morimoto; Nobuyuki Abe; Masahiro Tsukamoto

2008-01-01

99

Hadfield steel coatings on low carbon steel by laser cladding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austenitic manganese steels with 12% Mn and 1.2% C, known as Hadfield steels, are of great interest owing to their good mechanical properties, especially their high strengthening ratio during plastic deformation. For many applications only a limited thickness of the surface layer is submitted to wear and therefore manufacturing of coatings with the appropriate Fe?Mn?C composition appears an attractive solution.

J. M. Pelletier; F. Oucherif; P. Sallamand; A. B. Vannes

1995-01-01

100

Microstructural Characterization and Properties Evaluation of Ni-Based Hardfaced Coating on AISI 304 Stainless Steel by High Velocity Oxyfuel Coating Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study concerns a detailed investigation of microstructural evolution of nickel based hardfaced coating on AISI 304 stainless steel by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) deposition technique. The work has also been extended to study the effect of coating on microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the surface. Deposition has been conducted on sand blasted AISI 304 stainless steel by HVOF spraying technique using nickel (Ni)-based alloy [Ni: 68.4 wt pct, chromium (Cr): 17 wt pct, boron (B): 3.9 wt pct, silicon (Si): 4.9 wt pct and iron (Fe): 5.8 wt pct] of particle size 45 to 60 ?m as precursor powder. Under the optimum process parameters, deposition leads to development of nano-borides (of chromium, Cr2B and nickel, Ni3B) dispersion in metastable and partly amorphous gamma nickel (?-Ni) matrix. The microhardness of the coating was significantly enhanced to 935 VHN as compared to 215 VHN of as-received substrate due to dispersion of nano-borides in grain refined and partly amorphous nickel matrix. Wear resistance property under fretting wear condition against WC indenter was improved in as-deposited layer (wear rate of 4.65 10-7 mm3/mm) as compared to as-received substrate (wear rate of 20.81 10-7 mm3/mm). The corrosion resistance property in a 3.56 wt pct NaCl solution was also improved.

Sharma, Prashant; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

2013-01-01

101

Improving the creep properties of 9Cr3W-3Co-NbV steels and their weld joints by the addition of boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

New ferritic steels with a controlled addition of boron have been developed recently for ultrasuper-critical fossil power\\u000a plants. These steels possess excellent creep resistance compared to conventional steels like P91, P92, P122, etc., and this has been attributed to the delay in coarsening of the carbides during creep owing to partial replacement of carbon\\u000a by boron in these carbides. However,

Shaju K. Albert; Masayuki Kondo; Masaaki Tabuchi; Fuxing Yin; Kota Sawada; Fujio Abe

2005-01-01

102

Fatigue properties of a 4340 steel coated with a Colmonoy 88 deposit applied by high-velocity oxygen fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatigue behavior of a quenched and tempered AISI 4340 steel has been evaluated in three different conditions: (a) uncoated; (b) grit-blasted with alumina; (c) grit-blasted and coated with a thermal-sprayed Colmonoy 88 deposit 220 ?m thick, employing a high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) gun. The results indicate that grit blasting the base steel can lead to a significant reduction in

L Hernndez; F Oliveira; J. A Berr??os; C Villalobos; A Pertuz; E. S Puchi Cabrera

2000-01-01

103

Thermophysical properties of stainless steel foils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evacuated panel superinsulations with very high center-of-panel thermal resistances are being developed for use in refrigerators\\/freezers. Attainment of high resistances relies upon the maintenance of low vacuum levels by the use of stainless steel vacuum jackets. However, the metal jackets also present a path for heat conduction around the high resistance fillers. This paper presents results of a study of

K. E. Wilkes; J. P. Strizak; F. J. Weaver; J. E. Besser; D. L. Smith

1997-01-01

104

Tensile property of low carbon steel with gridding units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although much effort has been devoted to the mechanical properties of biomimetic coupled laser remelting (BCLR) processed steels, our understanding to the strengthening and toughening mechanisms of it has still remained unclear. To address it, here we studied the roles played by the gridding units of BCLR steels. Tensile tests show that the gridding units have a significant influence on the tensile properties. Interestingly, such an influence is essentially decided by the unit distance of gridding units. The strength increases with the unit distance narrowing while the ductility first increases with it up to a maximum then decreases. The mechanism behind these changes is attributed to the combined effects of the microstructure changes in the units and the stress transition throughout the BCLR samples.

Wang, Chuanwei; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Zhihui; Jing, Zhengjun; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Ren, Luquan

2013-05-01

105

Microstructure and mechanical properties of a 3Cr-1.5Mo steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tensile and impact properties were determined for a steel (3 wt pct Cr-1.5 wt pct Mo-0.1 wt pct V-0.1 wt pct C) considered a candidate for elevated-temperature pressure-vessel applications. The steel was tested in two heat-treated conditions: normalized and tempered and quenched and tempered for various tempering conditions. Similar tempering treatments for the quenched and the normalized steels led to similar strengths. However, for the lowest tempering parameter used, the impact properties for the quenched-and-tempered steel exceeded those for the normalized-and-tempered steel, resulting in an excellent ductile-brittle transition temperature (-70 C) and upper-shelf energy (225 J) for the quenched-and-tempered steel at a high strength (770 MPa ultimate tensile strength). Further tempering reduced the strength for the steel in both heat-treated conditions. The impact properties of the quenched steel were only slightly changed by further tempering, but those for the normalized steel improved, eventually equaling those for the quenched-and-tempered steel. The difference in impact properties after the two heat treatments was attributed to a difference in bainite microstructures.

Klueh, R. L.; Nasreldin, A. M.

1987-07-01

106

The Effect of Adhesion and Tensile Properties on the Formability of Laminated Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laminated steel has been implemented in vehicle structures by several automotive manufacturers to reduce in-cabin noise. This study provides an understanding of how the adhesion between the steel skin and the viscoelastic polymer core affects laminate formability. Material properties, including peel strength, shear strength, and tensile strength were determined. The presence of the viscoelastic core was found to slightly reduce tensile properties of the laminate compared to the skin sheet. Forming limit diagrams were also determined. These indicated that the viscoelastic core properties can significantly affect formability of laminated steel compared to that of solid steel sheet. In general, the formability of laminated steel was found to be similar to or less than that of the much thinner skin sheet material, which indicates that its formability should be less than that of solid steel of the same gauge.

Ruokolainen, Robert B.; Sigler, David R.

2008-06-01

107

The Influence of Environment and Surface Condition on the Properties of Materials. The Strength of Medium Carbon Steel, Chromed by Various Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equipment is described for chroming steel by gaseous and vapour-phase methods. The structure of diffusion layers formed by a variety of chroming methods are studied. At equal thickness of diffusion layers the greatest fatigue strength is observed in steel...

B. Karpenko N. S. Gorbunov

1973-01-01

108

Influence of Martensite Volume Fraction on Impact Properties of Triple Phase (TP) Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferrite-bainite-martensite triple phase (TP) microstructures with different volume fractions of martensite were obtained by changing heat treatment time during austempering at 300 C. Room temperature impact properties of TP steels with different martensite volume fractions ( V M) were determined by means of Charpy impact testing. The effects of test temperature on impact properties were also investigated for two selected microstructures containing 0 (the DP steel) and 8.5 vol.% martensite. Test results showed reduction in toughness with increasing V M in TP steels. Fracture toughness values for the DP and TP steels with 8.5 vol.% martensite were obtained from correlation between fracture toughness and the Charpy impact energy. Fractography of Charpy specimens confirmed decrease in TP steels' toughness with increasing V M by considering and comparing radial marks and crack initiation regions at the fracture surfaces of the studied steels.

Zare, Ahmad; Ekrami, A.

2013-03-01

109

Microstructure and oxidation properties of 16Cr-5Al-ODS steel prepared by sol-gel and spark plasma sintering methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 16Cr-5Al oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel was fabricated by sol-gel method in combination with hydrogen reduction, mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) techniques. The phase characterization, microstructure and oxidation resistance of the 16Cr-5Al-ODS steel were investigated in comparison with the Al free 16Cr-ODS steel. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the Al free and Al added 16Cr-ODS steels exhibited typical ferritic characteristic structure. The microstructure analysis investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) revealed that Y-Ti-O complexes with particle size of 10-30 nm were formed in the Al free matrix and Y-Al-O complexes with particle size of 20-100 nm were formed in the Al contained high-Cr ODS steel matrix. These complexes are homogeneously distributed in the matrices. The fabricated 16Cr-5Al-ODS steel exhibited superior oxidation resistance compared with the Al free 16Cr-ODS steel and the commercial 304 stainless steel owing to the formation of continuous and dense Al2O3 film on the surface.

Xia, Y. P.; Wang, X. P.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, Q. X.; Zhang, T.; Fang, Q. F.; Hao, T.; Liu, C. S.

2013-01-01

110

Effect of matrix composition on steel fiber reinforced concrete properties  

SciTech Connect

Since the early 1960's, researchers have conducted experiments to improve the strength and deformation capacity of the concrete matrix by reinforcing it with various types of short cut steel fibers. While such investigations contributed to the understanding of the influence of fibers in improving wide spectrum of concrete mechanical properties, there is insufficient information about the effect of concrete matrix composition in determining the workability and improving the mechanical properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC). The primary objectives of this study were to determine the influence of concrete mix composition on SFRC properties in both fresh and hardened state. Also, the percentage air voids and how it influences the strength of SFRC was determined. In addition, rational SFRC design procedure was established. Plain concrete mixes and SFRC mixes containing two types of steel fibers were made. Workability measurement were carried out using the VeBe Consistometer. Entrapped air was measured using the air pressure meter. Flexural strength and flexural toughness measurements were obtained using the third-point loading test. Compressive strength was determined for concrete prisms.

Al-Ghamdy, D.O.

1984-01-01

111

Modification of surface mechanical properties of high-chromium tool steel by carbon-implanted codeposited Fe-Ti films  

SciTech Connect

An iron-titanium film 300 nm thick was deposited on a tool steel (1.55% C, 0.3% Si, 0.3% Mn, 12% Cr, 0.8% Mo, and 0.8% V) by coevaporation of Fe and Ti. Subsequently this surface film was implanted with carbon at energies of 55, 120, and 200 keV to a total fluence of 1.24 {times} 10{sup 18} C{sup +}/cm{sup 2}. This treatment produced a surface hardness of 15 GPa. The effect of this coating on unlubricated wear and friction was tested in air at a relative humidity of 10% in a pin-on-disc tester using a 440C pin as a counterface. The sliding mechanism of the untreated substrate was found to be based on the transfer of pin material and subsequent growth of uneven oxide hillocks on the wear track. Oxide scales were observed also on a wear scar of the pin, presumably as a result of back-deposition. In contrast, the sliding mechanism on the coated sample was drastically different. A more uniform transfer film originating in the coating was found on the pin, resulting in sliding between identical materials. No wearthrough of the coating occurred during the test of 5000 cycles at a Hertzian pressure of 835 MPa, and the surface of the wear track showed extreme smoothness to the very end of the test. The friction coefficient was decreased from 0.7 for the uncoated to 0.2 for the coated surface. The wear track on the coated surface was also found to be slightly oxidized, as determined by a nuclear reaction ({sup 16}O(d,p){sup 17}O). The reduction of friction was mainly attributed to the increased hardness of the counterfaces and an adequate but controlled oxidation. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Hirvonen, J.P.; Nastasi, M.; Jervis, T.R.; Zocco, T.G.

1990-01-01

112

Mechanical property characterization of ESR 4353 steel with a comparison to ESR 4340 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential enhancement of ballistic and mechanical properties from electroslag remelting has fostered an interest in mechanical\\u000a property characterizations of electroslag remelted (ESR) steels for Army applications. Mechanical property data are presented\\u000a for quenched and tempered ESR 4353 and ESR 4340 steels. Hardness decreases from 61.1 to 44.4 HRC as tempering temperature\\u000a increases from 300 to 900 F for ESR

Timothy S. Thomas; Charles F. Hickey

1989-01-01

113

Steel Microstructure Effect on Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of High Strength Low Carbon Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different thermomechanical treatments were applied to a high strength low carbon steel with a novel chemical composition. As a result, three different microstructures were produced with dissimilar mechanical and corrosion properties. Subsequently, a tempering heat treatment was applied to redistribute the phases in the steel. Microstructure A with 56 pct martensite and 32 pct bainite presented high strength but medium ductility; microstructure C with 95 pct ferrite and 3 pct martensite/austenite resulted in low strength and high ductility, and finally microstructure B with 98 pct bainite and 2 pct martensite/austenite resulted in high strength and ductility. Alternatively the corrosion behavior obtained by polarization curves was characterized in 0.1 M H2SO4, 3 M H2SO4, 3.5 wt pct NaCl, and NS4 solutions resulting in similar magnitudes, while the corrosion behavior acquired by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy had slightly differences in 3 M H2SO4.

Barraza-Fierro, Jesus Israel; Campillo-Illanes, Bernardo; Li, Ximing; Castaneda, Homero

2014-05-01

114

Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Properties of Cr8Type Cold Work Die Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of cryogenic treatment on the properties of Cr8-type cold work die steel was investigated. The results show that cryogenic treatment increases hardness by decreasing retained austenite, but the degree depends on the austenitizing temperature. When quenching at lower austenitizing temperature, the steel can obtain higher toughness by cryogenic treatment substituting conventional treatment process. Cryogenic time has little effect

Hong-xiao CHI; Dang-shen MA; Qi-long YONG; Li-zhi WU; Zhan-pu ZHANG; Yong-wei WANG

2010-01-01

115

Estimation Model for Magnetic Properties of Stamped Electrical Steel Sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Less deterioration in magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets in the process of stamping out iron-core are necessary in order to maintain its performance. First, the influence of plastic strain and stress on magnetic properties was studied by test pieces, in which plastic strain was added uniformly and residual stress was not induced. Because the influence of plastic strain was expressed by equivalent plastic strain, at each equivalent plastic strain state the influence of load stress was investigated. Secondly, elastic limit was determined about 60% of macroscopic yield point (MYP), and it was found to agree with stress limit inducing irreversible deterioration in magnetic properties. Therefore simulation models, where beyond elastic limit plastic deformation begins and magnetic properties are deteriorated steeply, are proposed. Besides considered points in the deformation analysis are strain-rate sensitivity of flow stress, anisotropy under deformation, and influence of stress triaxiality on fracture. Finally, proposed models have been shown to be valid, because magnetic properties of 5mm width rectangular sheets stamped out from non-oriented electrical steel sheet (35A250 JIS grade) can be estimated with good accuracy. It is concluded that the elastic limit must be taken into account in both stamping process simulation and magnetic field calculation.

Kashiwara, Yoshiyuki; Fujimura, Hiroshi; Okamura, Kazuo; Imanishi, Kenji; Yashiki, Hiroyoshi

116

Friction Properties of Molybdenum Alloyed Steel at Elevated Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The high-temperature properties of steel surface can be improved by molybdenum surface alloying. Molybdenzing was carried out on carbon steel in the multi-function double glow plasma surface alloying furnace. The friction and wear tests were conducted on a high temperature ball-on-disk tribometer under the temperature of 25 deg. C{approx}600 deg. C. The contents of alloy element varied with alloyed layer were detected by SEM attached with EDS. The molybdenized layer is composed of the deposited layer and diffused layer. The micro-hardness of alloyed layer decreases from HV650 on the top layer to HV240. The friction coefficient of molybdenized layer decreases from 0.5{approx}0.6 to 0.2{approx}0.3 and wear rate decreases by 20% at elevated temperature after molybdenizing.

Li Jianliang; Xiong Dangsheng [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094 (China); Wu Hongyan [College of Math and Physics, Nanjing University of Information and Technology, Nanjing, 210044 (China)

2011-01-17

117

Friction Properties of Molybdenum Alloyed Steel at Elevated Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-temperature properties of steel surface can be improved by molybdenum surface alloying. Molybdenzing was carried out on carbon steel in the multi-function double glow plasma surface alloying furnace. The friction and wear tests were conducted on a high temperature ball-on-disk tribometer under the temperature of 25 C~600 C. The contents of alloy element varied with alloyed layer were detected by SEM attached with EDS. The molybdenized layer is composed of the deposited layer and diffused layer. The micro-hardness of alloyed layer decreases from HV650 on the top layer to HV240. The friction coefficient of molybdenized layer decreases from 0.5~0.6 to 0.2~0.3 and wear rate decreases by 20% at elevated temperature after molybdenizing.

Li, Jianliang; Xiong, Dangsheng; Wu, Hongyan

2011-01-01

118

The Influence of Environment and Surface Condition on the Properties of Materials. The Strength of Medium Carbon Steel, Chromed by Various Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equipment for chroming steel by gaseous and vapor phase methods, is described. The structures of diffusion layers formed by a variety of chroming methods (unplated, gas contact, gas non-contact, vacuum, and electrolytic methods) were studied. At equal thi...

B. Karpenko N. S. Gorbunov

1973-01-01

119

In-service degradation diagnostics of low-alloyed steels and aluminum alloys properties by electrochemical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect degradation in-service and in-laboratory conditions of the low-alloyed steels and aircraft aluminum alloys on its electrochemical conditions has been investigated. It is shown that the structural changes over degradation causes not only material embitterment, but also an activation of anodic and cathode electrode reactions and, correspondingly, a decrease of corrosion resistance. Such electrochemical characteristics as anodic current at

H. M. Nykyforchyn; O. T. Tsyrulnyk

2009-01-01

120

Improving the surface properties of A286 precipitation-hardening stainless steel by low-temperature plasma nitriding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma nitriding over a wide range of treatment temperatures between 350 and 500C and time from 5 to 30h on A286 austenitic precipitation-hardening stainless steels has been investigated. Systematic materials characterisation of the plasma surface alloyed A286 alloy was carried out in terms of microstructure observations, phase identification, chemical composition depth profiling, surface and cross-section microhardness measurements, electrochemical corrosion tests,

M. Esfandiari; H. Dong

2007-01-01

121

Corrosionfatigue properties of a 4340 steel coated with Colmonoy 88 alloy, applied by HVOF thermal spray  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosionfatigue behavior of a quenched and tempered AISI 4340 steel has been evaluated under two different conditions: (a) uncoated; and (b) grit-blasted with alumina and coated with a thermal-sprayed Colmonoy 88 alloy (220 ?m in thickness), employing a high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) gun. The tests were conducted under rotating bending conditions employing a 4-wt.% NaCl solution. The results indicated

F. Oliveira; L. Hernndez; J. A. Berr??os; C. Villalobos; A. Pertuz; E. S. Puchi Cabrera

2001-01-01

122

Control of Cast Grain Size of Steel Castings-Effect of Structure and Nonmetallics on Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relation of dendrite structure, nonmetallics and microporosity to solidification time and refinement by inoculation was investigated and correlated to mechanical properties of AISI 4335 steel castings. The dendrite spacing is determined by solidificat...

P. F. Wieser J. F. Wallace

1967-01-01

123

Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir (FS) welded SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel were examined. High-quality, full-penetration welds were successfully produced in the super duplex stainless steel by friction stir welding (FSW) using polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) tool. The base material had a microstructure consisting of the ferrite matrix with austenite islands, but FSW refined grains

Y. S. Sato; T. W. Nelson; C. J. Sterling; R. J. Steel; C.-O. Pettersson

2005-01-01

124

Effects of mechanical properties of paint film on the forming of pre-painted steel sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formability is one of the most important factors for pre-painted steel sheets (PCMs). Both high formability of the steel substrate and high integrity of the paint films on it after processing are required. In this study, elongation, tensile strength and elastic strain energy of various paint films were examined by tensile test, and the relationship between the mechanical properties of

Kohei Ueda; Hiroshi Kanai; Takamasa Suzuki; Takeshi Amari

2001-01-01

125

Effect of deep cryogenic treatment on the mechanical properties of tool steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of deep cryogenic treatment (?196C) on the properties of some tool steels was studied by means of both field tests on real tools and laboratory tests. The execution of the deep cryogenic treatment on quenched and tempered high speed steel tools increases hardness, reduces tool consumption and down time for the equipment set up, thus leading to cost

A. Molinari; M. Pellizzari; S. Gialanella; G. Straffelini; K. H. Stiasny

2001-01-01

126

Structure and properties of a hypoeutectic chromium steel processed in the semi-solid state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their great hardness and wear resistance, hypoeutectic ledeburitic chromium steels are widely used for machining and measuring tools. Such steels are normally shaped by chipping procedures, and subsequently hardened and tempered. Here we describe the structure and property evolution when an alternative shaping method, net-shape forming in the semi-solid state, is applied. The structure of the material in

D. I. Uhlenhaut; J. Kradolfer; W. Pttgen; J. F. Lffler; P. J. Uggowitzer

2006-01-01

127

Fracture toughness properties of low Charpy energy shelf steels  

SciTech Connect

A low Charpy shelf steel is defined in this report as a steel which has a Charpy impact energy sufficiently low (less than 50 ft-lbs) to mitigate the determination of RT/sub NDT/ as defined by Appendix G of Section III of the ASME code. Six steels (one in both the irradiated and the unirradiated states) with Charpy shelf energies between 30 and 60 ft-lbs are evaluated. The evluation is based on an examination of the Charpy impact curves and fracture toughness parameters such as K/sub Ic/ and K/sub Ia/. One material was a low Charpy shelf steel for which both unirradiated and irradiated results are considered. Two of the materials are degraded (quenched only) carbon steels while a third is a high strength rotor forging steel. One material is a pipe steel and one is an ordinary carbon structural steel.

Witt, F.J.

1980-04-01

128

High-temperature mechanical properties of near-eutectoid steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-temperature mechanical properties of near-eutectoid steel were studied with a Gleeble-1500 simulation machine. Zero strength temperature (ZST), zero ductility temperature (ZDT), hot ductility curves, and strength curves were measured. Two brittle zones and one plastic zone were found in the temperature range from the melting point to 600C. Embrittlement in zone I is caused by the existence of liquid film along dendritic interfaces. Ductility loss in zone III mainly results from precipitates and inclusions as well as S segregation along grain boundaries. Pearlite transformation also accounts for ductility deterioration in the temperature range of 700-600C. Moreover, the straightening temperature of the test steel should be higher than 925C for avoiding the initiation and propagation of surface cracks in billets.

Fu, Jun; Wang, Fu-ming; Hao, Fang; Jin, Gui-xiang

2013-09-01

129

Cathodic properties of different stainless steels in natural seawater  

SciTech Connect

The cathodic properties of a number of stainless steels, which were exposed to natural seawater flowing at 0 to 2.5 m/s and polarized to potentials from -300 to -950 mV SCE, have been studied. The current density development at constant potential and the free corrosion potential during the exposure time were recorded continuously. At the end of the exposure period, after approximately 28 to 36 days of exposure, polarization curves were determined. After one to three weeks of exposure, depending on the water velocity, microbiological activity on the surface caused an increase in the current density requirement of the specimen. An explanation for the mechanism behind the current density increase caused by slime production from marine bacteria may be increased exchange current density, i/sub 0/. There was no measurable calcareous deposit on the stainless steel surfaces at the end of the exposure periods.

Johnsen, R.; Bardal, E.

1985-05-01

130

Properties of Vibration Damping Steel Sheet and Its Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently, Vibration Damping Steel sheets (VDS) have been used for many purposes, and the improvements on various properties of VDS have been required. Three new types of VDS, thermoplastic type (new film type), thermosetting type and conductive type (weld...

O. Muroga, A. Nishimoto, Y. Watanabe, Y. Fujii, Y. Yamazaki

1989-01-01

131

Properties of Vibration Damping Steel Sheet and Its Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vibration Damping Steel Sheets (VDS) have been used in many purpose, and the improvements on various properties of VDS have been required. Three new types of VDS, thermoplastic type (new film type), thermosetting type and conductive type (weldable type), ...

O. Miroga, A. Nishimoto Y Watanabe, Y. Fujii, Y. Yamasaki

1989-01-01

132

Spray forming high speed steelproperties and processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of spray forming (SF) for microstructural refining can be attractive to the production of high speed steels. The refined as-cast structure may lead to important improvements of material properties, compared to conventionally cast materials. The present work aimed to compare the properties of AISI M3:2 high speed steel produced through spray forming and conventional casting. Also, the processing

Rafael Agnelli Mesquita; Celso Antonio Barbosa

2004-01-01

133

Microstructure and mechanical properties of 16 Cr-ODS ferritic steel for advanced nuclear energy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 16Cr-0.5Ti-lW-0.35Y2O3 oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel was fabricated by mechanically alloying and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Subsequent thermo-mechanical treatments were performed to improve the microstructure homogeneous and service properties of the HIPed 16Cr-ODS steel. Nano-oxide particles were observed by TEM, which can be identified to be (Y, Ti) complex oxide by EDS and SAED. The mechanical property was measured by tensile test, and the oxidation behaviour of the ODS steel was performed at high temperature in a muffle.

Li, Shaofu; Zhou, Zhangjian; Wang, Man; Hu, Helong; Zou, Lei; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Liwei

2013-03-01

134

Properties of TiN coating on 45# steel for inner surface modification by grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a new inner surface modification method named GEPSII (grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation), which is designed for inner surface modification of tubular work pieces, we successfully produced polycrystalline TiN coating on 0.45{%} C steel (45# steel) samples. Compared with the uncoated 45# steel sample, the electrochemical corrosion test on the coated 45# steel samples presents evident improvement in their corrosion resistance. Two implanted voltages, direct current (-2kV) and pulsed negative voltage (-10kV), are applied on the substrates. It is shown that the direct current implantation is more effective than the pulsed implantation in the surface corrosion resistance. AES depth profile shows that coating thickness is about tens of nanometres. The preferred orientations expressed by peaks at (111) and (200) can be seen clearly in XRD patterns.

Zhang, Gu-Ling; Wang, Jiu-Li; Liu, Yuan-Fu; Liu, Chi-Zi; Yang, Si-Ze

2004-08-01

135

Tensile property of H13 die steel with convex-shaped biomimetic surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H13 steel specimens with non-smooth surface were fabricated by biomimetic method and laser technique, and the effect of these biomimetic surfaces on the tensile properties was investigated. The results indicated that the biomimetic surface has an advantageous effect on improving the tensile properties of H13 steel. As the area ratio occupied by non-smooth units on the biomimetic surface grows

Z. H. Zhang; H. Zhou; L. Q. Ren; X. Tong; H. Y. Shan; Y. Cao

2007-01-01

136

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Nitride-Strengthened Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitride-strengthened reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are developed taking advantage of the high thermal stability of nitrides. In the current study, the microstructure and mechanical properties of a nitride-strengthened RAFM steel with improved composition were investigated. Fully martensitic microstructure with fine nitrides dispersion was achieved in the steel. In all, 1.4 pct Mn is sufficient to suppress delta ferrite and assure the steel of the full martensitic microstructure. Compared to Eurofer97, the steel showed similar strength at room temperature but higher strength at 873 K (600 C). The steel exhibited very high impact toughness and a low ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of 243 K (-30 C), which could be further reduced by purification.

Zhou, Qiangguo; Zhang, Wenfeng; Yan, Wei; Wang, Wei; Sha, Wei; Shan, Yiyin; Yang, Ke

2012-12-01

137

Effect of carbon interlayer on protective properties of hydroxyapatite coating deposited on 316L stainless steel by sol-gel method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good-quality bilayer coatings with a carbon interlayer and outer carbonate hydroxyapatite layer are obtained on AISI 316L\\u000a stainless steel substrate using RF PACVD and sol-gel methods. It is found that protective properties of both composite C\\/HAP\\u000a coating and HAP coating depend on the temperature of heat treatment. Hydroxyapatite with a carbon interlayer coating annealed\\u000a at 500C significantly improves corrosion resistance

B. Pietrzyk; J. Gawronski; T. Blaszczyk

2010-01-01

138

Fracture and fatigue properties of 1Cr--Mo--V bainitic turbine rotor steels. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deformation, fracture and fatigue properties of 1Cr--Mo--V turbine rotor steel have been evaluated for a wide range of loading conditions and metallurgical structures controlled by melting and heat treatment practice. The mechanical property differences and corresponding metallurgical differences between older, air-melted steels and newer heats that are vacuum degassed were determined. Current vacuum degassing practice improves the tensile ductility,

I. Roman; C. A. Jr. Rau; A. S. Tetelman; K. Ono

1979-01-01

139

Fatigue properties of a 316L stainless steel coated with different ZrN deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatigue properties of a 316L stainless steel coated with three different under stoichiometric ZrNx films, deposited by PVD magnetron sputtering are investigated and compared with those of the uncoated substrate. Such a steel can be safely coated with these ZrNx films in order to improve some of its surface properties, without compromising its fatigue behavior. On the contrary, the

J. A. Berr??os-Ort??z; J. G. La Barbera-Sosa; D. G. Teer; E. S. Puchi-Cabrera

2004-01-01

140

Effect of Deep-Cryogenic Treatment on High Speed Steel Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advantages of deep-cryogenic treatment over standard heat treatment of high speed steels for the purpose of obtaining better properties are quoted in an increasing number of scientific articles. This article deals with the most important improvements of high speed steel properties achieved by using deep-cryogenic treatment. The effect of deep-cryogenic treatment on impact and fracture toughness, on erosion wear resistance,

Franjo Cajner; Vojteh Leskovek; Darko Landek; Hrvoje Cajner

2009-01-01

141

High temperature properties of pearlitic tube steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.The hot strength of the Cr-Mo-V steel under investigation depends greatly on the heat treatment conditions. For the available composition the optimum treatment was normalizing at 10301050C (18851920F) and tempering for not less than 5 hours at 700720C (12901320F).2.The creep strength for this steel, after normalizing and tempering at 570C (1060F) is 6 kg\\/sq. mm (8500 psi) at a

T. S. Griboedova

1959-01-01

142

Effect of isothermal heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardness, tensile properties and microstructural changes in 9Cr-1W-0.06Ta-0.22V-0.08C Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic steel have been investigated after subjecting the steel with isothermal heat treatments for 5 min at temperatures in the range 973-1473 K (below Ac1 to above Ac3 transformation temperatures) followed by oil quenching and tempering at 1033 K for 1 h. These studies have been carried out in an effort to assess the strength of the steel at different microstructural conditions. Optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopic investigations have been carried out to assess the microstructural changes of the steel upon various heat treatments. The steel developed predominantly tempered martensitic structure after the heat treatments. The hardness, tensile strength and the prior austenitic grain size of the steel exhibited minimum values for soaking heat treatment in the intercritical temperature range (i.e.) between Ac1 and Ac3; whereas the ductility was maximum. With increase in isothermal heat treatment temperature above Ac3, hardness, tensile strength and grain size of the steel were found to increase with consequent decrease in tensile ductility. TEM investigations revealed that the coarsening of subgrain and precipitates at grain and sub-grain boundaries on heat treatment of the steel in the inter-critical temperature range. The tensile properties of the steel have been correlated with microstructure.

Chandravathi, K. S.; Sasmal, C. S.; Laha, K.; Parameswaran, P.; Nandagopal, M.; Vijayanand, V. D.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

2013-04-01

143

Local Identification of Magnetic Hysteresis Properties Near Cutting Edges of Electrical Steel Sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological processes performed on electrical steel influence drastically their magnetic properties. The local mechanical state, changed by the introduction of cutting stresses and strains, degrades the local magnetic properties of the material. Therefore, the need exists to characterize accurately the change of the magnetic properties as a function of the distance from the cutting edge. We present a nondestructive experimental

Guillaume Crevecoeur; Luc Dupre; Lode Vandenbossche; Rik Van de Walle

2008-01-01

144

Hydrogen embrittlement property of a 1700-MPa-class ultrahigh-strength tempered martensitic steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrogen embrittlement property of a prototype 1700-MPa-class ultrahigh-strength steel (NIMS17) containing hydrogen traps was evaluated using a slow strain rate test (SSRT) after cathodic hydrogen precharging, cyclic corrosion test (CCT) and atmospheric exposure. The hydrogen content in a fractured specimen was measured after SSRT by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The relationship between fracture stress and hydrogen content for the hydrogen-precharged specimens showed that the fracture stress of NIMS17 steel was higher, at a given hydrogen content, than that of conventional AISI 4135 steels with tensile strengths of 1300 and 1500 MPa. This suggests better resistance of NIMS17 steel to hydrogen embrittlement. However, hydrogen uptake to NIMS17 steel under CCT and atmospheric exposure decreased the fracture stress. This is because of the stronger hydrogen uptake to the steel containing hydrogen traps than to the AISI 4135 steels. Although NIMS17 steel has a higher strength level than AISI 4135 steel with a tensile strength of 1500 MPa, the decrease in fracture stress is similar between these steels.

Li, Songjie; Akiyama, Eiji; Yuuji, Kimura; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki; Uno, Nobuyoshi; Zhang, Boping

2010-04-01

145

The effect of molybdenum on high-temperature properties of 9 pct Cr steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat-resistant 9 Cr steels with 1, 2, and 3 pct Mo were tested for mechanical properties, weldability, and creep-rupture properties. The elevated-temperature and rupture strengths increase with increasing molybdenum content. While the 9 Cr-1 Mo steel is martensitic and is precipitation strengthened with carbides, the 9 Cr-2 Mo and 9 Cr-3 Mo steels receive added benefits from precipitation of Laves phase and solid-solution strengthening. The latter cause little decrease in ductility and impact resistance. The 9 Cr-2 Mo and 9 Cr-3 Mo steels are characterized by a duplex microstructure which aids weldability. Weld cracking tests show no need for preheating the latter steels, although the martensitic 9 Cr-1 Mo steel is known to be susceptible to weld cracking if not preheated. Both duplex-structure steels have good resistance to stress-relief cracking. Anisotropy of mechanical properties, due to the orientation of the duplex structure in the rolling direction, is less than that observed in the fully martensitic 9 Cr-1 Mo steel.

Grobner, P. J.; Hagel, W. C.

1980-04-01

146

Hydrogen Effect on Nanomechanical Properties of the Nitrided Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ electrochemical nanoindentation is used to examine the effect of electrochemically charged hydrogen on mechanical properties of the nitride layer on low-alloy 2.25Cr-1Mo martensitic structural steel. By application of this method, we were able to trace the changes in the mechanical properties due to the absorption of atomic hydrogen to different depths within the compound and diffusion layers. The results clearly show that the hydrogen charging of the nitriding layer can soften the layer and reduce the hardness within both the compound and the diffusion layers. The effect is completely reversible and by removal of the hydrogen, the hardness recovers to its original value. The reduction in hardness of the nitride layer does not correlate to the nitrogen concentration, but it seems to be influenced by the microstructure and residual stress within the compound and diffusion layers. Findings show that nitriding can be a promising way to control the hydrogen embrittlement of the tempered martensitic steels.

Barnoush, Afrooz; Asgari, Masoud; Johnsen, Roy; Hoel, Rune

2013-02-01

147

Improved Life of Die Casting Dies of H13 Steel by Attaining Improved Mechanical Properties and Distortion Control During Heat Treatment  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of this project is to increase die casting die life by using fast enough quenching rates to obtain good toughness and fatigue resistance in premium grade H-13 steel dies. The main tasks of the project were to compile a database on physical and mechanical properties of H-13; conduct gas quenching experiments to determine cooling rates of dies in difference vacuum furnaces; measure the as-quenched distortion of dies and the residual stresses; generate finite element analysis models to predict cooling rates, distortion, and residual stress of gas quenched dies; and establish rules and create PC-based expert system for prediction of cooling rates, distortion, and residual stress in vacuum/gas quenched H-13 dies. Cooling curves during gas quenching of H-13 blocks and die shapes have been measured under a variety of gas pressure. Dimensional changes caused by the gas quenching processes have been determined by accurate mapping of all surfaces with coordinate measuring machines before and after the quench. Residual stresses were determined by the ASTM E837 hole-drilling strain gage method. To facilitate the computer modeling work, a comprehensive database of H-13 mechanical and physical properties has been compiled. Finite element analysis of the heat treated shapes has been conducted using the TRAST/ABAQUS codes. There is a good fit between the predicted and measured distortion contours. However, the magnitude of the predicted distortion and residual stresses does not match well the measured values. Further fine tuning of the model is required before it can be used to predict distortion and residual stress in a quantitative manner. This last step is a prerequisite to generating rules for a reliable expert system.

J. F. Wallace; D. Schwam

1998-10-01

148

Mechanical properties of low-nickel stainless steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Demand for improved corrosion-resistant steels, coupled with increased emphasis on conserving strategic metals, has led to development of family of stainless steels in which manganese and nitrogen are substituted for portion of usual nickel content. Advantages are approximately-doubled yield strength in annealed condition, better resistance to stress-corrosion cracking, retention of low magnetic permeability even after severe cold working, excellent strength and ductility at cryogenic temperatures, superior resistance to wear and galling, and excellent high-temperature properties.

Montano, J. W.

1978-01-01

149

Mechanical properties of boronized AISI W4 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments was performed to evaluate some mechanical properties of boronized AISI W4 steel. Boronizing was carried out in a solid medium consisting of EKabor powders at 850, 950 and 1050C for 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. After boronizing, FeB and Fe2B phases were formed on the surface of the steel substrate. A boride layer was revealed

Ibrahim Ozbek; Cuma Bindal

2002-01-01

150

Fracture resistant properties of AerMet steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to report well-controlled experiments conducted to determine the fracture resistant properties of AerMet 100 steels. One of the objectives of this study is to determine the influence of fracture toughness properties on the fracture and fragmentation process. Both sphere impact tests and cylinder expansion test geometry were used to determine the dynamic fracture resistant

L. C. Chhabildas; T. F. Thornhill; W. D. Reinhart; M. E. Kipp; D. R. Reedal; L. T. Wilson; D. E. Grady

2001-01-01

151

Properties of steel fiber reinforced fly ash concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a comprehensive study on the properties of concrete containing fly ash and steel fibers. Properties studied include unit weight and workability of fresh concrete, and compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, splitting tensile strength, elasticity modulus, sorptivity coefficient, drying shrinkage and freezethaw resistance of hardened concrete. Fly ash content used was 0%, 15% and 30% in mass

Cengiz Duran Ati?; Okan Karahan

2009-01-01

152

Weld Properties of a Free Machining Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

The all weld metal tensile properties from gas tungsten arc and electron beam welds in free machining austenitic stainless steels have been determined. Ten heats with sulfur contents from 0.04 to 0.4 wt.% and a wide range in Creq/Nieq ratios were studied. Tensile properties of welds with both processes were related to alloy composition and solidification microstructure. The yield and ultimate tensile strengths increased with increasing Creq/Nieq ratios and ferrite content, whereas the ductility measured by RA at fracture decreased with sulfur content. Nevertheless, a range in alloy compositions was identified that provided a good combination of both strength and ductility. The solidification cracking response for the same large range of compositions are discussed, and compositions identified that would be expected to provide good performance in welded applications.

J. A. Brooks; S. H. Goods; C. V. Robino

2000-08-01

153

Effect of silver on antibacterial properties of stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructural variation and antibacterial properties of the AISI 304 stainless steel containing silver (Ag) element have been investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM), grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Furthermore, the antibacterial testing was performed according to JIS Z2801:2000 specification. As the alloy contained Ag elements, the microstructure of the alloys was a mixture of (? + ? + Ag-rich compound)-phases. The amounts of ? phase and Ag-rich compound increased as Ag contents increased. The Ag-rich compound has FCC structure with the lattice parameter a = 0.251 nm. No precipitates were found within the matrix and grain boundaries in the present alloys after SHT. Moreover, when the alloy is added to Ag element, antibacterial property was seen obvious against E. coli. It has an AR nearly of 100%.

Liao, Kuo-Hsing; Ou, Keng-Liang; Cheng, Hsin-Chung; Lin, Che-Tong; Peng, Pei-Wen

2010-03-01

154

Microstructure and mechanical properties of nano-Y2O3 dispersed ferritic steel synthesized by mechanical alloying and consolidated by pulse plasma sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferritic steel with compositions 83.0Fe13.5Cr2.0Al0.5Ti (alloy A), 79.0Fe17.5Cr2.0Al0.5Ti (alloy B), 75.0Fe21.5Cr2.0Al0.5Ti (alloy C) and 71.0Fe25.5Cr2.0Al0.5Ti (alloy D) (all in wt%) each with a 1.0?wt% nano-Y2O3 dispersion were synthesized by mechanical alloying and consolidated by pulse plasma sintering at 600, 800 and 1000C using a 75-MPa uniaxial pressure applied for 5?min and a 70-kA pulse current at 3?Hz pulse frequency. X-ray

S. K. Karak; J. Dutta Majumdar; W. Lojkowski; A. Michalski; L. Ciupinski; K. J. Kurzyd?owski; I. Manna

2011-01-01

155

Microstructure and mechanical properties of nano-Y2O3 dispersed ferritic steel synthesized by mechanical alloying and consolidated by pulse plasma sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferritic steel with compositions 83.0Fe13.5Cr2.0Al0.5Ti (alloy A), 79.0Fe17.5Cr2.0Al0.5Ti (alloy B), 75.0Fe21.5Cr2.0Al0.5Ti (alloy C) and 71.0Fe25.5Cr2.0Al0.5Ti (alloy D) (all in wt%) each with a 1.0?wt% nano-Y2O3 dispersion were synthesized by mechanical alloying and consolidated by pulse plasma sintering at 600, 800 and 1000C using a 75-MPa uniaxial pressure applied for 5?min and a 70-kA pulse current at 3?Hz pulse frequency. X-ray

S. K. Karak; J. Dutta Majumdar; W. Lojkowski; A. Michalski; L. Ciupinski; K. J. Kurzyd?owski; I. Manna

2012-01-01

156

Corrosion behavior of martensitic and precipitation hardening stainless steels treated by plasma nitriding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma nitriding is a well established technology to improve wear and corrosion properties of austenitic stainless steels. Nevertheless, in the case of martensitic stainless steels, it continues being a problem mainly from the corrosion resistance viewpoint.In this work, three high chromium stainless steels (M340, N695 and Corrax) were hardened by ion nitriding at low temperature, intending to preserve their corrosion

Sonia P. Brhl; Ral Charadia; Silvia Simison; Diego G. Lamas; Amado Cabo

2010-01-01

157

Microstructureproperty relationship in explosively welded duplex stainless steelsteel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplex stainless steel (2205 grade) and vessel steel (DIN-P355GH grade) were cladded by explosive welding. The relationship between hardness, tensile shear strength and toughness and microstructure of cladded materials were evaluated. The bond interface of the cladded materials shows a wavy morphology. The hardness was similar in the base and flyer plate near the bond interface while a general increase

R Kaar; M Acarer

2003-01-01

158

Microstructure and mechanical properties of CrAlN coatings deposited by modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering on AISI H13 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

CrAlN coatings were deposited on silicon and AISI H13 steel substrates using a modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering\\u000a system. At the modified ion beam bombardment, the effects of bias voltage and Al\\/(Cr+Al) ratio on microstructure and mechanical\\u000a properties of the coatings were studied. The X-ray diffraction data showed that all CrAlN coatings were crystallized in the\\u000a cubic NaCl B1

Chunyan Yu; Shebin Wang; Linhai Tian; Tianbao Li; Bingshe Xu

2009-01-01

159

Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel 316L Coatings Produced by Cold Spray for Biomedical Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cold sprayed stainless steel 316L coatings using N2 and He as propellant gases were investigated. Powder and coating characterizations, including coating microhardness, coating porosity, and XRD phase analysis were performed. It was found that heat treatment reduced porosity, improved inter-particle bonding, and increased ductility. XRD results confirmed that no phase transformation occurred during deposition. Significant increase in UTS and ductility was observed for the annealed specimens obtained with nitrogen propellant, whereas little changes were observed for the helium propellant produced specimen.

AL-Mangour, Bandar; Vo, Phuong; Mongrain, Rosaire; Irissou, Eric; Yue, Stephen

2014-04-01

160

Mechanical Properties of TRIP Steel Microalloyed with Ti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precipitation state, microstructure, retained austenite stability, and mechanical properties of cold-rolled Ti-microalloyed CMnAlSiP TRIP steel were investigated. The precipitation state was analyzed in each processing step by means of transmission electron microscopy, chemical analysis using the anodic dissolution method, and by model calculations. Ti additions refined the microstructure mainly by the pinning of austenite and ferrite grain boundaries by various Ti-containing precipitates. Ti additions also resulted in a refinement of the size of the retained austenite islands and caused a slight decrease of the volume fraction and carbon content of the retained austenite. The morphology of the retained austenite was also changed and the stability of the retained austenite decreased, but Ti addition still resulted in an adequate strength-ductility balance and a tensile strength close to 1 GPa.

Krizan, Daniel; De Cooman, Bruno C.

2014-07-01

161

Mechanical Properties of TRIP Steel Microalloyed with Ti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precipitation state, microstructure, retained austenite stability, and mechanical properties of cold-rolled Ti-microalloyed CMnAlSiP TRIP steel were investigated. The precipitation state was analyzed in each processing step by means of transmission electron microscopy, chemical analysis using the anodic dissolution method, and by model calculations. Ti additions refined the microstructure mainly by the pinning of austenite and ferrite grain boundaries by various Ti-containing precipitates. Ti additions also resulted in a refinement of the size of the retained austenite islands and caused a slight decrease of the volume fraction and carbon content of the retained austenite. The morphology of the retained austenite was also changed and the stability of the retained austenite decreased, but Ti addition still resulted in an adequate strength-ductility balance and a tensile strength close to 1 GPa.

Krizan, Daniel; De Cooman, Bruno C.

2014-05-01

162

Influence of thermal aging on microstructure and mechanical properties of CLAM steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the influence of thermal aging on microstructure and mechanical properties of CLAM (China low activation martensitic) steel, a comparison study was made on the as-tempered and the aged steels. The tempered CLAM steels were subjected to aging treatment at 600 C for 1100 h and 3000 h, and at 650 C for 1100 h, respectively. The changes of microstructure were characterized by both transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mechanical properties were evaluated by Charpy impact, tensile and Vickers hardness tests. The upper shelf energy (USE) of the thermal aged CLAM steel decreased with the extension of aging time, while the yield strength changed slightly. After long-term thermal aging, the MX type precipitates remained stable. The coarsening of M23C6 and the formation of Laves phase were confirmed by scanning/transmission electron microscopes. The Laves phase was the main factor leading to the increase of DBTT.

Huang, Lixin; Hu, Xue; Yang, Chunguang; Yan, Wei; Xiao, Furen; Shan, Yiyin; Yang, Ke

2013-11-01

163

Low- Temperature improvement of mechanical properties of aisi 4340 steel through high-temperature thermomechanical treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-temperature mechanical properties of AISI 4340 ultrahigh-strength steel can be dramatically improved by high-temperature thermomechanical treatment (HTMT). A comparison was made with the mechanical properties developed by the conventional heat-treatment (CHT). When the steel was hot forged by 50 pct reduction at 1177 K followed by direct oil quenching and subsequent tempering at 423 K, the slow-bending fracture energy of fatigue-precracked steels was significantly improved, with notably increased strength, owing to a moderate increase in ductility over the temperature range of 123 to 293 K, and the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) in the Charpy impact test was remarkably lowered. The marked development was achieved in the slow-bending fracture energy, with moderate improvement in strength, owing to significantly increased ductility over the temperature range of 123 to 293 K, when the steel was deformed by 50 pct reduction at 1473 K followed by direct oil quenching and subsequent tempering at 453 K. The treatment also improved the shelf energy and DBTT in the Charpy impact test. The improved mechanical properties are attributed to the subcell structure introduced in austenite by processing HTMT and inherited by martensite. The present work shows that an HTMT steel is attractive for low-temperature ultrahigh-strength applications when suitable combinations of deformation temperatures with tempering conditions are applied to the steels.

Tomita, Yoshiyuki

1991-05-01

164

ON THE VARIOUS PROPERTIES OF VACUUM-MELTED HEAT-RESISTANT NIMONIC 80A, S816 ALLOYS AND 13% CHROMIUM STAINLESS STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of heat-resistant Nimonic 80A, S816 alloys, and l3% Cr stainless ; steel were melted in vacuum, and their various properties were compared with ; specimens melted in open air. By vacuum melting of 13% Cr stainless steel, the ; gas contents and nonmetallic inclusions in steel were much decreased, and the ; mechanical properties at elevated temperature were improved.

S. Koshiba; T. Kuno

1958-01-01

165

Correlations between operating conditions, microstructure and mechanical properties of twin wire arc sprayed steel coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental design matrix was set up in which carbon steel coatings were deposited with a twin wire arc spray gun (TAFA 9000), using either compressed air or nitrogen as spraying gas. The coating's mechanical properties were studied. Some correlations were made between these properties, spraying conditions and the microstructure of the deposits. Young's modulus was estimated by the single

G. Jandin; H. Liao; Z. Q. Feng; C. Coddet

2003-01-01

166

Thermal annealing behaviour of alloyed DLC films on steel: Determination and modelling of mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shortcoming of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films is the poor stability of their microstructure and properties at elevated temperatures. In this study, the effect of annealing on the stability of DLC films alloyed with silicon and deposited on steel is investigated. A comprehensive study of the mechanical properties is carried out by a novel method combining normal indentations with micro-

J Michler; M Tobler; E Blank

1999-01-01

167

Steel casting by diffusion solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process for casting and welding carbon steels is described in which carbon diffuses isothermally or adiabatically within\\u000a an intimate mixture of solid low carbon steel and high carbon liquid iron to effect solidification and subsequent homogenization\\u000a with respect to carbon. Advantages over conventional casting processes and products result from 1) 150 to 200C lower casting\\u000a temperature; 2) reduced

George Langford; Robert E. Cunningham

1978-01-01

168

Steel casting by diffusion solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process for casting and welding carbon steels is described in which carbon diffuses isothermally or adiabatically within\\u000a an intimate mixture of solid low carbon steel and high carbon liquid iron to effect solidification and subsequent homogenization\\u000a with respect to carbon. Advantages over conventional casting processes and products result from 1) 150 to 200C lower casting\\u000a temperature; 2) reduced

George Langford; Robert E. Cunningham

1978-01-01

169

Antibacterial Property and Tribological Behavior of Duplex-Surface-Treated AISI 304 Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The duplex treatment of plasma alloying with Cu on plasma alloyed AISI 304 stainless steel with Ni is carried out using a double-glow plasma surface alloying technique. The antibacterial and unlubricated tribological properties of the un- treated, Ni-modified, and duplex-treated stainless steel have been investigated by using a spread plate method and a ball-on-disk wear testing method, respectively. The element

Xiangyu Zhang; Ailan Fan; Ruihua Zhu; Yong Ma; Bin Tang

2011-01-01

170

Influence of laser hardening and resulting microstructure on fatigue properties of carbon steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cylindrical specimens of a CSN 12050 carbon steel, equivalent to the UNS G 10420 steel, with two different initial microstructures,\\u000a normalized and heat treated, were surface processed without melting by a 2.5 kW, CO2 laser to study the effects of laserbeam hardening and resulting microstructure on fatigue properties and mechanisms. Two\\u000a configurations of circumferential laser passes were made, resulting in

I. Cerny; I. Fuerbacher; V. Linhart

1998-01-01

171

Effect of zirconium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS ferritic steels containing aluminum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels with nominal composition of Fe-16Cr-2W-0.5Ti-0.4Y2O3-4Al-1Zr (16Cr-4Al-Zr-ODS) were fabricated by a sol-gel method combining with mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique, and the 16Cr-ODS and 16Cr-4Al-ODS steels were prepared for comparison in the same way. Microstructure characterization reveals that in the 16Cr-4Al-ODS steel coarse Y-Al-O particles were formed while in the 16Cr-4Al-Zr-ODS steel finer Y-Zr-O particles were formed. The mean size and number density of the nano-oxide particles in the 16Cr-4Al-Zr-ODS steel are about 25 nm and 2.6 1021/m3, respectively. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the 16Cr-ODS steel is about 1045 MPa, but UTS of the 16Cr-4Al-ODS steel decreases to 974 MPa. However, UTS of the 16Cr-4Al-Zr-ODS steel increases to 1180 MPa while keeping a large uniform elongation up to 23%, indicating the enhancement of mechanical properties by Zr addition.

Gao, R.; Zhang, T.; Wang, X. P.; Fang, Q. F.; Liu, C. S.

2014-01-01

172

Scattering of guided waves by circumferential cracks in steel pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel numerical procedure is presented in this paper to study wave scattering by circumferential cracks in steel pipes. The study is motivated by the need to develop a quantitative ultrasonic technique to characterize properties of cracks in pipes. By employing wave function expansion in axial direction and decomposing the problem into a symmetry problem and an anti-symmetry problem, a

H. Bai; A. H. Shah; N. Popplewell; S. K. Datta

2001-01-01

173

Hydrogen Embrittlement Evaluation in Tensile Properties of Stainless Steels at Cryogenic Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advanced design of fuel-cell vehicles requires high-pressure low-temperature hydrogen systems, which in turn requires a high-pressure low-temperature mechanical properties database to address hydrogen embrittlement issues. A very simple and safe mechanical properties testing procedure to evaluate low temperature hydrogen embrittlement has been developed and is reported here. Tensile properties of stainless steel, SUS 304, 304L and 316L, obtained by this simple method are in good agreement with previous data obtained in a high pressure chamber. The effect of hydrogen changed also with the amount of strain-induced martensitic transformation in those steels at low temperatures.

Ogata, T.

2008-03-01

174

Effect of oxide phase on the tribological properties of high-chromium steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of dispersed oxide phases of Y2O3-TiO2 type on the wear rate and the friction coefficient of the high-chromium martensitic 18Kh12V2 and ferritic 01Kh13V2 steels upon sliding friction in pair with the 40Kh12 steel has been studied. The structure of these materials has been analyzed by metallographic and electron-microscopic methods. It has been shown that the presence of about 0.5% dispersed oxide particles, including nanosized ones, in the structure of the ferritic 01Kh13V2 steel exerts a complex influence on the wear resistance of this steel. Upon dry friction under the conditions of adhesive wear, the 01Kh12V2 steel alloyed with oxides is characterized by a low wear resistance. It is caused by an increased brittleness of the steel, which activates the processes of seizure and deep tearing at the friction surface of the steel. In the case of lubricated friction (boundary friction regime), dispersed oxide phases exert a great positive influence on the wear resistance of the steel. The wear rate of the oxide-strengthened ferritic steel in this case is about twice as low as that of the steel nonalloyed with oxides. It is caused by the formation of numerous pores in the surface layer of the alloyed steel in place of spalled oxides. The formation of pores helps better retention of a lubricant in the friction zone (the effect of self-lubrication), which decreases the probability of adhesive inter-action between the contacting steel surfaces. It has been found out that the alloying of a high-chromium martensitic 18Kh12V2 steel with a small amount (0.3%) of oxides of the Y2O3 + TiO2 type does not exert a noticeable influence on the tribological properties of the steel under consideration. The oxide phase does not affect noticeably the magnitude of the friction coefficient of the steels tested.

Korshunov, L. G.; Sagaradze, V. V.; Kataeva, N. V.; Chernenko, N. L.; Ageev, V. S.; Danil'Chenko, V. E.

2011-08-01

175

Fatigue Property of Stainless Steel FES Electrode in Hanks' Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue property of the wire rope with 19 strands used as an FES electrode was investigated. The wire rope was made of high manganese high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel. Fatigue life of the wire rope in Hanks' solution at 310 K was evaluated using a dual-driven rotating-bending fatigue machine. Each wire of the rope was worn out and the cross

Y. Iguchi; T. Narushima; K. Suzuki; S. Yoshida; M. Watanabe; T. Kinami; C. Ouchi

176

Correlations among mechanical properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, applicability of previously published empirical relations among compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength of normal concrete, polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete (PFRC) and glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) to steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) was evaluated; moreover, correlations among these mechanical properties of SFRC were analyzed. For the investigation, a large number of experimental data were

B. W. Xu; H. S. Shi

2009-01-01

177

Electrical and Magnetic Properties of D6ac Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The room temperature electrical and magnetic properties of the high strength steel D6ac are documented in this report. These data were used to support a wider study on the application of magnetic rubber testing (MRT) for the structural integrity managemen...

M. E. Ibrahim S. K. Burke

2007-01-01

178

Tensile properties of stainless steel sandwich sheets with fibrous cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unnotched and notched tensile properties of flocked and brazed stainless steel sandwiches with fibrous cores were examined. The tensile stress-strain responses show that the fibres do not carry any load in the flocked sheets and that the load transfer is better facilitated in the brazed sandwich sheets. Notched strength results show that the flocked sheets are notch-insensitive whereas the

M. A. Azeem; C. Shortall; U. Ramamurty

2007-01-01

179

Microstructure and property modifications of an AISI H13 (4Cr5MoSiV) steel induced by pulsed electron beam treatment  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, surface modifications generated by the low energy high current pulsed electron beam (LEHCPEB) treatments have been investigated on an AISI H13 (4Cr5MoSiV) steel. From the observations of scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electron back scattering diffraction determinations, it could be established that the final structure in the melted layer is a mixture of ultrafine {delta} phase, martensite, and residual austenite. The formation of the heterogeneous microstructures on the surface layer is related to the very rapid heating, melting, solidification, and cooling induced by the LEHCPEB irradiation. After the LEHCPEB treatment, the wear resistance of the steel effectively improved. This can be mainly attributed to the higher hardness of the ultrafine structures formed on the top surface and the hardened subsurface layers after the treatment.

Zhang Kemin; Zou Jianxin; Grosdidier, Thierry; Dong Chuang [School of Materials Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Mg Materials and Applications and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) and Laboratoire d'Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM, CNRS 3143), Universite Paul Verlaine Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Laboratoire d'Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM, CNRS 3143), Universite Paul Verlaine Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France) and Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron and Ion Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron and Ion Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2010-11-15

180

Influence of ion implantation on the properties of TiN coatings deposited by electro-arc evaporation on to steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiN coatings have been deposited on nitrogen (30keV) and boron (50keV) ion implanted steel substrates by electro-arc evaporation. The coatings were also implanted with nitrogen (E = 30 keV) and boron (E = 50 keV) ions at implantation doses of 1 1016, 5 1016 and 1 1017 ions cm?2, respectively.The coating topography, phase composition, distribution of the

VI Dimitrova

1998-01-01

181

Low-temperature elastic properties of four austenitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elastic properties of four austenitic stainless steels-AISI 304, AISI 310, AISI 316, and A286-are reported over the temperature range 300-4 K. These properties include longitudinal modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, bulk modulus (reciprocal compressibility), Poisson's ratio, and elastic Debye temperature. Elastic constants were determined from measurements of longitudinal and transverse sound-wave velocities using an ultrasonic (10 MHz) pulse-superposition method.

H. M. Ledbetter; W. F. Weston; E. R. Naimon

1975-01-01

182

High Strength Stainless Steel Properties that Affect Resistance Welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses results of a study on selected high strength stainless steel alloy properties that affect resistance welding. The austenitic alloys A-286, JBK-75 (Modified A-286), 21-6-9, 22-13-5, 316 and 304L were investigated and compared. The former two are age hardenable, and the latter four obtain their strength through work hardening. Properties investigated include corrosion and its relationship to chemical

Kanne

2001-01-01

183

IRRADIATION CREEP AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO FERRITIC-MARTENSITIC STEELS IRRADIATED IN THE BN-350 FAST REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

Russian ferritic/martensitic steels EP-450 and EP-823 were irradiated to 20-60 dpa in the BN-350 fast reactor in the form of pressurized creep tubes and small rings used for mechanical property tests. Data derived from these steels serves to enhance our understanding of the general behavior of this class of steels. It appears that these steels exhibit behavior that is very consistent with that of Western steels. Swelling is relatively low at high neutron exposure and confined to temperatures less then 420 degrees C, but may be camouflaged somewhat by precipitation-related densification. The irradiation creep studies confirm that the creep compliance of F/M steels is about one-half that of austenitic steels, and that the loss of strength at test temperatures above 500 degrees C is a problem generic to all F/M steels. This conclusion is supported by post-irradiation measurement of short-term mechanical properties. At temperatures below 500 degrees C both steels retain their high strength (yield stress 0.2=550-600 MPa), but at higher test temperatures a sharp decrease of strength properties occurs. However, the irradiated steels still retain high post-irradiation ductility at test temperatures in the range of 20-700 degrees C.

Porollo, S. I.; Konobeev, Yu V.; Dvoriashin, A. M.; Budylkin, N. I.; Mironova, E. G.; Leontyeva-Smirnova, M. V.; Loltukhovsky, A. G.; Bochvar, A. A.; Garner, Francis A.

2002-09-01

184

Microstructure and mechanical properties of quenched and tempered 300M steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Type 300M steel, which is being used for the landing gear on the space shuttle orbiter, was subjected to a wide range of quenched and tempered heat treatments. The plane-strain fracture toughness and the tensile ultimate and yield strengths were evaluated. Cryogenic mechanical properties were obtained for conventionally heat-treated steel. The microstructure of all heat-treated test coupons was studied both optically and by transmission electron microscopy. Fracture surfaces were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that substantial improvement in toughness with no loss in strength can be accomplished in quenched and tempered steel by austenitizing at 1255 K or higher. Low fracture toughness in conventionally austenitized 300M steel (1144 K) appears to be caused by undissolved precipitates, seen both in the submicrostructure and on the fracture surface, which promote failure by quasi-cleavage. The precipitates appeared to dissolve in the range 1200 to 1255 K.

Youngblood, J. L.; Raghavan, M.

1978-01-01

185

Influence of martensite content and morphology on tensile and impact properties of high-martensite dual-phase steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of dual-phase (DP) steels containing finely dispersed martensite with different volume fractions of martensite (V\\u000a m) were produced by intermediate quenching of a boron- and vanadium-containing microalloyed steel. The volume fraction of martensite\\u000a was varied from 0.3 to 0.8 by changing the intercritical annealing temperature. The tensile and impact properties of these\\u000a steels were studied and compared to

A. Bag; K. K. Ray; E. S. Dwarakadasa

1999-01-01

186

The effect of surface indications on the tensile properties of cast steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this thesis was to study the effect of surface indications on the tensile properties of cast steel. Four cast steel grades were selected for evaluation; these grades include three carbon and low alloy steels (110/80, 165/135, and Eglin) and one high alloy steel (CF8M). Using these steels, tensile specimens were produced, inspected via MT/PT, categorized by surface indications (as-cast or machined), and tested. Bars with natural surface indications were tensile tested and the properties recorded. The presence of a ? inch, ? inch, or inch flat-bottomed hole drilled through half the thickness mimicked a similar nonlinear worse-case scenario indication. The inch indication resulted in an ultimate tensile strength loss ranging from 21.5% to 36.0%, with the more ductile materials being impacted least. The percent elongation loss ranged from 38.5% to 69.9%, with the majority of the alloys showing an approximate 60 percent loss in elongation. The modulus decrease ranged from 2.9% to 17.5%. These results were modeled using ANSYS to observe capability in predicting a decrease in properties. The resulting decrease in properties matched the experimental data to an accuracy of 3+/-11%. The results provide a previously undocumented relationship between indication size and tensile properties.

Hamby, Jeff

187

Mechanical property variation within Inconel 82\\/182 dissimilar metal weld between low alloy steel and 316 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several locations of pressurized water reactors, dissimilar metal welds using Inconel welding wires are used to join the low alloy steel components to stainless-steel pipes. Because of the existence of different materials and chemistry variation within welds, mechanical properties, such as tensile and fracture properties, are expected to show spatial variation. For design and integrity assessment of the dissimilar

Changheui Jang; Jounghoon Lee; Jong Sung Kim; Tae Eun Jin

2008-01-01

188

Thermophysical and Electronic Properties of Foreign Nonstainless Alloy Steels, Carbon Steels, and Cast Irons, A Comprehensive Survey of the World Literature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents comprehensive bibliographic information on the thermophysical and electronic (including electrical, magnetic, and optical) properties of over 1900 different foreign nonstainless alloy steels, carbon steels, and cast irons. The steels ...

P. D. Desai

1981-01-01

189

Surface properties of nitrided layer on AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel produced by high temperature plasma nitriding in short time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has generally been believed that the formation of the S phase or expanded austenite ?N with enough thickness depends on the temperature (lower than 480 C) and duration of the process. In this work, we attempt to produce nitrogen expanded austenite layer at high temperature in short time. Nitriding of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel was carried out at high temperatures (>520 C) for times ranging from 5 to 120 min. The microstructures, chemical composition, the thickness and the morphology of the nitrided layer, as well as its surface hardness, were investigated using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and microhardness tester. The corrosion properties of the untreated and nitrided samples were evaluated using anodic polarization tests in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results confirmed that nitrided layer was shown to consist of ?N and a small amount of free-CrN and iron nitrides. High temperature plasma nitriding not only increased the surface hardness but also improved the corrosion resistance of the austenitic stainless steel, and it can critically reduce processing time compared with low temperature nitriding.

Li, Yang; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Liang

2014-04-01

190

NUMERICAL MODELLING OF FIBER AND STEEL BAR REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS BY THE BRIDGED CRACK MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of new generation concretes for structural a pplications allow for larger steel percentages, while the increased brittlenessmay be reduced by adding steel fibers in the matrix. Nonetheless, coded procedures for the designof structural members where these new properties are accurately accounted for are still missi ng for a variety of reasons. A recent extension of the Bridged Crack

Alberto Carpinteri; Giulio Ventura

191

Effect of VC inhibitors in combination with unconventional dynamical heat treatment on the magnetic properties of GO steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work investigates some new approaches of grain - oriented steels processes. The suggested approach combines an application of nano - particles VC in combination with dynamic continuous annealing for secondary recrystallization in the investigated steels. Such a dynamical (fast heating) annealing and VC particles was applied to the grain - oriented steels in order to obtain abnormal grain growth with Gass crystallographic orientation development during secondary recrystallization. This abnormal gain growth led to evolution of suficienty sharp {110}<001> Goss texture which is equal to that obtained in conventionally treated GO steels. Moreover, the steels treated by the newly method showed similar magnetic properties as the materials passed the long - time heat treated. The coercive field value of our steels reached 11 A/m. This means that the proposed heat treatment in combination with VC nano - particles lead to development equal material's quality at significantly shortened time of heat treatment in comparison to the conventional process of GO steel production.

Kov?, F.; Petryshynets, I.; korvnek, I.; Falat, L.; Marcin, J.

2013-01-01

192

Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Fe-Mn-(Al, Si) TRIP\\/TWIP Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties and microstructure of two low carbon high manganese steels with 23.8% (No. 1) and 33% (No. 2) (mass percent) of manganese were investigated. The results showed that No. 1 steel possesses high strength and high plasticity, and No. 2 steel has a relatively high strength and extraordinary plasticity. The No. 1 steel exhibits both TRIP (transformation induced

Hua DING; Zheng-You TANG; Wei LI; Mei WANG; Dan SONG

2006-01-01

193

Study on precipitation and transition mechanisms from the magnetic properties of silicon steel during annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitates play an important role in determining the mechanical and magnetic properties of silicon steel. This paper aims to investigate the growth kinetics of precipitates in commercial silicon steel by analyzing its magnetic properties during isothermal annealing at 200C. The growth of precipitates was studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic measurements. In combination with the coercive field and initial susceptibility, this technique offers the advantage of being non-destructive and providing quantitative information about the number, mean radius of precipitates, and fraction of transformation. An observed decrease in the number of precipitated particles indicates that the transformation starts from particles of appreciable initial size.

Fan, Yong-fei; Yu, Hao; Sun, Jing; Tao, Pan; Song, Cheng-hao; Zeng, Xun

2014-04-01

194

A Novel Ni-Containing Powder Metallurgy Steel with Ultrahigh Impact, Fatigue, and Tensile Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact toughness of powder metallurgy (PM) steel is typically inferior, and it is further impaired when the microstructure is strengthened. To formulate a versatile PM steel with superior impact, fatigue, and tensile properties, the influences of various microstructures, including ferrite, pearlite, bainite, and Ni-rich areas, were identified. The correlations between impact toughness with other mechanical properties were also studied. The results demonstrated that ferrite provides more resistance to impact loading than Ni-rich martensite, followed by bainite and pearlite. However, Ni-rich martensite presents the highest transverse rupture strength (TRS), fatigue strength, tensile strength, and hardness, followed by bainite, pearlite, and ferrite. With 74 pct Ni-rich martensite and 14 pct bainite, Fe-3Cr-0.5Mo-4Ni-0.5C steel achieves the optimal combination of impact energy (39 J), TRS (2170 MPa), bending fatigue strength at 2 106 cycles (770 MPa), tensile strength (1323 MPa), and apparent hardness (38 HRC). The impact energy of Fe-3Cr-0.5Mo-4Ni-0.5C steel is twice as high as those of the ordinary high-strength PM steels. These findings demonstrate that a high-strength PM steel with high-toughness can be produced by optimized alloy design and microstructure.

Wu, Ming-Wei; Shu, Guo-Jiun; Chang, Shih-Ying; Lin, Bing-Hao

2014-05-01

195

Charpy impact properties of 9CrODS ferritic steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The toughness of 9CrODS steels was evaluated by using an instrumented Charpy impact test machine, focusing on various processes such as hot-forging and hot-rolling. The upper-shelf energy (USE) of the hot-forged specimens is superior; their full-size USE converted from the miniaturized specimen lies within the published data for ODS steels, whereas hot-rolling leads to poor toughness. The total absorbed energy was separated into the energies for crack initiation and propagation. The hot-forged 9CrODS steels provide similar crack initiation energy to ferritic/martensitic steels (FMSs); their low absorbed energy is attributed to a limited amount of crack propagation energy induced by plastic deformation.

Izawa, Wataru; Ukai, Shigeharu; Oono, Naoko; Hayashi, Shigenari; Sakamura, Takashi; Kohno, Yutaka; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji

2013-11-01

196

Influence of turning on the magnetic properties of electrical steel in the production of electrical machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method to determine the influence of a turning process on the magnetic properties of non-orientated electrical steel sheets. This is done by measuring the magnetization curve of ring specimens by using them as a kind of transformer core. The magnetization curve can be calculated by measuring the current on the primary side and the voltage on

Andreas Boehm; Ingo Hahn

2011-01-01

197

High Strength Stainless Steel Properties that Affect Resistance Welding  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses results of a study on selected high strength stainless steel alloy properties that affect resistance welding. The austenitic alloys A-286, JBK-75 (Modified A-286), 21-6-9, 22-13-5, 316 and 304L were investigated and compared. The former two are age hardenable, and the latter four obtain their strength through work hardening. Properties investigated include corrosion and its relationship to chemical cleaning, the effects of heat treatment on strength and surface condition, and the effect of mechanical properties on strength and weldability.

Kanne, W.R.

2001-08-01

198

Springback evaluation for TRIP 800 steel sheets by simple bending tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TRIP steels, or Transformed Induced Plasticity steels, have excellent mechanical properties if compared with conventional steels. Strain hardening is also greater, thus they offer a good combination of strength and formability properties that may be justified by the multiphase structure of these steels. The highlighted characteristic of these steels is that they modify the microstructure with the deformation process as part of the austenite transforms to martensite, with the consequent change of the material properties. One of the main problems of TRIP steels is strong elastic recovery, or springback, after forming. In this work, the springback phenomenon is evaluated by bending tests and the influence of the variables involved in it is determined. The factor found to affect material recovery the most was the bending angle. Experimental bending forces do not agree with theoretical predictions.

Avellaneda, F. J.; Miguel, V.; Coello, J.; Martnez, A.; Calatayud, A.

2012-04-01

199

The effect of controlled cooling after hot rolling on the mechanical properties of a commercial high carbon steel wire rod  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, the effects of different cooling conditions after hot rolling in Stelmor conveyor line on the mechanical properties of a commercial high carbon steel wire rod are investigated. By opening and closing the lids, turning on and off the fans in Stelmor system, an air patenting process is performed on a commercial high carbon steel to improve its

M Kazeminezhad; A Karimi Taheri

2003-01-01

200

Identification of Factors Governing Mechanical Properties of TRIP-Aided Steel Using Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical properties of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP)-aided multiphase steels are modeled by neural networks using two methods of reducing the network connectivity, viz. a pruning algorithm and a predator prey algorithm, to gain understanding on the impact of steel composition and treatment. The pruning algorithm gradually reduces the complexity of the lower layer of connections, removing less significant connections. In

Shubhabrata Datta; Frank Pettersson; Subhas Ganguly; Henrik Saxn; Nirupam Chakraborti

2008-01-01

201

Dynamic Material Property Measurement of Steel Thin Sheets using Laser-Based Ultrasonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A material property measurement system for steel sheets using laser-based ultrasonics was developed. The system consists of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser for ultrasonic generation and multi-channel interferometer coupled with a CW single frequency laser for ultrasonic detection. The system can measure the frequency of the S1 Lamb wave mode of zero group velocity (S1f) as well as the longitudinal resonance frequencies without ablative damage to the steel surface. It was confirmed that Poisson's ratio could be directly obtained by combining the measured S1f value and the longitudinal resonance frequencies. To evaluate the applicability of this system in an actual steel production setting, the system was installed in hot rolling pilot plant that produces steel samples. As a result, it was demonstrated that the system can measure dynamic changes in Poisson's ratio values within steel sheets, even in the hot rolling pilot plant environment. Material property data, such as Poisson's ratio, during the thin sheet production process will be very useful for manufacturing high value-added steel, such as sheets with uniform quality.

Nagata, Y.; Yamada, H.; Hashiguchi, S.; Lim, C. S.; Park, H. C.; Huh, H. J.; Kang, M. K.; Oh, K. J.

2014-06-01

202

Corrosion inhibition of steel by bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Mild steel was exposed to Pseudomonas sp. S9 or Serratia marcescens in synthetic seawater. An increase in corrosion resistance over that i natural seawater was monitored by electrochemical techniques. Biological analyses were performed to characterize the system. The inhibition effect also was observed when mild steel was coated with bacteria and then immersed in synthetic seawater. When specimens coated with bacteria were transferred to a natural seawater flow system, the inhibition effect disappeared during the first 2 weeks.

Hernandez, G.; Kucera, V.; Thierry, D.; Pedersen, A. (Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)); Hermansson, M. (Univ. of Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology)

1994-08-01

203

High-Temperature Tensile Properties of Nano-Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Ferritic Steels Produced by Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels were produced by mechanical alloying and subsequent spark plasma sintering. Very fast heating rates were used to minimize porosity when controlling grain size and precipitation of dispersoids within a compacted material. Sintering cycles performed at 1373 K (1100 C) induced heterogeneous, but fine grain size distribution and high density of nano-oxides. Yield strengths at room temperature and at 923 K (650 C) are 975 MPa and 298 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, high-temperature ductility is much increased: total strain of 28 pct at 923 K (650 C).

Boulnat, Xavier; Fabregue, Damien; Perez, Michel; Mathon, Marie-Hlne; de Carlan, Yann

2013-06-01

204

Laser surface melting of low and medium carbon steels: influence on mechanical and electrochemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of a laser melting on both mechanical and electrochemical properties was studied in two carbon steels. Geometry and microstructure of the melt zone were first observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy, in various experimental conditions: with different interaction times and power density, for simple and multiple track melting. A large hardening was induced by the severe quenching

J. M. Pelletier; D. Pergue; F. Fouquet; H. Mazille

1989-01-01

205

Effects of heat treatment on crystallographic and magnetic properties of magnetic steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The keeper and the head of a modern electrovalve for electronic injection can be succesfully realized using AISI 430 ferromagnetic steel. Important improvements in the performance of the device, mainly in terms of its regularity and energy savings, are possible by means of a better comprehension of the origins of the steel's magnetic properties. The magnetic behaviour of the AISI 430 steel upon different heat treatments was investigated, looking for the best compromise between time saving in the heat treatments and the ensuing magnetic properties of the material. In particular, the relationships between the structural effects of the heat treatments and the magnetic behaviour of the samples were studied. Values of the coercive force Hc, residual induction Br, maximum permeability ? max and the approach to saturation values for H and B were determined by mean of a computerized permeameter, based on a Sanford-Bennet closed yoke for differently shaped samples.

Battistini, L.; Benasciutti, R.; Tassi, A.

1994-05-01

206

Ultrasonic investigations of cermets elastic properties in dependence on steel concentration and temperature of sintering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cermets is a ceramic-metal composite usually produced by sintering a precompacted mixture of the initial powders. These composite materials were created for industrial applications to produce engineering structures possessing a high strength, thermal stability and resistance to aggressive media. In the present work elastic properties of cermets samples, obtained by sintering of corundum (?-Al2O3) and stainless steel powders were investigated in dependence on steel concentration 5 - 35% wt. and on temperature of sintering in vacuum 1400-1700C. It was stated that values of elastic moduli are in complex dependence on concentration and temperature, reach maxima at steel concentration 15 - 20% wt. and increase with sintering temperature rise. In the work also the results of cermets microstructure researches and discussion of these results are presented. The results are discussed from stand view of ultrasound propagation through medium having grain boundaries which influence on the physical properties of composite.

Abramovich, A.

2012-12-01

207

Kawasaki Steel Technical Report No. 14, March 1986. Special Issue on Stainless Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Manufacturing process and properties of stainless steels; Progress in stainless steel production by top and bottom blown converter; Production of high grade stainless steels; New equipment for improvement of stainless steel casting qual...

1986-01-01

208

Effect of cooling parameters on the microstructure and properties of Mo-bearing and Cr-bearing steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To develop low-cost low carbon bainitic steel, Mo-bearing and Cr-bearing steels were melted in a vacuum induction furnace and were researched by thermal simulation and hot rolling at the laboratory. As the cooling rate increases from 0.2 to 50C/s, the transformation temperatures of two steels lie between 650 and 400C, and the final microstructures of them change from quasi-polygonal ferrite and granular bainite to lath bainite. Compared with cooling in air or by interrupted cooling, Mo-bearing and Cr-bearing steel plates cooled by sprayed water boast higher strength and superior toughness, for large-size islands are responsible for the poor mechanical properties. Compared to Mo, Cr is effective to isolate the bainitic reaction in low carbon steel, and the bainitic microstructure can also be obtained in Cr-bearing steel cooled at a wide range of cooling rate.

Huo, Xiang-Dong; Li, Yu-Qian; Zhao, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Hai-Wang; Li, Zhao-Hui

2011-10-01

209

Effect of hot rolling conditions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-C-Mn-Si multiphase steels  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing need for the high strength steels with high formability for many applications. Using the concept of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) observed in austenitic steels, one can obtain the combination of high strength and high formability. However, these austenitic steels require a fairly large amount of alloying elements which impose several practical problems for their widespread applications. On the other hand, it has been shown that the dual phase steels possess the relatively good combination of strength and formability due to their characteristic microstructure. The major microstructural constituents of dual phase steels are soft ferrite and hard martensite/bainite with small amount of retained austenite. In recent years, the beneficial effect of retained austenite on the mechanical properties of dual phase steels have been re-recognized and accordingly, there have been several investigations on developing the so-called TRIP-aided dual phase steels having increased amount of retained austenite in the microstructure. Most investigations on these TRIP-aided dual phase steels have been concentrated on the effects of heat treatment conditions and alloying elements such as Si, Mn, C and P on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cold rolled sheet steels. There have also been a few studies on developing such steels by hot rolling, and the emphases of these studies are placed mostly on increasing the amount of retained austenite. However, the microstructure of these hot rolled steels is far from optimum, consisting of large packets of hard second phase particles. The main objective of the present study is to modify the microstructure of this class of steels by varying the hot rolling conditions. The steel used in the present study is Fe-0.2C-2Si-1.5Mn.

Koh, H.J.; Lee, S.K.; Choi, S.J.; Kwon, S.J.; Kim, N.J. [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)] [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Park, S.H. [POSCO, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Sheet Products and Process Research Team] [POSCO, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Sheet Products and Process Research Team

1998-02-03

210

Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel Polarit 725 (EN 1.4301) at Elevated Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extensive experimental research has been carried out during the years 1994-1997 in the Laboratory of Steel Structures at Helsinki University of Technology for investigating mechanical properties of various structural steels at elevated temperatures. The l...

J. Outinen P. Maekelaeinen

1997-01-01

211

Effect of the fractional composition of initial powders on the structure and properties of high-speed steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependence of the cooling rate and microhardness of steels on the particle size of the powder was determined. The structure and mechanical properties of steel powder fractions 10R6M5 and ROM2F3 obtained by pulverization with nitrogen, and after compacting by rolling were investigated. The mechanical properties of the powders were determined from x-ray diffraction and from the results of microhardness

T. A. Chernyshova; L. K. Bolotova; A. P. Gulyaev; L. P. Sergienko

1988-01-01

212

Tension softening diagrams and evaluation of properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a better understanding of the fracture behavior of concrete structures, knowledge of the post-cracking behavior of concrete material is essential. The tension softening diagram can describe the post-cracking behavior of concrete in tension. In this paper, the properties of various kinds of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) were evaluated by means of the tension softening diagrams, after discussion of

Norihiko Kurihara; Minoru Kunieda; Toshiro Kamada; Yuichi Uchida; Keitetsu Rokugo

2000-01-01

213

Improving Joint Properties of Friction Welded Joint of High Tensile Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the improvements in the joint properties of friction welded joint of 780MPa class high tensile steel. Welded joint made by a continuous drive friction welding machine, the conventional method, had not obtained 100% joint efficiency despite applying forge pressure. This was due to the softening of the welded interface zone for heat input during braking times. Therefore,

Masaaki Kimura; Masahiro Kusaka; Kenji Seo; Akiyoshi Fuji

2005-01-01

214

BORLANMIAISI 1040 EL ??? NN TRBOLOJK ZELLKLERNN ?NCELENMES ? INVESTIGATION OF TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BORONIZED AISI 1040 STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the tribological properties of AISI 1040 steel were researched. Samples were boronized in temperatures of 820C, 860C, 900C in 2, 4 and 6 hour using Ekabor 2 powders by packed boriding method. Phases and depth of boronized samples were determined via microstructure analyses. Hardness distribution was detected depending on depth from surface. Tribological behaviours of boronizing samples

Simge GENALP

215

The role of connectivity of martensite on the tensile properties of a low alloy steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of martensitic morphology and its distribution in a ferrite matrix on tensile properties of a low alloy steel have been studied. Two distinct microstructures were developed solely by heat treatment, i.e., no thermo-mechanical processing was involved; one consisted of continuous ferrite matrix with embedded islands of martensite (MD: martensite dispersed). The other was continuous martensite phase with embedded

M. Sarwar; T. Manzoor; E. Ahmad; N. Hussain

2007-01-01

216

Cyclic Material Properties Test to Determine Hardening/Softening Characteristics of HY-80 Steel  

SciTech Connect

The Cyclic Material Properties Test was structured to obtain and provide experimental data for determining cyclic hardening/softening characteristics of HY-80 steel. The inelastic strain history data generated by this test program and the resulting cyclic stress-strain curve will be used to enhance material models in the finite element codes used to perform nonlinear elastic-plastic analysis.

S.C. Hodge; J.M. Minicucci; T.F. Trimble

2003-04-30

217

Tensile and creep properties of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel for fusion energy application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tensile and creep properties of a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel for Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested in ITER have been evaluated. The tensile strength was found to decrease with temperature; the rate of decrease being slower in the intermediate temperature range of 450-650 K. Tensile ductility of the steel decreased with increase in temperature up to 650 K, followed by a rapid increase beyond 650 K. Creep studies have been carried out at 773, 823 and 873 K over a stress range of 100-300 MPa. The variation of minimum creep rate with applied stress followed a power law, ? = A? n. The ' n' value decreased with increase in temperature. The creep rupture life was found to relate inversely with minimum creep rate through the Monkman-Grant relation, t r ? = constant. The tensile and creep properties of the steel were comparable with those of Eurofer 97.

Mathew, M. D.; Vanaja, J.; Laha, K.; Varaprasad Reddy, G.; Chandravathi, K. S.; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.

2011-10-01

218

Leaching characteristics of steel slag components and their application in cementitious property prediction.  

PubMed

High-efficiency recovery and utilization of steel slag are important concerns for environmental protection and sustainable development. To establish a rapid method to evaluate the cementitious properties of steel slag, leaching tests were carried out on steel slag components via an evaporation-condensation method; the leaching characteristics and mechanism of the slag were also investigated. The relationship between leaching characteristics and cementitious properties, which were represented by mortar compressive strength, was analyzed. Results show that there exist significant differences among the amounts of chemically active leached components. The leaching process can be described by the shrinking unreacted core model controlled by intra-particle diffusion, and is in accordance with Kondo R hydration kinetics equation. The leaching process showed a good linear relationship between the amounts of components leached from steel slag and the mortar compressive strength of cementitious materials prepared from reference cement and steel slag with mass ratios of 50:50 and 70:30. The compressive strengths of mortars subjected to 7, 28, and 90 days of curing can be accurately predicted by the sum of leached (CaO+Al(2)O(3)) obtained after a certain length of leaching time. PMID:22088502

Li, Zaibo; Zhao, Sanyin; Zhao, Xuguang; He, Tusheng

2012-01-15

219

Influence of martensite content and morphology on tensile and impact properties of high-martensite dual-phase steels  

SciTech Connect

A series of dual-phase (DP) steels containing finely dispersed martensite with different volume fractions of martensite (V{sub m}) were produced by intermediate quenching of a boron- and vanadium-containing microalloyed steel. The volume fraction of martensite was varied from 0.3 to 0.8 by changing the intercritical annealing temperature. The tensile and impact properties of these steels were studied and compared to those of step-quenched steels, which showed banded microstructures. The experimental results show that DP steels with finely dispersed microstructures have excellent mechanical properties, including high impact toughness values, with an optimum in properties obtained at {approximately}0.55 V{sub m}. A further increase in V{sub m} was found to decrease the yield and tensile strengths as well as the impact properties. It was shown that models developed on the basis of a rule of mixtures are inadequate in capturing the tensile properties of DP steels with V{sub m} > 0.55. Jaoul-Crussard analyses of the work-hardening behavior of the high-martensite volume fraction DP steels show three distinct stages of plastic deformation.

Bag, A. [Bharat Earth Movers Limited, Kolar Gold Fields (India). Materials Science Lab.; Ray, K.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; Dwarakadasa, E.S. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Metallurgy

1999-05-01

220

Galvanised steel to aluminium joining by laser and GTAW processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new means of assembling galvanised steel to aluminium involving a reaction between solid steel and liquid aluminium was developed, using laser and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes. A direct aluminium melting strategy was investigated with the laser process, whereas an aluminium-induced melting by steel heating and heat conduction through the steel was carried out with the GTAW process.

G. Sierra; P. Peyre; F. Deschaux Beaume; D. Stuart; G. Fras

2008-01-01

221

Improving properties of P/M steels through liquid phase sintering  

SciTech Connect

Steady state liquid phase sintering was utilized to achieve virtually full density in hypereutectoid steels at a temperature of 1175 C. The non-uniform porosity observed in the microstructure of certain liquid phase sintered compacts was accounted for by a proposed liquid phase capillary flow and consequent localized densification. Recommendations are made for avoiding this segregated porosity and were successfully used to prepare high density hypoeutectoid steels by short time transient liquid phase sintering (approx. 10 minutes) at a moderate temperature (1175 C). The mechanical properties of these sintered steels are close to commercial wrought steels and much better than commercial P/M steels. A new intermetallic compound based on the copper-manganese-silicon systems had very desirable properties for use in transient liquid phase sintering of ferrous materials. Its melting point is 780 C and tendency to wet iron is remarkable. During heating to the sintering temperature, the compound melts and spreads rapidly over all the surfaces which effectively reduces the diffusion distance to the order of one particle radius. The addition of this new material to iron base powders has a beneficial effect on the sintered density, hardness, tensile and transverse rupture strength. 8 references, 10 figures.

Pickus, M.R.

1984-01-01

222

Helium effects on the mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated Cr-Mo ferritic steels  

SciTech Connect

In the first wall of a fusion rector, large amounts of transmutation helium will be produced simultaneously with the displacement damage caused by high-energy neutrons from the fusion reaction. One method used to simulate irradiation effects for ferritic steels is to add nickel to the steels and irradiate them in a mixed-spectrum reactor. Fast neutrons in the spectrum produce displacement damage, while transmutation helium is produced by a two-step reaction of {sup 58}Ni with thermal neutrons. This technique has been used to investigate the effect of helium on tensile properties and toughness. Results from these studies are summarized.

Klueh, R.L.

1990-01-01

223

The thermal stability of porous alumina\\/stainless steel catalyst support obtained by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active porous alumina coatings were obtained by deposition of boehmite sol on stainless steel (SS) substrate by spray pyrolysis method. The temperature and the doping of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and La3+ in the boehmite sol effects on the textural and structural properties and surface morphology of alumina coatings on stainless steel samples are presented.It was found that the addition of

Tatjana Novakovic; Nenad Radic; Boko Grbi?; Vera Dondur; Miodrag Mitric; Danijela Randjelovic; Dimitar Stoychev; Plamen Stefanov

2008-01-01

224

Prediction of mechanical properties of multiphase steels containing retained austenite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model has been developed for predicting the flow behavior of dual-phase steels containing retained austenite. A good agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental values is obtained by optimizing the value of load-transfer factor and by using an additional term considered to account for the geometrically required dislocations around the hard particles.

Jha, B. K.; Dwivedi, V. Sagar; Mishra, N. S.

2002-02-01

225

Highly Anisotropic Steel Processed by Selective Laser Melting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For additive manufacturing of metals, selective laser melting can be employed. The microstructure evolution is directly influenced by processing parameters. Employing a high energy laser system, samples made from austenitic stainless steel were manufactured. The microstructure obtained is characterized by an extremely high degree of anisotropy featuring coarse elongated grains and a <001> texture alongside the build direction during processing. Eventually, the anisotropy of the microstructure drastically affects the monotonic properties of the current material.

Niendorf, Thomas; Leuders, Stefan; Riemer, Andre; Richard, Hans Albert; Trster, Thomas; Schwarze, Dieter

2013-08-01

226

Influence of banded structure on the mechanical properties of a high-strength maraging steel  

SciTech Connect

Chemical inhomogeneity results in the formation of banded structure in high-strength maraging steels. Segregation of titanium and molybdenum was found to be the primary cause of banded structure formation. When the concentrations of these elements increased beyond certain critical levels, bands comprising different grain sizes formed. The inclusions existed preferentially along the interface of the bands. A high-temperature homogenization treatment substantially reduced or eliminated the banded structure. The large grain size resulting from the homogenization treatment was subsequently reduced by a grain refinement treatment. The mechanical properties of the steel substantially improved following homogenization and grain refinement.

Ahmed, M.; Salam, I.; Hashmi, F.H.; Khan, A.Q. [Dr. A.Q. Khan Research Labs., Rawalpindi (Pakistan). Metallurgy Div.

1997-04-01

227

Kawasaki Steel Giho, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Manufacturing process and properties of stainless steels developed by Kawasaki Steel; Progress of stainless steel production by top and bottom blown converter; Production of high grade stainless steels; New equipment for quality improve...

1985-01-01

228

Creep properties of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel  

SciTech Connect

Creep properties of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel, an alloy significantly improved in elevated-temperature strength over 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo and other similar alloys, are presented here. Data are primarily on material in the normalized and tempered condition. Effects of variables such as isothermal annealing treatment, cold work, normalizing temperature, tempering temperature, notch, and biaxial stress state have also been examined. Data analysis and comparisons have shown that modified 9 Cr-1 Mo alloy is very insensitive in response to several material variables, heat treatments, and specimen design variables.

Sikka, V.K.; Cowgill, M.G.; Roberts, B.W.

1983-01-01

229

Optical properties and spectral selectivity of copper oxide on stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present investigation of the solar-selective properties of copper oxide/stainless steel tandems, CuO and Cu2O oxides were respectively obtained (on sputtering and electrolysis-deposited Cu films) by thermal oxidation at 170 and 370 C. The CuO oxide yields higher solar absorption than Cu2O due to its smaller bandgap, and the electrolytic deposition of Cu is noted to give a texture-enhanced absorption by comparison with the calculated values. The thermal stability of the tandem CuO/steel is found to be higher than that of the corresponding Cu-based tandem. The CuO/steel is noted to improve with continued oxidation at 170 C.

Karlsson, T.; Roos, A.

1984-05-01

230

Effect of cross shear rolling on textures and magnetic properties of grain oriented silicon steels  

SciTech Connect

By the cross shear rolling (CSR) it is understood that the rolling between two work rolls which rotate at different peripheral speeds. The characteristics of this special process are that the applied rolling load is much lower than that of conventional rolling, and that metal sheets can be rolled to a very thin thickness with high rolling precision. So far, the CSR has been successfully utilized to produce various super-thin sheets of plain materials; but its application to grain oriented silicon steels remains open, though many attempts have been made on how to reduce the thickness of steel sheets and to decrease the production cost. In this investigation, the CSR followed by hydrogen annealing was used to produce grain oriented silicon steel sheets with thickness of 0.34 mm and 0.10 mm. Some results are presented in relation to the effects of the CSR on texture and magnetic properties.

Liu, G. [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering] [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; [Liaoning Univ., Shenyang (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wang, F.; Zuo, L.; Qi, K.M.; Liang, Z.D. [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering] [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1997-12-15

231

Effect of the intermediate layer on the properties of a coating of 50KhFA steel produced by electrical resistance welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of investigations of deposition of a coating of 50KhFA steel (0.460.54% C, 0.801.10% Cr, and 0.15% V) on shafts of steel 45 through an intermediate layer produced from a powder material and an amorphous strip brazing alloy are presented. It is shown that at the optimum combination of the parameters of electric resistance surfacing the bonding strength of

P. I. Burak; R. A. Latypov

2012-01-01

232

Chemical and Mechanical Properties of ZDDP Antiwear Films on Steel and Thermal Spray Coatings Studied by XANES Spectroscopy and Nanoindentation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) has been used to characterize the chemistry of tribochemical wear pads generated from a paraffinic base oil with a zinc-dialkyl-dithiophosphate additive on steel surfaces and high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings. The phosphorus K- and L- edge XANES spectra show that the tribofilms formed on steel and the HVOF coatings have the same

Mark A. Nicholls; Than Do; Peter R. Norton; G. Michael Bancroft; Masoud Kasrai; T. Weston Capehart; Yang-Tse Cheng; Thomas Perry

2003-01-01

233

High performance amorphous steel coating prepared by HVOF thermal spraying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amorphous steel coating with a composition of Fe48Cr15Mo14C15B6Y2 was prepared by means of high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying. Microstructural analysis gives the information about porosity, oxidation and nanocrystal precipitation. Properties including the hardness, wear, corrosion and magnetic behaviors of the coating were examined. It was shown that the microhardness and wear resistance of the coating are superior to

H. S. Ni; X. H. Liu; X. C. Chang; W. L. Hou; W. Liu; J. Q. Wang

2009-01-01

234

Characterization of Properties in Friction Welded Stainless Steel and Copper Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to investigate the metallurgical and mechanical properties of friction welded stainless steel-copper joints. One of the manufacturing methods used to produce parts made from different materials is the friction welding method. Application of classical welding techniques to such materials is difficult because of they have different thermal properties. Stainless steel-copper joints are inevitable for certain applications due to unique performances such as higher electric conductivity, heat conductivity, corrosion resistance, and mechanical properties. In the present study, austenitic stainless steel and copper parts were joined by friction welding. Tensile, fatigue, and notch-impact tests were applied to friction welded specimens, and the results were compared with those for the original materials. Microstructure, energy dispersive x-ray, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and hardness variations were conducted on the joints. Results showed that various intermetallic phases such as FeCu4 and Cu2NiZn occurred at the interface. It was found from the microstructure and XRD analysis that intermetallic phases formed in the interface which further caused a decrease in the strength of the joints. However, hardness of the copper increased slightly, whereas the hardness of steel decreases slightly on the horizontal distance from the center.

Sahin, Mumin; ?l, Ender; Misirli, Cenk

2013-03-01

235

Effects of Inclusions on Delayed Fracture Properties of Three TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, delayed fracture properties of a high-Mn TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel and two Al-added TWIP steels were examined by dipping tests of cup specimens in the boiled water, after which the microcrack formation behavior was analyzed. The TWIP steels contained a small amount of elongated MnS inclusions, spherical-shaped AlN particles, and submicron-sized (Fe,Mn)3C carbides. Since MnS inclusions worked as crack initiation sites, longitudinal cracks were formed along the cup forming direction mostly by MnS inclusions. These cracks were readily grown when high tensile residual stresses affected the cracking or hydrogen atoms were gathered inside cracks, which resulted in the delayed fracture. In the Al-added steels, MnS inclusions acted as crack initiation and propagation sites during cup forming or boiled-water dipping test, but residual stresses applied to MnS might be low for the crack initiation and growth. Thus, longitudinal cracks formed by MnS inclusions did not work much for delayed fracture. AlN particles present in the Al-added steels hardly acted as crack initiation or growth sites for the delayed fracture because of their spherical shape.

Hong, Seokmin; Shin, Sang Yong; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Chin, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Nack J.

2013-02-01

236

Utilization of extended BH curve method for consideration of 2-D magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels on motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motor performances such as torque characteristics or iron loss are strongly affected by the magnetic properties of electrical steel sheet used. It is found recently that, even in the non-oriented electrical steel sheets, the magnetic characteristics are dependent on the direction of the applied magnetic field, i.e., the non-oriented electrical steel sheet has two-dimensional (2D) magnetic properties. In this

Heesung Yoon; Pan Seok Shin; Chang Seop Koh

2010-01-01

237

Effect of welding process on the microstructure and properties of dissimilar weld joints between low alloy steel and duplex stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To obtain high-quality dissimilar weld joints, the processes of metal inert gas (MIG) welding and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding for duplex stainless steel (DSS) and low alloy steel were compared in this paper. The microstructure and corrosion morphology of dissimilar weld joints were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); the chemical compositions in different zones were detected by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); the mechanical properties were measured by microhardness test, tensile test, and impact test; the corrosion behavior was evaluated by polarization curves. Obvious concentration gradients of Ni and Cr exist between the fusion boundary and the type II boundary, where the hardness is much higher. The impact toughness of weld metal by MIG welding is higher than that by TIG welding. The corrosion current density of TIG weld metal is higher than that of MIG weld metal in a 3.5wt% NaCl solution. Galvanic corrosion happens between low alloy steel and weld metal, revealing the weakness of low alloy steel in industrial service. The quality of joints produced by MIG welding is better than that by TIG welding in mechanical performance and corrosion resistance. MIG welding with the filler metal ER2009 is the suitable welding process for dissimilar metals jointing between UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel and low alloy steel in practical application.

Wang, Jing; Lu, Min-xu; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Wei; Xu, Li-ning; Hu, Li-hua

2012-06-01

238

Influence of Zn Coating on Interfacial Reactions and Mechanical Properties During Laser Welding-Brazing of Mg to Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the influence of Zn coating on the joining of magnesium alloy AZ31 to Zn-coated steel, dissimilar metal joining both with and without Zn coating was performed by the laser welding-brazing (LWB) process. Welding characteristics including joint appearance, identification of interfacial reaction layers, and mechanical properties were comparatively studied. The results indicated that the presence of Zn coating promoted the wetting of liquid filler wire on the steel substrate. Heterogeneous interfacial reaction layers formed along the interface between the Mg alloy and Zn-coated steel, whereas no distinct reaction layer and increased concentration of Al were identified at the interface between the Mg alloy and noncoated steel. The maximum tensile-shear strength of Mg/steel lap joint with Zn coating reached 180 N/mm, which was slightly higher than that achieved without Zn coating (160 N/mm). Failure of joint in both cases occurred at the interface; however, the fracture mode was found to differ. For Zn-coated steel, the crack propagated along the Mg-Zn reaction layer and Fe-Al phase, with little Mg-Zn reaction phases remaining on the steel side. As for noncoated steel, some remnants of the seam adhered to the steel substrate.

Li, Liqun; Tan, Caiwang; Chen, Yanbin; Guo, Wei; Hu, Xinbin

2012-12-01

239

Effect of heat treatment and irradiation temperature on impact properties of Cr-W-V ferritic steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charpy impact tests were conducted on eight normalized-and-tempered ferritic and martensitic steels irradiated in two different normalized conditions. Irradiation was conducted in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at 393C to ?14 dpa on eight steels with 2.25%, 5%, 9%, and 12% Cr (0.1% C) with varying amounts of W, V, and Ta. The different normalization treatments involved changing the cooling rate after austenitization. The faster cooling rate produced 100% bainite in the 2.25Cr steels, compared to duplex structures of bainite and polygonal ferrite for the slower cooling rate. For both cooling rates, martensite formed in the 5% and 9% Cr steels, and martensite with ?25% ?-ferrite formed in the 12% Cr steel. Irradiation caused an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and a decrease in the upper-shelf energy (USE). The difference in microstructure in the low-chromium steels due to the different heat treatments had little effect on properties. For the high-chromium martensitic steels, only the 5Cr steel was affected by heat treatment. When the results at 393C were compared with previous results at 365C, all but a 5Cr and a 9Cr steel showed the expected decrease in the shift in DBTT with increasing temperature.

Klueh, R. L.; Alexander, D. J.

240

Influence of Processing and Heat Treatment on Corrosion Resistance and Properties of High Alloyed Steel Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion and abrasive wear are two important aspects to be considered in numerous engineering applications. Looking at steels, high-chromium high-carbon tool steels are proper and cost-efficient materials. They can either be put into service as bulk materials or used as comparatively thin coatings to protect lower alloyed construction or heat treatable steels from wear and corrosion. In this study, two different corrosion resistant tool steels were used for the production of coatings and bulk material. They were processed by thermal spraying and super solidus liquid phase sintering as both processes can generally be applied to produce coatings on low alloyed substrates. Thermally sprayed (high velocity oxygen fuel) coatings were investigated in the as-processed state, which is the most commonly used condition for technical applications, and after a quenching and tempering treatment. In comparison, sintered steels were analyzed in the quenched and tempered condition only. Significant influence of alloy chemistry, processing route, and heat treatment on tribological properties was found. Experimental investigations were supported by computational thermodynamics aiming at an improvement of tribological and corrosive resistance.

Hill, Horst; Weber, Sebastian; Raab, Ulrich; Theisen, Werner; Wagner, Lothar

2012-09-01

241

Structure and Properties of a Low-Carbon, Microalloyed, Ultra-High-Strength Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study concerns the development of a low-carbon, microalloyed ultra-high-strength steel on a pilot scale. The continuous cooling transformation has been evaluated, and a flat top "C" curve with a mixed microstructure of bainite and martensite has been obtained at a lower transformation temperature. The steel has been processed thermomechanically, followed by air cooling and water quenching. In addition, a variation in microstructure and mechanical properties at different finish rolling temperatures has been studied. Although a mixture of granular bainite and bainitic ferrite with interlath and intralath precipitation of NbC/NbC(N)/TiC(N) particles are the characteristic microstructural feature of air-cooled steel, the lath martensitic structure along the fine NbC/NbC(N)/TiC(N) precipitate is obtained in case of a water-quenched steel. The high-strength value obtained in the current steel is caused by the accumulated contribution of fine-grained, pancaked austenite, highly dislocated fine lath martensitic structure along with the presence of tiny precipitates of microalloy carbide/carbonitride.

Bandyopadhyay, P. S.; Kundu, S.; Ghosh, S. K.; Chatterjee, S.

2011-04-01

242

Texture evolution in low-C flat rolled steels on the physical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texture evolution and physical properties are studied to investigate effects according to recrystallization treatment and\\u000a the reduction ratio of temper rolling. Cold rolling texture can be decided by the deformation criteria and slip systems. Texture\\u000a components develop by different deformation hysteresis in the surface and center layer of low-C flat rolled steels. Predominant\\u000a ?-fiber is developed by cold rolling in

Young Ho Koh; Man Hyung Lee; Soon Kyung Kim

2010-01-01

243

X-Ray Study of Mechanical Properties of TiN Thin Films Coated on Steel by Ion Beam Mixing Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thin films of titanium nitride(TiN)with the thickness of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0m were coated on a steel substrate by the ion beam mixing method. The film had a strong fiber texture with <110> axis perpendicular to the film surface. The initial residual stress was equi-biaxial compression between -4.4 to -5.6GPa. For all thickness cases, the initial part of the changes of the in-plane stresses in the film due to external tensile loading agreed well with the prediction based on elasticity. While the substrate was under an uniaxial stress, the film was in the biaxial state of stress because of the mismatch of Poisson's ratio. When the measured stress in the film exceeded a certain value, the stress departed from the linear relation and leveled off. The onset of nonlinearity was nearly coincident with the first appearance of cracks. The stresses at the onset of nonlinearity and leveling-off decreased with increasing film thickness. The ratio of Young's modulus between loading and unloading decreased as the film thickness increased.

Ito, Toshimasa; Tanaka, Keisuke; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Takahiro; Miki, Yasuhiro

244

Semiconducting properties of passive films formed on stainless steels: Influence of the alloying elements  

SciTech Connect

Passive films formed on stainless steels in a borate buffer solution (pH 9.2) have been investigated by capacitance measurements and photoelectrochemistry. The study was carried out on films formed on AISI type 304 and 316 stainless steels and high purity alloys with differing chromium, nickel, and molybdenum contents. Complementary research by Auger analysis shows that the passive films are composed essentially of an inner chromium region in contact with the metallic substrate and an outer iron oxide region developed at the film/electrolyte interface. The semiconducting properties of the passive films are determined by those of the constituent chromium and iron oxides which are of p-type and n-type, respectively. Thus the influence of the alloying elements on the semiconducting properties of the passive films is explained by changes in the electronic structure of each of these two oxide regions.

Hakiki, N.E.; Belo, M.D.C. [CNRS, Vitry-sur-Seine (France). Centre d`Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique; Simoes, A.M.P.; Ferreira, M.G.S. [Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

1998-11-01

245

Correlation of microstructure and fracture properties of API X70 pipeline steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of microstructure on fracture toughness and transition temperature of high-toughness X70 pipeline steels were investigated in this study. Three types of steels were fabricated by varying alloying elements such as C, Cu, and Mo, and their microstructures were varied by rolling conditions such as finish rolling temperature and finish cooling temperature. Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact tests and pressed notch drop-weight tear tests (DWTT) were conducted on the rolled steel specimens. The charpy impact test results indicated that the specimens rolled in the single-phase region of the steel containing a reduced amount of C and Mo had the highest upper shelf energy (USE) and the lowest energy transition temperature (ETT) because of the appropriate formation of acicular, quasipolygonal, or polygonal ferrite and the decreased fraction of martensite-austenite constituents. Most of the specimens rolled in the single-phase region also showed excellent DWTT properties as the percent shear area (pct SA) well exceeded 85 pct, irrespective of finish cooling temperatures, while their USE was higher than that of the specimens rolled in the two-phase region. Thus, overall fracture properties of the specimens rolled in the single-phase region were better than those of the specimens rolled in the two-phase region, considering both USE and pct SA.

Hwang, Byoungchul; Kim, Young Min; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Nack J.; Ahn, Seong Soo

2005-03-01

246

Microstructural, thermal and mechanical properties of HVOF sprayed NiAl-based bond coatings on stainless steel substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on the microstructural, thermal and mechanical properties of NiAl coatings fabricated on 316L stainless steel substrates by using the high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) method. With this regard, NiAl-based coatings were fabricated on 316L stainless steel substrates by using HVOF technique. The produced coatings were extensively analyzed with respect to X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope (OM), image analyzer,

O. Culha; E. Celik; N. F. Ak Azem; I. Birlik; M. Toparli; A. Turk

2008-01-01

247

Improved tribology of tool steel by zirconium ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

AISI D3 tool steel was ion implanted with zirconium and the improvement in surface tribological properties investigated. The Zr ion implantation was done using a metal vapor vacuum arc broad-beam ion source, with a mean ion energy of 130 keV and at doses of 3.6 x 10(sup 16), 5 x 10(sup 16) and 1 x 10(sup 17) ions/cm2. Wear, friction and hardness of the implanted samples were measured and compared to the performance of unimplanted steel. The wear resistance was increased by about a factor of two, the friction remained about the same or was possibly increased by a small amount, and the hardness was improved by a factor of five or more by the ion implantation. We also investigated the effect on the Zr implantation profile of the multi-component energy distribution of the ion beam used here.

Akbas, N.; Oztarhan, A.; Monteiro, O.R.; Brown, I.G.

2001-02-01

248

Residual elements have significant effects on the elevated-temperature properties of austenitic stainless steel welds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of various residual elements on the elevated-temperature properties of austenitic stainless steel welds was investigated. Included in this investigation are the effects of B, P, Ti, C, S, and Si. This work is aimed at developing austenitic stainless steel weld materials with enhanced elevated-temperature properties. The materials investigated in this program include types 308, 316, 16-8-2 stainless steel

D. P. Edmonds; R. T. King; G. M. Goodwin

1977-01-01

249

The Effect of Residuals on the Elevated Temperature Properties of Some Creep Resistant Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of residuals and other deliberate minor additions on the elevated temperature properties of austenitic, CrMo and CrMoV steels is reviewed and those that affect these properties are identified. The elements boron, molybdenum, nitrogen and phosphorus in austenitic steels all increased creep rupture life although only boron and molybdenum were beneficial to rupture ductility. In the ferritic steels the

N. G. Needham; J. Orr

1980-01-01

250

Correlation of microstructure and fatigue properties of two high-strength spring steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study of correlation of microstructure and fatigue properties of two high-strength steels, i.e., a V- and Cr-containing alloy steel and a 0.84%C steel, used for an automotive diaphragm spring. Fatigue properties were investigated with focuses on microstructures and tensile strengths under the fixed hardness condition. The fatigue test results indicated that the fatigue limits of the two

Jang-Chul Shin; Sunghak Lee; Jae Hwa Ryu

1999-01-01

251

The effects of hydrogen isotopes and helium on the tensile properties of 21-6-9 stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

High-energy-rate-forged (HERF) stainless steels are used as the materials of construction for tritium and deuterium reservoirs. Hydrogen and helium, the decay product of tritium, are known to embrittle stainless steels (1--4). The resistance to hydrogen and helium induced embrittlement is relatively good for HERF stainless steels when compared to annealed stainless steels due to their high number density of dislocations, which act as traps for hydrogen and helium. However, the degree of the embrittlement in these materials can vary considerably because of microstructure and yield strength variations introduced during the forging process. In this study the effect of hydrogen and tritium on the room temperature tensile properties of 21-6-9 stainless steel was measured as a function of HERF yield strength in the range of 500 to 918 MPa. The effect of a microstructures was studied also by conducting tensile tests with both HERF samples and annealed samples.

Morgan, M.J.

1990-12-31

252

The effects of hydrogen isotopes and helium on the tensile properties of 21-6-9 stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

High-energy-rate-forged (HERF) stainless steels are used as the materials of construction for tritium and deuterium reservoirs. Hydrogen and helium, the decay product of tritium, are known to embrittle stainless steels (1--4). The resistance to hydrogen and helium induced embrittlement is relatively good for HERF stainless steels when compared to annealed stainless steels due to their high number density of dislocations, which act as traps for hydrogen and helium. However, the degree of the embrittlement in these materials can vary considerably because of microstructure and yield strength variations introduced during the forging process. In this study the effect of hydrogen and tritium on the room temperature tensile properties of 21-6-9 stainless steel was measured as a function of HERF yield strength in the range of 500 to 918 MPa. The effect of a microstructures was studied also by conducting tensile tests with both HERF samples and annealed samples.

Morgan, M.J.

1990-01-01

253

Report on thermal aging effects on tensile properties of ferritic-martensitic steels.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an update on the evaluation of thermal-aging induced degradation of tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic steels. The report is the first deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030103), under the Work Package A-11AN040301, 'Advanced Alloy Testing' performed by Argonne National Laboratory, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing tensile data on aged alloys and a mechanistic model, validated by experiments, with a predictive capability on long-term performance. The scope of work is to evaluate the effect of thermal aging on the tensile properties of advanced alloys such as ferritic-martensitic steels, mod.9Cr-1Mo, NF616, and advanced austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS. The aging experiments have been conducted over a temperature of 550-750 C for various time periods to simulate the microstructural changes in the alloys as a function of time at temperature. In addition, a mechanistic model based on thermodynamics and kinetics has been used to address the changes in microstructure of the alloys as a function of time and temperature, which is developed in the companion work package at ANL. The focus of this project is advanced alloy testing and understanding the effects of long-term thermal aging on the tensile properties. Advanced materials examined in this project include ferritic-martensitic steels mod.9Cr-1Mo and NF616, and austenitic steel, HT-UPS. The report summarizes the tensile testing results of thermally-aged mod.9Cr-1Mo, NF616 H1 and NF616 H2 ferritic-martensitic steels. NF616 H1 and NF616 H2 experienced different thermal-mechanical treatments before thermal aging experiments. NF616 H1 was normalized and tempered, and NF616 H2 was normalized and tempered and cold-rolled. By examining these two heats, we evaluated the effects of thermal-mechanical treatments on material microstructures and associated mechanical properties during long-term aging at elevated temperatures. Thermal aging experiments at different temperatures and periods of time have been completed: 550 C for up to 5000 h, 600 C for up to 7500 h, and 650 C for more than 10,000 h. Tensile properties were measured on thermally aged specimens and aging effect on tensile behavior was assessed. Effects of thermal aging on deformation and failure mechanisms were investigated by using in-situ straining technique with simultaneous synchrotron XRD measurements.

Li, M.; Soppet, W.K.; Rink, D.L.; Listwan, J.T.; Natesan, K. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-05-10

254

Microstructures and properties of high Cr content coatings on inner surfaces of carbon steel tubular components prepared by a novel mechanical alloying method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, a novel mechanical alloying method was developed to prepare high Cr content coatings on the inner surface of carbon steel tubular components using a planetary ball mill. The microstructure and elemental and phase composition of mechanically alloyed coatings at different processing conditions were studied using SEM, XRD, and EDX. It showed that a proper increase in

Dongdong Gu; Yifu Shen

2009-01-01

255

The weldability and properties of joints welded in new-generation creep resistant steels: HCM12A steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

HCM12A (ASME T122) steel, containing 1012% chromium and 2% tungsten, is made by the Japanese companies Sumitomo Metal Industries and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and is intended for fresh steam superheaters. The aim is to increase the resistance to corrosion at elevated temperatures over that of steels containing 9% chromium, e.g. P91, P92, and E911. This steel, a modification of HCM12

J. Brozda

2005-01-01

256

Carburisation of Stainless Steel Caused by Oil in Sodium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objectives of this work were to investigate the kinetics of austenitic stainless steel carburization in sodium caused by oil in sodium, and to measure the corresponding 'sodium carbon activity' (a quantitative measure of sodium steel carburisa...

M. R. Hobdell G. Skyrme

1988-01-01

257

Scattering of guided waves by circumferential cracks in steel pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel numerical procedure is presented in this paper to study wave scattering by circumferential cracks in steel pipes. The study is motivated by the need to develop a quantitative ultrasonic technique to characterize properties of cracks in pipes. By employing wave function expansion in axial direction and decomposing the problem into a symmetry problem and an anti-symmetry problem, a three-dimensional wave scattering problem is then reduced to two quasi-one-dimensional problems. This simplification greatly reduces the computational time. Numerical results for reflection and transmission coefficients of different incident wave modes are presented here for a steel pipe with cracks of arbitrary circumferential lengths and radial depths. They are shown to agree quite well with available experimental data. .

Bai, H.; Shah, A. H.; Popplewell, N.; Datta, S. K.

2001-04-01

258

Effect of magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel on torque characteristics of interior-permanent-magnet synchronous motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The torque characteristics of interior-permanent-magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), in which core materials were our conventional non-oriented electrical steel 35SX250 and our developed steels 35SXH, 27SXH with high permeability, were measured by a pulse wave modulation (PWM) inverter control. The torque characteristics of the motor with developed steels were superior to that of conventional steel. The advantage of developed steels was remarkable in the high-toque region. Experimental torque separation using current phase control showed that reluctance torque was strongly affected by the magnetic properties of core materials. And we did magnetic field analysis of the motors by finite element method (FEM). The flux density in the teeth of the stator core was higher in the high permeability steels than that in the conventional steel under the same current condition. The developed steels are expected to be suited to the stator material of IPMSM used as drive motors for electric vehicles and compressor motors for air conditioner.

Fujimura, Hiroshi; Nitomi, Hirokatsu; Yashiki, Hiroyoshi

259

Microstructure and properties of laser surface hardened M2 high speed steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, the microstructure and properties of laser surface hardened M2 high speed steel have been studied. The influences of preheat treatment processes, post heat treatment processes and laser parameters on the properties of the laser treated zone are also investigated. It was shown that the surface hardness and softening resistance of M2 high speed steel are evidently

Gongqi Shi; Peidao Ding; Jianglong Liu; Huaijun Yin; Jian Wang

1995-01-01

260

Processing, Microstructures and Properties of a Dual Phase Precipitation-Hardening PM Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the mechanical properties of PM stainless steels in comparison with their wrought counterparts, a PM stainless steel alloy was developed which combines a dual-phase microstructure with precipitation-hardening. The use of a mixed microstructure of martensite and ferrite results in an alloy with a combination of the optimum properties of each phase, namely strength and ductility. The use of

Christopher Schade

2010-01-01

261

Effect of tempering temperature on properties of 00Cr16Ni5Mo stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Specimens of 00Cr16Ni5Mo low carbon martensitic stainless steel were normalized at 1000 deg. C followed by tempering at 525 deg. C, 550 deg. C, 575 deg. C, 600 deg. C and 625 deg. C. After heat treatment, mechanical properties and pitting potential were determined through tensile, impact and electrochemical polarization tests. The results showed that the samples tempered at 550 deg. C and 600 deg. C for 2 h had an excellent combination of tensile strength, elongation, impact energy, hardness and corrosion resistance. Scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction examinations were conducted. These revealed that the properties of the steel were affected by the structure of the lath martensite, {delta}-ferrite, retained austenite and carbides.

Qin, B. [Research Institute for Stainless Steel, R and D Center, Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd. Shanghai, 201900 (China)], E-mail: qinbin@baosteel.com; Wang, Z.Y.; Sun, Q.S. [Research Institute for Stainless Steel, R and D Center, Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd. Shanghai, 201900 (China)

2008-08-15

262

Microstructure and mechanical properties of weld fusion zones in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel finds increasing application in power plant construction because of its excellent high-temperature properties. While it has been shown to be weldable and resistant to all types of cracking in the weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ), the achievement of optimum weld metal properties has often caused concern. The design of appropriate welding consumables is important in this regard. In the present work, plates of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel were welded with three different filler materials: standard 9Cr-1Mo steel, modified 9Cr-1Mo, and nickel-base alloy Inconel 182. Post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was carried out at 730 and 760 C for periods of 2 and 6 h. The joints were characterized in detail by metallography. Hardness, tensile properties, and Charpy toughness were evaluated. Among the three filler materials used, although Inconel 182 resulted in high weld metal toughness, the strength properties were too low. Between modified and standard 9Cr-1Mo, the former led to superior hardness and strength in all conditions. However, with modified 9Cr-1Mo, fusion zone toughness was low and an acceptable value could be obtained only after PWHT for 6 h at 760 C. The relatively poor toughness was correlated to the occurrence of local regions of untransformed ferrite in the microstructure.

Sireesha, M.; Sundaresan, S.; Albert, Shaju K.

2001-06-01

263

Ductile fracture properties of selected line-pipe steels  

SciTech Connect

This report is the first of a series of topical reports presenting the results of research to assess the effects of a hydrotest and repeated hydrotesting on flaw growth in line pipes. This report presents ductile fracture properties that are used in assessing stable flow growth in line pipes. These properties are presented following a brief discussion of the J-tearing theory that forms the basis for the analysis method that has been developed. The specific properties presented are the J-initiation resistance to cracking (J{sub Ic}) and the J-tearing resistance to stable crack extension (T{sub R}). Test methods to develop these properties are presented along with discussion of data analysis. Results are presented for three line-pipe steels for the LT (through-wall axial flaw) orientation, for three levels of prestrain. The results show a strong dependence of J{sub Ic} on prestrain with initiation resistance decreasing as prestrain increases. Initiation resistance also was shown to increase with increasing flow stress, s{sub f}. In contrast, tearing resistance was not uniquely dependent on flow stress and was independent of prior prestrain. 36 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Leis, B.N.; Brust, F.W.

1990-01-01

264

The Effect of Ferrite on the Mechanical Properties of a Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary object of this study was to determine the effect of ferrite and its orientation upon the mechanical properties of a precipitation hardening stainless steel with particular attention to the short transverse properties. The investigation consist...

V. J. Colangelo

1964-01-01

265

Microstructure and mechanical properties of diffusion bonded SiC\\/steel joint using W\\/Ni interlayer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and examination of W\\/Ni double interlayer to produce a joint between SiC and ferritic stainless steel. Diffusion bonding was performed by a two steps solid state diffusion bonding process. Microstructural examination and mechanical properties evaluation of the joints show that bonding of SiC to steel was successful. EDS and XRD analysis revealed that W5Si3 and

Zhihong Zhong; Tatsuya Hinoki; Hun-Chea Jung; Yi-Hyun Park; Akira Kohyama

2010-01-01

266

Influences of fiber content on properties of self?compacting steel fiber reinforced concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the mix design and mechanical properties of self?compacting steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC). By using superplasticizers and mineral admixtures such as slag and fly ash, three SFRC of different fiber contents (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) and one plain concrete with high fluidity (slump ?250mm) have successfully been developed without bleeding or segregation. The compressive and flexural

Buquan Miao

2003-01-01

267

Constructional carbide steels: A review of their fabrication, properties, and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the chemical compositions, structures, properties, and application of industrial carbide Ferro-TiC (United States)\\u000a and Ferro-Titanit (Germany) steels, which are fabricated by sintering, are presented. The technologies of obtaining such materials\\u000a based on the processes of sintering under pressure, namely, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), hot extrusion (HE), and hot stamping\\u000a (HS) are developed. Using the HIP and HE methods,

L. I. Svistun

2010-01-01

268

Properties of steel foundry electric arc furnace dust solidified\\/stabilized with Portland cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace dust from steel production is generated in considerable amounts worldwide and needs to be treated as hazardous waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of electric arc furnace dust solidified\\/stabilized by using Portland cement. Mortar and paste samples were prepared with varying waste-to-binder ratios between 0% and 90%. A comprehensive experimental program was

Guray Salihoglu; Vedat Pinarli; Nezih Kamil Salihoglu; Gizem Karaca

2007-01-01

269

Clay and DOPA containing polyelectrolyte multilayer film for imparting anticorrosion properties to galvanized steel.  

PubMed

A facile and green approach is developed to impart remarkable protection against corrosion to galvanized steel. A protecting multilayer film is formed by alternating the deposition of a polycation bearing catechol groups, used as corrosion inhibitors, with clay that induces barrier properties. This coating does not affect the esthetical aspect of the surface and does not release any toxic molecules in the environment. PMID:22200075

Faure, Emilie; Halusiak, Emilie; Farina, Fabrice; Giamblanco, Nicoletta; Motte, Ccile; Poelman, Mireille; Archambeau, Catherine; Van de Weerdt, Ccile; Martial, Joseph; Jrme, Christine; Duwez, Anne-Sophie; Detrembleur, Christophe

2012-02-01

270

Hydrogen embrittlement property of a 1700-MPa-class ultrahigh-strength tempered martensitic steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogen embrittlement property of a prototype 1700-MPa-class ultrahigh-strength steel (NIMS17) containing hydrogen traps was evaluated using a slow strain rate test (SSRT) after cathodic hydrogen precharging, cyclic corrosion test (CCT) and atmospheric exposure. The hydrogen content in a fractured specimen was measured after SSRT by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The relationship between fracture stress and hydrogen content for the

Songjie Li; Eiji Akiyama; Kimura Yuuji; Kaneaki Tsuzaki; Nobuyoshi Uno; Boping Zhang

2010-01-01

271

Particle surface properties of stainless steel-coated tungsten carbide powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tungsten carbide powders sputter-deposited with stainless steel were characterized in order to evaluate the surface properties in air and aqueous environments. The scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy showed that a very high uniformity of the coating distribution on the WC particles was attained by the sputtering technique, enabling a complete surface coverage for low coating contents (?1wt.%).The DTATG

C. M. Fernandes; A. M. R. Senos; M. T. Vieira

2006-01-01

272

Effect of matrix hardness on the creep properties of a 12CrMoVNb steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a creep-ductile 12CrMoVNb steel, constant-load creep tests were conducted in air at 650 C, and the effects of matrix\\u000a hardness on the creep properties were investigated. Specimens with a matrix hardness (Rc) of 30, 25, and 20 were prepared using different tempering conditions. The creep behaviors were well described by the power-law\\u000a creep equation, with the stress exponents of

Y. S. Lee; Jin Yu

1999-01-01

273

Effect of component and microstructure on impact wear property and mechanism of steels in corrosive condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact corrosion and abrasion behavior of three kinds of steel used in the liner of wet-grinding machine in metallurgical industry is investigated under impact energy of 2.7J in acidironstone slurry, the test was carried out by a modified MLD-10 tester. It was shown that under the same simulated conditions, the impact corrosion and abrasion property of the low carbon

Hou-fu Ding; Fang-ming Cui; Xiao-dong Du

2006-01-01

274

Effects of relative humidity on tribological properties of boron carbide coating against steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron carbide coatings of 100nm thick were synthesized on silicon substrate by DC magnetron sputtering using B4C target with a mixture of Ar and methane (CH4 at 1.2vol.%) as processing gases. Tribological properties of the coating were studied in relation to the effects of relative humidity (RH). Reciprocating wear tests using 3mm diameter steel balls as a counterpart were carried

Pham Duc Cuong; Hyo-Sok Ahn; Eui-Sung Yoon; Kyung-Ho Shin

2006-01-01

275

Mechanical properties of 1950's vintage Type 304 stainless steel weldment components  

SciTech Connect

The primary coolant piping systems of the nuclear production reactors constructed in the 1950's at Savannah River Site are comprised of Type 304 stainless steel. A program has been completed which assessed the material properties of archival large diameter piping having approximately six years of service at temperatures between 25 and 125{degree}C. An extensive database of mechanical properties was produced for examination of material variability and to provide properties for engineering analysis, including piping fracture resistance assessment. Tensile properties, Charpy-V notch ductility, and elastic-plastic fracture toughness were established for base metal, weld metal and weld heat-affected-zone (HAZ) materials. A total of 375 mechanical specimens representing ASTM L-C and C-L orientations were tested at temperatures of 25 or 125{degree}C. The effect of dynamic loading on tensile and fracture toughness properties was also explored. The time-to-specimen maximum load ({approx}80 milliseconds) was chosen to simulate a seismic loading event. The mechanical properties of the vintage piping material were found typical of those of recently-produced commercial melts of Type 304 stainless steel piping and are consistent with ASME Code Section II design values. The toughness properties of welds fabricated by the Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding process (multipass, Type 308 stainless steel filler), were found similar to the base materials, yielding a high fracture resistance. Practical applications of the mechanical properties database in piping fracture assessments are illustrated with the methodology for an elastic-plastic analysis. 10 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

Stoner, K.J.; Sindelar, R.L.; Awadalla, N.G. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)); Hawthorne, J.R.; Hiser, A.L.; Cullen, W.H. (Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (USA))

1990-01-01

276

Strengthening steel 40 by preliminary thermomechanical treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strips of different thicknesses of steel 40 (0.41% C, 0.3% Mn, 0.17% Si, 0.02% S, and 0.005% P) with a temper sorbite structure were cold rolled to a thickness of 0.8 mm with reductions of 20, 40, and 60%. Plates 0.8 x 8 x 165 mm prepared from these sheets were heated, by passing an electric current through them to

M. E. Blanter; M. I. Shklyarov; M. S. Blanter

1968-01-01

277

Microstructures and mechanical properties of Fe14Cr3WTiY 2O 3 steel with 1 wt.% Cu addition fabricated by a new method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of 1wt.% copper addition on microstructures and mechanical properties of Fe14Cr3W0.4Ti0.4Y2O3 (wt.%) alloy has been investigated. Mechanically alloyed powders and pre-alloyed powders were blended and consolidated by hot extrusion. A bimodal grain structure with large grains (1020?m) and nanometer grains was formed. Through aging treatment, ?-Cu phase with face cubic centered lattice structure precipitated from the supersaturated solid solution.

Feng Liu; Yong Liu; Yuren Wen; Yuhai Dou; Dapeng Zhao; C. T. Liu

2011-01-01

278

Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Short-Term Thermally Exposed 9/12Cr Heat-Resistant Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructural evolution during short-term (up to 3000 hours) thermal exposure of three 9/12Cr heat-resistant steels was studied, as well as the mechanical properties after exposure. The tempered martensitic lath structure, as well as the precipitation of carbide and MX type carbonitrides in the steel matrix, was stable after 3000 hours of exposure at 873 K (600 C). A microstructure observation showed that during the short-term thermal exposure process, the change of mechanical properties was caused mainly by the formation and growth of Laves-phase precipitates in the steels. On thermal exposure, with an increase of cobalt and tungsten contents, cobalt could promote the segregation of tungsten along the martensite lath to form Laves phase, and a large size and high density of Laves-phase precipitates along the grain boundaries could lead to the brittle intergranular fracture of the steels.

Wang, Wei; Yan, Wei; Sha, Wei; Shan, Yiyin; Yang, Ke

2012-11-01

279

Microstructure-Mechanical Property Relationships for a Fe/Mn/Cr Rock Bolt Reinforcing Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of low chromium additions to a 0.25C-1.5Mn semikilled steel on microstructure, and tensile and impact behaviors of high strength rock bolt reinforcing bars has been investigated. Although chromium imparted adequate tensile properties at ambient temperature (yield stress: 624 MPa; ultimate tensile stress: 819 MPa; elongation: 12.5%) by forming transformation products such as tempered martensite, lower and upper bainite, and small amounts of acicular ferrite, it increased the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature due to coarser upper bainite in the core region of bar having larger unit crack paths. The synthesized steel is considered to be effective in realizing the desired tensile properties, and suitable for application in rock bolt, as well as other reinforced concrete structures.

Panigrahi, B. K.

2010-08-01

280

The characterization of protective properties for some naval steel\\/polimeric coating\\/3% NaCl solution systems by EIS and visual assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical impedance measurements have been made in 3% NaCl solution on coated naval steel with alkyd, epoxies, chlorinated rubber and acrylic conventional paints as well as with epoxy-polyamide, ethyl-silicate or alkyd zinc rich paints. Electrochemical impedance measurements have made it possible to monitor the uptake of the surrounding aqueous electrolyte into the paint and simultaneously to determine the extent of

O. Ferraz; E. Cavalcanti; A. R. Di Sarli

1995-01-01

281

Change in structure and properties of carbon steels bombarded by a 10-5 to 10-4 second high-energy electron beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the hardening characteristics and features of the structural and phase transformations in carbon steel (0.7% C) quenched from the melt using an electron beam with electron energy 130 180 keV, pulse duration 10 200 msec and power density 106 to 107 W\\/cm2. We have observed that maximum hardening is achieved for pulse duration ⋍40 msec. The nonmonotonic character

Yu. F. Ivanov; I. S. Kashinskaya; S. V. Lykov; A. B. Markov; E. M. Oks; V. P. Potshtein

1995-01-01

282

Change in structure and properties of carbon steels bombarded by a 10 ?5 to 10 ?4 second high-energy electron beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the hardening characteristics and features of the structural and phase transformations in carbon steel (0.7% C) quenched from the melt using an electron beam with electron energy 130180 keV, pulse duration 10200 msec and power density 106 to 107 W\\/cm2. We have observed that maximum hardening is achieved for pulse duration ?40 msec. The nonmonotonic character of the

Yu. F. Ivanov; I. S. Kashinskaya; S. V. Lykov; A. B. Markov; E. M. Oks; V. P. Potshtein

1995-01-01

283

Properties of Galvanized and Galvannealed Advanced High Strength Hot Rolled Steels  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the project were (i) to develop the coating process information to achieve good quality coatings on 3 advanced high strength hot rolled steels while retaining target mechanical properties, (ii) to obtain precise knowledge of the behavior of these steels in the various forming operations and (iii) to establish accurate user property data in the coated conditions. Three steel substrates (HSLA, DP, TRIP) with compositions providing yield strengths in the range of 400-620 MPa were selected. Only HSLA steel was found to be suitable for galnaizing and galvannealing in the hot rolled condition.

V.Y. Guertsman; E. Essadiqi; S. Dionne; O. Dremmailova; R. Bouchard; B. Voyzelle; J. McDermid; R. Fourmentin

2008-04-01

284

Adsorption properties and inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 15% HCl by 3-((1H-indol-3-yl)(4-methoxyphenyl)methyl)-1H-indole:electrochemical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inhibiting effect of 3-((1H-indol-3-yl)(4-methoxyphenyl)methyl)-1H-indole (IMMI) on the corrosion of mild steel (MS) in 15% HCl solution has been studied by using potentiodynamic polarization technique. The polarization data revealed that IMMI acts as a mixed type inhibitor for mild steel in acid solution.. The adsorption of the inhibitors on the mild steel surface was found to obey Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. Inhibition efficiency was found to be greater than 95% and inhibition is governed by both physical adsorption and chemisorption mechanism.

Behera, Debasis; Kumar, Sushil; Sinha, Rajesh Ranjan; Yadav, Mahendra

2014-04-01

285

Mechanical properties and microstructure evolution of CLAM Steel in tube fabrication and test blanket module assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first wall of the China dual functional lithium lead-test blanket module (DFLL-TBM) will be assembled with China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel rectangular tubes and plates by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) - diffusion welding. The objective of this study is to evaluate CLAM rectangular tubes and investigate mechanical property and microstructure evolution of CLAM steel in tube fabrication and TBM assembly. In this work, CLAM rectangular tubes with lengths of 1500 mm were fabricated, and the dimensional accuracy met the requirement for HIP joining. In the tube fabrication process, the CLAM steel was annealed to improve its ductility. In addition, the anisotropy in mechanical properties and microstructure introduced by tube rolling was eliminated according to the simulation of HIP heat treatment in TBM preparation. The tensile strength of the CLAM tubes with final heat treatment was slightly higher than that of CLAM steel with the published standard heat treatment, while the total elongation was reduced. This revealed that a post-HIP heat treatment was required before the final heat treatment. An annealing treatment at 1253 K transformed martensite to ferrite, decreased the tensile strength, and increase the ductility; Rolling deformation introduced microstructural anisotropy, increased the Vickers hardness, and created an inhomogeneous hardness distribution; A simulated HIP heat treatment schedule removed these differences in hardness and tensile strength due to the anisotropy; The tensile strength of CLAM tube material given the published standard heat treatment (with the simulated HIP heat treatment) was higher than that of previously published CLAM steel results and the elongation was reduced. Therefore, a post-HIP heat treatment for CLAM tube material appears to be required before applying a final heat treatment based on the prior standard heat treatment in order to preserve the overall tensile elongation.

Huang, Bo; Huang, Qunying; Li, Yanfen; Li, Chunjing; Wu, Qingsheng; FDS Team

2013-11-01

286

Effect of direct and reheated quenching on microstructure and mechanical properties of CLAM steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct and reheated quenching on microstructural mechanical properties of China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel was investigated. Three direct quenching and tempering (DQ&T) CLAM steels were rolled at the same finish rolling temperature with different quenching rate, and their microstructures and mechanical properties were compared with those of a reheated quenching and tempering (RQ&T) CLAM steel. DQ&T process was proven to strengthen the tensile property but lower the toughness compared to RQ&T process due to the finer austenite grain size formed under RQ&T process. Tensile property first increased with quenching rate and then decreased. The reason for this was discussed.

Qiu, J.; Ju, X.; Xin, Y.; Liu, S.; Wang, Y. L.; Wu, H. B.; Tang, D.

2010-12-01

287

Properties of Zn-Mn Alloy Electroplated Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An R & D program to develop a new corrosion-resistant steel resulted in the development of Zn-Mn alloy electroplated steel. The features of Zn-Mn alloy electroplated steel are as follows: (1) Extremely high corrosion resistance due to the formation of den...

T. Hara M. Sagiyama T. Urakawa T. Adaniya Y. Fukuda

1986-01-01

288

High-temperature properties and microstructure of Mo microalloyed ultra-high-strength steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-temperature mechanical properties and microstructure of forging billets of C-Si-Mn-Cr and C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo ultra-high-strength cold-rolled steels (tensile strength?1000 MPa, elongation?10%) were studied. Through the comparison of reduction in area and hot deformation resistance at 600-1300C, the Mo-containing steel was found to possess a higher strength and a better plasticity than the Mo-free one. The equilibrium phase diagram and atom fraction of Mo in different phases at different temperatures were calculated by Thermo-Calc software (TCW). The results analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy and TCW show that precipitates in the Mo-containing steel are primarily M23C6, which promote pearlite formation. The experimental data also show that a lower ductility point existing in the Mo-free steel at 850C is eliminated in the Mo-containing one. This is mainly due to the segregation of Mo at grain boundaries investigated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), which improves the strength of grain boundaries.

Han, Qi-Hang; Kang, Yong-Lin; Zhao, Xian-Meng; Gao, Lu-Feng; Qiu, Xue-Song

2011-08-01

289

Induction Steel: Inclusion Content and Mechanical Properties of Reinforcing Bars Produced from Pencil Ingots and Continuously Cast Billets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Bangladesh, most of the reinforcing bars are produced by rolling steel produced by melting scrap in induction furnaces. In many plants the molten steel is directly cast in vertical moulds into what are usually called `pencil ingots'. In some plants the molten steel is tapped into large ladles, taken to continuous casting machines and cast into continuous billets. In some cases the molten steel is refined in ladles (purged with nitrogen or argon) before casting into continuous billets. This investigation aims at a comparison of the inclusion content and resultant mechanical properties of reinforcing bars produced through these different routes. The samples for this study were collected from the process streams of a steel plant. The inclusion content was determined by direct measurement of inclusions on metallographic specimens and the mechanical properties were determined by using a universal tensile testing machine. Reinforcing bars produced by rolling ladle refined continuously cast billets have the lowest content of inclusion and the best mechanical (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, percentage elongation, etc.) properties. The highest inclusion content and the worst properties were obtained in the pencil ingots.

Hossain, A.; Kurny, A. S. W.

2012-04-01

290

The Yielding of Steel Studied by Ultrasonics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Changes in the ultrasonic attenuation in steel specimens have been observed during tensile tests. Samples of AISI 1020, 1045, and 1095 steel quenched and tempered to a spheroidized condition have been used. Both attenuation and microstrain measurements fa...

D. A. Koss R. B. Gordon

1965-01-01

291

The effect of carbon concentration and plastic deformation on ultrasonic higher order elastic properties of steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of higher order elastic properties, which are much more sensitive to material state than are second order properties, has been studied for steel alloys AISI 1016, 1045, 1095, and 8620 by measuring the stress derivative of the acoustic natural velocity to determine the stress acoustic constants (SAC's). Results of these tests show a 20 percent linear variation of SAC's with carbon content as well as even larger variations with prestrain (plastic deformation). The use of higher order elastic characterization permits quantitative evaluation of solids and may prove useful in studies of fatigue and fracture.

Heyman, J. S.; Allison, S. G.; Salama, K.

1985-01-01

292

Effect of the fractional composition of initial powders on the structure and properties of high-speed steels  

SciTech Connect

The dependence of the cooling rate and microhardness of steels on the particle size of the powder was determined. The structure and mechanical properties of steel powder fractions 10R6M5 and ROM2F3 obtained by pulverization with nitrogen, and after compacting by rolling were investigated. The mechanical properties of the powders were determined from x-ray diffraction and from the results of microhardness measurements. Static bending of the specimens was also tested. Metallography revealed martensite in a matrix of austenite grains. Static bending test results were found to be independent of the particle size of the powder as were the carbide phases and the structural properties after annealing and heat treatment, however, differences in microhardness between the two steels were found.

Chernyshova, T.A.; Bolotova, L.K.; Gulyaev, A.P.; Sergienko, L.P.

1988-03-01

293

Comparative cavitation erosion test on steels produced by ESR and AOD refining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation erosion studies of steels produced by Electroslag Refining (ESR) and Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD refining) have been carried out. The experiments were conducted using the modified ultrasonically induced cavitation test method. Erosion rates were measured and the morphology of damages under cavitation action was studied by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy techniques. The present work is aimed at understanding the cavitation erosion behaviour of electroslag refined steel (ESR) compared with the steel produced by Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD refining), commonly used in the production of hydraulic machinery parts (Pelton blades). The results exhibited lower cavitation rate of ESR steel compared with AOD steel, as a consequence of its better mechanical properties and homogeneous and fine-grained microstructure.

Doj?inovi?, M.

2011-09-01

294

Improving Joint Properties of Friction Welded Joint of High Tensile Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the improvements in the joint properties of friction welded joint of 780MPa class high tensile steel. Welded joint made by a continuous drive friction welding machine, the conventional method, had not obtained 100% joint efficiency despite applying forge pressure. This was due to the softening of the welded interface zone for heat input during braking times. Therefore, we developed a continuous drive friction welding machine with an electromagnetic clutch to prevent heat input during braking time. We proposed the process as The Low Heat Input Friction Welding Method (the LHI method). In this case, the joint had the same tensile strength as the base metal at friction time when the friction torque reached the initial peak torque. That is, the welded joint obtained 100% joint efficiency by using only the friction stage up to the initial peak torque without the forge (upsetting) stage, despite the existence of a slightly softened region adjacent to the welded interface. Furthermore, the softened region was hardly generated when this joint was made by applying forge pressure at the initial peak torque. In conclusion, a welded joint of high tensile steel made by only the friction stage of the LHI method had excellent joint properties. The LHI method has a lot of advantages for joining such materials as super fine grain steel with which conventional fusion welding processes have difficulty.

Kimura, Masaaki; Kusaka, Masahiro; Seo, Kenji; Fuji, Akiyoshi

295

Heat treatment and mechanical properties of low-carbon steel with dual-phase microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of the paper is to design heat treatment conditions of dual-phase steel and to determine their influence on the structure and mechanical properties of steel. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: The heat treatment of the C-Mn steel in order to obtain a dual-phase ferritic - martensitic structure of desirable phase fractions was realized. To investigate the influence of heat treatment parameters

J. Adamczyk; A. Grajcar

296

Mechanical properties and strain-induced phase transformations of some high-strength manganese steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work has been carried out to determine the influence of composition and heat treatment on the mechanical properties of some\\u000a high-strength manganese steels. These steels display impressive mechanical properties in the as-hot-rolled and solution-treated\\u000a conditions. These impressive mechanical properties have been directly related to the strain-induced phase transformation which\\u000a was monitored continuously using a magnetic reluctance techniquein situ and dynamically

A. O. Inegbenebor; R. D. Jones; Brian Ralph

1989-01-01

297

Mechanical properties of unirradiated and irradiated reduced-activation martensitic steels with and without nickel compared to properties of commercial steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tensile and Charpy specimens of four normalized-and-tempered martensitic steels were irradiated to 23-33 dpa at 376-405 C in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). The steels were the ORNL reduced-activation steel 9Cr-2WVTa and that containing 2% Ni (9Cr-2WVTa-2Ni), modified 9Cr-1Mo (9Cr-2WVTa), and Sandvik HT9 (12Cr-1MoVW). Two tempering conditions were used for 9Cr-2WVTa and 9Cr-2WVTa-2Ni: 1 h at 700 C and 1 h at 750 C. The 9Cr-1MoVNb and 12Cr-1MoVW were tempered 1 h at 760 C. These heat treatments produced tempered-martensite microstructures for all steels except 9Cr-2WVTa-2Ni tempered at 750 C, where a duplex structure of tempered and untempered martensite formed. Based on changes in tensile and Charpy impact properties, the results demonstrated the superiority in strength and ductility of the 9Cr-2WVTa reduced-activation steel over the commercial steels. Comparison of the mechanical properties after irradiation of 9Cr-2WVTa-2Ni and 9Cr-2WVTa steels indicated a favorable effect of nickel that could lead to development of a heat treatment for improved irradiation resistance.

Klueh, R. L.; Sokolov, M. A.; Hashimoto, N.

2008-02-01

298

Instrumented impact properties of some advanced nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels  

SciTech Connect

Steels used to construct nuclear reactor pressure vessels are low-alloy ferritic steels. These steels should have good impact properties, i.e., low transition temperature and high upper shelf energy, both before and during service conditions. The most important service condition is the neutron irradiation. Extensive research and development was conducted to develop such steels. Instrumented impact testing was conducted on three advanced pressure vessel steels and, for comparison, a conventional pressure vessel steel. Both microstructures and fracture surfaces were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. In general, the advanced steels showed much better impact properties (lower ductile-brittle transition temperature and higher upper shelf energy) than the conventional steel. Load-time traces showed that increase in the fracture energy was mainly due to increase in the fracture propagation energy rather than the initiation energy. Improvement in the toughness level of the advanced steels compared to that of the HSST steel was related to the difference in chemical composition, microstructure, and fracture surface morphology.

Ghoneim, M.M.; Nasreldin, A.M.; Elsayed, A.A.; Hammad, F.H. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Pachur, D. [KFA, Juelich (Germany)

1996-06-01

299

Instrumented impact properties of some advanced nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steels used to construct nuclear reactor pressure vessels are low-alloy ferritic steels. These steels should have good impact properties, i.e., low transition temperature and high upper shelf energy, both before and during service conditions. The most important service condition is the neutron irradiation. Extensive research and development was conducted to develop such steels. Instrumented impact testing was conducted on three advanced pressure vessel steels and, for comparison, a conventional pressure vessel steel. Both microstructures and fracture surfaces were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. In general, the advanced steels showed much better impact properties (lower ductile-brittle transition temperature and higher upper shelf energy) than the conventional steel. Loadtime traces showed that increase in the fracture energy was mainly due to increase in the fracture propagation energy rather than the initiation energy. Improvement in the toughness level of the advanced steels compared to that of the HSST steel was related to the difference in chemical composition, microstructure, and fracture surface morphology.

Ghoneim, Mm.; Nasreldin, A. M.; Elsayed, A. A.; Pachur, D.; Hammad, F. H.

1996-06-01

300

Development of High-Strength Cu-Ni-Ti-B Multiphase Steel by Direct Air Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study concerns development of high-strength low-carbon Cu-Ni-Ti-B multiphase steels in the as-hot-rolled condition. An attempt has been made to predict the microstructural evolution of the chosen steels during continuous cooling transformation by artificial neural network modeling as well as dilatometric study. Experimental results have demonstrated that direct air cooling of the hot-rolled Cu-Ni-Ti-B steel resulted in a microstructure containing intercritical ferrite and finer low-temperature transformation products of austenite. An attractive strength-ductility combination was achieved in the case of as-hot-rolled Cu-Ni-Ti-B steel with a dual-phase-like microstructure. Age hardening of the steels has further enhanced the mechanical properties. Analysis of the work-hardening behavior by differential Jaoult Crussard (J-C) analysis has revealed the effect of aging on the work-hardening behavior.

Ghosh, S. K.; Haldar, A.; Ganguly, S.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

2008-11-01

301

Hardfacing characteristics of S42000 stainless steel by using CO2 laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous wave carbon-dioxide (CW CO2) laser was employed to study the hardfacing characteristics of cladding S42000 stainless steel powder on K02600 mild steel. The cladding layer was overlapped track-by-track and then layer-by-layer. Identical hardfacing on mild steel by submerged are welding (SAW) was also studied. The wear test, microhardness test, metallographic analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were subsequently carried out to compare these hardfacing techniques. The results showed that the hardness of laser cladding was twice the hardness of SAW cladding, and the results indicated that the former had superior wear properties to the latter.

Sha, Chien-Kuo; Tsai, Hsien-Lung

2001-02-01

302

Modification of carbon steel surface by the Tenifer process of nitrocarburizing and post-oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface of the non-alloyed carbon steel was subjected to thermochemical modification by salt bath nitrocarburizing with or without post-oxidation based on the Tenifer procedure in order to improve mechanical properties, corrosion and wear resistance. Nitrocarburized layers were characterized by testing their basic properties (compound layer thickness, nitrocarburizing depth, surface hardness) according to current standards. Detailed estimation of the quality

K. Marui?; H. Otma?i?; D. Landek; F. Cajner; E. Stupniek-Lisac

2006-01-01

303

Microstructures and mechanical properties of Fe-14Cr-3W-Ti-Y 2O 3 steel with 1 wt.% Cu addition fabricated by a new method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of 1 wt.% copper addition on microstructures and mechanical properties of Fe-14Cr-3W-0.4Ti-0.4Y 2O 3 (wt.%) alloy has been investigated. Mechanically alloyed powders and pre-alloyed powders were blended and consolidated by hot extrusion. A bimodal grain structure with large grains (10-20 ?m) and nanometer grains was formed. Through aging treatment, ?-Cu phase with face cubic centered lattice structure precipitated from the supersaturated solid solution. After aging for 6 h, the microhardness reached a peak value of HV326, which was attributed to precipitation of copper-rich phase. The alloy exhibited a high strength due to the strengthening of both copper-rich precipitates and Y-Ti-O nanoclusters, and an excellent ductility due to its bimodal structure.

Liu, Feng; Liu, Yong; Wen, Yuren; Dou, Yuhai; Zhao, Dapeng; Liu, C. T.

2011-07-01

304

Electromagnetic forecasting of the mechanical properties of explosion-hardened steel  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on the effects of shock waves on the electromagnetic characteristics particularly sensitive to structural changes in ferromagnetic: the higher harmonics in the signal from the secondary emf and the Barkhausen noise signal, which together provide a method of forecasting the mechanical parameters of St. 60 components in explosive working. Control specimens of St. 60 of size 8 X 8 X 100 mm and ones treated with shock waves were tested on an RM-102 tensile tester in accordance with GOST 1497-73, and also on an impact tester to determine the mechanical properties. Some of the specimens were also submitted for metallographic analysis. The authors conclude that mechanicalproperty forecasting for steels by nondestructive methods can be based on measuring the Barkhausen noise, this being the method most sensitive to the structure change in steel produced by shock waves.

Zakharenko, I.D.; Milevskii, K.E.; Moskvin, V.N.

1985-03-01

305

Determination of tribological properties of ion-nitrided AISI 5140 steel  

SciTech Connect

AISI 5140 low-alloy steel is ion-nitrided under different process parameters, including time (1, 4, and 8 h), temperature (450, 500, and 550 deg. C), and various gas mixtures at a working pressure of 5 mbar. The ion-nitriding behaviors of AISI 5140 steel have been assessed by evaluating tribological properties, surface hardness, surface roughness, compound layer thickness, and case depth by using a pin-on-disk wear machine, microhardness tester, surface profilometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that ion nitriding improves the wear rate, and the presence of a hard and brittle compound layer on the surface causes an increase in wear of specimen surface. It is finally observed that ion nitriding parameters have no dominant effect on the friction coefficient.

Alsaran, Akguen

2002-09-15

306

Tensile properties of 21-6-9 stainless steel at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Tensile properties of Type 21-6-9 austenitic stainless steel were measured at temperatures ranging from ambient to 1200C at a strain rate of 6.67 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1}. Data show that yield stress decreases rapidly from room temperature to about 300C, followed by a nearly constant value in the `plateau` region from 300 to 600C. Beyond the ``plateau,`` there is more rapid drop in yield stress as temperature increases. Ultimate tensile stress shows a plateau between 300 and 700 C, which may be caused by solutes. 21-6-9 stainless steel has excellent ductility, with the elongation to failure ranging from 55 to 95%. It appears that there is a local minimum in the ductility at approximately 700C. Results are compared with earlier results of Kassner and co-workers.

Torres, S.G.; Henshall, G.A.

1993-10-01

307

Low temperature mechanical properties of steels containing high concentrations of helium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of tensile tests and hardness measurements in the temperature range 25-400C are reported for ferritic-martensitic steels and s.a. 316 L austenitic steel. Helium concentrations up to I at.% have been introduced into these materials by ?-particle (0-25 MeV) implantation and He/Fe dual-beam (15/300 keV) irradiation, respectively. In the latter case displacement damage up to 50 dpa was produced simultaneously with the introduction of He. From a preliminary analysis of the results and a comparison with earlier data it may be concluded that for temperatures up to at least 400 C the observed hardening is dominated by displacement damage. Only for very high helium concentrations around 1 at.% a moderate further increase of hardness is found, indicating that helium does not have a drastic effect on the mechanical properties of the investigated alloys.

Ullmaier, H.; Camus, E.

1997-11-01

308

Corrosion properties of silicon-on-steel ion beam mixed layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary results of the study of corrosion properties of ion beam mixed Si layers on AISI 316L steel are presented. The basic mixing parameters such as mixing efficiency and the thickness of residual Si layers were determined by means of the RBS technique. The corrosion process was studied using the potentiodynamic method. The results show a substantial change in the corrosion mechanism of ion beam mixed layers. Pitting corrosion characteristic for virgin or Si implanted samples is replaced by a crevice corrosion in the case of ion beam mixed ones. This is very likely due to the formation of brittle, high Si concentration layer susceptible to crevice corrosion that leads to the scalling of surface layer. The results obtained for both, ion implanted and Si ion beam mixed samples, indicate that steel layers with relatively low ( 20 at%) Si content exhibit superior corrosion resistance.

Jagielski, J.; Baszkiewicz, J.; Turos, A.; Gawlik, G.

1997-05-01

309

The measurement of magnetic properties of electrical sheet steel survey on methods and situation of standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of the different requirements for magnetic measurement techniques for material research, modelling of material properties and grading of the electrical sheet steel for trade purposes is presented. In relation to the main application of laminated electrical steel, this paper deals with AC measurement techniques. Two standard methods, Epstein frame and Single Sheet Tester (SST), producing different results,

J. Sievert

2000-01-01

310

Microstructure and properties of composite (B + C) diffusion layers on low-carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined surface hardening with boron and carbon was used for low-carbon 5120 steel. The microstructure, carbon profiles and chosen properties of borided layers produced on the carburized 5120 steel have been examined. These composite (B + C) layers are termed borocarburized layers. The microhardness profiles and wear resistance of these layers have been studied. In the microstructure of the borocarburized

A. Pertek; M. Kulka

2003-01-01

311

Structure and Mechanical Properties of Fe-Ni-Co-C Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure and mechanical properties of tempered martensite and bainite were investigated in a series of steels with varying C, Ni and Co contents. At similar Ms temperatures, the martensite in the 0.24% carbon steels exhibited very small amounts of tw...

S. K. Das

1968-01-01

312

Advantages, properties and types of coatings on non-oriented electrical steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical steels used for motor, transformer and generator applications are usually coated with an insulation coating in order to improve the performance of the material in terms of reduced power loss, punching and welding characteristics and corrosion resistance. The advantages, properties and types of insulation coatings available at European Electrical Steels are discussed in this paper.

Lindenmo, M.; Coombs, A.; Snell, D.

2000-06-01

313

Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir processed ODS ferritic steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are considered to be one of the candidate structural materials for advanced blanket systems because of its excellent properties in fusion environments. For more applications of the ODS steels to fusion systems with a huge and complex structure, development of joining technologies is a key issue to be solved. To reserve nano-oxide particles in the

Sanghoon Noh; Ryuta Kasada; Akihiko Kimura; Seung Hwan C. Park; Satoshi Hirano

2011-01-01

314

The effect of heat treatment on high temperature mechanical properties of microalloyed medium carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, high temperature tensile properties and abrasive wear performance of a microalloyed medium carbon steel has been examined. Tensile and abrasive wear testing were carried out on as-received and heat treated specimens. The research has shown that microalloyed medium carbon steel was susceptible to dynamic strain ageing due to interaction of mobile dislocations and solid atoms, such

Sleyman Gndz; Mustafa Acarer

2006-01-01

315

Microstructue and mechanical properties of AISI 4340 steel modified with aluminum and silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of additions of aluminum and combinations of aluminum and silicon to AISI 4340 steels was investigated. The mechanical properties such as strength, fracture toughness (K\\/sub Ic\\/), and impact toughness (C\\/sub v\\/) were obtained for the modified steels in the quenched and tempered condition. The microstructure was characterized using optical and transmission electron microscopy. The fracture surfaces and inclusions

Bhat

1977-01-01

316

The effect of electron beam welding on various properties of three austenitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of electron beam welding on various properties of semistable austenitic stainless steels: 304L, 316 (low nitrogen), and 21-6-9 were investigated. Tensile tests performed on transverse butt joints gave joint efficiences approaching 95% of theoretical efficiencies. The joint ductility for all steels, however, was 50 to 70% that of unwelded samples. Hardness testing revealed that the parent matrix was

G. D. Raasch; Z. A. Munir

1978-01-01

317

Deep cryogenic treatment of AISI 302 stainless steel: Part I Hardness and tensile properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) on the static mechanical properties of the AISI 302 austenitic stainless steel were investigated through experimental testing. The results of the tensile and hardness tests are discussed and compared to data and microstructural observations from the DCT literature concerning the same class of steel. In addition, the influence of two important treatment parameters,

Paolo Baldissera

2010-01-01

318

Cooling rate effect on vacuum brazed joint properties for 2205 duplex stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of cooling rates and fillers on the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of vacuum brazed joints for two types of 2205 duplex stainless steels was investigated. The amount of a sigma phase precipitated in the duplex stainless steel (DSS) was increased at a slow cooling rate. When the cooling rate was increased to 0.25C s?1, the suppression of

L. H. Chiu; W. C. Hsieh; C. H. Wu

2003-01-01

319

Almen intensity effect on microstructure and mechanical properties of low carbon steel subjected to severe shot peening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses alteration of microstructure and mechanical properties of low carbon steel after severe shot peening process. An ultra fine grained surface layer was formed on AISI 1017 mild steel by means of severe shot peening process. Surface characteristics were affirmed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Nano hardness measurements were taken along the depth from shot peened surface using nanoindentation methods. The results showed that severe (unconventional) air blast shot peening process is an effective way to obtain ultra fine grained surface layer and to obtain superior mechanical properties.

Unal, Okan; Varol, Remzi

2014-01-01

320

Properties of steels after high-temperature vacuum carburizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.High-temperature vacuum carburizing provides higher strength of the core of machine parts made of alloy steels as compared with standard carburizing.The variation of the ductile characteristics is more complex: The reduction in cross-sectional area remains unchanged for steel 19KhGN but increases for steels 20KhGN and 16KhG, while the relative elongation decreases ~20%.2.The fracture toughness of the core of parts is

M. A. Krishtal; S. N. Tsepov

1980-01-01

321

Electromagnetic method for analyzing the property of steel casing  

SciTech Connect

It has been shown that electromagnetic (EM) imaging, in particular in borehole applications, can be effective in characterizing and monitoring subsurface processes involved in improved oil recovery operations and production management. In this report the authors present an innovative EM method for extracting information about a steel casing in terms of its electrical conductivity, magnetic permeability, and the casing thickness. The method is based on accurate evaluation of magnetic fields near the transmitting loop in a steel-cased borehole, and the least squares inversion of thus measured data. The need to make measurements close to the source stems from the two related considerations. One reason is that by making measurements close to the transmitter one can keep the formation response from entering the measurement to a minimum. The other reason concerns with the practical consideration involved in fabricating a borehole tool. The measurement accuracy in terms of PPM to the primary field can best be achieved when the transmitter and receiver are close to each other. To facilitate this requirement one can consider a single loop acting as the source and the receiver operating in time domain, or a closely coupled frequency-domain system with the source-receiver separation of just a few inches apart. Results are discussed.

Lee, K.H.; Kim, H.J.; Song, Y.

1998-02-01

322

Effect of phosphorus on the microstructure and mechanical properties of strip cast carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon steel strips with different phosphorus and carbon contents were produced by using the twin roll strip casting process.\\u000a Fine grains and dendrite structure were observed in high-P steels. Negative phosphorus segregation was found in strip cast\\u000a high-P and high-C steels. For the steels with different carbon contents, phosphorus distribution in the thickness direction\\u000a of the strip is obviously different.

Na Li; Zhen-yu Liu; Guo-ping Zhou; Xiang-hua Liu; Guo-dong Wang

2010-01-01

323

Temperature effects on the mechanical properties of annealed and HERF 304L stainless steel.  

SciTech Connect

The effect of temperature on the tensile properties of annealed 304L stainless steel and HERF 304L stainless steel forgings was determined by completing experiments over the moderate range of -40 F to 160 F. Temperature effects were more significant in the annealed material than the HERF material. The tensile yield strength of the annealed material at -40 F averaged twenty two percent above the room temperature value and at 160 F averaged thirteen percent below. The tensile yield strength for the three different geometry HERF forgings at -40 F and 160 F changed less than ten percent from room temperature. The ultimate tensile strength was more temperature dependent than the yield strength. The annealed material averaged thirty six percent above and fourteen percent below the room temperature ultimate strength at -40 F and 160 F, respectively. The HERF forgings exhibited similar, slightly lower changes in ultimate strength with temperature. For completeness and illustrative purposes, the stress-strain curves are included for each of the tensile experiments conducted. The results of this study prompted a continuation study to determine tensile property changes of welded 304L stainless steel material with temperature, documented separately.

Antoun, Bonnie R.

2004-11-01

324

Properties of high-strength steel fiber-reinforced concrete beams in bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents research results of ten high-strength reinforced concrete beams and steel fiber-reinforced high strength concrete beams, with steel fiber content of 1% by volume. The enlarged ends of mild carbon steel fibers with three different dimensions were selected. This research shows that the flexural rigidity before yield stage and the displacement at 80% ultimate load in the descending

Qian Chunxiang; Indubhushan Patnaikuni

1999-01-01

325

Mechanical property and irradiation damage of China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel is being studied to develop the structural materials for a fusion reactor, which has been designed based on the well-known 9Cr1.5WVTa steel. The effect of tempering temperature on hardness and microstructure of CLAM steel was studied. The strength of CLAM steel increased by adding silicon, and the ductility remained constant. Conversely, while CLAM steel maintained good ductility with the addition of yttrium, its tensile strengths were greatly degraded. Behaviors under electron irradiation of CLAM steel were examined using the high voltage electron microscope. Electron irradiation at 450C formed many voids in CLAM steel with basic composition, whereas CLAM with silicon steel did not change the microstructure significantly.

Zhu, YanYong; Wan, FaRong; Gao, Jin; Han, WenTuo; Huang, YiNa; Jiang, ShaoNing; Qiao, JianSheng; Zhao, Fei; Yang, ShanWu; Ohnuki, Somei; Hashimoto, Naoyuki

2012-11-01

326

Kinematic viscosity of rail steel melts modified by Fe-Si-Ca and Fe-Si-Ca-Ba alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Rails produced from steel modified by Fe?Si?Ca? Ba alloys is more plastic than steel modified by Fe?Si? Ca alloys, as shown in [1, 2]. Given that physicochemical properties from the initial melt are inherited in the final parts [3], this suggests that barium in the liquid steel is a stronger modifying agent than is calcium. Until recently, the efficiency

A. A. Deryabin; V. S. Tsepelev; V. V. Konashkov; E. Yu. Berestov; V. V. Mogilnyi

2008-01-01

327

Influence of laser hardening and resulting microstructure on fatigue properties of carbon steels  

SciTech Connect

Cylindrical specimens of a CSN 12050 carbon steel, equivalent to the UNS G 10420 steel, with two different initial microstructures, normalized and heat treated, were surface processed without melting by a 2.5 kW, CO{sub 2} laser to study the effects of laser-beam hardening and resulting microstructure on fatigue properties and mechanisms. Two configurations of circumferential laser passes were made, resulting in one and three separate surface hardened lines, respectively. Fatigue resistance was studied using alternating bend tests. A detailed metallographic study and x-ray measurements of surface stresses were carried out. It was shown that the laser beam hardening under different conditions either reduced or slightly improved the fatigue life.

Cerny, I.; Fuerbacher, I.; Linhart, V. [SVUM, Praha (Czech Republic)] [SVUM, Praha (Czech Republic)

1998-06-01

328

Inhibitory properties of ocean vegetation products in the corrosion of steel  

SciTech Connect

The inhibitory properties of byproducts from the processing of Black Sea red algae Phyllophora nervosa were investigated in solutions of sulfuric and nitric acids, tap water, and sea water. Corrosion tests were conducted gravimetrically on St3, St40, and St60 steels, and on titanium alloy VT-1. Inhibitor effectiveness was measured by corrosion rate, the inhibition coefficient, and the extent of protection. A complete factor matrix was taken. Experimental results were expressed as a partial quadratic equation. The behavior of iron ions in the corrosion process was assessed. Tests established that the byproducts, referred to as inhibitor IFKhI, can be used in steel pickling treatments in sulfuric acid solutions over a wide temperature range.

Popelyukh, G.M.; Talavira, L.I.

1988-05-01

329

Influence of nickel and molybdenum on the phase stability and mechanical properties of maraging steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of nickel and molybdenum concentrations on the phase transformation and mechanical properties of conventional 18Ni(350) maraging steel has been investigated. Both of these elements act as strong austenite stabilizers. When the concentration of molybdenum or nickel is greater than 7.5 or 24 wt %, respectively, the austenite phase remains stable up to room temperature. In both molybdenum- and nickel-alloyed steels, the austenite phase could be transformed to martensite by either dipping the material in liquid nitrogen or subjecting it to cold working. When 7.5 wt% Mo and 24 wt% Ni were added in combination, however, the austenite phase obtained at room temperature did not transform to martensite when liquid-nitrogen quenched or even when cold rolled to greater than 95% reduction. The aging response of these materials has also been investigated using optical, scanning electron, and scanning transmission electron microscopy.

Ahmed, M.; Nasim, I.; Husain, S. W.

1994-04-01

330

The comparison of surface characteristics, physico-chemical and biological properties of 304 stainless steel coated by melt-derived and solgel-derived 45S5 bioglass for orthopedic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of 45S5 bioglass to form a bond to living bone tissue and stimulate bone-cell proliferation may be different for melt- and solgel-derived samples. In this research, the differences in corrosion resistance, bioactivity and physical properties between the melt- and solgel-derived 45S5 bioglass coated on the surface of austenitic 304 stainless steel (SS) as a dental and orthopedic metallic

Ali Pedram; S. Morteza Naghib; Amin Feizpour; Mojtaba Ansari

331

Effect of galvanic coatings on the elastic properties and the relaxation stability of thin-spring steel sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was established that the elastic limit of and hydrogen content in steel 65Mn depend on the thickness of the zinc coatings. Hydrogen could not be completely removed from zinc-coated specimens by vacuum heat treatment at admissible temperatures; nor were their properties restored by this treatment. An effective method of eliminating the harmful effect of galvanic coatings on the stress

R. I. Mishkevich; S. Ya. Grilikhes; N. G. Gavrilyuk

1972-01-01

332

Relationship between Material Properties and Local Formability of DP980 Steels  

SciTech Connect

A noticeable degree of inconsistent forming behaviors has been observed for the 1st generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in production, and they appear to be associated with the inherent microstructural-level inhomogeneities for various AHSS. This indicates that the basic material property requirements and screening methods currently used for the mild steels and high strength low alloys (HSLA) are no longer sufficient for qualifying todays AHSS. In order to establish more relevant material acceptance criteria for AHSS, the fundamental understandings on key mechanical properties and microstructural features influencing the local formability of AHSS need to be developed. For this purpose, in this study, DP980 was selected as model steels and eight different types of DP980 sheet steels were acquired from various steel suppliers. Various experiments were then performed on the eight different DP980 steels such as chemical composition analysis, static tensile test, hole expansion test, channel forming test. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures of the DP980 steels were also obtained, and image processing tools were then adopted to those SEM pictures in order to quantify their various microstructural features. The results show that all DP980 steels show large discrepancy in their performance and that the tensile properties and hole expansion properties of these steels do not correlate with their local formability. According to the results up to date, it is not possible to correlate the microstructural features alone to the macroscopically measured deformation behaviors. In addition to image analysis, other experiments (i.e., nano-indentation test) are also planned to quantify the individual phase properties of the various DP steels.

Choi, Kyoo Sil; Soulami, Ayoub; Li, Dongsheng; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Xu, Le; Barlat, Frederic

2012-04-24

333

Experimental study of perforation and cracking of water-filled aluminum tubes impacted by steel spheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-filled aluminum tubes were subjected to impact by six steel spherical projectiles of different diameters at impact velocities of 40200m\\/s. The effects of the diameter of the steel projectiles and of the material properties of the tubes on cracking and perforation were discussed. Water decreased the wall strength of the aluminum alloy tubes, and the impact velocity at which a

Masahiro Nishida; Koichi Tanaka

2006-01-01

334

Fabrication of Aluminum Nitride Coating onto Carbon Steel Substrate by Reactive Plasma Spraying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum nitride (AlN) is one of the attractive ceramics in respect of its excellent properties. It was possible to fabricate Al\\/AlN composite coatings onto carbon steel substrate by reactive plasma spray process. However, most of the coatings, which include more nitride phase, peeled off due to the difference of thermal expansion coefficient between AlN and carbon steel. It might be

Hajime Nakamura; Motohiro Yamada; Masahiro Fukumoto; Toshiaki Yasui; Koyata Takahashi

2006-01-01

335

Corrosion resistance of sintered duplex stainless steel evaluated by electrochemical method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: of this paper was to examine the corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steels using electrochemical methods in 1M NaCl solution. The influence of powder mixes preparation and cooling cycle after sintering on corrosion properties was evaluated. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: In presented study duplex stainless steels were obtained through powder metallurgy starting from austenitic, martensitic base powders by controlled addition of alloying

L. A. Dobrza?ski a; Z. Brytan; M. Actis Grande; M. Rosso

336

Mechanical properties of irradiated 9Cr 2WVTa steel with and without nickel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tensile and Charpy specimens of normalized-and-tempered ORNL 9Cr-2WVTa reduced-activation steel and that steel composition containing 2% Ni (9Cr-2WVTa-2Ni) were irradiated at 376-405 C in the experimental breeder reactor (EBR-II) to 23-33 dpa. Steels were irradiated in two tempered conditions: 1 h at 700 C and 1 h at 750 C. The mechanical properties before and after irradiation of the 9Cr-2WVTa-2Ni steel were quite similar to those of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel, indicating no adverse effect of the nickel. Neither of the steels showed excessive hardening or a large increase in ductile-brittle transition temperature.

Klueh, R. L.; Sokolov, M. A.

2007-08-01

337

Mechanical property of a low carbon steel with biomimetic units in different shapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by the superior biomechanical properties of some biological compositions, an attempt to improve the mechanical property of low carbon steel with biomimetic units was made by using a laser remelting process. Three kinds of shapes including 'striation', 'spot' and 'gridding', were chosen for forming the biomimetic units. Microstructure and microhardness examinations demonstrated that desirable microstructural changes and regular hardness distribution were acquired in the units. The results of tensile tests indicated that the biomimetic specimens had an improvement in the strength and ductility simultaneously. The beneficial influence of laser processed biomimetic units on tensile behavior can be attributed to the combined effects of the microstructural characteristics within the unit zone and the stress redistribution derived from the efficient stress transfer. By investigating the variation of plastic deformation in different regions of the specimens, the effect of unit shapes on tensile property was also compared and discussed.

Wang, Chuanwei; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Zhihui; Zhao, Yu; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Zhang, Peng; Ren, Luquan

2013-04-01

338

Relationship Between Swelling and Elastic Properties in Neutron-Irradiated 316 Stainless Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results encompass elastic property measurements on several alloys, which differ in silicon, molybdenum and phosphorus contents but have a nominal 316 stainless steel composition. It is shown that there is a good correlation between the initial shear m...

J. F. Bates

1976-01-01

339

Influence of Martensite Mechanical Properties on Failure Mode and Ductility of Dual Phase Steels  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the effects of the mechanical properties of the martensite phase on the failure mode and ductility of dual phase (DP) steels are investigated using a micromechanics-based finite element method. Actual microstructures of DP sheet steels obtained from scanning electron microscopy are used as representative volume element (RVE) in two-dimensional plane-stress finite element calculations. Failure is predicted as plastic strain localization in the RVE during deformation. The mechanical properties of the ferrite and martensite phases in a commercial DP 980 steel are obtained based on the in-situ X-ray diffraction measurements of a uniaxial tensile test. Computations are then conducted on the RVE in order to investigate the influence of the martensite mechanical properties and volume fraction on the macroscopic behavior and failure mode of DP steels. The computations show that, as the strength and volume fraction of the martensite phase increase, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of DP steels increases but the UTS strain and failure strain decrease. These results agree well with the general experimental observations on DP steels. Additionally, shear dominant failure modes usually develop for DP steels with lower martensite strengths, whereas split failure modes typically develop for DP steels with higher martensite strengths.

Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2009-04-01

340

Processing and properties of extruded tungsten-hafnium and tungsten-steel composites  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the processing behavior and properties of tungsten-hafnium (W-Hf) and W-steel composites produced by hot extrusion of canned powders. The W-Hf composite was consolidated by extrusion of blended powders with preheat temperatures over the temperature range of 1100 to 1400{degrees}C. All extrusions produced fully dense material which exhibits elongation of the tungsten phase within the hafnium matrix. The flow stress, as characterized by the extrusion constant, decreases with increasing temperature up to 1300{degrees}C and increases substantially at 1400{degrees}C as significant quantities of intermetallic phase are formed during preheating. The room-temperature (RT) hardness and compressive yield stress increase modestly with increased extrusion ratio and are not affected by extrusion temperature in the range 1100 to 1300{degrees}C. The microstructures are essentially fully recrystallized at the 1300{degrees}C preheat temperature and partially recrystallized at lower temperatures. Additionally, a mixture of tungsten and steel powder was consolidated to full density by hot extrusion at a 1000{degrees}C preheat temperature and a reduction ratio of 4.2. Increased reduction of the W-steel composite results in increased RT hardness.

Ohriner, E.K.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kapoor, D. [Army Armament Research and Development Engineering Center, Dover, NJ (United States)

1995-02-01

341

Structure and properties of stainless steels subjected to severe plastic deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical, mechanical, and corrosion properties of stainless steels with microcrystalline and submicrocrystalline structures\\u000a obtained with the use of different techniques of thermal deformation treatment are considered. A comparative study of formation\\u000a of a dispersed structure in austenitic and ferritic steels is performed. The effect of the type of structure on mechanical\\u000a properties is discussed.

G. A. Salishchev; R. G. Zaripova; A. A. Zakirova

2006-01-01

342

PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF NINE COMMERCIAL PRECIPITATION HARDENABLE STAINLESS STEELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABS>The physical and mechanical properties of commercial precipitation-; hardenable stainless steels are presented. The steels covered include the ; martensitic types (Stainless W and 17⁻⁴ PH), the semiaustenitic types (17-7 ; PH, PH 15-7 Mo, AM 350, and AM 355), and the austenitic types (A-286, 17-10 P, ; and HNM). Roomand elevated-temperature tensile and compressive properties, ; stress-rupture and creep

D. A. Roberts; D. B. Roach; A. M. Hall

1959-01-01

343

Creation of superhydrophobic stainless steel surfaces by acid treatments and hydrophobic film deposition.  

PubMed

In this work, we present a method to render stainless steel surfaces superhydrophobic while maintaining their corrosion resistance. Creation of surface roughness on 304 and 316 grade stainless steels was performed using a hydrofluoric acid bath. New insight into the etch process is developed through a detailed analysis of the chemical and physical changes that occur on the stainless steel surfaces. As a result of intergranular corrosion, along with metallic oxide and fluoride redeposition, surface roughness was generated on the nano- and microscales. Differences in alloy composition between 304 and 316 grades of stainless steel led to variations in etch rate and different levels of surface roughness for similar etch times. After fluorocarbon film deposition to lower the surface energy, etched samples of 304 and 316 stainless steel displayed maximum static water contact angles of 159.9 and 146.6, respectively. However, etching in HF also caused both grades of stainless steel to be susceptible to corrosion. By passivating the HF-etched samples in a nitric acid bath, the corrosion resistant properties of stainless steels were recovered. When a three step process was used, consisting of etching, passivation and fluorocarbon deposition, 304 and 316 stainless steel samples exhibited maximum contact angles of 157.3 and 134.9, respectively, while maintaining corrosion resistance. PMID:22913317

Li, Lester; Breedveld, Victor; Hess, Dennis W

2012-09-26

344

Elastic, Strength, and Stress Relaxation Properties of A723 Steel and 38644 Titanium for Pressure Vessel Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mechanical properties of a high strength steel and a titanium alloy have been measured for application to compound cylinders of steel and titanium subjected to elevated temperature. Results are presented from tests and analyses of elastic and failure stre...

J. H. Underwood R. R. Fujczak R. G. Hasenbein

1988-01-01

345

Changes in magnetic properties of neutron irradiated RPV steel  

SciTech Connect

Conventional magnetic parameters and Barkhausen noise have been measured in pressure vessel steel samples both as-received and irradiated with doses of up to 10{sup 18} n/cm{sup 2}. The conventional magnetic parameters, i.e., coercive force, remanence and maximum induction did not change significantly with irradiation, whereas the Barkhausen noise amplitude and energy during a magnetization cycle decreased markedly with irradiation dose. A three stage variation of Barkhausen noise with neutron dose was observed in the present work, namely an initial decrease, a near plateau and rapid decrease. The three stage variation with neutron dose is in qualitative agreement with computer simulations of the radiation damage process performed by Beeler. The hardness also varied in three stages in a reverse manner with transition at the same doses.

Park, D.G.; Hong, J.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ok, C.I.; Kim, J.W. [Pusan National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.C. [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1998-07-01

346

Mixing of chromium\\/carbon steel by compressive plasma flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure, phase and element composition as well as mechanical properties of plasma mixed chromium\\/carbon steel have been investigated. Surface alloying of carbon steel with chromium has been performed with the use of the compressive plasma flow (CPF). In this technique, the action of relatively short, intense (?100?s and 1318J\\/cm2) plasma pulses leads to a melting of the near-surface layer

V. V. Uglov; V. M. Anishchik; N. N. Cherenda; A. K. Stalmashonak; V. M. Astashinski; A. M. Kuzmickii; E. A. Kostyukevich; A. V. Kovyazo

2005-01-01

347

Microstructure and mechanical properties of spray formed ultrahigh-carbon steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure and mechanical properties of the spray formed 1.25C3.0Si1.5Cr ultrahigh-carbon steel (UHCS) were described. The 1.25C3.0Si1.5Cr UHCS was processed by spray forming to break up carbide networks. The fine pearlites with average interlamellar spacing of 0.20?m was observed in the as-sprayed microstructure. The ultimate tensile strength and the pearlite spacing can be related by the HallPetch equation. The as-sprayed

Jing Guo Zhang; Yi Jian Lin; Mats Hillert; Malin Selleby; Hai Sheng Shi; Biao Yan; Hao Zhang; Guang Min Luo; Xiao Jun Li; Jun Wang

2004-01-01

348

Phase stability in austenitic stainless steels -- New approaches, results, and their relation to properties  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the phase stability of austenitic stainless steels, and its effect on the mechanical properties of stainless steels, have been the subject of much interest. With the availability of new experimental techniques, new theoretical methods, and new computational procedures, significant advances have been made in understanding, and being able to predict, phase stability and mechanical properties of stainless steel welds. This paper reviews some of these developments, with an emphasis on recent work that has been done at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Vitek, J.M.; David, S.A.

1995-12-31

349

Assessment of cyclic properties of 18G2A low-alloy steel at biaxial stress state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An evolution of plastic properties of the 18G2A low-alloy steel due to cyclic predeformation in different directions of the two-dimensional stress space (?xx,?xy) is assessed on the basis of cyclic curves. The initial material properties have been experimentally evaluated by the analysis of preliminary yield surface. It was made by studying the position in stress space and typical dimensions

Z. L. Kowalewski

1997-01-01

350

Fatigue behaviour of AISI 304 steel to AISI 4340 steel welded by friction welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presented study, The weldability of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel to AISI 4340 steel joined by friction welding\\u000a in different rotational speeds and fatigue behaviour of friction-welded samples were investigated. Tension tests were applied\\u000a to welded parts to obtain the strength of the joints. The welding zones were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)\\u000a and analyzed by energy

A. Hasalik; E. nal; N. zdemir

2006-01-01

351

Processing of ultra low carbon steels with mechanical properties adequate for automotive applications in the as-annealed condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of ultra low carbon\\/Ti added steels were produced with the aim of evaluating the steelmaking route and processing conditions of slabs, in order to achieve mechanical properties on resulting annealed sheets adequate for automotive applications. Characterization of microstructure was carried out in the as-cast, deformed and annealed specimens by means of scanning and transmission electron microscope techniques. Slab

R. Mendoza; J. Huante; M. Alanis; C. Gonzalez-Rivera; J. A. Juarez-Islas

2000-01-01

352

Abrasive wear behaviour of a high carbon steel: effects of microstructure and experimental parameters and correlation with mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation deals with the observations made towards understanding the role of interlamellar spacing on the high-stress abrasive wear behaviour of a high carbon steel. The samples revealed near-eutectoid (pearlitic) structure. The interlamellar spacing was varied by altering the austenitization temperature. Abrasion tests were conducted over a range of applied load, sliding speed, travel distance and abrasive size. Mechanical properties

O. P Modi; D. P Mondal; B. K Prasad; M Singh; H. K Khaira

2003-01-01

353

Tensile property of H13 die steel with convex-shaped biomimetic surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The H13 steel specimens with non-smooth surface were fabricated by biomimetic method and laser technique, and the effect of these biomimetic surfaces on the tensile properties was investigated. The results indicated that the biomimetic surface has an advantageous effect on improving the tensile properties of H13 steel. As the area ratio occupied by non-smooth units on the biomimetic surface grows to 26.7%, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and 0.2% yield strength (YS) of materials linearly increase by about 8.4% and 17.2%, respectively. The elongation to fracture of materials reaches to the peak value of about 41.3% at the point of 17.1% area ratio, and further heightening the area ratio can result in a reduced ductility relative to this peak value. This improvement of tensile properties can be attributed to the combined effects of the microstructure characteristics within the unit zone and the unit-distribution features on the surface. Meanwhile, the regressed relation equations of UTS, YS and elongation regarding the area ratio were obtained via statistical theory. The tests of regression significance showed that the confidence of these equations achieved 99% above.

Zhang, Z. H.; Zhou, H.; Ren, L. Q.; Tong, X.; Shan, H. Y.; Cao, Y.

2007-09-01

354

Combined effects of hydrogen and magnetization on the tensile properties in 2. 25Cr-1Mo steel  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1950's, there has been much effort to examine the influence of magnetic field on mechanical properties of ferromagnetic metals and alloys. It has been well-documented that lattice defects can influence the magnetic behavior, for example, the change of magnetic susceptibility of steels during plastic deformation or fatigue loading, or the Barkhausen effect, which is caused by the interaction of moving domain walls with lattice imperfection. The present paper is one part of the work to investigate the influences of magnetic field and hydrogen charging on mechanical properties of iron and its alloys. The 2.25Cr-1Mo (ASTM A387) steel was chosen because hydrogen embrittlement of this steel had been widely investigated and the response to hydrogen charging was well-known. So the possible influence of magnetic field could be separated.

Ruscak, M.; Perng, T.P. (National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China))

1993-07-01

355

Measurement of the magnetic properties of P9 and T22 steel taken from service in power station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the UK?s aging power generation network, life-extension of steel plant components is a critical issue. However, in order to evaluate the likelihood of component failure, techniques must be developed to properly assess the level of degradation in power station steels. Electromagnetic inspection has the potential to quantify the level of degradation through in-situ measurements at elevated temperatures. This paper reports the results of tests carried out on thermally treated P9 and T22 steel samples with different microstructural states using major and minor BH loop measurements and magnetic Barkhausen noise measurements. The results show that by careful selection of minor loop parameters, specific to the material under inspection and the material change under consideration, correlations can established between EM properties and material properties such as Vickers hardness. These results will be used as a basis for the further development of a fully field deployable device.

Wilson, J. W.; Karimian, N.; Liu, J.; Yin, W.; Davis, C. L.; Peyton, A. J.

2014-06-01

356

Analysis of atmospheric corrosion products of steel and coated steel by means of scattering Mssbauer spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wearthering steels treated with and without zinc phosphate solution were exposed to atmosphere for 15 years and rust layers\\u000a produced on the steels were analysed by scattering Mssbauer spectrometry (CEMS and XMS). ?-FeOOH, fine ?-FeOOH, 5Fe2O39H2O, ?-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 were identified to be present in the rust formed on the steel without phosphate coating. Large particles of ?-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4

Kiyoshi Nomura; Yusuke Ujihira

1986-01-01

357

LITERATURE SURVEY OF GASEOUS HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEELS  

SciTech Connect

Literature survey has been performed for a compendium of mechanical properties of carbon and low alloy steels following hydrogen exposure. The property sets include yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, uniform elongation, reduction of area, threshold stress intensity factor, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth. These properties are drawn from literature sources under a variety of test methods and conditions. However, the collection of literature data is by no means complete, but the diversity of data and dependency of results in test method is sufficient to warrant a design and implementation of a thorough test program. The program would be needed to enable a defensible demonstration of structural integrity of a pressurized hydrogen system. It is essential that the environmental variables be well-defined (e.g., the applicable hydrogen gas pressure range and the test strain rate) and the specimen preparation be realistically consistent (such as the techniques to charge hydrogen and to maintain the hydrogen concentration in the specimens).

Lam, P; Robert Sindelar, R; Thad Adams, T

2007-04-18

358

LITERATURE SURVEY OF GASEOUS HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEELS  

SciTech Connect

Literature survey has been performed for a compendium of mechanical properties of carbon and low alloy steels following hydrogen exposure. The property sets include yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, uniform elongation, reduction of area, threshold stress intensity factor, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth. These properties are drawn from literature sources under a variety of test methods and conditions. However, the collection of literature data is by no means complete, but the diversity of data and dependency of results in test method is sufficient to warrant a design and implementation of a thorough test program. The program would be needed to enable a defensible demonstration of structural integrity of a pressurized hydrogen system. It is essential that the environmental variables be well-defined (e.g., the applicable hydrogen gas pressure range and the test strain rate) and the specimen preparation be realistically consistent (such as the techniques to charge hydrogen and to maintain the hydrogen concentration in the specimens).

Lam, P; Andrew Duncan, A; Robert Sindelar, R; Thad Adams, T

2009-04-27

359

Effects of hydrogen on mechanical properties in irradiated austenitic stainless steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the hydrogen effect on mechanical properties of solution annealed Type 304 stainless steel, tensile tests of neutron irradiated materials were conducted after a hydrogen charging and discharging process (hydrogen treatment). Elongation was less with increasing neutron fluence after hydrogen treatment than that of as-irradiated specimens. Intergranular cracking occurred by the hydrogen treatment in heavier irradiated specimens, in which the Cr depleted zone along grain boundary was observed. Embrittlement and intergranular cracking after the hydrogen treatment were estimated to be attributed to the Cr depleted zone at the grain boundary due to neutron irradiation.

Morisawa, J.; Kodama, M.; Nishimura, S.; Asano, K.; Nakata, K.; Shima, S.

1994-09-01

360

Evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel steels by positron annihilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a comparison of commercially used German and Russian reactor pressure vessel steels from the positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) point of view, having in mind knowledge obtained also from other techniques from the last decades. The second generation of Russian RPV steels seems to be fully comparable with German steels and their quality allows prolongation of NPP operating lifetime over projected 40 years. The embrittlement of CrMoV steels is relatively low due to effect of higher temperature which implies partial in situ annealing of primary microstructural point defects and therefore delays the degradation processes caused by neutron irradiation.

Sluge?, V.; Hein, H.; Sojak, S.; Simeg Veternkov, J.; Petriska, M.; Sabelov, V.; Pavk, M.; Hinca, R.; Stacho, M.

2013-11-01

361

Some mechanical and magnetic properties of cold rolled X5CrNi18-8 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The paper analyzes the influence of the degree of cold deformation on the structure forming and changes of mechanical and magnetic properties of cold-rolled sheet on austenitic X5CrNi18-8 stainless steel. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: The investigations included observations of the structure on a light microscope, researches of mechanical properties in a static tensile test, microhardness measurements made by Vickers's method and magnetic

A. Kurc; Z. Stok

2008-01-01

362

Mechanical properties and microstructural features of AISI 4340 high-strength alloy steel under quenched and tempered conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the mechanical properties and microstructures of AISI 4340 high strength alloy steel under different tempering conditions are investigated. The specimens are quenched and tempered to a martensite structure and loaded to fracture at a constant strain-rate of 3.310?4 s?1 by means of a dynamic material testing machine (MTS 810). The mechanical properties and strain-hardening exponent are considered

Woei-Shyan Lee; Tzay-Tian Su

1999-01-01

363

Amorphous stainless steel coatings prepared by reactive magnetron-sputtering from austenitic stainless steel targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel films were reactively magnetron sputtered in argon\\/methane gas flow onto oxidized silicon wafers using austenitic\\u000a stainless-steel targets. The deposited films of about 200nm thickness were characterized by conversion electron Mssbauer\\u000a spectroscopy, magnetooptical Kerr-effect, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry,\\u000a atomic force microscopy, corrosion resistance tests, and Raman spectroscopy. These complementary methods were used for a detailed

Salvatore Cusenza; Peter Schaaf

2009-01-01

364

Microstructure/property relationships in dissimilar welds between duplex stainless steels and carbon steels  

SciTech Connect

The metallurgical characteristics, toughness and corrosion resistance of dissimilar welds between duplex stainless steel Alloy 2205 and carbon steel A36 have been evaluated. Both duplex stainless steel ER2209 and Ni-based Alloy 625 filler metals were used to join this combination using a multipass, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Defect-free welds were made with each filler metal. The toughness of both the 625 and 2209 deposits were acceptable, regardless of heat input. A narrow martensitic region with high hardness was observed along the A36/2209 fusion boundary. A similar region was not observed in welds made with the 625 filler metal. The corrosion resistance of the welds made with 2209 filler metal improved with increasing heat input, probably due to higher levels of austenite and reduced chromium nitride precipitation. Welds made with 625 exhibited severe attack in the root pass, while the bulk of the weld was resistant. This investigation has shown that both filler metals can be used to joint carbon steel to duplex stainless steels, but that special precautions may be necessary in corrosive environments.

Barnhouse, E.J. [Weirton Steel Corp., WV (United States); Lippold, J.C. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1998-12-01

365

Structure and mechanical properties of the 03Kh14GNF steel after deformation and annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been shown that the annealing of cold-worked 03Kh14GNF steel is accompanied by several strengthening and softening processes that take place in different temperature intervals. Therefore, the temperature dependence of its hardness has a complicated form; i.e., it contains several maxima and minima. The following processes should be noted: recovery and recrystallization of ? ferrite, precipitation of M 2(CN) carbonitrides and M 23C6 carbides from the ? martensite, their dissolution in the ? phase, the formation of austenite with different stability, polygonization of the ? martensite, etc. Tempering for 30 h can produce the level of mechanical properties required according to technical specifications for two processing regimes. These regimes are the annealing at 680C and at 600C, but in the second case the high plasticity is probably caused by the formation of a highly stable austenite that is retained down to room temperature. However, the degree of plasticity of this ? phase at room and lower temperatures is unknown. After annealing at 660C, the steel does not achieve the level of ultimate strength of 480 N/mm2, which is required by the technical specifications. However, since the relative elongation of 35% exceeds the required magnitude, the required level of mechanical properties can apparently be produced by a decrease in the duration of annealing to 20-25 h.

Shaburov, D. V.; Valitov, V. G.; Mirzaev, D. A.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Kirpichnikov, M. S.; Vetoshkina, T. Yu.

2009-04-01

366

Joining of aluminum alloy to steel by friction stir welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tried to butt-weld an aluminum alloy plate to a mild steel plate by friction stir welding, and investigated the effects of a pin rotation speed, the position for the pin axis to be inserted on the tensile strength and the microstructure of the joint. The behavior of the oxide film on the faying surface of the steel during

Takehiko Watanabe; Hirofumi Takayama; Atsushi Yanagisawa

2006-01-01

367

Microstructure-mechanical properties correlation of irradiated conventional and reduced-activation martensitic steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tensile, Charpy, and transmission electron microscopy specimens of two conventional steels, modified 9Cr sbnd 1Mo (9Cr sbnd 1MoVNb) and Sandvik HT9 (12Cr sbnd 1MoVW), and two reduced-activation steels, Fe sbnd 9Cr sbnd 2W-0.25V-0.1C (9Cr sbnd 2WV) and Fe sbnd 9Cr sbnd 2W sbnd 0.25V sbnd 0.07V sbnd 0.07Ta sbnd Ta sbnd 0.1C (9Cr sbnd 2WVTa), were irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility. Before irradiation, M 23C 6 was the primary precipitate in all four steels, which also contained some MC. Neutron irradiation did not substantially alter the M 23C 6 and MC. No new phases formed during irradiated of the 9Cr sbnd and 9Cr sbnd WVTa, but chi-phase precipitated in the 9Cr sbnd 1MoVNb and chi-phase and ?' precipitated in the 12Cr sbnd 1MoVW. Irradiation-produced dislocation loops formed in the 9Cr sbnd 2WV, 9Cr sbnd 2WVTa, and 12Cr sbnd 1MoVW The microstructural changes caused the steels to harden, as measured by the change in yield stress. Hardening was correlated with a change in the Charpy impact properties of the 9Cr sbnd 1MoVNb, 12Cr sbnd 1MoVW, and 9Cr sbnd 2WV. Although irradiation caused a yield stress increase in 9Cr sbnd 2WVTa similar to that for the 9Cr sbnd 2WV and 9Cr sbnd 1MoVNb, the change in Charphy properties was considerably less for the 9Cr sbnd 2WVTa. This different in Charpy behavior of the 9Cr sbnd 2WVTa with that of the 9Cr sbnd 2WV and 9Cr sbnd 1MoVNb was attributed to differences in the fracture stress-temperature relationship and/or the flow stress-temperature relationship between the 9Cr sbnd 2WVTa and the other two 9Cr steels.

Klueh, R. L.; Kai, Ji-Jung; Alexander, D. J.

1995-08-01

368

Effects of plastic deformations on microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS-310 austenitic steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ODS-310 austenitic steel (Fe-25Cr-20Ni-0.35Y2O3-0.5Ti) was fabricated by the process of mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing. Plastic deformations, including forging and hot rolling, were applied to the as-hipped samples to improve the ductility. Microstructural evolutions in samples under different fabrication conditions were characterized by TEM. Tensile properties were tested at 23 C and 700 C. Dispersed oxide particles with sizes between 10 nm and 50 nm were characterized to be rich in Y-Ti-O. UTS and elongation of the as-hipped sample were 904 MPa and 11% respectively at 23 C. Elongation increased two times after plastic deformations while there was only slight decrease in strength properties.

Wang, Man; Zhou, Zhangjian; Sun, Hongying; Hu, Helong; Li, Shaofu

2012-11-01

369

Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir processed ODS ferritic steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are considered to be one of the candidate structural materials for advanced blanket systems because of its excellent properties in fusion environments. For more applications of the ODS steels to fusion systems with a huge and complex structure, development of joining technologies is a key issue to be solved. To reserve nano-oxide particles in the matrix homogeneously, the friction stir welding (FSW) is a suitable way to get good welding characteristics as a solid-state processing technique. In this research, effects of friction stir processing (FSP) on microstructure and mechanical properties of a ODS steel were studied to apply FSW process to ODS steels. The microstructure of FSPed ODS steel consists of stirred zone (SZ) and base metal (BM), as reported for other ferritic steels. Although equiaxed grain coarsening occurred through dynamic recrystallization during FSP, the nano-oxide particles in SZ showed fewer change in the size distribution. This resulted that FSP is effective to suppress the anisotropy and minimize the change of nano-oxide particles dispersion morphologies of ODS steel.

Noh, Sanghoon; Kasada, Ryuta; Kimura, Akihiko; Park, Seung Hwan C.; Hirano, Satoshi

2011-10-01

370

Effect of tool geometry on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir lap welded magnesium alloy and steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of tool geometry on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir lap welded AZ31 Mg alloy (top sheet) and steel (zinc coated steel and brushed finish steel) sheets was studied. Tools with two different probe lengths were used in this study. The microstructure at the joining interface, the failure loads and the fracture locations of the joints varied

Y. C. Chen; K. Nakata

2009-01-01

371

Recent developments in the study of phase stability of austenitic stainless steels and its relation to properties  

SciTech Connect

Much work has been done over the years in alloy development of stainless steels and in the characterization of stainless steel microstructures and properties. However, in recent years there have been significant new advances made, and insights gained, into the physical metallurgy of these materials. In particular, advanced techniques have led to new information on the phase stability of stainless steels and the influence of the phase stability on mechanical properties. This paper will highlight some of these new advances, with an emphasis on work that has been done at ORNL on these alloys. For stainless steel alloys, the phase stability can be influenced by several factors. They include solidification behavior, the ferrite/austenite solid-state transformation, other high temperature phase transformations, and low temperature phase transformations. Recent advances in theoretical and experimental methods have led to new developments in understanding and characterizing these factors. Advanced solidification theory has been applied to understand the influence of rapid solidification on phase formation during solidification. New thermodynamic evaluation methods have shown great potential in providing details on the overall phase stability, including details on the influence of composition on phase stability. finite-difference techniques have been applied to the stainless steel alloy system to gain much insight into the ferrite/austenite transformation behavior. Finally, advanced techniques such as analytical electron microscopy, atom probe field ion microscopy, nano-indentation techniques, and specimen miniaturization techniques have provided valuable information on the response of stainless steel microstructures and properties to thermal treatment. All of these new methods and approaches are described in detail in this presentation.

Vitek, J.M.; David, S.A.

1995-12-31

372

Microstructure and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels after cold rolling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of austenite stability on the evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of three austenitic stainless\\u000a steels during cold rolling has been studied. Samples of different grain sizes have been used to characterize the microstructures\\u000a during deformation. In the case of 304\\/8% Ni and 304\\/10% Ni stainless steels, the transformation microstructures consist of\\u000a mechanical twins: ?-martensite and ??-martensite. No

M. Hadji; R. Badji

2002-01-01

373

Mechanical properties of steel fiber-reinforced, high-strength, lightweight concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents basic information on the mechanical properties of steel fiber-reinforced, high-strength, lightweight concrete with compressive and flexural strengths up to 85.4 MPa and 11.8 MPa, respectively. The influence of steel fiber on modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of concrete are investigated, and flexural fracture toughness is calculated. Test results show that the effect of fiber volume fraction

Jianming Gao; Wei Sun; Keiji Morino

1997-01-01

374

Mechanical properties of steel fibre reinforced lightweight concrete with pumice stone or expanded clay aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents basic information on the mechanical properties of steel fibre-reinforced light-weight concrete, manufactured\\u000a using pumice stone or expanded clay aggregates. Results are presented for standard compressive tests and indirect tensile\\u000a tests (splitting tests on cylinder specimens and flexure tests on prismatic beams using a three-point loading arrangement)\\u000a under monotonically increasing or cyclically varying loads. The influence of steel

G. Campione; N. Miraglia; M. Papia

2001-01-01

375

Stress corrosion cracking properties of 15-5PH steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unexpected occurrence of failures, due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of structural components, indicate a need for improved characterization of materials and more advanced analytical procedures for reliably predicting structures performance. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine the stress corrosion susceptibility of 15-5PH steel over a wide range of applied strain rates in a highly corrosive environment. The selected environment for this investigation was a highly acidified sodium chloride (NaCl) aqueous solution. The selected alloy for the study was a 15-5PH steel in the H900 condition. The slow strain rate technique was selected to test the metals specimens.

Rosa, Ferdinand

1993-01-01

376

Tensile properties of welded or sensitized 316 stainless steel in high-pressure hydrogen gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of high-pressure hydrogen gas on the tensile properties of welded or sensitized 316 stainless steel was studied to find out if hydrogen embrittlement occurs. Tensile tests on unnotched and notched specimens in air, 70-MPa helium, and 70-MPa hydrogen were conducted, using the air test results as baseline tensile properties. Results show that all specimens had good ductilities and

E. L. Raymond; R. R. Vandervoort

1976-01-01

377

THE EFFECTS OF NEUTRON IRRADIATION ON THE PROPERTIES OF IRON AND STEELE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principle mechanisms of radiation damage in nonfissile metals are ; summarized, and the terms used in irradiation experiments defined. Neutron ; irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of single and polycrystalline ; pure iron are described, and the effects on the properties of ferritic and ; austenitic steels are given. The extent to which the exchanges in mechanical ;

Harries

1960-01-01

378

Fatigue-Fracture Properties of a Semi-Austenitic Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fatigue and fracture toughness properties were determined for STA 60 precipitation hardening stainless steel used in the structure of the 105-mm Light Gun. Fatigue properties (S-N crack for initiation and da/dN versus crack growth rate) and fracture tough...

R. Farrara

1988-01-01

379

Mechanical properties of laser-pressure-welded joint between dissimilar galvannealed steel and pure aluminium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissimilar metal joints of Zn-coated Galvannealed steel (GA steel) and commercially available pure aluminium (A1050) sheets were produced by changing the laser power and the roller pressure by the laser pressure welding method. By this method, the YAG laser beam was irradiated into a flare groove made by these dissimilar metal sheets. In addition, the laser beam was scanned at

Koji Nishimoto; Tomoki Harano; Yoshihiro Okumoto; Ken Atagi; Hiroo Fujii; Seiji Katayama

2009-01-01

380

Recycling zinc by dezincing steel scrap  

SciTech Connect

In response to the worldwide increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last fifteen years, and the increased cost of environmental compliance associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The designed ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested in Hamilton, Ontario for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant in East Chicago, Indiana has designed in a continuous process mode 900 tonnes of loose stamping plant scrap; this scrap typically has residual zinc below 0.1% and sodium dragout below 0.001%. This paper reviews pilot plant performance and the economics of recycling galvanized steel and recovering zinc using a caustic process.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States)

1995-06-01

381

Physical and mechanical properties of cast 17-4 PH stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The physical and mechanical properties of an overaged 17-4 PH stainless steel casting have been examined. The tensile and compressive properties of cast 17-4 PH are only influenced to a slight degree by changing test temperature and strain rate. However, both the Charpy impact energy and dynamic fracture toughness exhibit a tough-to-brittle transition with decreasing temperature - this transition being related to a change in fracture mode from ductile, dimple to cleavage-like. Finally, although the overaged 17-4 PH casting had a relatively low room temperature Charpy impact energy when compared to wrought 17-4 PH, its fracture toughness was at least comparable to that of wrought 17-4 PH. This observation suggests that prior correlations between Charpy impact energies and fracture toughness, as derived from wrought materials, must be approached with caution when applied to cast alloys.

Rack, H. J.

1981-02-01

382

Effect of stress relief annealing temperature and atmosphere on the magnetic properties of silicon steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fully processed non-oriented silicon steel samples 0.50 mm thick were sheared and submitted to stress relief annealing under different conditions of temperature and atmosphere to investigate the effect of this treatment on the recovery of magnetic properties. Two different compositions were used, with different Si and Al contents. Temperature was varied in the range of 600-900 C and four atmospheres were used: N 2 and N 2+10%H 2 combined with dew points of -10 and 15 C. The results showed that annealing atmosphere has very important effect on the magnetic properties and that the beneficial effect of stress relief annealing can be overcome by the detrimental effect of the atmosphere under certain conditions, due to oxidation and nitration.

Paolinelli, Sebastio C.; da Cunha, Marco A.

2006-09-01

383

Influence of neutron irradiation at 55/sup 0/C on the properties of austenitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Types 316 and 316 + 0.23 wt % Ti stainless steels and 16-8-2 weldment were irradiated in HFIR at 55/sup 0/C to fluences up to 1.35 x 10/sup 26/ neutrons/m/sup 2/ (< 0.1 MeV), which produced up to 10.5 dpa and 520 at. ppM He. Examination showed no swelling, no cavities, no precipitates, but a high concentration of dislocations. Tensile tests showed large increases in the 35/sup 0/C strength properties, with the weldments the weakest of the materials. The ductility of all materials was reduced by the irradiation, the uniform elongation to only 0.4% in the cold-worked material. Tests at temperatures above the irradiation temperature showed an approach to unirradiated properties as the temperature was increased from 200 to 600/sup 0/C. Helium embrittlement at 700/sup 0/C severely reduced elongation.

Wiffen, F.W.; Maziasz, P.J.

1981-01-01

384

Thermophysical Properties of a Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Steel in the Solid and Liquid Phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulation of vacuum arc re-melting, pressurized or protective electro-slag re-melting, and ingot casting have become quite important in the metal industry. However, a major drawback of these simulation techniques is the lack of accurate thermophysical properties for temperatures above 1,500 K. Heat capacity, heat of fusion, density, and thermal conductivity are important input parameters for the heat transfer equation. Since, direct measurements of thermal conductivity of alloys in the liquid state are almost impossible, its estimation from electrical conductivity using the Wiedemann Franz law is very useful. The afore-mentioned thermophysical properties of several steels are investigated within the context of an ongoing project. Here, we present a full set of thermophysical data for the chromium nickel molybdenum steel meeting the standard DIN 1.4435 (X2CrNiMo18-14-3); these values will be used by our partner to simulate various re-melting and solidification processes. Wire-shaped samples of the steel are resistively volume-heated, as part of a fast capacitor discharge circuit. Time-resolved measurements with sub-?s resolution of current through the specimen are performed with a Pearson probe. The voltage drop across the specimen is measured with knife-edge contacts and ohmic voltage dividers, the temperature of the sample with a pyrometer, and the volumetric expansion of the wire with a fast acting CCD camera. These measurements enable the heat of fusion, the heat capacity, and the electrical resistivity to be determined as a function of temperature in the solid and liquid phases. The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are estimated via the Wiedemann Franz law.

Wilthan, B.; Reschab, H.; Tanzer, R.; Schtzenhfer, W.; Pottlacher, Gernot

2008-02-01

385

Numerical Experiment on Flexural Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the laboratory experiment of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC), a total of 10 specimens have been designed according to the aggregate interface condition, steel fiber ratios and different-strength concrete. These specimens were computed by MFPA2D in micro-structure level. Comparing the result of SFRC with plain concrete beams, this paper validated the positive effect of steel fiber in crack-resistant

C. Q. Fu; X. Y. Jin; N. G. Jin

2009-01-01

386

Effect of annealing prior to cold rolling on magnetic and mechanical properties of low carbon non-oriented electrical steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of annealing prior to cold rolling on the microstructure, magnetic and mechanical properties of low-C grain non-oriented (GNO) electrical steels have been investigated. The grain structure of hot-rolled electrical steel strips is modified by annealing at temperatures between 700 and 1050 C. Annealing at temperatures less than the ferrite to austenite+ferrite transformation temperature on heating (Ac 1) causes a marginal effect on the grain size. However, annealing in the intercritical region at temperatures between Ac 1 and Ac 3 (the ferrite+austenite to austenite transformation temperature on heating) causes rapid decarburization and development of large columnar ferrite grains free of carbide particles. This microstructure leads, after cold rolling and a fast annealing treatment, to carbide free, large ferrite grain microstructures with magnetic and mechanical properties superior to those observed typically in the same steel in the industrially fully processed condition. These results are attributed to the increment in grain size and to the {1 0 0} fiber texture developed during the final annealing at temperatures up to 850 C. Annealing at higher temperatures, T>Ac 3, results in a strong {1 1 1} fiber texture and an increase of the quantity of second phase particles present in the microstructure, which lead to a negative effect on the final properties. The results suggest that annealing prior to cold rolling offers an attractive alternative processing route for the manufacture of fully processed low C GNO electrical steels strips.

Gutirrez-Castaeda, E. J.; Salinas-Rodrguez, A.

2011-10-01

387

Properties of duplex coatings prepared by plasma nitriding and PVD TiC:H deposition on X20Cr13 ferritic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplex-coating procedures consisting of plasma nitriding and MeC:H hard coating lead to an improved performance of the devices because the MeC:H coating is supported by the nitrided phase and, therefore, the `eggshell-effect' is avoided. Furthermore, this support leads to a higher load-bearing capacity of the thin film. Two standard procedures (classical high-pressure plasma nitriding and unbalanced magnetron sputtering of TiC:H)

T. Michler; M Grischke; K Bewilogua; H Dimigen

1998-01-01

388

Effects of Post Quenching on Mechanical Properties of TiN Film Coated on Steel Substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon tool steel substrates were quenched after TiN coating by dc magnetron sputtering, and the effects of substrate post-quenching on the mechanical properties of TiN films were investigated. The residual stress of TiN film was decreased by substrate post-quenching, and the hardness of TiN film also decreased. On the other hand, the adhesive strength determined by the scratch test and the substrate hardness were improved by substrate post-quenching. The improvement in the adhesive strength could be explained by the following three effects of substrate post-quenching: decrease of residual stress, increase in substrate hardness, and the formation of a diffusion layer between the film and the substrate caused by the elevated temperature in substrate post-quenching.

Tanabe, Hirotaka; Miyoshi, Yoshio; Takamatsu, Tohru; Sagara, Shuichi; Inoue, Eiichi; Kondo, Kazuo

389

Heat treatment of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel: Part I. Mechanical properties and microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel heat-treated to various conditions was studied using light\\u000a and electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and M?ssbauer spectroscopy. The mechanical properties were investigated\\u000a by using uniaxial tensile testing, hardness testing, and Charpy impact testing. The?-NiAl strengthening precipitates, though detectable by electron diffraction, were difficult to resolve by transmission electron\\u000a microscopy (TEM)

P. W. Hochanadel; G. R. Edwards; C. V. Robino; M. J. Cieslak

1994-01-01

390

Heat treatment of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel: Part I. Mechanical properties and microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel heat-treated to various conditions was studied using light and electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and Mssbauer spectroscopy. The mechanical properties were investigated by using uniaxial tensile testing, hardness testing, and Charpy impact testing. The Beta-NiAl strengthening precipitates, though detectable by electron diffraction, were difficult to resolve by transmission electron microscopy

P. W. Hochanadel; G. R. Edwards; C. V. Robino; M. J. Cieslak

1994-01-01

391

Welding of Nb Micro-Alloyed Steel by the Submerged Arc Process Using Brazilian Consumables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A set of procedures was established for welding of Nb micro-alloyed steel by the submerged arc process, using national consumables, in order to simultaneously achieve a more economic welding and better mechanical properties. From all the wire-flux combina...

A. Scotti A. M. Quites

1982-01-01

392

Metal-induced embrittlement of low-carbon steel by indium in association with tellurium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid metal embrittlement is harmful to mechanical properties such as ductility and toughness, and thus, should be prevented. However, there is one case for which liquid metal embrittlement is useful: it is believed to be at least one of the machinability improvement mechanisms by Pb and Bi in steel and Al alloys. It is known that tellurium compounds, such as

Yaguchi; Hiroshi

1993-01-01

393

Surface enhancement of cold work tool steels by friction stir processing with a pinless tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure and mechanical properties of enhanced tool steel (AISI D2) surfaces produced using a friction stir welding (FSW) related procedure, called friction stir processing (FSP), are analysed in this work. The surface of the tool steel samples was processed using a WC-Co pinless tool and varying processing conditions. Microstructural analysis revealed that meanwhile the original substrate structure consisted of a heterogeneous distribution of coarse carbides in a ferritic matrix, the transformed surfaces consisted of very small carbides, homogenously distributed in a ferrite- bainite- martensite matrix. The morphology of the surfaces, as well as its mechanical properties, evaluated by hardness and tensile testing, were found to vary with increasing tool rotation speed. Surface hardness was drastically increased, relative to the initial hardness of bulk steel. This was attributed to ferrite and carbide refinement, as well as to martensite formation during solid state processing. At the highest rotation rates, tool sliding during processing deeply compromised the characteristics of the processed surfaces.

Costa, M. I.; Verdera, D.; Vieira, M. T.; Rodrigues, D. M.

2014-03-01

394

Calculated hardenability for improved consistency of properties in heat treatable engineering steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardenability is one of the most important parameters controlling the heat treated properties of engineering steels. It affects the consistency of response for microstructure, hardness, strength, toughness, and dimensional change (distortion). This study illustrates that a major benefit of controlling hardenability is improving the consistency of dimensional distortion resulting from heat treatment. To facilitate the supply of steels to hardenability limits, especially restricted hardenability, a new technique was developed for the prediction of Jominy hardenability from chemical composition. The technique, termed the Database Method, uses measured Jominy hardenability and chemical composition data, contained in a database, to calculate the hardenability for a query composition. Using up to ten known steels, selected from the database with compositions closely matching that of the query steel, a small adjustment is made to the measured hardenability of each known steel allowing for the small difference in composition between the query and chosen steel. The final calculated result for the query steel is taken as the average of the various estimates. The basis of the Database Method is explained, and the advantages are illustrated for selecting engineering grades.

Cook, W. T.; Morris, P. F.; Woollard, L.

1997-08-01

395

Predicting properties and minimizing residual stress in quenched steel parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quenching refers to the process of rapidly cooling metal parts from the austenitizing or solution treating temperature, typically\\u000a in the range of 845 to 870C (1550 to 1600F) for carbon and low alloy steels, for the purpose of forming martensite. Several\\u000a factors determine whether a particular part can be successfully hardened, including the type, molecular weight, and thermal\\u000a characteristics of

C. E. Bates

1988-01-01

396

Mechanical properties of friction stir welded 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Friction stir welding was applied to the wrapper tube materials, 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel, designed for fast reactors and defect-free welds were successfully produced. The mechanical and microstructural properties of the friction stir welded steel were subsequently investigated. The hardness values of the stir zone were approximately 550 Hv (5.4 GPa) with minimal dependence on the rotational speed, even though they were much higher than those of the base material. However, tensile strengths and elongations of the stir zones were high at 298 K, compared to those of the base material. The excellent tensile properties are attributable to the fine grain formation during friction stir welding.

Yano, Y.; Sato, Y. S.; Sekio, Y.; Ohtsuka, S.; Kaito, T.; Ogawa, R.; Kokawa, H.

2013-11-01

397

Correlations between mechanical properties and cavitation erosion resistance for stainless steels with 12% Chromium and variable contents of Nickel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The running time of hydraulic machineries in cavitation conditions, especially blades and runners, depend on both chemical composition and mechanical properties of the used steels. The researches of the present paper have as goal to obtain new materials with improved behavior and reduced costs. There are given cavitation erosion results upon eight cast steels with martensite as principal structural constituent. The chromium content was maintained constant at approximate 12% but the nickel content was largely modified. The change of chemical content resulted in various proportions of austenite, martensite and ferrite and also in different cavitation erosion behavior. From the eight tested steels four have greater carbon content (approximately 0.1%) and the other four less carbon content (approximate 0.036%). All steels were tested separately in two laboratory facilities: T1 with magnetostrictive nickel tube (vibration amplitude 94 ?m, vibration frequency 7000 3% Hz, specimen diameter 14 mm and generator power 500 W) and T2 is respecting the ASTM G32-2010 Standard (vibration amplitude 50?m, vibration frequency 20000 1% Hz, specimen diameter 15.8 mm and generator power 500 W). Analyzing the results it can be seen that the cavitation erosion is correlated with the mechanical properties in the way shown in 1960 by Hammitt and Garcia but is influenced by the structural constituents.

Bordeasu, I.; Popoviciu, M. O.; Mitelea, I.; Ghiban, B.; Ghiban, N.; Sava, M.; Duma, S. T.; Badarau, R.

2014-03-01

398

10. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST SPAN THROUGH CANAL, VIEW BLOCKED BY STEEL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST SPAN THROUGH CANAL, VIEW BLOCKED BY STEEL, CLAD COUNTER WEIGHT, WATER SPAN RAISED OUT OF VIEW - Cape Cod Canal Lift Bridge, Spanning Cape Cod Canal, Buzzards Bay, Barnstable County, MA

399

Stainless-steel elbows formed by spin forging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large seamless austenitic stainless steel elbows are fabricated by spin forging /rotary shear forming/. A specially designed spin forging tool for mounting on a hydrospin machine has been built for this purpose.

1964-01-01

400

Machinability of a Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Discharge Microdrilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the chemical elements included in their structure for ensuring an increased resistance to the environment action, the stainless steels are characterized by a low machinability when classical machining methods are applied. For this reason, sometimes non-traditional machining methods are applied, one of these being the electrochemical discharge machining. To obtain microholes and to evaluate the machinability by electrochemical discharge microdrilling, test pieces of stainless steel were used for experimental research. The electrolyte was an aqueous solution of sodium silicate with different densities. A complete factorial plan was designed to highlight the influence of some input variables on the sizes of the considered machinability indexes (electrode tool wear, material removal rate, depth of the machined hole). By mathematically processing of experimental data, empirical functions were established both for stainless steel and carbon steel. Graphical representations were used to obtain more suggestive vision concerning the influence exerted by the considered input variables on the size of the machinability indexes.

Cotea??, Margareta; Schulze, Hans-Peter; Pop, Nicolae; Be?liu, Irina; Sl?tineanu, Lauren?iu

2011-05-01

401

Effect of chromium content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of multipass MMA, low alloy steel weld metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of chromium content in the range of 0.050.91wt% on the microstructure and mechanical properties of CrNiCu low alloy\\u000a steel weld metal was investigated. All welds were prepared by manual metal arc welding technique in flat position. Microstructure\\u000a of the welds was examined by optical and scanning electron microscope in both columnar and reheated regions of the weld metal.\\u000a The

M. H. Avazkonandeh-Gharavol; M. Haddad-Sabzevar; A. Haerian

2009-01-01

402

Effect of reversion of strain induced martensite on microstructure and mechanical properties in an austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of reversion of strain induced ?? martensite on mechanical properties of an austenitic stainless steel has been examined.\\u000a The ?? martensite formed by cold rolling (40%) at 0C has been reverted to austenite by carrying out annealing in the temperature\\u000a range of 300800C for 1h. Microstructural investigation has demonstrated the enhanced reversion with increasing annealing\\u000a temperature without any perceptible

S. K. GhoshP; P. Mallick; P. P. Chattopadhyay

2011-01-01

403

Effects of deep cryogenic treatment on static mechanical properties of 18NiCrMo5 carburized steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In consideration of the raising interest about the application of the deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) on materials, its effects on the static mechanical properties of a commercial gear carburized steel (18NiCrMo5) are investigated through hardness and tensile tests followed by optical fractographic observations. The present study focuses on the comparison between the results given by different sequences of DCT and

Paolo Baldissera; Cristiana Delprete

2009-01-01

404

Influence of alloy elements on the properties of manganese steels in the 2934K temperature range  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.With an increase in manganese and carbon contents in austenitic Fe-C-Mn steels their mechanical properties at temperatures of 293 to 4K increase and the magnetic permeability decreases.2.Alloying of Fe-C-Mn steels with chromium leads to a significant reduction in their magnetic permeability, but sharp embrittlement at cryogenic temperatures occurs.3.Aluminum has a favorable influence on the mechanical properties of Fe-C-Mn steels but

B. S. Ermakov; V. G. Khoroshailov

1985-01-01

405

Effects of dynamic impact on mechanical properties and microstructure of special stainless steel weldments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in weld metal microstructure after impact at different strain rates for three weld metals, SAF 2507 DSS, SAF 2205 DSS and 254 SMO steel, are addressed. The twin grain forms that appear inside the ? grain of duplex stainless steel at low impact strain rates may be caused by adiabatic heat. The needle-like or thick streak-like twins occur in

Wuan-Yun Hsiao; Shing-Hoa Wang; Chih-Yuan Chen; Jer-Ren Yang; Woei-Shyan Lee

2008-01-01

406

Fatigue properties of Ti-based hard coatings deposited onto tool steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

During cold forming processes like deep drawing of steel sheets, tools are subjected to various loads. Besides adhesion, abrasion and tribo-oxidation, successive impacts during forming induce Hertzian contact pressures and cause fatigue failure. The aim of this work is to evaluate different hard coatings deposited by PACVD and magnetron sputtering onto tool steels with respect to adhesion and fatigue. The

M. Stoiber; M. Panzenbck; C. Mitterer; C. Lugmair

2001-01-01

407

Increasing the ductility of martensitic steels by heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The toughness of nickel, stainless, and complex alloyed martensitic steels at room and cryogenic temperatures can be increased by stabilizing 10\\\\2-25% austenite in a dispersed state.2.A large amount of stable austenite can be obtained in Fe\\\\t-Ni, Fe\\\\t-Cr\\\\t-Ni, and other martensitic steels by heating them 30\\\\2-80\\\\dg above the beginning temperature of the reverse transformation for long periods (2\\\\2-3 h).With increasing nickel

V. I. Kozlovskaya; Ya. M. Potak; Yu. F. Orzhekhovskii

1969-01-01

408

Thermal spraying of a nitrogen alloyed austenitic steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel coatings provide an alternative to protect steel surfaces against corrosive attack. The 316 L stainless steel coatings have been conventionally produced by different spraying processes for such applications. Because the nitrogen alloyed stainless steels exhibit not only superior mechanical properties, but also better corrosion behaviour than conventional stainless steels, in this study the coatings of a nitrogen alloyed

Lidong Zhao; Matthias Maurer; Erich Lugscheider

2003-01-01

409

Electro-mechanical coupling of semiconductor film grown on stainless steel by oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electro-mechanical coupling phenomenon in oxidation film on stainless steel has been discovered by using current-sensing atomic force microscopy, along with the I-V curves measurements. The oxidation films exhibit either ohmic, n-type, or p-type semiconductor properties, according to the obtained I-V curves. This technique allows characterizing oxidation films with high spatial resolution. Semiconductor properties of oxidation films must be considered as additional stress corrosion cracking mechanisms.

Lin, M. C.; Wang, G.; Guo, L. Q.; Qiao, L. J.; Volinsky, Alex A.

2013-09-01

410

The microstructural, mechanical, and fracture properties of austenitic stainless steel alloyed with gallium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical and fracture properties of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) alloyed with gallium require assessment in order to determine the likelihood of premature storage-container failure following Ga uptake. AISI 304 L SS was cast with 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 wt pct Ga. Increased Ga concentration promoted duplex microstructure formation with the ferritic phase having a nearly identical composition to the austenitic phase. Room-temperature tests indicated that small additions of Ga (less than 3 wt pct) were beneficial to the mechanical behavior of 304 L SS but that 12 wt pct Ga resulted in a 95 pct loss in ductility. Small additions of Ga are beneficial to the cracking resistance of stainless steel. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis indicated that 3 wt pct Ga alloys showed the greatest resistance to crack initiation and propagation as measured by fatigue crack growth rate, fracture toughness, and tearing modulus. The 12 wt pct Ga alloys were least resistant to crack initiation and propagation and these alloys primarily failed by transgranular cleavage. It is hypothesized that Ga metal embrittlement is partially responsible for increased embrittlement.

Kolman, D. G.; Bingert, J. F.; Field, R. D.

2004-11-01

411

Mechanical and metallurgical properties of ion-nitrided austenitic-stainless steel welds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion nitriding is an operation widely used in industry to harden materials surface. Nowadays, friction welding is one of the special welding methods used for welding the same or different kinds of materials. Especially in industry, it can be necessary to use materials after having operated them with different techniques or to use materials obtained by different manufacturing techniques. Investigating the mechanical and metallurgical properties of this kind of materials can be crucial. In this study, austenitic-stainless steel was used as an experimental material. Additionally, the samples of austenitic stainless steel with a diameter of 10 mm were joined by friction welding. The samples were subjected to ion nitriding process at 550 C for 24 and 60 h. Then, tensile, fatigue, notch-impact and hardness tests were applied to the weldless and welded parts, and metallographic examinations were carried out. It was found that chromium and iron nitrides precipitated along the grain boundaries and in the middle of the grains. Spectrum patterns revealed that the most dominant phases resulted from the formation of CrN, Fe4N and Fe3N. However, the tests revealed that high temperature and longer time of ion nitriding caused a decrease in the values of fatigue and tensile strengths as well as in the notch-impact toughness in the ion nitrided joints.

etinarslan, C. S.; Sahin, M.; Karaman Gen, S.; Sevil, C.

2012-12-01

412

Characterization of Micro/Nano Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Polymeric Coatings Deposited on Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to characterize the mechanical and tribological properties of three different polymeric coatings---polyurethane, 2K, and melamine---deposited on steel by analyzing the hardness, elastic modulus, and scratch resistance of each coating. This was accomplished by making indentation and scratch tests on each sample with a nano-indenter and analyzing the results with a Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM). Results of indentation tests show that melamine, with a hardness of 0.164 GPa and a modulus of 3.367 GPa, was both the hardest and stiffest of the three coatings, while the 2K coating, with a hardness of .104 GPa and a modulus of 2.721 GPa, was both the softest and most flexible. Scratch test results showed that the highest average critical load, at which the adhesion to the substrate steel failed, was 100.03 mN for the 2K coating, thus indicating that the 2K coating had the greater adhesion strength.

Neill, Dustin

413

Influence of reverted austenite on static and dynamic mechanical properties of a PH 13-8 Mo maraging steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maraging steels are martensitic hardenable steels exhibiting an excellent combination of high strength and adequate toughness. Beside the intermetallic precipitates, reverted austenite, formed during aging, is a decisive microstructural constituent. Static tensile tests showed a pronounced influence of its phase fraction on mechanical properties. Reverted austenite also exhibits a distinctive effect on dynamic properties which were investigated on a split-Hopkinson-pressure-bar.

Ronald Schnitzer; Gerald A. Zickler; Erhardt Lach; Helmut Clemens; Silvia Zinner; Thomas Lippmann; Harald Leitner

2010-01-01

414

Use of the computer simulation to predict mechanical properties of C-Mn steel, after thermomechanical processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the paper is to demonstrate the ability of a computer simulation to analyse the development of microstructure and finally to the predict mechanical properties of C-Mn steels. The microstructure of ferrite is the main parameter which controls the mechanical properties of steels after hot deformation. This microstructure depends on the grain size and morphology of austenite just

J. Majta; R. Kuziak; M. Pietrzyk; H. Krzton

1996-01-01

415

Corrosion monitoring of different steels by thin layer activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For corrosion monitoring, the behavior of various steels (Sanicro 28, AISI 316 L, SAF 2507) and a carbon steel were investigated\\u000a by thin layer activation (TLA) in acid solutions containing chloride. A loop system with a sample holder as well as a temperature\\u000a and a flow control device were used in laboratory tests. Experimental parameters like fluid temperature, H2SO4 concentration

G. Laguzzi; L. Luvidi; N. De Cristofaro; M. F. Stroosnijder

2004-01-01

416

Surface hardening of low-carbon martensitic steels by boronizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large group of low-carbon martensitic steels developed recently possesses some advantages that make them widely applicable\\u000a in the industry. The main merit of these steels consists in the possibility of deformation-free quenching in air and welding\\u000a in a nonheat-treated state. These features are accompanied by a deep hardenability and high strength characteristics of the\\u000a products and semiproducts. However, when

A. S. Ivanov; A. N. Sokolov

1998-01-01

417

Influence of coating thickness and temperature on mechanical properties of steel deposited with Co-based alloy hardfacing coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardfacing is widely used to improve the performance of components exposed to severe service conditions. In this paper, this surface modification was evaluated for heat-resistance steel DIN X45CrSi9-3 deposited with Co-based alloy Stellite 12 by the plasma-transferred arc welding (PTAW). The microscopic properties of the deposition coating, including the microstructure, the chemical phases, and the distribution of element, were first

Hongxia Deng; Huiji Shi; Seiji Tsuruoka

2010-01-01

418

Boriding response of AISI W1 steel and use of artificial neural network for prediction of borided layer properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, boriding response of AISI W1 steel and prediction of boride layer properties were investigated by using artificial neural network (ANN). Boronizing heat treatment was carried out in a solid medium consisting of Ekabor-I powders at 8501050 C at 50 C intervals for 18 h. The substrate used in this study was AISI W1. The presence of

Kenan Genel; Ibrahim Ozbek; Akif Kurt; Cuma Bindal

2002-01-01

419

Effect of rare earths on mechanical properties of plasma nitrocarburized surface layer of 17-4PH steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation is to reveal the influence of rare earths (RE) addition on mechanical properties of plasma nitrocarburized 17-4PH steel. The nitrocarburized layers were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer, X-ray diffractometer, microhardness tester and pin-on-disc tribometer. The results showed that RE atoms could diffuse into the surface layer of

Ruiliang LIU; Mufu YAN; Danlei WU

2009-01-01

420

Sigma phase precipitation and properties of super-duplex stainless steel UNS S32750 aged at the nose temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nose temperature for ?-phase precipitation in super-duplex stainless steel (SDSS) UNS S32750 was evaluated by hardness method. Color-optical microscopy,\\u000a scanning electron microscopy, energy spectrum analysis, impact and corrosion testing were carried out to investigate characteristics\\u000a of microstructure and properties of the SDSS aged at the nose temperature. The experimental results indicate that the nose\\u000a temperature of precipitation is 920

Dening Zou; Ying Han; Wei Zhang; Junhui Yu

2011-01-01

421

Effect of rotational speed on the interface properties of friction-welded AISI 304L to 4340 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate experimentally the interface properties in terms of rotational speed in friction-welded AISI 304L to AISI 4340 alloy steel. Friction welding was conducted with five different rotational speeds using a direct-drive type friction welding machine. Friction pressure, forging pressure, friction time and forging time are fixed. The integrity of joints was investigated by

N. zdemir; F. Sars?lmaz; A. Hasal?k

2007-01-01

422

The effect of tempering temperature on the mechanical properties and fracture morphology of a NiCrMoV steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focuses on the mechanical properties and the fracture morphology of a NiCrMoV steel with a specific composition. All specimens were austenitized at 870C for 1h, followed by oil quenching, and then tempered at temperatures in the range of 200600C. The results of tensile testing indicated that the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) decreased with

A. Salemi; A. Abdollah-zadeh

2008-01-01

423

Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of burnished X5CrNi 18-9 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: In this paper there were presented the burnishing process and obtained mechanical properties and the structure of burnished stainless steel and its corrosion resistance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: Burnishing was conducted in standard milling machine equipped with the 2-ball rotation head. The structural and mechanical researches were carried out by optical microscopy and the X-ray diffraction patterns. The corrosion research was performed

K. Pa?ka; A. Wero?ski; K. Zaleski

424

Role of quaternary additions on dislocated martensite, retain austenite and mechanical properties of Fe\\/Cr\\/C structural steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of quaternary alloy additions of Mn and Ni to Fe\\/Cr\\/C steels which have been designed to provide superior mechanical properties has been investigated. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray analysis revealed increasing amounts of retained austenite with Mn up to 2 w\\/o and with 5 w\\/o Ni additions after quenching from 1100°C. This is accompanied by a corresponding improvement

Rao; B. V. N

1978-01-01

425

Electrochemical codeposition of sol-gel films on stainless steel: controlling the chemical and physical coating properties of biomedical implants.  

PubMed

The electrochemically assisted codeposition of sol-gel thin films on stainless steel is described. Specifically, electrodeposition of films based on aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS), and its codeposition with propyltrimethoxysilane (PrTMOS) and phenyltrimethoxysilane (PhTMOS) has been accomplished by applying negative potentials. The latter increases the concentration of hydroxyl ions on the stainless steel surface and thus catalyzes the condensation and deposition of the sol-gel films. The films were characterized by profilometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), alternating current voltammetry (ACV), goniometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). AFM and SEM analysis of codeposited APTS:PrTMOS films disclosed the structural changes induced by altering the deposition solution composition and the applied potential. Codeposited APTS:PhTMOS did not show any structural differences from their electrodeposited homopolymers, while Nano Scratch Test clearly revealed the changes in the elastic and adhesion properties, suggesting the formation of an APTS:PhTMOS composite. EIS of the films showed good resistance towards penetration of hydrophilic species, such as hexacyanoferrate. ACV measurements of the homo and codeposits showed the decrease of the interfacial capacity as a result of the electrochemical deposition. In essence, controllable sol-gel films with tunable chemical and physical properties based on controlling the combination of the precursors, pH and electrochemical properties can be electrodeposited on conducting surfaces. The application of this approach has been demonstrated by coating a stainless steel coronary stent. PMID:20877869

Okner, Regina; Favaro, Gregory; Radko, Anna; Domb, Abraham Jacob; Mandler, Daniel

2010-12-14

426

Localized dispersing of ceramic particles in tool steel surfaces by pulsed laser radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the capability of a localized laser dispersing technique for changing the material microstructure and the surface topology of steels is discussed. The laser implantation named technique bases on a discontinuous dispersing of ceramic particles into the surface of steels by using pulsed laser radiation. As ceramic particles TiC, WC and TiB2 are used, substrate material is high-alloyed cold working steel (X153CrMoV12). The influence of the laser parameters pulse length and pulse intensity was investigated in a comprehensive parameter study. The gained surface topology and microstructure were evaluated by optical microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and white light interferometry; mechanical properties were analyzed by micro hardness measurement. The experiments reveal that the alignment of separated, elevated, dome-shaped spots on the steel surface is feasible. The geometrical properties as well as the mechanical properties are highly controllable by the laser parameters. The laser implanted spots show a mostly crack-free and pore-free bonding to the substrate material as well as a significant increase of micro hardness.

Hilgenberg, K.; Behler, K.; Steinhoff, K.

2014-06-01

427

An Ultra-low Carbon, Thermomechanically Controlled Processed Microalloyed Steel: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current study, a novel ultra-low carbon, high-molybdenum-bearing microalloyed steel has been thermomechanically processed. Transformation of this steel during continuous cooling has been assessed. Variation in the microstructure and mechanical properties at different finish rolling temperatures has been studied. The average grain size, misorientation of grain boundary, and distribution of ferrite grains have been analyzed by using electron backscatter diffraction. The lower yield strength (251 to 377 MPa) with moderate tensile strength (406 to 506 MPa) along with high ductility (30 to 47 pct) has been achieved in the selected range of finish rolling temperatures. Superior impact toughness value in the range of 153 to 162 J is obtained in the subsize specimen even at subzero temperatures (233 K [-40 C]), which is attributed to fine average ferrite grain size. The acicular ferrite dominated microstructure obtained at the 1023 K (750 C) finish rolling temperature is the most attractive microstructure for pipeline applications due to its excellent combination of strength and toughness.

Shukla, R.; Das, S. K.; Ravi Kumar, B.; Ghosh, S. K.; Kundu, S.; Chatterjee, S.

2012-12-01

428

Tensile Properties and Work Hardening Behavior of Laser-Welded Dual-Phase Steel Joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the microstructural change after laser welding and its effect on the tensile properties and strain hardening behavior of DP600 and DP980 dual-phase steels. Laser welding led to the formation of martensite and significant hardness rise in the fusion zone because of the fast cooling, but the presence of a soft zone in the heat-affected zone was caused by partial vanishing and tempering of the pre-existing martensite. The extent of softening was much larger in the DP980-welded joints than in the DP600-welded joints. Despite the reduction in ductility, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) remained almost unchanged, and the yield strength (YS) indeed increased stemming from the appearance of yield point phenomena after welding in the DP600 steel. The DP980-welded joints showed lower YS and UTS than the base metal owing to the appearance of severe soft zone. The YS, UTS, and strain hardening exponent increased slightly with increasing strain rate. While the base metals had multi-stage strain hardening, the welded joints showed only stage III hardening. All the welded joints failed in the soft zone, and the fracture surfaces exhibited characteristic dimple fracture.

Farabi, N.; Chen, D. L.; Zhou, Y.

2012-02-01

429

Effects of Realistic Heat Straightening Repair on the Properties and Serviceability of Damaged Steel Beam Bridges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The permanent deformations in steel beam bridges caused by collision with high profile vehicles can be repaired by heat straightening, which is a structurally efficient and cost-effective repair process developed by many engineers over the years. Guidelin...

A. H. Varma Y. Sohn

2012-01-01

430

Synthesis, characterization, and corrosion protection properties of poly( N-(methacryloyloxymethyl) benzotriazole- co-methyl methacrylate) on mild steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The copolymers from different feed ratios of N-(methacryloyloxymethyl) benzotriazole (MMBT) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been synthesised using free radical solution polymerization technique and characterized using FT-IR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the polymers was studied using theremogravimetrtic analysis (TGA). The corrosion behaviors of mild steel specimens dip coated with different composition of copolymers have been evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) method. These electrochemical properties were observed in 0.1 M HCl medium. The polarization and impedance measurements showed different corrosion protection efficiency with change in composition of the copolymers. It was found that the corrosion protection properties are owing to the barrier effect of the polymer layer covered on the mild steel surfaces. However, it was observed that the copolymer obtained from 1:1 mole ratio of MMBT and MMA exhibited better protection efficiency than other combinations.

Srikanth, A. P.; Lavanya, A.; Nanjundan, S.; Rajendran, N.

2006-12-01

431

The inhibition of mild steel corrosion in acidic medium by 2,2?-bis(benzimidazole)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new corrosion inhibitor, namely 2,2'-bis(benzimidazole) has been synthesised and its inhibiting action on the corrosion of mild steel in acidic bath (1 M HCl) has been investigated by various corrosion monitoring techniques, such as corrosion weight loss test and potentiodynamic polarisation. The results of the investigation show that this compounds have fairly good inhibiting properties for steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid, and is a mixed inhibitor in (1 M HCl). The adsorption of this inhibitor is also found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Abboud, Y.; Abourriche, A.; Saffaj, T.; Berrada, M.; Charrouf, M.; Bennamara, A.; Cherqaoui, A.; Takky, D.

2006-09-01

432

Experimental investigations on mechanical and radiation shielding properties of hybrid leadsteel fiber reinforced concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results from the investigations carried out on fiber reinforced concrete with steel fibers, lead fibers and a combination of the two (hybrid fibers). The intent of this research was to investigate the effect of the two types of fibers on mechanical and radiation shielding properties of concrete. Compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural toughness were

Akanshu Sharma; G. R. Reddy; L. Varshney; H. Bharathkumar; K. K. Vaze; A. K. Ghosh; H. S. Kushwaha; T. S. Krishnamoorthy

2009-01-01

433

Flexural properties of steel fiber-reinforced concretes at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) at low temperatures were determined using the standard ASTM C1018 flexure test. The tests were performed at normal room temperature (20 C) at ?10 C and at ?30 C. In addition to the temperature, the variables investigated were the type of cement (both normal Portland cement and silica fume cement were used),

M. Pigeon; R. Cantin

1998-01-01

434

EFFECTS OF NEUTRON IRRADIATION ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FERRITIC STEELS AND IRONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fast-neutron irradiation at 50 to 70 deg C on the ; mechanical properties of some ferritic steels and irons was investigated with ; particular emphasis on the correlation between the magnitude of irradiation ; damage and the composition and microstructure. Impact energy transition curves, ; and tensile-test results are reported for sub-sized specimens; the correlation ; between

Trudeau

1959-01-01

435

Microstructure effects on the thermal properties of vacuum sintered AISI 316L stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photothermal technique open photoacoustic cell and the non-Adiabatic thermal relaxation calorimetric are applied to measure thermal properties of the sintered stainless steel AISI 316L as a function of the porosity. The results showed that thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity values as a function of the applied uniaxial pressure presented a strong correlation with the surface area of contact of

W. M. Lima; W. R. Weinand; V. Biondo; E. S. Nogueira; A. N. Medina; M. L. Baesso; A. C. Bento

2003-01-01

436

Further studies of the effect of rubidium on the mechanical properties of an austenitic steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of strain rate and temperature on the mechanical properties in argon and rubidium have been studied for a Type 304 austenitic steel. It has been shown that samples rapidly strained can experience major temperature rises in argon but not in rubidium. When sample temperatures are equal, there is no marked effect of the environment on mechanical behaviour. For

P. Trevena; N. S. Stoloff; M. G. Nicholas

1987-01-01

437

Progress Report - Mechanical Properties Evaluation of ASTM A945 (HSLA-65) Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the mechanical properties of steel plates for Navy use. These plates conform to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard A945, High-strength, Low-alloy (HSLA), Class 65. Plates of various thickness were purchased fr...

E. M. Focht

1996-01-01

438

Friction Stir Welding of HT9 Ferritic-Martensitic Steel: An Assessment of Microstructure and Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis explores the processing-microstructure-property relationships in friction stir welded (FSW) HT9A ferritic-martensitic steel. HT9 has previously been studied as a structural component for fusion/fission based reactors; however, the changes in m...

L. L. Ray

2013-01-01

439

Effects of silicon on structures and properties of AISI 4320 low alloy steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 2 percent silicon addition on the structures and properties in AISI 4320 steel were studied; transmission electron microscopy was extensively used to characterize the microstructures. In as-quenched and tempered martensite, silicon additions increase the temperature range in which epsilon carbide exists, delay the cementite precipitation and retained austenite decomposition to higher temperatures. The silicon addition increases the

1975-01-01

440

Fatigue properties of a SAE 4340 steel coated with a Nimet HP autocatalytic nickel deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of a commercial electroless NiP (EN) deposit known as Nimet's HP autocatalytic nickel, on the fatigue properties of a quenched and tempered SAE 4340 steel, has been investigated. Such an EN deposit had a thickness of approximately 10 ?m, a P content of approximately 12 wt.% and it was evaluated in two different conditions: (a) as-deposited; and (b)

C Guzmn; N D??az; J. A Berr??os; A Pertuz; E. S Puchi Cabrera

2000-01-01

441

Long-Term Aging of Cast Stainless Steels: Mechanisms and Resulting Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mechanical property data are presented from Charpy-impact, tensile, and J-R curve tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 450, 400, 350, 320, and 290 deg C. The results indicate that thermal aging increases the tensile stren...

O. K. Chopra H. M. Chung

1987-01-01

442

Effect of stress relief annealing temperature and atmosphere on the magnetic properties of silicon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully processed non-oriented silicon steel samples 0.50 mm thick were sheared and submitted to stress relief annealing under different conditions of temperature and atmosphere to investigate the effect of this treatment on the recovery of magnetic properties. Two different compositions were used, with different Si and Al contents. Temperature was varied in the range of 600 900 C and four

Sebastio C. Paolinelli; Marco A. da Cunha

2006-01-01

443

Evaluating the influence of residual stresses on the magnetic properties of electrical steel  

SciTech Connect

The method described for evaluating the influence of residual stresses on the magnetic properties of coiled cold-rolled electrical steel consists in measuring the ratio of the magnetic characteristics that are and are not sensitive to the effect of residual stresses. The evaluation is made from the value of the ratio, using the correlations between its value and the magnetic characteristics studied.

Korzunin, G.S.; Chistyakov, V.K.

1995-04-01

444

Effect of cryogenic treatment on the mechanical properties of 4340 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experimental study investigated the effects of cryogenic treatment on the mechanical properties and microstructures of AISI 4340 steel. Mechanical tests, including rotating fatigue, impact and hardness were carried out, after various heat treating conditions and the results were compared. Fracture features of specimens were also compared. It was shown that in general, hardness and fatigue strength of the cryogenically

S. Zhirafar; A. Rezaeian; M. Pugh

2007-01-01

445

Influence of the Manufacturing Process on the Magnetic Properties of Electrical Steel in E-Cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an electromagnetic actuator depends on the design, the used type of electrical steels and the effects of the fabrication steps of the actuator on the magnetic properties. In the paper the voltage-current characteristic for E-cores, which have undergone different fabrication steps, are described. The aim of this study is to find a me thod for the calculation

W. Deprez; J. Schneider; T. Kochmann; F. Henrotte; K. Hameyer

446

Torsional and metallurgical properties of rotary endodontic instruments. 2. Stainless steel Gates Glidden drills.  

PubMed

A laboratory study was performed on stainless steel Gates Glidden drills to determine their torsional and metallurgical properties. Samples of #1 to #6 drills from the two manufacturers that distribute these instruments in the United States were tested in incremental and continuous clockwise torsional loading by using a digital torque meter. The values of mean torque at fracture obtained with these tests generally showed no statistically significant differences for the same drill size and a given manufacturer. However, it was not possible to completely evaluate drill sizes #5 and #6 because the torsional moments developed during testing exceeded the capacity of the test instrument. Scanning electron microscope examination confirmed the occurrence of ductile torsional fracture processes, which were evident from visual observation of the instruments after fracture. This study is part of a continuing investigation to establish standards for all rotary endodontic instruments. PMID:1779217

Luebke, N H; Brantley, W A

1991-07-01

447

Enhanced Mechanical Properties of a Hot-Stamped Advanced High-Strength Steel via Tempering Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hot stamping process has an extensive range of applications due to its advantages over the traditionally used stamping techniques developed in the past. To enhance the mechanical properties of the indirectly hot-stamped parts, the quenching and partitioning (Q&P) process has been recently applied on boron-alloyed steel. In the current research, it was observed that the tempering treatment on the directly hot-stamped boron steel resulted in better mechanical properties and higher formability index compared with the reported results using the Q&P process. The nano-carbide formation and the dislocation annihilation during the tempering treatment were suggested as the evident reasons for the occurrence of the mentioned robust properties. The ease of the practical implementation of the tempering route together with the markedly enhanced mechanical properties of the tempered parts make the suggested method privileged. Additionally, the variations in the yield strength before and after tempering were quantitatively evaluated.

Naderi, M.; Abbasi, M.; Saeed-Akbari, A.

2013-04-01

448

Tribological properties and surface structures of ion implanted 9Cr18Mo stainless steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polished quenched-and-tempered 9Cr18Mo steels were implanted with N ions and Ti ions respectively at a fluence of 2 1017 ions/cm2. The mechanical properties of the samples were investigated by using nanoindenter and tribometer. The results showed that the ion implantations would improve the nanohardness and tribological property, especially N ion implantation. The surface analysis of the implanted samples was carried out by using XRD, XPS and AES. It indicated that the surface exhibits graded layers after ion implantation. For N ion implantation, the surface about 20 nm thickness is mainly composed of supersaturated interstitial N solid solution, oxynitrides, CrxCy phase and metal nitrides. In the subsurface region, the metal nitrides dominate and the other phases disappear. For Ti ion implantation, the surface of about 20 nm thickness is mainly composed of titanium oxides and carbon amorphous phase, the interstitial solid solution of Ti in Fe is abundant in the subsurface region. The surface components and structures have significant contributions to the improved mechanical properties.

Fengbin, Liu; Guohao, Fu; Yan, Cui; Qiguo, Sun; Min, Qu; Yi, Sun

2013-07-01

449

A mechanical property and stress corrosion evaluation of Custom 455 stainless steel alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical and stress corrosion properties are presented of vacuum melted Custom 455 stainless steel alloy bar (1.0-inch diameter) and sheet (0.083-inch thick) material aged at 950 F, 1000 F, and 1050 F. Low temperature mechanical properties were determined at temperatures of 80 F, 0 F, -100 F, and -200 F. For all three aging treatments, the ultimate tensile and 0.2 percent offset yield strengths increased with decreasing test temperatures while the elongation held fairly constant down to -100 F and decreased at -200 F. Reduction in Area decreased moderately with decreasing temperature for the longitudinal round (0.250-inch diameter) specimens. Notched tensile strength and charpy V-notched impact strength decreased with decreasing test temperature. For all three aging treatments, no failures were observed in the unstressed specimens or the specimens stressed to 50, 75, and 100 percent of their yield strengths for 180 days of alternate immersion testing in a 3.5 percent NaCl solution. As indicated by the results of tensile tests performed after alternate immersion testing, the mechanical properties of Custom 455 alloy were not affected by stress or exposure under the conditions of the evaluation.

Montano, J. W.

1972-01-01

450

Ultrahigh Carbon Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies and results on ultrahigh carbon (UHC) steels suggest that major development efforts on these steels are timely and that programs to evaluate prototype structural components should be initiated. These recent results include: the development of economical processing techniques incorporating a divorced eutectoid transformation, the improvement of room temperature strength and ductility by heat treatment, the enhancement of superplastic properties through dilute alloying with silicon, and the attainment of exceptional notch impact strength in laminated UHC steel composites manufactured through solid state bonding. The unique mechanical properties achieved in UHC steels are due to the presence of micron-size fer-rite grains and ultrafine spheroidized carbides.

Sherby, O. D.; Oyama, T.; Kum, D. W.; Walser, B.; Wadsworth, J.

1985-06-01

451

AISI 316Ti (1.4571) steelMechanical, creep and fracture properties versus temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper some useful, experimentally obtained, results regarding material properties of austenitic stainless steel 1.4571 are presented. Tests were performed at low and elevated temperatures. During uniaxial tests, mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, 0.2% offset yield strength and short-time creep behaviour were determined. Charpy impact energy was also determined using the Charpy impact machine. Engineering stress-strain diagrams

J. Brnic; G. Turkalj; M. Canadija; D. Lanc

2011-01-01

452

Microstructure and mechanical properties of weld fusion zones in modified 9Cr1Mo steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel finds increasing application in power plant construction because of its excellent high-temperature\\u000a properties. While it has been shown to be weldable and resistant to all types of cracking in the weld metal and heat-affected\\u000a zone (HAZ), the achievement of optimum weld metal properties has often caused concern. The design of appropriate welding consumables\\u000a is important in this

M. Sireesha; S. Sundaresan; Shaju K. Albert

2001-01-01

453

The aging behavior of types 308 and 308CRE stainless steels and its effect on mechanical properties  

SciTech Connect

Aging of 308 and 308CRE SS was studied at 475 to 850/sup 0/C for aging times up to 10,000 hours. Above 550/sup 0/C, aging of 308 steel resulted in precipitation of carbides and the transformation of ferrite to sigma phase or the formation of sigma phase in initially ferrite-free material. The elevated-temperature aging of 308CRE steel resulted in the precipitation of titanium-rich carbides, nitrides, and sulfides, and the transformation of ferrite to sigma phase. The distribution of precipitates was affected by the initial condition of the materials. The elevated-temperature creep properties, and in particular the improved properties of 308CRE, were related to the precipitate distribution. Below 550/sup 0/C, aging of welded type 308 steel, precipitation of G-phase within the ferrite was observed, as well as the decomposition of ferrite into alpha and alpha prime. With the help of a novel mechanical properties microprobe, which was capable of determining the hardness of the minor constituent ferrite phase, the hardness behavior as a function of aging could be related to the microstructures. These results are interpreted in terms of the potential susceptibility of these alloys to 475/sup 0/C embrittlement.

Vitek, J.M.; David, S.A.

1987-01-01

454

Structural and mechanical properties of welded joints of reduced activation martensitic steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas tungsten arc welding and electron beam welding methods were used to realise welding pools on plates of reduced activation martensitic steels. Structural and mechanical features of these simulated joints have been investigated in as-welded and post-welding heat-treated conditions. The research allowed to assess how each welding technique affects the original mechanical properties of materials and to find suitable post-welding heat treatments. This paper reports results from experimental activities on BATMAN II and F82H mod. steels carried out in the frame of the European Blanket Project - Structural Materials Program.

Filacchioni, G.; Montanari, R.; Tata, M. E.; Pilloni, L.

2002-12-01

455

Influence of boron oxide on protective properties of zinc coating on steel  

SciTech Connect

The authors study the properties of zinc coating when boron oxide is added to the melt for galvanization. The authors found that a rise in the degree of initial deformation of the steel leads to the production of varying thickness of the zinc coating. The results show the favorable influence of small amounts of added boron oxide on the corrosion resistance of a zinc coating on cold-deformed high-carbon steel; this influence is also manifested in the case of deformation of the zinc coating itself.

Alimov, V.I.; Berezin, A.V.

1986-05-01

456

Effect of heat treatment on properties of steel 03Kh13AG19 at cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work concerns the effect of heat treatment on the mechanical properties of austenitic Cr--Mn steel 03Khl3AG19 alloyed with nitrogen: 0.03% C, 0.50% Si, 0.74% Ni, 0.009% S, 0.017% P, 0.006% B, 0.17% N, 13.50% Cr, 19.35% Mn. The steel was melted at the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant in a 40-ton electric arc furnace. Under plant conditions the plates are water

F. N. Tavadze; G. A. Stepanov; L. K. Lokhankina; G. N. Grikurov

1975-01-01

457

Effect of cryogenic deformation on the structure and properties of chromium-nickel steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of rolling at a temperature of 77 K and subsequent tempering on the structure and properties of chromium-nickel 05Kh14N14T2 and 15Kh14N14Yu1 steels is investigated. The formation of a nanocrystalline martensite phase in an austenitic matrix has been established. It is shown that additional hardening of the metal occurs due to the precipitation of intermetallic phases during heat treatment. The steels under study are high-strength and hard-magnetic after cryogenic deformation and heat treatment.

Glezer, A. M.; Rusanenko, V. V.; Zhukov, O. P.; Libman, M. A.; Klippenshtein, A. D.

2012-10-01

458

GASEOUS HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEELS (U)  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compendium of sets of mechanical properties of carbon and low alloy steels following the short-term effects of hydrogen exposure. The property sets include the following: Yield Strength; Ultimate Tensile Strength; Uniform Elongation; Reduction of Area; Threshold Cracking, K{sub H} or K{sub th}; Fracture Toughness (K{sub IC}, J{sub IC}, and/or J-R Curve); and Fatigue Crack Growth (da/dN). These properties are drawn from literature sources under a variety of test methods and conditions. However, the collection of literature data is by no means complete, but the diversity of data and dependency of results in test method is sufficient to warrant a design and implementation of a thorough test program. The program would be needed to enable a defensible demonstration of structural integrity of a pressurized hydrogen system. It is essential that the environmental variables be well-defined (e.g., the applicable hydrogen gas pressure range and the test strain rate) and the specimen preparation be realistically consistent (such as the techniques to charge hydrogen and to maintain the hydrogen concentration in the specimens).

Lam, P

2006-06-08

459

Effects of Cooling Conditions on Tensile and Charpy Impact Properties of API X80 Linepipe Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, four API X80 linepipe steel specimens were fabricated by varying the cooling rate and finish cooling temperature, and their microstructures and crystallographic orientations were analyzed to investigate the effects of the cooling conditions on the tensile and Charpy impact properties. All the specimens consisted of acicular ferrite (AF), granular bainite (GB), and martensite-austenite (MA) constituents. The volume fraction of MA increased with an increasing cooling rate, and the volume fraction and size of MA tended to decrease with an increasing finish cooling temperature. According to the crystallographic orientation analysis data, the effective grain size and unit crack path decreased as fine ACs having a large amount of high-angle grain boundaries were homogeneously formed, thereby leading to the improvement in the Charpy impact properties. The specimen fabricated with the higher cooling rate and lower finish cooling temperature had the highest upper-shelf energy (USE) and the lowest energy transition temperature (ETT), because it contained a large amount of MA homogeneously distributed inside fine AFs, while its tensile properties remained excellent.

Han, Seung Youb; Shin, Sang Yong; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Nack J.; Bae, Jin-Ho; Kim, Kisoo

2010-02-01

460

Influence of post irradiation annealing on the mechanical properties and defect structure of AISI 304 steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of post irradiation annealing on the mechanical properties and the radiation induced defect structure was investigated on stainless steel, of type AISI 304, that was irradiated up to 24 dpa in the decommissioned Chooz A reactor. The material was investigated both in the as-irradiated state as well as after post irradiation annealing. In the as-irradiated specimen the typical radiation induced defects were found as well as ?'-precipitates (Ni 3Si). Annealing at 400 C had almost no effect on the radiation induced defects, but annealing at 500 C resulted in the immediate unfaulting of the Frank loops. As to the mechanical properties, annealing at 400 C did not strongly affect the yield strength and the ductility of the material, although the fraction of intergranular fracture during slow strain rate tensile tests under pressurised water reactor conditions, was significantly reduced. Annealing at 500 C did reduce the yield strength and restored substantially the ductility and the strain hardening capability of the material. The microstructure investigated by transmission electron microscopy correlates to the mechanical test results. It was found that the observed defect changes after post irradiation annealing provide a reasonable explanation for the observed changes of the mechanical properties.

Van Renterghem, W.; Al Mazouzi, A.; Van Dyck, S.

2011-06-01

461

Influence of the process parameters on the structural and electric properties of ferroelectric and antiferroelectric PZT thin films realized on stainless steel by a Solgel derived method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pb\\u000a x\\u000a ZryTi1?yO3 thin films were prepared by a modified Solgel method using alkoxides precursor compounds and spin-coating onto RuO2 coated stainless steel substrates. Depending on the zirconate\\/titanate ratio, both, ferroelectric and antiferroelectric behaviour\\u000a has been obtained. Oxidation of the metal substrate due to the PZT crystallization process was studied in order to verify\\u000a the influence of the heat treatment

Raynald Seveno; Hartmut Gundel

2007-01-01

462

The effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties of a commercial 12Cr-1Mo steel (HT-9)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure of a commercial 12Cr-1Mo steel (HT-9) and its associated effect on strength and toughness properties is being studied in a continuing program aimed at qualifying the alloy for use in fusion energy machines. Interim results show this alloy is subject to a degree of tempered martensite embrittlement and temper embrittlement. For applications projected for fusion machines at lower temperatures, a new heat treatment (1000C, 1 hr, air-cooled followed by 650C tempering) at lower temperatures and shorter times than the vendor-recommended heat treatment has been identified. Microstructural differences between the treatments are discussed, and mechanical properties are correlated.

Lechtenberg, Thomas

463

Influence of deformation on the structure and mechanical and corrosion properties of high-nitrogen austenitic 07Kh16AG13M3 steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correlation has been studied between the structure of a high-nitrogen austenitic Cr-Mn-N steel formed in the process of combined hardening treatment, including cold plastic deformation (CPD), and its mechanical and corrosion properties. The structure and properties of commercial high-nitrogen (0.8% N) 07Kh16AG13M3 steel is analyzed after rolling by CPD and aging at 500 and 800C. It is shown that CPD of the steel occurs by dislocation slip and deformation twinning. Deformation twinning and also high resistance of austenite to martensitic transformations at true strains of 0.2 and 0.4 determine the high plasticity of the steel. The contribution of the structure imperfection parameters to the broadening of the austenite lines during CPD is estimated by X-ray diffraction. The main hardening factor is stated to be lattice microdistortions. Transmission electron microscopy study shows that heating of the deformed steel to 500C leads to the formation of the intermediate CrN phase by a homogeneous mechanism, and the intermtallic ? phase forms along the austenite grain boundaries in the case of heating at 800C. After hardening by all investigated technological schemes, exception for aging at 800C, the steel does not undergo pitting corrosion and is slightly prone to a stress corrosion cracking during static bending tests, while aging at 800C causes pitting corrosion at a pitting formation potential E pf = -0.25 V.

Berezovskaya, V. V.; Khadyev, M. S.; Merkushkin, E. A.; Sokolovskaya, Yu. A.

2013-11-01

464

Superhydrophobic silver surface with dendrites structure on steel substrate by a facile electroless galvanic deposition process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple electroless galvanic deposition process to prepare superhydrophobic surface on steel substrate is presented here. Micro- and nano roughness structure is generated on steel surface by the deposition of silver dendrites with nanoscale leaves. After modified with stearic acid, the as-prepared surface shows a remarkable superhydrophobicity with a high water contact angle (WCA) of 158 and a low sliding angle of about 2. The surface also shows non-sticking properties to a 4 ?L water droplet. The cooperation of dendrites structure and stearic acid modification is responsible for the superhydrophobicty of the as-prepared surface. This simple and reliable method is of great significance to the large scale fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on steel substrate.

Guo, Feng; Su, Xunjia; Hou, Genliang; Li, Ping

2012-03-01

465

Diffusion of Aluminum Into Steel Substrates By Means Of Hot Dip Aluminizing  

SciTech Connect

Surface coating is an efficient and economical method to obtain desirable material surfaces properties. As compared to other coating techniques, hot dip coating can be considered as the most economical way to protect steel surfaces. Hot dip aluminizing technique was investigated in this study. Experiments have been conducted on the mild steel substrates with 10 mm diameter. The substrates were dipped into the molten aluminum maintained at temperature 750 deg. C for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used in this investigation. From the microstructure observation, it showed the appearance of intermetallic layer covered by the top layer of Al on the mild steel substrate increased with the increase in dipping time. The result of EDX analysis revealed the existence of Fe and Al in form of new Al-Fe phase. This indicated the possible formation of the intermetallic layers.

Husain, Hishamuddin Hj.; Razak Daud, Abdul [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Daud, Muhamad [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

2010-01-05

466

Residual stresses and microstructure of H13 steel formed by combining two different direct fabrication methods  

SciTech Connect

Direct fabrication (DF) of tool and die steels by rapid solidification techniques can produce near-net-shape parts and components with unique properties, and without the distortions caused by conventional normalizing and tempering heat-treatments. When combined with sophisticated 3-dimensional computer control to build complex solid metallic shapes, one has the capability of using DF for rapid prototyping. Spray forming using a circular converging/diverging atomizer is a DF process being developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for rapid manufacturing of tool and die steels like H-13. Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{trademark}) is a DF process being developed at Sandia National laboratory (SNL). LENS involves laser-processing fine powder metal sprays into complex, fully-dense 3-dimensional shapes with fine-detail control that would allow rapid prototyping of tools or dies. One logical combination of the two processes is to combine spray forming to replicate most of the die surface and backing, and then t o build other die-surface fine-features with LENS. Premium H-13 steel was used because it belongs to the widely used group of hot-work steels that have good resistance to heat, pressure and abrasion for metal-forging and aluminum die-casting applications. The microstructure and residual stresses that exist across the interface of a composite metal produced by these two DF methods are critical parameters in producing crack-free components with functional properties. The purpose of this work is to combine unique neutron-diffraction facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for measuring bulk residual stresses with these two different DF processes to characterize LENS deposits of H-13 steel made on a spray-formed base of that same steel.

Maziasz, P.J.; Payzant, E.A.; Schlienger, M.E.; McHugh, K.M.

1998-10-13

467

Creep Rupture Properties of Welded Joints of Heat Resistant Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the high-temperature mechanical and creep rupture properties of Grade 91/Grade 91 (Mod. 9Cr-Mo) similar welded joints and Grade 91/Inconel 82/SUS304 dissimilar welded joints were examined. The effects of temperature and stress on the failure location in the joints were also investigated. Creep rupture tests were conducted at 823, 873, and 923 K; the applied stress ranges were 160-240, 80-160, and 40-80 MPa, respectively. The creep rupture strengths of the specimens with welded joints were lower than those of the specimens of the base metal at all temperature levels; in addition, these differences in creep strength increased with temperature. After being subjected to long-term creep rupture tests, the fracture type exhibited by the dissimilar welded joints was transformed from Types V and VII to Type IV. It was estimated that the fracture type exhibited by the dissimilar welded joints after 100,000-h rupture strength tests at 823 K and 873 K was Type IV fracture.

Yamazaki, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Takashi; Hongo, Hiromichi; Tabuchi, Masaaki

468

Fabrication of high chromium cast iron and medium carbon steel bimetal by liquidsolid casting in electromagnetic induction field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high chromium cast iron and medium carbon steel bimetal was fabricated by liquidsolid casting in electromagnetic induction field. The interfacial structure and mechanical properties were investigated. The results show that the microstructure is refined obviously and mechanical properties are improved significantly. The electromagnetic stirring can refine effectively the microstructure, and profit the diffusion of elements and obtaining of the

Bowen Xiong; Changchun Cai; Hong Wan; Baiping Lu

2011-01-01

469

Effect of several stress inducing coatings on magnetostriction property of a high induction 3% silicon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stress inducing behavior of various coatings by applying coating solutions mainly composed of colloidal silica and one of (Mg,Ca,Sr,Ba,Fe,Zn and Al) phosphates onto high permeability 3% silicon steel sheet (RG-H) were examined. The results of magnetostriction measurements showed that the coating formed by colloidal silica and Mg phosphate mixed solution gave the largest tensile stress to the steel sheets

H. Shimanaka; T. Ichida; S. Kobayashi; T. Funahashi

1979-01-01

470

Effect of admixtures on mechanical properties of steel-fibre-reinforced polymer high-strength concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a new kind of steel fibre reinforced polymer high-strength concrete was developed for bridge structures. This material is component of C60 concrete and some admixtures, including steel fibre, polymer latex, fly ash, etc. An experimental study was performed to determine the mixture ratio of the new material and test the fundamental mechanical performances, such as the tensile and compressive strength. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigation and mechanism analysis were employed to study the effect of the admixtures on the material properties. The results show that the strength, toughness and crack resistance of the C60 concrete are improved if appropriate content of steel fibre, polymer latex and fly ash are added.

Huang, Pei-Yan; Zheng, Shun-Chao; Guo, Wenying; Deng, Jun

2008-11-01

471

Fatigue threshold and low-rate crack propagation properties for structural steels in 3 Pct sodium chloride aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatigue threshold and low-rate crack propagation properties for a carbon steel, two high-strength steels, and two stainless\\u000a steels were investigated in a 3 pct sodium chloride aqueous solution at frequencies between 0.03 and 30 Hz. Tests were conducted\\u000a in a manner designed to avoid crack closure. Under freely corroding conditions, the effecti