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1

Properties of steel hardened by alloying or heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.In the heat treated condition and with the same ultimate strength all the other mechanical properties are equal for steels St. 3sp, 19G, 18G2, and 14KhGS.2.With the same strength, the heat treated and hot rolled steels have different mechanical properties. With increasing ultimate strength the yield strength increases sharply for the heat treated steels and more slowly for the hot

L. K. Zadorozhnaya; Sh. R. Dobruskina; M. I. Kurmanov

1972-01-01

2

Mechanical properties of structural steels remelted by different procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.ESR and VAR increase the resistance of steel to fracture. Failure of the steels is accompanied by large absorption of energy and occurs at larger breaking loads than for the original electric steel.2.The ESR steel is more capable of plastic deformation than the VAR steel under conditions where redistribution of stresses is possible.3.After tempering at low temperature (high-strength), the VAR

I. A. Tamarina; B. M. Ovsyannikov; I. N. Golikov

1974-01-01

3

46 CFR 54.25-20 - Low temperature operation-ferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies UHT-5(c), UHT-6...Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-20...steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies UHT-5(c),...

2011-10-01

4

46 CFR 54.25-20 - Low temperature operation-ferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies UHT-5(c), UHT-6...Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-20...steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies UHT-5(c),...

2012-10-01

5

Pressure vessel steel embrittlement monitoring by magnetic properties measurements  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic properties of specimens of one heat of A533B nuclear pressure vessel grade steel have been examined in the as-received condition and after neutron irradiation to various fluence levels up to 4 [times] 10[sup 18] cm[sup [minus]2] (E > 0.1 MeV) in the University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA reactor core at two temperatures, approximately 120 and 260[degrees]C. The effect of some heat treatments was also investigated. The magnetic properties were measured by an automated hysteresis curve tracing method using a miniature transformer which incorporated the specimens in its core. Changes in magnetic hysteresis energy loss were correlated with neutron fluence in the case of certain irradiated specimens, and with microhardness measurements in the case of heat treated specimens. At the higher irradiation temperatures, no significant changes in either the magnetic hysteresis properties or the microhardness were noted for the present fluences. The relationship between the observed magnetic properties response and irradiation-induced embrittlement is discussed.

Stubbins, J.F.; Shong, W-J.; Giacobbe, M.; Ougouag, A.M. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Williams, J.G. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

1992-01-01

6

Pressure vessel steel embrittlement monitoring by magnetic properties measurements  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic properties of specimens of one heat of A533B nuclear pressure vessel grade steel have been examined in the as-received condition and after neutron irradiation to various fluence levels up to 4 {times} 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}2} (E > 0.1 MeV) in the University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA reactor core at two temperatures, approximately 120 and 260{degrees}C. The effect of some heat treatments was also investigated. The magnetic properties were measured by an automated hysteresis curve tracing method using a miniature transformer which incorporated the specimens in its core. Changes in magnetic hysteresis energy loss were correlated with neutron fluence in the case of certain irradiated specimens, and with microhardness measurements in the case of heat treated specimens. At the higher irradiation temperatures, no significant changes in either the magnetic hysteresis properties or the microhardness were noted for the present fluences. The relationship between the observed magnetic properties response and irradiation-induced embrittlement is discussed.

Stubbins, J.F.; Shong, W-J.; Giacobbe, M.; Ougouag, A.M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Williams, J.G. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1992-12-01

7

Enhance hydration properties of steel slag using grinding aids by mechanochemical effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic oxygen furnace steel slag is a kind of cementitious material with low activity and hard for grinding. The objective of this work was to validate specious grinding aids F1 made in lab which was effective for the grinding of steel slag, thus enhancing the hydration properties. By using 0.05% F1, the Blaine value of steel slag was added up

Xi Zhu; Haobo Hou; Xuquan Huang; Min Zhou; Weixin Wang

8

Tribological Properties of Stainless Steels Treated by Colossal Carbon Supersaturation  

SciTech Connect

A promising, alternative surface treatment to traditional case carburizing was recently developed. It enables extremely high ('colossal') super-saturation of carbon (up to 12 at%) in austenitic stainless steel surfaces. This new treatment offers the advantage of hardening the surface while still retaining the corrosion resistance of stainless steels. In this study, the tribological properties of the colossal supersaturation carburized Type 316 stainless steel were investigated and benchmarked against non-treated steel. The carburized surfaces exhibited higher hardness, higher elastic modulus, and higher corrosion resistance to acid etching than non-treated surfaces. Hot hardness measurements were conducted and linear relations between the hardness and temperature had been observed for both treated and non-treated specimens. The friction and wear characteristics were evaluated at both room and elevated temperatures (200 and 400 oC) under non-lubricated sliding conditions (pin-on-disk). Additional room-temperature tests were performed in salt water. Improved wear-resistance was observed on the treated surfaces at all test conditions, though less benefit was observed at elevated temperatures or in salt water.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

2007-01-01

9

Surface modification for hydrophilic property of stainless steel treated by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface of a stainless steel has been modified by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet method at room temperature. The impulse voltage is applied to ignite a plasma discharge using high purity (99.999%) reactive gases: N2 and O2. The treated stainless steel is characterized by the activation property of the surface using a contact angle analyzer. Surface energy for the treated stainless steel

M. C. Kim; D. K. Song; H. S. Shin; S.-H. Baeg; G. S. Kim; J.-H. Boo; J. G. Han; S. H. Yang

2002-01-01

10

Mechanical properties and interphase boundary composition of ferritic steels strengthened by yttrium and titanium disperse oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical properties of Fe-13 wt.% Cr-2 wt.% Mo ferritic steels prepared by powder metallurgy methods and strengthened by disperse oxides of Y and Ti are studied as a function of annealing time at 700 C. Creep-rupture strength of the strengthened steels is 23 times higher than that of the same material without dispersoids. The steel with Y2O3 has usually a

A. V. Krajnikov; A. N. Demidik; H. M. Ortner

1997-01-01

11

Detection of fatigue in structural steels by magnetic property measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials are sensitive to the mechanical and microstructural condition of the material. Fatigue can affect the magnetic properties due to microstructural changes, primarily dislocation production. Magnetic hysteresis measurements have been used to monitor the changes in the parameters due to low cycle fatigue, with the overall objective of developing a new tool to enhance the present NDE techniques for detecting failure. The magnetic measurements were performed using the Magnescope, a portable magnetic inspection system. Materials for fatiguing included plain low carbon steel and samples of quenched and tempered AISI 4340. The coercivity and remanence of the low carbon steel samples increased during the early stages of fatigue, reflecting strain hardening. As cycling progressed, the magnetic parameters leveled off and dropped sharply shortly before failure. The coercivity and remanence of the 4340 samples decreased during the initial stages of cycling, reflecting fatigue softening. The parameters plateaued, then decreased shortly before failure. The amount of change in the magnetic parameters was found to depend on the strain amplitude of the cycling.

Devine, M. K.; Kaminski, D. A.; Sipahi, Lb.; Jiles, D. C.

1992-03-01

12

Structure and mechanical properties of ceramic coatings fabricated by plasma electrolytic oxidation on aluminized steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic coatings were formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on aluminized steel. Characteristics of the average anodic voltages versus treatment time were observed during the PEO process. The micrographs, compositions and mechanical properties of ceramic coatings were investigated. The results show that the anodic voltage profile for processing of aluminized steel is similar to that for processing bulk Al alloy

Zhenqiang Wu; Yuan Xia; Guang Li; Fangtao Xu

2007-01-01

13

Fatigue properties of ultrafine grained low carbon steel produced by equal channel angular pressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafine grained low carbon (0.15 wt.% C) steel produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was tested for investigating fatigue properties, including cyclic softening and crack growth rate. Emphasis was placed on investigating the effect of load ratio on the fatigue crack growth rates of ultrafine grained microstructure. The ECAPed steel exhibited cyclic softening. After the first cycle, the tension

Ho-Kyung Kim; Myung-Il Choi; Chin-Sung Chung; Dong Hyuk Shin

2003-01-01

14

46 CFR 54.25-20 - Low temperature operation-ferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies UHT-5...Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-20...steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies UHT-5...shall be suitable for the design stress levels adopted. The service...

2009-10-01

15

46 CFR 54.25-20 - Low temperature operation-ferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies UHT-5...Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-20...steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies UHT-5...shall be suitable for the design stress levels adopted. The service...

2010-10-01

16

Properties of Prealloyed Steel Powder Metallurgy Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program to evaluate the properties of prealloyed steel powders, consolidated by various fabrication techniques, was conducted. Sixteen lots of low-alloy prealloyed steel powder, representing seven different major alloys (4130, 1040, 8620, 4640, 4650, 86...

R. E. Westerman K. R. Sump

1972-01-01

17

Preparation and properties of ceramic coating on Q235 carbon steel by plasma electrolytic oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic coating was achieved on Q235 carbon steel by PEO (plasma electrolytic oxidation, PEO) without any pretreatment in sodium aluminate system. The discharge process as well as the accompanied surface morphology evolution was analyzed. The phase and elemental composition of the coatings were also investigated. The corrosion, mechanical and tribological properties of the ceramic coating were primarily studied. It is

Yunlong Wang; Zhaohua Jiang; Zhongping Yao

2009-01-01

18

Structure and properties of a steel\\/white-cast-iron bimetal produced by method of carbonizing the steel melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Centrifugal bimetallization by the method of carbonizing the steel melt makes it possible to obtain a steel\\/white-cast-iron composition with a cladding layer close to the eutectic in terms of composition.2.In using post-bimetallization thermal cycling in accordance with the regime recommended for steels, the homogeneity of the cladding layer in terms of chemical composition and structure is noticeably increased, the grain

S. Z. Sapozhnikov

1985-01-01

19

Creep rupture properties of HAZs of a high Cr ferritic steel simulated by a weld simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, creep rupture properties of the heat affected zones (HAZs) of P122 steel, simulated by employing a weld simulator are studied and the results are compared with those of HAZs simulated by heat treatment. Microstructures corresponding to intercritical HAZ, fine-grained HAZ and coarse-grained HAZ (CGHAZ) were produced using a weld simulator in the middle of specimens. These specimens

S. K Albert; M Matsui; H Hongo; T Watanabe; K Kubo; M Tabuchi

2004-01-01

20

Effect of heat treatment on the structure and properties of sintered steels produced by dynamic hot pressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.After quenching and tempering, sintered steels possess mechanical properties superior to those of cast and forged steels of the same carbon content. This is evidence that quenching preserves the hardening induced by the thermomechanical effect of DHP.2.Cementite in high-carbon sintered steels produced by DHP exhibits increased stability. Its propensity for graphitization and coagulation grows as a result of quenching and

V. N. Mishchenko

1972-01-01

21

Mechanical property and microstructural change by thermal aging of SCS14A cast duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aging behavior, especially saturation, of JIS SCS14A cast duplex stainless steels was investigated on the basis of the mechanical properties and microstructural changes during accelerated aging at 350C and 400C. The aging behavior of the materials mainly proceeds via two stages. During the first stage, the generation and concentration of the iron-rich and chromium-enriched phase in ferrite occurs by

Takuyo Yamada; Satoshi Okano; Hisashi Kuwano

2006-01-01

22

Properties of HY-100 Steel for Naval Construction,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data are presented on the chemical composition and mechanical properties of HY-100 steel manufactured by Broken Hill Proprietary Steel International, Slab and Plate Products Division and heat treated by Bunge Industrial Steels Pty Ltd. These data satisfy ...

J. C. Ritter N. J. Baldwin

1988-01-01

23

Nanoscale steel-brass multilayer laminates made by cold rolling: Microstructure and tensile properties  

SciTech Connect

The thrust of this study is to fabricate steel-brass multilayer laminates with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range and to evaluate their mechanical properties. Repeated cold rolling of multilayer stacks was adopted to produce the laminates, because the relative simplicity and the low-cost nature of this process can allow the scaling-up of the technique to the level of commercial-scale production. This work is a continuation of a previous study, in which steel-brass laminates with layer thicknesses in the micrometer range were fabricated for the first time and their tensile properties were evaluated. The present work, however, emphasizes making multilayers with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range and evaluating their mechanical properties. The dependence of strength and ductility on the layer spacing in the nanometer range, is highlighted. It is shown that strength levels comparable to quenched and tempered low alloy steels can be achieved in the laminates by rolling down to the low end of nanometer range. The relevant strengthening mechanisms are also discussed.

Kavarana, F.H.; Ravichandran, K.S.; Sahay, S.S.

2000-05-10

24

Properties of high nitrogen steels produced by high pressure gas atomization  

SciTech Connect

The production of metal powder by gas atomization typically combines melting at ambient pressure and atomization through high pressure gas jet nozzles into an atomization chamber, also at ambient pressure. To achieve high nitrogen contents, a series of Fe-Cr-Mn-Ni steels were melted under nitrogen pressures of 150 psi and atomized with nitrogen gas into an atomizing chamber held at 100 psi. A small scale atomizing unit (charge size 300 lbs) was modified to achieve the desired production characteristics. High nitrogen steels produced by high pressure gas atomization exceeded the atmospheric solubility limit of nitrogen by as much as 500% and nitrogen contents between 0.5 to 1.3 wt. pct. was achieved. Three Fe-Cr-Mn-Ni alloys each different nitrogen contents were atomized and consolidated by hot-extrusion. The microstructure and tensile properties were evaluate and correlated to conditions during atomization, extrusion and final nitrogen content.

Dunning, John S.

2000-10-01

25

Heat treatment and properties of high-speed steel 10R6M5MP produced by atomization and hot extrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

With heat treatment to a given hardness, high-speed steels manufactured by atomization have higher mechanical properties than standard steel of similar composition due to the homogeneous fine-grained structure and even distribution of finely dispersed carbide phase. These steels should be quenched from temperatures 2030 lower than for standard steels.

M. N. Goryushina; N. N. Gavrikov; I. B. Bolonkina; G. E. Titenskaya

1980-01-01

26

Structure and properties of dies made from steels prepared by electroslag remelting  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The service life of dies made of ESR steel is ~30% higher than that of dies made from hot-rolled steel.2.The ESR steel is characterized by high isotropicity and a smaller quantity of nonmetallic inclusions in comparison with the hot-worked steel.3.As the result of losses during electroslag remelting, the quantity of silicon, molybdenum, and chromium decreases ~10%, and the quantity of

V. K. Sedunov; S. D. Kokin; L. F. Il'ina

1980-01-01

27

Effect of Posttreatment on Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Si Steel Strips Prepared by Twin-Roll Continuous Casting Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of early works, Si-steel strips with 3.0 wt pct Si content were prepared by twin-roll continuous casting (TRCC); posttreatment of double cold-rolling with different annealing temperature was completed, and accordingly, optimum parameters were ascertained. The microstructure and magnetic properties of the strips before and after posttreatment were investigated. The results indicated that Si steel strips could be successfully prepared by TRCC, and the best annealing conditions for posttreatment were 1223 K (950 C) 3 minutes in the Ar. Si steel strips exhibited the best magnetic properties after optimum posttreatment: core loss of 4.31 W/Kg and magnetic induction intensity of 1.69T. Moreover, proper posttreatment resulted in ordering of Fe3Si of the Si steel strips, and this ordering was a key factor on improvement of magnetic properties.

Yi, Yu; Zhou, Zehua; Wang, Zehua; Jiang, Shaoqun; Huang, Weidong

2012-10-01

28

Structure and mechanical properties of ceramic coatings fabricated by plasma electrolytic oxidation on aluminized steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramic coatings were formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on aluminized steel. Characteristics of the average anodic voltages versus treatment time were observed during the PEO process. The micrographs, compositions and mechanical properties of ceramic coatings were investigated. The results show that the anodic voltage profile for processing of aluminized steel is similar to that for processing bulk Al alloy during early PEO stages and that the thickness of ceramic coating increases approximately linearly with the Al layer consumption. Once the Al layer is completely transformed, the FeAl intermetallic layer begins to participate in the PEO process. At this point, the anodic voltage of aluminized steel descends, and the thickness of ceramic coating grows more slowly. At the same time, some micro-cracks are observed at the Al2O3/FeAl interface. The final ceramic coating mainly consists of ?-Al2O3, mullite, and ?-Al2O3 phases. PEO ceramic coatings have excellent elastic recovery and high load supporting performance. Nanohardness of ceramic coating reaches about 19.6 GPa.

Wu, Zhenqiang; Xia, Yuan; Li, Guang; Xu, Fangtao

2007-08-01

29

Microstructure and magnetic properties of high silicon electrical steel produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

High silicon electrical steel was produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition. The composition, surface microstructure and cross-section microstructure, phase and preferential orientation of the electrical steel were characterized. The results show that the silicon content of the material is about 6.5wt%. The side of the as-deposited electrical steel close to the substrate is composed of DO3 phase equiaxial grains

X. D. He; X. Li; Y. Sun

2008-01-01

30

Stainless steel surface alloying process with molybdenum or ruthenium by high-energy excimer laser: structural, electrochemical, and corrosion properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical transformations on stainless steel surfaces (304 AISI) are obtained by melting with an excimer laser. The very high quenching rate allows to create a thin continuous metastable gradient in composition and structure by opposition to other melting techniques which promote multiphase layer. The mechanical properties of the bulk are maintained and the external layer is chemically modified for a

Luc Beaunier; Christian Pasquier; Francoise Pillier; Patricia Laurens

1997-01-01

31

Characterization and mechanical properties of ultrahigh boron steels produced by powder metallurgy  

SciTech Connect

The present work is part of an investigation into the use of rapid solidification and powder metallurgy techniques to obtain iron-boron alloys with good mechanical properties. Two Fe-B binary alloys and two ultrahigh boron tool steels were gas atomized and consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at temperatures ranging from 700 C to 1,100 C to have a fine microstructure. Optimum properties were achieved for the binary alloys at low consolidation temperatures, since the solidification microstructure from the original powders is eliminated and, at the same time, fine microstructures and low porosity are obtained in the alloys. At high temperatures and low strain rates, three of the four alloys exhibited low stress exponents, but only the Fe-2.2 pct B alloy showed tensile elongations higher than 100 pct. At low temperatures, only the Fe-2.2 pct B alloy deformed plastically. This alloy showed values of tensile elongation and ultimate tensile strength that were strongly dependent on testing and consolidation temperatures.

Jimenez, J.A.; Gonzalez-Doncel, G.; Ruano, O.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, Madrid (Spain)

1996-07-01

32

Mechanical property and microstructural change by thermal aging of SCS14A cast duplex stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aging behavior, especially saturation, of JIS SCS14A cast duplex stainless steels was investigated on the basis of the mechanical properties and microstructural changes during accelerated aging at 350 C and 400 C. The aging behavior of the materials mainly proceeds via two stages. During the first stage, the generation and concentration of the iron-rich and chromium-enriched phase in ferrite occurs by phase decomposition. The first stage corresponds to aging times of up to 3000 h at 400 C. During the first stage, the ferrite hardness achieved is approximately 600 VHN, and the Charpy impact energy is almost saturated. During the second stage, the precipitated chromium-enriched phase aggregates and coarsens, and the G phase precipitation also occurs. The second stage corresponds to the aging times range of 3000 30 000 h at 400 C. During the second stage, the ferrite hardness achieved is about 800 VHN; however, further hardening exceeding 600 VHN does not influence the Charpy impact energy.

Yamada, Takuyo; Okano, Satoshi; Kuwano, Hisashi

2006-03-01

33

Mechanical Properties of Sintered Martensitic Stainless Steel Fabricated by Metal Injection Molding Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of sintering and heat treatment conditions on the mechanical properties of martensitic stainless steel fabricated by metal injection molding (MIM) process were investigated. The specimens were made by injecting the mixture of gas-atomized powders of 5 m and 10 m in mean particle diameter and a polymer binder into a metallic mold. The injection molded compacts were debound in air at various temperatures between 533 K and 593 K for 7.2 ks. They were sintered in vacuum at various temperatures between 1273 K and 1623 K for 7.2 ks. And the specimens were tempered at various temperatures between 373 K and 973 K after vacuum hardening. The density of the as-sintered compact of 5 m powder was higher than that of the as-sintered compact of 10 m powder. In case of the as-sintered compact of 5 m powder, the tensile strength depended on the change in density, and the tensile strength of the compact sintered at 1373 K was 1600 MPa. On the other hand, in the case of the as-sintered compact of 10 m powder, the tensile strength was rather lower than that of the as-sintered compact of 5 m powder because of coarsening of the grain size. The tensile strength and elongation of the heat-treated compact of 5 m powder were 1800 MPa and 12 %, respectively. The tensile strength and elongation of the heat-treated compact of 10 m powder were 1680 MPa and 10 %, respectively. Thus, the mechanical properties of the compacts were approximately equal to those of the wrought material.

Nakayama, Hideki; Kyogoku, Hideki

34

Microstructure and mechanical properties of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel prepared by a novel route  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel powders with nominal composition of Fe-14Cr-3W-0.2Ti-0.3Y was synthesized using a sol-gel method combining with hydrogen reduction. X-ray diffraction patterns show that pure Fe-14Cr-3W-0.2Ti-0.3Y body-centered-cubic phase was obtained at a reduction temperature of 1200 C for 3 h. Using such powders the ODS steel was produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The energy dispersive spectrometry mapping and transmission electron microscopy results indicate that the oxide particles of Y2Ti2O7 with an average size of 55 nm and particle number density of 3.2 1019 m-3 are homogeneously dispersed in the steel matrix. The tensile strength and uniform elongation of the steel that was SPS sintered and mechanically-thermally treated at 1100 C under a uniaxial pressure reach 1070 MPa and 15%, respectively.

Sun, Q. X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, X. P.; Fang, Q. F.; Hao, T.; Liu, C. S.

2012-05-01

35

Study of mechanical properties of AISI 316 stainless steel processed by selective laser melting, following different manufacturing strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering additive manufacturing (AM) as a field of major interest, this paper is focused on the study of the mechanical\\u000a properties and their variability with manufacturing orientation (anisotropy) for a metallic alloy manufactured by AM, using\\u000a the technology of selective laser melting (SLM). This study has been performed on an austenitic stainless steelAISI 316Lused\\u000a for many industrial fields as chemical,

Itziar Tolosa; Fermn Garcianda; Fidel Zubiri; Fidel Zapirain; Aritz Esnaola

2010-01-01

36

Surface nanocrystallization by surface mechanical attrition treatment and its effect on structure and properties of plasma nitrided AISI 321 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plastic deformation surface layer with nanocrystalline grains was produced on AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Low-temperature nitriding of SMAT and un-SMAT AISI 321 stainless steel was carried out in pulsed-DC glow discharge. The effect of SMAT pretreatment on the microstructure and properties of the stainless steel were investigated using X-ray diffraction,

Yimin Lin; Jian Lu; Liping Wang; Tao Xu; Qunji Xue

2006-01-01

37

Characterization of properties in plastically deformed austenitic-stainless steels joined by friction welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction welding is widely used as a mass-production method in various industries. Welding is used for joining parts with equal and\\/or different diameters. Austenitic-stainless steels are preferred over other stainless steels due greater ease in welding. In the present study, an experimental set-up was designed in order to achieve friction welding of plastically deformed austenitic-stainless steels. AISI 304 austenitic-stainless steels

Mumin Sahin

2009-01-01

38

Thermophysical properties of stainless steel foils  

SciTech Connect

Evacuated panel superinsulations with very high center-of-panel thermal resistances are being developed for use in refrigerators/freezers. Attainment of high resistances relies upon the maintenance of low vacuum levels by the use of stainless steel vacuum jackets. However, the metal jackets also present a path for heat conduction around the high resistance fillers. This paper presents results of a study of the impact of metal vacuum jackets on the overall thermal performance of vacuum superinsulations when incorporated into the walls and doors of refrigerators/freezers. Results are presented on measurements of the thermophysical properties of several types and thicknesses of stainless steel foils that were being considered for application in superinsulations. A direct electrical heating method was used for simultaneous measurements of the electrical resistivity, total hemispherical emittance, and thermal conductivity of the foils. Results are also presented on simulations of the energy usage of refrigerators/freezers containing stainless-steel-clad vacuum superinsulations.

Wilkes, K.E.; Strizak, J.P.; Weaver, F.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Besser, J.E.; Smith, D.L. [Aladdin Industries, Inc. (United States)

1997-10-01

39

Magnetic properties of stainless steels at room and cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic properties of ten types of ferritic and martensitic stainless steels have been measured at room temperature and at 77 K. The steel samples studied were in the annealed state as received from the manufacturer. Our room temperature measurements indicate significantly harder magnetic properties than those quoted in the ASM International Handbook, which studied fully annealed stainless steel samples. Despite having harder magnetic properties than fully annealed steels some of the as-received steels still display soft magnetic properties adequate for magnetic applications. The carbon content of the steels was found to affect the permeability and coercive force, with lower-carbon steels displaying significantly higher permeability and lower coercive force. The decrease in coercive force with reduced carbon content is attributed to fewer carbide inclusions which inhibit domain wall motion. Cooling to 77 K resulted in harder magnetic properties. Averaged over the ten steels tested the maximum permeability decreased by 8%, the coercive force increased by 14%, and the residual and saturation flux densities increased by 4% and 3%, respectively. The change in coercive force when cooled is comparable to the theoretical prediction for iron, based on a model of domain wall motion inhibited by inclusions. The modest changes of the magnetic properties indicate that the stainless steels can still be used in magnetic applications at very low temperatures.

Oxley, Paul; Goodell, Jennifer; Molt, Robert

2009-07-01

40

Stator Shape Improvement to Decrease Iron Loss Caused by Shrink Fit Utilizing Physical Properties of Electrical Steel Sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a motor with a stator which is inserted in a frame by shrink fit, iron loss increases and the increase has become a serious problem. Therefore, the stator shape has been studied to decrease the compression stress. In this paper, a new approach to decrease the loss is proposed, which makes use of physical properties of electrical steel sheet for tension stress, and new stator shape is shown and evaluated by experimental results to decrease the iron loss caused by the shrink fit.

Satoh, Mitsuhiko; Kaneko, Seiichi; Tomita, Mutuwo; Doki, Shinji; Okuma, Shigeru

41

The microstructure and mechanical properties of T91 steel processed by ECAP at room temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the 9Cr-1Mo martensitic steel (T91) was processed by ECAP method at room temperature and annealed at 500 C for 2 h subsequently. The optical and TEM micrographs exhibit that the average grain size was refined from 20 ?m for the initial sample to 200 nm for the sample ECAP extruded six passes and the martensitic laths were severely destroyed during ECAP processing. With the increasing number of the extrusion passes, the microhardness and the tensile strength increase from 2.7 GPa and 730 MPa for the initial sample to 3.8 GPa and 1160 MPa for the sample extruded six passes, while the uniform elongation decreases from 23% to 10%, respectively. After the annealing, the grains grow slightly to 300 nm, and the tensile strength of the samples extruded one and six passes decreases to 880 MPa and 1140 MPa while the elongation increases to 21% and 12%, respectively.

Fan, Z. Q.; Hao, T.; Zhao, S. X.; Luo, G. N.; Liu, C. S.; Fang, Q. F.

2013-03-01

42

Effect of deformation followed by tempering on the mechanical properties of steel 15Kh1M1F  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the effect of plastic deformation on heat-resistance properties of steel 15Kh1M1F depends strongly on the original structural state:1)In steel with a ferrite-carbide structure, prior plastic deformation to 10% leads to an increase in stress-rupture strength and a reduction in long-term ductility under the test conditions. Long-term ductility decreases more markedly as the level of prior plastic deformation

I. I. Mints; M. M. Shteinberg; A. P. Smirnova

1983-01-01

43

Enhancement of the mechanical properties of a low-carbon, low-silicon steel by formation of a multiphased microstructure containing retained Austenite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual-phase and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)-assisted multiphase steels are related families of high-strength formable\\u000a steels exhibiting excellent mechanical characteristics. This study shows how a ferrite-bainite-martensite microstructure containing\\u000a retained austenite can improve the mechanical properties of a cold-rolled low-carbon, low-silicon steel. Such a multiphased\\u000a microstructure is obtained by a heat treatment involving intercritical annealing followed by a bainite transformation tempering.\\u000a Depending on

P. Jacques; F. Delannay; X. Cornet; Ph. Harlet; J. Ladriere

1998-01-01

44

Estimation of mechanical properties of irradiated nuclear pressure vessel steel by use of subsized CT specimen and small punch specimen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the 2-1\\/4 Cr-1M steel that has been selected as the material for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of a multipurpose experimental high temperature gas cooled reactor designed by JAERI. The 2-1\\/4 Cr-1M steel has successful records for high temperature pressure vessels in the petrochemical industries and the ASME Code Case authorizes the use of the steel

X. Mao; H. Takahashi; T. Kodaira

1991-01-01

45

Influence of treating frequency on microstructure and properties of Al 2O 3 coating on 304 stainless steel by cathodic plasma electrolytic deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alumina ceramic coatings were fabricated on 304 stainless steel by cathodic plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED). Influence of treating frequency of the power supply on the microstructure and properties of the coatings were studied. The results indicated that coatings obtained at various frequencies on 304 stainless steels were all composed of ?-Al2O3 and ?-Al2O3, and ?-Al2O3 was the dominant phase. The

Yunlong Wang; Zhaohua Jiang; Xinrong Liu; Zhongping Yao

2009-01-01

46

Microstructure and mechanical properties of austempered high silicon cast steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of austempering treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of silicon alloyed cast steel has been studied. The experimental results show that an ausferrite structure consisting of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite can be obtained by austempering the high silicon cast steel in a large temperature range (240400C). No carbide would precipitate in the structure. The experimental results

Yanxiang Li; Xiang Chen

2001-01-01

47

Hydrophilic property of 316L stainless steel after treatment by atmospheric pressure corona streamer plasma using surface-sensitive analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surgical-grade 316L stainless steel (SS 316L) had its surface hydrophilic property enhanced by processing in a corona streamer plasma reactor using O2 gas mixed with Ar at atmospheric pressure. Reactor excitation was 60 Hz ac high-voltage (0-10 kVRMS) applied to a multi-needle-to-grounded screen electrode configuration. The treated surface was characterized with a contact angle tester. Surface free energy (SFE) for the treated stainless steel increased measurably compared to the untreated surface. The Ar-O2 plasma was more effective in enhancing the SFE than Ar-only plasma. Optimum conditions for the plasma treatment system used in this study were obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization of the chemical composition of the treated surfaces confirms the existence of new oxygen-containing functional groups contributing to the change in the hydrophilic nature of the surface. These new functional groups were generated by surface reactions caused by reactive oxidation of substrate species. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images were generated to investigate morphological and roughness changes on the plasma treated surfaces. The aging effect in air after treatment was also studied.

Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim; Pedrow, Patrick; Eskhan, Asma; Abu-Lail, Nehal

2012-10-01

48

Impedance properties of stainless steel needle electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We here present experimental findings on the stability of impedance properties of stainless steel needle electrodes in-vitro.\\u000a Impedance spectra were measured with a 0.3 mm medical grade stainless steel needle electrode in vitro before and after electrolytic\\u000a treatment. These first results show large changes in impedance properties both after electrolytic treatment and long-term\\u000a saline exposure. The electrode polarization impedance of

H. Kalvy; B. Nordbotten; C. Tronstad; . G. Martinsen; S. Grimnes

49

Evolution of surfaces properties for 100Cr6 steel by implantation and ionic mixing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Physico-chemical characterizations performed on samples of 100Cr6 steel implanted both with boron and nitrogen revealed the formation of boron nitride along with the following new phases: Fe(sub 1-x)(B, N), Fe(sub 2-x)(B, N) and Fe(sub 3-x)(B, N). A thoro...

A. Faussemagne

1996-01-01

50

Effect of hydrostatic extrusion on mechanical properties of trip steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Hydrostatic extrusion increases the deformability of TRIP steels, which simplifies the treatment but retains the good combination of mechanical properties.2.Good mechanical properties of TRIP steels are obtained by warm hydrostatic extrusion (250), ensuring large reductions (75%): s0.2=180 kg\\/mm2, sb=200 kg\\/mm2, d=10%. Hydrostatic extrusion at room temperature permits reductions of only 44%, which leads to lower strength characteristics s0.2=150 kg\\/mm2, sb=174

B. I. Beresnev; I. Ya. Georgieva; V. G. Kozlov; G. A. Pigushina; V. P. Chernyshov

1976-01-01

51

Austenitic stainless steel bulk property considerations for fusion reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk properties of annealed 304, 316, and 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steels are evaluated for the temperature and radiation conditions expected in a near-term fusion reactor. Of interest are the thermophysical properties, void swelling produced by neutron radiaion, and the tensile, creep, and fatigue properties before and after irradiation.

Mattas

1979-01-01

52

Tailoring the Mechanical Properties of a Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steel by Retention of Deformation Twins During Heat Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relation between microstructure and mechanical properties of a 30 pct cold-rolled, recovery-annealed, and recrystallization-annealed Fe-23Mn-1.5Al-0.3C twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel was studied. The thermal stability of deformation-induced twin boundaries along with a reduced dislocation density due to annihilation during recovery annealing at 903 K (630 C) was found to be a simple, promising processing route to overcome the shortcoming of low yield strength usually associated with TWIP steels.

Haase, Christian; Barrales-Mora, Luis Antonio; Molodov, Dmitri A.; Gottstein, Gnter

2013-10-01

53

Properties of HIPed stainless steel powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current design of ITER primary wall, 316LN stainless steel is the reference structural material. Austenitic stainless steel is used for water-cooling channels and structures. As material data on hot isostatic pressed (HIP) 316LN were not available in open literature and from powder producers, the main properties of unirradiated samples have been measured in CEA\\/CEREM. Fully dense material without

Ch. Dellis; G. Le Marois; J. M. Gentzbittel; G. Robert; F. Moret

1996-01-01

54

The effects of deformations by rolling and uniaxial tension on the structure and the magnetic and mechanical properties of armco iron, steel 12X18H10T, and a steel 12X18H10T-Armco Iron-Steel 12X18H10T composite material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of elasto-plastic deformations by rolling and uniaxial tension on the structure and the magnetic and mechanical\\u000a properties of Armco Iron, 12X18H10T steel, and a three-layer Steel 12X18H10T-Armco Iron-Steel 12X18H10T model composite material\\u000a are investigated. The magnetic characteristics, which vary uniquely during elasto-plastic deformations, thus allowing their\\u000a use as parameters for estimating mechanical properties and the degree of deformation

E. S. Gorkunov; S. M. Zadvorkin; E. A. Kokovikhin; E. A. Tueva; Yu. V. Subachev; L. S. Goruleva; A. V. Podkopytova

2011-01-01

55

Structure and Properties of Armco Iron and Stainless Steel, Manufactured by High-Current Low-Energy Electronic Beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and hardness of sur- face coating of armco iron, steel 10864 and non- corrosive steel after processing by high-current low-energy electron beam is considered. The methods of optical metallography, X-ray struc- ture analysis, transmission electronic micros- copy are used. The parameters of electron beam providing formation of a uniform smooth frit- ted surface coating are defined. The formation

N. N. Koval; F. Ivanov; V. V. Kvasnytskyy; V. F. Kvasnytskyy; L. I. Markashova

56

Mechanical and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon films prepared on steel by ECR-CVD process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared on AISI 440C steel substrates at room temperature by the electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD) process in C2H2\\/Ar plasma under different conditions. In order to prevent the inter-diffusion of carbon and improve the adhesion strength of DLC films, functionally gradient Ti\\/TiN\\/TiCN\\/TiC supporting underlayers were deposited on the steel substrates in advance. Using

K. Y. Li; Z. F. Zhou; C. Y. Chan; I. Bello; C. S. Lee; S. T. Lee

2001-01-01

57

Microstructure characteristics and mechanical property of aluminum alloy\\/stainless steel lap joints fabricated by MIG weldingbrazing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lap joints of aluminum alloy 2B50 and stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti were welded by MIG weldingbrazing method with 4043 AlSi filler metal. The effect of aluminizing coating and galvanized zinc coating on fusion metal spreadability were studied. The aluminized coating had limited effect to promote weld surface appearance and obvious micro-cracks were found between the compound layer and the steel side.

Hongtao Zhang; Jiakun Liu

2011-01-01

58

Magnetic properties of grain oriented ultra-thin silicon steel sheets processed by conventional rolling and cross shear rolling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new procedure consisting of the cross shear rolling (CSR) and the subsequent tertiary recrystallization annealing under dry hydrogen atmosphere was developed to produce the grain oriented ultra-thin silicon sheets less than 0.1mm with high magnetic property performance. For comparison, the conventional rolling (CR) was also used to process the grain oriented ultra-thin silicon steel sheets. The effect of processing

Gao Xiuhua; Qi Kemin; Qiu Chunlin

2006-01-01

59

Structures and properties of high-carbon high speed steel by RE-Mg-Ti compound modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of rare earths (RE)-Mg-Ti compound modification on the structures and properties of high-carbon high speed steel\\u000a (HSS) were researched. The impact toughness (?k), the fracture toughness (K1c) and threshold of fatigue crack growth (?Kth) are tested. The thermal fatigue test is done on a self-straining thermal fatigue tester, the wear test is done on a high\\u000a temperature wear

Han-guang Fu; Ding-mei Fu; De-ning Zou; Jian-dong Xing

2004-01-01

60

Improvement of mechanical and tribological properties in steel surfaces by using titanium-aluminum/titanium-aluminum nitride multilayered system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvement of mechanical and tribological properties on AISI D3 steel surfaces coated with [Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N]n multilayer systems deposited in various bilayer periods (?) via magnetron co-sputtering pulsed d.c. method, from a metallic binary target; has been studied in this work exhaustively. The multilayer coatings were characterized in terms of structural, chemical, morphological, mechanical and tribological properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation, pin-on-disc and scratch tests, respectively. The failure mode mechanisms were studied by optical microscopy. Results from X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the crystal structure of TiAl/TiAlN multilayer coatings has a tetragonal and FCC NaCl-type lattice structures for Ti-Al and Ti-Al-N, respectively, i.e., it was found to be non-isostructural multilayers. An enhancement of both hardness and elastic modulus up to 29 GPa and 260 GPa, respectively, was observed as the bilayer periods (?) in the coatings were decreased. The sample with a bilayer period (?) of 25 nm and bilayer number n = 100 showed the lowest friction coefficient (0.28) and the highest critical load (45 N), corresponding to 2.7 and 1.5 times better than those values for the coating deposited with n = 1, respectively. These results indicate an enhancement of mechanical, tribological and adhesion properties, comparing to the [Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N]n multilayer systems with 1 bilayer at 26%, 63% and 33%, respectively. This enhancement in hardness and toughness for multilayer coatings could be attributed to the different mechanisms for layer formation with nanometric thickness such as the novel Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N effect and the number of interfaces that act as obstacles for the crack deflection and dissipation of crack energy.

Ipaz, L.; Caicedo, J. C.; Esteve, J.; Espinoza-Beltran, F. J.; Zambrano, G.

2012-02-01

61

Experimental study on mechanical properties of three steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tensile properties of three steels named A, B, and C were investigated. The quasi-static experiments were carried out by using WDW-100D computer control testing machine while the high strain-rate experiments were testing by using the Split Hopkinson Tensile Bars (SHTB). The stress-strain curves of the materials were obtained, tensile strength, elongation, and energy dissipated were acquired. From the experimental results, the Jonson-Cook constitutive model was use to describe the behaviours of materials. The results showed that steel B had highest tensile strength and lowest elongation than steel A and B. The Jonson-Cook constitutive model fit followed the experimental data very well.

Qin, J. G.; Lin, Y. L.; Lu, F. Y.; Wen, X. J.

2012-08-01

62

Effect of temperature and composition on thermal properties of carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

To simulate steel continuous process (such as induction heating of steel wire) accurately, the relevant thermal properties of carbon steel (within 0.06 to 1.22 wt. % of carbon) were determined as a function of temperature and carbon contents by multiple regression analysis method in this paper. These properties included the thermal conductivity, specific heat, and coefficient of linear thermal expansion,

Sun Yafei; Tu Yongjun; Sun Jing; Niu Dongjie

2009-01-01

63

Study of the effect of nano-sized precipitates on the mechanical properties of boron-added low-carbon steels by neutron scattering techniques.  

PubMed

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron powder diffraction (ND) techniques were used to study quantitatively the effect of nano-sized precipitates and boron addition on the mechanical properties of low-carbon steels. SANS was used to evaluate nano-sized precipitates, smaller than about 600 A in diameter, and ND was used to determine the weight fraction of the cementite precipitates. Fine core-shell structured spherical precipitates with an average radius of ~50 A, such as MnS and/or CuS, surrounded by BN layers were observed in the boron-added (BA) low-carbon steels; fine spherical precipitates with an average radius of ~48 A were mainly observed in the boron-free (BF) low-carbon steels. In the BA steels, the number of boron precipitates, such as BN, Fe(3)(C,B) and MnS, surrounded by BN layers increased drastically at higher hot-rolling temperatures. The volume fraction of the fine precipitates of the BA steels was higher than that of the BF steels; this difference is related to the rapid growth of the BN layers on the MnS and CuS precipitates. Boron addition to low-carbon steels resulted in a reduction in strength and an improvement in elongation; this behaviour is related to the reduction of the solute carbon and the nitrogen contents in the ferrite matrix caused by the precipitation of BN, as well by the increase in the volume fraction of the cementites. PMID:19461851

Seong, B S; Cho, Y R; Shin, E J; Kim, S I; Choi, S-H; Kim, H R; Kim, Y J

2008-08-16

64

X-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel (u)  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel vessels are used to enclose solid materials for studying x-ray radiolysis that involves gas release from the materials. Commercially available stainless steel components are easily adapted to form a static or a dynamic condition to monitor the gas evolved from the solid materials during and after the x-ray irradiation. Experimental data published on the x-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel, however, are very scarce, especially over a wide range of x-ray energies. The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data that will be used to determine how a poly-energetic x-ray beam is attenuated by the stainless steel container wall. The data will also be used in conjunction with MCNP (Monte Carlos Nuclear Particle) modeling to develop an accurate method for determining energy absorbed in known solid samples contained in stainless steel vessels. In this study, experiments to measure the attenuation properties of stainless steel were performed for a range of bremsstrahlung x-ray beams with a maximum energy ranging from 150 keV to 10 MeV. Bremsstrahlung x-ray beams of these energies are commonly used in radiography of engineering and weapon components. The weapon surveillance community has a great interest in understanding how the x-rays in radiography affect short-term and long-term properties of weapon materials.

Wang, Lily L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berry, Phillip C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

65

Mechanical properties and pitting corrosion behaviour of 316L stainless steel parts obtained by a modified metal injection moulding process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel AISI 316L parts have been obtained by a modified metal injection moulding (MIM) process using two different thermosetting polymers: commercial acrylic resin and cyclohexyl methacrylate (CHMA). The first resin polymerises at 90C while the later cures between 20 and 80C. Different mixtures of metal and polymer were investigated and the optimum one was 60vol.% of metal, for both

L Castro; S Merino; B Levenfeld; A Vrez; J. M Torralba

2003-01-01

66

Local properties of undermatched steel weld metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples from two undermatched, multipass welds on 50.8-mm-thick HY-100 steel were tested using a novel microtensile test machine and the local material properties were investigated using a chemical analysis, metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microtensile test technique allowed samples from individual weld beads and weldmetal heat-affected zones to be tested in three orthogonal directions. Relationships between local microhardness and tensile properties were established. The filler metals for the two welds were MIL-70S and MIL-100S. The MIL-70S weld formed ferritic microstructures; the weld-metal heat-affected sites were predominantly polygonal ferrite, while the as-deposited regions were a mixture of lath and polygonal ferrite. This weld showed a large variation in properties from the central weld bead to the outer ones. The outermost site exhibited significant anisotropy in strength that was not revealed by microhardness measurements. The yield strength specification was 483 MPa, while the average at the center of the weld was 675 MPa and the outer sites had an average of 445 MPa. Elongation for the samples from the center was significantly lower as well, 5 pct as compared to 18 pct for the outer sites. The yield strength showed a strong correlation with the size of inclusions measured by TEM. Microprobe analysis found no dilution of the base metal alloying additions into the weld metal. The MIL-100S filler formed predominantly fine acicular ferrite throughout the weld. The strength was much more uniform; the yield strength specification was 690 MPa, while the center of the weld was 756 MPa and the outer sites had an average of 616 MPa. The inclusion size did not play an important role in the variation in mechanical properties.

Lavan, David A.; Sharpe, W. N.

2001-04-01

67

Change of the Properties of High-Temperature Steels Caused by Carburization and Carbide Precipitation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The kinetic of the internal carburization in carburizing H sub 2 -CH sub 4 atmospheres were studied. Particularly, the effect of high temperature (800 - 1100 exp 0 C) and carburizing atmosphere on Cr-Ni-alloys was studied by monitoring the changes in the ...

A. Schnaas

1977-01-01

68

Mechanical properties of nanostructured, low temperature bainitic steel designed using a thermodynamic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured, low temperature bainitic steels with remarkable combination of ultimate tensile strength of about 2.5GPa and high uniform elongation have been developed in the recent decade. To reduce the production cost of these steels, two chemical compositions were designed by using a thermodynamic model which was developed in Cambridge University by Bhadeshia. To attain optimum mechanical properties, the designed steels

M. N. Yoozbashi; S. Yazdani

2010-01-01

69

Mechanical properties of phases in austeno-ferritic duplex stainless steelSurface stresses studied by X-ray diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the parameters characterizing the individual elastoplastic mechanical behaviour of each phase in austeno-ferritic duplex stainless steels are determined by using X-ray diffraction during a uniaxial tensile test. The interpretation of the experimental data is based on the diffraction elastic constants calculated by the self-consistent model taking the anisotropy of the studied materials into account. The elastoplastic model

Rim Dakhlaoui; Chedly Braham; Andrzej Baczma?ski

2007-01-01

70

Correlation of Microstructure, Chip-Forming Properties, and Dynamic Torsional Properties in Free-Machining Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four free-machining steels were fabricated by varying volume fractions of MnS and soft metal additives of Pb and Bi, and their microstructures, tensile properties, chip-forming properties, and dynamic torsional properties were analyzed. Machining and dynamic torsional tests were conducted on the four steels to investigate chip-forming and dynamic torsional properties, respectively. In the Pb-S- and Bi-S-based steels, the chip thickness and ridge area of the 1st chip obtained from the machining test were smaller than in the S-based steels and were not changed much after repeated machining processes. These chip-forming properties were closely related with dynamic torsional properties. Dynamic maximum shear strains of the Pb-S- and Bi-S-based steels were higher than those of the S-based steels, while dynamic maximum shear stresses were lower, thereby leading to the relatively homogeneous dynamic shear deformation and to the better chip-forming properties and machinability.

Kim, Yongjin; Kim, Hyunmin; Kang, Minju; Rhee, Kiho; Shin, Sang Yong; Lee, Sunghak

2013-10-01

71

Measurement of steel corrosion in concrete by impedance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steel corrosion is a major problem for aging bridge structures. The steel corrodes as chloride ions migrate to the buried steel. The properties of the corroded steel-concrete interface change due to the corrosion and can be measured by impedance spectroscopy. A new spectrometer was built to measure concrete slabs. A fitting function to the impedance spectra was used to determine relevant parameters correlated with corrosion. Data from the laboratory and the field demonstrate the utility of this technique.

Bartholomew, Paul; Sumsion, Eric; Guthrie, Spencer; Mazzeo, Brian

2010-10-01

72

Mechanical properties of steel with a Widmanstatten structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Steel 20K with a Widmanstatten structure has higher strength and plastic characteristics as well as a higher impact strength than the steel with a granular ferritic-pearlitic structure.2.At the same grain size the cold brittleness threshold of steel 20K with a Widmanstatten structure is 2530C below that of the steel with a granular structure.3.The higher mechanical properties of the steel with

B. A. Leont'ev; Yu. N. Buzovskii

1968-01-01

73

Influence of prestrain history on fracture toughness properties of steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of prestrain history on fracture toughness properties (J\\u000a Ic values andJ\\u000a R curves) of 4340 steel and 316 stainless steel were investigated. It was observed that monotonic prestrain decreased fracture\\u000a toughness of both steels regardless of prestrain level. Although cyclic prestrain elevated fracture toughness of 4340 steel,\\u000a it degraded that of 316 stainless steel. The effects of cyclic

P. K. Liaw; J. D. Landes

1986-01-01

74

Local properties of undermatched steel weld metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples from two undermatched, multipass welds on 50.8-mm-thick HY-100 steel were tested using a novel microtensile test machine and the local material properties were investigated using a chemical analysis, metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microtensile test technique allowed samples from individual weld beads and weldmetal heat-affected zones to be tested in three orthogonal directions.

David A. Lavan; W. N. Sharpe

2001-01-01

75

Local properties of undermatched steel weld metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples from two undermatched, multipass welds on 50.8-mm-thick HY-100 steel were tested using a novel microtensile test machine\\u000a and the local material properties were investigated using a chemical analysis, metallography, scanning electron microscopy\\u000a (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microtensile test technique allowed samples from individual weld beads\\u000a and weldmetal heat-affected zones to be tested in three orthogonal directions.

David A. LaVan; W. N. Sharpe

2001-01-01

76

Comparison of fracture toughness and Charpy impact properties recovery by thermal annealing of irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this investigation was to study the effects of thermal annealing on the recovery of the transition region toughness of reactor pressure vessel steels. The toughness was measured by Charpy V-notch impact energy and fracture initiation toughness, K{sub Jc}. The materials were A 533 grade B class 1 plate and a commercial reactor vessel submerged-arc weld irradiated at

M. A. Sokolov; D. E. McCabe; S. K. Iskander; R. K. Nanstad

1995-01-01

77

Structure and tribological properties of amorphous carbon films deposited by electrochemical method on GCr15 steel substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amorphous carbon films were deposited on GCr15 steel substrates by electrolysis of methanol, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and the methanolDMSO intermixture electrolytes, respectively, under high voltage and low temperature conditions. The microstructure and wear morphology of the deposited films were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDX), respectively. The

Qun-feng Zeng; Guang-neng Dong; You-bai Xie

2008-01-01

78

Mechanical properties of ferrite-perlite and martensitic Fe-Mn-V-Ti-C steel processed by equal-channel angular pressing and high-temeperature annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the method of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP), submicrocrystalline structure is formed in lowcarbon Fe-Mn-V-Ti-C steel with the average grain size 260 nm in the ferrite-perlite state and 310 nm in the martensitic state. It is established that the ECAP treatment gives rise to improved mechanical properties (H? = 2.9 GPa, ?0 = 990 MPa in the ferrite-perlite and H? = 3.7 GPa, ?0 = 1125 MPa in martensitic states), decreased plasticity, and results in plastic flow localization under tensile loading. The high strength properties formed by the ECAP are shown to sustain up to the annealing temperature 500C.

Zakharova, G. G.; Astafurova, E. G.; Tukeeva, M. S.; Naidenkin, E. V.; Raab, G. I.; Dobatkin, S. V.

2011-09-01

79

Influence of the spraying processes on the properties of 316L stainless steel coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 316L stainless steel coatings produced by different thermal spraying processes are usually used to improve the corrosion behaviour of steel surfaces. In this study the coatings of 316L stainless steel were produced using atmospheric plasma spraying, shrouded plasma spraying and high velocity oxy-fuel spraying (HVOF). The influence of the thermal spraying processes and spray parameters on the properties of

Lidong Zhao; Erich Lugscheider

2003-01-01

80

Anisotropic Properties of Stainless Steel-Clad Aluminum Sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of a stainless steel-clad aluminum sheet by the cold rolling process is a more efficient and economical approach compared with the other types of processes utilized for the production of such sheets. Because both the stainless steel and aluminum sheets show the highly anisotropic behavior, it is necessary to investigate anisotropic properties of clad sheets for the design of process. In this paper, to investigate the anisotropic properties of stainless steel-clad aluminum sheet, two kinds of clad sheets were considered: STS439/AA3003 and STS439/AA1050/STS304 clad sheets. The uni-axial tension tests at 0, 45 and 90 degrees for the rolling direction were performed to obtained yield stresses and R values. The strain ratio at balanced biaxial tension state was measured from compression disk test. In order to describe the anisotropic behavior of the clad sheet, nonquadratic anisotropic yield function Yld2000-2d was utilized.

Kim, Daeyong; Hwang, Bum Kyu; Lee, Young Seon; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Min-Joong

2010-06-01

81

Comparison of the irradiated tensile properties of a high-manganese austenitic steel and type 16 stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The USSR steel EP-838 is a high-manganese (13.5%), low-nickel (4.2%) steel that also has lower chromium and molybdenum than type 316 stainless steel. Tensile specimens of 20%-cold-worked EP-838 and type 316 stainless steel were irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the coolant temperature (approx. 50/sup 0/C). A displacement damage level of 5.2 dpa was reached for the EP-838 and up to 9.5 dpa for the type 316 stainless steel. Tensile tests at room temperature and 300/sup 0/C on the two steels indicated that the irradiation led to increased strength and decreased ductility compared to the unirradiated steels. Although the 0.2% yield stress of the type 316 stainless steel in the unirradiated condition was greater than that for the EP-838, after irradiation there was essentially no difference between the strength or ductility of the two steels. The results indicate that the replacement of the majority of the nickel by manganese and a reduction of chromium and molybdenum in an austenitic stainless steel of composition near that for type 316 stainless steel has little effect on the irradiated and unirradiated tensile properties at low temperatures.

Klueh, R.L.; Grossbeck, M.L.

1983-01-01

82

Influence of Cleanliness on Mechanical Property of 40CrNi2Mo Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

40CrNi2Mo steels were prepared by vacuum arc remelting (VAR) and electroslag remelting (ESR). The cleanliness was evaluated and its effect on mechanical property of the two steels at different tempering temperature was investigated. The results show that because of cleanliness of the VAR steel is higher than that of the ESR steel, the impact absorbing energy (?40C) and percentage reduction

Xiao-yuan LI; Han DONG; Jie SHI

2007-01-01

83

Impact properties and microstructure evolution of 304L stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact properties and microstructure evolution of 304L stainless steel have been studied systematically by means of a split Hopkinson bar and TEM metallographic techniques. Cylindrical specimens were deformed at room temperature under strain rates ranging from 102 to 5103 s?1, with the true strains varying from 0.05 to 0.3. Results indicate that the mechanical properties and the microstructure largely

Woei-Shyan Lee; Chi-Feng Lin

2001-01-01

84

Mechanical Property Characterization of ESR (Electroslag Remelted) 4353 Steel with a Comparison to ESR 4340 Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential enhancement of ballistic and mechanical properties from electroslag remelting has fostered an interest in mechanical property characterizations of electroslag remelted (ESR) steels for Army applications. Mechanical property data are presente...

C. F. Hickey T. S. Thomas

1987-01-01

85

Structure and properties of high-temperature austenitic steels for superheater tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and properties of high-temperature austenitic steels intended for superheater tubes are analyzed. Widely used Kh18N10T (AISI 304) and Kh16N13M3 (AISI 316) steels are found not to ensure a stable austenitic structure and stable properties during long-term thermal holding under stresses. The hardening of austenitic steels by fine particles of vanadium and niobium carbides and nitrides and gamma'-phase and

V. M. Blinov

2009-01-01

86

Pearlite in ultrahigh carbon steels: Heat treatments and mechanical properties  

SciTech Connect

Two ultrahigh carbon steel (UHCS) alloys containing 1.5 and 1.8 wt pct carbon, respectively, were studied. These materials were processed into fully spheroidized microstructures and were then given heat treatments to form pearlite. The mechanical properties of the heat-treated materials were evaluated by tension tests at room temperature. Use of the hypereutectoid austenite-cementite to pearlite transformation enabled achievement of pearlitic microstructures with various interlamellar spacings. The yield strengths of the pearlitic steels are found to correlate with a predictive relation based on interlamellar spacing and pearlite colony size. Decreasing the pearlite interlamellar spacing increases the yield strength and the ultimate strength and decreases the tensile ductility. It is shown that solid solution alloying strongly influences the strength of pearlitic steels.

Taleff, E.M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace and Engineering Mechanics; Syn, C.K.; Lesuer, D.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Manufacturing and Materials Engineering Div.; Sherby, O.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1996-01-01

87

Fracture and Fatigue Properties of 1Cr--Mo--V Bainitic Turbine Rotor Steels. Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The deformation, fracture and fatigue properties of 1Cr--Mo--V turbine rotor steel have been evaluated for a wide range of loading conditions and metallurgical structures controlled by melting and heat treatment practice. The mechanical property differenc...

I. Roman C. A. Rau A. S. Tetelman K. Ono

1979-01-01

88

Parylene coatings on stainless steel 316L surface for medical applications Mechanical and protective properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical and protective properties of parylene N and C coatings (220?m) on stainless steel 316L implant materials were investigated. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron and confocal microscopes, microindentation and scratch tests, whereas their protective properties were evaluated in terms of quenching metal ion release from stainless steel to simulated body fluid (Hanks solution). The obtained results revealed

Monika Cie?lik; Marcin Kot; Witold Reczy?ski; Klas Engvall; Wies?aw Rakowski; Andrzej Kotarba

89

The challenge to produce consistent mechanical properties in Nb-HSLA strip steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

High strength steels have provided a unique opportunity for the automotive industry to achieve weight reduction via reduced material thickness whilst maintaining performance requirements such as crash worthiness. However, the initial success of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels was constrained by inconsistencies in the final mechanical properties. Although significant improvements in both mechanical and dimensional properties have been made,

J. K. Patel; B. Wilshire

2002-01-01

90

Mechanical Properties for Fracture Analysis of Mild Steel Storage Tasks  

SciTech Connect

Mechanical properties of 1950's vintage, A285 Grade B carbon steels have been compiled for elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis of storage tanks (Lam and Sindelar, 1999). The properties are from standard Charpy V-notch (CVN), 0.4T planform Compact Tension (C(T)), and Tensile (T) specimens machined from archival steel from large water piping. The piping and storage tanks were constructed in the 1950s from semi-killed, hot-rolled carbon steel plate specified as A285 Grade B. Evaluation of potential aging mechanisms at both service conditions shows no loss in fracture resistance of the steel in either case.Site and literature data show that the A285, Grade B steel, at and above approximately 70 degrees Fahrenheit, is in the upper transition to upper shelf region for absorbed energy and is not subject to cleavage cracking or a brittle fracture mode. Furthermore, the tank sidewalls are 1/2 or 5/8-inch thick, and therefore, the J-resistance (JR) curve that characterizes material resistance to stable crack extension under elastic-plastic deformation best defines the material fracture toughness. The JR curves for several heats of A285, Grade B steel tested at 40 degrees Fahrenheit, a temperature near the average ductile-to-brittle (DBTT) transition temperature (CVN {at} 15 ft-lb), are presented. This data is applicable to evaluate flaw stability of the storage tanks that are operated above 70 degrees Fahrenheit since, even at 40 degrees Fahrenheit, crack advance is observed to proceed by ductile tearing.

Sindelar, R.L.

1999-03-03

91

Thermophysical properties of stainless steel foils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evacuated panel superinsulations with very high center-of-panel thermal resistances are being developed for use in refrigerators\\/freezers. Attainment of high resistances relies upon the maintenance of low vacuum levels by the use of stainless steel vacuum jackets. However, the metal jackets also present a path for heat conduction around the high resistance fillers. This paper presents results of a study of

K. E. Wilkes; J. P. Strizak; F. J. Weaver; J. E. Besser; D. L. Smith

1997-01-01

92

Effect of Nb Microalloying and Hot Rolling on Microstructure and Properties of Ultrathin Cast Strip Steels Produced by the CASTRIP Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure and corresponding tensile properties of both plain and Nb-microalloyed grades of ultrathin cast strip (UCS)\\u000a low alloy steel produced using the CASTRIP process were studied. Both as-cast and hot-rolled strip cast steels with various levels of Nb microalloying were manufactured\\u000a and investigated in this study. Hot rolling had little effect on the yield strength of Nb microalloyed UCS

Kelvin Y. Xie; Lan Yao; Chen Zhu; Julie M. Cairney; Chris R. Killmore; Frank J. Barbaro; James G. Williams; Simon P. Ringer

2011-01-01

93

Effect of Nb Microalloying and Hot Rolling on Microstructure and Properties of Ultrathin Cast Strip Steels Produced by the CASTRIP Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure and corresponding tensile properties of both plain and Nb-microalloyed grades of ultrathin cast strip (UCS) low alloy steel produced using the CASTRIP process were studied. Both as-cast and hot-rolled strip cast steels with various levels of Nb microalloying were manufactured and investigated in this study. Hot rolling had little effect on the yield strength of Nb microalloyed UCS

Kelvin Y. Xie; Lan Yao; Chen Zhu; Julie M. Cairney; Chris R. Killmore; Frank J. Barbaro; James G. Williams; Simon P. Ringer

2011-01-01

94

Microstructural Characterization and Properties Evaluation of Ni-Based Hardfaced Coating on AISI 304 Stainless Steel by High Velocity Oxyfuel Coating Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study concerns a detailed investigation of microstructural evolution of nickel based hardfaced coating on AISI 304 stainless steel by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) deposition technique. The work has also been extended to study the effect of coating on microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the surface. Deposition has been conducted on sand blasted AISI 304 stainless steel by HVOF spraying technique using nickel (Ni)-based alloy [Ni: 68.4 wt pct, chromium (Cr): 17 wt pct, boron (B): 3.9 wt pct, silicon (Si): 4.9 wt pct and iron (Fe): 5.8 wt pct] of particle size 45 to 60 ?m as precursor powder. Under the optimum process parameters, deposition leads to development of nano-borides (of chromium, Cr2B and nickel, Ni3B) dispersion in metastable and partly amorphous gamma nickel (?-Ni) matrix. The microhardness of the coating was significantly enhanced to 935 VHN as compared to 215 VHN of as-received substrate due to dispersion of nano-borides in grain refined and partly amorphous nickel matrix. Wear resistance property under fretting wear condition against WC indenter was improved in as-deposited layer (wear rate of 4.65 10-7 mm3/mm) as compared to as-received substrate (wear rate of 20.81 10-7 mm3/mm). The corrosion resistance property in a 3.56 wt pct NaCl solution was also improved.

Sharma, Prashant; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

2013-01-01

95

Pearlite in ultrahigh carbon steels: Heat treatments and mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two ultrahigh carbon steel (UHCS) alloys containing 1.5 and 1.8 wt pct carbon, respectively, were studied. These materials were processed into fully spheroidized microstructures and were then given heat treatments to form pearlite. The mechanical properties of the heat-treated materials were evaluated by tension tests at room temperature. Use of the hypereutectoid austenite-cementite to pearlite transformation enabled achievement of pearlitic

Eric M. Taleff; Chol K. Syn; Donald R. Lesuer; Oleg D. Sherby

1996-01-01

96

Pearlite in ultrahigh carbon steels: Heat treatments and mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two ultrahigh carbon steel (UHCS) alloys containing 1.5 and 1.8 wt pct carbon, respectively, were studied. These materials\\u000a were processed into fully spheroidized microstructures and were then given heat treatments to form pearlite. The mechanical\\u000a properties of the heat-treated materials were evaluated by tension tests at room temperature. Use of the hypereutectoid austenite-cementite\\u000a to pearlite transformation enabled achievement of pearlitic

Eric M. Taleff; Chol K. Syn; Donald R. Lesuer; Oleg D. Sherby

1996-01-01

97

Effect of silver on antibacterial properties of stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructural variation and antibacterial properties of the AISI 304 stainless steel containing silver (Ag) element have been investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM), grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Furthermore, the antibacterial testing was performed according to JIS Z2801:2000 specification. As the alloy contained Ag elements, the microstructure of the

Kuo-Hsing Liao; Keng-Liang Ou; Hsin-Chung Cheng; Che-Tong Lin; Pei-Wen Peng

2010-01-01

98

Fatigue properties of a 4340 steel coated with a Colmonoy 88 deposit applied by high-velocity oxygen fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatigue behavior of a quenched and tempered AISI 4340 steel has been evaluated in three different conditions: (a) uncoated; (b) grit-blasted with alumina; (c) grit-blasted and coated with a thermal-sprayed Colmonoy 88 deposit 220 ?m thick, employing a high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) gun. The results indicate that grit blasting the base steel can lead to a significant reduction in

L Hernndez; F Oliveira; J. A Berr??os; C Villalobos; A Pertuz; E. S Puchi Cabrera

2000-01-01

99

Properties of Prealloyed Steel Powder Metallurgy Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The applicability of conventional powder metallurgy fabrication procedures to prealloyed steel powders was investigated. Fifteen lots of steel powder, representing six different major alloy types (4130, 1040, 8620, 4650, 8650, and 9450), have been formed ...

K. R. Sump R. E. Westerman

1971-01-01

100

Thermomechanical processing and mechanical properties of hypereutectoid steels and cast irons  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in metallurgy of hypereutectoid steels and cast irons show that unique properties, such ultrahigh hardness and strength, and superplasticity, are achievable. This book focuses on the mechanical properties of hypereutectoid steels and cast irons as influenced by thermomechanical processing and microstructure. Some topics covered are: (1) Hot workability of hypereutectoid tool steels; (2) Thermomechanical processing of austempered ductile iron: An overview; (3) Mechanical behavior of ultrahigh strength, ultrahigh carbon steel wire and rod; and (4) Tensile elongation behavior of fine-grained Fe-C alloys at elevated temperatures.

Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D. (eds.)

1998-01-01

101

Mechanical properties of Prolene, Ethilion and surgical steel loops.  

PubMed

The present work demonstrates that by using computer calculation on load-deformation curves it is possible to obtain a good deal of useful information on the mechanical properties of material for suturing. The mechanical properties of Prolene, Ethilon and surgical steel loops were investigated. The testing of the loops was performed on a materials testing machine. The load deformation curves were fed into a calculator by a digitizer (Hewlett-Packard 9830 system). A number of examples are given on the practical importance of the different mechanical parameters. Further the investigation showed that the physical characteristics of the materials in Prolene and Ethilon vary with the size of the threads. PMID:7339872

Nilsson, T

1981-01-01

102

Magnetic properties of single crystalline expanded austenite obtained by plasma nitriding of austenitic stainless steel single crystals.  

PubMed

Ferromagnetic single crystalline [100], [110], and [111]-oriented expanded austenite is obtained by plasma nitriding of paramagnetic 316L austenitic stainless steel single crystals at either 300 or 400 C. After nitriding at 400 C, the [100] direction appears to constitute the magnetic easy axis due to the interplay between a large lattice expansion and the expected decomposition of the expanded austenite, which results in Fe- and Ni-enriched areas. However, a complex combination of uniaxial (i.e., twofold) and biaxial (i.e., fourfold) in-plane magnetic anisotropies is encountered. It is suggested that the former is related to residual stress-induced effects while the latter is associated to the in-plane projections of the cubic lattice symmetry. Increasing the processing temperature strengthens the biaxial in-plane anisotropy in detriment of the uniaxial contribution, in agreement with a more homogeneous structure of expanded austenite with lower residual stresses. In contrast to polycrystalline expanded austenite, single crystalline expanded austenite exhibits its magnetic easy axes along basic directions. PMID:24028676

Menndez, Enric; Templier, Claude; Garcia-Ramirez, Pablo; Santiso, Jos; Vantomme, Andr; Temst, Kristiaan; Nogus, Josep

2013-10-03

103

Tribological properties of brake friction materials with steel fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tribological properties of brake friction materials with and without steel fibers were investigated. The focus of this\\u000a study was determining the effect of steel fibers on the speed sensitivity of the friction coefficient. The speed sensitivity\\u000a of the friction coefficient is closely associated with the stick-slip phenomenon. The results indicate that the friction material\\u000a containing steel filbers was more

Sung Bin Park; Keun Hyung Cho; Sola Jung; Ho Jang

2009-01-01

104

Structural characterization and magnetic properties of steels subjected to fatigue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies have been made on the effects of residual stress and microstructure on the variations of magnetic properties of steels during fatigue. Strain-controlled fatigue tests have been conducted on 0.2wt% C steel samples which were (1) cold-worked, (2) cold-worked and annealed at 500 C to relieve residual stress, and (3) annealed at 905 C to produce a ferrite/pearlite structure. The changes of surface microstructure were studied by SEM replica technique. The dislocation structures of samples fatigued for different numbers of cycle were studied by TEM. In the initial stage of fatigue coercivity was found to behave differently for samples which have different residual stress levels. In the intermediate stage the magnetic hysteresis parameters became stable as the dislocation cell structure developed in the samples. In the final stage the magnetic parameters decreased dramatically. The decrease rate is related to the propagation rate of fatigue cracks observed in the SEM study, which was found to be dependent on the sample microstructure. The present results indicate that the magnetic inspection technique is able to differentiate the residual stress effects from the fatigue damage induced by cyclic loading, and therefore it is possible to detect the onset of fatigue failure in steel components via measurements of the changes in magnetic properties.-This work was sponsored by the National Science Foundation, under grant number CMS-9532056. .

Lo, C. C. H.; Tang, F.; Biner, S. B.; Jiles, D. C.

2000-05-01

105

A study of mechanical properties of friction welded mild steel to stainless steel joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to study mechanical property variation under different friction welding conditions for mild steel stainless steel joints. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, percentage elongation of the welded joints and hardness variations across the weld interface have been reported. The integrity of the joints have been investigated using optical microcopy and scanning electron microscopy.

D. Ananthapadmanaban; V. Seshagiri Rao; Nikhil Abraham; K. Prasad Rao

2009-01-01

106

Thermal stability and mechanical properties of ultrafine grained low carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafine grained low carbon steel manufactured by equal channel angular pressing was annealed at 753 K, where negligible grain growth occurred, up to 72 h and the microstructural change and the mechanical properties were examined. This investigation was aimed at providing the guiding information for the effective use of ultrafine grained low carbon steel manufactured by severe plastic deformation processes.

Kyung-Tae Park; Yong-Seog Kim; Jung Guk Lee; Dong Hyuk Shin

2000-01-01

107

Improved life of die casting dies of H13 steel by attaining improved mechanical properties and distortion control during heat treatment. Year 1 report, October 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

Optimum heat treatment of dies (quenching) is critical in ensuring satisfactory service performance: rapid cooling rates increase the thermal fatigue/heat checking resistance of the steel, although very fast cooling rates can also lead to distortion and lower fracture toughness, increasing the danger of catastrophic fracture. Goal of this project is to increase die life by using fast enough quenching rates (> 30 F/min ave cooling rate from 1750 to 550 F, 1/2 in. below working surfaces) to obtain good toughness and fatigue resistance in Premium grade H-13 steel dies. An iterative approach of computer modeling validated by experiment was taken. Cooling curves during gas quenching of H-13 blocks and die shapes were measured under 2, 5, and 7.5 bar N2 and 4 bar Ar. Resulting dimensional changes and residual stresses were determined. To facilitate the computer modeling work, a database of H-13 mechanical and physical properties was compiled. Finite element analysis of the heat treated shapes was conducted. Good fit of modeled vs measured quenched rates was demonstrated for simple die shapes. The models predict well the phase transformation products from the quench. There is good fit between predicted and measured distortion contours; however magnitude of predicted distortion and residual stresses does not match well the measured values. Further fine tuning of the model is required.

Wallace, J.F.; Schwam, D. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-03-01

108

Effect of Grain Size on Mechanical Properties of Nickel-Free High Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine grained structures of nickel-free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels had been obtained by means of cold rolling and subsequent annealing. The relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties and gain size of nickel-free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels was examined. High strength and good ductility of the steel were found. In the grain size range, the Hall-Petch dependency for

Hua-bing LI; Zhou-hua JIANG; Zu-rui ZHANG; Yan YANG

2009-01-01

109

Neutron irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of HY-80 steel. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

HY-80 steel is a high strength steel used by the U.S. Navy in constructing nuclear-submarine hulls. The need to know the effects of neutron irradiation on its mechanical properties is evident because the steel will acquire a fast-neutron dose over the lifetime of the vessel. Future construction of reactor vessels and components is expected to rely, to a higher degree,

Nold

1986-01-01

110

Evolution of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Thermomechanically Processed Ultrahigh-Strength Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, low carbon microalloyed ultrahigh-strength steel was manufactured on a pilot scale. Transformation of\\u000a the aforesaid steel during continuous cooling was assessed. The steel sample was thermomechanically processed followed by\\u000a air cooling and water quenching. Variation in microstructure and mechanical properties at different finish rolling temperatures\\u000a (FRTs) was studied. A mixture of granular bainite and bainitic ferrite

P. S. Bandyopadhyay; S. K. Ghosh; S. Kundu; S. Chatterjee

2011-01-01

111

Neutron irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of HY-80 steel. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

HY-80 steel is a high strength steel used by the U.S. Navy in constructing nuclear-submarine hulls. The need to know the effects of neutron irradiation on its mechanical properties is evident because the steel will acquire a fast-neutron dose over the lifetime of the vessel. Future construction of reactor vessels and components is expected to rely, to a higher degree, on the use of these high-strength-steel alloys. The mechanical properties of HY-80 steel is affected by neutron irradiation when bombarding neutrons collide with the material's atomic structure. Radiation defects caused by this damage hinder or prevent dislocation movement through the structure, which in turn hardens the steel. Previous research on this subject has concluded that irradiation levels on the order of 3 X 10/sup 19/ n/sq cm can increase the steel's strength by as mush as 50%, and raise its ductile-brittle transition temperature several hundred degrees. Few previous studies have shown measurable effects on the mechanical properties of HY-80 steel if irradiation levels are below 1 X 10/sup 17/ n/sq cm. The research discussed in this paper found that irradiation levels of 5 X 10/sup 17/ n/sq cm do result in measurable effects on the strength and hardness of HY-80 steel, and that increasing irradiation fluence levels increases the magnitude of these effects.

Nold, W.F.

1986-12-01

112

HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS PROPERTIES OF FORGED STAINLESS STEELS  

SciTech Connect

The effect of hydrogen on the fracture toughness properties of Types 304L, 316L and 21-6-9 forged stainless steels was investigated. Fracture toughness samples were fabricated from forward-extruded forgings. Samples were uniformly saturated with hydrogen after exposure to hydrogen gas at 34 MPa or 69 and 623 K prior to testing. The fracture toughness properties were characterized by measuring the J-R behavior at ambient temperature in air. The results show that the hydrogen-charged steels have fracture toughness values that were about 50-60% of the values measured for the unexposed steels. The reduction in fracture toughness was accompanied by a change in fracture appearance. Both uncharged and hydrogen-charged samples failed by microvoid nucleation and coalescence, but the fracture surfaces of the hydrogen-charged steels had smaller microvoids. Type 316L stainless steel had the highest fracture toughness properties and the greatest resistance to hydrogen degradation.

Morgan, M

2008-03-28

113

The structure and properties of rapidly cooled cast steels  

SciTech Connect

The results of a new rapid cooling process for the production of cast steel components are presented. The process, known as the mold-chill-casting-with-intense-cooling-rate (MCIC) technology, allows for the development of refined structure and improved properties in a wide range of cast steel components.

Vinokur, B.B. [Ukrainian Academy of Science, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Casting Problems

1997-02-01

114

Comparison of the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 300-M Steel Manufactured by the Vacuum Arc Remelt and the Electroslag Remelt Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The transverse (T-L) and longitudinal (L-T) mechanical properties of Electroslag Refined (ESR) and Vacuum Arc Remelt (VAR) 300-M steel were measured. These were related to the microstructural and chemical differences which resulted from the two melting pr...

T. A. Lechtenberg

1977-01-01

115

Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir (FS) welded SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel were examined. High-quality, full-penetration welds were successfully produced in the super duplex stainless steel by friction stir welding (FSW) using polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) tool. The base material had a microstructure consisting of the ferrite matrix with austenite islands, but FSW refined grains

Y. S. Sato; T. W. Nelson; C. J. Sterling; R. J. Steel; C.-O. Pettersson

2005-01-01

116

Low Temperature improvement of mechanical properties of aisi 4340 steel through high-temperature thermomechanical treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-temperature mechanical properties of AISI 4340 ultrahigh-strength steel can be dramatically improved by high-temperature\\u000a thermomechanical treatment (HTMT). A comparison was made with the mechanical properties developed by the conventional heat-treatment\\u000a (CHT). When the steel was hot forged by 50 pct reduction at 1177 K followed by direct oil quenching and subsequent tempering\\u000a at 423 K, the slow-bending fracture energy

Yoshiyuki Tomita

1991-01-01

117

Cathodic properties of different stainless steels in natural seawater  

SciTech Connect

The cathodic properties of a number of stainless steels, which were exposed to natural seawater flowing at 0 to 2.5 m/s and polarized to potentials from -300 to -950 mV SCE, have been studied. The current density development at constant potential and the free corrosion potential during the exposure time were recorded continuously. At the end of the exposure period, after approximately 28 to 36 days of exposure, polarization curves were determined. After one to three weeks of exposure, depending on the water velocity, microbiological activity on the surface caused an increase in the current density requirement of the specimen. An explanation for the mechanism behind the current density increase caused by slime production from marine bacteria may be increased exchange current density, i/sub 0/. There was no measurable calcareous deposit on the stainless steel surfaces at the end of the exposure periods.

Johnsen, R.; Bardal, E.

1985-05-01

118

High-temperature mechanical properties of near-eutectoid steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-temperature mechanical properties of near-eutectoid steel were studied with a Gleeble-1500 simulation machine. Zero strength temperature (ZST), zero ductility temperature (ZDT), hot ductility curves, and strength curves were measured. Two brittle zones and one plastic zone were found in the temperature range from the melting point to 600C. Embrittlement in zone I is caused by the existence of liquid film along dendritic interfaces. Ductility loss in zone III mainly results from precipitates and inclusions as well as S segregation along grain boundaries. Pearlite transformation also accounts for ductility deterioration in the temperature range of 700-600C. Moreover, the straightening temperature of the test steel should be higher than 925C for avoiding the initiation and propagation of surface cracks in billets.

Fu, Jun; Wang, Fu-ming; Hao, Fang; Jin, Gui-xiang

2013-09-01

119

Thermal creep properties of alloy D9 stainless steel and 316 stainless steel fuel clad tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniaxial thermal creep rupture properties of 20% cold worked alloy D9 stainless steel (alloy D9 SS) fuel clad tubes for fast breeder reactors have been evaluated at 973K in the stress range 125250MPa. The rupture lives were in the range 908100h. The results are compared with the properties of 20% cold worked type 316 stainless steel (316 SS) clad tubes.

S. Latha; M. D. Mathew; P. Parameswaran; K. Bhanu Sankara Rao; S. L. Mannan

2008-01-01

120

Structure and properties of dies obtained from scrap of 5KhNM and R6M5 steels by electroslag remelting  

SciTech Connect

It is known that in a number of cases cast dies of tool steels for hot working possess increased life. In the Lozovaya Forging and Machining Plant in electroslag remelting (ESR) of worn dies, a method is used making it possible to improve the quality of the cast blanks (dies) by additional alloying of them. A consumable composite electrode made of worn dies of 5KhNM steel reforged into bars and butt welded and scrap of R6M5 tool steel welded along the whole length of the main electrode in the form of a solid bar is used. Practically none of the chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, and vanadium additionally added in electroslag remelting burns off and therefore it is sufficient to add the expensive R6M5 steel scrap once. The improved characteristics of the steel are maintained in subsequent operations in the production chain. A comparative investigation was made of the character of the structure in the as-cast, annealed, hardened, and tempered conditions of 5KhNMVF steel produced by the above method and of 5KhNM steel produced by different methods.

Timchenko, E.I.; Semenova, L.M.; Berezkin, Yu.A.; Zaitseva, I.D.

1987-11-01

121

Ultrasonic properties of austenitic stainless steel welds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation were made on welded austenitic stainless steel specimens, and data correlated to flaw detectability. Measurements were made at 2.25 MHz for both longitudinal and shear waves as functions of propagation and polarization directions. The results of ultrasonic velocity measurements show that, in stainless steel welds, a high degree of anisotropy exists with respect to

Lott

1980-01-01

122

Mechanical properties and hot-rolled microstructures of a low carbon bainitic steel with CuP alloying  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low carbon bainitic steel with CuP alloying was developed. The new steel aims to meet the demand of high strength, high toughness and resistance to chloride ion corrosion for the components used in the environment of sea water and oceanic atmosphere. Mechanical properties of the steel were tested and strengthening and toughening mechanisms were analyzed by comparing hot-rolled microstructures

W. F. Cui; S. X. Zhang; Y. Jiang; J. Dong; C. M. Liu

2011-01-01

123

Microstructure and mechanical properties of 16 Cr-ODS ferritic steel for advanced nuclear energy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 16Cr-0.5Ti-lW-0.35Y2O3 oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel was fabricated by mechanically alloying and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Subsequent thermo-mechanical treatments were performed to improve the microstructure homogeneous and service properties of the HIPed 16Cr-ODS steel. Nano-oxide particles were observed by TEM, which can be identified to be (Y, Ti) complex oxide by EDS and SAED. The mechanical property was measured by tensile test, and the oxidation behaviour of the ODS steel was performed at high temperature in a muffle.

Li, Shaofu; Zhou, Zhangjian; Wang, Man; Hu, Helong; Zou, Lei; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Liwei

2013-03-01

124

Design properties of steels for coal conversion vessels. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains the final results of a program to evaluate the fracture properties of pressure vessel steels in simulated coal conversion environments. This represents the first study in which a fracture mechanics approach was used to evaluate material properties in the aggressive high temperature and pressure environments typically encountered in coal conversion vessel operations. The overview of properties required

D. E. McCabe; J. D. Landes

1980-01-01

125

Research Concerning The Mechanical And Structural Properties Of Warm Rolled Construction Carbon Steels  

SciTech Connect

Construction carbon steels represent an important steel class due to the large quantity in which it is produced. Generally, these steels are delivered in as-rolled or normalized condition heaving a ferrite-pearlite microstructure. For a given chemical composition, the mechanical characteristics of this microstructure are largely influenced by the grain size. Rolling is the deformation process which is most widely used for grain size refinement. Situated in the intermediate temperature range, warm-rolling presents certain advantages as compared to classical hot- or cold-working processes.The paper presents a study on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ck15 carbon steel samples warm-rolled. After deformation, the microstructure was investigated by light microscopy. Hardness measurements were made on the section parallel to the rolling direction. The mechanical properties of the steel after warm-rolling were assessed by tensile and impact tests. Additional information concerning the fracture behavior of warm-rolled samples was obtained by examining the fracture surface by scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure of the steel proved to have good mechanical properties. By considering the technologic and energy aspects, the paper shows that warm-rolling can lead to the improvement of mechanical properties of construction carbon steels.

Medrea, C. [Technological Educational Institute of Piraeus, Depmartment of Physics, Chemistry and Materials Technology, 250 Thivon and P. Ralli Str, 12244, Aigaleo, Athens (Greece); Negrea, G.; Domsa, S. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

2007-04-07

126

Tribological properties of the low-carbon steels with different micro-structure processed by heat treatment and severe plastic deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of tribological investigations conducted on steel 20 with the carbon content of up to 0.2%. The steel was studied in the three conditions: initial (hot-rolled), after heat-treatment (quenching+tempering) and after heat treatment with subsequent severe plastic deformation (SPD) performed by equal channel angular pressing technique (ECAP). It was stated that after various treatments the material

Song-Jeng Huang; V. I. Semenov; L. Sh. Shuster; Po-Chou Lin

2011-01-01

127

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Nitride-Strengthened Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitride-strengthened reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are developed taking advantage of the high thermal stability of nitrides. In the current study, the microstructure and mechanical properties of a nitride-strengthened RAFM steel with improved composition were investigated. Fully martensitic microstructure with fine nitrides dispersion was achieved in the steel. In all, 1.4 pct Mn is sufficient to suppress delta ferrite and assure the steel of the full martensitic microstructure. Compared to Eurofer97, the steel showed similar strength at room temperature but higher strength at 873 K (600 C). The steel exhibited very high impact toughness and a low ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of 243 K (-30 C), which could be further reduced by purification.

Zhou, Qiangguo; Zhang, Wenfeng; Yan, Wei; Wang, Wei; Sha, Wei; Shan, Yiyin; Yang, Ke

2012-12-01

128

Effect of isothermal heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardness, tensile properties and microstructural changes in 9Cr-1W-0.06Ta-0.22V-0.08C Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic steel have been investigated after subjecting the steel with isothermal heat treatments for 5 min at temperatures in the range 973-1473 K (below Ac1 to above Ac3 transformation temperatures) followed by oil quenching and tempering at 1033 K for 1 h. These studies have been carried out in an effort to assess the strength of the steel at different microstructural conditions. Optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopic investigations have been carried out to assess the microstructural changes of the steel upon various heat treatments. The steel developed predominantly tempered martensitic structure after the heat treatments. The hardness, tensile strength and the prior austenitic grain size of the steel exhibited minimum values for soaking heat treatment in the intercritical temperature range (i.e.) between Ac1 and Ac3; whereas the ductility was maximum. With increase in isothermal heat treatment temperature above Ac3, hardness, tensile strength and grain size of the steel were found to increase with consequent decrease in tensile ductility. TEM investigations revealed that the coarsening of subgrain and precipitates at grain and sub-grain boundaries on heat treatment of the steel in the inter-critical temperature range. The tensile properties of the steel have been correlated with microstructure.

Chandravathi, K. S.; Sasmal, C. S.; Laha, K.; Parameswaran, P.; Nandagopal, M.; Vijayanand, V. D.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

2013-04-01

129

Mechanical and electrochemical properties of multiple-layer diode laser cladding of 316L stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, a detailed mechanical and electrochemical properties of multiple-layer laser clad 316L stainless steel (from the powders produced by gas atomized route) has been carried out. Multiple-layer laser cladding of 316 L stainless steel has been conducted using a diode laser. The mechanical property (microhardness) of the fabricated product has been evaluated using a microhardness testing machine

J. Dutta Majumdar; A. Pinkerton; Z. Liu; I. Manna; L. Li

2005-01-01

130

Corrosion behaviour of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on galvanized steel and steel modified by ZnNi alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical and transport properties and thermal stability of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on hot-dip galvanized steel and steel modified by ZnNi alloys were investigated during exposure to 3% NaCl solution. ZnNi alloys were electrodeposited on steel by direct and pulse current. From the time dependence of pore resistance, coating capacitance and relative permittivity of epoxy coating, diffusion coefficient of water

J. B. Bajat; Z. Ka?arevi?-Popovi?; V. B. Mikovi?-Stankovi?; M. D. Maksimovi?

2000-01-01

131

Hydrogen embrittlement property of a 1700-MPa-class ultrahigh-strength tempered martensitic steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrogen embrittlement property of a prototype 1700-MPa-class ultrahigh-strength steel (NIMS17) containing hydrogen traps was evaluated using a slow strain rate test (SSRT) after cathodic hydrogen precharging, cyclic corrosion test (CCT) and atmospheric exposure. The hydrogen content in a fractured specimen was measured after SSRT by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The relationship between fracture stress and hydrogen content for the hydrogen-precharged specimens showed that the fracture stress of NIMS17 steel was higher, at a given hydrogen content, than that of conventional AISI 4135 steels with tensile strengths of 1300 and 1500 MPa. This suggests better resistance of NIMS17 steel to hydrogen embrittlement. However, hydrogen uptake to NIMS17 steel under CCT and atmospheric exposure decreased the fracture stress. This is because of the stronger hydrogen uptake to the steel containing hydrogen traps than to the AISI 4135 steels. Although NIMS17 steel has a higher strength level than AISI 4135 steel with a tensile strength of 1500 MPa, the decrease in fracture stress is similar between these steels.

Li, Songjie; Akiyama, Eiji; Yuuji, Kimura; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki; Uno, Nobuyoshi; Zhang, Boping

2010-04-01

132

The effect of molybdenum on high-temperature properties of 9 pct Cr steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat-resistant 9 Cr steels with 1, 2, and 3 pct Mo were tested for mechanical properties, weldability, and creep-rupture properties. The elevated-temperature and rupture strengths increase with increasing molybdenum content. While the 9 Cr-1 Mo steel is martensitic and is precipitation strengthened with carbides, the 9 Cr-2 Mo and 9 Cr-3 Mo steels receive added benefits from precipitation of Laves phase and solid-solution strengthening. The latter cause little decrease in ductility and impact resistance. The 9 Cr-2 Mo and 9 Cr-3 Mo steels are characterized by a duplex microstructure which aids weldability. Weld cracking tests show no need for preheating the latter steels, although the martensitic 9 Cr-1 Mo steel is known to be susceptible to weld cracking if not preheated. Both duplex-structure steels have good resistance to stress-relief cracking. Anisotropy of mechanical properties, due to the orientation of the duplex structure in the rolling direction, is less than that observed in the fully martensitic 9 Cr-1 Mo steel.

Grobner, P. J.; Hagel, W. C.

1980-04-01

133

Surface Modification of Stainless Steels By Carbon/nitrogen Implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma immersion ion implantation has been used for simultaneous implantation of carbon and nitrogen into austenitic, ferritic, and duplex stainless steels at 400C for 3 h. The surface phase composition, studied by means of Conversion Electron Mssbauer Spectroscopy and X-Ray difraction, is correlated with the mechanical properties represented by hardness (Vickers) measurements. The results extend information about the expanded austenite phase formed during the low temperature modification of stainless steel surface by nitrogen.

Jirskov, Y.; Schneeweiss, O.; Havl?ek, S.; Blawert, C.; Kalvelage, H.

2001-07-01

134

Structure and properties of high-temperature austenitic steels for superheater tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and properties of high-temperature austenitic steels intended for superheater tubes are analyzed. Widely used\\u000a Kh18N10T (AISI 304) and Kh16N13M3 (AISI 316) steels are found not to ensure a stable austenitic structure and stable properties\\u000a during long-term thermal holding under stresses. The hardening of austenitic steels by fine particles of vanadium and niobium\\u000a carbides and nitrides and ??-phase and

V. M. Blinov

2009-01-01

135

The influence of assist gas on magnetic properties of electrotechnical steel sheets cut with laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the influence of assist gas (air and nitrogen) during laser cutting on magnetization, magnetic permeability and loss characteristics of non-oriented electrical steels. The research was made on an non-oriented M330-50A grade electrical steels by means of single sheet tester. In order to enhance the effect of cutting and the same degradation zone on magnetic properties, strips with different width were achieved. Measurements results indicate that application of air as assist gas has more destructive effect on magnetic properties of electrical steels than nitrogen one.

Gaworska-Koniarek, Dominika; Szubzda, Bronis?aw; Wilczy?ski, Wies?aw; Drosik, Jerzy; Kara?, Kazimierz

2011-07-01

136

Study of the effect of nano-sized precipitates on the mechanical properties of boron-added low-carbon steels by neutron scattering techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron powder diffraction (ND) techniques were used to study quantitatively the effect of nano-sized precipitates and boron addition on the mechanical properties of low-carbon steels. SANS was used to evaluate nano-sized precipitates, smaller than about 600 Ain diameter, and ND was used to determine the weight fraction of the cementite precipitates. Fine core-shell structured spherical

B. S. Seong; Y. R. Cho; E. J. Shin; S. I. Kim; S.-H. Choi; H. R. Kima; Y. J. Kim

2008-01-01

137

Hydrogen Effect on Nanomechanical Properties of the Nitrided Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ electrochemical nanoindentation is used to examine the effect of electrochemically charged hydrogen on mechanical properties of the nitride layer on low-alloy 2.25Cr-1Mo martensitic structural steel. By application of this method, we were able to trace the changes in the mechanical properties due to the absorption of atomic hydrogen to different depths within the compound and diffusion layers. The results clearly show that the hydrogen charging of the nitriding layer can soften the layer and reduce the hardness within both the compound and the diffusion layers. The effect is completely reversible and by removal of the hydrogen, the hardness recovers to its original value. The reduction in hardness of the nitride layer does not correlate to the nitrogen concentration, but it seems to be influenced by the microstructure and residual stress within the compound and diffusion layers. Findings show that nitriding can be a promising way to control the hydrogen embrittlement of the tempered martensitic steels.

Barnoush, Afrooz; Asgari, Masoud; Johnsen, Roy; Hoel, Rune

2013-02-01

138

Rare Earths and the Mechanical Properties off Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the western steel industry's interest in rare-earth metals has waned since the 1970s, additions of this resource can nonetheless be used to improve the fatigue and creep properties of steel as well as depress temper embrittlement. With the largest rare-earth resources in the world, the Peoples'Republic of China has maintained a significant research commitment in this area, determining that several mechanical properties of steel may be enhanced aside from the traditional improvements in toughness characteristics. In desulfurization processing, for example, rare-earth injection favorably complements the calcium injection technology which is currently prevalent in the West. Further, rare earths react quite efficiently with the hydrogen in steels to lower the hydrogen diffusion coefficient.

Jingsheng, Yu; Zongsen, Yu; Chengjian, Wu

1988-05-01

139

Aging properties of vanadium-bearing high manganese stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Strengthening of austenitic ({gamma}) stainless steel is of great interest to utilization for the structural component. Strengthening of the steel is attained by a combination of following mechanisms such as solution strengthening, strengthening by grain size effect, strain hardening, and precipitation hardening. A selection for the strengthening of {gamma} steel is precipitation hardening due to carbides, nitrides, and intermetallic phases, by which both high strength and low permeability of {gamma} steel may be satisfied. Among Mo, Ti, V, and Nb carbides, it is known that vanadium carbide is considered to be potent contributor to hardening because it precipitates finely in the matrix and grow relatively slower. However, carbide precipitation hardening behavior of highly alloyed {gamma} stainless steel has not been much studied. In this paper, hardening behavior of the vanadium added, low permeability {gamma} stainless steel, Fe-Cr-6Ni-10Mn-V-C, was investigated focusing on the microstructural change and compositional aspects.

Haruna, Y. [Sanyo Special Steel Co., Ltd., Himeji (Japan). Technological Research Lab.; Yamamoto, A.; Tsubakino, H. [Himeji Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1997-11-01

140

Aging degradation of cast stainless steels: Effects on mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water operating conditions. Mechanical property data are presented from Charpy-impact, tensile, and J-R curve tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 450, 400, 350, 320, and 290°C. The results indicate that thermal aging increases the

O. K. Chopra; H. M. Chung

1987-01-01

141

Recrystallization and magnetic properties of purified 3% silicon steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of impurities on the tertiary recrystallization and magnetic properties of the thin (10 to 100 ?m) silicon steels was investigated. For purification, the conventional grain oriented silicon steels, which were used as starting materials with a thickness of 0.30 mm were pre-annealed at 1200 C in a vacuum of 110?3 Pa before cold rolling. In sheets without pre-annealing,

K. Ishiyama; K. I. Arai; T. Honda

1991-01-01

142

Tempering microstructure and mechanical properties of pipeline steel X80  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tempering microstructure and mechanical properties of X80 steel used for heating-bent pipe were analyzed. The results show that the microstructure of X80 steel tempered at 550 C and 600 C is bainitic ferrite (BF)+granular bainite (GB), and partial ferrite laths in BF merge and broaden. The interior sub-lath boundary of some GB begins to disappear due to merging, the

Jing NIU; Li-hua QI; Ying-lai LIU; Lei MA; Yao-rong FENG; Jian-xun ZHANG

2009-01-01

143

Mechanical Properties for Fracture Analysis of Mild Steel Storage Tanks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mechanical properties of 1950's vintage, A285 Grade B carbon steels have been compiled for elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis of storage tanks (Lam and Sindelar, 1999). The properties are from standard Charpy V-notch (CVN), 0.4T planform Compact ...

R. L. Sindelar P. S. Lam G. R. Caskey L. Y. Woo

1999-01-01

144

Weld Properties of a Free Machining Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

The all weld metal tensile properties from gas tungsten arc and electron beam welds in free machining austenitic stainless steels have been determined. Ten heats with sulfur contents from 0.04 to 0.4 wt.% and a wide range in Creq/Nieq ratios were studied. Tensile properties of welds with both processes were related to alloy composition and solidification microstructure. The yield and ultimate tensile strengths increased with increasing Creq/Nieq ratios and ferrite content, whereas the ductility measured by RA at fracture decreased with sulfur content. Nevertheless, a range in alloy compositions was identified that provided a good combination of both strength and ductility. The solidification cracking response for the same large range of compositions are discussed, and compositions identified that would be expected to provide good performance in welded applications.

J. A. Brooks; S. H. Goods; C. V. Robino

2000-08-01

145

The effects of hydrogen on the fracture toughness properties of upset welded stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The effects of hydrogen on the fracture toughness properties of upset welded Type 304L stainless steel were measured and compared to those measured previously for as-received and as-welded steels. The results showed that the upset welded steels had good fracture toughness properties, but values were lower than the as-received material. The fracture toughness value of the base material was 6420 in-lbs/sq. in., while the welded steels averaged 3660 in-lbs/sq. in. Hydrogen exposure lowered the fracture toughness values of the as-received steel by 43 % to 3670 in-lbs/sq. in. and the welded steels by 21 % to 2890 in-lbs/sq. in. The fracture morphologies of the unexposed steels showed that ductile fracture occurred by the microvoid nucleation and growth process. The size of the microvoids on the fracture surfaces of the welded steels were much smaller and more closely spaced that those found on the base material fracture surfaces. The change in the size and spacing of the microvoids indicates that the fracture toughness properties of the welded steels were lower than the base steels because of the higher concentration of microscopic precipitates on the weld plane. The welds examined thus far have been {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} welds and the presence of these precipitates was not apparent in standard {open_quotes}low{close_quotes}-magnification metallographic sections of the weld planes. The results indicate that hydrogen did not weaken greatly the solid-state welds but that other inclusions or impurities present prior to welding did. Improvements in surface cleaning and preparation prior to welding should be explored as a way to improve the strength of solid-state welded joints.

Morgan, M.T.

1995-06-01

146

Ultrasonic properties of austenitic stainless steel welds  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation were made on welded austenitic stainless steel specimens, and data correlated to flaw detectability. Measurements were made at 2.25 MHz for both longitudinal and shear waves as functions of propagation and polarization directions. The results of ultrasonic velocity measurements show that, in stainless steel welds, a high degree of anisotropy exists with respect to ultrasonic wave propagation: for different propagation and polarization directions, shear wave velocities varied from 2.8 to 4.2 mm/..mu..s compared to 3.1 mm ..mu..s for base material, and longitudinal wave velocities varied from 5.5 to 6.0 mm/..mu..s compared to 5.9 mm ..mu..s for base material. Measurements of reflected signals from simulated defects in a welded stainless steel plate indicate that, for 45-degree angle beams, longitudinal waves exhibit larger signal-to-noise ratios than shear waves. Horizontally polarized shear waves exhibit larger signal-to-noise ratios than shear waves. Horizontally polarized shear waves exhibit larger signal-to-noise ratios than commonly used vertically polarized shear waves at 45-degrees. These results have potential significance for practical ultrasonic examination of welded stainless steel structures.

Lott, L.A.

1980-05-01

147

Improved Life of Die Casting Dies of H13 Steel by Attaining Improved Mechanical Properties and Distortion Control During Heat Treatment  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of this project is to increase die casting die life by using fast enough quenching rates to obtain good toughness and fatigue resistance in premium grade H-13 steel dies. The main tasks of the project were to compile a database on physical and mechanical properties of H-13; conduct gas quenching experiments to determine cooling rates of dies in difference vacuum furnaces; measure the as-quenched distortion of dies and the residual stresses; generate finite element analysis models to predict cooling rates, distortion, and residual stress of gas quenched dies; and establish rules and create PC-based expert system for prediction of cooling rates, distortion, and residual stress in vacuum/gas quenched H-13 dies. Cooling curves during gas quenching of H-13 blocks and die shapes have been measured under a variety of gas pressure. Dimensional changes caused by the gas quenching processes have been determined by accurate mapping of all surfaces with coordinate measuring machines before and after the quench. Residual stresses were determined by the ASTM E837 hole-drilling strain gage method. To facilitate the computer modeling work, a comprehensive database of H-13 mechanical and physical properties has been compiled. Finite element analysis of the heat treated shapes has been conducted using the TRAST/ABAQUS codes. There is a good fit between the predicted and measured distortion contours. However, the magnitude of the predicted distortion and residual stresses does not match well the measured values. Further fine tuning of the model is required before it can be used to predict distortion and residual stress in a quantitative manner. This last step is a prerequisite to generating rules for a reliable expert system.

J. F. Wallace; D. Schwam

1998-10-01

148

Structure and properties of high-temperature austenitic steels for superheater tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and properties of high-temperature austenitic steels intended for superheater tubes are analyzed. Widely used Kh18N10T (AISI 304) and Kh16N13M3 (AISI 316) steels are found not to ensure a stable austenitic structure and stable properties during long-term thermal holding under stresses. The hardening of austenitic steels by fine particles of vanadium and niobium carbides and nitrides and ?'-phase and Fe2W and Fe2Mo Laves phase intermetallics is considered. The role of Cr23C6 chromium carbides, the ? phase, and coarse precipitates of an M 3B2 phase and a boron-containing eutectic in decreasing the time to failure and the stress-rupture strength of austenitic steels is established. The mechanism of increasing the stress-rupture strength of steels by boron additions is described. The chemical compositions, mechanical properties, stress-rupture strength, and creep characteristics of Russian and foreign austenitic steels used or designed for superheater tubes intended for operation under stress conditions at temperatures above 600C are presented. The conditions are found for increasing the strength, plasticity, and thermodeformation stability of austenite in steels intended for superheater tubes operating at 700C under high stresses for a long time.

Blinov, V. M.

2009-12-01

149

Stability under temperature of expanded austenite developed on stainless steel AISI 316L by ion nitriding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion nitriding of steels is a process widely used on steels because it can give the surface important improvements in their tribological and mechanical properties attributable to the iron nitridings formation. On the other hand, on stainless steels, this improvement can normally be obtained by sacrificing their resistance to the corrosion. Nevertheless, several years ago, a new type of phase

L. Nosei; M. Avalos; B. J. Gmez; L. Nachez; J. Feugeas

2004-01-01

150

Effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties of microalloyed forging steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of cooling rate after hot deformation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a commercial microalloyed forging steel (30MSV6 grade) was investigated using the hot compression test. Hot compression test was performed at 1150 and 925C followed by air cooling at different rates. Final microstructures and mechanical properties were evaluated by optical microscopy and shear punch test (SPT),

D. Rasouli; Sh. Khameneh Asl; A. Akbarzadeh; G. H. Daneshi

2008-01-01

151

Low- Temperature improvement of mechanical properties of aisi 4340 steel through high-temperature thermomechanical treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-temperature mechanical properties of AISI 4340 ultrahigh-strength steel can be dramatically improved by high-temperature thermomechanical treatment (HTMT). A comparison was made with the mechanical properties developed by the conventional heat-treatment (CHT). When the steel was hot forged by 50 pct reduction at 1177 K followed by direct oil quenching and subsequent tempering at 423 K, the slow-bending fracture energy of fatigue-precracked steels was significantly improved, with notably increased strength, owing to a moderate increase in ductility over the temperature range of 123 to 293 K, and the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) in the Charpy impact test was remarkably lowered. The marked development was achieved in the slow-bending fracture energy, with moderate improvement in strength, owing to significantly increased ductility over the temperature range of 123 to 293 K, when the steel was deformed by 50 pct reduction at 1473 K followed by direct oil quenching and subsequent tempering at 453 K. The treatment also improved the shelf energy and DBTT in the Charpy impact test. The improved mechanical properties are attributed to the subcell structure introduced in austenite by processing HTMT and inherited by martensite. The present work shows that an HTMT steel is attractive for low-temperature ultrahigh-strength applications when suitable combinations of deformation temperatures with tempering conditions are applied to the steels.

Tomita, Yoshiyuki

1991-05-01

152

Structure and properties of dies obtained from scrap of 5KhNM and R6M5 steels by electroslag remelting  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that in a number of cases cast dies of tool steels for hot working possess increased life. In the Lozovaya Forging and Machining Plant in electroslag remelting (ESR) of worn dies, a method is used making it possible to improve the quality of the cast blanks (dies) by additional alloying of them. A consumable composite electrode made

E. I. Timchenko; L. M. Semenova; Yu. A. Berezkin; I. D. Zaitseva

1987-01-01

153

Improved life of die casting dies of H13 steel by attaining improved mechanical properties and distortion control during heat treatment. Year 1 report, October 1994September 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimum heat treatment of dies (quenching) is critical in ensuring satisfactory service performance: rapid cooling rates increase the thermal fatigue\\/heat checking resistance of the steel, although very fast cooling rates can also lead to distortion and lower fracture toughness, increasing the danger of catastrophic fracture. Goal of this project is to increase die life by using fast enough quenching rates

J. F. Wallace; D. Schwam

1995-01-01

154

Magnetic and structural properties of ion nitrided stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic properties and crystalline structure of expanded austenite obtained by ion beam nitriding of AISI 316 steel are investigated. Magnetic force microscopy reveals that the nitrogen expanded austenite has two different layers, an outermost ferromagnetic layer and a paramagnetic layer beneath it. Superimposing the nitrogen concentration profile determined by secondary neutral mass spectrometry and the magnetic force microscopy image, one can see that the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition takes place at the inflection point of the nitrogen concentration profile at about 14+/-2 N at. %. Conventional and glancing angle x-ray diffraction suggests that nitrogen could occupy first tetrahedral interstitial positions (nitrogen-poor paramagnetic phase) and then, after saturation of Cr traps, octahedral interstitial positions (nitrogen-rich ferromagnetic phase). The ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition is seen to be governed by Cr (traps)-N interactions.

Basso, R. L. O.; Pimentel, V. L.; Weber, S.; Marcos, G.; Czerwiec, T.; Baumvol, I. J. R.; Figueroa, C. A.

2009-06-01

155

Microstructure and mechanical properties of CrAlN coatings deposited by modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering on AISI H13 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

CrAlN coatings were deposited on silicon and AISI H13 steel substrates using a modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering\\u000a system. At the modified ion beam bombardment, the effects of bias voltage and Al\\/(Cr+Al) ratio on microstructure and mechanical\\u000a properties of the coatings were studied. The X-ray diffraction data showed that all CrAlN coatings were crystallized in the\\u000a cubic NaCl B1

Chunyan Yu; Shebin Wang; Linhai Tian; Tianbao Li; Bingshe Xu

2009-01-01

156

Interrelationships between thermal history and mechanical properties of a secondary hardening steel. [Vasco MA steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial secondary hardening steel, VASCO MA, has been subjected to modified heat treatments to introduce mixed microstructures of martensite and lower bainite. Dilatometry, tensile testing, hardness measurements and slow-bend testing have been carried out and the mechanical properties obtained have been correlated to microstructure using scanning electron microscopy and metallography. Duplex microstructures containing small amounts of lower bainite are found

Kar

1976-01-01

157

Fabrication and adhesive properties of thin organosilane films coated on low carbon steel substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the fabrication and adhesive properties of thin organosilane films coated on the surface of low carbon steel substrates by curing ?-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (?-GPS) solutions hydrolyzed in different solvents. This method appears to be a promising alternative treatment for the chromium and phosphate mainly due to its excellent corrosion protection and adhesion properties to organic coatings and a non-toxic pretreatment.

Guoli Li; Xueming Wang; Aiju Li; Weiqiang Wang; Liqiang Zheng

2007-01-01

158

Effect of a dispersed phase on the magnetic properties of an unalloyed isotropic transformer steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper,* we have investigated some methods of influencing the formation processes of the dispersed phase, in particular, treatment of the transformer steel 2011-2013 (0.04% C, 0.3-0.4% Mn, 0.01-0.03% S) at low temperatures and with aluminum added to it during deoxidation. We primarily investigated a steel deoxidized by a mixture of silicomanganese and ferrotitanium [1]. The magnetic properties were

V. I. Sidorkin; Yu. S. Nechaev; D. G. Mukham'etov; S. M. Bulygina; A. A. Kim

1992-01-01

159

Tribological properties of DLC films deposited on steel substrate with various surface roughness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films in water were investigated concerning with the influence of surface roughness and various mating materials. The DLC films were deposited by pulsed-bias CVD method on AISI630 stainless steel. The substrate roughness (Ra) is in the range of 1.4740 nm. AISI 440C, AISI 304 stainless steel and brass balls were used as a mating

Tsuguyori Ohana; Masahiro Suzuki; Takako Nakamura; Akihiko Tanaka; Yoshinori Koga

2004-01-01

160

The effect of cyclic loading on the mechanical properties of 16GNMA steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

treated steel. The chemical composition of the steel tested was 0.15 C, 0.27 St, 0.w Mn, 0.022 S, 1.0 Ni, 0.4% Mo. The primary mechanical properties are shown in Table 1. ?9 The pieces were heat treated as follows: normalizing by charging into the furnace at 780~ heating to 925~ holding at this temperature for 16 min, dropping to 500~

V. N. Rudenko; A. S. Spivakov

1975-01-01

161

Effect of cold rolling and annealing on mechanical properties of HSLA steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: was to examine effect of the parameters of cold deformation and recrystallization annealing on mechanical properties of a Nb-microalloyed HSLA steel. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: Research of strip steel QStE 420 was based on a combination of laboratory cold rolling, recrystallization annealing in vacuum furnace, mechanical (particularly tensile) tests and metallographic analyses. Findings: It was validated that by a sophisticated combination of

I. Schindler; M. Janoec; E. Msteck; L. A. Dobrzaski; S. Rusz

162

The Effect of Dynamic Strain Aging on Subsequent Mechanical Properties of Dual-Phase Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual-phase (DP) steels with different martensite contents were produced by subjecting a low carbon steel to various heat treatment\\u000a cycles. In order to investigate the effect of dynamic strain aging (DSA) on mechanical properties, tensile specimens were\\u000a deformed 3% at 300C. Room temperature tensile tests of specimens which deformed at 300C showed that both yield and ultimate\\u000a tensile strengths increased,

M. J. Molaei; A. Ekrami

2010-01-01

163

Effects of grain size on the properties of a low nickel austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the grain size (varying in the range of 2.550 m) on the mechanical properties and on the wear and corrosion resistance of a low nickel austenitic stainless steel is reviewed. In particular, the austenite-martensite transformation followed by annealing for martensite reversion in high nitrogen stainless steel is investigated. In order to study the effect of this thermo-mechanical

A. Di Schino; M. Barteri; J. M. Kenny

2003-01-01

164

Gigacycle Fatigue Properties of V-Added Steel with an Application of Modified Ausforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reveals gigacycle fatigue properties for a modified-ausformed V-added steel with the chemical composition of 0.3C-0.3Si-1.0Cr-0.7Mo-0.3V in mass %. Modified-ausformed and oil-quenched steels were prepared for fatigue tests, followed by tempering at 400C and 600C. The tensile strengths of the 600C tempered steels were almost equal to those of the 400C tempered versions because of secondary hardening due to

Hisashi Hirukawa; Yoshiyuki Furuya; Saburo Matsuoka

2006-01-01

165

Effect of oxide phase on the tribological properties of high-chromium steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of dispersed oxide phases of Y2O3-TiO2 type on the wear rate and the friction coefficient of the high-chromium martensitic 18Kh12V2 and ferritic 01Kh13V2 steels upon sliding friction in pair with the 40Kh12 steel has been studied. The structure of these materials has been analyzed by metallographic and electron-microscopic methods. It has been shown that the presence of about 0.5% dispersed oxide particles, including nanosized ones, in the structure of the ferritic 01Kh13V2 steel exerts a complex influence on the wear resistance of this steel. Upon dry friction under the conditions of adhesive wear, the 01Kh12V2 steel alloyed with oxides is characterized by a low wear resistance. It is caused by an increased brittleness of the steel, which activates the processes of seizure and deep tearing at the friction surface of the steel. In the case of lubricated friction (boundary friction regime), dispersed oxide phases exert a great positive influence on the wear resistance of the steel. The wear rate of the oxide-strengthened ferritic steel in this case is about twice as low as that of the steel nonalloyed with oxides. It is caused by the formation of numerous pores in the surface layer of the alloyed steel in place of spalled oxides. The formation of pores helps better retention of a lubricant in the friction zone (the effect of self-lubrication), which decreases the probability of adhesive inter-action between the contacting steel surfaces. It has been found out that the alloying of a high-chromium martensitic 18Kh12V2 steel with a small amount (0.3%) of oxides of the Y2O3 + TiO2 type does not exert a noticeable influence on the tribological properties of the steel under consideration. The oxide phase does not affect noticeably the magnitude of the friction coefficient of the steels tested.

Korshunov, L. G.; Sagaradze, V. V.; Kataeva, N. V.; Chernenko, N. L.; Ageev, V. S.; Danil'Chenko, V. E.

2011-08-01

166

Magnetic property changes during embrittlement of a duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in magnetic properties were used to investigate the ferrite decomposition that occurs in wrought duplex stainless steel (DSS) UNS S31803 at high (800C) and low temperatures (475C). At 800C the saturation and residual induction, the coercive force and the differential permeability decrease with time, due to the increase in the austenite content. Firstly, secondary austenite (?2) forms in the

S. S. M Tavares; M. R da Silva; J. M Neto

2000-01-01

167

Durability and Physical Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The durability and physical properties of steel fiber reinforced concretes proportioned for pumpability criteria for tunnel liners are reported. The mix parameters include fiber contents of 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 volume percent, maximum aggregate sizes of 3/8, ...

G. T. Halvorsen C. E. Kesler A. R. Robinson J. A. Stout

1976-01-01

168

Fatigue Property of Stainless Steel FES Electrode in Hanks' Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue property of the wire rope with 19 strands used as an FES electrode was investigated. The wire rope was made of high manganese high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel. Fatigue life of the wire rope in Hanks' solution at 310 K was evaluated using a dual-driven rotating-bending fatigue machine. Each wire of the rope was worn out and the cross

Y. Iguchi; T. Narushima; K. Suzuki; S. Yoshida; M. Watanabe; T. Kinami; C. Ouchi

169

Microstructures and Properties of Friction Freeform Fabricated Borated Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new additive manufacturing process, termed "friction freeform fabrication," has been recently proposed by the authors. One of the unique capabilities of the process is that it can facilitate fabrication of three-dimensional parts in materials that are difficult to fusion deposit. The current study is a striking demonstration of this, in which cylindrical samples of 40 mm height and 10 mm diameter were successfully produced in borated stainless steel ASTM 304B4, a material known to be very difficult to fusion weld or deposit. Microstructures and mechanical properties of these samples were investigated in detail and were compared to those of standard wrought-processed alloy 304B4 Grade B material.

Dilip, J. J. S.; Janaki Ram, G. D.

2013-06-01

170

Steel casting by diffusion solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process for casting and welding carbon steels is described in which carbon diffuses isothermally or adiabatically within\\u000a an intimate mixture of solid low carbon steel and high carbon liquid iron to effect solidification and subsequent homogenization\\u000a with respect to carbon. Advantages over conventional casting processes and products result from 1) 150 to 200C lower casting\\u000a temperature; 2) reduced

George Langford; Robert E. Cunningham

1978-01-01

171

Steel casting by diffusion solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process for casting and welding carbon steels is described in which carbon diffuses isothermally or adiabatically within\\u000a an intimate mixture of solid low carbon steel and high carbon liquid iron to effect solidification and subsequent homogenization\\u000a with respect to carbon. Advantages over conventional casting processes and products result from 1) 150 to 200C lower casting\\u000a temperature; 2) reduced

George Langford; Robert E. Cunningham

1978-01-01

172

Microstructure and Corrosion Properties of AlCoCrFeNi High Entropy Alloy Coatings Deposited on AISI 1045 Steel by the Electrospark Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrospark deposition (ESD) was employed to clad the AlCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) on AISI 1045 carbon steel. The relationship between the microstructure and corrosion properties of the HEA-coated specimens was studied and compared with that of the copper-molded cast HEA material. Two major microstructural differences were found between the cast HEA material and the HEA coatings. First, the cast material comprises both columnar and equiaxed crystals with a columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET), whereas the HEA coatings consist of an entirely columnar crystal structure. The CET phenomenon was analyzed based on Hunt's criterion. Second, unlike the cast HEA material, there was no obvious Cr-rich interdendritic segregation and nano-sized precipitate distributed within the dendrites of the HEA coating. With regard to corrosion properties, the corrosion current of the HEA-coated specimen was significantly lower than for the 1045 steel and the cast HEA material. This was attributed to the ESD specimen having a relatively high Cr oxide and Al oxide content at the surface. Moreover, for the ESD specimen, the absence of Cr-rich interdendritic phase and second-phase precipitation resulted in a relatively uniform corrosion attack, which is different from the severe galvanic corrosion attack that occurred in the cast specimen.

Li, Q. H.; Yue, T. M.; Guo, Z. N.; Lin, X.

2013-04-01

173

IRRADIATION CREEP AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO FERRITIC-MARTENSITIC STEELS IRRADIATED IN THE BN-350 FAST REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

Russian ferritic/martensitic steels EP-450 and EP-823 were irradiated to 20-60 dpa in the BN-350 fast reactor in the form of pressurized creep tubes and small rings used for mechanical property tests. Data derived from these steels serves to enhance our understanding of the general behavior of this class of steels. It appears that these steels exhibit behavior that is very consistent with that of Western steels. Swelling is relatively low at high neutron exposure and confined to temperatures less then 420 degrees C, but may be camouflaged somewhat by precipitation-related densification. The irradiation creep studies confirm that the creep compliance of F/M steels is about one-half that of austenitic steels, and that the loss of strength at test temperatures above 500 degrees C is a problem generic to all F/M steels. This conclusion is supported by post-irradiation measurement of short-term mechanical properties. At temperatures below 500 degrees C both steels retain their high strength (yield stress 0.2=550-600 MPa), but at higher test temperatures a sharp decrease of strength properties occurs. However, the irradiated steels still retain high post-irradiation ductility at test temperatures in the range of 20-700 degrees C.

Porollo, S. I.; Konobeev, Yu V.; Dvoriashin, A. M.; Budylkin, N. I.; Mironova, E. G.; Leontyeva-Smirnova, M. V.; Loltukhovsky, A. G.; Bochvar, A. A.; Garner, Francis A.

2002-09-01

174

Microstructural - Mechanical Property Relationships in High Strength Cast Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The grain refinement of high strength steel castings by small titanium additions has been enhanced by a small particle nucleation technique. The combination of these two mechanisms makes possible the total refinement of large castings inoculated with 0.1%...

J. V. Peck R. B. Bertolo J. F. Wallace

1969-01-01

175

Low-temperature elastic properties of four austenitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elastic properties of four austenitic stainless steels-AISI 304, AISI 310, AISI 316, and A286-are reported over the temperature range 300-4 K. These properties include longitudinal modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, bulk modulus (reciprocal compressibility), Poisson's ratio, and elastic Debye temperature. Elastic constants were determined from measurements of longitudinal and transverse sound-wave velocities using an ultrasonic (10 MHz) pulse-superposition method.

H. M. Ledbetter; W. F. Weston; E. R. Naimon

1975-01-01

176

Low-temperature elastic properties of four austenitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elastic properties of four austenitic stainless steelsAISI 304, AISI 310, AISI 316, and A286are reported over the temperature range 3004 K. These properties include longitudinal modulus, shear modulus, Youngs modulus, bulk modulus (reciprocal compressibility), Poissons ratio, and elastic Debye temperature. Elastic constants were determined from measurements of longitudinal and transverse sound-wave velocities using an ultrasonic (10 MHz) pulse-superposition method.

H. M. Ledbetter; W. F. Weston; E. R. Naimon

1975-01-01

177

The mechanical properties of high-strength steel weldments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop good mechanical properties in highstrength weldments, selection of a welding process, weld consumables,\\u000a and postweld heat treatment compatible with the intended service is of major importance. This paper illustrates how these\\u000a selections can influence the properties of the weld metal, heataffected zone and base metal for six highstrength pressure\\u000a vessel steels. In each case, the balance

A. W. Pense

1983-01-01

178

High Strength Stainless Steel Properties that Affect Resistance Welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses results of a study on selected high strength stainless steel alloy properties that affect resistance welding. The austenitic alloys A-286, JBK-75 (Modified A-286), 21-6-9, 22-13-5, 316 and 304L were investigated and compared. The former two are age hardenable, and the latter four obtain their strength through work hardening. Properties investigated include corrosion and its relationship to chemical

Kanne

2001-01-01

179

Properties of doped boiler steel after controlled rolling  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Controlling rolling (ter=80020C) of steels type 2022K makes it possible to increase short-time (su, s0.2) and long-time (s45010000) strength: by 515% and 1015%, respectively, for steel without additives, and by 2030% and 3040% for steel doped with vanadium or niobium, with ductility maintained at the level d=25% and a1=70 J\\/cm2.2.Controlled rolling with controlled subsequent cooling enhances the level of short-time

M. V. Bobylev; V. B. Kireev; A. M. Koreshkova

1991-01-01

180

Effects of High Strain Rate on Properties and Microstructure Evolution of TWIP Steel Subjected to Impact Loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of the TWIP steel subjected to impact loading at various strain rates were analyzed by the split Hopkinson pressure bar. Meanwhile the microstructure of the TWIP steel fore-and-aft dynamic deformation was oberseved and analyzed by optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that when the TWIP steel was deformed under

Da-zhao LI; Ying-hui WEI; Chun-yue LIU; Li-feng HOU; Dong-feng LIU; Xian-zhe JIN

2010-01-01

181

Influence of plastic deforamtion by shot peening and of cyclic loading on the properties of the surface layer of 30KhGSN2A steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The high effectiveness of repeated surface hardening, revealed in an increase in cyclic life of the high-strength steel, is caused by the high amount and depth of penetration of the first order residual compressive stresses (in comparison with the first peening) and by the significant changes in phase composition and fine structure of the surface layer of the material.2.Cyclic loading

G. N. Kravchenko; V. V. Alekseev

1986-01-01

182

Effect of Alloying Elements on Tensile Properties, Microstructure, and Corrosion Resistance of Reinforcing Bar Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of copper, phosphorus, and chromium present in a semikilled reinforcing bar steel produced by in-line quenching [thermomechanical treatment (TMT)] process on the tensile properties, microstructure, and corrosion resistance of steel in simulated chloride environment has been investigated. The results have been compared with that of a semikilled C-Mn reinforcing bar steel without these alloying elements produced by the same process route. Though the amount of phosphorus (0.11 wt.%) was higher than that specified by ASTM A 706 standard, the Cu-P-Cr steel exhibited a composite microstructure, and good balance of yield stress, tensile stress, elongation, and ultimate tensile to yield stress ratio. Two conventional test methods, namely, the salt fog, and potentiodynamic polarization tests, were used for the corrosion test. The rust formed on Cu-P-Cr steel was adherent, and was of multiple colors, while the corrosion products formed on the C-Mn steel were weakly adherent and relatively darker blue. Also, the free corrosion potential of the Cu-P-Cr steel was nobler, and the corrosion current was markedly lower than that of a C-Mn rebar. The Cu-P-Cr steel did not develop any pits/deep grooves on its surface even after the prolonged exposure to salt fog. The improved corrosion resistance of the Cu-P-Cr steel has been attributed to the presence of copper, phosphorus, and small amount of chromium in the dense, adherent rust layer on the surface of reinforcing steel bar. A schematic mechanism of charge transfer has been proposed to explain the improved corrosion resistance of the Cu-P-Cr alloyed TMT rebar.

Panigrahi, B. K.; Srikanth, S.; Sahoo, G.

2009-11-01

183

Effect of Sulfur and Zirconium on the Machinability and Mechanical Properties of AISI 1045 Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of small increases of sulfur and addition of zirconium in conjunction with sulfur on the machinability and mechanical properties of laboratory-produced AISI 1045 steels have been investigated. Machinability was measured in terms of cutting energy per unit volume of metal machined. With increasing sulfur, there is a linear increase in sulfide volume fraction and improvement in machinability. Ductility parameters such as tensile reduction in area and impact shelf energy, however, significantly decrease with sulfur, particularly in the transverse direction. Addition of zirconium causes formation of manganese-zirconium sulfides and increased globularity. Although further improvement in machinability by zirconium addition is not evident, there is a significant improvement in transverse impact properties by zirconium addition for steels containing high sulfur. The study suggests that an optimum combination of higher sulfur for improved machinability and zironium for better impact properties yields a steel with acceptable machining and ductility criteria.

Bhattacharya, Debanshu

1981-06-01

184

Microstructure and property modifications of an AISI H13 (4Cr5MoSiV) steel induced by pulsed electron beam treatment  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, surface modifications generated by the low energy high current pulsed electron beam (LEHCPEB) treatments have been investigated on an AISI H13 (4Cr5MoSiV) steel. From the observations of scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electron back scattering diffraction determinations, it could be established that the final structure in the melted layer is a mixture of ultrafine {delta} phase, martensite, and residual austenite. The formation of the heterogeneous microstructures on the surface layer is related to the very rapid heating, melting, solidification, and cooling induced by the LEHCPEB irradiation. After the LEHCPEB treatment, the wear resistance of the steel effectively improved. This can be mainly attributed to the higher hardness of the ultrafine structures formed on the top surface and the hardened subsurface layers after the treatment.

Zhang Kemin; Zou Jianxin; Grosdidier, Thierry; Dong Chuang [School of Materials Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Mg Materials and Applications and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) and Laboratoire d'Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM, CNRS 3143), Universite Paul Verlaine Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Laboratoire d'Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM, CNRS 3143), Universite Paul Verlaine Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France) and Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron and Ion Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron and Ion Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2010-11-15

185

Effect of grain-boundary penetration of aisi type 316 stainless steel by cesium oxides on the biaxial stress-to-failure properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biaxial stress-to-failure behavior of 20% cold-worked Type 316 ; stainless steel was studied at 704 deg C after intergranular penetration by ; cesium oxides (CsO + CsO) at 66O deg C. Time t o failure and ; ductility decrease with intergranular penetration depth; the changes can be ; explained if the penetration is equivalent to a reduction in the

F. Rosa; P. S. Maiya

1974-01-01

186

Effect of VC inhibitors in combination with unconventional dynamical heat treatment on the magnetic properties of GO steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work investigates some new approaches of grain - oriented steels processes. The suggested approach combines an application of nano - particles VC in combination with dynamic continuous annealing for secondary recrystallization in the investigated steels. Such a dynamical (fast heating) annealing and VC particles was applied to the grain - oriented steels in order to obtain abnormal grain growth with Gass crystallographic orientation development during secondary recrystallization. This abnormal gain growth led to evolution of suficienty sharp {110}<001> Goss texture which is equal to that obtained in conventionally treated GO steels. Moreover, the steels treated by the newly method showed similar magnetic properties as the materials passed the long - time heat treated. The coercive field value of our steels reached 11 A/m. This means that the proposed heat treatment in combination with VC nano - particles lead to development equal material's quality at significantly shortened time of heat treatment in comparison to the conventional process of GO steel production.

Kov?, F.; Petryshynets, I.; korvnek, I.; Falat, L.; Marcin, J.

2013-01-01

187

Adsorption Properties and Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in 0.5 M H2SO4 Solution by Some Triazol Compound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of 3,5-dimethylbenzoic acid [1,2,4]triazol derivative (DBTE) on the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution was evaluated in this study by means of weight loss test, EIS, potentiodynamic polarization, and SEM. The results revealed that DBTE acted as a mixed-type inhibitor without change of the mechanism of hydrogen evolution. The inhibition efficiency increased with the increase in concentration of DBTE, and the adsorption behavior of DBTE on the mild steel surface followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters reveal that the chemisorption was the dominant adsorption process, and good inhibition performances in the studied range of temperatures were observed.

Tao, Z.; He, W.; Wang, S.; Zhang, S.; Zhou, G.

2013-03-01

188

Effect of electron-beam melting upon the properties of grade ShKh15 ball-bearing steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron-beam melting reduces the gas content, harmful impurities and nonmetallic inclusions in ShKh15 steel, thus leading to a considerable improvement in its physical, mechanical, and electrochemical properties. Most marked is the improvement in the resistance of the steel to cyclic loads: its fatigue limit is increased by 33% to a level higher than that recorded for any steel of this

Yu. M. Efimenko; A. B. Kuslitskii; D. V. Chaban; G. V. Karpenko; B. A. Movchan

1966-01-01

189

High-temperature tensile and creep properties of a ferritic stainless steel for interconnect in solid oxide fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate the high-temperature mechanical properties of a ferritic stainless steel (Crofer 22 APU) for use as an interconnect material in planar solid oxide fuel cells (pSOFCs). Tensile properties of the Crofer 22 APU steel are evaluated at temperatures of 25800C. Creep properties are evaluated by constant-load tests at 650800C. Several creep lifetime models

Yung-Tang Chiu; Chih-Kuang Lin; Jiunn-Chi Wu

190

Parylene coatings on stainless steel 316L surface for medical applications--mechanical and protective properties.  

PubMed

The mechanical and protective properties of parylene N and C coatings (2-20 ?m) on stainless steel 316L implant materials were investigated. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron and confocal microscopes, microindentation and scratch tests, whereas their protective properties were evaluated in terms of quenching metal ion release from stainless steel to simulated body fluid (Hanks solution). The obtained results revealed that for parylene C coatings, the critical load for initial cracks is 3-5 times higher and the total metal ions release is reduced 3 times more efficiently compared to parylene N. It was thus concluded that parylene C exhibits superior mechanical and protective properties for application as a micrometer coating material for stainless steel implants. PMID:23177768

Cie?lik, Monika; Kot, Marcin; Reczy?ski, Witold; Engvall, Klas; Rakowski, Wies?aw; Kotarba, Andrzej

2011-09-25

191

Charpy impact properties of 9CrODS ferritic steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The toughness of 9CrODS steels was evaluated by using an instrumented Charpy impact test machine, focusing on various processes such as hot-forging and hot-rolling. The upper-shelf energy (USE) of the hot-forged specimens is superior; their full-size USE converted from the miniaturized specimen lies within the published data for ODS steels, whereas hot-rolling leads to poor toughness. The total absorbed energy was separated into the energies for crack initiation and propagation. The hot-forged 9CrODS steels provide similar crack initiation energy to ferritic/martensitic steels (FMSs); their low absorbed energy is attributed to a limited amount of crack propagation energy induced by plastic deformation.

Izawa, Wataru; Ukai, Shigeharu; Oono, Naoko; Hayashi, Shigenari; Sakamura, Takashi; Kohno, Yutaka; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji

2013-11-01

192

High temperature mechanical properties of triple phase steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 0.15% C1.2% Si1.7% Mn steel was intercritically annealed at 780C for 5min and then isothermally held at 400C for 4min followed by oil quenching to room temperature and the annealed microstructure consist of 75% ferrite , 15% bainite and 10% retained austenite was produced. Samples of this steel with triple phase structure were tensile tested at temperature range of

Mohammad Reza Akbarpour

2007-01-01

193

High Strength Stainless Steel Properties that Affect Resistance Welding  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses results of a study on selected high strength stainless steel alloy properties that affect resistance welding. The austenitic alloys A-286, JBK-75 (Modified A-286), 21-6-9, 22-13-5, 316 and 304L were investigated and compared. The former two are age hardenable, and the latter four obtain their strength through work hardening. Properties investigated include corrosion and its relationship to chemical cleaning, the effects of heat treatment on strength and surface condition, and the effect of mechanical properties on strength and weldability.

Kanne, W.R.

2001-08-01

194

Effect of low-temperature aging on the mechanical properties of cast stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

The significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water operating conditions was investigated. Mechanical property data are presented from Charpy-impact, tensile, and J-R curve tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 450, 400, 350, 320, and 290/sup 0/C. Thermal aging increased the tensile strength and decreased the impact energy, J/sub IC/, and tearing modulus of the steels. Also, the ductile-to-brittle transition curve shifted to higher temperatures. Fracture toughness results were consistent with the Charpy-impact data. The ferrite content and concentration of C in the steel had a strong effect on the overall process of low-temperature embrittlement. The low-carbon CF-3 steels were the most resistant and Mo-containing CF-8M steels were most susceptible to embrittlement. Weakening of the ferrite/austenite phase boundaries by carbide precipitates had a significant effect on the kinetics and extent of embrittlement of the high-carbon CF-8 and CF-8M steels, particularly after aging at temperatures greater than or equal to400/sup 0/C. The influence of N content and distribution of ferrite on loss of toughness are discussed. Data also indicate that existing correlations do not accurately represent the embrittlement behavior over the temperature range 280 to 450/sup 0/C. 16 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

1987-07-01

195

Evaluation of cryogenic properties and applicability of 9% nickel steel to large scale liquefied natural gas storage tanks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work was performed to characterize the critical properties of 9%Ni steel and to evaluate the applicability of 9%Ni steel produced by POSCO for large scale LNG storage tank. In order to assess its applicability to LNG storage tank, brittle fracture in...

Y. M. Kim H. S. Kim

1994-01-01

196

Effect of rolling with shear on the properties of steel 08G2S rods and wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hereditary effect of the structure of a wire rod on the structure and physicomechanical properties of the steel 08G2S wire produced by rolling with shear is studied in comparison with the wire produced according to the standard technology in OAO Metal Steel Krivoi Rog.

Pashinskaya, E. G.; Tolpa, A. A.; Myshlyaev, M. M.; Grishaev, V. V.; Zavdoveev, A. V.

2011-11-01

197

Embrittlement of Gun Steel by Copper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metallographic examination of the bore surfaces of cannon tubes revealed a close association of copper with the erosion and cracking that occurs during firing. Metallic copper, transferred by abrasive contact between the steel surface and the copper rotat...

A. Szirmae M. H. Kamdar R. M. Fisher

1984-01-01

198

Effects of prestraining on the magnetic properties of 4340 steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of the magnetization method for assessing the extent of monotonically prestrained levels in 4340 steels is addressed in order to determine whether magnetic inspection techniques can be used to provide advanced indications of the likely problems related to failure or degradation of material resulting from monotonic or cyclic prestrain. Magnetic property measurements provided clear indications of the material strength levels in the steel samples. The increasing number of dislocations due to prestraining produces an increase in the yield strength and the coercivity. The coercivity can thus be used as an indication of the yield strength of the material. The correlations between the magnetic properties and material strength levels were not as clear for the cyclically prestrained specimens due to the shape of the dislocation network after cycling. Plastic deformation gradients were also found to affect the magnetic hysteresis measurements.

Devine, M. K.; Apostol, J.; Jiles, D. C.; Liaw, P. K.

199

Prediction of mechanical properties of light gauge steels at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deterioration of the mechanical properties of yield strength and modulus of elasticity is considered as the primary element affecting the performance of steel structures under fire. However, the variation of mechanical properties for light gauge and high strength steels at elevated temperatures is not known. Steels with thicknesses less than 1 mm and yield strengths greater than 500 MPa

Jung Hoon Lee; Mahen Mahendran; Pentti Makelainen

2003-01-01

200

Effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties of ferritic steels  

SciTech Connect

Effect of neutron radiation exposure was investigated in various ferritic steels with the main emphasis being the effects of thermal neutrons on radiation hardening. Pure iron of varied grain sizes was also used for characterizing the grain size effects on the source hardening before and after neutron irradiation. While many steels are considered in the overall study, the results on 1020, A516 and A588 steels are emphasized. Radiation hardening due to fast neutrons was seen to be sensitive to the composition of the steels with A354 being the least resistant and A490 the least sensitive. Majority of the radiation hardening stems from friction hardening, and source hardening term decreased with exposure to neutron radiation apparently due to the interaction of interstitial impurities with radiation produced defects. Inclusion of thermal neutrons along with fast resulted in further decrease in the source hardening with a slight increase in the friction hardening which revealed a critical grain size below which exposure to total (fast and thermal) neutron spectrum resulted in a slight reduction in the yield stress compared to the exposure to only fast neutrons. This is the first time such a grain size effect is reported and this is shown to be consistent with known radiation effects on friction and source hardening terms along with the observation that low energy neutrons have a nonnegligible effect on the mechanical properties of steels. In ferritic steels, however, despite their small grain size, exposure to total neutron spectrum yielded higher strengths than exposure to only fast neutrons. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the source hardening is small in these alloys and radiation effect is due only to friction stress.

Kass, S.B.; Murty, K.L.

1995-12-31

201

Effect of different sintering environments on the mechanical properties of P\\/M stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The porosity, volume shrinkage, and mechanical properties of P\\/M stainless steels are determined by their sintering temperature and environment. In the case of sintering in hydrogen, with rise in temperature the shrinkage attained is smaller and the porosity greater compared with sintering in a vacuum. As a result of a strengthening of the solid solution by interstitial phases, made possible

I. D. Radomysel'skii; V. V. Shil'din; V. F. Tkachenko

1981-01-01

202

Kawasaki Steel Technical Report No. 14, March 1986. Special Issue on Stainless Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Manufacturing process and properties of stainless steels; Progress in stainless steel production by top and bottom blown converter; Production of high grade stainless steels; New equipment for improvement of stainless steel casting qual...

1986-01-01

203

Tribological Properties of Eiectrolytically Polished Surfaces of Carbon Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, it was shown that electrolytic polishing of tooth faces had successfully elongated the pitting durability of medium carbon steel gearing under severe loading and poor lubrication conditions, irrespective of reducing surface hardness.This paper investigates tribological properties such as friction, surface temperature rise, wear and scuffing of eLectrolytically polished surfaces in lubricated contact under severe loading using a ball-on-disk machine.

T. Nakatsuji; A. Mori

1998-01-01

204

Mechanical Properties of Large Plastic-Mold Steel Blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molds for plastic automotive components such as bumpers and dashboards are usually machined from large pre-hardened steel\\u000a blocks. Due to the large size, the blooms undergo a slack quench, so that mixed microstructures occur throughout, both after\\u000a quench and after the tempering stages. Mechanical properties that are both not homogeneous in the section and everywhere lower\\u000a (particularly in fracture toughness)

M. Chiarbonello; D. Firrao; R. Gerosa; A. Ghidini; M. G. Ienco; P. Matteis; G. Mortarino; A. Parodi; M. R. Pinasco; B. Rivolta; G. Scavino; G. Silva; E. Stagno; G. Ubertalli

205

Embrittlement of steels by hydrogen sulfide. [4340 steel  

SciTech Connect

Results of fracture toughness testing of specimens of 4340 steel as a function of H/sub 2/S gas pressure are presented. Observations indicated a delayed crack tip plasticity effect caused by the H/sub 2/S gas. Evidence is presented that indicated that the cracking initiated at the fatigue precrack proceeded in the form of a tunnel crack configuration and that the crack tunneling left strips of material along each edge approx. 10/sup -4/ m in width which finally underwent a tearing or collapse. This strip collapse appeared to result in plastic zone growth under static load in H/sub 2/S. (BLM)

Sieradzki, K.

1981-01-01

206

Design properties of steels for coal conversion vessels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the final results of a program to evaluate the fracture properties of pressure vessel steels in simulated coal conversion environments. This represents the first study in which a fracture mechanics approach was used to evaluate material properties in the aggressive high temperature and pressure environments typically encountered in coal conversion vessel operations. The overview of properties required for a fracture mechanics evaluation thus obtained can be used to identify potential problem areas in vessel operation. The materials evaluated in this study were 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo pressure vessel steel weldments. The metallurgical conditions evaluated were A387, A542, base metal, weld metal, and heat-affected zone plus a simulation of 347 stainless steel weld overlay material. Five evaluation techniques were applied ranging in scope from subcritical crack growth to fracture toughness degradation. Environments used were 100% hydrogen and 6% H/sub 2/S-Bal H/sub 2/. Test conditions ranged from room temperature to 727/sup 0/K (850/sup 0/F) and pressures from 5.5 MPa (800 psi) to 24.1 MPa (3500 psi). The data developed in the present program were used to make some preliminary design calculations for example service conditions. The results indicated that successful operations are feasible despite severe material degradation but certain precautions should be taken with periodic inspections for flaws and prudent pressure-temperature control should be exercised. Several detailed observations are given.

McCabe, D.E.; Landes, J.D.

1980-11-01

207

The Microstructure and Properties of Super Martensitic Stainless Steel Microalloyed with Tungsten and Copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure and properties of super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) microalloyed with tungsten and copper were studied by means of optical microscopy, dilatometer, X-ray diffraction, and tensile tests. The results showed that the microstructure of SMSS, after quenching and tempering, was a typical biphase structure with tempered martensite and reversed austenite dispersedly distributed in the martensite matrix. W and Cu were added into the SMSS to reduce the transformation temperature (Ms) and improve the strength and hardness of the matrix by grain refining and solid solution strengthening. Thermocalc calculations confirmed that M23C6 compound and Laves phase were precipitated during tempering in the investigated steel. Compared with the traditional SMSS, the steel microalloyed with W and Cu performed better mechanical properties.

Ye, Dong; Li, Jun; Liu, Yu-Rong; Yong, Qi-Long; Su, Jie; Cao, Jian-Chun; Tao, Jing-Mei; Zhao, Kun-Yu

2011-06-01

208

Corrosion inhibition of steel by bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Mild steel was exposed to Pseudomonas sp. S9 or Serratia marcescens in synthetic seawater. An increase in corrosion resistance over that i natural seawater was monitored by electrochemical techniques. Biological analyses were performed to characterize the system. The inhibition effect also was observed when mild steel was coated with bacteria and then immersed in synthetic seawater. When specimens coated with bacteria were transferred to a natural seawater flow system, the inhibition effect disappeared during the first 2 weeks.

Hernandez, G.; Kucera, V.; Thierry, D.; Pedersen, A. (Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)); Hermansson, M. (Univ. of Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology)

1994-08-01

209

Effect of hot rolling conditions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-C-Mn-Si multiphase steels  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing need for the high strength steels with high formability for many applications. Using the concept of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) observed in austenitic steels, one can obtain the combination of high strength and high formability. However, these austenitic steels require a fairly large amount of alloying elements which impose several practical problems for their widespread applications. On the other hand, it has been shown that the dual phase steels possess the relatively good combination of strength and formability due to their characteristic microstructure. The major microstructural constituents of dual phase steels are soft ferrite and hard martensite/bainite with small amount of retained austenite. In recent years, the beneficial effect of retained austenite on the mechanical properties of dual phase steels have been re-recognized and accordingly, there have been several investigations on developing the so-called TRIP-aided dual phase steels having increased amount of retained austenite in the microstructure. Most investigations on these TRIP-aided dual phase steels have been concentrated on the effects of heat treatment conditions and alloying elements such as Si, Mn, C and P on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cold rolled sheet steels. There have also been a few studies on developing such steels by hot rolling, and the emphases of these studies are placed mostly on increasing the amount of retained austenite. However, the microstructure of these hot rolled steels is far from optimum, consisting of large packets of hard second phase particles. The main objective of the present study is to modify the microstructure of this class of steels by varying the hot rolling conditions. The steel used in the present study is Fe-0.2C-2Si-1.5Mn.

Koh, H.J.; Lee, S.K.; Choi, S.J.; Kwon, S.J.; Kim, N.J. [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Park, S.H. [POSCO, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Sheet Products and Process Research Team

1998-02-03

210

Effect of calcium and cerium on the structure and properties of 08Kh18G8N2T steel and of welded joints in this steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we examined the effect of microadditions of cerium and calcium, on the phase composition and properties of 08KhlSGSN2T steel. The investigations were conducted on the metal of melts of 08KhlSG8N2T steel of four modifications (Table I): with the content of the main elements, i.e., chrome, nickel, manganese, corresponding to the minimum and maximum limits specified by GOST

G. A. Sal'nikov; M. A. Khubrikh; A. S. Zubchenko; Zh. A. Lepilina; I. I. Zhukova

1986-01-01

211

High-Temperature Tensile Properties of Nano-Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Ferritic Steels Produced by Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels were produced by mechanical alloying and subsequent spark plasma sintering. Very fast heating rates were used to minimize porosity when controlling grain size and precipitation of dispersoids within a compacted material. Sintering cycles performed at 1373 K (1100 C) induced heterogeneous, but fine grain size distribution and high density of nano-oxides. Yield strengths at room temperature and at 923 K (650 C) are 975 MPa and 298 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, high-temperature ductility is much increased: total strain of 28 pct at 923 K (650 C).

Boulnat, Xavier; Fabregue, Damien; Perez, Michel; Mathon, Marie-Hlne; de Carlan, Yann

2013-06-01

212

Mechanical properties and fatigue strength of high-manganese non-magnetic steel\\/carbon steel welded joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes performance tests of dissimilar material welded joints produced from carbon steel and a new type of high-manganese non-magnetic steel with improved machinability. The basic mechanical properties of these joints are first described. Fatigue tests are then conducted for purposes of fatigue strength design of the joints within the context of an evaluation of their suitability for application

E. Nakaji; S. Ikeda; Y. C. Kim; Y. Nakatsuji; K. Horikawa

1998-01-01

213

Microstructural evolution and its relation to mechanical properties in a drawn dual-phase steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructural changes and their relations to mechanical properties in drawn dual-phase steels were investigated by performing tensile tests and microstructural examination with scanning electron microscopy. In this investigation, the primary focus was on deformation behavior of martensite particles aligned transverse to the drawing axis. Unlike martensite particles aligned nearly parallel to the drawing axis that are thinned to a fibrous

Won Jong Nam; Chul Min Bae

1999-01-01

214

Effect of heat treatment on mechanical and ballistic properties of a high strength armour steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study an ultra high strength armour steel was austenatised at 910C followed by tempering at 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600C. After heat treatment the properties of tensile strength, ductility, charpy impact strength, hardness and microstructure were evaluated from the mechanical tests and metallographic analysis respectively. The ballistic behavior of the heat-treated plates was evaluated impacting against

P. K. Jena; Bidyapati Mishra; M. RameshBabu; Arvindha Babu; A. K. Singh; K. SivaKumar; T. Balakrishna Bhat

2010-01-01

215

Mechanical and Thermal Properties of UltraHigh Carbon Steel Containing Aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCS) are strongly influenced by aluminum additions. Hardness studies of quenched UHCS-Al alloys reveal that the temperature for the start of transformation increases with increases in aluminum content. It is shown that this change is a function of the atomic percent of solute and of the valence state when comparisons are made with UHCSs

C K Syn; D R Lesuer; A Goldberg; H C Tsai; O D Sherby

2005-01-01

216

Mechanical and Thermal Properties of UltraHigh Carbon Steel Containing Aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCS) are strongly influenced by aluminum additions. Hardness studies of quenched UHCS-Al alloys reveal that the temperature for the start of transformation increases with increases in aluminum content. It is shown that this change is a function of the atomic percent of solute and of the valence state when comparisons are made with UHCSs

C K Syn; D R Lesuer; A Goldberg; H Tsai; O D Sherby

2006-01-01

217

Cyclic Material Properties Test to Determine Hardening/Softening Characteristics of HY-80 Steel  

SciTech Connect

The Cyclic Material Properties Test was structured to obtain and provide experimental data for determining cyclic hardening/softening characteristics of HY-80 steel. The inelastic strain history data generated by this test program and the resulting cyclic stress-strain curve will be used to enhance material models in the finite element codes used to perform nonlinear elastic-plastic analysis.

S.C. Hodge; J.M. Minicucci; T.F. Trimble

2003-04-30

218

Cyclic Material Properties Test to Determine Hardening\\/Softening Characteristics of HY-80 Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cyclic Material Properties Test was structured to obtain and provide experimental data for determining cyclic hardening\\/softening characteristics of HY-80 steel. The inelastic strain history data generated by this test program and the resulting cyclic stress-strain curve will be used to enhance material models in the finite element codes used to perform nonlinear elastic-plastic analysis.

S. C. Hodge; J. M. Minicucci; T. F. Trimble

2003-01-01

219

Tensile and creep properties of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel for fusion energy application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tensile and creep properties of a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel for Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested in ITER have been evaluated. The tensile strength was found to decrease with temperature; the rate of decrease being slower in the intermediate temperature range of 450-650 K. Tensile ductility of the steel decreased with increase in temperature up to 650 K, followed by a rapid increase beyond 650 K. Creep studies have been carried out at 773, 823 and 873 K over a stress range of 100-300 MPa. The variation of minimum creep rate with applied stress followed a power law, &z.epsiv; = A?n. The 'n' value decreased with increase in temperature. The creep rupture life was found to relate inversely with minimum creep rate through the Monkman-Grant relation, tr &z.epsiv; = constant. The tensile and creep properties of the steel were comparable with those of Eurofer 97.

Mathew, M. D.; Vanaja, J.; Laha, K.; Varaprasad Reddy, G.; Chandravathi, K. S.; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.

2011-10-01

220

Research of selected properties of two types of high manganese steel wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents results of tests that aimed at establishing the impact of deformation on properties of wires made of two types of high manganese steels. The deformation process was carried out with the use of a draw bench machine at a speed of 0.5 m min-1. Mechanical properties and structure of strengthened and annealed wires for both steels at different levels of relative reduction in cross-section were determined. Strength of the tested materials was determined in the tensile test, while its hardness was measured with the Vickers hardness test method. Fractographic tests were performed using a scanning electron microscope. It was shown that at the beginning of tensile test, the investigated high manganese steels were characterized by very high plasticity and become stronger as the degree of deformation grows. Surfaces of fractures that were created in the areas where the sample was torn were analyzed. These fractures indicate the presence of transcrystalline ductile fractures.

Tomaszewska, A.; Jab?o?ska, M.; Hadasik, E.; Niewielski, G.; Kawalla, R.

2011-05-01

221

Tribological properties of duplex CrSiN coatings on SS410 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardness and other mechanical properties of CrN can be enhanced by adding small amounts of Si, an effect that can possibly be attributed to solid solution hardening. In the present work, tribological properties of the CrSiN coatings on SS410 steel substrates were studied. These samples were prepared by a duplex treatment consisting of surface nitriding and deposition of a Cr

M. Benkahoul; P. Robin; L. Martinu; J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha

2009-01-01

222

Influence of martensite content and morphology on tensile and impact properties of high-martensite dual-phase steels  

SciTech Connect

A series of dual-phase (DP) steels containing finely dispersed martensite with different volume fractions of martensite (V{sub m}) were produced by intermediate quenching of a boron- and vanadium-containing microalloyed steel. The volume fraction of martensite was varied from 0.3 to 0.8 by changing the intercritical annealing temperature. The tensile and impact properties of these steels were studied and compared to those of step-quenched steels, which showed banded microstructures. The experimental results show that DP steels with finely dispersed microstructures have excellent mechanical properties, including high impact toughness values, with an optimum in properties obtained at {approximately}0.55 V{sub m}. A further increase in V{sub m} was found to decrease the yield and tensile strengths as well as the impact properties. It was shown that models developed on the basis of a rule of mixtures are inadequate in capturing the tensile properties of DP steels with V{sub m} > 0.55. Jaoul-Crussard analyses of the work-hardening behavior of the high-martensite volume fraction DP steels show three distinct stages of plastic deformation.

Bag, A. [Bharat Earth Movers Limited, Kolar Gold Fields (India). Materials Science Lab.; Ray, K.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; Dwarakadasa, E.S. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Metallurgy

1999-05-01

223

Effect of the sulfide phase on the properties of steel after heat treatment  

SciTech Connect

The results of investigations concerned with the effect of the cooling regimes in the austenitic range on the nature of the segregation of sulfides in steels are presented. Experiments were carried out mainly with steel 18Kh2N4MA conventionally melted with low (0.008%) and high (0.04%) sulfur content and after electroslag remelting (ESR) (0.005% S). Results from an investigation of the change of morphology in dependence on the temperature and time of isothermal holding are presented in a diagram illustrating segregation for the predominating kinds of sulfides. The change of morphology and the nature of the distribution of sulfides affected both the fracture and impact toughness of the steel. The effect of the cooling rate from the overheating temperature on the impact toughness of ESR steels and of conventionally melted steels was examined. For ESR steels, characterized by low sulfur content, it was found that the mechanical properties can be changed by controlling the shape and distribution of inclusions of the nonmetallic phase, viz., manganese sulfides, during heat treatment.

Sadovskii, V.D.; Kut'in, A.B.; Gerbikh, N.M.

1988-05-01

224

Mechanical properties of die steels after low-temperature mechanical treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.After LTMT, medium-carbon die steels 4Kh4VMFS, 4Kh5MF1S, and 6KhV2S obtain a better set of mechanical properties, compared with the properties of high-chromium steels Kh12F1, Kh12M, and Kh6VF, and fast-cutting steels R18, R12, and R6M5.2.In order to provide the optimum set of mechanical properties after LTMT, the hardness of steels 4Kh4VMFS and 4Kh5MF1S should be HRC 5860, and for steels Kh6VF

A. M. Rogalev; T. I. Zenchenko; Z. Kh. Ibragimov

1983-01-01

225

Mechanical properties of duplex steel welded joints in large-size constructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick panels measuring 9.5, 14.5, and 18.5mm made of UNS S31803 duplex steel were tested for welding with the use of powder wire. The target task consisted in determination of the impact of the welding process with an increased root gap on the mechanical properties of joints, as compared with the properties achieved by welding with a 6-mm threshold distance

Jerzy Nowacki; Piotr Zaj?c

2011-01-01

226

Mechanical properties of duplex steel welded joints in large-size constructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick panels measuring 9.5, 14.5, and 18.5mm made of UNS S31803 duplex steel were tested for welding with the use of powder wire. The target task consisted in determination of the impact of the welding process with an increased root gap on the mechanical properties of joints, as compared with the properties achieved by welding with a 6-mm threshold distance

Jerzy Nowacki; Piotr Zaj?c

2012-01-01

227

Split heat mechanical property comparison of ESR and VAR 4340 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report addresses a mechanical property characterization of a split argon-oxygen decarburized (AOD) heat of 4340 steel\\u000a which was further processed by vacuum arc remelting (VAR) and electroslag remelting (ESR) into 12.7 cm (5 inch) square forgings.\\u000a Properties examined were hardness, tensile, Charpy V-notch impact, and fracture toughness as a function of tempering temperature\\u000a over the range of 163 C

C. F. Hickey; A. A. Anctil

1985-01-01

228

Microstructure and mechanical properties of bainitic low carbon high strength plate steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of an investigation of plates produced by the advanced thermomechanical processing (TMP) schedules, which were designed using the results of a laboratory study. There were two steel compositions that corresponded to X-80 with carbon contents 0.04 and 0.07wt.%, respectively. The variation in microstructure, hardness, tensile properties and Charpy impact properties with TMP schedule were determined,

I. A. Yakubtsov; P. Poruks; J. D. Boyd

2008-01-01

229

Calculation of stress relaxation properties for type 422 stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Analytical life prediction methods are being developed for high-temperature turbine and valve studs/bolts. In order to validate the approach, the calculated results are compared to the results of uniaxial stress relaxation testing, bolt model testing, and service experience. Long time creep, creep-rupture, and stress relaxation tests were performed by the National Research Institute for Metals of Japan (NRIM) for 12 Cr-1 Mo-1 W-1/4V, Type 422 stainless steel bolting material, at 500, 550, and 600 C. Based on these results and limited tests for a service-exposed bolt, the creep behavior can be described using a two-parameter material model: {var_epsilon}/{var_epsilon}{sub r} = 1-(1-(t/t{sub r}){sup m+1}){sup {delta}} where {var_epsilon}{sub r} is the rupture strain, t{sub r} is the rupture time, and m and {delta} are material constants. For comparison with the measured uniaxial stress relaxation properties, the stress relaxation was calculated using the two-parameter creep equation and a strain-hardening flow rule. The rupture time data was correlated using time-temperature parameter methods. A power law was used for the rupture strain versus rupture time relationship at each temperature. The calculated stress versus time curves were in good agreement with the measured at all temperatures and for initial strain levels of 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25%.

Ellis, F.V.; Tordonato, S.

2000-02-01

230

Decrease of water vapor desorption by Si film coating on stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface modification of stainless steel by Si coating was attempted to reduce water desorption in an evacuation process. Outgassing properties of stainless steel plates with and without Si coating including dependence on deposition condition were compared by temperature programmed desorption and throughput method. The outgassing rate of a Si coated sample at optimized condition was reduced to about 1\\/10 of

S. S. Inayoshi; S. Tsukahara; A. Kinbara

1999-01-01

231

Quality control of the hardening of sintered carbon steels by a magnetic method  

Microsoft Academic Search

product. In an attempt to monitor the quality of heat-treated articles by nondestructive magnetic methods in the tempering stage difficulties are encountered caused by the unclear connection of magnetic and strength properties of tempered steel due to considerable variation of carbon content within the limits of a steel grade [2]. The possibility was studied in [3, 4] of monitoring the

A. I. Ul'yanov; R. G. Faizullin; R. P. Petrov; S. G. Novikov; N. B. Arsent'eva

1991-01-01

232

Processing of Nano/submicron Grained Stainless Steel 304L by AN Advanced Thermomechanical Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano/Submicron crystalline grains of about 250 nm were obtained in a metastable austenitic stainless steel AISI304L by an advanced thermomechanical process consisting of heavy conventional cold rolling and annealing. Effects of cold thickness reduction and temperature and time of the reversion treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of the steel were investigated. The nano-structured austenitic steel exhibited not only high strength (above 1 GPa) but also good elongation (above 50%).

Forouzan, F.; Kermanpur, A.; Najafizadeh, A.; Hedayati, A.

233

Microstructure Characterization and Imaging of Fine-Grained Steel by Microscopic Ultrasonic Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important task in materials science is the design of new steel grades with tailored microstructures for powerful mechanical properties aiming at a common optimization of contradicting properties such as weight reduction and formability versus high stiffness and strength. For this purpose techniques are required to image and characterize microstructures and probe local material properties in the micro- and nanoscale. This contribution reports on investigations of fine-grained steels by scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) and atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM).

Hirsekorn, S.; Rabe, U.; Batista, L.; Behl, L.

2011-06-01

234

Investigation on mechanical properties, durability and micro-structural development of steel slag blended cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the properties of steel slag blended cements, a chemical activator was added into blended cements, the mechanical\\u000a properties and durability of steel slag blended cements were investigated. The results show that steel slag in blended cement\\u000a pastes presents low hydraulic activity and makes practically no contribution to strength development. After the addition of\\u000a chemical activator, the mechanical properties

Tongsheng Zhang; Qijun Yu; Jiangxiong Wei; Jianxin Li

235

High-Mn steel weldment mechanical properties at 4 K  

SciTech Connect

Advanced high-field superconducting magnets of the next generation of magnetic confinement fusion devices will require structural alloys with high yield strength and high toughness at cryogenic temperatures. Commercially available alloys used in the current generation of magnets, such as 300 series stainless steels, do not have the required properties. N-strengthened, high-Mn alloys meet base plate requirements in the as-rolled condition. However, the property changes associated with weld microstructural and chemical changes in these alloys have not been well characterized. In this work welding induced cryogenic mechanical property changes of an 18Mn-16Cr-5Ni-0.2N alloy are correlated with as-solidified weld microstructures and chemistries. 30 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Chan, J.W.; Sunwoo, A.J.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

1988-06-01

236

Optimization of Properties in Two High Strength Stainless Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was found possible to increase the strength and toughness of two high-strength stainless steels, AFC 77 and AFC 260, by austenitizing at higher-than-normal temperatures that are in the range where both austenite and delta ferrite are stable. The delta ...

D. Webster

1970-01-01

237

Deposition and Properties of Phosphate Coatings on Galvanized Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that protective films on galvanized steel can be obtained from alkaline phosphate solutions in the presence of phosphorus-containing ligands. The samples are suggested to be treated in these solutions prior to application of crystalline phosphate coatings. The films obtained are compared with crystalline phosphate coatings by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) methods.

O. I. Kropacheva; T. S. Devyatkina; N. A. Skornyakova; S. I. Saunina

2003-01-01

238

Effect of retained austenite characteristics on fatigue behavior and tensile properties of transformation induced plasticity steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation induced plasticity steels are commonly used for automotive industry due to their high strength and high ductility. These steels achieve good balance of strength and ductility due to transformation of retained austenite to martensite during deformation. In this study, effect of retained austenite characteristics on fatigue and tensile property of conventional CMnSi steel is evaluated. Tensile and fatigue test

M. Abareshi; E. Emadoddin

2011-01-01

239

Effects of hydrogen on the fracture toughness properties of upset welded stainless steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of hydrogen on the fracture toughness properties of upset welded Type 304L stainless steel were measured and compared to those measured previously for as-received and as-welded steels. The results showed that the upset welded steels had good f...

M. T. Morgan

1995-01-01

240

Properties of thermally embrittled cast duplex stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe cast duplex stainless steel, grade CF-3, used in nuclear pump applications, thermally aged at 400{sup 0}C to induce an embrittling phase transformation, thereby simulating long term exposures at 280{sup 0}C (536{sup 0}F). The mechanical properties of as-cast material and the thermally aged materials were subsequently investigated. Fracture roughness, Charpy V-Notch (CVN), tensile, precracked CVN, nil-ductility transition temperature, and hardness tests were performed on these materials. Tests were run as a function of temperature and loading rate. The as-cast structure of this duplex stainless steel is extremely tough, but thermal aging causes a decrease in upper shelf fracture toughness parameters and absorbed Charpy energy, and a marked increase in transition temperature. However, even the most severely aged material (14406 hr/400{sup 0}C) appears to possess excellent upper shelf values, although the transition temperature shift is to a relatively high temperature. A conclusion is that cast duplex stainless steel is sufficiently tough, even in the aged condition, to resist crack initiation and propagation under expected nuclear pump service conditions.

McConnell, P. (General Research Corp., Santa Barbara, CA (USA)); Sheckherd, W. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA)); Norris, D. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1989-01-01

241

Hardening of Aged Duplex Stainless Steels by Spinodal Decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical properties, such as hardness and impact toughness, of ferrite-containing stainless steels are greatly affected by long-term aging at intermediate temperatures. It is known that the [alpha]-[alpha][prime prime or minute] spinodal decomposition occurring in the iron chromium-based ferrite is responsible for this aging susceptibility. This decomposition can be characterized unambiguously by atom probe analysis, allowing comparison both with the existing

F. Danoix; P. Auger; D. Blavette

2004-01-01

242

Highly Anisotropic Steel Processed by Selective Laser Melting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For additive manufacturing of metals, selective laser melting can be employed. The microstructure evolution is directly influenced by processing parameters. Employing a high energy laser system, samples made from austenitic stainless steel were manufactured. The microstructure obtained is characterized by an extremely high degree of anisotropy featuring coarse elongated grains and a <001> texture alongside the build direction during processing. Eventually, the anisotropy of the microstructure drastically affects the monotonic properties of the current material.

Niendorf, Thomas; Leuders, Stefan; Riemer, Andre; Richard, Hans Albert; Trster, Thomas; Schwarze, Dieter

2013-08-01

243

Creep properties of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel  

SciTech Connect

Creep properties of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel, an alloy significantly improved in elevated-temperature strength over 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo and other similar alloys, are presented here. Data are primarily on material in the normalized and tempered condition. Effects of variables such as isothermal annealing treatment, cold work, normalizing temperature, tempering temperature, notch, and biaxial stress state have also been examined. Data analysis and comparisons have shown that modified 9 Cr-1 Mo alloy is very insensitive in response to several material variables, heat treatments, and specimen design variables.

Sikka, V.K.; Cowgill, M.G.; Roberts, B.W.

1983-01-01

244

Effect of thermal aging on mechanical properties of cast stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting mechanical properties of cast stainless steels in service at temperatures <450{degrees}C from known material information. The ``saturation`` fracture properties of a cast stainless steel, i.e., the minimum values that would be achieved for the material after long-term service, are estimated from the chemical composition of the steel. Fracture properties as a function of time and temperature of service are estimated from the kinetics of embrittlement, which are also determined from chemical composition. The correlations successfully predict fracture toughness, Charpy-impact, and tensile properties of cast stainless steels from the Shippingport-, Ringhals-, and Gundremmingen-reactor components.

Chopra, O.K.

1995-03-01

245

The influence of cell surface properties of thermophilic streptococci on attachment to stainless steel.  

PubMed

The quality of milk products is threatened by the formation of biofilms of thermophilic streptococci on the internal surfaces of plate heat exchangers used in milk processing. Although attachment to stainless steel surfaces is one of the first stages in the development of a biofilm, the mechanisms involved in attachment have not been reported. The cell surface properties of 12 strains of thermophilic streptococci were examined to determine their importance in attachment to stainless steel surfaces. Hydrophobicity, extracellular polysaccharide production and cell surface charge varied between the different strains but could not be related to numbers attaching. Treating the cells with sodium metaperiodate, lysozyme or trichloroacetic acid to disrupt cell surface polysaccharide had no effect on attachment. Treatment with trypsin or sodium dodecyl sulphate to remove cell surface proteins resulted in a 100-fold reduction in the number of bacteria attaching. This result suggests that the surface proteins of the thermophilic streptococci are important in their attachment to stainless steel. PMID:9351231

Flint, S H; Brooks, J D; Bremer, P J

1997-10-01

246

Frictional Properties of Nickel and Copper Implanted Low Carbon Steel Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been made of the frictional properties of nickel and copper implanted steel plates. Ion implantation was performed with doses of 1 1015--3 1017 ions/cm2 energies of 50-200 keV. The friction coefficients of Ni and Cu implanted specimens, measured at atmospheric room temperature with a Bowden-Leben type friction testing machine, had a tendency to increase as the total dose increased and the acceleration energy decreased. Concentration profiles were measured by secondary ion mass analysis in order to investigate the element concentration which contributes to the frictional properties. The results suggest that the amount of implanted ions remaining in the surface layer (0-400 ) is of first importance in the frictional properties of Ni and Cu implanted steel plates.

Iwaki, Masaya; Hayashi, Hisashi; Kohno, Akio; Yoshida, Kiyota

1981-01-01

247

Chemical and Mechanical Properties of ZDDP Antiwear Films on Steel and Thermal Spray Coatings Studied by XANES Spectroscopy and Nanoindentation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) has been used to characterize the chemistry of tribochemical wear pads generated from a paraffinic base oil with a zinc-dialkyl-dithiophosphate additive on steel surfaces and high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings. The phosphorus K- and L- edge XANES spectra show that the tribofilms formed on steel and the HVOF coatings have the same

Mark A. Nicholls; Than Do; Peter R. Norton; G. Michael Bancroft; Masoud Kasrai; T. Weston Capehart; Yang-Tse Cheng; Thomas Perry

2003-01-01

248

Influence of Processing and Heat Treatment on Corrosion Resistance and Properties of High Alloyed Steel Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion and abrasive wear are two important aspects to be considered in numerous engineering applications. Looking at steels, high-chromium high-carbon tool steels are proper and cost-efficient materials. They can either be put into service as bulk materials or used as comparatively thin coatings to protect lower alloyed construction or heat treatable steels from wear and corrosion. In this study, two different corrosion resistant tool steels were used for the production of coatings and bulk material. They were processed by thermal spraying and super solidus liquid phase sintering as both processes can generally be applied to produce coatings on low alloyed substrates. Thermally sprayed (high velocity oxygen fuel) coatings were investigated in the as-processed state, which is the most commonly used condition for technical applications, and after a quenching and tempering treatment. In comparison, sintered steels were analyzed in the quenched and tempered condition only. Significant influence of alloy chemistry, processing route, and heat treatment on tribological properties was found. Experimental investigations were supported by computational thermodynamics aiming at an improvement of tribological and corrosive resistance.

Hill, Horst; Weber, Sebastian; Raab, Ulrich; Theisen, Werner; Wagner, Lothar

2012-09-01

249

Deformation, fracture, and mechanical properties of low-temperature-tempered martensite in SAE 43xx steels  

SciTech Connect

Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on 4330, 4340, and 4350 steels in the as-quenched (AQ) condition and after quenching and tempering at 150 C, 175 C, and 200 C for times of 10 minutes, 1 hour, and 10 hours, respectively. Strength parameters decreased and ductility parameters increased continuously with increasing tempering. Mechanical properties are presented as a function of tempering conditions and steel carbon content, and hardness and ultimate strength changes are given as a function of Hollomon-Jaffe tempering parameters. All tempered specimens, except for some lightly tempered 4350 specimens, deformed plastically through necking instability and failed by ductile fracture. The stresses required for the ductile fracture, estimated from an analysis of the interfacial stresses at particles in the neck at fracture, showed no systematic variation with carbon content of tempering conditions despite significant variations in deformation and strain hardening. The AQ specimens of the 4340 and 4350 steels, and some of the lightly tempered 4350 steels, failed by brittle mechanisms. The deformation and fracture of the low-temperature-tempered 43xx steels are discussed in terms of the changes in fine structure, namely, the formation of transition carbides and a rearranged dislocation substructure that evolve from an AQ martensitic substructure consisting of dislocations with and without carbon atom segregation.

Saeglitz, M. [Deutsche Bahn AG, Brandenburg-Kirchmoeser (Germany); Krauss, G. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

1997-02-01

250

Gigacycle Fatigue Properties of V-Added Steel with an Application of Modified Ausforming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report reveals gigacycle fatigue properties for a modified-ausformed V-added steel with the chemical composition of 0.3C-0.3Si-1.0Cr-0.7Mo-0.3V in mass %. Modified-ausformed and oil-quenched steels were prepared for fatigue tests, followed by tempering at 400C and 600C. The tensile strengths of the 600C tempered steels were almost equal to those of the 400C tempered versions because of secondary hardening due to fine precipitation of vanadium carbides. The fatigue properties of the 600C tempered version of oil-quenched steel (QT600) showed little difference from the 400C tempered version (QT400) in spite of the fine precipitation of vanadium carbides. The modified-ausformed steels (AF400 and AF600) revealed higher fatigue limits at 5 109 cycles than the oil-quenched versions (QT400 and QT600), although the difference between AF400 and AF600 was small. The remarkable difference between AF400 and AF600 was fatigue strengths at around 106 cycles, i.e. the fatigue strength of AF600 at those cycles was higher than that of AF400. Based on the above results, the effect of the fine precipitation of vanadium carbides was small on the gigacycle fatigue properties, while modified-ausforming could improve those properties. On the other hand, the multiple effects of the fine precipitation and modified-ausforming was large on the fatigue strength at around 106 cycles.

Hirukawa, Hisashi; Furuya, Yoshiyuki; Matsuoka, Saburo

251

Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Submerged Arc Welded 1.25Cr0.5Mo Steel Joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the effect of heat input (controlled by welding current and welding speed) on the microstructure and tensile properties of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel weldments produced by submerged arc welding (SAW). The SAW process was used for welding of 16mm thick 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel (ASTM A387 gr-11) plates. The weld joints were prepared by varying the welding

Keshav Prasad; D. K. Dwivedi

2008-01-01

252

Semiconducting properties of passive films formed on stainless steels: Influence of the alloying elements  

SciTech Connect

Passive films formed on stainless steels in a borate buffer solution (pH 9.2) have been investigated by capacitance measurements and photoelectrochemistry. The study was carried out on films formed on AISI type 304 and 316 stainless steels and high purity alloys with differing chromium, nickel, and molybdenum contents. Complementary research by Auger analysis shows that the passive films are composed essentially of an inner chromium region in contact with the metallic substrate and an outer iron oxide region developed at the film/electrolyte interface. The semiconducting properties of the passive films are determined by those of the constituent chromium and iron oxides which are of p-type and n-type, respectively. Thus the influence of the alloying elements on the semiconducting properties of the passive films is explained by changes in the electronic structure of each of these two oxide regions.

Hakiki, N.E.; Belo, M.D.C. [CNRS, Vitry-sur-Seine (France). Centre d`Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique; Simoes, A.M.P.; Ferreira, M.G.S. [Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

1998-11-01

253

Hardening of aged duplex stainless steels by spinodal decomposition.  

PubMed

Mechanical properties, such as hardness and impact toughness, of ferrite-containing stainless steels are greatly affected by long-term aging at intermediate temperatures. It is known that the alpha-alpha' spinodal decomposition occurring in the iron-chromium-based ferrite is responsible for this aging susceptibility. This decomposition can be characterized unambiguously by atom probe analysis, allowing comparison both with the existing theories of spinodal decomposition and the evolution of some mechanical properties. It is then possible to predict the evolution of hardness of industrial components during service, based on the detailed knowledge of the involved aging process. PMID:15233853

Danoix, F; Auger, P; Blavette, D

2004-06-01

254

Hardening of Aged Duplex Stainless Steels by Spinodal Decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical properties, such as hardness and impact toughness, of ferrite-containing stainless steels are greatly affected by long-term aging at intermediate temperatures. It is known that the [alpha]-[alpha][prime prime or minute] spinodal decomposition occurring in the iron chromium-based ferrite is responsible for this aging susceptibility. This decomposition can be characterized unambiguously by atom probe analysis, allowing comparison both with the existing theories of spinodal decomposition and the evolution of some mechanical properties. It is then possible to predict the evolution of hardness of industrial components during service, based on the detailed knowledge of the involved aging process.

Danoix, F.; Auger, P.; Blavette, D.

2004-06-01

255

Estimation of mechanical properties of cast stainless steels during thermal aging in LWR systems  

SciTech Connect

A procedure and correlations are presented for assessing thermal embrittlement and predicting mechanical properties of cast stainless steels under light water reactor operating conditions from known material information. The ``saturation`` fracture toughness of a cast stainless steel, i.e., the minimum value that would be achieved for the material after long-term service, is estimated from the chemical composition of the steel. Fracture properties as a function of time and temperature of service are estimated from the kinetics of embrittlement, which are also determined from chemical composition. The correlations successfully predict fracture toughness, Charpy-impact, and tensile properties of cast stainless steels from the Shippingport, Ringhals, and KRB reactors.

Chopra, O.K.

1995-03-01

256

Mechanical properties and microstructure evolution of CLAM Steel in tube fabrication and test blanket module assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first wall of the China dual functional lithium lead-test blanket module (DFLL-TBM) will be assembled with China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel rectangular tubes and plates by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) - diffusion welding. The objective of this study is to evaluate CLAM rectangular tubes and investigate mechanical property and microstructure evolution of CLAM steel in tube fabrication and TBM assembly. In this work, CLAM rectangular tubes with lengths of 1500 mm were fabricated, and the dimensional accuracy met the requirement for HIP joining. In the tube fabrication process, the CLAM steel was annealed to improve its ductility. In addition, the anisotropy in mechanical properties and microstructure introduced by tube rolling was eliminated according to the simulation of HIP heat treatment in TBM preparation. The tensile strength of the CLAM tubes with final heat treatment was slightly higher than that of CLAM steel with the published standard heat treatment, while the total elongation was reduced. This revealed that a post-HIP heat treatment was required before the final heat treatment.

Huang, Bo; Huang, Qunying; Li, Yanfen; Li, Chunjing; Wu, Qingsheng; Team, FDS

2013-11-01

257

Microstructure and mechanical properties of railway wheels manufactured with low-medium carbon Si-Mn-Mo-V steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of carbide-free bainite steel as railway wheel materials was investigated. The low-medium carbon Si-Mn-Mo-V steel was designed to make railway wheels by forging and rolling. The slack quenching with water was conducted on the tread of rim section by programmed control to simulate isothermal heat treatment after being austenitized. Microstructures and mechanical properties have been studied. The results

Mingru Zhang; Haicheng Gu

2008-01-01

258

Effect of surface nanocrystallization on the tribological properties of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface nanocrystallization of 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenite stainless steel was conducted by the supersonic fine particles bombarding (SFPB) technique. The friction coefficients and wear losses in air and vacuum were tested to analyse the effect of surface nanocrystallization on the tribological properties of 1Cr18Ni9Ti steel. The results show that the microstructure of the surface layer was refined into nano-grains successfully by SFPB

Guo-zheng Ma; Bin-shi Xu; Hai-dou Wang; Hong-juan Si; Da-xiang Yang

2011-01-01

259

Structure-property correlation of submerged-arc and gas-metal-arc weldments in HY-100 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure-property relationships of two HY-100 steel weldments prepared by submerged arc (SAW) and gas metal arc (GMAW) welding processes using identical heat input (2.2 kJ mm-1) have been studied. It has been found that submerged arc welded (SAW) HY-100 steel weldments have a lower weld toughness than welds produced by the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. Optical, scanning, and

P. Deb; K. D. Challenger; A. E. Therrien

1991-01-01

260

Structure-property correlation of submerged-arc and gas-metal-arc weldments in HY-100 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure-property relationships of two HY-100 steel weldments prepared by submerged arc (SAW) and gas metal arc (GMAW) welding\\u000a processes using identical heat input (2.2 kJ mm-1) have been studied. It has been found that submerged arc welded (SAW) HY-100 steel weldments have a lower weld toughness\\u000a than welds produced by the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. Optical, scanning, and

P. Deb; K. D. Challenger; A. E. Therrien

1991-01-01

261

Microstructure and tensile properties of 2 1\\/4 Cr1 Mo steel weldments with varying carbon contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welded test specimens of 2¹\\/ Cr-1 Mo steel were made by joining ¹\\/ in. thick plates by the gas tungsten-arc process. Microstructure, macrostructure, room temperature hardness, and tensile properties were determined on weld metal, transverse weld specimens and normalized-and-tempered base metal for three laboratory heats of 2¹\\/ Cr-1 Mo steel with 0.003, 0.035, and 0.11 percent C. Welds were made

R. L. Klueh; D. A. Canonico

1976-01-01

262

Fabrication and metallurgical properties of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel  

SciTech Connect

A newly developed modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel has good potential as a replacement for 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel because of its high strength and creep rupture properties at elevated temperatures. Melting, fabrication, mechanical properties, and operating experience in power plants are discussed. Cost comparisons between modified 9 Cr-1 Mo and 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel are also presented. 15 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

Jawad, M.; Sikka, V.K.; Patriarca, P.

1985-01-01

263

Fabrication and metallurgical properties of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel  

SciTech Connect

A newly developed modified 9Cr-1Mo steel has good potential as a replacement for 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel because of its high strength and creep rupture properties at elevated temperatures. Melting, fabrication, mechanical properties, and operating experience in power plants are discussed. Cost comparisons between modified 9Cr-1Mo and 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel are also presented.

Jawad, M.; Sikka, V.K.; Patriarca, P.

1985-01-01

264

Fabrication and metallurgical properties of modified 9Cr1Mo steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly developed modified 9Cr-1Mo steel has good potential as a replacement for 2 1\\/4Cr-1Mo steel because of its high strength and creep rupture properties at elevated temperatures. Melting, fabrication, mechanical properties, and operating experience in power plants are discussed. Cost comparisons between modified 9Cr-1Mo and 2 1\\/4Cr-1Mo steel are also presented.

M. Jawad; V. K. Sikka; P. Patriarca

1985-01-01

265

The Effect of Residuals on the Elevated Temperature Properties of Some Creep Resistant Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of residuals and other deliberate minor additions on the elevated temperature properties of austenitic, CrMo and CrMoV steels is reviewed and those that affect these properties are identified. The elements boron, molybdenum, nitrogen and phosphorus in austenitic steels all increased creep rupture life although only boron and molybdenum were beneficial to rupture ductility. In the ferritic steels the

N. G. Needham; J. Orr

1980-01-01

266

Properties of low-carbon steels containing bainite in the structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of low-carbon experimental steels are studied within which a structure of predominantly ferrite-bainite to\\u000a bainite-martensite is obtained with variation of heating and cooling conditions. The effect of bainite of different morphology\\u000a on such properties as strength, impact strength and steel deformation capacity is demonstrated. It is established that steels\\u000a within whose structure there is globular bainite with comparable

I. Yu. Pyshmintsev; A. N. Boryakova; M. A. Smirnov; N. V. Dementeva

2009-01-01

267

Effect of Carbon Content on Mechanical Properties and Weather Resistance of High Performance Bridge Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of carbon content on the mechanical properties of high yield strength bridge steel has been investigated. The results show that the excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance are obtained for the steel with carbon content of 0.03% 0.05% (mass percent). According to the results, a new weathering bridge steel plate with carbon content of 0.045% (mass percent)

Jia GUO; Cheng-jia SHANG; Shan-wu YANG; Ying WANG; Lian-wei WANG; Xin-lai HE

2009-01-01

268

Low-temperature elastic properties of a 300-grade maraging steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elastic properties of an annealed 300-grade maraging steel (18 Ni, 9 Co, 5 Mo pct by weight) were studied between room temperature and liquid-helium temperature. Longi-tudinal and transverse ultrasonic velocities were determined by a pulse method. The re-ported elastic constants are: longitudinal modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, bulk modulus, and Poisson's ratio. Except for the bulk modulus, the room-temperature elas-tic

H. M. Ledbetter; D. T. Read

1977-01-01

269

Mechanical properties of three-dimensional interconnected alumina\\/steel metal matrix composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional interconnected alumina\\/steel metal matrix composites (MMCs) were produced by pressureless Ti-activated melt\\u000a infiltration method using three types of Al2O3 powder with different sizes and shapes. By partial sintering during infiltration an interpenetrating ceramic network was\\u000a realised. The effect of the ceramic particle size and shape on the resulting ceramic network, volume % fraction and the MMC\\u000a properties is presented.

D. Wittig; C. G. Aneziris; T. Graule; J. Kuebler

2009-01-01

270

Compositional dependence of magnetic properties on thermally sensitized austenitic stainless steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic properties on thermally sensitized austenitic stainless steels with different chemical composition were investigated. Ferromagnetic martensite phase appeared along grain boundary (GB) by thermal sensitization. As value of Ni equivalent increased and carbon content decreased, the ferromagnetic martensite decreased. The former phenomenon is related to structural stability of austenitic phase, while the latter to shortage of carbon for carbide formation. These behaviors can be explained consistently by considering the change of martensitic transition temperature due to Cr depletion at the GB.

Kamada, Y.; Mikami, T.; Takahashi, S.; Kikuchi, H.; Kobayashi, S.; Ara, K.

2007-03-01

271

Effect of grain diameter on iron loss properties of non-oriented silicon steel sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iron loss properties of the non-oriented silicon steel sheets as a function thickness, silicon contents, cutting angle and grain diameter were measured by single-sheet tester (SST). The specimens were excited by sinusoidal waveform (50Hz), fundamental waveform (50Hz) with a single high-order harmonic component and PWM waveform. The averaging loss of three directions is defined as (L+2C+T)\\/4 (called as A3D

H. Denma; Y Ishihara; T Todaka; M Doi

2000-01-01

272

Microstructure and tensile properties of AISI 316 stainless steel electron-beam cladded on C40 mild steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 60 kV electron-beam equipment was used to clad an AISI 316 stainless steel plate on C40 plain carbon steel. A homogeneous coating of stainless steel was obtained. The microstructure of the clad layer consisted of delta-ferrite, austenite, M6C carbide and martensite twinned on 112 crystal faces. The austenite has a heavily dislocated substructure and is characterized by intrinsic stacking

S. Tosto; F. Nenci; Hu Jiandong

1994-01-01

273

Report on thermal aging effects on tensile properties of ferritic-martensitic steels.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an update on the evaluation of thermal-aging induced degradation of tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic steels. The report is the first deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030103), under the Work Package A-11AN040301, 'Advanced Alloy Testing' performed by Argonne National Laboratory, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing tensile data on aged alloys and a mechanistic model, validated by experiments, with a predictive capability on long-term performance. The scope of work is to evaluate the effect of thermal aging on the tensile properties of advanced alloys such as ferritic-martensitic steels, mod.9Cr-1Mo, NF616, and advanced austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS. The aging experiments have been conducted over a temperature of 550-750 C for various time periods to simulate the microstructural changes in the alloys as a function of time at temperature. In addition, a mechanistic model based on thermodynamics and kinetics has been used to address the changes in microstructure of the alloys as a function of time and temperature, which is developed in the companion work package at ANL. The focus of this project is advanced alloy testing and understanding the effects of long-term thermal aging on the tensile properties. Advanced materials examined in this project include ferritic-martensitic steels mod.9Cr-1Mo and NF616, and austenitic steel, HT-UPS. The report summarizes the tensile testing results of thermally-aged mod.9Cr-1Mo, NF616 H1 and NF616 H2 ferritic-martensitic steels. NF616 H1 and NF616 H2 experienced different thermal-mechanical treatments before thermal aging experiments. NF616 H1 was normalized and tempered, and NF616 H2 was normalized and tempered and cold-rolled. By examining these two heats, we evaluated the effects of thermal-mechanical treatments on material microstructures and associated mechanical properties during long-term aging at elevated temperatures. Thermal aging experiments at different temperatures and periods of time have been completed: 550 C for up to 5000 h, 600 C for up to 7500 h, and 650 C for more than 10,000 h. Tensile properties were measured on thermally aged specimens and aging effect on tensile behavior was assessed. Effects of thermal aging on deformation and failure mechanisms were investigated by using in-situ straining technique with simultaneous synchrotron XRD measurements.

Li, M.; Soppet, W.K.; Rink, D.L.; Listwan, J.T.; Natesan, K. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-05-10

274

Structure and properties of steel after nitriding in molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase composition and thickness of the diffusion coating on steel obtained by electrolytic deposition of aluminum from molten salts vary with the annealing temperature and time. At low annealing temperatures (600700) phase Fe2Al5 extends from the surface into the depth of the sample, and at 800900 FeAl is also observed (in addition to Fe2Al5) near the base metal.

E. G. Val'skii; G. A. Galina; L. F. Danilova; S. M. Karal'nik; N. M. Sarnavskii

1979-01-01

275

The mechanical properties of nitrided austenitic steels at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The load carrying capacity based on the allowable stresses of surface nitrided Kh18N10T steel in comparison with unnitrided under conditions of linear stress increases by 20% at temperatures from +20 to -253C in static loading.2.Nitrided Kh18N10T is insensitive to stress concentrators up to Kt=3.03 in the volume stressed condition (nonuniform triaxial tension in the notch zone) in linear static loading

D. V. Lebedev; B. M. Ovsyannikov; N. P. Antropov

1972-01-01

276

Properties of Galvanized and Galvannealed Advanced High Strength Hot Rolled Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the project were (i) to develop the coating process information to achieve good quality coatings on 3 advanced high strength hot rolled steels while retaining target mechanical properties, (ii) to obtain precise knowledge of the behavior of these steels in the various forming operations and (iii) to establish accurate user property data in the coated conditions. Three

V. Y. Guertsman; E. Essadiqi; S. Dionne; O. Dremmailova; R. Bouchard; B. Voyzelle; J. McDermid; R. Fourmentin

2008-01-01

277

Intercritical Heat Treatments and the Mechanical Properties of Hot-Rolled Low Carbon Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out to determine the diverse effect of intercritical treatments on the mechanical properties of some low carbon steels. Six samples of the low carbon steels containing carbon in the range, 0.13 to 0. 18 wt%, were studied. After intercritical quenching, with or without low temperature tempering, intercritical annealing and intercritical normalizing, the properties of the samples were

P. O. Offor; M. Eng; B. A. Ezekoye

278

Processing, Microstructures and Properties of a Dual Phase Precipitation-Hardening PM Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the mechanical properties of PM stainless steels in comparison with their wrought counterparts, a PM stainless steel alloy was developed which combines a dual-phase microstructure with precipitation-hardening. The use of a mixed microstructure of martensite and ferrite results in an alloy with a combination of the optimum properties of each phase, namely strength and ductility. The use of

Christopher Schade

2010-01-01

279

Effect of tempering temperature on properties of 00Cr16Ni5Mo stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Specimens of 00Cr16Ni5Mo low carbon martensitic stainless steel were normalized at 1000 deg. C followed by tempering at 525 deg. C, 550 deg. C, 575 deg. C, 600 deg. C and 625 deg. C. After heat treatment, mechanical properties and pitting potential were determined through tensile, impact and electrochemical polarization tests. The results showed that the samples tempered at 550 deg. C and 600 deg. C for 2 h had an excellent combination of tensile strength, elongation, impact energy, hardness and corrosion resistance. Scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction examinations were conducted. These revealed that the properties of the steel were affected by the structure of the lath martensite, {delta}-ferrite, retained austenite and carbides.

Qin, B. [Research Institute for Stainless Steel, R and D Center, Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd. Shanghai, 201900 (China)], E-mail: qinbin@baosteel.com; Wang, Z.Y.; Sun, Q.S. [Research Institute for Stainless Steel, R and D Center, Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd. Shanghai, 201900 (China)

2008-08-15

280

Microstructure and mechanical properties of weld fusion zones in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel finds increasing application in power plant construction because of its excellent high-temperature properties. While it has been shown to be weldable and resistant to all types of cracking in the weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ), the achievement of optimum weld metal properties has often caused concern. The design of appropriate welding consumables is important in this regard. In the present work, plates of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel were welded with three different filler materials: standard 9Cr-1Mo steel, modified 9Cr-1Mo, and nickel-base alloy Inconel 182. Post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was carried out at 730 and 760 C for periods of 2 and 6 h. The joints were characterized in detail by metallography. Hardness, tensile properties, and Charpy toughness were evaluated. Among the three filler materials used, although Inconel 182 resulted in high weld metal toughness, the strength properties were too low. Between modified and standard 9Cr-1Mo, the former led to superior hardness and strength in all conditions. However, with modified 9Cr-1Mo, fusion zone toughness was low and an acceptable value could be obtained only after PWHT for 6 h at 760 C. The relatively poor toughness was correlated to the occurrence of local regions of untransformed ferrite in the microstructure.

Sireesha, M.; Sundaresan, S.; Albert, Shaju K.

2001-06-01

281

Improved tribology of tool steel by zirconium ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

AISI D3 tool steel was ion implanted with zirconium and the improvement in surface tribological properties investigated. The Zr ion implantation was done using a metal vapor vacuum arc broad-beam ion source, with a mean ion energy of 130 keV and at doses of 3.6 x 10(sup 16), 5 x 10(sup 16) and 1 x 10(sup 17) ions/cm2. Wear, friction and hardness of the implanted samples were measured and compared to the performance of unimplanted steel. The wear resistance was increased by about a factor of two, the friction remained about the same or was possibly increased by a small amount, and the hardness was improved by a factor of five or more by the ion implantation. We also investigated the effect on the Zr implantation profile of the multi-component energy distribution of the ion beam used here.

Akbas, N.; Oztarhan, A.; Monteiro, O.R.; Brown, I.G.

2001-02-01

282

Correlation of flux composition and inclusion characteristics with submerged arc weld metal properties in HY-100 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submerged arc weldments of HY-100 steel prepared under standard conditions with five commercially available fluxes were analyzed to discern a basis for the variation in mechanical properties associated with different flux use. The variations in flux chemistry resulted in alloyed weldments with diverse weld metal mechanical properties as evident by Charpy impact, tensile, dynamic tear, and microhardness tests. The microstructures

Kent W. Kettell

1993-01-01

283

Design properties of steels for coal conversion vessels. Mechanical properties of materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present a complete data log on the mechanical properties of the materials used in the present investigation. Weldments of SA387, SA542, and a type 347 stainless steel overlay were made by Chicago Bridge and Iron using base plates of typical commercial thickness and commercial welding practices. The results of preliminary mechanical property tests and microstructural examinations indicated that the material properties were sufficiently uniform and representative of conditions typical for production material properties to proceed with detailed testing. In SA387 and SA542, the microstructures were dominantly bainitic, with the average yield strengths respectively 345 MPa (50 ksi) and 496 MPa (72 ksi), due mostly to the selected tempering temperature. Average upper shelf Charpy toughness was 180 Joules (133 ft-lbs) in both SA387 and SA542 base metals but 50% FATT transition temperatures were 294/sup 0/K (70/sup 0/F) and 244/sup 0/K (-20/sup 0/F), respectively. A temper embrittling treatment was tried which raised the 50% FATT of SA387 base metal and weld metal 67/sup 0/K (120/sup 0/F). Upper shelf fracture energy of the SA387 base metal was reduced 50 percent by the T.E. treatment. Baseline data for the fracture mechanics type tests were developed in the form of da/dN versus ..delta..K/sub I/, and fracture toughness in terms of J/sub Ic/. Fatigue crack growth rate of SA387 was increased by a factor of 2 when comparing room temperature versus 727/sup 0/K (850/sup 0/F). Growth rate of SA542 was the same at 588/sup 0/K (600/sup 0/F) and room temperature. Fracture toughness by J/sub Ic/ showed the expected loss in upper shelf toughness with increased test temperature for SA387 base metal.

McCabe, D.E.; Landes, J.D.

1980-01-01

284

Effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of a 2 1\\/4Cr1Mo steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of a 2 1\\/4Cr1Mo steel. The results for both microstructural\\u000a conditions, as received and aged, indicated a loss of ductility after hydrogen charging treatment, but the yield strength\\u000a and ultimate tensile strength remained unaltered. The fractograph analysis revealed that the fracture mode was modified by\\u000a the hydrogen. The steel

Paula Cristina Siquara; Carlos Bruno Eckstein; Luiz Henrique de Almeida; Dilson Silva dos Santos

2007-01-01

285

Effect of residual austenite and content of hardening elements on the mechanical properties of transition class stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The mechanical properties of the transition class stainless steel 03K12N5KM in the quenched condition are determined by its phase composition and do not depend to any significant extent on its Co and Mo contents.2.For the same steel in the aged condition, Co and Mo additions have an effect if the austenite content is less than 50%. If it is higher

V. E. Laz'ko; M. T. Borisov; Yu. A. Zhmurina

1985-01-01

286

Microstructure and Properties of Active Screen Plasma Nitrided Duplex Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel (DSS) was nitrided using the active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) technique at temperature ranging from 400 to 450C. Microstructures and corrosion properties of the untreated substrate and AS plasma nitrided specimens were analyzed by means of X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, microhardness measurement, anodic polarization test, and wear test using a ring-on-disc tester. The result

L. H. Chiu; Y. Y. Su; F. S. Chen; H. Chang

2010-01-01

287

Effects of relative humidity on tribological properties of boron carbide coating against steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron carbide coatings of 100nm thick were synthesized on silicon substrate by DC magnetron sputtering using B4C target with a mixture of Ar and methane (CH4 at 1.2vol.%) as processing gases. Tribological properties of the coating were studied in relation to the effects of relative humidity (RH). Reciprocating wear tests using 3mm diameter steel balls as a counterpart were carried

Pham Duc Cuong; Hyo-Sok Ahn; Eui-Sung Yoon; Kyung-Ho Shin

2006-01-01

288

Particle surface properties of stainless steel-coated tungsten carbide powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tungsten carbide powders sputter-deposited with stainless steel were characterized in order to evaluate the surface properties in air and aqueous environments. The scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy showed that a very high uniformity of the coating distribution on the WC particles was attained by the sputtering technique, enabling a complete surface coverage for low coating contents (?1wt.%).The DTATG

C. M. Fernandes; A. M. R. Senos; M. T. Vieira

2006-01-01

289

Report on thermal aging effects on tensile properties of ferritic-martensitic steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides an update on the evaluation of thermal-aging induced degradation of tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic steels. The report is the first deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030103), under the Work Package A-11AN040301, 'Advanced Alloy Testing' performed by Argonne National Laboratory, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the

M. Li; W. K. Soppet; D. L. Rink; J. T. Listwan; K. Natesan

2012-01-01

290

Microstructure and properties of austenitic stainless steel reinforced with in situ TiC particulate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austenitic stainless steel reinforced with 5vol.% TiC particulate was in situ synthesized by in situ reaction during melting process successfully and its microstructure, mechanical properties as well as oxidation behavior were investigated. Microstructure observations revealed that in situ TiC particulates with an average size of 210?m distributed uniformly in the matrix and the interface boundaries between TiC particulates and austenite

ZiFei Ni; YangShan Sun; Feng Xue; Jing Bai; YueJiao Lu

2011-01-01

291

On the materials properties of thin film plasma-nitrided austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments were performed to study the composition and mechanical properties of the surface layers formed on the austenitic stainless steel after plasma nitriding in the temperature range of 400500 C with different N2H2 gas mixtures. The thin layer at the nitrided surface was examined by the glancing-angle XRD and the differential load penetration from the microhardness measurements.

L. Trabzon; M. C. ??dil

2006-01-01

292

Constructional carbide steels: A review of their fabrication, properties, and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the chemical compositions, structures, properties, and application of industrial carbide Ferro-TiC (United States)\\u000a and Ferro-Titanit (Germany) steels, which are fabricated by sintering, are presented. The technologies of obtaining such materials\\u000a based on the processes of sintering under pressure, namely, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), hot extrusion (HE), and hot stamping\\u000a (HS) are developed. Using the HIP and HE methods,

L. I. Svistun

2010-01-01

293

Effects of aging at 475 C on corrosion properties of tungsten-containing duplex stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of aging at 475 C on the corrosion and mechanical properties of Fe25Cr7Ni0.25NxMoyW (x=03, y=06) duplex stainless steels were investigated by an anodic polarization test in HCl solution, a modified double-loop electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation (DL-EPR) test, and an impact test. Corrosion resistance of the alloys was degraded with aging at 475 C due to the depletion of Cr around

Chan-Jin Park; Hyuk-Sang Kwon

2002-01-01

294

Clay and DOPA containing polyelectrolyte multilayer film for imparting anticorrosion properties to galvanized steel.  

PubMed

A facile and green approach is developed to impart remarkable protection against corrosion to galvanized steel. A protecting multilayer film is formed by alternating the deposition of a polycation bearing catechol groups, used as corrosion inhibitors, with clay that induces barrier properties. This coating does not affect the esthetical aspect of the surface and does not release any toxic molecules in the environment. PMID:22200075

Faure, Emilie; Halusiak, Emilie; Farina, Fabrice; Giamblanco, Nicoletta; Motte, Ccile; Poelman, Mireille; Archambeau, Catherine; Van de Weerdt, Ccile; Martial, Joseph; Jrme, Christine; Duwez, Anne-Sophie; Detrembleur, Christophe

2012-01-18

295

Heat-to-heat variation in creep properties of Types 304 and 316 stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variation in creep-rupture and long-term creep properties of 20 heats of type 304 and seven heats of type 316 stainless steel was observed. The observed variation in 1000-h creep-rupture strength, S\\/sup t\\/\\/sub R\\/, has been related to the corresponding ultimate tensile strength variation, S\\/sup r\\/\\/sub u\\/, by a relationship of the form: S\\/sup t\\/\\/sub R\\/ = ..cap alpha..

V. K. Sikka; H. E. Jr. McCoy; M. K. Booker; C. R. Brinkman

1975-01-01

296

Structure and properties of gradient tool materials with the high-speed steel matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This work concerns research on the structure and properties of gradient tool materials with the HS6- 5-2 high-speed steel matrix reinforced by the tungsten carbide. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: The materials were fabricated using the conventional powder metallurgy method, consisting in compacting the powder in a closed die, and subsequent sintering. All the sintered test pieces were subjected to examination of density,

L. A. Dobrza?ski a; A. Kloc-Ptaszna; G. Matul; J. M. Torralba

2007-01-01

297

Separability property and ? pl factor in ASTM A387Gr22 steel plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the possibility of obtaining the function G(b\\/W) from the variable separability property to calculate ?pl factor following the methodology proposed by Sharobeam and Landes using a deformation function H with total displacement was studied. The material employed was an ASTM A387-Gr22 steel plate and standard ASTM SE(B) and C(T) geometries were used for the test pieces with

A. N. Cassanelli; R. Cocco; L. A. de Vedia

2003-01-01

298

Mechanical properties of friction welded 6063 aluminum alloy and austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction welding of dissimilar metal combination of aluminum alloy and austenitic stainless steel was examined to investigate\\u000a the effect of welding conditions on mechanical properties of the dissimilar metal combination. The welded joints were produced\\u000a by varying forge pressure (F\\u000a g), friction pressure (F\\u000a r), and burn-off length (B). The joints were subjected to mechanical testing methods such as the

P. Sammaiah; Arjula Suresh; G. R. N. Tagore

2010-01-01

299

Effects of neutron irradiation on tensile properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of fast neutron irradiation on ring tensile properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings for fast reactor were investigated. Specimens were irradiated in the experimental fast reactor Joyo using the material irradiation rig at temperatures between 693 and 1108 K to fast neutron doses ranging from 16 to 33 dpa. The post-irradiation ring tensile tests were carried out at irradiation temperatures. The experimental results showed that there was no significant change in tensile strengths after neutron irradiation below 923 K, but the tensile strengths at neutron irradiation above 1023 K up to 33 dpa were decreased by about 20%. On the other hand, uniform elongation after irradiation was more than 2% at all irradiation conditions. The ring tensile properties of these ODS claddings remained excellent within these irradiation conditions compared with conventional 11Cr ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS) claddings.

Yano, Y.; Ogawa, R.; Yamashita, S.; Ohtsuka, S.; Kaito, T.; Akasaka, N.; Inoue, M.; Yoshitake, T.; Tanaka, K.

2011-12-01

300

Characterization of a boron alloyed 9Cr3W3CoVNbBN steel and further improvement of its high-temperature mechanical properties by thermomechanical treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the development of Generation IV nuclear reactors and fusion nuclear reactors, materials with an improved high temperature (?650 C) mechanical strength are required for specific components. The 912% Cr martensitic steels are candidate for these applications.

Hollner, S.; Piozin, E.; Mayr, P.; Cas, C.; Tourni, I.; Pineau, A.; Fournier, B.

2013-10-01

301

Correlation of microstructure and fracture properties in weld heat- affected zones of thermomechanically controlled processed steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a correlation study between the microstructural parameters and fracture properties in the weld heat-affected zones (HAZs) of high-strength low alloy (HSLA) steels, i.e., a normalized steel and four thermomechanically controlled processed (TMCP) steels. The influence of the local brittle zone (LBZ) on toughness was investigated by means of simulated HAZ tests as well as welded joint tests. The intercritically reheated coarse-grained HAZ ex-hibited the lowest impact energy over the testing temperature range, indicating that this region was the LBZ. By comparing the volume fraction of martensite islands with impact energy val-ues, this LBZ was attributed mainly to the significant increase in the amount of martensite. Niobium was also found to have a deleterious effect on the HAZ fracture toughness because of martensite hardening. This suggests that the formation of martensite islands must be controlled by proper design of chemical compositions to reduce the carbon equivalent and by using the proper welding conditions to limit cooling rates in order to optimize the fracture toughness of welded joints of TMCP steels.

Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Byung Chun; Kwon, Dongil

1992-10-01

302

Properties of Galvanized and Galvannealed Advanced High Strength Hot Rolled Steels  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the project were (i) to develop the coating process information to achieve good quality coatings on 3 advanced high strength hot rolled steels while retaining target mechanical properties, (ii) to obtain precise knowledge of the behavior of these steels in the various forming operations and (iii) to establish accurate user property data in the coated conditions. Three steel substrates (HSLA, DP, TRIP) with compositions providing yield strengths in the range of 400-620 MPa were selected. Only HSLA steel was found to be suitable for galnaizing and galvannealing in the hot rolled condition.

V.Y. Guertsman; E. Essadiqi; S. Dionne; O. Dremmailova; R. Bouchard; B. Voyzelle; J. McDermid; R. Fourmentin

2008-04-01

303

Effect of chemical composition on the properties of burnished Cr18Ni9 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The deviation of the mechanical properties of burnished Cr18Ni9 steel from the specifications is due to the variation of the chemical composition within the limits prescribed by GOST 5632-61.2.The following chemical composition -0.09-0.11%C, 1718% Cr, 89% Ni, up to 0.30% Tiis recommended to obtain the required properties of Cr18Ni9 ribbons and sheets. This composition is within the limits prescribed by

N. P. Zhetvin; I. V. Gorbatenko; E. M. Kontsevaya

1963-01-01

304

Molybdate adsorption from steel slag eluates by subsoils.  

PubMed

Steel slags are industrial by-products which are generated in large amounts worldwide, e.g. 150-23010(6) Mg in 2012, and which are partly used for construction. Molybdenum (Mo) can be added during steel processing in order to harden the steel. The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption behaviour of molybdate (MoO4(2-)) from slag eluates in subsoils. Molybdate batch adsorption experiments were carried out with eluates obtained from two different kinds of steel slags (i) LD slag (Linz-Donawitz operation, LDS) and (ii) electric arc furnace slag (EAF) to assess the risk that may arise from the contamination of groundwater by the leaching of molybdate. Six different subsoils were chosen in order to provide a wide range of chemical properties (pH 4.0-7.6; dithionite-extractable Fe 0.73-14.7gkg(-1)). Molybdate adsorption experiments were carried out at the pH of the steel slag eluates (pH 11-12) as well as at pH values adjusted to the soil pH. The data were evaluated with the Freundlich equation. Molybdate adsorption exhibited a maximum near pH 4 for steel slag eluates adjusted to the soil pH, and decreased rapidly with increasing pH until adsorption was virtually zero at pH>11. Adsorption was greater for soils with high amounts of dithionite-extractable Fe oxides. The extent and behaviour of molybdate adsorption from both eluates was similar. After a reaction time of 24h, the pH of the EAF slag eluate was lower than that of the LD steel slag eluate, which was caused by different acid buffer capacities. Some soils were able to decrease the pH of the EAF slag eluates by about 4 pH units, enhancing the adsorption of molybdate. Transport simulations indicated that molybdate discharge is low in acidic soils. PMID:23973286

Matern, K; Rennert, T; Mansfeldt, T

2013-08-22

305

Enhancing the vibration reduction ability of concrete by using steel reinforcement and steel surface treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibration reduction ability of mortar, as expressed by the loss modulus under dynamic flexure (0.21.0 Hz), was increased by three (or more) orders of magnitude upon the embedment of steel rebars in the mortar, mainly due to the increase in the vibration damping capacity. By sandblasting the steel rebars, the loss modulus was increased by up to 91%, relative

Sihai Wen; D. D. L. Chung

2000-01-01

306

High-temperature properties and microstructure of Mo microalloyed ultra-high-strength steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-temperature mechanical properties and microstructure of forging billets of C-Si-Mn-Cr and C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo ultra-high-strength cold-rolled steels (tensile strength?1000 MPa, elongation?10%) were studied. Through the comparison of reduction in area and hot deformation resistance at 600-1300C, the Mo-containing steel was found to possess a higher strength and a better plasticity than the Mo-free one. The equilibrium phase diagram and atom fraction of Mo in different phases at different temperatures were calculated by Thermo-Calc software (TCW). The results analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy and TCW show that precipitates in the Mo-containing steel are primarily M23C6, which promote pearlite formation. The experimental data also show that a lower ductility point existing in the Mo-free steel at 850C is eliminated in the Mo-containing one. This is mainly due to the segregation of Mo at grain boundaries investigated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), which improves the strength of grain boundaries.

Han, Qi-Hang; Kang, Yong-Lin; Zhao, Xian-Meng; Gao, Lu-Feng; Qiu, Xue-Song

2011-08-01

307

46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...If a steel grade that is not listed in Table 1 has the equivalent chemical properties, mechanical properties, and heat treatment of a steel grade that is listed, the steel grade not listed may be specially approved by the Commandant...

2012-10-01

308

TRITIUM AGING EFFECTS ON THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL BASE METAL AND WELDS  

SciTech Connect

Tritium reservoirs are constructed from welded stainless steel forgings. While these steels are highly resistant to the embrittling effects of hydrogen isotopes and helium from tritium decay; they are not immune. Tritium embrittlement is an enhanced form of hydrogen embrittlement because of the presence of helium-3 from tritium decay which nucleates as nanometer-sized bubbles on dislocations, grain boundaries, and other microstructural defects. Steels with decay helium bubble microstructures are hardened and less able to deform plastically and become more susceptible to embrittlement by hydrogen and its isotopes. Ductility, elongation-to-failure, and fracture toughness are reduced by exposures to tritium and the reductions increase with time as helium-3 builds into the material from tritium permeation and radioactive decay. Material and forging specifications have been developed for optimal material compatibility with tritium. These specifications cover composition, mechanical properties, and select microstructural characteristics like grain size, flow-line orientation, inclusion content, and ferrite distribution. For many years, the forming process of choice for reservoir manufacturing was high-energy-rate forging (HERF), principally because the DOE forging facility owned only HERF hammers. Today, some reservoir forgings are being made that use a conventional, more common process known as press forging (PF or CF). One of the chief differences between the two forging processes is strain rate: Conventional hydraulic or mechanical forging presses deform the metal at 4-8 ft/s, about ten-fold slower than the HERF process. The material specifications continue to provide successful stockpile performance by ensuring that the two forging processes produce similar reservoir microstructures. While long-term life storage tests have demonstrated the general tritium compatibility of tritium reservoirs, fracture-toughness properties of both conventionally forged and high-energy-rate forged are needed for designing and establishing longer tritium-reservoir lifetimes, ranking materials, and, potentially, for qualifying new forging vendors or processes. Measurements on the effects of tritium and decay helium on the fracture toughness properties of CF stainless steels having similar composition, grain size, and mechanical properties to previously studied HERF steels are needed and have not been conducted until now. The compatibility of stainless steel welds with tritium represents another concern for long-term reservoir performance. Weldments have not been well-characterized with respect to tritium embrittlement, although a recent study was completed on the effect of tritium and decay helium on the fracture toughness properties of Type 304L weldments. This study expands the characterization of weldments through measurements of tritium and decay helium effects on the fracture toughness properties of Type 21-6-9 stainless steel. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the fracture toughness properties of Type 21-6-9 stainless steel for conventional forgings and weldments in the non-charged, hydrogen-charged and tritium-charged-and-aged conditions.

Morgan, M.

2009-07-30

309

Characteristics of Stainless Steel for Automotive Exhaust System and Its Production by Tandem Cold Rolling Mill,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ferritic stainless steels for automotive exhaust systems are reexamined for corrosion resistance and properties at elevated temperatures. Production process of the steels using conventional facilities for plain carbon steels is also studied. Stainless ste...

M. Kabayashi T. Kawasaki Y. Mihara H. Sato M. Takada

1988-01-01

310

Adhesion and wear properties of TiN films deposited on martensitic stainless steel and Stellite by reactive magnetron sputter ion plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiN films were deposited onto the turbine blade materials, AISI 403 martensitic stainless steel and Stellite 6B, using reactive magnetron sputter ion plating. The hardness of the TiN film increases with the residual compressive stress and has a maximum value of 3400 kg\\/mm2 at the substrate bias of about ?75 V. In the scratch adhesion test, the critical loads for

Min Ku Lee; Whung Whoe Kim; Joung Soo Kim; Won Jong Lee

1998-01-01

311

Thermophysical Properties of a Hot-Work Tool-Steel with High Thermal Conductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the highly productive permanent mold-casting process, the released enthalpy of the solidifying metal has to be transported through the surrounding hot-work tool-steel to the cooling system. For that reason, the thermal conductivity is a key property of the employed tool-steel. Recently, a new type of steel (Rovalma HTCS 130) has been developed and superior thermal properties have been claimed. In this study, measurements of the thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and thermal expansion as a function of temperature are described for this steel and results of the computed thermal conductivity are reported. There is quite a discrepancy between the specification of the steel supplier and the results of this study; however, an improvement of the thermal conductivity for this type of steel can be confirmed.

Kaschnitz, E.; Hofer, P.; Funk, W.

2013-05-01

312

THE EFFECT OF SERVICE TEMPERATURE ON THE PROPERTIES OF FERRITIC P\\/M STAINLESS STEELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An area of current development for P\\/M stainless steel applications is automotive exhaust systems. Recent work in this area has proven the potential application of ferritic stainless steel P\\/M materials for exhaust flanges to be viable. Lacking in this work, however, is a sufficient database for P\\/M stainless steels and, in particular, elevated temperature mechanical properties. A study was undertaken

Arthur J. Rawlings; Howard M. Kopech; Howard G. Rutz

313

Evaluation of the mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of ultra-clean steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three ultra-low carbon\\/titanium (Ti) added steels in the as-annealed condition were evaluated in order to determine their mechanical properties, in terms of the percentage elongation and the Lankford value, as well as their corrosion behaviour. The examination of the processed steels form part of a research program that has the objective of developing ultra-low\\/carbon steels for automotive applications. Characterisation of

R Mendoza; M Alanis; J Huante; C Gonzalez-Rivera; J. A Juarez-Islas

2000-01-01

314

Structure and properties of steel R6M5 after thermomechanical treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A positive effect of low-temperature thermomechanical treatment (LTMT) on the strength, hardness, resistance to cold abrasion, fatigue strength, and cutting properties of high-speed steels was found in [4-7]. However, this method is not used in industry due to the low ductility of high-speed steels in the LTMT temperature range (400-600C). High-temperature thermomechanical treatment (HTMT) is not used for high-speed steels

I. K. Kupalova

1980-01-01

315

Effect of cold rolling on microstructure and magnetic properties in a metastable lean duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructural and magnetic properties changes of a metastable ferriticaustenitic stainless steel due to cold rolling were\\u000a studied together with the possibility to develop a new ferriticmartensitic stainless steel. In order to reduce costs low-Ni\\u000a content was maintained in the lean duplex stainless steel considered, making it more susceptible to strain-induced martensitic\\u000a transformation. In this study a practically complete ???? transformation

Silvia Baldo; Istvan Mszros

2010-01-01

316

Heat treatment and mechanical properties of low-carbon steel with dual-phase microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of the paper is to design heat treatment conditions of dual-phase steel and to determine their influence on the structure and mechanical properties of steel. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: The heat treatment of the C-Mn steel in order to obtain a dual-phase ferritic - martensitic structure of desirable phase fractions was realized. To investigate the influence of heat treatment parameters

J. Adamczyk; A. Grajcar

317

Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of low-alloy steels in atmospheric conditions containing chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion resistance (weight loss) and mechanical properties (i.e., yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation) of four newly developed low-alloy steels (LAS) were compared with a weathering steel (Acr-Ten A) and a carbon steel (SS400) using a laboratory-accelerated test that involved cyclic wet\\/dry conditions in a chloride environment (5wt.% NaCl). The new LAS were designated 1604A, 1604B, 1605A, and

Y. Y. Chen; H. J. Tzeng; L. I. Wei; H. C. Shih

2005-01-01

318

Constitutive Modeling of the Mechanical Properties of V-added Medium Manganese TRIP Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, medium Mn transformation-induced plasticity steel with the composition Fe-0.08 pct C-6.15 pct Mn-1.5 pct Si-2.0 pct Al-0.08 pct V was investigated. After intercritical annealing at 1013 K (740 C), the steel contained coarse-grained ferrite and two ultrafine-grained (UFG) phases: ferrite and retained austenite. The material did not deform by localized Lders band propagation: it did not suffer from this major problem as most UFG steels do. Localization of plastic flow was shown to be suppressed because of a combination of factors, including a bimodal grain size distribution, a multiphase microstructure, the presence of nanosized vanadium carbide precipitates, and the occurrence of the deformation-induced martensitic transformation of retained austenite. A constitutive model incorporating these effects was developed. The model was used to identify the factors which can lead to a further improvement of the mechanical properties of the UFG medium Mn TRIP steels.

Lee, Seawoong; Estrin, Yuri; De Cooman, Bruno C.

2013-07-01

319

Nondestructive detection of embrittlement by copper in steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper can be used as an alloying element to increase the strength and hardness of steel. However, it can also act as an embrittling agent under certain circumstances. In particular, the decrease in fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessels following long term exposure to neutrons has been blamed on the formation of very small copper rich precipitates (CRPs) in the iron lattice. In order to develop a nondestructive technique for detecting these CRPs and for predicting the onset of embrittlement, several ultrasonic and magnetic properties have been measured on a high strength, low alloy steel containing 1.1 mass % copper in which the CRPs could be formed by proper heat treatments. The particular properties measured were the longitudinal and shear wave velocities and their associated internal frictions as well as the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, ?. The magnetic properties were the coercive force, the saturation magnetization, a dynamic permeability, ??, and the magnetostrictive coefficient, ?. Small angle neutron scattering studies confirmed that CRPs were formed during the heat treatments used and that their presence could be correlated with observed changes in hardness. These hardness changes could then be correlated with some of the physical properties that were measured.

Alers, G.; Balzar, D.; Hurley, D.; Igarashi, B.; Fickett, F.; Kim, S.; Ledbetter, H.; Purtscher, P.

1999-12-01

320

The Effects of Martensite Content on the Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered 0.2%C-Ni-Cr-Mo Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three martensite contents (approximately 35, 50, and 100%) were obtained in a SAE8822 steel by altering the quenching media and section size. Another variation in martensite content (approximately 80 versus 97%) was achieved by quenching a SAE8622 steel in the same section size. The impact toughness and fatigue properties were determined after tempering to various levels of monotonic strength. Toughness

John M. Tartaglia

2010-01-01

321

Evaluation of Microstructural, Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of AISI Type 316LN Stainless Steel and Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Exposed in a Dynamic Bimetallic Sodium Loop at 798 K (525 C) for 16,000 Hours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes occurring in the chemical composition, microstructure, mechanical properties, and carburization behavior of type 316LN stainless steel and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel on exposure to flowing sodium at 798 K (525 C) for 16,000 hours in a bimetallic loop are discussed in this article. Type 316LN stainless steel revealed a degraded layer of approximately 5 ?m depth. No significant microstructural changes were observed in the case of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel exposed to sodium. The carburization depth in type 316LN stainless steel was approximately 100 ?m and the surface carbon concentration was 0.374 wt pct. In the case of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, the carbon concentration at the surface was approximately 3.50 wt pct and the depth of carburization was nearly 75 ?m. The concentration of nickel and chromium decreased from the bulk to the surface of type 316LN stainless steel, leading to the formation of a ferrite layer. The concentration of these two elements reached the original matrix concentration at around 30 ?m. Sodium-exposed material indicated an increase in yield strength by 10 pct and reduction in ductility by 34 pct vis--vis annealed material. No such changes in strength and ductility were observed in the case of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. A decrease in impact energy was noticed for sodium-exposed type 316LN stainless steel and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel vis--vis as-received material.

Sivai Bharasi, N.; Thyagarajan, K.; Shaikh, H.; Radhika, M.; Balamurugan, A. K.; Venugopal, S.; Moitra, A.; Kalavathy, S.; Chandramouli, S.; Tyagi, A. K.; Dayal, R. K.; Rajan, K. K.

2012-02-01

322

TRITIUM AGING EFFECTS ON THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS PROPERTIES OF FORGED STAINLESS STEEL  

SciTech Connect

The fracture toughness properties of Type 21-6-9 stainless steel were measured for forgings in the unexposed, hydrogen-exposed, and tritium-exposed-and-aged conditions. Fracture toughness samples were cut from conventionally-forged and high-energy-rate-forged forward-extruded cylinders and mechanically tested at room temperature using ASTM fracture-toughness testing procedures. Some of the samples were exposed to either hydrogen or tritium gas (340 MPa, 623 K) prior to testing. Tritium-exposed samples were aged for up to seven years and tested periodically in order to measure the effect on fracture toughness of {sup 3}He from radioactive tritium decay. The results show that hydrogen-exposed and tritium-exposed samples had lower fracture- toughness values than unexposed samples and that fracture toughness decreased with increasing decay {sup 3}He content. Forged steels were more resistant to the embrittling effects of tritium and decay {sup 3}He than annealed steels, although their fracture-toughness properties depended on the degree of sensitization that occurred during processing. The fracture process was dominated by microvoid nucleation, growth and coalescence; however, the size and spacing of microvoids on the fracture surfaces were affected by hydrogen and tritium with the lowest-toughness samples having the smallest microvoids and finest spacing.

Morgan, M

2008-04-14

323

Effect of Austempering Conditions on the Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Low Alloyed Sintered Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the combination of strength and toughness, much interest has been focused on austempered sintered low-alloyed steels. Implementation of this treatment for powder metal components has been limited by interaction between the open porosity of the material and the cooling fluid. This work discusses the influence of different austempering environments and parameters on the microstructure and, as a consequence, on the final properties. The sintered steels selected are based on two different prealloyed powders, Fe-1.5Cr-0.2Mo and Fe-1.5Mo, with the addition of 0.6 wt pct graphite. Green samples with medium density (7.3 g/cm3) were sintered at 1393 and 1523 K (1120 and 1250 C) to ensure a decrease in open porosity. The austempering treatment process requires austenitizing at 1133 K (860 C) for 2 hours followed by quenching in different baths at 563 K (290 C). The final strength and ductility are dependent upon the relative amounts of ferrite, pearlite, and bainite phases present in the austempered steel. Discussion of the experimental results compares the as-sintered and the austempered observations as well as the relationship between mechanical properties and the phases present in the final microstructures.

Campos, M.; Sicre-Artalejo, J.; Muoz, J. J.; Torralba, J. M.

2010-07-01

324

Corrosion properties of silicon-on-steel ion beam mixed layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary results of the study of corrosion properties of ion beam mixed Si layers on AISI 316L steel are presented. The basic mixing parameters such as mixing efficiency and the thickness of residual Si layers were determined by means of the RBS technique. The corrosion process was studied using the potentiodynamic method. The results show a substantial change in the corrosion mechanism of ion beam mixed layers. Fitting corrosion characteristic for virgin or Si implanted samples is replaced by a crevice corrosion in the case of ion beam mixed ones. This is very likely due to the formation of brittle, high Si concentration layer susceptible to crevice corrosion that leads to the scalling of surface layer. The results obtained for both, ion implanted and Si ion beam mixed samples, indicate that steel layers with relatively low (~20 at%) Si content exhibit superior corrosion resistance.

Jagielski, J.; Turos, A.; Gawlik, G.; Baszkiewicz, J.

1997-05-01

325

Some mechanical properties of borided AISI H13 and 304 steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, mechanical properties of borides formed on AISI H13 hot work tool and AISI 304 stainless steels have been investigated. Both steels have high chromium content and have a widespread use in the engineering application. Boriding treatment was carried out in slurry salt bath consisting of borax, boric acid, and ferrosilicon at temperature range of 800950C for

Sukru Taktak

2007-01-01

326

Sliding wear properties of active screen plasma nitrided 316 austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel has been plasma nitrided using the novel active screen (AS) plasma nitriding technique. Wear properties of the AS plasma nitrided and untreated 316 stainless steel have been investigated using a pin-on-disc tribometer with cemented tungsten carbide ball as the counterface. Experimental results have shown that AS plasma nitriding can improve the wear resistance of 316

C. X Li; T Bell

2004-01-01

327

Impacts of an Iron and Steel Plant on Residential Property Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hedonic price method is used to estimate the relationship between residential property values and proximity to an integrated iron and steel plant located in the outskirts of Gijn, a city in the north of Spain. Empirical results suggest that there is a statistically significant negative relationship between housing values and the distance from the iron and steel plant. From

Celia Bilbao-Terol

2009-01-01

328

Microstructure-Mechanical Property Relationships of Dual-Phase Steel Wire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of a dual-phase steel suitable for drawing into high strength wire necessitated a study of the relation between the microstructure and properties of undrawn rod and rod drawn into wire, and of the deformation of dual-phase steel at large strains....

A. H. Nakagawa

1983-01-01

329

Characterization of microstructures and mechanical properties of Inconel 617\\/310 stainless steel dissimilar welds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 617\\/310 austenitic stainless steel dissimilar welds were investigated in this work. Three types of filler materials, Inconel 617, Inconel 82 and 310 austenitic stainless steels were used to obtain dissimilar joint using the gas tungsten arc welding process. Microstructural observations showed that there was no evidence of any possible cracking in the weldments

H. Shah Hosseini; M. Shamanian; A. Kermanpur

2011-01-01

330

Properties of steels after high-temperature vacuum carburizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.High-temperature vacuum carburizing provides higher strength of the core of machine parts made of alloy steels as compared with standard carburizing.The variation of the ductile characteristics is more complex: The reduction in cross-sectional area remains unchanged for steel 19KhGN but increases for steels 20KhGN and 16KhG, while the relative elongation decreases ~20%.2.The fracture toughness of the core of parts is

M. A. Krishtal; S. N. Tsepov

1980-01-01

331

An investigation of effects of upsetting current time and normalization heat treatment on mechanical properties of X40CrMoV5 1 and 1030 steels joined by flash butt welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study X40CrMoV5 1 [H13] hot-work tool steel and 1030 plain carbon steel were welded to each other by using flash butt welding. Post weld normalization heat treatment was applied to one group of the test specimens welded under 2 bars of upsetting pressure and 1.6, 1.8 and 2s of upsetting current times. Test results demonstrated that the highest

U?ur Arabaci; Cemil etnkaya; Ali Akay

2007-01-01

332

Electromagnetic method for analyzing the property of steel casing  

SciTech Connect

It has been shown that electromagnetic (EM) imaging, in particular in borehole applications, can be effective in characterizing and monitoring subsurface processes involved in improved oil recovery operations and production management. In this report the authors present an innovative EM method for extracting information about a steel casing in terms of its electrical conductivity, magnetic permeability, and the casing thickness. The method is based on accurate evaluation of magnetic fields near the transmitting loop in a steel-cased borehole, and the least squares inversion of thus measured data. The need to make measurements close to the source stems from the two related considerations. One reason is that by making measurements close to the transmitter one can keep the formation response from entering the measurement to a minimum. The other reason concerns with the practical consideration involved in fabricating a borehole tool. The measurement accuracy in terms of PPM to the primary field can best be achieved when the transmitter and receiver are close to each other. To facilitate this requirement one can consider a single loop acting as the source and the receiver operating in time domain, or a closely coupled frequency-domain system with the source-receiver separation of just a few inches apart. Results are discussed.

Lee, K.H.; Kim, H.J.; Song, Y.

1998-02-01

333

Mechanical property and irradiation damage of China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel is being studied to develop the structural materials for a fusion reactor, which has been designed based on the well-known 9Cr1.5WVTa steel. The effect of tempering temperature on hardness and microstructure of CLAM steel was studied. The strength of CLAM steel increased by adding silicon, and the ductility remained constant. Conversely, while CLAM steel maintained good ductility with the addition of yttrium, its tensile strengths were greatly degraded. Behaviors under electron irradiation of CLAM steel were examined using the high voltage electron microscope. Electron irradiation at 450C formed many voids in CLAM steel with basic composition, whereas CLAM with silicon steel did not change the microstructure significantly.

Zhu, YanYong; Wan, FaRong; Gao, Jin; Han, WenTuo; Huang, YiNa; Jiang, ShaoNing; Qiao, JianSheng; Zhao, Fei; Yang, ShanWu; Ohnuki, Somei; Hashimoto, Naoyuki

2012-11-01

334

Analysis of atmospheric corrosion products of steel and coated steel by means of scattering Mssbauer spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wearthering steels treated with and without zinc phosphate solution were exposed to atmosphere for 15 years and rust layers produced on the steels were analysed by scattering Mssbauer spectrometry (CEMS and XMS). ?-FeOOH, fine ?-FeOOH, 5Fe2O39H2O, ?-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 were identified to be present in the rust formed on the steel without phosphate coating. Large particles of ?-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 formed on the uncoated steel exposed to atmosphere in a position facing north on vertical plane. The layer structure of rust was affected by the position. The thin rust layer formed on the phosphate + carylite resin coated steel was considered to consist of ?-FeOOH, fine ?-FeOOH, and fine ?-Fe2O3.

Nomura, Kiyoshi; Ujihira, Yusuke

1986-02-01

335

Temperature effects on the mechanical properties of annealed and HERF 304L stainless steel.  

SciTech Connect

The effect of temperature on the tensile properties of annealed 304L stainless steel and HERF 304L stainless steel forgings was determined by completing experiments over the moderate range of -40 F to 160 F. Temperature effects were more significant in the annealed material than the HERF material. The tensile yield strength of the annealed material at -40 F averaged twenty two percent above the room temperature value and at 160 F averaged thirteen percent below. The tensile yield strength for the three different geometry HERF forgings at -40 F and 160 F changed less than ten percent from room temperature. The ultimate tensile strength was more temperature dependent than the yield strength. The annealed material averaged thirty six percent above and fourteen percent below the room temperature ultimate strength at -40 F and 160 F, respectively. The HERF forgings exhibited similar, slightly lower changes in ultimate strength with temperature. For completeness and illustrative purposes, the stress-strain curves are included for each of the tensile experiments conducted. The results of this study prompted a continuation study to determine tensile property changes of welded 304L stainless steel material with temperature, documented separately.

Antoun, Bonnie R.

2004-11-01

336

On the processing, microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of cermet\\/stainless steel layer composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with layer composites of carbide reinforcements and stainless steel prepared successfully by powder technology. The layer material consisted of two layers. The top layer consisted of reinforcements (TiC and NbC) and 465 stainless steel as the binder material for the carbides. The bottom layer was entirely of binder material (465 stainless steel). The microstructure of the composite

Akhtar Farid; Shiju Guo

2007-01-01

337

Inhibitory properties of ocean vegetation products in the corrosion of steel  

SciTech Connect

The inhibitory properties of byproducts from the processing of Black Sea red algae Phyllophora nervosa were investigated in solutions of sulfuric and nitric acids, tap water, and sea water. Corrosion tests were conducted gravimetrically on St3, St40, and St60 steels, and on titanium alloy VT-1. Inhibitor effectiveness was measured by corrosion rate, the inhibition coefficient, and the extent of protection. A complete factor matrix was taken. Experimental results were expressed as a partial quadratic equation. The behavior of iron ions in the corrosion process was assessed. Tests established that the byproducts, referred to as inhibitor IFKhI, can be used in steel pickling treatments in sulfuric acid solutions over a wide temperature range.

Popelyukh, G.M.; Talavira, L.I.

1988-05-01

338

Preparation and properties on the graphite\\/polypropylene composite bipolar plates with a 304 stainless steel by compression molding for PEM fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphite\\/polymer composites have high corrosion resistance, low contact resistance and low fabrication cost but low cell efficiency and mechanical strength. This study examined the electrical and mechanical properties of graphite\\/polypropylene composite bipolar plates. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to improve the electrical properties of the graphite\\/PP composites. Although the electrical properties increased when excess conducting filler was added to the

Yang-Bok Lee; Choong-Hyun Lee; Kyung-Min Kim; Dae-Soon Lim

2011-01-01

339

Tribological properties of nitrogen implanted and boron implanted steels  

SciTech Connect

Samples of a steel with high chrome content was implanted separately with 75 keV nitrogen ions and with 75 keV boron ions. Implanted doses of each ion species were 2-, 4-, and 8 {times} 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 2}. Retained doses were measured using resonant non-Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. Tribological properties were determined using a pin-on-disk test with a 6-mm diameter ruby pin with a velocity of 0.94 m/min. Testing was done at 10% humidity with a load of 377 g. Wear rate and coefficient of friction were determined from these tests. While reduction in the wear rate for nitrogen implanted materials was observed, greater reduction (more than an order of magnitude) was observed for boron implanted materials. In addition, reduction in the coefficient of friction for high-dose boron implanted materials was observed. Nano-indentation revealed a hardened layer near the surface of the material. Results from grazing incidence x-ray diffraction suggest the formation of Fe{sub 2}N and Fe{sub 3}N in the nitrogen implanted materials and Fe{sub 3}B in the boron implanted materials. Results from transmission electron microscopy will be presented.

Kern, K.T. [Norfolk State Univ., VA (United States). Center for Materials Research; Walter, K.C.; Griffin, A.J. Jr.; Kung, H.; Lu, Y.; Nastasi, M.; Tesmer, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.; Fayeulle, S. [Ecole Centrale De Lyon, Ecully (France)

1996-06-01

340

Effect of Chemistry Variations on the Tensile Properties of 20% Cold Worked 316 Stainless Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of alloy compositional variations on the 1400 exp 0 F tensile properties of 20 percent cold worked type 316 stainless steel was determined. Forty-five different alloys were used with compositional variations in carbon, nitrogen), phosphorus, su...

M. M. Paxton

1973-01-01

341

Influence of Martensite Mechanical Properties on Failure Mode and Ductility of Dual Phase Steels  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the effects of the mechanical properties of the martensite phase on the failure mode and ductility of dual phase (DP) steels are investigated using a micromechanics-based finite element method. Actual microstructures of DP sheet steels obtained from scanning electron microscopy are used as representative volume element (RVE) in two-dimensional plane-stress finite element calculations. Failure is predicted as plastic strain localization in the RVE during deformation. The mechanical properties of the ferrite and martensite phases in a commercial DP 980 steel are obtained based on the in-situ X-ray diffraction measurements of a uniaxial tensile test. Computations are then conducted on the RVE in order to investigate the influence of the martensite mechanical properties and volume fraction on the macroscopic behavior and failure mode of DP steels. The computations show that, as the strength and volume fraction of the martensite phase increase, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of DP steels increases but the UTS strain and failure strain decrease. These results agree well with the general experimental observations on DP steels. Additionally, shear dominant failure modes usually develop for DP steels with lower martensite strengths, whereas split failure modes typically develop for DP steels with higher martensite strengths.

Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2009-04-01

342

Influence of Microstructure on Nitriding Properties of Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very hard and wear-resistant layers are formed after energetic nitrogen insertion into stainless steel. Here, a systematic investigation of the influence of the microstructure is presented. Nitrogen implantation was performed in austenitic, martensitic, and ferritic steels with the samples investigated with respect to formation of expanded phase, nitrogen depth distribution, hardness, and wear. Microstructure strongly affects the diffusion in austenite

Darina Manova; Inga-Maria Eichentopf; Dietmar Hirsch; Stephan Mndl; Horst Neumann; Bernd Rauschenbach

2006-01-01

343

Properties and weldability of low activation ferritic steels. Annual report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of ferritic steels patterned on the chromium-molybdenum alloys, 2 1/4Cr--1Mo, 9Cr--1MoVNb and 12Cr--1MoVW, were tested for weldability. These steels are being developed as candidates for the first wall and blanket structures of fusion reactors. U...

B. A. Chin

1990-01-01

344

Mechanical property of a low carbon steel with biomimetic units in different shapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by the superior biomechanical properties of some biological compositions, an attempt to improve the mechanical property of low carbon steel with biomimetic units was made by using a laser remelting process. Three kinds of shapes including 'striation', 'spot' and 'gridding', were chosen for forming the biomimetic units. Microstructure and microhardness examinations demonstrated that desirable microstructural changes and regular hardness distribution were acquired in the units. The results of tensile tests indicated that the biomimetic specimens had an improvement in the strength and ductility simultaneously. The beneficial influence of laser processed biomimetic units on tensile behavior can be attributed to the combined effects of the microstructural characteristics within the unit zone and the stress redistribution derived from the efficient stress transfer. By investigating the variation of plastic deformation in different regions of the specimens, the effect of unit shapes on tensile property was also compared and discussed.

Wang, Chuanwei; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Zhihui; Zhao, Yu; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Zhang, Peng; Ren, Luquan

2013-04-01

345

Corrosion properties of austenitic Cr-Mn-Ni-N steels with various manganese concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and corrosion properties of two high-nitrogen 05Kh20AN8MF steels additionally alloyed with 9 and 17% Mn have been studied. Metallographic, X-ray diffraction, and fractographic studies show that both steels have an austenitic structure and high plasticity properties after quenching from 1100 and 1100C and subsequent aging at 500C for 2 h. The steel alloyed with 9% Mn and 0.58% V exhibit a higher strength. Both steels have a higher corrosion resistance in a 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution than 12Kh18N9T steel. After aging at 400 600C, the corrosion rate and the sensitivity to stress corrosion cracking increase.

Berezovskaya, V. V.; Kostina, M. V.; Blinov, E. V.; Bannykh, I. O.; Bobrova, V. E.; Mel'Nik, V. P.

2008-02-01

346

Research on L-shaped concrete-filled steel tube core columns mechanical properties under eccentric  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study L-shaped concrete-filled steel tube core columns mechanical property and influencing factors in- depth, in this paper, finite element analysis program ABAQUS is used to analyze the mechanical properties of four various eccentricities of L-shaped concrete-filled steel tube core columns. From the load- vertical displacement curves and the load- deflection curves and load-strain curves, we found, within

Xu Yafeng; Zhang Yubo; Zhao Xin

2011-01-01

347

Effect of annealing on the properties of high-speed steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Annealing (at 825900) for 24 h for hot-rolled and 1518 h for cold-rolled high-speed steel lowers the quench hardness, secondary hardness, and red hardness. These properties are much more impaired after annealing at 900 than at 825.2.The effect of annealing depends on the amount and composition of M6C carbide, i.e., the chemical composition of the high-speed steel. The properties are

Yu. A. Geller; V. F. Artyukhov

1976-01-01

348

Low temperature mechanical properties of 316L type stainless steel after hydrostatic extrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

316L-type stainless steel is commonly used in fusion devices. Its mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures, for rolled or forged products possessing a grain size of tens of micrometers have been widely reported. In this paper we present the properties of this steel after multi-pass hydrostatic extrusion (HE), which brought about significant grain refinement to the nanometer scale. Such grain refinement

P. Czarkowski; A. T. Krawczynska; R. Slesinski; T. Brynk; J. Budniak; M. Lewandowska; K. J. Kurzydlowski

2011-01-01

349

PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF NINE COMMERCIAL PRECIPITATION HARDENABLE STAINLESS STEELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABS>The physical and mechanical properties of commercial precipitation-; hardenable stainless steels are presented. The steels covered include the ; martensitic types (Stainless W and 17⁻⁴ PH), the semiaustenitic types (17-7 ; PH, PH 15-7 Mo, AM 350, and AM 355), and the austenitic types (A-286, 17-10 P, ; and HNM). Roomand elevated-temperature tensile and compressive properties, ; stress-rupture and creep

D. A. Roberts; D. B. Roach; A. M. Hall

1959-01-01

350

Structure and properties of stainless steels subjected to severe plastic deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical, mechanical, and corrosion properties of stainless steels with microcrystalline and submicrocrystalline structures\\u000a obtained with the use of different techniques of thermal deformation treatment are considered. A comparative study of formation\\u000a of a dispersed structure in austenitic and ferritic steels is performed. The effect of the type of structure on mechanical\\u000a properties is discussed.

G. A. Salishchev; R. G. Zaripova; A. A. Zakirova

2006-01-01

351

Long-term creep deformation property of modified 9Cr1Mo steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first volume of Atlas of Creep Deformation Properties was published on modified 9Cr1Mo steels in March 2007, as a part of the NIMS (National Institute for Materials Science) Creep Data Sheet series. Creep deformation properties up to about 70,000h have been investigated. No clear steady-state creep stage has been observed, and creep deformation of the steel consists of transient

K. Kimura; H. Kushima; K. Sawada

2009-01-01

352

The influence of drawing speed on properties of TRIP steel wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of drawing speed of TRIP steel wires on their properties. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: The heat treatment of steel containing 0.09 % carbon, 1.57 % manganese and 0.9 % silicon allows to obtain TRIP type structure. The wires were drawn with different drawing speed. After drawing mechanical properties of wires were determined

M. Suliga; Z. Muskalski; S. Wiewirowska

353

Corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel in acetic acid by EIS and Mott-Schottky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of the passivation film formed on 316L stainless steel were studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy\\u000a (EIS), Mott-Schottky and Voltammetry measurements in high-temperature acetic acid. The results show that the passivation film\\u000a formed on 316L stainless steel is stable in 60% acetic acid solution from 25 C to 85 C. As temperature increased, the polarization\\u000a resistance decreased but the

Xuequn Cheng; Xiaogang Li; Lixia Yang; Cuiwei Du

2008-01-01

354

Experimental study of perforation and cracking of water-filled aluminum tubes impacted by steel spheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-filled aluminum tubes were subjected to impact by six steel spherical projectiles of different diameters at impact velocities of 40200m\\/s. The effects of the diameter of the steel projectiles and of the material properties of the tubes on cracking and perforation were discussed. Water decreased the wall strength of the aluminum alloy tubes, and the impact velocity at which a

Masahiro Nishida; Koichi Tanaka

2006-01-01

355

Phase stability in austenitic stainless steels -- New approaches, results, and their relation to properties  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the phase stability of austenitic stainless steels, and its effect on the mechanical properties of stainless steels, have been the subject of much interest. With the availability of new experimental techniques, new theoretical methods, and new computational procedures, significant advances have been made in understanding, and being able to predict, phase stability and mechanical properties of stainless steel welds. This paper reviews some of these developments, with an emphasis on recent work that has been done at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Vitek, J.M.; David, S.A.

1995-12-31

356

Low-temperature elastic properties of a 300-grade maraging steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elastic properties of an annealed 300-grade maraging steel (18 Ni, 9 Co, 5 Mo pct by weight) were studied between room temperature\\u000a and liquid-helium temperature. Longi-tudinal and transverse ultrasonic velocities were determined by a pulse method. The re-ported\\u000a elastic constants are: longitudinal modulus, shear modulus, Youngs modulus, bulk modulus, and Poissons ratio. Except for\\u000a the bulk modulus, the room-temperature elas-tic

H. M. Ledbetter; D. T. Read

1977-01-01

357

THE CORROSION CHARACTERISTICS OWING TO URANYL SALT SOLUTION AND THE CHANGES OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made to examine the corrosion characteristics caused by ; uranyl salt solution, the effect of mechanical stresses on it, and the effect of ; corrosion on mechanical properties of some austenitic stainless steel. The ; results were as follows: (1) After the speci mens were heated for 100 hr at 680 ; deg C, carbide precipitation was

G. Shinoda; T. Sano; T. Kawasaki

1958-01-01

358

Tribological behaviour and mechanical properties of low temperature gas nitrided austenitic steel in relation to layer morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present the results of investigations on the influence of the morphology of the nitrided layers produced on austenitic steel on their mechanical properties and tribological behaviour. The layers were obtained during low temperature (475C) gas nitriding preceded by cathode sputtering in nitrogen as an activation technique. The layers containing various stages of expanded austenite were obtained as a

J. Baranowska; S. E. Franklin; C. G. N. Pelletier

2005-01-01

359

Improved nitridation efficiency and mechanical property of stainless steel surface after N 2H 2 plasma nitridation at low temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the thermochemical process of stainless steel nitridation, the improvement of mechanical properties is governed by the way the nitrogen diffusion profiles extend into the material. The efficiency of conventional thermal or ionic nitridation is substantially reduced at temperatures lower than 550 C because of low nitrogen diffusivity. The present study shows that improved nitrogen transport can be obtained after

L Marot; E Le Bourhis; A Straboni

2002-01-01

360

Combined effects of hydrogen and magnetization on the tensile properties in 2. 25Cr1Mo steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1950's, there has been much effort to examine the influence of magnetic field on mechanical properties of ferromagnetic metals and alloys. It has been well-documented that lattice defects can influence the magnetic behavior, for example, the change of magnetic susceptibility of steels during plastic deformation or fatigue loading, or the Barkhausen effect, which is caused by the interaction

M. Ruscak; T. P. Perng

1993-01-01

361

Modeling of Failure Modes Induced by Plastic Strain Localization in Dual Phase Steels  

SciTech Connect

Microstructure level inhomogeneity between the harder martensite phase and the softer ferrite phase renders the dual phase (DP) steels more complicated failure mechanisms and associated failure modes compared to the conventionally used low alloy homogenous steels. This paper examines the failure mode DP780 steel and DP 980 steel under different loading conditions using finite element analyses on the microstructure levels. Micro-mechanics analyses based on the actual microstructures of DP steel are performed. The two-dimensional microstructure of DP steel was recorded by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties of the ferrite and martensite phases exhibit the dependency of the different chemistry and thermal mechanical processes. The plastic work hardening properties of the ferrite phase was determined by the synchrotron-based high-energy X-ray diffraction technique. The work hardening properties of the martensite phase were calibrated and determined based on the uniaxial tensile test results. Under different loading conditions, different failure modes are predicted in the form of plastic strain localization. The local failure mode was closely related to the stress state in the material. Under plane stress condition with free lateral boundary, one dominant shear band develops and leads to final failure of the material. However, if the lateral boundary was strictly constrained, splitting failure perpendicular to the loading direction is predicted. On the other hand, under plane strain loading condition, commonly observed necking phenomenon is predicted which leads to the final failure of the material. Numerical predictions were well validated by the experimental.

Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Ren, Yang; Jia, N.; Wang, Y. D.

2008-11-04

362

Combined effects of hydrogen and magnetization on the tensile properties in 2. 25Cr-1Mo steel  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1950's, there has been much effort to examine the influence of magnetic field on mechanical properties of ferromagnetic metals and alloys. It has been well-documented that lattice defects can influence the magnetic behavior, for example, the change of magnetic susceptibility of steels during plastic deformation or fatigue loading, or the Barkhausen effect, which is caused by the interaction of moving domain walls with lattice imperfection. The present paper is one part of the work to investigate the influences of magnetic field and hydrogen charging on mechanical properties of iron and its alloys. The 2.25Cr-1Mo (ASTM A387) steel was chosen because hydrogen embrittlement of this steel had been widely investigated and the response to hydrogen charging was well-known. So the possible influence of magnetic field could be separated.

Ruscak, M.; Perng, T.P. (National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China))

1993-07-01

363

Creation of superhydrophobic stainless steel surfaces by acid treatments and hydrophobic film deposition.  

PubMed

In this work, we present a method to render stainless steel surfaces superhydrophobic while maintaining their corrosion resistance. Creation of surface roughness on 304 and 316 grade stainless steels was performed using a hydrofluoric acid bath. New insight into the etch process is developed through a detailed analysis of the chemical and physical changes that occur on the stainless steel surfaces. As a result of intergranular corrosion, along with metallic oxide and fluoride redeposition, surface roughness was generated on the nano- and microscales. Differences in alloy composition between 304 and 316 grades of stainless steel led to variations in etch rate and different levels of surface roughness for similar etch times. After fluorocarbon film deposition to lower the surface energy, etched samples of 304 and 316 stainless steel displayed maximum static water contact angles of 159.9 and 146.6, respectively. However, etching in HF also caused both grades of stainless steel to be susceptible to corrosion. By passivating the HF-etched samples in a nitric acid bath, the corrosion resistant properties of stainless steels were recovered. When a three step process was used, consisting of etching, passivation and fluorocarbon deposition, 304 and 316 stainless steel samples exhibited maximum contact angles of 157.3 and 134.9, respectively, while maintaining corrosion resistance. PMID:22913317

Li, Lester; Breedveld, Victor; Hess, Dennis W

2012-08-31

364

Assessment of cyclic properties of 18G2A low-alloy steel at biaxial stress state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An evolution of plastic properties of the 18G2A low-alloy steel due to cyclic predeformation in different directions of the two-dimensional stress space (?xx,?xy) is assessed on the basis of cyclic curves. The initial material properties have been experimentally evaluated by the analysis of preliminary yield surface. It was made by studying the position in stress space and typical dimensions

Z. L. Kowalewski

1997-01-01

365

Creep-fatigue interaction and related structure property correlations of EUROFER97 steel at 550 C by decoupling creep and fatigue load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical tests have been performed at 550 C under vacuum on the ferritic-martensitic steel EUROFER97. These experiments included fatigue tests, creep tests and combined creep-fatigue tests. The latter showed significant cyclic softening in the fatigue stage and a remarkable break-down of creep strength in the creep stage. The cyclic softening behaviour was almost identical for all tests and therefore insensitive to the different strain amplitudes. SEM of the specimen's fracture surfaces and free surfaces revealed that networks of coagulated surface cracks formed during creep-fatigue were not failure relevant. TEM imaging displayed a drastic drop in dislocation density, and a considerable formation of precipitates and subgrain-structures in all tests. Pure fatigue led to the strongest reduction of dislocation density, whereas creep-fatigue induced the most pronounced formation of precipitates. Obviously, the internal softening due to prior cycling led to accelerated creep. Hence, a modified damage model for creep-fatigue load cases was proposed.

Vorpahl, C.; Mslang, A.; Rieth, M.

2011-10-01

366

LITERATURE SURVEY OF GASEOUS HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEELS  

SciTech Connect

Literature survey has been performed for a compendium of mechanical properties of carbon and low alloy steels following hydrogen exposure. The property sets include yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, uniform elongation, reduction of area, threshold stress intensity factor, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth. These properties are drawn from literature sources under a variety of test methods and conditions. However, the collection of literature data is by no means complete, but the diversity of data and dependency of results in test method is sufficient to warrant a design and implementation of a thorough test program. The program would be needed to enable a defensible demonstration of structural integrity of a pressurized hydrogen system. It is essential that the environmental variables be well-defined (e.g., the applicable hydrogen gas pressure range and the test strain rate) and the specimen preparation be realistically consistent (such as the techniques to charge hydrogen and to maintain the hydrogen concentration in the specimens).

Lam, P; Robert Sindelar, R; Thad Adams, T

2007-04-18

367

LITERATURE SURVEY OF GASEOUS HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEELS  

SciTech Connect

Literature survey has been performed for a compendium of mechanical properties of carbon and low alloy steels following hydrogen exposure. The property sets include yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, uniform elongation, reduction of area, threshold stress intensity factor, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth. These properties are drawn from literature sources under a variety of test methods and conditions. However, the collection of literature data is by no means complete, but the diversity of data and dependency of results in test method is sufficient to warrant a design and implementation of a thorough test program. The program would be needed to enable a defensible demonstration of structural integrity of a pressurized hydrogen system. It is essential that the environmental variables be well-defined (e.g., the applicable hydrogen gas pressure range and the test strain rate) and the specimen preparation be realistically consistent (such as the techniques to charge hydrogen and to maintain the hydrogen concentration in the specimens).

Lam, P; Andrew Duncan, A; Robert Sindelar, R; Thad Adams, T

2009-04-27

368

Characterization of microstructures and mechanical properties of Inconel 617/310 stainless steel dissimilar welds  

SciTech Connect

The microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 617/310 austenitic stainless steel dissimilar welds were investigated in this work. Three types of filler materials, Inconel 617, Inconel 82 and 310 austenitic stainless steels were used to obtain dissimilar joint using the gas tungsten arc welding process. Microstructural observations showed that there was no evidence of any possible cracking in the weldments achieved by the nickel-base filler materials. The welds produced by 617 and 310 filler materials displayed the highest and the lowest ultimate tensile strength and total elongation, respectively. The impact test results indicated that all specimens exhibited ductile fracture. Among the fillers, Inconel 617 exhibited superlative fracture toughness (205 J). The mechanical properties of the Inconel 617 filler material were much better than those of other fillers. - Research Highlights: {yields} A fine dendritic structure was seen for the Inconel 617 weld metal. {yields} A number of cracks were initiated when the 310 SS filler metal was used. {yields} All welded samples showed ductile fracture. {yields} The Inconel 617 filler material presents the optimum mechanical properties.

Shah Hosseini, H., E-mail: h.shahhosseini@ma.iut.ac.ir; Shamanian, M.; Kermanpur, A.

2011-04-15

369

Studies of Evaluation of Hydrogen Embrittlement Property of High-Strength Steels with Consideration of the Effect of Atmospheric Corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength steels was investigated by using slow strain rate test (SSRT) of circumferentially notched round bar specimens after hydrogen precharging. On top of that, cyclic corrosion tests (CCT) and outdoor exposure tests were conducted prior to SSRT to take into account the effect of hydrogen uptake under atmospheric corrosion for the evaluation of the susceptibility of high-strength steels. Our studies of hydrogen embrittle properties of high-strength steels with 1100 to 1500 MPa of tensile strength and a prototype ultrahigh-strength steel with 1760 MPa containing hydrogen traps using those methods are reviewed in this article. A power law relationship between notch tensile strength of hydrogen-precharged specimens and diffusible hydrogen content has been found. It has also been found that the local stress and the local hydrogen concentration are controlling factors of fracture. The results obtained by using SSRT after CCT and outdoor exposure test were in good agreement with the hydrogen embrittlement fracture property obtained by means of long-term exposure tests of bolts made of the high-strength steels.

Akiyama, Eiji; Wang, Maoqiu; Li, Songjie; Zhang, Zuogui; Kimura, Yuuji; Uno, Nobuyoshi; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki

2013-03-01

370

Screening Test Results of Fatigue Properties of type 316LN Stainless Steel in Mercury  

SciTech Connect

Fully reversed, load-controlled uniaxial push-pull fatigue tests at room temperature have been performed in air and in mercury on specimens of type 316LN stainless steel. The results indicate a significant influence of mercury on fatigue properties. Compared to specimens tested in air, specimens tested in mercury had reproducibly shorter fatigue lives (by a factor of 2-3), and fracture faces exhibiting intergranular cracking. Preliminary indications are that crack initiation in each environment is similar, but mercury significantly accelerates crack propagation.

Pawel, S.J.

1999-05-20

371

Study of the influence of surface carbon on the tribological properties of ion-treated steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of 100Cr6 steel were treated by different ion beams in order to study the evolution of their tribological properties. A strong correlation was found between the amount of surface carbon, whatever its origin (contamination, direct C implantation or ion-beam mixing of a deposited carbon layer), and the reduction of the friction coefficient as well as the improvement of the wear resistance. These results are discussed in the framework of a recent statistical model founded on the asperity concept and describing the tribological behaviour of bilayer systems.

Benyagoub, Abdenacer; Faussemagne, Arielle

1999-01-01

372

Superior Charpy impact properties of ODS ferritic steel irradiated in JOYO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of neutron irradiation on Charpy impact properties of an ODS ferritic steel developed by PNC was studied. The miniaturized Charpy V-notch (MCVN) specimens (1.51.520 mm) of two orientations (longitudinal, called 1DS-L, and transverse, 1DS-T) were irradiated to fluence levels of (0.33.8)1026 n\\/m2 (En>0.1 MeV) between 646 and 845 K in JOYO. MCVN specimens before and after the irradiation

T. Kuwabara; H Kurishita; S Ukai; M Narui; S Mizuta; M Yamazaki; H Kayano

1998-01-01

373

Structure and properties of die steels of the 5Kh2MF type  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The high heat resistance (600620) of die steels in combination with good strength (s0.2=135140 kg\\/mm2) and toughness (an=45 kg-m\\/cm2) throught the section of large forgings (500500 mm) after heat treatment is ensured by combined alloying within the following limits: 0.40.5% C, 0.51.0% Mn, 0.20.5% Si, 1.52.0% Cr, 0.81.2% Mo, 1.52.5% Ni, and 0.30.5% V.2.In its combination of basic properties (heat

S. I. Tishaev; Yu. G. Konrad; L. A. Poznyak

1974-01-01

374

The impact of welding on the creep properties of advanced 912% Cr steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term long-term creep properties for heat resistant steels is mainly reflected by the 100.000 hour creep rupture strength\\u000a at elevated testing temperature. Often, results of high stress, short-term creep tests are extrapolated to this 100.000 hour\\u000a target value. Results of long-term creep tests are rather rare because of high testing costs and the time consuming testing\\u000a procedure. Especially, long-running

Peter Mayr; Horst Cerjak

2010-01-01

375

Investigation of the mechanical properties of friction-welded joints between AISI 304L and AISI 4340 steel as a function rotational speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, standard AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel and AISI 4340 steel couple were welded by friction welding process using five different rotational speeds. The joining performances of AISI 304L\\/AISI 4340 friction-welded joints were studied and the influences of rotational speed on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joints were also estimated. The microstructural properties of heat

N. zdemir

2005-01-01

376

Mechanical properties and microstructural evolution of modified 9Cr1Mo steel after long-term aging for 50,000 h  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties and microstructural evolution of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel have been studied to investigate steel property\\u000a changes after long-term isothermal aging at 600 C for 50,000 h. The microhardness and strength were maintained constantly\\u000a after aging but the impact energy was dramatically reduced by 62 % during the aging period. From the viewpoint of microstructural\\u000a evolution after the aging

Jong-Hyuk Baek; Sung-Ho Kim; Chan-Bock Lee; Do-Hee Hahn

2009-01-01

377

Properties of cold-rolled high-strength steel sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

For high-strength steel sheets, a new concept has become necessary,viz, the relation between strength and formability. When the relation between tensile strength and elongation is appraised for\\u000a ranking in terms of the strengthening mechanism, it is found that the substitutional solid-solution hardening type is excellent\\u000a and the precipitation hardening type is inferior. In batch annealing, the phosphorus-added aluminum-killed steel sheets

K. Toda; H. Gondoh; H. Takechi; H. Masui

1976-01-01

378

Evaluation of the wear properties of high interstitial stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adding carbon to high nitrogen steels increases interstitial concentrations over what can be obtained with nitrogen addition alone. This can results in an increase in hardness, strength, and wear resistance. The alloys produced for this study were all based on commercially available high-nitrogen Fe-18Cr-18Mn stainless steel. This study is the first significant wear study of these new high interstitial nitrogen-carbon

J. H. Tylczak; J. C. Rawers; D. E. Alman

2007-01-01

379

The properties and weldability of low activation ferritic steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of ferritic steels patterned on the chromium-molybdenum alloys, 2 1\\/4Cr--1Mo, 9Cr--1MoVNb and 12Cr--1MoVW, were tested for weldability. These steels are being developed as candidates for the first wall and blanket structures of fusion reactors. Use of these materials will minimize the long term radioactive hazards associated with disposal after service. In these low activation alloys, elements which become

1990-01-01

380

Creep properties of austenitic stainless-steel weld metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creep behavior of two austeitic stainless-steel weld metals was investigated. Two AISI 316L stainless-steel base plates\\u000a were welded together using the submerged arc-welding process. Creep tests were carried out on the welds at constant load,\\u000a over a stress range of 100 to 400 MPa, and in the temperature range of 600 to 700 ?C. The relationships between stress and

A. Nassour; W. W. Bose; D. Spinelli

2001-01-01

381

Magnetic property based characterization of rust on weathering steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of rusts on weathering steels is important in understanding the origin of their corrosion resistance. Rust consists of several phases, e.g. ?-, ?- and ?-FeOOH, which are anti-ferromagnetic with different Nel temperatures. Rust on so-called advanced weathering steel containing 3wt.% Ni [H. Kihira, A. Usami, K. Tanabe, M. Ito, G. Shigesato, Y. Tomita, T. Kusunoki, T. Tsuzuki, S.

T. Mizoguchi; Y. Ishii; T. Okada; M. Kimura; H. Kihira

2005-01-01

382

Tribological properties of MoSi 2MoS 2 coatings coupling with SAE 52100 steel under reciprocating sliding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribological properties of MoSi2MoS2 coatings coupling with SAE52100 steel were tested under reciprocating sliding. Effects of normal load, sliding speed and MoS2 content on the coatings tribological properties were studied. Worn surfaces of the coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The friction coefficient of the coatings was approximately 0.45 and a little lower

La Peiqing; Xue Qunji; Liu Weimin

2001-01-01

383

Mechanical properties and microstructural features of AISI 4340 high-strength alloy steel under quenched and tempered conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the mechanical properties and microstructures of AISI 4340 high strength alloy steel under different tempering conditions are investigated. The specimens are quenched and tempered to a martensite structure and loaded to fracture at a constant strain-rate of 3.310?4 s?1 by means of a dynamic material testing machine (MTS 810). The mechanical properties and strain-hardening exponent are considered

Woei-Shyan Lee; Tzay-Tian Su

1999-01-01

384

Effect of grain size on the mechanical properties of dual phase Fe/Si/C steels  

SciTech Connect

For an Fe/2Si/0.1C steel with an intermediate quenching heat treatment, it was found that as the prior austenite grain size is refined, significant improvements in total elongation, reduction in area and impact toughness can be achieved, while uniform elongation, yield and tensile strengths are not affected. These improvements are analyzed in terms of microstructure and fracture characteristics. The cleavage cracks propagate nearly straight without deviation at the ferrite/martensite interfaces within the sub-units of the DFM structure, but change their path at high angle sub-unit boundaries. The crack is less likely to be deflected at the ferrite/martensite interface because the interface is coherent. Comparison of optical micrographs and SEM fractographs has shown that there is close agreement between the sub-unit size and cleavage facet size. The observations lead to the conclusion that the sub-unit size is the basic microstructure unit controlling the fracture behavior of DFM steels produced by the intermediate quenching heat treatment. A controlled rolling process was undertaken to obtain grain refined DFM steels. Results showed that this produces micro-duplex structures with attractive mechanical properties in an economicl way.

Ahn, J.H.

1983-08-01

385

Precipitation and mechanical properties of Nb-modified ferritic stainless steel during isothermal aging  

SciTech Connect

The influence of isothermal aging on precipitation behavior and mechanical properties of Nb-modified ferritic stainless steel was investigated using Thermo-calc software, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was observed that TiN, NbC and Fe{sub 2}Nb formed in the investigated steel and the experimental results agreed well with the results calculated by Thermo-calc software. During isothermal aging at 800 deg. C, the coarsening rate of Fe{sub 2}Nb is greater than that of NbC, and the calculated average sizes of NbC and Fe{sub 2}Nb of the aged specimen agreed with the experimental results. In addition, the tensile strength and micro-hardness of the ferritic stainless steel increased with increased aging time from 24 h to 48 h. But aging at 800 deg. C for 96 h caused the coarsening of the precipitation, which led to a decrease of tensile strength and micro-hardness.

Yan Haitao [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: yanhaitao@sjtu.edu.cn; Bi Hongyun; Li Xin [Shanghai Baosteel Research Institute, Shanghai 200431 (China); Xu Zhou [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2009-03-15

386

Inhibition of steel corrosion by thiourea derivatives  

SciTech Connect

The thiourea group of sulfur compounds has important theoretical and practical applications. Thioureas have been studied extensively, but their inhibition mechanism is not fully understood. The effect of thiourea; allylthiourea; N,N[prime]-diethylthiourea; N,N[prime]-di-isopropylthiourea; phenylthiourea; thiocarbanilide; and symdiotolylthiourea on the corrosion reaction and on the amount of H[sub 2] absorbed by cold-rolled mild steel in 1 N H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] at 40 C was studied. Inhibitor efficiency increased with increases in molecular weight and inhibitor concentration. Higher inhibitor concentrations decreased H[sub 2] pickup. Thiourea accelerated corrosion reactions and H[sub 2] pickup at higher concentrations. Potential studies showed cathodic reactions were inhibited at lower concentrations and anodic reactions were inhibited at higher concentrations. Results were based on the adsorption theory, and all inhibitors studied followed the Langmuir isotherm.

Singh, I. (National Metallurgical Lab., Jamshedpur (India))

1993-06-01

387

Amorphous stainless steel coatings prepared by reactive magnetron-sputtering from austenitic stainless steel targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel films were reactively magnetron sputtered in argon\\/methane gas flow onto oxidized silicon wafers using austenitic\\u000a stainless-steel targets. The deposited films of about 200nm thickness were characterized by conversion electron Mssbauer\\u000a spectroscopy, magnetooptical Kerr-effect, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry,\\u000a atomic force microscopy, corrosion resistance tests, and Raman spectroscopy. These complementary methods were used for a detailed

Salvatore Cusenza; Peter Schaaf

2009-01-01

388

Structure and properties of low-carbon high-manganese cast steels for cryogenic use  

SciTech Connect

A low carbon content and a relatively high manganese/carbon ratio have a marked effect in promoting the toughness of Mn-C cast steels at low temperatures. In the case of a low carbon content, cast steel with an austenitic matrix containing epsilon-martensite has good mechanical properties at low temperatures. The advantage of the cast steel with a ..gamma.. + epsilon structure over that with a fully austenitic structure lies in the relatively lower alloy content (Cr, Al, Ni, and Mn) in the former, a content that at the same time imparts better casting behavior. The steels studied containing 19-22% have good low-temperature mechanical properties and are therefore suggested for cryogenic purposes.

Li, L.S.; Wayman, C.M.; Wei, G.S.; Yang, D.Z.

1982-12-01

389

Mechanical properties and machinability of a high-strength, medium-carbon, microalloyed steel  

SciTech Connect

The development of a high-strength (tensile strength beyond 900 N/mm/sup 2/), medium-carbon, vanadium microalloyed steel for hot-forged automotive components reviewed in the paper. The influence of different alloying elements was investigated. The most effective elements to increase the strength were chromium and manganese. In TEM investigation, it was found that, in comparison with the lower-strength melt chromium plus manganese alloyed steel showed a high density of small V(C,N) precipitates. Most mechanical properties of the microalloyed and quenched and tempered steel were essentially equal. Exceptions were the lower impact strength and higher fatigue strength of the microalloyed steel. Possibilities to improve the impact strength of the microalloyed steel are being considered. Machinability was tested in different operations. Generally, the machinability was comparable with quenched and tempered steels; however, a different behavior was found in deep-hole drilling. The use of calcium treatment to improve machinability is discussed. The high-strength microalloyed grade developed can substitute for alloyed quenched and tempered steels in most components. When weight saving is desired, the possibility of substituting the high-strength grade for lower-strength microalloyed steels is considered.

Ollilainen, V.; Hurmola, H.; Pontinen, H.

1984-03-01

390

Effects of plastic deformations on microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS-310 austenitic steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ODS-310 austenitic steel (Fe-25Cr-20Ni-0.35Y2O3-0.5Ti) was fabricated by the process of mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing. Plastic deformations, including forging and hot rolling, were applied to the as-hipped samples to improve the ductility. Microstructural evolutions in samples under different fabrication conditions were characterized by TEM. Tensile properties were tested at 23 C and 700 C. Dispersed oxide particles with sizes between 10 nm and 50 nm were characterized to be rich in Y-Ti-O. UTS and elongation of the as-hipped sample were 904 MPa and 11% respectively at 23 C. Elongation increased two times after plastic deformations while there was only slight decrease in strength properties.

Wang, Man; Zhou, Zhangjian; Sun, Hongying; Hu, Helong; Li, Shaofu

2012-11-01

391

Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir processed ODS ferritic steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are considered to be one of the candidate structural materials for advanced blanket systems because of its excellent properties in fusion environments. For more applications of the ODS steels to fusion systems with a huge and complex structure, development of joining technologies is a key issue to be solved. To reserve nano-oxide particles in the matrix homogeneously, the friction stir welding (FSW) is a suitable way to get good welding characteristics as a solid-state processing technique. In this research, effects of friction stir processing (FSP) on microstructure and mechanical properties of a ODS steel were studied to apply FSW process to ODS steels. The microstructure of FSPed ODS steel consists of stirred zone (SZ) and base metal (BM), as reported for other ferritic steels. Although equiaxed grain coarsening occurred through dynamic recrystallization during FSP, the nano-oxide particles in SZ showed fewer change in the size distribution. This resulted that FSP is effective to suppress the anisotropy and minimize the change of nano-oxide particles dispersion morphologies of ODS steel.

Noh, Sanghoon; Kasada, Ryuta; Kimura, Akihiko; Park, Seung Hwan C.; Hirano, Satoshi

2011-10-01

392

Characterization of the magnetic micro- and nanostructure in unalloyed steels by magnetic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of a cementite phase influences significantly the macroscopic mechanical and magnetic properties of steels. Based on a correlation between mechanical and magnetic properties, mechanical properties as well as the morphology and content of the cementite phase can be inspected by electromagnetic non-destructive testing methods. The influence of the carbon content on bulk magnetic properties of unalloyed steels is studied on a macroscopic scale by hysteresis loop and Barkhausen noise measurements. The micro- and nanostructure is investigated by atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. Surface topography images and magnetic images of globular cementite precipitates embedded in a ferrite matrix are presented. The size, shape, and orientation of the precipitates influence the domain configuration. Applied external magnetic fields cause magnetization processes mainly in the ferrite matrix: Bloch walls move and are pinned by the cementite precipitates. The correlation between the microscopic observations and macroscopic magnetic properties of the material is discussed.

Batista, L.; Rabe, U.; Hirsekorn, S.

2013-01-01

393

The influence of austempering temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a high carbon high silicon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation a new bainitic steel with high strength and exceptionally high fracture toughness has been developed. This steel has been synthesized using the concepts from Austempered Ductile Cast Iron (ADI) technology. The influence of austempering temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of this steel at room temperature and ambient atmosphere has been examined. The influence of microstructure

Arjun V Singar

2007-01-01

394

Effect of tool geometry on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir lap welded magnesium alloy and steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of tool geometry on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir lap welded AZ31 Mg alloy (top sheet) and steel (zinc coated steel and brushed finish steel) sheets was studied. Tools with two different probe lengths were used in this study. The microstructure at the joining interface, the failure loads and the fracture locations of the joints varied

Y. C. Chen; K. Nakata

2009-01-01

395

Fabrication and mechanical properties of a 14Cr-ODS steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the fabrication method and the mechanical properties of a 14Cr-ODS steel are investigated. The pre-alloyed steel powders and oxide powders were mechanical alloyed after milling for 30 h under a rotation of 300 rpm. Y-Ti-O phase was obtained after annealing the MA powders at 1100 C. The tensile strength of the HIPed 14Cr-ODS steels at room temperature was about 1120 MPa. Micro structure observation showed that there were amount of nano dispersion particles in the base alloy which resulted in the high hardness and tensile strength.

Hu, Helong; Zhou, Zhangjian; Liao, Lu; Wang, Man; Li, Shaofu

2013-03-01

396

Prediction of the mechanical properties of hot-rolled C?Mn steels using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of pilot rolling data on the microstructure and mechanical properties of C?Mn steels, computer models of the relationships between the microstructure and mechanical properties have been established using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). These models show good learning precision and generalization, and therefore can be used for predicting the mechanical properties of hot-rolled steel strips.

Z. Y. Liu; W.-D. Wang; W. Gao

1996-01-01

397

Evaluation of the wear properties of high interstitial stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Adding carbon to high nitrogen steels increases interstitial concentrations over what can be obtained with nitrogen addition alone. This can results in an increase in hardness, strength, and wear resistance. The alloys produced for this study were all based on commercially available high-nitrogen Fe-18Cr-18Mn stainless steel. This study is the first significant wear study of these new high interstitial nitrogen-carbon stainless steel alloys. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk abrasion, dry sand/rubber wheel abrasion, impeller impact, and jet erosion. Increasing interstitial concentration increased strength and hardness and improved wear resistance under all test conditions. The results are discussed in terms of overall interstitial alloy concentration.

Tylczak, J.H.; Rawers, J.C.; Alman, D.E.

2007-04-01

398

Recent developments in the study of phase stability of austenitic stainless steels and its relation to properties  

SciTech Connect

Much work has been done over the years in alloy development of stainless steels and in the characterization of stainless steel microstructures and properties. However, in recent years there have been significant new advances made, and insights gained, into the physical metallurgy of these materials. In particular, advanced techniques have led to new information on the phase stability of stainless steels and the influence of the phase stability on mechanical properties. This paper will highlight some of these new advances, with an emphasis on work that has been done at ORNL on these alloys. For stainless steel alloys, the phase stability can be influenced by several factors. They include solidification behavior, the ferrite/austenite solid-state transformation, other high temperature phase transformations, and low temperature phase transformations. Recent advances in theoretical and experimental methods have led to new developments in understanding and characterizing these factors. Advanced solidification theory has been applied to understand the influence of rapid solidification on phase formation during solidification. New thermodynamic evaluation methods have shown great potential in providing details on the overall phase stability, including details on the influence of composition on phase stability. finite-difference techniques have been applied to the stainless steel alloy system to gain much insight into the ferrite/austenite transformation behavior. Finally, advanced techniques such as analytical electron microscopy, atom probe field ion microscopy, nano-indentation techniques, and specimen miniaturization techniques have provided valuable information on the response of stainless steel microstructures and properties to thermal treatment. All of these new methods and approaches are described in detail in this presentation.

Vitek, J.M.; David, S.A.

1995-12-31

399

Atmospheric Corrosion on Steel Studied by Conversion Electron Mssbauer Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate initial products on steel by atmospheric corrosion, conversion electron Mssbauer measurements were carried out at temperatures between 15 K and room temperature. From the results obtained at low temperatures, it was found that the corrosion products on steel consisted of ferrihydrite.

Nakanishi, Akio; Kobayashi, Takayuki

2004-12-01

400

Corrosion properties of active screen plasma nitrided 316 austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel has been plasma nitrided using the active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) technique. Corrosion properties of the untreated and AS plasma nitrided 316 steel have been evaluated using various techniques, including qualitative evaluation after etching in 50%HCl+25%HNO3+25%H2O, weight loss measurement after immersion in 10% HCl, and anodic polarisation tests in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results showed

C. X Li; T Bell

2004-01-01

401

Effect of process time on structural and tribological properties of ferritic plasma nitrocarburized AISI 4140 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

AISI 4140 steel was plasma nitrocarburized at a gas mixture of 49%N2+49%H2+2%CO2, for different process times (1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h), at a temperature of 570 C. The structural, mechanical and tribological properties of nitrocarburized steel were analyzed using a X-ray diffraction, microhardness tester, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and pin-on-disk tribotester. The results have shown that the

Mehmet Karakan; Akgn Alsaran; Ayhan elik

2004-01-01

402

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Low Alloyed MnB Cast Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure and mechanical properties of a low alloyed MnB cast steel designed for coupler castings of trucks were\\u000a studied. The results show that the microstructure of the MnB cast steel after water quenching is lath martensite and a small\\u000a amount of massive islands in the matrix of lath martensite. The average size of the martensite packets is about 10?m

Kaishuang Luo; Bingzhe Bai

2010-01-01

403

Effect of prior heat treatment on the properties of nitrided structural and tool steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Prior heat treatment before nitriding affects the mechanical properties of steels; the highest strength is achieved after temper hardening, and the maximum ductility is achieved after TCT.2.The thickness of the nitrided layer on each of the test steels (U8, 40Kh, and 3Kh2V8) after temper hardening and TCT is practically the same, and the layer thickness is greater after normalizing.3.For components

V. V. Simochkin; TOOL STEELS

1986-01-01

404

Improvement of the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel after plasma nitriding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on a series of experiments designed to study the influence of plasma nitriding on the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel. Plasma nitriding experiments were conducted on AISI 304L steel in a temperature range of 375475C using pulsed-DC plasma with different N2H2 gas mixtures and treatment times. Firstly the formation and the microstructure of the

E. Menthe; A. Bulak; J. Olfe; A. Zimmermann; K.-T. Rie

2000-01-01

405

Static and impact crack properties of a high-strength steel welded joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to gain the benefits of weldable high-strength steels in pressurized equipment applications, satisfactory toughness and crack properties of the welded joint, both in the weld metal and the heat-affected zone (HAZ), are required. Experimental investigations of toughness and crack resistance parameters through static and impact tests of a high-strength, low-alloy steel (HSLA) with a nominal yield strength of

M. Zrilic; V. Grabulov; Z. Burzic; M. Arsic; S. Sedmak

2007-01-01

406

HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON THE BURST PROPERTIES OF TYPE 304L STAINLESS STEEL FLAWED VESSELS  

SciTech Connect

The effect of hydrogen on the burst properties Type 304L stainless steel vessels was investigated. The purpose of the study was to compare the burst properties of hydrogen-exposed stainless steel vessels burst with different media: water, helium gas, or deuterium gas. A second purpose of the tests was to provide data for the development of a predictive finite-element model. The burst tests were conducted on hydrogen-exposed and unexposed axially-flawed cylindrical vessels. The results indicate that samples burst pneumatically had lower volume ductility than those tested hydraulically. Deuterium gas tests had slightly lower ductility than helium gas tests. Burst pressures were not affected by burst media. Hydrogen-charged samples had lower volume ductility and slightly higher burst pressures than uncharged samples. Samples burst with deuterium gas fractured by quasi-cleavage near the inside wall. The results of the tests were used to improve a previously developed predictive finite-element model. The results show that predicting burst behavior requires as a material input the effect of hydrogen on the plastic strain to fracture from tensile tests. The burst test model shows that a reduction in the plastic strain to fracture of the material will result in lower volume ductility without a reduction in burst pressure which is in agreement with the burst results.

Morgan, M; Monica Hall, M; Ps Lam, P; Dean Thompson, D

2008-03-27

407

Magnetic Study of Martensitic Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steel by Low Field Hysteresis Loops Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic method has been used to evaluate the volume percentage of {alpha}' martensitic phase in austenitic stainless steels by measuring saturation magnetization, and it is said to be a candidate NDE method. However, nondestructive detection of saturation magnetization without high magnetic field is difficult. In the current work, we present a NDE method for evaluating the magnetic properties of strain induced {alpha}' martensitic phase. Low field hysteresis loops of an austenitic stainless steels type SUS 304 after cold rolling were measured by using a yoke sensor. The results show that the initial permeability {mu}i and the relative coercive field Hcl calculated by low field hysteresis loop analysis keep monotonic relation with saturation magnetization and coercive force measured by VSM, respectively. By this method, it is possible to characterize the volume content and particle properties of {alpha}' martensitic phase in stainless steels.

Zhang Lefu; Takahashi, Seiki; Kamada, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Hiroaki; Mumtaz, Khalid; Ara, Katsuyuki; Sato, Masaya [NDE Center, Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka, 020-8551 (Japan)

2005-04-09

408

Elevated-Temperature Tensile and Creep Properties of Several Ferritic Stainless Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The elevated-temperature mechanical properties of several ferritic stainless steels were determined. The alloys evaluated included Armco 18SR, GE 1541, and NASA-18T-A. Tensile and creep strength properties at 1073 and 1273 K and residual room temperature ...

J. D. Whittenberger

1977-01-01

409

Fatigue and crack growth properties of type 316 steel for fusion applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatigue and crack growth properties of Type 316 steel relevant for application in the first wall and blanket structures of NET (Next European Torus) have been reviewed. Most of the presently available post-irradiation fatigue and crack propagation experiments are carried out at temperatures over 750 K, whereas for NET the properties at temperatures in the range of 500 to

B. Van Der Schaaf; M. I. De Vries

1987-01-01

410

Integrated thermal-microstructure model to predict the property gradients in resistance spot steel welds  

SciTech Connect

An integrated model approach was proposed for relating resistance welding parameters to weldment properties. An existing microstructure model was used to determine the microstructural and property gradients in resistance spot welds of plain carbon steel. The effect of these gradients on the weld integrity was evaluated with finite element analysis. Further modifications to this integrated thermal-microstructure model are discussed.

Babu, S.S.; Riemer, B.W.; Santella, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Feng, Z. [Edison Welding Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

1998-11-01

411

Investigation of mechanical properties of 03Kh12N10MT steel at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.03Kh12N10MT steel shows high impact strength and work of fracture and a low notch sensitivity to -253C.2.Cold hardening by rolling represents a reserve strengthening of this steel. In the cold-rolled condition the steel retains its high plasticity, and broken specimens show a tough fracture.3.In the longitudinal as well as in the transverse directions the specimens cut from 12-mm-thick strip

E. S. Kagan; V. I. Kozlovskaya; G. N. Grikurov; Ya. V. Trantsevich

1975-01-01

412

Study of Ph Curves on Nanomechanical Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Mortar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steel fiber reinforced mortars with w\\/b 0.3 and 0.5 with and without 10% silica fume by cement weight were investigated using\\u000a a Hysitron Triboindenter with Berkovich tip, indenting in the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between steel fiber and matrix, and also on the steel\\u000a fiber and aggregate using 5mN maximum force to obtain P-h (Load-Displacement) curves for elastic modulus and

S. F. Lee; J. Y. He; X. H. Wang; Z. L. Zhang; S. Jacobsen

413

Effect of annealing prior to cold rolling on magnetic and mechanical properties of low carbon non-oriented electrical steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of annealing prior to cold rolling on the microstructure, magnetic and mechanical properties of low-C grain non-oriented (GNO) electrical steels have been investigated. The grain structure of hot-rolled electrical steel strips is modified by annealing at temperatures between 700 and 1050 C. Annealing at temperatures less than the ferrite to austenite+ferrite transformation temperature on heating (Ac1) causes a marginal effect on the grain size. However, annealing in the intercritical region at temperatures between Ac1 and Ac3 (the ferrite+austenite to austenite transformation temperature on heating) causes rapid decarburization and development of large columnar ferrite grains free of carbide particles. This microstructure leads, after cold rolling and a fast annealing treatment, to carbide free, large ferrite grain microstructures with magnetic and mechanical properties superior to those observed typically in the same steel in the industrially fully processed condition. These results are attributed to the increment in grain size and to the {1 0 0} fiber texture developed during the final annealing at temperatures up to 850 C. Annealing at higher temperatures, T>Ac3, results in a strong {1 1 1} fiber texture and an increase of the quantity of second phase particles present in the microstructure, which lead to a negative effect on the final properties. The results suggest that annealing prior to cold rolling offers an attractive alternative processing route for the manufacture of fully processed low C GNO electrical steels strips.

Gutirrez-Castaeda, E. J.; Salinas-Rodrguez, A.

2011-10-01

414

Heat Treatment and Properties of Iron and Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph is a revision of the previous NBS Monograph 18. Its purpose is to provide an understanding of the heat treatment of iron and steels, principally to those unacquainted with this subject. The basic principles involved in the heat treatment of...

T. G. Digges S. J. Rosenberg G. W. Geil

1966-01-01

415

MODELING STRESS DEPENDENCE OF MAGNETIC PROPERTIES FOR NDE OF STEELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of the Sablik-Jiles magnetomechanical theory to various NDE techniques for measuring stress in steels is reviewed. Among the techniques discussed are (1) differential anhysteretic susceptibility, (2) higher order harmonic amplitudes of the hysteretic magnetic flux density, (3) magabsorption, which involves measurement of the rf impedance of a coil coupled to a ferromagnetic material, and (4) Barkhausen measurements.

M. J. SABLIK

1989-01-01

416

Corrosion protection property of colloidal silicate film on galvanized steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical conversion treatment of galvanized steel using colloidal silica was investigated as an alternative treatment to chromate conversion. The solution used for the colloidal silicate coating consisted of colloidal silicate, titanium sulfate, and nitrate ions to maintain good corrosion resistance. Adding CoSO4 to the colloidal silicate solution enhanced the adhesion between the silicate film and the zinc coat on the

Motoaki Hara; Ryoichi Ichino; Masazumi Okido; Nobuaki Wada

2003-01-01

417

Nondestructive Evaluation of Strain Distribution and Fatigue Distribution from Austenitic Stainless Steel by Using Magnetic Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austenitic stainless steel transforms from austenitic crystal structure to martensitic crystal structure after applying strain or stress. Because martensitic crystal structures have magnetization, strain evaluation and fatigue evaluation can be performed by measuring magnetic properties. This paper describes the measurement of leakage magnetic flux density of remanent magnetization for the strain evaluation and the fatigue evaluation by a typical Hall

Y. Tsuchida; M. Oka; T. Yakushiji; M. Enokizono

2007-01-01

418

Effects of Post Quenching on Mechanical Properties of TiN Film Coated on Steel Substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon tool steel substrates were quenched after TiN coating by dc magnetron sputtering, and the effects of substrate post-quenching on the mechanical properties of TiN films were investigated. The residual stress of TiN film was decreased by substrate post-quenching, and the hardness of TiN film also decreased. On the other hand, the adhesive strength determined by the scratch test and the substrate hardness were improved by substrate post-quenching. The improvement in the adhesive strength could be explained by the following three effects of substrate post-quenching: decrease of residual stress, increase in substrate hardness, and the formation of a diffusion layer between the film and the substrate caused by the elevated temperature in substrate post-quenching.

Tanabe, Hirotaka; Miyoshi, Yoshio; Takamatsu, Tohru; Sagara, Shuichi; Inoue, Eiichi; Kondo, Kazuo

419

Processing, structure, and properties of a rolled, ultrahigh-carbon steel plate exhibiting a damask pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plate of ultrahigh-carbon steel (UHCS) was processed by hot and warm rolling, according to the WadsworthSherby mechanism, to produce damask surface markings. The surface markings produced by this industrial processing method are similar to those of historical Damascus steels, which are also of hypereutectoid composition. The microstructure of the UHCS with damask contains fine, spheroidized carbides and a discontinuous

Eric M Taleff; Bruce L Bramfitt; Chol K Syn; Donald R Lesuer; Jeffrey Wadsworth; Oleg D Sherby

2001-01-01

420

Thermal aging of cast stainless steels in LWR systems: Estimation of mechanical properties  

SciTech Connect

A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting Charpy-impact energy, tensile flow stress, fracture toughness J-R curve, and J{sub IC} of aged cast stainless steels from known material information. The ``saturation`` impact strength and fracture toughness of a specific cast stainless steel, i.e., the minimum value that would be achieved for the material after long-term service, is estimated from the chemical composition of the steel. Mechanical properties as a function of time and temperature of reactor service are estimated from impact energy and flow stress of the unaged material and the kinetics of embrittlement, which are also determined from chemical composition. The J{sub IC} values are determined from the estimated J-R curve and flow stress. Examples of estimating mechanical properties of cast stainless steel components during reactor service are presented. A common ``lower-bound`` J-R curve for cast stainless steels of unknown chemical composition is also defined for a given grade of steel, ferrite content, and temperature.

Chopra, O.K.

1991-11-01

421

Thermal aging of cast stainless steels in LWR systems: Estimation of mechanical properties  

SciTech Connect

A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting Charpy-impact energy, tensile flow stress, fracture toughness J-R curve, and J{sub IC} of aged cast stainless steels from known material information. The saturation'' impact strength and fracture toughness of a specific cast stainless steel, i.e., the minimum value that would be achieved for the material after long-term service, is estimated from the chemical composition of the steel. Mechanical properties as a function of time and temperature of reactor service are estimated from impact energy and flow stress of the unaged material and the kinetics of embrittlement, which are also determined from chemical composition. The J{sub IC} values are determined from the estimated J-R curve and flow stress. Examples of estimating mechanical properties of cast stainless steel components during reactor service are presented. A common lower-bound'' J-R curve for cast stainless steels of unknown chemical composition is also defined for a given grade of steel, ferrite content, and temperature.

Chopra, O.K.

1991-11-01

422

Estimation of mechanical properties of cast stainless steels during thermal aging in LWR systems  

SciTech Connect

A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting Charpy- impact energy, tensile flow stress, fracture toughness J-R curve, and J{sub IC} of aged cast stainless steels from known material information. The ``saturation`` impact strength and fracture toughness of a specific cast stainless steel, i.e., the minimum value that would be achieved for the material after long-term service, is estimated from the chemical composition of the steel. Mechanical properties as a function of time and temperature of reactor service are estimated from impact energy and flow stress of the unaged material and the kinetics of embrittlement, which are also determined from chemical composition. The J{sub IC} values are determined from the estimated J-R curve and flow stress. Examples of estimating mechanical properties of cast stainless steel components during reactor service are presented. A common ``lower-bound`` J-R curve for cast stainless steels of unknown chemical composition is also defined for a given grade of steel, ferrite content, and temperature.

Chopra, O.K.

1991-10-01

423

Estimation of mechanical properties of cast stainless steels during thermal aging in LWR systems  

SciTech Connect

A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting Charpy-impact energy, tensile flow stress, fracture toughness J-R curve, and J{sub IC} of aged cast stainless steels from known material information. The ``saturation`` impact strength and fracture toughness of a specific cast stainless steel, i.e., the minimum value that would be achieved for the material after long-term service, is estimated from the chemical composition of the steel. Mechanical properties as a function of time and temperature of reactor service are estimated from impact energy and flow stress of the unaged material and the kinetics of embrittlement, which are also determined from chemical composition. The J{sub IC} values are determined from the estimated J-R curve and flow stress. Examples of estimating mechanical properties of cast stainless steel components during reactor service are presented. A common predicted lower-bound J-R curve for cast stainless steels of unknown chemical composition is also defined for a given grade of steel, ferrite content, and temperature.

Chopra, O.K.

1991-10-01

424

Properties of duplex coatings prepared by plasma nitriding and PVD TiC:H deposition on X20Cr13 ferritic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplex-coating procedures consisting of plasma nitriding and MeC:H hard coating lead to an improved performance of the devices because the MeC:H coating is supported by the nitrided phase and, therefore, the `eggshell-effect' is avoided. Furthermore, this support leads to a higher load-bearing capacity of the thin film. Two standard procedures (classical high-pressure plasma nitriding and unbalanced magnetron sputtering of TiC:H)

T. Michler; M Grischke; K Bewilogua; H Dimigen

1998-01-01

425

Mechanical properties of friction stir welded 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Friction stir welding was applied to the wrapper tube materials, 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel, designed for fast reactors and defect-free welds were successfully produced. The mechanical and microstructural properties of the friction stir welded steel were subsequently investigated. The hardness values of the stir zone were approximately 550 Hv (5.4 GPa) with minimal dependence on the rotational speed, even though they were much higher than those of the base material. However, tensile strengths and elongations of the stir zones were high at 298 K, compared to those of the base material. The excellent tensile properties are attributable to the fine grain formation during friction stir welding.

Yano, Y.; Sato, Y. S.; Sekio, Y.; Ohtsuka, S.; Kaito, T.; Ogawa, R.; Kokawa, H.

2013-11-01

426

Mechanical properties of multilayer steel-copper composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensile strength st and fatigue limit s-1 of powder metallurgical and cast MLCs grow with decreasing mean layer thickness h starting from 5000 . In cast Type 45 steel\\/copper composites high tensile strengthst (222 kgf\\/mm2) combines with high impact strengthan (8 kgf-m\\/cm2) and hardness (4245 HRC). With powder metallurgical and cast MLCs, at any given life NG the cycle

S. L. Revo; V. P. Maiboroda

1979-01-01

427

Processing and Properties of PM 440C Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alloy 440C is a high carbon, hardenable, martensitic grade of stainless steel, which offers high wear resistance, combined with a moderate resistance to corrosion. A successful PM (powder metallurgy) version of the alloy should exhibit a high sintered density, at least greater than 7.60 g\\/cm3, i.e., above 98% of full theoretical density. Liquid phase sintering offers an attractive means of

Prasan K. Samal; Joshua C. Valko; Joseph D. Pannell

428

The Effects of Martensite Content on the Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered 0.2%C-Ni-Cr-Mo Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three martensite contents (approximately 35, 50, and 100%) were obtained in a SAE8822 steel by altering the quenching media\\u000a and section size. Another variation in martensite content (approximately 80 versus 97%) was achieved by quenching a SAE8622\\u000a steel in the same section size. The impact toughness and fatigue properties were determined after tempering to various levels\\u000a of monotonic strength. Toughness

John M. Tartaglia

2010-01-01

429

High-temperature mechanical properties and microstructure of 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel compared with RAFMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, high-temperature mechanical properties and microstructure of a 9Cr-ODS steel were studied. The properties were compared with those of the current reduced activation ferritic\\/martensitic steels (RAFMs) of CLAM and JLF-1. The tensile strength of the 9Cr-ODS steel was almost twice the values of the RAFMs at all the test temperatures, and the strength level at 923973K was comparable

Yanfen Li; Takuya Nagasaka; Takeo Muroga; Akihiko Kimura; Shigeharu Ukai

2011-01-01

430

Effect of hot deformation conditions and preliminary heat treatment on the properties of tungsten-molybdenum high-speed steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The initial rolling temperature (1000\\\\2-1200\\\\dg) and preliminary heat treatment have a large effect on the consistency of the properties of tungsten-molybdenum steels.An initial rolling temperature of 1000 ensures consistent properties of all 20 heats investigated after annealing and tempering. Initial rolling temperatures of 11001200 increase the susceptibility of tungsten-molybdenum steels to grain growth during quenching.Steels rolled at 10001200 and not

A. N. Popandopulo; S. D. Popova; O. V. Kondrat'eva

1976-01-01

431

Magnetic Properties and Domain Structure of Non-oriented Electrical Steel Under Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of stresses on the magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels was studied. The dependence of iron loss on compressive stress was affected by grain size. The magnetic polarization J at high magnetic fields such as 5000A/m and 10000A/m increased by compressive stresses and decreased by tensile stresses in samples with low Si contents. Using Kerr-effect domain observation, it was found that the reduction in J caused by tensile stresses was attributable to residual striped domains. Magnetostriction measurements at high magnetic fields indicated that the increase in J under compressive stresses originated from the Villari-effect due to negative magnetostriction in low Si materials.

Senda, Kunihiro; Fujita, Akira; Honda, Atsuhito; Kuroki, Naoki; Yagi, Masaaki

432

Pipe fittings in duplex stainless steel with deviation in quality caused by sigma phase precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pipe fittings in duplex stainless steel (grade 2205) are used both top-side and subsea by the oil industry offshore. Precipitation processes during heat treatment of such fittings may result in various detrimental intermetallic phases and carbides. Among these defects, the sigma phase has a particular interest since it already in small amounts may cause a considerable reduction in mechanical properties

T. Brvik; H. Lange; L. A. Marken; M. Langseth; O. S. Hopperstad; M. Aursand; G. Rrvik

2010-01-01

433

Proteincalcium phosphate interactions in fouling of modified stainless-steel surfaces by simulated milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposition behaviour of the main components of milk fouling (?-lactoglobulin and calcium phosphate) and its dependence on the surface energy properties of the fouling support were evaluated in this work. As deposition supports, several modified stainless-steel materials obtained by surface modification techniques were used. Four fouling systems were analysed: an aqueous solution that resembles the mineral composition of milk

Roxane Rosmaninho; Luis F. Melo

2008-01-01

434

Microstructure of steel 20 strengthened by high-temperature multiple completely reversed bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some traits of the structure formation of metal in the process of TPT were discovered by the authors of [3-6]. The improvement of the mechanical properties of steels after cold and hot TPT in these publications was ascribed to the formation of a cellular dislocation substructure and to processes of strain-aging. The authors believed that TPT in the range of

M. N. Spasskii; I. Yu. Konnova; M. S. Vasilevskii

1989-01-01

435

Effects of deep cryogenic treatment on static mechanical properties of 18NiCrMo5 carburized steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In consideration of the raising interest about the application of the deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) on materials, its effects on the static mechanical properties of a commercial gear carburized steel (18NiCrMo5) are investigated through hardness and tensile tests followed by optical fractographic observations. The present study focuses on the comparison between the results given by different sequences of DCT and

Paolo Baldissera; Cristiana Delprete

2009-01-01

436

Tribological properties of silicon nitride ceramics coated with DLC and DLC-Si against 316L stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is an adequate coating on a large variety of materials for tribological purposes, namely against iron alloys in automotive parts, bearings and forming tools. Herein, the tribological properties of DLC-stainless steel couples were assessed by unlubricated pin-on-disc experiments. Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) of DLC-Si or pure DLC coatings were performed, respectively, by conventional rf glow

J. R. Gomes; S CAMARGOJR; R. A. Simo; J. M. Carrapichano; C. A. Achete; R. F. Silva

2007-01-01

437

Low dose irradiation effects on heat-to-heat variation of type 304 stainless steel creep and tensile properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the determination of the low dose irradiation effects on the resulting heat-to-heat variation of DIN 1.4948 stainless steel (similar to AISI Type 304) creep and tensile properties. The variation in ultimate tensile strength of six heats of plate and forgings is unaffected by irradiation. Both tensile and creep strength are reduced by irradiation due to a decrease

van der Schaaf

1982-01-01

438

Comparison of low stress creep properties of ferritic and austenitic creep resistant steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep tests at stresses below 30 MPa and temperatures from 923 to 1073 K were conducted on an austenitic AISI-316H creep resistant steel. The helicoid spring specimen technique was used with the average test duration of ?2000 h. The results were compared to the results obtained on modified 9% Cr ferritic P-91 type creep resistant steel by the same experimental

Lubo Kloc; Vclav Skieni?ka; Ji??? Ventruba

2001-01-01

439

Friction and wear properties of thermo-reactive diffusion coatings against titanium nitride coated steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the tribological behavior of hardened, tufftrited, titanium nitride coated, boronized, chromium carbide coated and vanadium carbide coated AISI 52100 steel balls against titanium nitride coated AISI 1020 steel disc have been studied under 0.5, 1 and 2 N loads. Titanium nitride, chromium carbide, vanadium carbide coating were performed by pack method. Tufftriting and boronizing treatment were performed

Ugur Sen

2005-01-01

440

Effect of Nitrogen on the Elastomechanical Properties of Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an austenitic steel (20% Ni, 20% Cr), addition of 0.29% nitrogen increases the moduli of elasticity and shear. Damping behavior of the steel containing nitrogen differs in the solution-annealed and age-hardened states. Damping is increased by interstit...

H. Laddach P. Schueler

1974-01-01

441

Grain size dependence of mechanical, corrosion and tribological properties of high nitrogen stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austenitic stainless steels have been indispensable for the progress of technology during the last 80 years. Due to the cost of nickel and to the prospective of allergic reactions caused by this element, more and more laboratories and industries are trying to develop a new class of austenitic stainless steels with a low nickel content. In order to maintain the

A. Di Schino; M. Barteri; J. M. Kenny

2003-01-01

442

Mechanical properties of steel Kh15N5D2T after heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Annealing of hot-rolled steel Kh15N5D2T at 580700C leads to the a?? transformation, accompanied by higher plasticity.2.After normalization and low-temperature aging the steel is strengthened as the result of the martensitic transformation and the precipitation of excess intermetallic phase.

F. D. Miroshnichenko; V. G. Kanibolotskii; V. L. Snezhnoi; M. I. Kanibolotskaya

1969-01-01

443

Influence of Aluminum and Aluminum Plus Silicon Additions on the Mechanical Properties of AISI 4340 Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The softening which occurs on tempering AISI 4340 steel is shown to be retarded by additions of aluminum or combinations of aluminum and silicon. The ''500 exp 0 F embrittlement'' phenomenon in AISI 4340 steel occurs at higher tempering temperatures in th...

M. S. Bhat

1977-01-01

444

Thermodynamic properties of carbides in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel at 985 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic properties of carbides present in 2.25Cr-lMo steel were determined at 985 K by a gas flowing method with fixed CH4/H2 gas mixtures and by a silica capsule method with reference alloys. The carbon activity range was from 0.06 to 0.5. Total carbon content, carbide species, and Cr and Mo partitionings between the matrix and carbides were measured as a function of the carbon activity. Both M6C and M23C6 carbides were present after 1000 to 3000 hours at the test temperature and in the carbon activity range studied. The amount of M6C was greater in the low carbon activity range, while M23C6 carbide became the major carbide with increasing carbon activity. The M6C carbide contained Mo as a major element and Cr and Si as minor elements; approximately 13 pct of the metal constituent was (Cr + Si). The stability of M6C carbide in this steel is significantly higher than M6C formed in the Fe-Mo-C system. The M23C6 carbide contained Cr as a major metal component and Mo as a minor. The M23C6 carbide is more stable in an extended range of the carbon activity in 2.25Cr-lMo steel than in the Fe-Cr-C system. The presence of Si is apparently low in M23C6. Thermodynamic parameters were computed for M6C and M23C6 carbides using a regular solution model of component carbides, FeCx, CrCx, and MoCx.

Wada, Harue

1986-09-01

445

Effect of High Cooling Rates on the Mineralogy and Hydraulic Properties of Stainless Steel Slags  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article investigates the effect of chemical composition and cooling rate during solidification on the mineralogy and hydraulic properties of synthetic stainless steel slags. Three synthetic slags, covering the range of typical chemical composition in industrial practice, were subjected to high cooling rates, by melt spinning granulation or quenching in water, and to low cooling rates, by cooling inside the furnace. Both methods of rapid cooling led to volumetrically stable slags unlike the slow cooling which resulted in a powder-like material. Stabilized slags consisted predominantly of lamellar ?-dicalcium silicate ( ?-C2S) and Mg, Ca-silicates (merwinite and bredigite); the latter form the matrix at low basicity and are segregated along the C2S grain boundaries at high basicities. Slowly cooled slags consist of the ?-C2S polymorph instead of the ?-C2S and of less Mg, Ca-silicates. Isothermal conduction calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis indicate the occurrence of hydration reactions in the stabilized slags after mixing with water, while calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) of typical acicular morphology are identified by SEM. The present results demonstrate that the application of high cooling rates can result in a stable, environmental-friendly, hydraulic binder from stainless steel slags, rich in ?-C2S, without the necessity of introducing any additions to arrest the ? polymorph.

Kriskova, Lubica; Pontikes, Yiannis; Pandelaers, Lieven; Cizer, zlem; Jones, Peter Tom; Van Balen, Koen; Blanpain, Bart

2013-10-01

446

Amorphous stainless steel coatings prepared by reactive magnetron-sputtering from austenitic stainless steel targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stainless steel films were reactively magnetron sputtered in argon/methane gas flow onto oxidized silicon wafers using austenitic stainless-steel targets. The deposited films of about 200 nm thickness were characterized by conversion electron Mssbauer spectroscopy, magneto-optical Kerr-effect, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, corrosion resistance tests, and Raman spectroscopy. These complementary methods were used for a detailed examination of the carburization effects in the sputtered stainless-steel films. The formation of an amorphous and soft ferromagnetic phase in a wide range of the processing parameters was found. Further, the influence of the substrate temperature and of post vacuum-annealing were examined to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the carburization process and phase formation.

Cusenza, Salvatore; Schaaf, Peter

2009-01-01

447

Characterization of Micro/Nano Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Polymeric Coatings Deposited on Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to characterize the mechanical and tribological properties of three different polymeric coatings---polyurethane, 2K, and melamine---deposited on steel by analyzing the hardness, elastic modulus, and scratch resistance of each coating. This was accomplished by making indentation and scratch tests on each sample with a nano-indenter and analyzing the results with a Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM). Results of indentation tests show that melamine, with a hardness of 0.164 GPa and a modulus of 3.367 GPa, was both the hardest and stiffest of the three coatings, while the 2K coating, with a hardness of .104 GPa and a modulus of 2.721 GPa, was both the softest and most flexible. Scratch test results showed that the highest average critical load, at which the adhesion to the substrate steel failed, was 100.03 mN for the 2K coating, thus indicating that the 2K coating had the greater adhesion strength.

Neill, Dustin

448

Comparing steel and aluminum auto structures by technical cost modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manufacturing and vehicle-life cost comparisons are made for selected steel and aluminum automotive body-in-white structures using a computer-based technical cost model developed by IBIS Associates, with the objective of assessing the sensitivity of the costs to change in various input parameters. From a manufacturing-cost standpoint, neither an aluminum unibody nor a spaceframe design is competitive with the steel unibody at production volumes greater than about 40,000 vehicles per year. However, both aluminum structures have lower vehicle-life costs than the steel unibody at all production volumes.

Mariano, Stephen A.; Tuler, Floyd R.; Owen, Walter S.

1993-06-01

449

Powder metallurgy T15 tool steel: Part II. Microstructure and properties after heat treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of powder particle size and heat treatment on the micro structure and properties of hot isostatically pressed (hipped) T15 tool steel has been evaluated. Gas-atomized powder was screened into size fractions covering the range of ?44 to 1200 /i-m and hipped at 1130 C or 1195 C. The consolidated powders were austenitized at 1175 C or 1225 C and tempered at 538 C, 552 C, or 565 C to control prior austenite grain size, carbide type, carbide volume fraction, and carbide size distribution. Properties measured were bend strength, C-notch impact toughness, and hot hardness. Prior austenite grain size increases with hot isostatic pressing (hipping) temperature and austenitizing temperature but is independent of the particle size; similarly, the influence of austenitizing temperature on dissolution of MC and M6C is independent of the particle size. In each particle size fraction, the volume fraction and size distribution of MC are independent of the tempering temperature. For M6C, the volume fraction increases and the size distribution is skewed to coarser sizes with increasing tempering temperature. No significant differences in strength and toughness were detected as a function of particle size. Hot hardness is not affected by the particle size. The hot hardness of a powder blend (?1200 ?m) hipped at 1130 C was superior to that of commercial powder metallurgy (PM) T15 tool steel hipped at 1195 C; this is attributed to a finer carbide size in the noncommercial material. It is established that the subcommercial hipping temperature (1130 C) results in significant microstructural refinement; there is an associated small amount of residual porosity, and this controls the mechanical properties.

Kumar, K. S.; Lawley, A.; Koczak, M. J.

1991-11-01

450

10. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST SPAN THROUGH CANAL, VIEW BLOCKED BY STEEL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST SPAN THROUGH CANAL, VIEW BLOCKED BY STEEL, CLAD COUNTER WEIGHT, WATER SPAN RAISED OUT OF VIEW - Cape Cod Canal Lift Bridge, Spanning Cape Cod Canal, Buzzards Bay, Barnstable County, MA

451

Machinability of a Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Discharge Microdrilling  

SciTech Connect

Due to the chemical elements included in their structure for ensuring an increased resistance to the environment action, the stainless steels are characterized by a low machinability when classical machining methods are applied. For this reason, sometimes non-traditional machining methods are applied, one of these being the electrochemical discharge machining. To obtain microholes and to evaluate the machinability by electrochemical discharge microdrilling, test pieces of stainless steel were used for experimental research. The electrolyte was an aqueous solution of sodium silicate with different densities. A complete factorial plan was designed to highlight the influence of some input variables on the sizes of the considered machinability indexes (electrode tool wear, material removal rate, depth of the machined hole). By mathematically processing of experimental data, empirical functions were established both for stainless steel and carbon steel. Graphical representations were used to obtain more suggestive vision concerning the influence exerted by the considered input variables on the size of the machinability indexes.

Coteata, Margareta; Pop, Nicolae; Slatineanu, Laurentiu ['Gheorghe Asachi' Technical University of Iasi, Department of Machine Manufacturing Technology, Blvd. D Mangeron 59A, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Schulze, Hans-Peter [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Institute of Fundamental Electrical Engineering and EMC Universitaetsplatz 2, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Besliu, Irina [University 'Stefan cel Mare' of Suceava, Department of Technologies and Management, Str. Universitatii, 13, 720 229 Suceava (Romania)

2011-05-04

452

Machinability of a Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Discharge Microdrilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the chemical elements included in their structure for ensuring an increased resistance to the environment action, the stainless steels are characterized by a low machinability when classical machining methods are applied. For this reason, sometimes non-traditional machining methods are applied, one of these being the electrochemical discharge machining. To obtain microholes and to evaluate the machinability by electrochemical discharge microdrilling, test pieces of stainless steel were used for experimental research. The electrolyte was an aqueous solution of sodium silicate with different densities. A complete factorial plan was designed to highlight the influence of some input variables on the sizes of the considered machinability indexes (electrode tool wear, material removal rate, depth of the machined hole). By mathematically processing of experimental data, empirical functions were established both for stainless steel and carbon steel. Graphical representations were used to obtain more suggestive vision concerning the influence exerted by the considered input variables on the size of the machinability indexes.

Cotea??, Margareta; Schulze, Hans-Peter; Pop, Nicolae; Be?liu, Irina; Sl?tineanu, Lauren?iu

2011-05-01

453

Copper Plating of Iron and Steel Wires by Cementation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article discusses the copper plating of iron and steel wires by concentration. Beside an introduction in the treatment procedure as used in the wire industry, some theoretical considerations of the mechanism of copper deposition are presented. Experim...

H. Y. Oei

1971-01-01

454

Hydrogen pumping by austenitic stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, hydrogen sorption and desorption kinetics close to equilibrium were investigated in a pinched-off AISI 316 steel cell by a sensitive pressure-rise method. The pressure was monitored with a spinning rotor gauge (SRG) just before the pinch-off and after it for 6 months at two stabilized temperatures: 25 C and 55 C. The preprocessing of the cell (of uniform wall thickness 0.15 mm volume 125 cm3, and inner surface 460 cm2) consisted of baking at 200 C for 109 h with several evacuation cycles to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). The quantity of released hydrogen during the bake-out procedure equaled the average concentration change ?C=2.81017 at. H cm-3. After the pinch-off intentionally done in the high vacuum range where hydrogen represented the residual atmosphere, surprisingly the hydrogen pressure slowly declined from the initial p(328 K)=3.710-4 mbar, with an initial rate dp/dt=-5.510-11 mbar/s and later attained a stable value, which could be termed the equilibrium. In similar reported experiments, where valving-off began in the UHV, the dp/dt was always positive and constant over several orders of magnitude in pressure. During 6 months of measurements, a sudden temperature jump from 25 C to 55 C or back was applied a few times to investigate the stability of the equilibrium or the impact on the pressure course. The most plausible explanation of the results is given along with discussion whether hydrogen permeated through the cell wall or if it was absorbed in the cell wall.

Zajec, Bojan; Nemani?, Vincenc

2005-03-01

455

Stability and mechanical properties of some metastable austenitic steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between austenite stability and the tensile properties, as affected by testing temperature and processing, was\\u000a studied for a series of alloys of increasing compositional complexity, viz., the Fe-Ni, Fe-Ni-C, and Fe-Ni-Cr-Mn-C systems.\\u000a The stress and strain induced modes of transformation to martensite differed significantly in their influence on the shape\\u000a of the stress-strain curve. Under certain testing conditions,

D. Bhandarkar; V. F. Zackay; E. R. Parker

1972-01-01

456

Fracture and strength properties of selected austenitic stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Austenitic stainless steels have an excellent combination of mechanical and physical properties for load-bearing structures of large superconducting magnets for plasma containment in magnetic fusion experiments. To assess their relative suitability fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth, and tensile properties data for five austenitic steels at 295, 76, and 4 K have been obtained. The steels were AISI 304, 316, 304LN, and 316LN, and an Fe-21cr-12Ni-5Mn alloy with a higher nitrogen content than the other four grades. The two principal findings were the systematic variation of yield strength with nitrogen content and a systematic inverse correlation between fracture toughness and yield strength. Data from previous studies are reviewed which confirm the trends of the present data.

Read, D. T.; Reed, R. P.

457

Effects of Notch Shape and Specimen Thickness on Drop-Weight Tear Test Properties of API X70 and X80 Line-Pipe Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, effects of notch shape and specimen thickness on drop-weight tear test (DWTT) properties of API X70\\u000a and X80 line-pipe steels fabricated by varying hot-rolling conditions were investigated. The DWTT was conducted on the rolled\\u000a steels, and the results were discussed in comparison with the Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact test and crack-tip opening angle\\u000a (CTOA) test data.

Sang Yong Shin; Byoungchul Hwang; Sunghak Lee; Ki Bong Kang

2007-01-01

458

Effect of first and second order stresses on the mechanical properties of stainless steel 0Kh20N4AG10 (NN-3) at low temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The economically alloyed austenitic stainless steel 0Kh20N4AG10 (NN-3, P-319) has high mechanical properties at the temperature of liquid hydrogen (-253C).2.First and second order stresses resulting from thermal and mechanical treatments (cold working) have a substantial effect on the plasticity of the steel (reduce it), particularly stresses induced by mechanical treatment. To remove these stresses it is recommended that parts be

N. P. Talov; D. V. Lebedev; A. M. Fatkina

1970-01-01

459

Electrochemical synthesis and anti-corrosive properties of polyaniline, poly(2-anisidine), and poly(aniline- co-2-anisidine) films on stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable and adherent polymer films of polyaniline and of poly(2-anisidine) were grown on 304-stainless steel by cyclic voltammetry in tetrabutylammonium perchlorate\\/acetonitrile solution containing perchloric acid. Conducting poly(aniline-co-2-anisidine) was also formed on 304-stainless steel in same condition, but the film was unstable and peeled off after 3h when it is immersed in aggressive solution. The structure and properties of these polymer

Gzen Bereket; Evrim Hr; Ycel ?ahin

2005-01-01

460

Increasing the ductility of martensitic steels by heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The toughness of nickel, stainless, and complex alloyed martensitic steels at room and cryogenic temperatures can be increased by stabilizing 10\\\\2-25% austenite in a dispersed state.2.A large amount of stable austenite can be obtained in Fe\\\\t-Ni, Fe\\\\t-Cr\\\\t-Ni, and other martensitic steels by heating them 30\\\\2-80\\\\dg above the beginning temperature of the reverse transformation for long periods (2\\\\2-3 h).With increasing nickel

V. I. Kozlovskaya; Ya. M. Potak; Yu. F. Orzhekhovskii

1969-01-01

461

Creep-fatigue properties of Mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel under variable straining  

SciTech Connect

Two-step variable straining tests, which included CP- (slow-fast) type and PC- (fast-slow) type tests, were conducted at 600 C in air for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel. In the tests, CP- and PC-type strain range level varied from high to low for the high-low test and from low to high for the low-high test. The deviations of the experimental data from the linear damage rule prediction were observed. These experimental results and the effect of the strain waveform on the creep-fatigue properties under variable straining were well explained by the life prediction model previously proposed by the authors in which the strain range partitioned crack growth rate equations were applied.

Miyahara, M.; Tokimasa, K. (Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Amagasaki (Japan). Iron and Steel Research Lab.)

1993-08-01

462

Electro-mechanical coupling of semiconductor film grown on stainless steel by oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electro-mechanical coupling phenomenon in oxidation film on stainless steel has been discovered by using current-sensing atomic force microscopy, along with the I-V curves measurements. The oxidation films exhibit either ohmic, n-type, or p-type semiconductor properties, according to the obtained I-V curves. This technique allows characterizing oxidation films with high spatial resolution. Semiconductor properties of oxidation films must be considered as additional stress corrosion cracking mechanisms.

Lin, M. C.; Wang, G.; Guo, L. Q.; Qiao, L. J.; Volinsky, Alex A.

2013-09-01

463

Boriding response of AISI W1 steel and use of artificial neural network for prediction of borided layer properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, boriding response of AISI W1 steel and prediction of boride layer properties were investigated by using artificial neural network (ANN). Boronizing heat treatment was carried out in a solid medium consisting of Ekabor-I powders at 8501050 C at 50 C intervals for 18 h. The substrate used in this study was AISI W1. The presence of

Kenan Genel; Ibrahim Ozbek; Akif Kurt; Cuma Bindal

2002-01-01

464

Effect of rotational speed on the interface properties of friction-welded AISI 304L to 4340 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate experimentally the interface properties in terms of rotational speed in friction-welded AISI 304L to AISI 4340 alloy steel. Friction welding was conducted with five different rotational speeds using a direct-drive type friction welding machine. Friction pressure, forging pressure, friction time and forging time are fixed. The integrity of joints was investigated by

N. zdemir; F. Sars?lmaz; A. Hasal?k

2007-01-01

465

The properties of sintered high-alloy nickel-copper steel N32D4 (32% Ni4% Cu)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A study of the properties of a sintered high-alloy nickel-copper steel made by two techniques demonstrated that higher pressure of the first compacting and temperature of the first sintering (variant 1, Table 1) produce little increase in the density of finished specimens, and have an insignificant effect on strength characteristics in static tests. In dynamic tests (impact strength, fatigue limit),

P. A. Boiko; B. A. Gryaznov; V. P. Dubinin; V. N. Klimenko; V. A. Kuz'menko; V. V. Osasyuk; I. D. Radomysel'skii; V. N. Rudenko

1964-01-01

466

Influence of inclusion characteristics on the formability and toughness properties of a hot-rolled deep-drawing quality steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In industrial practice, variations in the steelmaking process may cause significant change in inclusion characteristics. During\\u000a hot rolling of flat steel products, manganese sulfides, which are plastic at elevated temperatures, are elongated in the rolling\\u000a direction. These elongated inclusions affect the formability properties, such as ductility, strain hardening exponent, average\\u000a plastic strain ratio, critical strain represented by the forming limit

S. K. Paul; A. Ray

1997-01-01

467

Influence of austenitizing temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of AISI 431 martensitic stainless steel electron beam welds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative effects of various austenitizing temperatures on microstructure and mechanical properties of electron beam welds of AISI 431martensitic stainless steel were studied. The post-weld heat treatments consist of austenitizing the weld samples for 1h at various temperatures, i.e., at 950C, 1000C, 1050C, 1100C and at 1150C and air cooling followed by double tempering, i.e., tempering at 670+600C. In the

A. Rajasekhar; G. Madhusudhan Reddy; T. Mohandas; V. S. R. Murti

2009-01-01

468

The effect of cladding speed on phase constitution and properties of AISI 431 stainless steel laser deposited coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shorter processing time has given impetus to laser cladding technology and therefore in this research the AISI 431 martensitic stainless steel coatings are laser deposited at high cladding speeds, i.e. up to 117mm\\/s. The analysis of phase constitution and functional properties of the coatings are performed by optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and hardness and sliding wear tests. The

I. Hemmati; V. Ocelk; J. Th. M. De Hosson

2011-01-01

469

Surface microstructures and antimicrobial properties of copper plasma alloyed stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces is one of the major reason causing the cross-contamination and infection in many practical applications. An approach to solve this problem is to enhance the antibacterial properties on the surface of stainless steel. In this paper, novel antibacterial stainless steel surfaces with different copper content have been prepared by a plasma surface alloying technique at various gas pressures. The microstructure of the alloyed surfaces was investigated using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The viability of bacteria attached to the antibacterial surfaces was tested using the spread plate method. The antibacterial mechanism of the alloyed surfaces was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that gas pressure has a great influence on the surface elements concentration and the depth of the alloyed layer. The maximum copper concentration in the alloyed surface obtained at the gas pressure of 60 Pa is about 7.1 wt.%. This alloyed surface exhibited very strong antibacterial ability, and an effective reduction of 98% of Escherichia coli (E. coli) within 1 h was achieved by contact with the alloyed surface. The maximum thickness of the copper alloyed layer obtained at 45 Pa is about 6.5 ?m. Although the rate of reduction for E. coli of this alloyed surface was slower than that of the alloyed surface with the copper content about 7.1 wt.% over the first 3 h, few were able to survive more than 12 h and the reduction reached over 99.9%. The XPS analysis results indicated that the copper ions were released when the copper alloyed stainless steel in contact with bacterial solution, which is an important factor for killing bacteria. Based on an overall consideration of bacterial killing rate and durability, the alloyed surface with the copper content of 2.5 wt.% and the thickness of about 6.5 ?m obtained at the gas pressure of 45 Pa is expected to be useful as antimicrobial materials that may have a promising future in antimicrobial applications.

Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Jiang, Li; Ma, Yong; Fan, Ailan; Tang, Bin

2011-12-01

470

Influence of Alloying Elements on the Thermodynamic Properties of Titanium in Molten Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influences of alloying elements of chromium, nickel, manganese, molybdenum, copper, and oxygen on the thermodynamic property of titanium in molten iron were investigated at 1873 K to improve control of the formation of titanium compounds in the steelmaking processes. At a certain titanium potential controlled by the coexistence of Ti3O5 and Ti2O3 with steel, the interaction parameters between alloying elements and titanium in molten iron were determined as follows. \\varepsilon ^{{{text{Mn}}}}_{{{text{Ti}}}} = - 27.4( 0.66),quad \\varepsilon ^{{{text{Cr}}}}_{{{text{Ti}}}} = 5.33( 0.84),quad \\varepsilon ^{{{text{Ni}}}}_{{{text{Ti}}}} = - 3.93( 0.51),quad \\varepsilon ^{{{text{Mo}}}}_{{{text{Ti}}}} = 5.76( 0.69),quad \\varepsilon ^{{{text{Cu}}}}_{{{text{Ti}}}} = 3.44( 0.69) Through the investigation of titanium deoxidation equilibria in molten iron, the activity coefficient of titanium and the first-order interaction parameter between oxygen and titanium were determined as follows: ? _{{{text{Ti}}}}^{ circ} = 0.0215(0.00062),quad \\varepsilon ^{{{text{Ti}}}}_{{text{O}}} = - 160(10) Also, titanium deoxidation of molten 304 stainless steel was measured and compared with the calculated results using the determined interaction parameters.

Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Morita, Kazuki

2007-08-01

471

Tensile Properties and Work Hardening Behavior of Laser-Welded Dual-Phase Steel Joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the microstructural change after laser welding and its effect on the tensile properties and strain hardening behavior of DP600 and DP980 dual-phase steels. Laser welding led to the formation of martensite and significant hardness rise in the fusion zone because of the fast cooling, but the presence of a soft zone in the heat-affected zone was caused by partial vanishing and tempering of the pre-existing martensite. The extent of softening was much larger in the DP980-welded joints than in the DP600-welded joints. Despite the reduction in ductility, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) remained almost unchanged, and the yield strength (YS) indeed increased stemming from the appearance of yield point phenomena after welding in the DP600 steel. The DP980-welded joints showed lower YS and UTS than the base metal owing to the appearance of severe soft zone. The YS, UTS, and strain hardening exponent increased slightly with increasing strain rate. While the base metals had multi-stage strain hardening, the welded joints showed only stage III hardening. All the welded joints failed in the soft zone, and the fracture surfaces exhibited characteristic dimple fracture.

Farabi, N.; Chen, D. L.; Zhou, Y.

2012-02-01

472

Effect of conventional and microwave sintering on the properties of yttria alumina garnet-dispersed austenitic stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study examines the effect of heating mode, temperature, and varying yttria alumina garnet (YAG) addition (5 and 10 wt pct) on the densification and properties of austenitic (316L) stainless steel. The straight 316L stainless steel and 316L-YAG composites were heated in a radiatively heated (conventional) and 2.45 GHz microwave sintering furnace. The compacts were consolidated through solid state as well as supersolidus sintering at 1200 C and 1400 C, respectively. Both 316L and 316L-YAG compacts couple with microwaves and heat to the sintering temperature rapidly (45 C/min). The overall processing time was reduced by about 90 pct through microwave sintering. As compared to conventional sintering, compacts sintered in microwaves exhibit higher densification and finer microstructure but no corresponding improvement in mechanical properties and wear resistance. This has been correlated to elongated, irregular pore structure in microwave-sintered compacts.

Panda, S. S.; Upadhyaya, A.; Agrawal, D.

2006-07-01

473

Effect of residual stresses on individual phase mechanical properties of austeno-ferritic duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of both phases in duplex stainless steel have been studied in situ using neutron diffraction during mechanical loading. Important differences in the evolution of lattice strains are observed between tests carried out in tension and compression. An elastoplastic self-consistent model is used to predict the evolution of internal stresses during loading and to identify critical resolved shear

R. Dakhlaoui; A. Baczma?ski; C. Braham; S. Wro?ski; K. Wierzbanowski; E. C. Oliver

2006-01-01

474

Fretting fatigue properties of plasma nitrided AISI 316 L stainless steel: Experiments and finite element analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effects of thickness, hardness and composition of modified layer on the plain and fretting fatigue properties of the nitrided 316L steel plasma nitrided under various processing conditions. Fretting fatigue behaviour of untreated and nitrided material is also analysed with the finite element method. Experimental and theoretical fatigue life results are compared. The result indicates that the

F. Y?ld?z; A. F. Yetim; A. Alsaran; A. elik; ?. Kaymaz

2011-01-01

475

Effect of cryogenic treatment on the mechanical properties of 4340 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experimental study investigated the effects of cryogenic treatment on the mechanical properties and microstructures of AISI 4340 steel. Mechanical tests, including rotating fatigue, impact and hardness were carried out, after various heat treating conditions and the results were compared. Fracture features of specimens were also compared. It was shown that in general, hardness and fatigue strength of the cryogenically

S. Zhirafar; A. Rezaeian; M. Pugh

2007-01-01

476

Effect of grain size and low-temperature duration on the properties of tool steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the large amount of work devoted to the properties of carbon tool steels and their connection with the operating reliability of articles, some questions still remain open. First of all, it is necessary to turn attention to the effect of brittle strength on the endurance of articles which are often used after treatment for high hardness (reamers,

B. S. Natapov

1991-01-01

477

An Improved Engineering Model of Vector Magnetic Properties of Grain-Oriented Electrical Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an improved magnetic reluctivity model for vector magnetic properties of anisotropic electrical steel sheet based on Chua-type model using Fourier series expansion of measured B and H waveforms in the viewpoint of engineering application. In the modeling, B-spline surface interpolation is adopted to obtain smooth approximation of measured data. The accuracy of the proposed magnetic reluctivity model

Yanli Zhang; Young Hwan Eum; Dexin Xie; Chang Seop Koh

2008-01-01

478

Influence of fabrication variables on the properties of structural steel and on associated specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

BS>Circumstances are reviewed in which fabrication can produce changes ; in mechanical properties and their relationship to the requirements cf ; specifications and codes of practice. Cutting, forming, and welding are ; considered, the emphasis being placed on post-weld heat treatment. Examples are ; quoted from experience obtained in building steel pressure vessels for Magnox ; reactors. A number of

1973-01-01

479

Microstructue and Mechanical Properties of AISI 4340 Steel Modified with Aluminum and Silicon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The influence of additions of aluminum and combinations of aluminum and silicon to AISI 4340 steels was investigated. The mechanical properties such as strength, fracture toughness (K/sub Ic/), and impact toughness (C/sub v/) were obtained for the modifie...

M. S. Bhat

1977-01-01

480

Tensile Properties of Irradiated and Unirradiated Welds of A533 Steel Plate and A508 Forgings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tensile properties of welds of base metals ASTM A533, Grade B, Class 1 steel plate and ASTM A508, Class 1 forgings were evaluated in irradiated (3 to 21 x 10 to the 18th power n/sq cm) and unirradiated conditions. Yield strength and ultimate strength ...

J. A. Williams

1980-01-01

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